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Sample records for hanno ni oyobosu

  1. Effect of agitation on reactive extraction of Cephalosporin C; Cephalosporin C no hanno chushutsu ni oyobosu kakuhan koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, E.; Inoue, Y.; Shinozaki, K.; Yazawa, H. [Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-09-10

    The reactive extraction of Cephalosporin C ester directly from the fermentation broth of Cephalosporin C was studied in Liquid-Liquid two phase system using ethyl acetate. When the volumetric fraction rate of ethyl acetate phase was 0.33 or more, the effect of agitation was not observed on the reaction rate. On the other hand, the effectiveness of agitation appeared at the ratio 0.17 or less. It was clarified that the rate determining step of this reactive extraction was mass transfer to reaction interface by a series of experimental results. An excellent correlation was also obtained between the scale-up factor (Z), showing power consumption ratio of agitation, and the over all mass transfer coefficient at the volumetric fraction ratio of 0.17. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Effects of heat treatment on toughness of austempered ductile cast iron with Cu and Ni; Cu-Ni tenka osutenpa chutetsu no jinsei ni oyobosu netsushori no eikyo

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    Aoyama, M.; Takatsu, M.; Takagi, H

    1998-08-25

    The alloying of ductile cast iron with Cu and Ni is effective for the structural control in austemper heat treatment. Use of this type of cast iron is provided to produce cast iron materials with extremely high toughness and strength. In this study, the effects of austempering conditions and the addition of Cu and Ni on toughness of ductile cast iron are investigated. In austemper heat treatment, impact absorbed energy is increased by raising the austempering temperature. However, at high austempering temperatures exceeding 3.6 ks at 673K, the formation of fine pearlite proceeded, resulting in a marked decrease in the impact absorbed energy. Addition of Cu-Ni in the cast iron resulted in greater impact absorbed energy and tensile strength at any temperature during the austempering treatment. It depends on the suppression of precipitation beginning of fine pearlite and the stabilization of retained austenite. Furthermore, this cast iron alloy reduced the change in impact absorbed energy and tensile strength, induced during the austempering time. 15 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Decomposition of yallourn coal by microwave plasma. Effect of Plasma source on the product distribution; Maikuroha purazuma ni yoru yarun tan no tenkan hanno. Purazumagasu shu ga seiseibutsu bunpu ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Osamu; Marushima, Wataru; Kobayashi, Motoki; Onoe, Kaoru; Yamaguchi, Tatsuaki [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan). Department of Industrial Chemistry; Kawai, Satoshi; Ito, Yoichi [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-20

    This report described the experiments that used plasma reaction between plasma source gases and brown coal (Yallourn). The properties of the products were influenced by changes of the experimental conditions. The reaction experiments were carried out with 2.45 GHz microwave plasma by using hydrogen, helium and argon systems. Ratios of coal conversion (X{sub c}) were as follows; X{sub c} (H{sub 2}) was 33.2%, X{sub c} (He) was 13.7%, and X{sub c} (Ar) was 24.8% at reaction time 1 minute. No practical difference was detected after 3 minutes. Yields of benzene soluble oily fractions (Y{sub oil}) were as follows; Y{sub oil} (H{sub 2}) was 6.0%, Y{sub oil} (He) was 3.4% and Y{sub oil} (Ar) was 8.7% at 1 minute, while at 3 minutes Y{sub oil} (H{sub 2}) was 4.9%, Y{sub oil} (He) was 4.1% and Y{sub oil} (Ar) was 7.7%. In addition at 1 minute, no difference of molecular weight distribution measured by MALDI-TOFMS spectra and GC was observed, while the polymerization of oily products under argon or hydrogen system was occurred after 3 minutes. Yields of gaseous components (Y{sub gas}) were as follows; Y{sub gas} (H{sub 2}) was 48.1%, Y{sub gas} (He) was 50.9% and Y{sub gas} (Ar) was 46.6% at 3 minutes. Typical patterns of time change in molar fraction of gaseous components by GC were shown on each plasma source gas. (author)

  4. Sekkumine Kadriorus / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2003-01-01

    31. VIII Mikkeli muuseumis Briti kunstirühmituse Virus ja Chris Evansi presentatsioonid. Projekt "Sekkumine - kaasaegne kunst inglise pargis" toimub Väliskunsti muuseumis, Mikkeli muuseumis ja selle ümbruses. Inspiratsiooniks on Kadrioru park ja näitused "Kaduv maailm. Inglise park Eestis" Mikkeli ning "Looduse ja kunsti austajatele. Wörlitzi park" Väliskunsti muuseumis. Virus sekkub Kadrioru parki kohaspetsiifilise installatsiooniga. Projekti kuraator Hanno Soans

  5. Sekkumine Kadriorus / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2003-01-01

    31. VIII Mikkeli muuseumis Briti kunstirühmituse Virus ja Chris Evansi presentatsioonid. Projekt "Sekkumine - kaasaegne kunst inglise pargis" toimub Väliskunsti muuseumis, Mikkeli muuseumis ja selle ümbruses. Inspiratsiooniks on Kadrioru park ja näitused "Kaduv maailm. Inglise park Eestis" Mikkeli ning "Looduse ja kunsti austajatele. Wörlitzi park" Väliskunsti muuseumis. Virus sekkub Kadrioru parki kohaspetsiifilise installatsiooniga. Projekti kuraator Hanno Soans

  6. Hydrogenation of heteroaromatics by high pressure DTA techniques. 3; Koatsu DTA ho ni yoru hokozoku kagobutsu no suisoka (rutenium tanji shokubai ni yoru kakusuisoka datsu hetero hanno)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Kotanigawa, T. [Japan International Cooperation Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Ring-opening of heteroaromatics and heteroatom-removal reaction were studied experimentally using the acidic catalyst containing phosphoric acid for improvement of an upgrading method of coal derived oils. In experiment, some Ru-carrying metal oxide catalysts such as RMZ, RML and RMN catalyst, and MNP catalyst containing phosphoric acid were used as specimens. Nuclear hydrogenation reaction and hydro-denitrogenation reaction of dibenzothiophene and carbazole were compared with each other. The experimental results are as follows. Both RMN and RMNP catalysts offer a superior selectivity in nuclear hydrogenation reaction and hydro-denitrogenation reaction of carbazole. Although both catalysts offer an extremely high nuclear hydrogenation activity at 360{degree}C, these offer the high selectivity of denitrogenation products at 430{degree}C. In comparison of the activities of MN and MNP catalysts with the same Mn2O3:NiO ratio, MNP catalyst offers the higher denitrogenation activity than MN catalyst at 430{degree}C. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  7. Wall effect in deactivation of excited molecular oxygen {sup 1}{delta}g; Reiki sanso bunshi {sup 1}{delta}g no shikkatsu ni oyobosu hyomen hanno no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Yamashita, I. [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-10-25

    This paper discusses effects of surface reaction on deactivation of excited molecular oxygen in {sup 1}{Delta}g condition. Gaseous oxygen containing excited oxygen generated by microwave discharge at a concentration of less than 1% is flown into several kinds of tubes to be measured such as quartz tubes (with an inner diameter of about 10 mm), and the light emitting intensity of the excited oxygen was measured upstream and downstream of the tubes to be measured (with in-tube pressure of 1 Torr or 2 Torr) to derive its concentration change. The surface reaction on the tube wall was regarded as a primary reaction, and the concentration change of the excited oxygen in flows in the round tube (attributable to the surface reaction) was analyzed. With respect to effects of tube wall materials on deactivation of the excited molecular oxygen, the surface deactivation probability in the case of using low-activity materials has decreased in the order of Pyrex, PVC, quartz, PFA and PTFE. The surface deactivation probability in the case of using a metallic material, SUS316L, was about 1000 times larger than that in the quartz. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Synthetic effects of heavy metal ions on the phytochelatin induction in rice callus; Ine no phytochelatin yudo ni oyobosu jukinzoku ion no kyozon koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatera, K.; Ono, Y.; Watanabe, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes the result of investigating synergistic effects of heavy metal ions on phytochelatin (PC) in rice callus. The following matters were made clear: with regard to rice callus cultured in culture media added with Cd, Cu, Zn and Hg independently, measurements were carried out on heavy metals contained in SH group of PC and in PC by using a method that combines high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with induction bonded plasma mass analysis; PC induction can be recognized in those cultured under presence of Cd and Cu, but PC incorporating heavy metals is not induced in those cultured under presence of Hg and Zn; and when PC synthesis amount was measured by gel filtration - HPLC with regard to rice callus cultured in a culture medium in which Cd coexists with any of Zn, Cu, Pb, Hg and Ni, the effect of impeding PC synthesis increases in the order of Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni and Hg. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Influence of catalytic activity and reaction conditions on the product distribution in coal liquefaction; Sekitan ekikayu no seiseibutsu bunpu ni taisuru shokubai kassei oyobi hanno joken no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasuo, H.; Sakanishi, K.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-10-28

    The NiMo sulfide supported on Ketjen Black (KB) was more effective and yielded lighter oil products containing light fractions with their boiling point below 300{degree}C during the two stage liquefaction combining low temperature and high temperature hydrogenation the conventional NiMo/alumina catalyst and FeS2 catalyst. Although the NiMo/alumina yielded increased oil products during the two stage liquefaction, the lighter oil fractions did not increase and the heavier fractions increased mainly. This suggests that the hydrogenation of aromatic rings and successive cleavage of the rings are necessary for producing the light oil, which is derived from the sufficient hydrogenation of aromatic rings using catalysts. For the two stage reaction with NiMo/KB catalyst, it was considered that sufficient hydrogen was directly transferred to coal molecules at the first stage of the low temperature reaction, which promoted the solubilization of coal and the successive hydrogenation at the high temperature reaction. Thus, high activity of the catalyst must be obtained. It is expected that further high quality distillates can be produced through the optimization of catalysts and solvents at the two stage reaction. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Effect of hydrogen on transformation characteristics and deformation behavior in a TiNi shape memory alloy. Ti-Ni kei keijo kioku gokin no hentai tokusei oyobi henkei kyodo ni oyobosu suiso no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiya, T.; Katsuta, H.; Ando, H. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)); Den, S. (Irie Koken Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan))

    1992-07-20

    Transformation characteristics and deformation behavior of Ti-50.5at%Ni shape memory alloys, which were occluded hydrogen in various levels, were investigated through electrical resistivity measurements, tensile tests, and X-ray diffraction. Specimens were heated in a low pressure range of hydrogen between 1.1 and 78.5kPa for equilibrium, and thus obtained the specimen which occluded hydrogen up to a maximum value of 5.6 mol%. Martensitic transformation starting temperature(Ms) decreased with an increase in hydrogen content. This corresponds to the fact that the improvement of stabilization of the parent phase during cooling due to hydrogen occlusion was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. It also shows that hydrogen has the suppression effect on this deformation. Critical stress for slip deformation changed with hydrogen content so that hydrogen influenced greatly on deformation behavior of the alloys. Lattice softening occurred with hydrogen contents up to 0.032 mol%, and changed into hardening above 0.032 mol%. Hydrides formed with hydrogen contents over 1.9 mol% resulted in reorientation in variants of the R phase and an increase in lattice strains of the parent phase. 29 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Effect of quenching rate on martensitic transformation temperature in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys; Cu-Al-Ni keijo kioku gokin no maltensite hentai ondo ni oyobosu yakiire reikyakusokudo no eikyo

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    Nakaniwa, M.; Sugimoto, K.; Kamei, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Sugimoto, T. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-08-20

    Experiments were carried out for Cu-xAl-5Ni-2Mn-1Ti shape memory alloys (x= 11.45, 11.77, 11.88 mass%) in order to examine the effect of quenching rate on the transformation temperatures (Ms, Mf, As and Af). The quenching rate was varied from 5 to 1{times}10{sup 4} K/s by changing the temperature of quenching media. The transformation temperatures were determined by DSC measurements for all the samples quenched and are plotted as a faction of quenching rate. It was found that all the transformation temperatures decreased by about 10 K, when the quenching rate was increased 10 times as large as its initial value. The reason was explained by considering the degree of order in the beta-phase. The primary {alpha}- and {gamma}2-phases do not precipitate even during air-cooling on quenching in the alloys with 11.77 and 11.88%Al, being close to the eutectoid composition. Therefore, no remarkable change in martensitic transformation temperature with reducing quenching rate was observed in these alloys. In other words, it can be concluded that these alloys are suitable for heat treatments in practice, where the specimens are cooled more slowly. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Stress releasement by transformation superplasticity. Part 2. ; Effect of alloying elements and transformation temperature on stress releasement. Hentai chososei ni yoru oryoku kanwa. 2. ; Oryoku kanwa ni oyobosu gokin genso oyobi hentai ondo no eikyo

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    Murata, H. (Yokogawa Medical System, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kato, N. (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Tamura, H. (Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-02-05

    Steel test pieces having various transformation temperatures (M {sub S}) were fabricated varying Ni and Cr contents, and tests were done on their torsional transformation resistance in cooling process, and stress relaxing characteristics due to transformation superplasticity, using a forced twisting equipment. The test pieces, while being twisted, were heated by high frequency induction from an external source to 1000 {degree} C in 50 seconds, retained for 50 seconds, and then their transformation resistance was detected during cooling. The motor was so controlled in five steps that the added shear distortion speed is constant per unit temperature reduction. The Ni and Cr contents and M {sub S} are in linear relation, and its experimental formula was sought. Even if Ni and Cr contents differ, similar stress relaxing characteristics were presented as long as the M {sub S} points are identical. Therefore, hardness and corrosion resistance can be controlled in welding metals by means of so varying Ni and Cr contents that the M {sub S} point is maintained in a certain range. The transformation resistance showed the minimum value lower by 70 to 80 {degree} C than the M {sub S} point. To apply the phenomena of transformation superplasticity, the temperature difference between preheating paths is important in addition to chemical constituents. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Effect of transformation on stress releasement of stress concentration area in welding. Part 6. ; Stress releasement by transformation superplasticity. Sohentai ga oryoku shuchubu no oryoku kanwa tokusei ni oyobosu eikyo. 6. ; Hentai chososei ni yoru oryoku kanwa

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    Murata, H. (Yokogawa Medical System Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kato, N.; Iiyama, T. (Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Tamura, H. (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-11-05

    As the various contrivances are being done for raising the strength and reliability of the joints in the usual welding execution, the welding defects out of them are thought that they impair the reliability of the joints, and therefore the efforts not so as to let them occur, and in addition, to secure the safety by screening them through the nondestructive inspection, are being performed. In this report, through the double end constraint thermal cycle tests by using the smooth and notched round bar specimen prepared by the friction pressure welding of 9%Ni steel, which could transform at a low temperature, with SUS 304, and moreover through welding by using the welding rod prepared experimentally of the Fe-Ni-Cr system, which could transform at a low temperature, and furthermore through measuring the thermal contraction stress when the extreme strains have been concentrated in the weld metal parts on the way of cooling off, the fracture character of the weld metal has been investigated. In case of actual welding, even when the extreme stress concentration has been created so excessively as D4316 has started to be fractured on its way of cooling off, no crack has occurred in the welding rod of the low temperature transformation. This is thought because of that the superplasticity phenomena due to the martensite transfomation act effectively on the stress releasement. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Interface physical chemistry of enamels (Part 1). Examination of cobalt and nickel behevior and adhesion of enamel; Hourou ni kansuru kaimen butsuri kagakuteki kenkyu (1). Micchakusei ni oyobosu cobalt to nickel no kyodo no kento

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    Shimizu, T.; Shirasaki, M.; Kozuka, T. [Chiba Inst. of Tech., Narashino (Japan)] Zhaohua, J. [Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin (China). Applied Chemisty] Kawashima, T. [Ikebukuro Horo Kogyo Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Observation of the enameles interface with SEM, EPMA and ESCA, and measurement of adhesive strength of the enameles were done. Simultaneously, cobalt and nickel in the enamel layer examined a given influence at the interface and the adhesive strength. As a result, the relationship between iron-oxygen, cobalt-oxygen and nickel-oxygen, at the reaction of enamel process was explained by the interface thermodynamics. Furthermore, characteristics and differences of reaction of cobalt and nickel were clarified. (1) The adhesive ability of Co-enamel was larger than that of Ni-enamel. (2) The adhesive behavior of cobalt changes at about 730degC, but that of nickel remains unchanges. Consequently, cobalt has an adhesion with the high temperature (over 730degC) but nickel does not have an influence on the temperature. (3) At high firing temperature, the Co-enamel can create FeO easily compared with Ni-enamel, and dissolve Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} of steel surface into glass. (4) Cobalt spreads for a vertical direction of interface, but nickel tends deposition on the interface surface. And the diffusion capability of cobalt into the steel was considerably greater than that of nickel. 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Effect of transformation on residual stress in welding. Part 5. ; Stress releasement by transformation superplasticity. Sohentai ga yosetsu zanryu oryoku ni oyobosu eikyo. 5. ; Hentai chososei ni yoru oryoku kanwa

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    Murata, H. (Yokogawa Medical System Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kato, N. (Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Tamura, H. (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-11-05

    The residual stress and angular deformation occurred in welding are the important factors for the welding design. In the previous report, by measuring the welding angular deformation caused by the welding rod prepared experimentally with the various transformation temperatures, it was shown that the materials, which could transform at a low temperature, have been effective to restrain the welding deformation. In addition, also the elongation and stress variation in transformation after welding have been examined in detail, and consequently it has been shown quantitatively, that not only the transformation expansion, but also the transformation superplasticity have acted effectively for the stress relaxation during transformation depending on the condition. In this report, the same as in the previous report, the welding with the multilayers and multi-passes has been performed by using the welding rod prepared experimentally and of Fe-Ni-Cr system, which could transform at a low temperature and had a high stress releasement effect, and then the effect of phase transformation on the welding residual stress has been investigated. As a result, the phase transformation had a tight relation with the welding residual stress, and furthermore the compression stress has been observed on the welding metal depending on the transformation temperature. In addition, it was found that in the welding metal, the compression stress has occurred, the tensile stress has remained directly under it, and it has been connected with a peak part of the tension, and has been redistributed. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Tarvo Hanno Varres, Mari-Leen Kiipli / Merilin Talumaa, Hanno Soans, Tatjana Kozlova-Johannes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talumaa, Merilin, 1986-

    2015-01-01

    Vaatluse alla on võetud Tarvo Hanno Varrese heli- ja videoinstallatsioon "Lindistav põrand" (2015) ja heli- ja videoteos "Betweenland" (2014) ning Mari-Leen Kiipli fotoseeria "The school of dreams" (2012-2015)

  17. Effect of C, Si and P on intergranular corrosion susceptibility of type 316 stainless steel; 316 kei stainless ko no ryuiaki fushokusei ni oyobosu kochu C, Si oyobi P no eikyo

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    Kaneko, M.; Abe, S. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-15

    The effect of C, Si and P on intergranular corrosion (IGC) susceptibility of Type 316 painless steels (SS) has been studied in terms of the composition dependent IGC and the impound dependent IGC. The results obtained are as follows; (1) C increases the IGC existence of Type 316 SS in Huey and Coriou tests by suppressing the precipitation of Laves phase. However, severe IGC occurs in HNO3 + HF and Huey tests when the Cr depleted one is continuously formed at grainboundaries (GB). (2) Si raises the IGC susceptibility both in Huey and Coriou tests. It is considered that Si enhances the precipitation of Laves phase at GB. (3) p also increases the IGC susceptibility both in Huey and Coriou tests by decapitating as Ni-P phosphides at GB. 10 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Effects of silicon content and austempering condition on the impact characteristics of austempered ductile cast iron. Kyojin kyujo kokuen chutetsu no jinsei ni oyobosu osutenpa shori joken to Si ryo no eikyo

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    Aoyama, M. (Daido Inst. of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)); Kobayashi, T. (Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Aichi (Japan)); Matsuo, K. (Kurimoto Iron Works, Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1990-07-25

    Austempered spherical graphite cast iron (ADI) is extensively expeted as a mechanical structural material because of high tenacity and resilience as well as fatigue strength and wear resistance. These excellent properties are attributed to the abundantly remaining austenite because the formation of carbides is restricted by the action of the silicon element. It is, therefore, important for obtaining the strong cast iron material to control the amount of the retained austenite. In this study, the impact characteristics was investigated for acquiring the basic materials concerning the influence of the temperature, time of austempering and the amount of silicon. The added amount of silicon is most suitably 2.1%. Samples without Mn and Ni showed an impact value of about 2 times of the amount added. At 400 {degree} C, however, the impact value reduced to half by the growth of coarse ferrite and bentonite. Time of austempering was 1 hour and showed a stable impact value and load of breaking. Transition temperature shifted tolow side by the increase of amount of silicon. 14 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Study of selective oxidation of methane catalyzed by solid superacid in unique reaction field; Tokushu hannoba no kotai chokyosan wo mochiiru methane no sentaku sanka hanno ni kansuru kenkyu

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    Misonoo, M.; Tatsumi, T.; Mizuno, T.; Inumaru, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Selective oxidation of lower alkanes by use of heteropolymeric compounds is studied. Alkanes are activated on Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 serving as catalyst, and their activity and selectivity improve when the catalyst is developed into a dual function catalyst in which Cs and Pt are combined. A success is reported of the synthesis of a heteropolymeric acid in which two molecules of the coordination element wolfram are replaced with a transition metal of the first period, on which acid the oxidation of cyclohexane is enhanced. Cs2.5Ni0.08H1.34PVMo11O40 as a metal/heteropolymeric acid dual function catalyst enables the direct oxidation (9% recovered at 340{degree}C) of isobutane into a methacrylic acid, which is attributed to the harmonious coordination of the oxidizing work of the catalyst and acidity. It is possible to oxidize propane into the acrylic acid, but not ethane into the acetic acid. In the case of Pd/Cs2.5H1.5PVMo11O40, the formic acid, methanol, etc., are produced upon addition of hydrogen to the system. This reaction in the hydrogen/oxygen system is supposed to take place via activated oxygen seeds as in the case of oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. 10 refs.

  20. Excuse me, are you the last here? / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2003-01-01

    Rotermanni soolalaos 2003 a. sügisel toimunud rahvusvahelisest näitusest "Viimane kangelane", kus oma nägemust kangelasest tutvustab 23 kunstnikku Ida-Euroopast. Kuraatorid Hanno Soans ja Eha Komissarov

  1. Effect of reversion treatment on strength and ductility of low C, Cr-Ni martensitic stainless steel with high resistance to weld softening. Yosetsu nanka teiko no takai teitanso Cr-Ni maruten saito kei stainless ko no kyodo, ensei ni oyobosu gyaku hentai shori no eikyo

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    Igawa, T.; Takemoto, T.; Uematsu, Y. (Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Steel R and D Lab.); Hoshino, K. (Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    Like the stainless steel and the stainless steel belt used in the rolling stock, materials treated by process and weld has a high strength and a good ductility, moreover, was expected that weld softening would not occurred. In this study, formation of the ultra-fine crystal grains based on the M to [gamma] reversion transformation of low C, Cr-Ni martensitic stainless steel and effect of Si on change of mechanical properties were investigated. A high-strength stainless steel with a good ductility and without weld softening was developed. Main results obtained are as follows: After a steel was cold-rolled, the reversion treatment at the region between As and Af temperatures (600 to 640[degree]C) was carried out, a duplex structure with diameter of the ultra-fine grains of about 0.5 micron meter that is composed of [gamma] phase concentrated Ni and sintered M phase was formatted, and excellent mechanical properties with a high strength and a good ductility could be obtained, diameter of reversion [gamma] grains was dependent on reversion temperature. Diameter of [gamma] grains became large, and more homogeneous and uniform at higher reversion temperature. 20 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Effect of massive transformation on formation of acicular structure in austenitic stainless steel weld metal solidified as ferritic single phase. Report 5. Study on solidification and subsequent transformation of Cr-Ni stainless steel weld metals; Feraito tanso de gyokosuru osutenaito kei sutenresu ko yosetsu kinzoku ni okeru ashikyura jo soshiki no keisei ni oyobosu masshibu hentai no eikyo.5. Cr-Ni kei sutenresu ko yosetsu kinzoku no gyoko/hentai ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, H.; Koseki, T.; Okita, S.; Fuji, M. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-05

    The authors clarified that massive transformation occurs at two phase region under To temperature and there is K-S relation between the massive formation phase and base phase using {gamma} stainless steel that solidifies at F mode and forms acicular structure at room temperature structure. There is a possibility of massive transformation in weld metals because the cooling rate below the high temperature To was high even for normal welding process. Thereupon, in this report, whether the massive transformation effects the formation of acicular structure or not was studied as for {gamma} stainless steel weld metal that solidifies at F mode and room temperature structure becomes acicular form of two {delta} and {gamma} phase. As a result, it was clarified that massive transformation occurs at two phase region with temperature below To, and the room temperature structure was acicular form structure irrespective to massive transformation in case of composition with small Cr/Ni ratio even in case of stainless steel that solidifies at F mode. 20 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Kuraator, kunst, ühiskond / Anders Kreuger, Catrin Lundqvist, Hanno Soans ; interv. Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreuger, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Kuraatori rollist ja missioonist kõnelesid Anders Kreuger, kes praegu vabakutselisena kuraatorlusest doktoritööd kirjutab ja õppejõuna tegutseb, Stockholmi Moderna Museeti kuraator Catrin Lundqvist ja Hanno Soans Eesti Kunstimuuseumist

  4. Rotermanni vana jahuladu ja uus jahuladu = Rotermann old and new flour storage / Hanno Grossschmidt, Tomomi Hayashi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grossschmidt, Hanno, 1973-

    2009-01-01

    Tallinna endise Rotermanni tööstuskvartali arhitektuuri kaasajastamine. Arhitektid Yoko Azukawa, Hanno Grossschmidt ja Tomoni Hayashi, projekteerija HG Arthitektuur, konstruktor Neoprojekt. Projekt ja ehitus 2006-2008

  5. Rotermanni vana jahuladu ja uus jahuladu = Rotermann old and new flour storage / Hanno Grossschmidt, Tomomi Hayashi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grossschmidt, Hanno, 1973-

    2009-01-01

    Tallinna endise Rotermanni tööstuskvartali arhitektuuri kaasajastamine. Arhitektid Yoko Azukawa, Hanno Grossschmidt ja Tomoni Hayashi, projekteerija HG Arthitektuur, konstruktor Neoprojekt. Projekt ja ehitus 2006-2008

  6. Kuraator, kunst, ühiskond / Anders Kreuger, Catrin Lundqvist, Hanno Soans ; interv. Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreuger, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Kuraatori rollist ja missioonist kõnelesid Anders Kreuger, kes praegu vabakutselisena kuraatorlusest doktoritööd kirjutab ja õppejõuna tegutseb, Stockholmi Moderna Museeti kuraator Catrin Lundqvist ja Hanno Soans Eesti Kunstimuuseumist

  7. Martha C. Nussbaum, Non per profitto. Perché le democrazie hanno bisogno degli studi umanistici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sotgiu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recensiamo Martha. C. Nussbaum, Non per profitto. Perché le democrazie hanno bisogno della cultura umanistica. Edizione Originale: Not for Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2010.

  8. Effects of Fibers on Properties of Bitumens; Senitenkazai ga asufuaruto no seijo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi.; Moriyoshi, Akihiro. [Hokkaido University, Hokkaido (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Takahashi, Shigeki.; Cabrera, J.G. [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). Civil Engineering Materials Unit

    1999-07-01

    High-viscosity bitumen blended with Styrene Butadiene Copolymer (SBS) and fibers is used, of late, for drainage pavement, for the purpose to prevent cracking and rutting, as well as to prevent flow carrying bituminous mixtures. However, it was not impossible to evaluate whether, or not, the mechanical properties and durability of such bitumens are suitable, at extremes of low or high temperatures. The authors, therefore, have developed a method for determining the mechanical properties of these bitumens, using some new testes, such as the Improved Fraass Breaking Point (IFBP) Test, the Moriyoshi Breaking Point (MBP) Test, the High-Temperature Long-Time Durability (HTLTD) Test and the Bending Test. The method employed for measuring viscosity at high temperature was the Flow Test by rheometer. This paper describes the various results of tests for high-viscosity bitumens blended with the SBS and Fibers. The authors obtained some brittle points and mechanical properties of these bitumens by using the said testers. The authors found the fracture properties and durability of bitumen blend-ed with various fibers unfavorable, compared with the original bitumens. (author)

  9. Effects on water ecosystem by synthetic detergents. Gosei senzai no seitaikei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, N. (Shiga University, Shiga (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    Considerations have been given on the effects of commercially available detergents on environments and ecosystems. As a result of the water quality test, BOD, COD, TOD, and TOC of powder soaps showed as high value as 6.7 times, 2.9 times, 2.6 times, and 3.1 times those of phosphorus-free powdered synthetic detergents. According to the result of a mortality experiment on water fleas, a concentration of surfactant MBAS in household waste water channels of 50 ppm has caused a 100% death after 24 hours, which is a considerably higher mortality than with soaps. Aggravation of aquatic environment in the Lake Biwa has generated a sudden increase in mud snails, which play a large role in water purification. Soaps contain two to three times more organics than synthetic detergents, but the decomposability of the organics is so high that naturally purifying function does not decline. Fishery products suffer stronger toxicity from synthetic detergents than from soaps. It has been indicated that surfactant LAS with low concentration accelerates ecological condensation of organic chlorine compounds in fishes. Difference in types of commercially available detergents and types of sea urchins has given the varied effects on fertilization rates, first cleavage occurrence rates, normal generation rates, and incubation rates. 21 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Sündinud on kunstirühmitus Stiilne Viisnurk / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Festivali "Pärnu nüüdismuusika päevad + In Graafika 2008" raames Endla teatri trepigaleriis rühmituse Stiilne Viisnurk (Kiwa, Andres Lõo, Martin Prdanik, Hanno Soans, Jasper Zoova) väljapanek "Missing in Action"

  11. Morfologia externa do adulto de Hemiargus hanno (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae, Polyommatini: I. cabeça Adult exoskeletal morphology of Hemiargus hanno (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidac, Polyommatinae, Polyommatini: I. head morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Duarte

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of a series of contributions concerning exoskeletal morphology of neotropical lycaenid butterflies (blues and hairstreaks. The cephalic capsule morphology of Hemiargus hanno (Stoll, 1790 is herein presented with drawings and SEM photographs.

  12. Dissipative structure of mechanically stimulated reaction; Kikaiteki reiki hanno ni okeru san`itsu kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hida, M. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-20

    Recently various studies have been conducted concerning the state changes of materials obtained through mechanical alloying (MA) or mechano-chemical (MC) processing. What is noticeable is the quasi-steady state of almost all the materials obtained through various processes including MA and MC, and that the super cooling, supersaturating and high residue distortion realized under unbalanced conditions have not been clarified. In other words, the tracing capability to the external binding conditions is low. In this report, the appearance of the high temperature phase and high pressure phase obtained through MA or MC processing, the forming of amorphous, the mesomerism of the amorphous materials, the interesting phenomena generated by combination between the mechanical disturbance and chemical reactions were discussed with concrete examples, and a steady dissipative organization theory was approached from the viewpoint of dissipative structure development which is equal to the forming process of the quasi-steady phase. 34 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation; Hoshako reiki ni yoru hyomenko hanno process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaizumi, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Materials Research; Yoshigoe, A. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Urisu, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan). Institute for Molecular Science

    1997-08-20

    This paper introduces the surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation, and its application. A synchrotron radiation process using soft X-rays contained in electron synchrotron radiated light as an excited light source has a possibility of high-resolution processing because of its short wave length. The radiated light can excite efficiently the electronic state of a substance, and can induce a variety of photochemical reactions. In addition, it can excite inner shell electrons efficiently. In the aspect of its application, it has been found that, if radiated light is irradiated on surfaces of solids under fluorine-based reaction gas or Cl2, the surfaces can be etched. This technology is utilized practically. With regard to radiated light excited CVD process, it may be said that anything that can be deposited by the ordinary plasma CVD process can be deposited. Its application to epitaxial crystal growth may be said a nano processing application in thickness direction, such as forming an ultra-lattice structure, the application being subjected to expectation. In micromachine fabricating technologies, a possibility is searched on application of a photo reaction process of the radiated light. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Autosolvent effect of bitumen in thermal cracking; Netsubunkai hanno ni okeru bitumen no jiko yobai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuni, M.; Sato, M.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Nagaishi, H.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Tar sand bitumen is petroleum-based ultra-heavy oil, and has a great amount of reserve like coal. However, there are still a lot of problems for its highly effective utilization. This paper discusses whether the light components in bitumen show independent behavior during the thermal cracking of heavy components, or not. Solvent effect and reaction mechanism during the thermal cracking are also derived from the change of their chemical structures. Athabasca tar sand bitumen was separated into light and heavy fractions by vacuum distillation based on D-1660 of ASTM. Mixtures of the both fractions at various ratios were used as samples. Negative effect of the light fraction on cracking of the heavy fraction was observed with dealkylation and paraffin formation Polymerization of the dealkylated light fraction to the heavy fraction was suggested due to lack of hydrogen in the thermal cracking under nitrogen atmosphere, which resulted in the formation of polymer. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Eesti kunsti uusim laine tuleb tasa ja targu / Anders Härm, Hanno Soans ; interv. Teet Veispak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Näitusest "Uus laine : 21 sajandi kunst" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Kunstihoone galeriis, kuraatorid Anders Härm, Hanno Soans. Loetletud osavõtjad. 1990. aastate eesti kunstist ja kaasaegsete noorte kunstist

  16. Book Review, 50 Animali che hanno cambiato il corso della Storia, Eric Chaline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Copertina rigida "anticata", brossura cucita, carta di pregio, grafica curata nei minimi dettagli. Rientra senza dubbio nel novero della pubblicistica divulgativa di qualità questo volume uscito in Italia per i tipi di Ricca Editore. Un volume, elegante e classico, che racconta l'evoluzione dell'uomo da cacciatore ad agricoltore/pastore e, più in generale, di come ha preso piede nella storia il nuovo approccio nei confronti del regno animale. "Oltre al ruolo nel commercio e nell'agricoltura" scrive l'autore, "gli animali hanno contribuito in diversi altri modi alla cultura e alla storia dell'uomo. Alcuni come il leone, lo scarabeo sacro, il cobra e l'aquila di mare testa bianca hanno una lunga storia come simboli politici e religiosi. Nel campo della scienza e della medicina, lo studio di animali come il moscerino della frutta, il fringuello e l'iguanodonte è stato determinante per lo sviluppo della nostra conoscenza dell'evoluzione del mondo naturale."Ad ognuno dei 50 animali "che hanno cambiato il corso della Storia" viene dedicato un paragrafo sintetico, ma comunque esaustivo, corredato da foto, illustrazioni, immagini d'epoca e brevi notizie storiche, curiose e al contempo istruttive. Cosa unisce la zanzara al gin tonic? E l'ape alla mandorla? Lo sapevate che Buffalo Bill dove aver cacciato 4.000 bisonti nella sola stagione 1867-1868 divenne uno strenuo difensore della creatura vivente più grande dell'America del Nord? E che il lombrico, oltre alla sua incessante azione di riciclo biologico e minerale, è considerato una vera prelibatezza dai Maori della Nuova Zelanda? E ancora, che durante la seconda guerra mondiale un piccione chiamato G.I. Joe ricevette una medaglia dall'esercito degli Stati Uniti per aver salvato oltre mille persone? Oppure che, in contrasto con le superstizioni occidentali secondo le quali il gatto è di cattivo auspicio, in Giappone i gatti sono considerati dei veri portafortuna e che lo sport del polo ebbe origine

  17. Tundeid saab testida, kuid mitte hierarhiasse seada... / Hanno Soans, Raoul Kurvitz, Toomas Mikk...[jt.] ; interv. Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    3.-12. juulini Moskvas Malõi Manezhi galeriis olnud rahvusvahelisest näitusest "Meelte testimise jaam" ("Senses Test Station"). Kuraator Georgi Nikitsh. Eesti kunstiprojektist "Hüljatud lahinguväljad". Kuraator Hanno Soans, osalejad Raoul Kurvitz, Toomas Mikk, Urmo Raus, Sven Saag, Jaan Toomik. Pikemalt R. Kurvitza ja T. Miku projektist.

  18. CyLaw-Report XXXV: Studienarbeit von cand. Wirtsch. Inf. Hanno Baur: Zur "Beweiskraft informationstechnologischer Expertise" (Stand 6/2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Baur, Hanno

    2011-01-01

    Die Forschungen am Fachgebiet Öffentliches Recht widmen sich dem Cyberlaw, dem Recht der Verteilung von Chancen und Risiken, Rechten und Plflichten im Cyberspace. Ein Kernbereich des Cyberlaw sind die Computer Forensics (Cyber Forensics, Forensic Informatics). Erste Vorarbeiten zum Forschungsgebiet Cyber Forensics hat der Studierende der Wirtschaftsinformatik, Herr Hanno Baur, mit seiner Studienarbeit geleistet.

  19. Tundeid saab testida, kuid mitte hierarhiasse seada... / Hanno Soans, Raoul Kurvitz, Toomas Mikk...[jt.] ; interv. Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    3.-12. juulini Moskvas Malõi Manezhi galeriis olnud rahvusvahelisest näitusest "Meelte testimise jaam" ("Senses Test Station"). Kuraator Georgi Nikitsh. Eesti kunstiprojektist "Hüljatud lahinguväljad". Kuraator Hanno Soans, osalejad Raoul Kurvitz, Toomas Mikk, Urmo Raus, Sven Saag, Jaan Toomik. Pikemalt R. Kurvitza ja T. Miku projektist.

  20. Filmiauhindade galat võib jälgida ka ETVst / Hanno Tomberg ; intervjueerinud Jüri Aarma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomberg, Hanno, 1967-

    2010-01-01

    4. detsembril Tallinnas Solarise Keskuses toimuvat 23. Euroopa Filmiauhindade gala kannab üle Eesti Televisioon. Õhtut juhivad eesti näitleja Märt Avandi ja saksa koomik Anke Engelke. Intervjuu ERRI juhatuse liikme Hanno Tombergiga. ETV otseülekandest

  1. Optimum differential terms for lateral motion control performance on the vehicle; Yokoundo seigyo seino ni oyobosu hisenkei bibunko no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamori, A. [Japan Consumer Information Center, Tokyo (Japan); Nakaya, H. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    As general knowledge, the lateral control performance of vehicle improves as differential terms increases. But subjective rating has its limits of effect. The coefficient of differential terms and saturated steer angle velocity were set up using the experimental vehicle in several steps. Consequently, the optimum range, that subjective and objective rating were compatible, were made clear. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Effect of intermittent light on oxygen production of Spirulina platensis; Supirurina no sansohassei ni oyobosu shukiko no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohira, Y.; Abe, T.; Kuga, Y.; Ando, K. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2000-05-10

    S. platensis media were irradiated with intermittent light interrupted by a slit in a rotating disk. The effects of the light periodicity, irradiation time, and dark time during a cycle on the oxygen production rate of S. platensis are experimentally discussed. The following oxygen production ratio was used as the index to compare the oxygen production rate between the intermittent light and the continuous light. (Oxygen production ratio)=(Oxygen volume produced by intermittent light)/(Opening ratio of the disk)(Oxygen volume produced by continuous light). When S. platensis media were irradiated with the intermittent light having a periodicity of 0.0044-0.60 s{sup -1}, the oxygen production ratio increased with an increased with an increase in light periodicity. The value of the oxygen production ratio is greater than one when the irradiation time during a cycle is shorter than 1 s. Under these conditions, the oxygen production ratio increases with increasing dark time. the effect of the intermittent light on the oxygen production rate of S. platensis was found to be qualitatively described by the simple model which combined the oxygen production rate of S. platensis and the respiration rate. (author)

  3. Effect of Initial nitrite concentration on growth of spirulina platensis; Supirurina no zoshoku ni oyobosu ashosan ion shonodo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohira, Y.; Obata, E.; Kuga, Y.; Ando, K. [Muroran Inst. of Tech., Hokkaido (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry; Yamada, S.

    2000-09-10

    The effect of the initial nitrite concentration on the growth of S. platensis was experimentally investigated using the medium added to the sodium nitrite of 0.0-1.6 kg{center_dot}m{sup -3}. When the initial nitrite concentration is smaller than 0.8 kg{center_dot}m{sup -3}, the growth rate is greater than that without nitrite. The specific growth rate had the maximum value and is approximately 1.3 times that of a standard medium when the range of the initial nitrite concentration is 0.3-0.4 kg{center_dot}m{sup -3}. When the initial nitrite concentration is greater than 0.8 kg{center_dot}m{sup -3}, the growth rate was smaller than that of a standard medium due to nitrite inhibition. (author)

  4. Effects of porous throuat on transonic diffuser; Tako shroat ga sen`onsoku diffuser ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaga, M.; Nagai, M.; Haga, T.; Miyara, T. [Univ. of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan). College of Engineering; Tomita, N. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-30

    The effects of the porous throat on a transonic diffuser were investigated experimentally by wall static pressure measurements and by schlieren optical observations. The porous throat consists of a wall with 126 holes and a cavity underneath it so that the flow around the shock wave can circulate through the porous wall. The results show that no shock wave was observed at 8096 of the porous region from the throat and that the pressure fluctuations in the transonic diffuser were greatly reduced by the porous throat. According to the frequency analysts, the frequency range attenuated by the porous region is between about 700 Hz and 1k Hz and the frequencies lower than 700 Hz have still remained. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Study on thermochemical liquefaction of biomass feedstocks; Biomass genryo no yuka hanno tokusei ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-10

    Liquefaction is applied to various biomass wastes and unused biomass to study characteristics of the liquefaction in each case. The paper described the system of the conversion and use of biomass into energy, conducted the positioning of the liquefaction, and outlined a history of the liquefaction chemistry and the study. To obtain basic data of characteristics of the liquefaction of various biomass raw materials, the liquefaction was conducted changing operational factors for the purpose of clarifying the product distribution of oil and by-products and oil properties. A comprehensive consideration was made of the liquefaction based on basic data and literature reports on the liquefaction of various biomass. From the above-mentioned studies, it was concluded that the energy can be recovered in a form of oil by applying the liquefaction to various biomass materials. A series of the study clarified effects of various operational factors on characteristics of the liquefaction as well as effects of classification of biomass materials and composition of the materials on characteristics of the liquefaction. 141 refs., 78 figs., 56 tabs.

  6. Hydrogenolysis reactions characteristics of deashed coal under low temperature; Teionka ni okeru dakkai shoritan no suisoka bunkai hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owada, T.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1996-10-28

    In relation to coal liquefaction, the effect of inorganic minerals on liquefaction reactivity and the effect of hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment on organic molecular structure of coals were studied by demineralization of low-rank coals in HCl or HF solution. In experiment, Taiheiyo coal specimen was deashed in HCl solution at 25-70{degree}C for 6 hours while agitating, and in addition, deashed in HF solution. Hydrogenolysis of the deashed coal specimen was conducted using tetralin or methylnaphthalene as solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 1.96MPa at reaction temperature of 693K for 60min. The experimental results are as follows. The ash content of Taiheiyo coal hardly offers catalysis in hydrogenolysis reaction. Carboxyl group increases in demineralization of coal because of breakage of bridged bonds. Organic structure of coal changes by demineralization in dense HF solution. Change in organic structure of coal by demineralization in dense HF solution is dependent on treatment temperature. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Coverage profile simulation in proportion to the nonlinear surface reaction; Hisenkei hyomen hanno ni taio shita kabarejji keijo shumyureshon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Yasunobu; Imaishi, Nobuyuki [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1999-06-05

    The simulation algorithm of step/hole coverage shape which could be applied at the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) system with the nonlinear surface reaction speed was devised. By combining with the conventional simple Monte Carlo calculation technique, the code which could simulate the coverage shape at high speed was made. It was quantitatively explainable in respect of raw material density dependence (fluoridation tungsten (6); WF{sub 6}) of the coverage shape, when this code was applied to the thermal CVD of tungsten (W) with nonlinear surface reaction. (translated by NEDO)

  8. Preparation of silicon carbide from pyrolysis of carbosilane polymer. poly carbosilane no netsubunkai hanno ni yotte goseisareru tanka keiso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, K.; Fujimoto, S. (National Defence Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)); Iwata, T.; Yamanaka, S.; Maruyama, G.; Ono, M. (Mitsubishi Mining and Cement Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-07-20

    The synthesis of silicon carbide was explained by the pyrolysis of polycarbosilane (PCS). Polydimethylsilane is synthesized by the dechlorinating reaction of dimethyldichlorosilane and metallic sodium. If added with polymerization promoter and thermally polymerized in ambient nitrous gas, it becomes, in proceeding with polymerization, foamed PCS, which morphologically is of a three-dimensional structure, unsoluble against solvent and unfusible even if heated. It was, through thermal treatment under 1200 to 1400 centigrade, converted to silicon carbide. The formed PCS is structurally active and easily oxidized, if touched by air. The obtained molar Si/C ratio of silicon carbide is not stoichiometrical but of carbonic surplus. With heightening in thermal treatment temperature, the molar Si/C ratio approaches the stoichiometrical ratio, but free carbon increases in quantity, which increase is particularly remarkable at 1400 centigrade. Silicon dioxide is also by-produced, which by-production can be however controlled by addition with a small quantity of polyvinylbutyral or pitch. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Investigation on development of advanced materials by solvothermal technique; Sorubo thermal hanno riyo senshin zairyo kaihatsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Solvothermal reaction is reaction under high temperature and high pressure, which is expected to fabricate new functional materials. In this study, the materials are classified into two fields, i.e., inorganic materials, metals and their composites and organic materials and their composites. The current status of R and D of production and processing technology in each field is surveyed and the prospect of it is discussed. For the inorganic materials, metals and their composites, it is explained that very fine metal oxide particles, complex oxides, single crystals, whiskers, compounds with layer structure, metastable compounds, ion conductors and catalysts with high ability could be produced only by controlling the solvothermal reactions in atomic order. For the organic materials and their composites, surveyed results of the solvothermal technique using non-aqueous solutions are mainly provided. The necessity of a national project for researches on the solvothermal reactions is proposed from the viewpoint of resource, environment and energy. 777 refs., 38 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. Numerical simulation for Savonius rotors. Effects of shed vortices on running performance; Savonius fusha ni kansuru suchi keisan. Hoshutsuuzu ga unten tokusei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimatsu, K.; Shinohara, T.; Kage, K.; Okubayashi, T. [Oita University, Oita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-01-25

    Considerations have been given on the effects of shed vortices on running performance based on a drawing of the flow fields around a Savonius rotor with semi-circular blades (a drawing depicting the result of calculations using the finite volume method based on two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations). A drawing of time-based change in the flow field using a relative velocity vector and an equivalent vorticity line, and a drawing of pressure distribution on the surface of and around the blades were used to indicate that the vortex behavior and the pressure field differ respectively because of increase in the circumferential speed ratio and the existence of blade clearance. The following matters are indicated: the reduction in the torque coefficient in association with increase in the circumferential speed ratio is caused importantly by the separation vortices from the rear face of a leading side blade entering into a concave portion in a return side blade; and the reason for the torque coefficient growing larger above a certain circumferential speed ratio in the case of having blade clearance than the case not having the blade clearance is because the separation vortices from the rear face of the blade become more difficult of entering into the concave portion due to a flow passing through the clearance. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Effects of heat release rate on NOx time history in diesel combustion; Diesel nensho ni okeru netsu hasseiritsu keika ga NOx nodo rireki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiyama, T.; Miwa, K.; Higashida, M. [Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Watanabe, S. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-06-25

    For determining the optimum combination of combustion control techniques to reduce NOx emission from diesel engines, it is important to clarify the effects of each technique not only on the NOx emission but also on its time history during combustion. In this paper, NOx concentration in the combustion chamber of a rapid compression machine has been measured by using a total gas sampling method. In order to elucidate the relation between NOx history and heat release rate, air temperatures nozzle hole size and air motion are varied to control the heat release process. The results show that NOx emission is not solely dependent upon initial combustion. Air utilization in the main diffusive combustion phase has great influence on NOx formation and its decay. NOx formation is accelerated by activation of the initial stage of the main combustion when using a nozzle with small holes. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  12. Few remarks on some factors in maintaining temperature of basement; Chikashitsu no hoonsei ni oyobosu shoyoin ni kansuru nisan no chiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Y. [Ehime University, Ehime (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Shimasaki, O. [Ehime University, Ehime (Japan); Ueda, T. [Takenaka Corp., Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, T. [Nissan Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sugi, G.

    1998-06-21

    Noticing on temperature maintaining effect of a basement, three types of full scale model basements were used to measure temperature change in the surrounding ground and rooms in the basement and discuss effects of ground temperature variation on the basement. Thermal property values were derived on the surrounding ground affecting the temperature maintainability of the basement, and temperature analysis was performed on a model assuming the basement to discuss effects of difference in size occupying under the ground on change in room temperatures. Then, assuming a case of using heat insulating materials in the basement, discussions were given on the consumed energy required for air conditioning. Underground temperature has its change to decrease as the ground depth increases throughout a year, and particularly at depths greater than 50 cm, no daily temperature change can be seen. Because of this effect, the greater the underground occupying size in the basement, the smaller the temperature change. Distributions of heat diffusion rate, heat capacity, and heat conductivity can be estimated by deriving water content ratio distribution. When air conditioning is carried out in the basement, applying the heat insulating materials on the inner side of a room is more effective. Energy conservation may be expected because the room temperature is stabilized. 9 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Effect of static magnetic fields on the metamorphosis of frogs; Kaeru no hentai katei ni oyobosu jiba no eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiwaki, O. [Hiroshima City University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1996-01-20

    The effect of static magnetic fields on the metamorphosis of frogs was investigated to examine the effect of static magnetic fields on the internal secretion system and nerve system in a living body. In this experiment, the growth and metamorphosis of a Rana Japonica`s larva are inhibited inside the vessel in which a magnet whose upper surface is the N pole was put at the bottom. However, no remarkable change was recognized when a magnet whose upper surface is the S pole was put at the bottom. For a bullfrog, the same result as described above was obtained. The experiment result shows that the vertical upward fields inhibit the growth and metamorphosis of a frog`s larva, but the vertical downward fields do not remarkably act on them. As a result of this experiment, the growth and metamorphosis of a frog are considered to act on the internal secretion system of a tadpole in static magnetic fields when the control by thyroxin is considered. Since the existence of action varies depending on the polarity of vertical magnetic fields, the magnet in a living body is judged to be associated with the internal secretion system of a tadpole. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Studies on surface tension effect for free surface flow around floating models; Futai mokei mawari no jiyu hyomenryu ni oyobosu hyomen choryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Akiba, H. [Toyo Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The effect of surface tension on free surface flow around floating models is discussed experimentally and numerically. Three-dimensional free surface flow around vertical circular cylinders floating in a circulating water channel was visually observed, where a surface-active agent was added to water. The results are analyzed using Weber number. The numerical analysis was done for vertical cylinder and CY100 models using the Rankine source method. Weber number of at least around 120 is necessary to eliminate the effect of surface tension from free surface flow around the CY100 model. The numerical analysis for the cylinder model needs simulation with wavelength shorter than that of free surface wave used by the Rankine source method. The model for the resistance test should be at least around 7m long to eliminate the effect of surface tension at Froude number of 0.1 or higher. 15 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Studies on surface tension effect for free surface flow around floating models; Futai mokei mawari no jiyu hyomenryu ni oyobosu hyomen choryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Akiba, H. [Toyo Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The effect of surface tension on free surface flow around floating models is discussed experimentally and numerically. Three-dimensional free surface flow around vertical circular cylinders floating in a circulating water channel was visually observed, where a surface-active agent was added to water. The results are analyzed using Weber number. The numerical analysis was done for vertical cylinder and CY100 models using the Rankine source method. Weber number of at least around 120 is necessary to eliminate the effect of surface tension from free surface flow around the CY100 model. The numerical analysis for the cylinder model needs simulation with wavelength shorter than that of free surface wave used by the Rankine source method. The model for the resistance test should be at least around 7m long to eliminate the effect of surface tension at Froude number of 0.1 or higher. 15 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Visualization study on effects of frequency on acoustic streaming in a pulse tube refrigerator; Parusu kan reitokinai ni yukisareru nijitekina nagare ni oyobosu shuhasu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, M.; Nakano, A. [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Takamatsu, K.; Murakami, M. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    It induces the otherwise secondary and fundamental flow in pulse tube refrigerating machine of an oscillating flow. This secondary flow is connected with the improvement on the performance, if it can be reduced, since it becomes a cause of the usual heat loss. Therefore, we systematically examine the secondary flow induced in the pulse tube refrigerator. Until now, the dependent main factor by sound flow secondary flow and existence of a natural convection secondary flow and angle value of the refrigeration performance clarified the fact by the generation of a natural convection secondary flow. Here, it introduces the result of examining frequency dependence and effect of compression ratio in the visualization experiment on characteristics of a sound flow secondary flow, which always exists. (NEDO)

  17. Experimental investigation of the effects of the car driver`s postures on sleepiness; Chakuza shisei ga nemuke ni oyobosu eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsudani, M.; Okamura, C. [Toyo Seat Co. Ltd., Hiroshima (Japan); Nishiyama, S. [Hiroshima City Industrial Technology Institute, Hiroshima (Japan); Nozawa, T.; Nishikawa, K. [Matsuda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Hori, T.; Hayashi, M. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Effects of car driver`s postures on sleepiness were experimentally investigated. For the measurement method of EEG (electroencephalogram), bipolar induction was adopted, to record Cz and Pz using those at left ear as standard by international 10-20 electrode method. In addition, differential potential was recorded between locations of Cz and Pz. The time constant of EEG was set in 0.3 sec. Brain waves were measured for one minute under open and close eye conditions before and after each test as EEG at the rest. For the measurement of EOG (electro-oculograph), vertical and horizontal eye motions were observed. Induced potential change was measured by attaching silver-silver chloride electrode at the time constant 1.5 sec. For the measurement of SPL (skin potential level), the palm of left hand was used as a measuring point and the left front arm was used as a reference point for attaching electrodes. The danger of sleepiness was provided by the boring driving conditions independent of driver`s postures. There was a difference of relaxation time due to the driver`s postures. It was difficult to avoid sleepiness by adjusting the relative angle between seat and seat back. However, it was found that the angle 110deg was most suitable for avoiding sleepiness. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Interface Physical Chemistry of Enamel (3). Action of Cobalt at Enamel Reaction; Horo ni kansuru kaimen butsurikagakuteki kenkyu (3). Horo kaimen ni oyobosu kabaruto no sayo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirasaki, Masahiro.; Shimizu, Tadao.; Kozuka, Tatsuya. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan), Department of Industrial Chemistry; Jiang, Zhaohua. [Harbi Institute of Technology, Harbin (China), Department of Applied Chemistry

    1999-02-01

    The effect of cobalt on enamel reaction was studied using Co-vitreous enamel. Observation and analysis of Co-vitreous enamel interface were performed with scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and X-ray diffractometer. The following results were obtained. (1) The sunken parts of Co-vitreous enamel interface were formed by erosion of the base iron. Cobalt and iron deposited on the base iron and formed convex parts. Further, the convex parts grew by firing from the initial interface towards the glass (enamel layer) side. (2) Interface layer of Co-vitreous enamel was consisted of two layers. The first interface layer was very thin and consisted of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} or FeFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The second interface layer was the iron solid solution containing cobalt. The thickness of Co-vitreous enamel reaction layer was thicker than the rough parts (3) The Co-vitreous enamel reaction was a galvanic cell reaction between base iron and cobalt ion in glass. Cobalt circulate by reaction as deposition, oxidation and dissolution. (author)

  19. Kas euro toob meile pensioni 1700 eurot nagu Kreekas? / Kärt Anvelt ; kommenteerinud Hanno Pevkur, Mart Siilivask, Ingvar Bärenklau ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Anvelt, Kärt, 1973-

    2010-01-01

    Sotsiaalminister Hanno Pevkur, Swedbanki pressiesindaja Mart Siilivask, rahandusministeeriumi eurospetsialist Ingvar Bärenklau, Tartu Ülikooli pressiesindaja Mehis Tuisk, Eesti Panga juhtivspetsialist Viljar Rääsk, Politsei- ja piirivalveameti pressiesindaja Harrys Puusepp ning Kaupmeeste Liidu tegevdirektor Marika Merilai kommenteerivad seoses euro tulekuga tekkinud küsimusi

  20. Kas euro toob meile pensioni 1700 eurot nagu Kreekas? / Kärt Anvelt ; kommenteerinud Hanno Pevkur, Mart Siilivask, Ingvar Bärenklau ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Anvelt, Kärt, 1973-

    2010-01-01

    Sotsiaalminister Hanno Pevkur, Swedbanki pressiesindaja Mart Siilivask, rahandusministeeriumi eurospetsialist Ingvar Bärenklau, Tartu Ülikooli pressiesindaja Mehis Tuisk, Eesti Panga juhtivspetsialist Viljar Rääsk, Politsei- ja piirivalveameti pressiesindaja Harrys Puusepp ning Kaupmeeste Liidu tegevdirektor Marika Merilai kommenteerivad seoses euro tulekuga tekkinud küsimusi

  1. Tööturg võttis majanduslanguse löögi enda peale / Hanno Pevkur, Raul Eamets, Ivi Proos, Sten Anspal ; intervjueerinud Helle Ruusing

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Sotsiaaalminister Hanno Pevkur, Tartu Ülikooli makroökonoomika õppetooli juhataja Raul Eamets, Avatud Ühiskonna Instituudi juhataja Ivi Proos ja Eesti Rakendusuuringute Keskuse CENTAR vanemanalüütik Sten Anspal arutlevad Eesti tööturu olukorra ja tulevikuperspektiivide üle

  2. Tööturg võttis majanduslanguse löögi enda peale / Hanno Pevkur, Raul Eamets, Ivi Proos, Sten Anspal ; intervjueerinud Helle Ruusing

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Sotsiaaalminister Hanno Pevkur, Tartu Ülikooli makroökonoomika õppetooli juhataja Raul Eamets, Avatud Ühiskonna Instituudi juhataja Ivi Proos ja Eesti Rakendusuuringute Keskuse CENTAR vanemanalüütik Sten Anspal arutlevad Eesti tööturu olukorra ja tulevikuperspektiivide üle

  3. Investigation of the deposit formation in pipelines connecting liquefaction reactors; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika hanno tokan fuchakubutsu no seisei yoin ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Y.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The liquefaction reaction system of an NEDOL process coal liquefaction 1t/d PSU was opened and checked to investigate the cause of the rise of differential pressure between liquefaction reactors of the PSU. The liquefaction test at a coal concentration of 50 wt% using Tanito Harum coal was conducted, and it was found that the differential pressure between reactors was on the increase. By the two-phase flow pressure loss method, deposition thickness of deposit in pipelines was estimated at 4.4mm at the time of end operation, which agreed with a measuring value obtained from a {gamma} ray. The rise of differential pressure was caused by deposit formation in pipelines connecting reactors. The main component of the deposit is calcite (CaCO3 60-70%) and is the same as the usual one. It is also the same type as the deposit on the reactor wall. Ca in coal ash is concerned with this. To withdraw solid matters deposited in the reactor, there are installed pipelines for the withdrawal at the reactor bottom. The solid matters are regularly purged by reverse gas for prevention of clogging. As the frequency of purge increases, the deposit at the reactor bottom decreases, but the deposit attaches strongly to pipelines connecting reactors. It is presumed that this deposit is what Ca to be discharged out of the system as a form of deposition solid matter naturally in the Ca balance precipitated as calcite in the pipeline connecting the reactor. 3 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Coal liquefaction in early stage of NEDOL process 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika shoki hanno ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Kawabata, M.; Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the behavior of coal liquefaction reaction in early stage as a part of studies on the coal liquefaction characteristics using NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), coal slurry sample was taken from the outlet of slurry preheater located in the upflow of liquefaction reactors, and was tested. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction. Preheater was operated under the condition of pressure of 170 kg/cm{sup 2}, gas flow rate of 64 Nm{sup 3}/hr, and at temperature up to 410{degree}C at the outlet, in response to the standard test condition. The slurry sample was discharged into a high temperature separator with temperature of 250{degree}C. Liquefaction was not proceeded at the outlet of preheater. Solid residue yielded around 80%, and liquid yielded around 15%. Gases, CO and CO2, and water yielded also small amount around 3%. The solid sample contained much IOM fraction (tetrahydrofuran-insoluble and ash), and the liquid contained much heavy oil fraction. Hydrogenation was not proceeded, and the hydrogen consumption was very low showing below one-tenth of that at the usual operation. Hydrogen sulfide gas was formed at early stage, which suggested that the change of iron sulfide catalyst occur at early stage of liquefaction. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Investigations on an environment friendly chemical reaction process (eco-chemistry). 2; Kankyo ni yasashii kagaku hanno process (eko chemistry) ni kansuru chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In order to structure a chemical reaction process that does not discharge a large amount of waste by-products or harmful chemical substances, or so-called environment friendly process, investigations and discussions were given based on the results derived in the previous fiscal year. A proposal was made to reduce environmental load on development of oxidized and dehydrogenated catalysts that can produce selectively ethylene, propylene and isobutylene in an oxidation process. In liquid phase oxidation, redox-based oxidation and solid catalyzation of automatic oxidation reaction were enumerated. In acid base catalyst reaction, development of ultra strong solid acid was described to structure no pollution discharging process. In the fine chemical and pharmaceutical fields, the optical active substance method and the position-selective aromatics displacement reaction were evaluated to reduce environmental load. A questionnaire survey performed on major chemical corporations inside and outside the country revealed the following processes as the ones that can cause hidden environmental problems: processes discharging large amount of wastes, processes treating dangerous materials, and processes consuming large amount of energy. Development of catalysts is important that can realize high yield, high selectivity and reactions under mild conditions as a future environment harmonizing chemical process. 117 refs., 23 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Effect of decomposition of oxygen-functional groups on coal liquefaction; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Gansanso kannoki no bunkai kyodo to ekika hanno eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komeiji, A.; Kaneko, T.; Shimazaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Pretreatment of brown coal in oil was conducted using 1-methyl naphthalene or mixture of tetralin and 1-methyl naphthalene as solvent at temperatures ranging from 300 to 430{degree}C under nitrogen atmosphere. Effects of the solvent properties on the structural change of oxygen-functional groups (OFG) and coal liquefaction were investigated by means of quantitative analysis of OFG and solid state {sup 13}C-NMR measurement. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient, it was suggested that brown coal molecules loose their hydrogen to be aromatized. While, at lower temperatures ranging from 300 to 350{degree}C, hydrogen contained in brown coal molecules was consumed for the stabilization of pyrolytic radicals, and the deterioration of liquefaction was not observed. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient at higher temperatures above 400{degree}C in nitrogen atmosphere during pretreatment in oil, crosslinking like benzofuran type was formed by dehydration condensation of hydroxyl group in brown coal, to deteriorate the liquefaction, remarkably. The addition of donor solvent like tetralin decreased the formation of crosslinking like benzofuran type, which suppressed the deterioration of liquefaction. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Effect of intermolecular cohesion on coal liquefaction. 3. Reactivity of oxygen methylated coal; Sekitan teibunshika hanno ni okeru bunshikan gyoshuryoku no koka. 3. O-methyl ka tan no hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M.; Nagaishi, H.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The reactivity of oxygen methylated coal was studied to control hydrogen bond in bituminous coal liquefaction and intermolecular cohesion such as van der Waals force. In experiment, crushed and dried Illinois coal of 100mesh or less was used as specimen, and oxygen methylated coal was prepared by Liotta`s method using tetrabutylammonium halide. Coal liquefaction was conducted in an electromagnetic agitation autoclave using tetralin solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 100kg/cm{sup 2} while heating. The molecular weight distribution of the products obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis. The experimental results are as follows. The effect of intermolecular cohesion in bituminous coal on the reactivity is mainly derived from decomposing reaction from preasphaltene to oil. Yields of oil fraction by methylation increase corresponding to release of intermolecular cohesion. Since the thermal release is promoted with temperature rise, the difference in yield due to different treatments decreases. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Le variazioni d'inclinazione e la sismicità che hanno preceduto il forte terremoto del Friuli del 6 Maggio 1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Spadea

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available In questa prima parte del lavoro, che ci proponiamo
    di dedicare alla disastrosa crisi sismica che ha colpito il Friuli nel 1970,
    ci limitiamo a delineare le caratteristiche presismiche, che hanno preceduto
    la forte scossa del 0 Maggio 1970.
    Nelle premesse, vengono richiamati gli studi su fenomeni presismici,
    iniziati in Italia già negli anni Cinquanta.

  9. Effect of grain size on amplitude-dependent internal friction in polycrystalline copper. Do takessho no naibu masatsu no shinpuku izon sei ni oyobosu kessho ryukei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, H.; Nishino, Y.; Asano, S. (Nagoya Inst. of Technology, Nagoya (Japan))

    1991-08-20

    In this research, amplitude-dependency of internal friction was measured on various polycrystalline copper of varying grain size. Furthermore, the measurement data of amplitude-dependency of internal friction were analyzed from the phenomenological standpoint and microplastic strain was calculated as a function of stress. The obtained correlation between microplastic strain and stress corresponded to the stress-strain curve obtainable from normal tensile tests. Hence, comparing with the Hall-Petch relation, the relationship between flow stress and grain size in the microplastiic zone was discussed. The obtained results are summarized as follows: When grains were refined, amplitude dependency of internal friction was inhibited. As a result of the analysis of the data obtained, it was found that the flow stress in the microplastic zone increased following refining of grains. This agreed qualitatively with the macro deformation obtained from normal tensile tests. The grain size dependency of flow stress in the microplastic zone did not follow the normal Hall-Pitch relation, but the plastic strain increased, the dependency moved towards it. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Effects of mechanical stimulating treatment on self-organization phenomena of materials; Kikaiteki reiki shori. Zairyo no jiko soshikia gensho ni oyobosu sono koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hida, M. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    1999-03-31

    The atoms and atom clusters around dislocation cores in crystals or surface layer deformed by mechanical energy are locally excited so as to give rise some chemical reactions and to self-organize their products into a kind of Spatial-Temporal Pattern Formation as a dissipative structure. A famous coupling phenomenon between mechanical and chemical process in solid materials must have been mechanical alloing. This report explains that various mechano-chemical treatments are powerfull method for entraining the solid system into non-equilibrium states and interesting phenomena stimulated by the mechanical self-catalysis reaction causing self-organization. (author)

  11. Effect of heat treatment changes on swelling treatment of coal; Sekitan no bojun shori sayo ni oyobosu netsushori henka no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satsuka, T.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1996-10-28

    Discussions were given on effects of heat treatment at relatively low temperatures as a pretreatment for coal liquefaction on coal swelling and hydrogenolysis reaction. Taiheiyo coal was heated to 200{degree}C for one hour as a pretreatment. The attempted heating methods consisted of four steps of rapid heating (6.7{degree}C/min)quenching (20{degree}C/min), rapid heating/natural cooling (0.7{degree}C/min), heating (1.0{degree}C/min)/quenching, and heating/natural cooling. The swelling treatment was composed of adding methanol benzene into heat treated coal, and leaving it at room temperature for 24 hours. The hydrogenolysis was carried out by using a tetralin solvent and at an initial hydrogen pressure of 20 kg/cm{sup 2} and a temperature of 350{degree}C and for a time of one hour. Hydrogenolysis conversion in the heat treated coal was found lower than that of the original coal because of generation of liquefaction inactive components due to thermal polymerization. When the heat treated coal is swollen by using the solvent, gas yield from the hydrogenolysis reaction decreased due to gas suppression effect, and the conversion was lower than that of the original coal. Heat treatment suggests densification of the coal structure. Swollen coal shows no conspicuous difference in the heat treatment methods against the hydrogenolysis due to the swelling effect. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Effects of lithium iodide doping on devolatilization characteristics of brown coals; Yoka lithium no tenka ga kattan no kanetsu henka katei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, J.; Kumagai, H.; Hayashi, J.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to discuss effects of lithium iodide (LiI) doping on condensation structure of brown coals during heating, spectral changes were measured by using an in-situ FT-IR. It was found that the LiI doping accelerates weight reduction due to heating, and the doping effect is affected by coal structure. Both of Loy Yang (LY) coal and its LiI doped coal (DLY) had absorption intensity of the FT-IR spectra decreased with rising temperature, and the absorption center belonging to an OH group shows different shifts between the LY and DLY coals. This indicates that the LiI doping has affected the change in hydrogen bonding patterns associated with heating. Both of South Banko (SB) and LY coals had the absorption spectral intensity in the OH group decreased as the weight reduction (conversion) rate increased. Reduction in the OH groups associated with heating is caused by volatilization and condensation reaction in light-gravity fraction. However, in the case of equal conversion rate, the LiI doped coal shows higher spectral intensity than the original coal, with the LiI doping suppressing reduction in the OH groups. It appears that the doping suppresses the condensation reaction between the OH groups. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Effect of odors from coniferous woods on contingent negative variation (CNV); Shinyojuzai no nioi ga zuihansei insei hendo (CNV) ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terauchi, F. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Kubo, M.; Aoki, H. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ogama, T. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1996-04-15

    In order to clarify the effect of odors of seven coniferous woods on human, contingent negative variation (CNV) and electroencephalogram (EEG) were measured. Four of the species used, hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtuse), sugi (Cryptomeria japonica), akamatsu (Pinus densiflora), and hiba (Thujopsis dolabrata var.hondai), were grown in Japan, and three of them, Alaska cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), and western red cedar (Thuja plicata), were grown in the United States. The concentrations of their wood odors were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography. The total concentration of monoterpene hydrocarbon in the wood odors was held to less than 3ppb. The amplitudes of early components of CNV and the {alpha}/{beta} wave ratio of EEG at the frontal (Fz) and central (Cz) regions between in the presence and absence of wood odors were compared. 5 male and 5 female volunteers ranging in age from 20 to 26 were examined. The result obtained are summarized as follows: (1) In the presence of wood odors, the early CNV amplitudes at Fz decreased at a statistical level of significance of 5% or better. (2) The {alpha}/{beta} wave ratio of EEG increased significantly at Cz with bibs wood odor (p<0.01). (3) The decrease of the early CNV amplitude at Fz is related to the concentration of {alpha}-pinene in the wood odors. 19 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Influence of smectites on resistivity of rocks and soils; Smectite nendo kobutsu ga ganseki dojo no hi teiko ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, S.; Nishizawa, O.; Aoki, M. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kozake, K. [University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    This paper illustrates the measurement results of resistivity for specimens including smectite clay minerals artificially synthesized, and also discusses the influence of smectites on resistivity. Three kinds of bentonites, i.e., KN-1, Kawasaki ore, and Kawasaki Sanhaku, were used for preparing smectites. The KN-1 is Na type smectite, the Kawasaki ore is Ca type smectite, and the Kawasaki Sanhaku is acid clay. It is well known that smectites lower the resistivity of rocks. However, the experimental results suggested that the degree of decreasing the resistivity depends on the kind of smectites. The effect of decreasing the resistivity by the KN-1 was much superior to the other smectites. For the KN-1, a thick electrical double layer was formed by Na ions in the interlayers, which resulted in the larger effect of decreasing the resistivity. Swelling capacity and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the KN-1 were large, which agreed with the above mentioned consideration. Reversely, it was considered that smectites having larger effect of decreasing the resistivity exhibited larger swelling capacity and CEC. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Effects of austempering heat treatment conditions on fracture toughness of austempered ductile cast iron; Kyujo kokuen chutetsu no hakai jinsei ni oyobosu austemper shori no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Y.; Arai, M. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-25

    Discussions were given in various manners to learn effects of treatment conditions with respect to fracture toughness of austempered ductile cast iron. Austenitizing temperature and isothermal transforming conditions that result in comprehensively most excellent fracture toughness including tensile strength were 1173 K and 648 K - 3.6 ks, respectively. The austenitizing temperature as low as 1123 K reduces quantity of residual austenite, resulting in residual inclusion of free ferrite in the structure. If as high as 1223 K, reduction in the fracture toughness is caused under any condition as a result of increase in unstable austenite and growth of austenite into coarse particles. With respect to the isothermal transforming conditions, high fracture toughness may be achieved at a relatively high temperature. However, a structure that has been transformed from austenite to bainite causes a secondary reaction in a short time, and deposits particulates of cementite and graphite, leading to a prediction of decrease in the fracture toughness. Therefore, it is preferable that the treatment time is decreased in order to suppress the secondary reaction. 9 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Influence of slit depth on impact value of ferritic nodular graphite cast iron. Feraito kyujo kokuen chutetsu no shogekichi ni oyobosu suritto fukasa no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunada, H. (Himegi Inst. of Technology, Hyogo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1992-10-15

    Impact experiment and fracture surface observations were carried out in order to study the effect of slit depth on the impact value during austempering of ferrite spheroidal graphite east iron. The tensile strength has been increased by austempering, however the impact value was not improved. The bending strength of slit bottom for each structure has been less influenced by slit depth, and it has been almost similar, The value obtained by the multiplication by binding coefficient has been higher than yield strength in case of ferrite structure, and it has been lower in case of bainitic structure. Cleavage facets along with the large dimples originating from graphites and small dimples from inclursions, have been observed on the impact fracture surface of ferrite structure, however in general, the fracture has been ductile. The deformation around the graphite has been small for bainitic structure, pseudo brittleness type fracture surface is formed, and has been less rough compared to ferrite structure. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Effect of tempering treatment on toughness of austempered ductile iron; Austemper kyujo kokuen chutetsu no jinsei ni oyobosu yakimodoshi no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, S.; Kobayashi, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1994-07-25

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) is increasing its application to high strength members as a cast iron material that has both high strength and ductility. In order to investigate the effect of internal strain generated during austempering treatment, the present study investigates the effect of tempering on its toughness, and performs metal structural discussions. The result may be summarized as follows: the cause to bring about change in toughness given by the tempering is mainly the increase or decrease in the ductility, and the optimal tempering condition was found 723K {times} 10 min in the present study; the tempering process of ADI consists of two stages, whereas in the first stage the dislocation of high density introduced by the austempering treatment is reduced mainly in the ferrite, and the toughness improves as a result of increased ductility; in the second stage, deposition of carbide (Fe3C) is developed in association with decomposition of the residual austenite, when the toughness decreases. 18 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Effects of subzero treatment on toughness of austempered ductile cast iron; Austemper kyujo kokuen chutetsu no jinsei ni oyobosu subzero shori no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukahara, S.; Yamada, S. [Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-04-25

    Specimens of austempered ductile cast iron (ADI) after constant temperature transformation at different temperatures are tested for tension, shock, and bending, and the effects of the testing methods and testing speeds on ADI strength and toughness are investigated. Specimens are made of an austempered Fe-Si-Mg alloy cast into 25mm-thick Y-shape blocks. Heat treatment is performed in the atmosphere for test pieces manufactured by machining. In the subzero treatment, the austempered pieces are cooled in water and then immediately placed in liquid nitrogen for rapid cooling. Findings obtained are mentioned below. A test piece austempered at 773K and then cooled in water retains 26% of austenite, and this disappears after a tension test. In a test piece given subzero treatment following the cooling in water, the residual austenite is found reduced from 20% to 13%. No change is observed in the amount of residual austenite before and after a bend test and impact test whether or not the test piece has been subjected to subzero treatment. 8 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Stress effect of martensitic transformation of small iron particles in copper matrix. Dobosochu no tetsu bisho ryushi no martensite hentai ni oyobosu gairyoku koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, M.; Fujii, T.; Hoshino, Y.; Mori, T. (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-08-20

    There are two different ways of understanding the stress effects on martensitic transformation. To find out which one is more reasonable, examinations were given on the Stress- induced [mu][yields][alpha] martensitic transformation of iron particulates in monocrystalline copper matrix. The result revealed that out of 24 kinds of Kurdjumov-Sachs variants, the preferentially formed variants are various depending on the direction ([001][sub f] and [419][sub f]) and the sense (tension and compression). In addition, the easiness of generating a martensitic transformation depends upon the sense of external stresses. For example, when compared at the same plasticity shear distortion, the compression induced more martensite than tension at a stress of [001][sub f], but no significant difference was observed between the tension and the compression at a stress of [419][sub f], Further, in an experiment using polycrystalline copper-iron alloy specimens, the tensile stress had a greater effect on martensitic transformation than the compressive stress. 24 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Effect of applied tensile stress on the transformation behavior of medium carbon low alloy steels. Chutanso tei gokinko no hentai kyodo ni oyobosu hippari oryoku fuka no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanetsuki, Y.; Katsumata, M.; Kaida, O.; Kaiso, M. (Kobe Steel, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-06-01

    Techniques of controlled rolling and cooling are actively being used as the manufacturing process of high strength and high tenacity steel plates. The reason behind this is that the ferrite-pearlite texture can be made very finely. However, with regard to low alloy carbon steel bars with enhanced hardenability, its texture becomes hard bainite texture in the cooling process after rolling, hence its workability is not good. In this research, in lieu of controlled rolling, the possibility of the process that the tensile stress, whose effect of facilitating transformation is known, is applied before the transformation and its texture is controlled to the ferrite-pearlite texture at the cooling rate of air cooling. In other words, with regard to medium carbon low alloy steels, its transformation behavior was studied by a tensile test in which additional stress was controlled during its continuous cooling. The results are as follows: It was found that by adding stress, the ferrite transformation was expedited. This was because the nuclei formation of ferrite, which was enhanced by inner stress, was facilitated. Furthermore, when the above transformation took place at the same time of deformation, an uniform elongation about 60% was obtained. 13 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Effect of partial solution treatment on martensitic transformation of 12%Cr steels; 12% Cr ko no martensite hentai ni oyobosu bubun yotaika shori no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiyama, T.; Takai, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    When high chromium martensitic steels are subjected to partial solution treatment in (austenite+M23C6, carbide) two -phase region, not only the coarsening of austenite grains is effectively suppressed by insoluble-carbide particles, but also martensitic structure, which has formed during cooling, is refined through the treatment. In this study, the mechanism of refining of martensitic structure was discussed in Fe-12%Cr-C ternary alloys by investigating the relation between Ms temperature and solution treatment conditions, and the effect of insoluble-carbide particles on the substructures such as martensite-lath or -block. The Ms temperature of steels with full solution treatment simply depends on the content of C and Cr, but that of steels with partial solution treatment is dependent on the effective chemical composition of matrix, which is evaluated by taking the amount of C and Cr in insoluble-carbide away from their total content. Refining of martensite-block structure within grains is not caused directly by insoluble-carbide particles, but done indirectly through the refining of austenite grain size. While, on the martensite-lath structure, insoluble-carbide particles supply nucleation sites for laths, and work also as obstacles for growing laths. As a result, martensite-laths in steels with partial solution treatment are divided finely by insoluble carbide particles, and the arrangement of laths is tend to be confused. 14 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Effect of low temperature plasma treatment on dimensional stability of wool fabrics. Yomo orimono no sunpo fuanteisei ni oyobosu teion plasma shori no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, T.; Wakita, T. (Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering and Design); Hosotani, T. (Unitika Research Laboratories Inc., Osaka (Japan))

    1991-07-10

    This report describes the effect of low temperature plasma treatment, which has been developed for fabric processing, on wool fabrics. In the experiment, wool fabrics were treated by low temperature plasma using O{sub 2}, Ar, CH{sub 4}, CHF{sub 3}, and CF{sub 4}. Low temperature plasma treatment did not influence moisture regain of wool fabrics, but influenced hygral expansion. There was no difference in the area of low humidity, however, dimensional change was restricted by half in the area of high humidity. Low temperature plasma treatment also improved felt shrinkage caused by home laundering. Moreover, it was found that friction coefficient of wool fabrics increased remarkably after low temperature plasma treatment. Therefore, the subsequent reactive silicone elastmer softening agent was used for finishing process after low temperature plasma treatment. As a result, wool fabrics hardened by low temperature plasma treatment regained their soft condition and washing resistant shrinkage percentage was also improved. Thus this treatment was proved to be used practically. 15 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Effect of temperature on bending creep of wood during moisture adsorption; Mokuzai no kyushitsu katei no mage creep ni oyobosu ondo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokumoto, M.; Takeda, T.; Nakano, T. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1996-04-15

    The effect of temperature (20-80{degree}C) on the bending creep of wood during moisture adsorption (7 % {yields} 16 %) and desorption (16 % {yields} 7 %) was investigated by using small beams of buna (Fague crenata Blume) and hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.) wood. The test specimens were 120 men radially, 3 mm tangentially and 10 mm longitudinally. The span was 100 mm and the prescribed bending loads fitting to the test temperature were applied at the center of span. The final equilibrium moisture contents were attained in one step (fast) and in 7-8 steps (slow) by suitable humidity schedules in a testing chamber. Creep during moisture desorption was not dependent on temperature between 20{degree}C and 80{degree}C. On the other hand, creep during moisture adsorption was dependent not only on temperature but also on time and the range of moisture content. The difference in temperature dependence of creep between the adsorption and desorption period may be explained based on the behavior of the amorphous region composed of molecular network. Some possible explanations are given in terms of the response of the molecular network structure in the amorphous region during desorption and adsorption. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter from DI diesel engine; Particulate chu no PAH ni oyobosu nenryo sosei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S.; Tatani, T.; Yoshida, H.; Takizawa, H.; Miyoshi, K.; Ikebe, H. [COSMO Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from DI diesel engine was investigated by using deeply desulfurized fuel and model fuel which properties are not interrelated. It was found that the deeply desulfurized fuel have effect on reducing PAH emissions. Furthermore, it was suggested that poly aromatics in the fuel affect PAH emissions and the influence of tri-aromatics in the fuel was promoted by the coexistence of mono-aromatics or naphthene. PAH formation scheme from each fuel component was proposed by chemical thermodynamic data. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Effects of gasoline properties on exhaust emission and photochemical reactivity; Gasoline seijo ga haiki gas sosei, kokagaku hannosei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, R.; Usui, K.; Moriya, A.; Sato, M.; Nomura, T.; Sue, H. [Petroleum Energy Center, Advanced Technology and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to investigate the effects of fuel properties on emissions, four passenger cars were tested under Japanese 11 and 10-15 modes using two series gasoline fuels. The test results suggest that the distillation property (T90) affects A/F ratio which in turn influences exhaust emissions. The results of regression analysis show that both ozone forming potential and air toxics are highly corrected with the composition of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline. 3 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Effects of MTBE blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions; MTBE kongo keiyu ga diesel nensho haiki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shundo, S.; Yokota, H.; Kakegawa, T. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effects of MTBE (Methyl-t-butyl ether) blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions were studied. In conventional diesel combustion, the testing mode was carried out in conformity with the Japanese 13 mode. Furthermore, this fuel was applied to a new combustion system (Homogeneous Charge Intelligent Multiple Injection). MTBE blended diesel fuel is more effective in the case of new combustion system and very low NOx, PM capability is suggested. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Effect of solute content on plasma nitriding behavior of Fe-Cr alloys; Fe-Cr gokin purazuma chikka kyodo ni oyobosu yoshitsu nodo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Weiyan; Okada, S. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Graduate School; Takada, J. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kuwahara, H. [Research Inst. for Applied Science, Kyoto (Japan); Nishikawa, S.; Hama, T. [Kogi Ltd., Hyogo (Japan)

    1996-03-15

    It has been clarified by the present authors, based on the plasma nitriding of Fe-Cr alloys and Fe-Ti alloys carried out at the temperature under 550{degree}C hitherto, that an internal nitriding layer is formed due to the fine dispersion of the particles of Cr nitride and Ti nitride in {gamma}{prime} Fe4N layer on the specimen surface. In this study, the plasma nitriding of Fe-Cr alloys are carried out at 650{degree}C, and the effects of the solute (Cr) content on the structures, nitride and the thickness distribution are examined. The main results obtained therefrom are indicated hereafter. In accordance with the observation on the cross-sectional structure of the alloys, only the nitriding layer deduced as the dispersion and precipitation of the particles of Cr nitride from {alpha}-Fe of the mother phase is formed, while {gamma}{prime}-Fe4N layer, which is found at the temperature under 550{degree}C, is not formed. The nitride of Cr generated in the nitriding layer is CrN in all Fe-Cr alloys. The hardness in the nitriding layer is constant and increases with the increase of Cr content. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Effects of the Noncyclic Cyanamides on the Gelatinization of Waxy Corn Starch; Waxy Corn Starch no koka ni oyobosu hikanjo shianamido rui no tenka koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuo.; Nishikawa, Saisei.; Yoshimura, Toshiaki.; Ono, Shin.; Rengakuji, Seichi.; Nakamura, Yuko.; Shimasaki, Choichiro. [Toyama University, Toyama (Japan). Department of System Engineering of Materials and Life Science; Yamazaki, Isao. [Yayoikagaku Kogyo Corp., Toyama (Japan)

    1999-01-10

    Effects of noncyclic cyanamides on the gelatinization of waxy corn starch (WCS) suspension, containing amylopectin as a major component, were examined by analyses of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy by the attenuated total reflection method. The temperature for the gelatinization of WCS suspension decreased by addition of urea, tiourea, and biuret in comparison to that without additives. These results suggested that the amino, imino, carbamoyl, and thiocarbamoyl groups of additives might have affected the collapses of the intra-and intermolecular hydrogen bonds of the WCS by forming hydrogen bonds with hydroxy groups in the WCS. However, the temperature slightly increased with the increase of the concentraion of guanidinium salts except for guanidine gydrocholoride. The inhibition effect on the gelatinization might have been explained by the anion-constituting guanidinium salts. (author)

  9. Effects of ultra-violet ray and aqueous environment on deformation behavior of spider threads; Kumoito no henkei kyodo ni oyobosu hikari oyobi mizu kankyo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, M.; Katsumi, S. [Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Wako, Y. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan). Laboratory of Food Technology

    1998-01-15

    As a series of the studies on the mechanical properties of spider threads, the effects of ultra- violet rays (UV) and water was investigated using drag lines of Nephila clavata (Jorougumo) and capture threads of Argiope amoena (Koganegumo). It was shown for the effect of water that (1) the drag line was contracted as soon as immersed in water (super contraction), while the capture thread was not so contracted and the viscid droplets attached to it were dissolved in water, and (2) the super contracted drag fine behaved like a capture thread with a j shaped load-draw ratio curve. For the effect of UV, it was found that (1) the degradation due to UV irradiation with short wave length was accelerated more than that with long one and (2) the degree of degradation for each wave length was governed by the integrated irradiation energy of UV. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Effects of ultraviolet rays and acid rain on strength of spider silk; Kumo ito no kyodo ni oyobosu shigaisen oyobi sanseiu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, M.; Sasagawa, H. [Kanazawa Univ., Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of engineering; Kawagoe, M. [Toyama Prefectural Univ., Toyama (Japan)

    1995-12-15

    Spider silk, differing to the synthetic fibers yarned at high temperature or using hazardous solvents, is a fiber in the body of animal and the process itself is safe. Again, the silk is made of up protein and is kind to the environment because does not cause pollution even after disposal. Also, it is a material of interest as a strong fiber having high tensile strength reaching to 2000 MPa. Accordingly, spider silk can be taken as an effective industrial material if the mass production of the fiber is possible by genetic engineering. In previous report, the mechanical properties of dragline silk spewed out from the same silk gland as the warp, a kind of silk spewed out by Nephila clavata, so called Jorogumo, were studied. In this report, the deformation behavior of circular net made by Jorogumo and applicability to environmental evaluation are under study, and effect of acid environment and ultraviolet rays on the mechanical properties of spider silk are studied. As a result, it was revealed that ultraviolet rays degraded the spider silk, and further, promoted the degradation when the acid rain acted at the same time. 16 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Influence of turbid waters of phytoplankton biomass and flora in reservoirs; Dakusui ryunyu ga dam ko no shokubutsu plankton ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, I.; Okugawa, K.; Takakura, M. [Toyama Prefectural University, Toyama (Japan). College of Technology

    1996-10-10

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of turbid waters on phytoplankton biomass and flora in reservoirs. We examined water quality and phytoplankton in Tedori and Konade Reservoirs. Phytoplankton biomass increased and its flora changed when the turbidity of the lake waters reached about 20mg{center_dot}l{sup -1} or above due to inflow of turbid waters or after that time. The flagellated chlorophytes, such as Pandorina, Carteria and Chlamydomonas, increased at that time. Concentration of T-P increased with the rise of turbidity (r{ne}0.8). From the relationship between T-P and D-P (dissolved T-P), it was considered that most of T-P was the insoluble type which was adsorbed on the mud particles in Tedori Reservoir. In Konade Reservoir, D-P was among the values from 0.004 to 0.012 mg{center_dot}l{sup -1} in spite of the concentration of T-P, and Anabaena of cyanophytes, other than Chlamydomonas of flagellated chlorophytes, increased in the case of turbidity above 20 mg{center_dot}l{sup -1}. It was presumed that the difference of flora at the turbidites above 20 mg{center_dot}l{sup -1} between the reservoirs might be due to that of D-P concentration. 20 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Effects of silicon contents on formation of abnormal structures of aluminum alloy die castings; Aruminiumu gokin daikasuto no ijo soshiki keisei ni oyobosu keisoryo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komazaki, T.; Maruyama, Y.; Nishi, N. [Ryobi Ltd., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1995-04-25

    In this study, Al-5-11mass%Si binary alloys and commercial alloys with equivalent amount of silicon contents (AC2A, ADC10, ADC12) were fabricated into die castings with changed shot-time-lag, and effects of alloy structures on formation of abnormal structures were investigated. The results show the following discoveries. With the increasing of silicon contents in Al-Si binary alloys from 5 mass% to 11 mass%, the abnormal structures caused by the cooling and solidification of the molten metal in the injection sleeve will change from mainly coarse {alpha} phase to mainly breaking chill crystals as the solidification state is changing form porridge state to solid surface forming state. The abnormal structure of the commercial alloy AC2A mainly consists of coarse {alpha} phases and that of ADC12 mainly consists of breaking chill crystals. The ADC10 alloy is an intermediate alloy between them. The amount of dispersion for values of tensile strength of ADC12 alloy is larger than that of AC2A and ADC10 alloys because ADC12 alloy contains many breaking chill crystals. 12 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Effect of synthetic detergent and soap on the waste-water treatment. Gosei senzai oyobi sekken no haisui shori ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamori, Y. (national Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)); Takamatsu, Y. (University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes the effect of surfactants on purification capability and living life phases in the living life membrane method and the activated sludge method as biological waste water treatment methods. As a result of treating artificial waste water in an immersion hearth process of the living life membrane method, it was found that LAS added concentration at 50 mg/l or higher would not affect noticeably the quality of water treated under a steady-state operation, but that at 100 mg/l has aggravated the treated water quality by increasing COD. In the case of soaps, the COD in the treated water has aggravated when the added concentration is 70 mg/l or higher. The result of discussing the activated sludge process using urban sewage water indicated that COD in the treated water shows higher value for synthetic detergents than for soaps at the detergent added concentration of 140 mg/l or higher, having affected adversely the treated water quality. An activated sludge treatment process was operated to identify the effects of synthetic detergents and soaps on living life phases in the activated sludge and living life membranes. The result suggests that either the LAS added system or the soap added system presents no problems in a long-time aeration, while activated sludge aerated for the standard period of time has a possibility of abnormally proliferating filamentous microorganisms that can cause bulking in the soap system. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Simulation modeling of fluidized bed coal gasifier for new topping cycle system; Ryushi jutenso no bunri seino ni oyobosu ryushi juten kozo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, H.; Adachi, K.; Ishiki, Y.; Fukui, K.; Ma, J.; Chi Yun, M. Shinoda, E.; Yoshida, H. [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-01-01

    A new topping cycle coal power generation process has been developed as a Japanese national project for a high efficiency power generation process. This process consists of a pressurized bubbling fluidized-bed coal gasifier and a pressurized bubbling fluidized-bed combustor which combined in series. To evaluate the performance and to determine specification and operation parameters of this process, it is extremely important to analyze the behavior and the performance of the system by a reasonable simulation model. A simulation model of this new process is developed in this paper. It is demonstrated by calculating results from this model that the carbon conversion in the gasifier, the composition and the heating value of the produced gas are strongly dependent on operating conditions. Heat recovery by steam in the combustor is controlled by the coal feed rate. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Effect of PV module output power on module temperature; Taiyo denchi no shutsuryoku henka ga module hyomen ondo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, T.; Kitamura, A. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Igaki, K.; Mizumoto, T. [Kanden Kako Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Effect of the photovoltaic (PV) module output power variation on the module surface temperature has been investigated by field measurements. PV modules with capacity of 54 W were used for the temperature measurements. Three 2 kW-class PV systems were operated. T-type thermocouples were used for measuring temperatures. Measurement time intervals were 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, and 24 hours. Measurement period was between May 25, 1995 and June 25, 1996. The surface temperature increased during non-loaded PV output, and decreased during load-carrying PV output. Difference of the surface temperature between non-loaded PV output and load-carrying PV output was 3.5{degree}C at maximum through a year. The surface temperature was saturated within 30 minutes. When PV output was changed in 30 or 60 minutes interval, the variation of surface temperature was distinctly observed. When PV output was changed in 15 minutes interval, it was not observed distinctly. There was no difference of the surface temperatures during the time zones with less solar radiation, such as in the morning and evening, and at night. Except these time zones, difference of the surface temperatures was 3.5{degree}C at maximum. 4 figs.

  16. Trajektoor : subkultuur / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Soome rulafotograafist Tuukka Kailast. 1995. a. tuli ta õppima EKA graafikaosakonda, 1999. a. lõpetas Surrey Institute of Art & Design'i, 2004. a. siirdus Londonisse rulaajakirja toimetajaks. T. Kaila fotoinstallatsioon on Kiasmas näitusel "Ajaloost kiiremini"

  17. Change in catalyst properties during coal liquefaction; Kokoritsu sekitan ekika shokubai no kaihatsu (Hanno no shinko ni tomonau shokubai seijo no henka). 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, T.; Sato, K.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The purpose of this study is to prevent the deactivation of catalysts recycled in the 0.1 t/d bench scale unit (BSU). Catalysts recovered during reactions in the BSU and after reactions in the 5-liter autoclave were analyzed, to investigate the influences of the reaction condition on the property and activity of catalysts. Were used {gamma}-iron oxyhydroxide ({gamma}-FeOOH), {alpha}-iron oxyhydroxide ({alpha}-FeOOH), and natural pyrite (FeS2) as catalysts. At the S/Fe atomic ration of 1.2 under the BSU reaction condition, troilite was more easily formed from {gamma}-FeOOH compared with pyrite and {alpha}-FeOOH. As the reaction proceeded through the first, second, and third reactors, the crystal size increased, the pyrrhotite content decreased, and the troilite content increased. Deactivation due to the formation of troilite was irreversible. At the S/Fe of 3.0, however, both the formation of troilite and the crystal growth of pyrrhotite were not observed. It was found that the deactivation of catalysts can be remarkably suppressed. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Study of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Increase in oil yield with suppression of retrogressive reaction during initial stage; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesugi, K.; Kanaji, M.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the coal liquefaction, improvement of liquefaction conditions and increase of liquefied oil yield are expected by suppressing the recombination through rapid stabilization of pyrolytic radicals which are formed at the initial stage of liquefaction. Two-stage liquefaction combining prethermal treatment and liquefaction was performed under various conditions, to investigate the effects of reaction conditions on the yields and properties of products as well as to increase liquefied oil yield. Consequently, it was found that the catalyst contributes greatly to the hydrogen transfer to coal at the prethermal treatment. High yield of n-hexane soluble fraction with products having low condensation degree could be obtained by combining the prethermal treatment in the presence of hydrogen and catalyst with the concentration of slurry after the treatment. This was considered to be caused by the synergetic effect between the improvement of liquefaction by suppressing polymerization/condensation at the initial stage of reaction through the prethermal treatment and the effective hydrogen transfer accompanied with the improvement of contact efficiency of coal/catalyst by the concentration of slurry at the stage of liquefaction. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Preparation and space charge accumulation characteristics of acrylate-grafted polyethylenes using reaction extrusion; Hanno oshidashi ni yoru acrylate polyethylene no seizo to kukan denka chikuseki tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.; Okamoto, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Suh, K. [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    Space charge accumulation characteristics of chemically modified polyethylenes which were grafted with acrylates like acrylic acid and n-butylacrylate using reactive extrusion were investigated. In LDPE-g-Acrylic Acid (LDPE-g-AA), it was showed that the heterocharge found in low-density polyethylenes (LDPE) decreased with the increase of acrylic acid graft ratio and changed to the homocharge formation above 0.1 wt% due to the introduction of carbonyls. Conduction currents and charge mobilities of LDPE-g-AA decreased with the increase of AA graft ratio, while the conduction mechanism remains unchanged. However, in the LDPE-g-n-Buthylacrylate (LDPE-g-nBA), the change of space charge accumulation characteristics were not observed and charge mobilities of them not affected by the graft ratio. The differences of space charge formation between two grafted polyethylenes were closely related to the ability of trap site in monomer grafted to LDPE and the chemical structure of it. 18 refs., 11 figs.

  20. Preparation of a catalytic reactor composed of a microchannel etched on a silicon wafer; Shirikon ueha jo ni sakuseishita mikuro channeru wo mochiiru shokubai hanno sochi no shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubota, T.; Miyagawa, D.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2000-11-10

    A Microchannel (upper width = 280 {mu}m, lower width = 138 {mu}m, depth 100 {mu}m, length = 27 mm) was formed on a (100) silicon wafer by means of wet chemical etching, and a platinum layer was then coated on the microchannel walls by sputtering. The resulting channel was sealed with a glass cover by an anodic bonding technique. Cyclohexane vapor, carried by a stream of nitrogen, was then introduced into the microreactor at 400 degree C, and the concentrations of both the reactant, and the products of the ensuing dehydrogenation reaction over the platinum catalyst, were determined by means of a micro gas chromatograph. Thus, a series of procedures for manufacturing and testing a microreactor such as lithography of a microchannel, the formation of a catalytic Pt film, the introduction of a reactant into the covered microchannel, or an analysis of reactants and products was established and verified. (author)

  1. Investigation on chemical heat pump using calcium-chloride; Enka calcium no suiwa dassui hanno wo mochiita solar chemical heat pump ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I.; Arai, T.; Saito, Y. [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    With an objective of developing a room heating system utilizing a solar chemical heat pump, an experimental system was fabricated to evaluate its performance. Steam was employed as a working gas, and for a reaction material, calcium-chloride was used, which has a reaction temperature zone permitting safe use and fitting the purpose among other hydrate systems and has high standard enthalpy in hydration. Water was used as a solar heat transferring medium. The system operates under the following principle: a container I is filled with hydrated salt and a container II with water, the two containers being linked with a pipe interposed with a valve; heat is inputted and outputted by performing charging and discharging alternately; and the role of a heat pump is played by deriving from environment the heat of water evaporation in the container II during discharging. The COP must take into account the electric power consumption of the water circulation pump to transfer solar heat. A COP of 0.256 was derived as a result of the experiment. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Experimental results of acetone hydrogenation on a heat exchanger type reactor for solar chemical heat pump; Solar chemical heat pump ni okeru acetone suisoka hanno netsu kaishu jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, T.; Doi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Ando, Y. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Miyahara, R.; Kamoshida, J. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    With the purpose of converting solar heat energy to industrial heat energy, an experiment of acetone hydrogenation was carried out using a heat exchanger type reactor that recovers heat generated by acetone hydrogenation, an exothermic reaction, and supplies it to an outside load. In the experiment, a pellet-like activated carbon-supported ruthenium catalyst was used for the acetone hydrogenation with hydrogen and acetone supplied to the catalyst layer at a space velocity of 400-1,200 or so. In the external pipe of the double-pipe type reactor, a heating medium oil was circulated in parallel with the flow of the reactant, with the heat of reaction recovered that was generated from the acetone hydrogenation. In this experiment, an 1wt%Ru/C catalyst and a 5wt%Ru/C catalyst were used so as to examine the effects of variation in the space velocity. As a result, from the viewpoint of recovering the heat of reaction, it was found desirable to increase the reaction speed by raising catalytic density and also to supply the reactant downstream inside the reaction pipe by increasing the space velocity. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Mechanical stimulated reaction of metal/polymer mixed powders; Kinzoku/kobunshi kongo funmatsu no kikaiteki reiki hanno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobita, M.; Sakakibara, A.; Takemoto, Y. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Iwabu, H. [Kurare Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-12-15

    Mechanical grinding (MG) with mechanically stimulated reaction was performed on metal/polymer mixed powders. The starting materials used in this study were the metals of Mg, Ti and Mg{sub 2}Ni powders, arid polymer of PTFE, PVC and PE powders. The MG process was investigated using XRD, IR, SEM and TEM. According to XRD results, magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}, TiF{sub 2}) and chloride (MgCl{sub 2}) were detected from MG products of the Mg/PTFE, Ti/PTFE and Mg/PVC blending systems, respectively. Explosive reaction was found during MG of both Mg/PTFE and Ti/PTFE. It was also confirmed by XRD results that the production of MgF{sub 2} had already been formed just before the explosive reaction in Mg/PTFE system. It was found from IR analysis that C-C single bond in the polymers, not only both in PTFE and PVC but also in PE, changed to double bond C=C. Hydrogen produced due to decomposition of PE on blending Mg{sub 2}Ni/PE was absorbed into C-Mg{sub 2}Ni-H as amorphous solutes. These mechanically stimulated reaction was powerful method for decomposition of engineering plastics. (author)

  4. Effect of heat generation from bone cement on bone tissue in total knee arthroplasty; Jinko kansetsu okikaeji no one cement no hatsunetsu ga seitai soshiki ni oyobosu eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, M.; Uchida, T. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan); Iwatsubo, T. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kurosawa, M.; Hashimoto, Y. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Fukushima, H.

    1998-01-25

    Bone cement is often applied to fix the components in a surgical operation, such as TKA (total knee arthroplasty). In this paper, we consider the effect of heat generation from bone cement on bone tissue in TKA by using numerical simulation. First, we applied an axisymmetric model of tibia to finite element method and analyzed heat generation of bone cement. To confirm the results of analysis by experiment, we measured the temperature determined by 6 points i.e., 2 points each in component-cement interface, cement and bone-cement interface. As a result, the temperature determined by analysis agrees with that determined by experiment. Next, we proposed the evaluation formula of the bone necrosis. We constructed a bone necrosis map from the simulation. From the map, we found that the bone necrosis region was about 2 mm from the bone-cement interface. In addition, the bone necrosis is severe at the base of the tibial component. 7 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Study on the performances of handling and stability influenced by the differential terms in the state variables; Soansei ni okeru jotai hensunai no bibun yoso ga seino ni oyobosu eikyo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugasawa, F. [Tamagawa University, Tokyo (Japan); Mori, H. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The analysis method using the system matrix for state variables can not be applied to the analysis for the system has Complex Cornering Stiffness. The reason is there are differential terms in the state variables. It is found that the differential terms m the state variables can be changed to the constant terms in another state variables. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Effects of applied stress and plastic strain on. gamma. r reversible. epsilon. martensitic transformation in high Mn alloy polyctystals. Ko Mn tetsu gokin takessho ni okeru. gamma. r reversible. epsilon. martensite hentai ni oyobosu gairyoku to hizumi no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomota, Y.; Piao, M.; Hasunuma, T.; Kimura, Y. (Ibaraki Univ., Ibaraki (Japan))

    1990-06-20

    The influences of applied stress and plastic strain on a transformation austenite ({gamma}) to hcp martensite ({epsilon}) were studied on Fe-16wt%Mn, Fe-24wt%Mn, and Fe-24%Mn-6%Si alloy, and a transformation mechanism and a shape memory phenomenon were more deeply examined. As the quenching structure of three kinds of the alloys consists of two phases of {gamma} and {epsilon}, the specimens were cooled after heated above the A {sub f} temperature to keep {gamma} single phase, and then the tensile tests were carried out. Positive temperature dependence was found under the 0.2% proof stress due to stress-induced {gamma}{yields} {epsilon} transformation in each of Fe-Mn alloy and Fe-24%Mn-6%Si alloy. When {gamma} phase of Fe-24%Mn alloy stabilized due to cyclic transformation was stretched at room temperature, the yield stress was remarkably lowered by the stress-induced {gamma}{r arrow}{epsilon} transformation. When the specimens were stretched at 523K under stress which was larger than the yield strength and then cooled, the elongation along the applied stress direction due to martensitic tranformation was recognized. A shape recovery was remarkable in Si content alloys. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis on effect of steel fiber addition on corrosion of steel rod in mortar; Morutaruchu no tekkin no fushoku ni oyobosu suchiru fuaiba tenka no eikyo no denki kagaku inpidansu supekutorosukopi ni yoru kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakashita, S.; Nakayama, T.; Hamasaki, Y.; Sugii, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Sugimoto, K. [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan). Department of Metallurgy

    1999-11-15

    The effect of steel fiber (SF) addition to concrete on the corrosion behavior of steel reinforcement was studied by immersion corrosion tests in a 3 mass % NaCl solution for 363 day. The tests were conducted on steel rod/mortar specimens with different SF content (0-2 vol %), and corrosion potentials and electrochemical impedance of the specimens were measured during the tests. Corrosion potentials of the specimens were not so changed by the SF content. Electrochemical impedance measured at corrosion potentials was analyzed to get charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) using an equivalent electrical circuit with the R{sub ct}, Warburg impedance and a constant-phase element. The corrosion rate of steel rod in mortar estimated from the reciprocal of the R{sub ct} decreased with increasing of SF content in mortar, and correlated well with the rust area of steel rod measured after immersion corrosion tests. This shows that the electrochemical impedance measurement is the useful diagnosis method of corrosion of steel in concrete. The corrosion inhibition of steel rod in mortar by the SF addition was thought to be attributed to the consumption of dissolved oxygen by the corrosion of SF in mortar. (author)

  8. Assessment of a Mega-Float on water quality and ecosystem in Tokyo bay; Choogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu ga Tokyowan no suishitsu to seitaikei ni oyobosu eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyozuka, Y.; Hu, C.; Hasemi, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hikai, A.

    1997-08-01

    The effect on the marine environment in the bay when a Mega-Float is installed in a bay was investigated. The physical process such as a residual flow (including tidal currents, water temperature, salt, density, and density currents), and the ecosystem model for which floating organic matter and plankton are handled were incorporated to develop a program for water quality calculation in a bay. The program was used for Tokyo Bay and compared with the conventional calculation result and the oceanograhpic observation result. Simultaneously, the effect on the Mega-Float was considered. On the flow in Tokyo Bay in summer, the calculation result that comparatively coincided with the observation value in a residual flow level was obtained. The horizontal distribution of COD comparatively coincides with the existing observation result. The influence that the Mega-Float exerts on the flow, water temperature, water quality, and ecosystem in the ambient sea area was little and local in the calculation scale (L {times} B {times} d = 6 km {times} 3 km {times} 2 m) of this time. However, the difference occurring due to the design position must also be investigated in future. 12 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Effects of dissolved oxygen concentration and flow velocity on corrosion of carbon steel in tap water; Suidosuichu ni okeru tansoko fushoku ni oyobosu yoson sanso nodo to ryusoku no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, M.; Ouchi, M. [Miura Institute of Research and Development, Ehime (Japan); Fujii, T.; Shiraishi, H.; Kawahito, A. [Miura Co. Ltd., Ehime (Japan)

    1998-05-15

    Discussions were given on the effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and flow velocity on temporary corrosion of carbon steel in tap water by using a membrane-type deaerator which uses a hollow fiber membrane for air separation. In deaerated air with DO at 0.5 mg per liter, active corrosion took place, in which corrosion rate increases with flow velocity in a range from 0.5 to 2.0 m/s. The corrosion rate in a carbon steel in deaerated air with flow velocity of 0.5 m/s and DO of 0.5 mg per liter decreased to 1/4 to 1/5 of that in non-deaerated water, showing effectiveness in preventing corrosion and red water in pipings in buildings. The corrosion prevention effect is more excellent especially in low flow velocity regions, meaning it being suitable for corrosion prevention in building pipings for water supply which is low in flow velocity and often subjected to stagnation. It was found that, even at about the same flow velocity, the deaerated water is on the safer side than the non-deaerated water. With waters having DO of 2.0 and 4.0 mg per liter, the corrosion rate decreased when flow velocity is higher than 1 m/s, with appearance of passivation trend. There is a relation with high reproducibility between the corrosion rate in the carbon steel and oxygen supply amount, whereas the curve showed a maximum value. This maximum value is thought a transition point from active state corrosion to passive state corrosion. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Effects of passive control boundary layer around the throat on a transonic diffuser; Throat kinbo ni okeru kyokaiso no passive control ga sen`onsoku diffuser ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaga, M.; Nagai, M.; Haga, T. [Univ. of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan). College of Engineering; Miyara, T. [University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Tomita, n. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-25

    The effects of a passive control boundary layer applied around the throat on a transonic diffuser were investigated experimentally by wall static pressure measurements and by schlieren optical observations. The experiments were conducted using three kinds of the diffuser walls, one was a solid wall and the other two were porous with a 30 mm or 50 mm-long cavity underneath enabling the flow around the shock wave to circulate through the porous wall. The results show that the Mach waves normal to the flow were observed when diffusers were almost choked and that the pressure fluctuations in a transonic diffuser were greatly reduced by passive control. According to the frequency analysis, the frequency range attenuated by passive control is between about 700 Hz and 1 kHz regardless of the length of the cavities. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. 4. Radical formation and structural change with thermal decomposition of coal; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 4. Netsubunkai ni tomonau radical seisei kyodo to kozo henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaji, M.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kumagai, H.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    In relation to coal liquefaction reaction, the effect of the coexistence of transferable hydrogen (TH) from process solvent on reduction of radical concentration and the effect of pre-heat treatment on average structure of coals were studied. In experiment, change in radical concentration with temperature rise was measured using the system composed of Yallourn coal and process solvent. The results are as follows. Process solvent with a wide boiling point range of 180-420{degree}C is effective in suppressing an increase in radical concentration even at higher temperature. The effect of hydrogen-donating solvent increases with TH. It was also suggested that high-boiling point constituents in solvent stabilize radicals even over 400{degree}C by vapor phase hydrogenation. The experimental results of pre-heat treatment are as follows. Although the conversion improvement effect of TH is equivalent to that of the model solvent, TH tends to produce soluble products with smaller ring numbers. It was thus suggested that pre-heat treatment in process solvent is effective to inhibit retrogressive reactions. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Study on the reaction mechanism of oxygen-added enzyme for effective use of unused seaweeds; Miriyo kaiso no shigenka ni shisuru sanso tenka koso no hanno kiko ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For effective use of unused seaweeds, efficient search of available microorganism systems and their conversion for effective use were studied. Since generally found Phaeophyceae includes a large amount of polyphenol such as phlorotannin, it is refused by plant-eating animals, inhibits protein from effective absorption, and is inadequate for livestock feed because of tasteless. Bacteria Rhodococcus sp. PG7-2 was isolated which can be effectively increased using phloroglucinol as substrate. Participation of oxygen- adding enzyme was suggested in the initial stage of decomposition which adds molecular oxygen to aromatic rings. In the experiment using combinations of extracted and isolated enzymes and various coenzymes, no significant decomposition was observed. Since phlorotannin of Phaeophyceae is the polymer which shows a matrix-like extent through difficult-to-decompose bond such as biphenyl bond and phenyl ether bond, its decomposition by one kind of bacterium is extremely difficult. Search of decomposition systems of polymer remains as the future issue. 15 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. "Videvik" - hiiglaslik videotuba / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    1998-01-01

    Sorosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Leedu Keskuse V aastanäitus "Videvik" Vilniuse keskuses 20. jaan. - 22. veebr. Korraldajad leedu noorema põlvkonna kriitikud-kuraatorid K. Kuizinas, D. Narkevicius, E. Stankevicius, briti osa kordinaator R. Wall.

  14. Young British Art / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).

  15. "Videvik" - hiiglaslik videotuba / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    1998-01-01

    Sorosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Leedu Keskuse V aastanäitus "Videvik" Vilniuse keskuses 20. jaan. - 22. veebr. Korraldajad leedu noorema põlvkonna kriitikud-kuraatorid K. Kuizinas, D. Narkevicius, E. Stankevicius, briti osa kordinaator R. Wall.

  16. Young British Art / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).

  17. Reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction: hydrogenolysis of model compound using synthetic pyrite as catalysts. 7. Property change of synthetic pyrite catalyst with the time after production; Sekitan ekika hanno kiko (model kagobutsu no hanno). 7. Gosei ryukatetsu shokubai no keiji henka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, H.; Meno, H.; Uemaki, O.; Shibata, T.; Tsuji, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Reactions of various model compounds were investigated using synthetic pyrites for coal liquefaction. In this study, successive changes of the catalysts were investigated from the reactions of model compounds by using three different synthetic pyrites with the lapse of time after production. Benzyl phenyl ether, dibenzyl, and n-octylbenzene were used as model compounds. Reactions were conducted in an autoclave, into which sample, catalyst, decalin as solvent, and initial hydrogen pressure 10 MPa were charged. The autoclave was held at 450 or 475{degree}C of reaction temperature for 1 hour. The catalyst with a shorter lapse of time after production acted to hydrogen transfer, and inhibited the formation of condensation products due to the stabilization of decomposed fragment. It also acted to isomerization of materials by cutting alkyl side chains. When adding sulfur to the catalyst with longer lapse of time after production under these reaction conditions, it inhibited the formation of condensation products for the reaction of benzyl phenyl ether. However, it did not provide the effect for the reaction of n-octylbenzene. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Effects of UV-B irradiation on growth and physiological activities of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) first leaves. Influence of nutrition; Kyuri daiichi honba no seicho to seiri kassei ni oyobosu UV-B shosha no eikyo. Hiryo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K.; Izuta, T.; Totsuka, T. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Kondo, N. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Shimizu, H.; Nakajima, N. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-01-10

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism of growth retardation in UV-B irradiated plants. Effects of UV-B irradiation on the growth of first leaves of fertilized and unfertilized cucumber seedlings were compared. The growth of cucumber seedling first leaves was promoted by fertilization, compared with the unfertilized case. However, it was remarkably suppressed by UV-B irradiation. While, the growth of first leaves of unfertilized plants did not decline significantly by UV-B irradiation. Furthermore, the effects of UV-B irradiation on the growth of first leaves were examined by adding nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium which are components of fertilizers. All of components promoted the growth, and the degrees of growth suppression were enhanced. Especially, the effects were remarkable in the case of nitrogen addition. It was suggested that the growth suppression of fertilized first leaves by UV-B irradiation would be caused by the decrease in the sensitivity to plant hormones such as cytokinin and the their activities. 23 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Model experiment of swirl effect in bottomless immersion nozzle on molten steel flow in slab CC mold; Slag CC igatanai ryudoni oyobosu sokonashi shinseki nozzle nai deno senkai ryudo koka ni kansuru mizu model jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoya, S.; Takagi, S. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    The characteristics of molten steel jet flowing out from the Immersion nozzle in the continuous casting mold control the flow pattern in the mold thereby strongly influencing the quality and productivity of the cast steel slabs. We proposed a new method to establish a reasonable flow pattern in the mold by imparting a swirling motion to the flow in the immersion nozzle without the bottom. The following results were obtained from a water model study. (1) A quite stable swirling flow being established in the immersion nozzle without the bottom when the swirling velocity exceeded a critical value of 0.8 m/s, under this condition there existed no separation on the inner wall of the immersion nozzle. (2) When the swirling velocity was higher than 0.8 m/s, the fluid on the symmetry plane of the immersion nozzle moved along the curved inner wall of the nozzle. Accordingly, the outlet-flow was directed outwards as well as downwards, while a weak upward flow, i.e., inflow was observed around the vertical nozzle axis near the outlet of the nozzle. As a whole, the fluid flow near the guide plane of the nozzle was directed downwards. (3) The fluctuation of the surface flow, i.e., the flow on the meniscus of the mold was strongly suppressed due to the appearance of the S-shaped flow pattern in the transverse sections. As a result, swirl motions around the immersion nozzle were also suppressed. In addition, both the fluctuations of the mean velocity components and the turbulence components of the flow in the mold became very small, being preferable conditions for continuous casting. (author)

  20. Effect of air pollution on annual ring width of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. and Cryptomeria Japonica D. Don, in Kitakyushu city. Kitakyushu shi deno Sugi, Akamatsu no nenrinhaba ni oyobosu taiki osen no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Y.; Yamashita, T.; Kido, K. (The Kitakyushu Municipal Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Kitakyushu (Japan))

    1993-05-10

    There is a little of examples to have numerically evaluated an influence of the air pollution in the field for the long period. By using the conifer species growing in the Kitakyushu city and its periphery, in this report, a relation between the annual ring width and the air pollution has been investigated. Two tree species of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. and Cryptomeria japonica D.Don were selected as the tree species. The individuals, with a breast height diameter of about 50cm, more than 10 pieces for each were selected, and then the annual ring specimens for about 50 years upto 1990 were obtained by using the increment borer. The annual ring width was normalized by converting to the annual ring indices. It was found that there is a significant relation between the annual ring indices obtained from the trees in the city and the air pollution, and that the annual ring growth in the 1990's has recovered to a same degree of the growth in the 1940's. As a result of comparing the multiple regression in 3 cases using the air pollution statistics, meteorological statistics and both of them, in addition, it was found that, while both of the air pollution and climatic factors influence on the growth of annual ring, the influence of air pollution is greater than the climate at the stand in the city. 23 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Influence of using plural household air coolers on the air cooling demand. Actual state survey of air coolers in use. Kateiyo eakon no fukusu hoyuka ga reibo juyo ni oyobosu eikyo. Eakon shiyo jittai chosa kara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashida, R. (The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-07-01

    The present rise in power peak is judged mainly attributable to the increase in household and business use energy demand particularly for air cooling. In the present investigation, the actual state of air coolers domestically used was surveyed in the afternoon (from 1200 to 1600 hours) during the last ten days of August, which survey was followed by a study of relation between the number of air coolers domestically installed and used, and their operational state. Explanation is made of the present status of household air cooling demand, questionnaire survey and sampling, actual state analysis of air coolers in use, and the trend of household air cooling demand. As a result of the survey, about 10% of the homes use simultaneously plural units of air cooler in the afternoon, while about 50% do only one unit. With an increase in number of air coolers installed, their operation rate rises. It is concluded that the room-by-room trend and potentiality of air coolers will depend upon the operation rate of household air coolers. In the long tern outlook, it is indispensable to uninterruptedly watch the future change in power peak due to that in life style such as the family composition and home structure in the society with ages advanced. 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Effects of pH of the aqueous solutions on the growth of hydroxyapatite whiskers; Suisan apatite whisker no seicho ni oyobosu suiyoeki no pH no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, T.; Nozuma, A. [NICHIAS Corporation, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    In this study, the synthesis of hydroxyapatite whiskers at 90degC using solution method is carried out, and the effects of pH, mole ration of blended Ca/P and solution concentration on the growth of the whiskers are examined thus obtaining the following findings. Hydroxyapatite whisker aggregates are synthesized by adjusting a mixed solution of calcium chloride dissolved in hydrochloride acid and dipotassium hydrogenphosphate to have a pH vale of 4.4. To 5.00 and heating the same at 90degC for 24 hours. But meanwhile, monetite crystal precipitates slightly. The form of the synthesized whisker aggregate changes from spherical form to arborescent form and cone-like form with the adjustment of pH to higher values. When P concentration is 0.012M and the ratio of blended Ca/P is increased from 1.67 to 5, the initial pH of the precipitation reaction becomes lower whereas the form of the precipitate and the precipitation amount are scarcely influenced by the mole ratio of blended Ca/P. 24 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Effect of curing by products coating on localized heat generation and dielectric breakdown in low-density polyethylene film; Teimitsudo poriechiren firumu no kyokusho hatsunetsu to zetsuen hakai ni oyobosu kakyozai bunkai zansa tofu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsurimoto, T.; Nagao, M.; Kosaki, M. [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Aici (Japan); Mizuno, Y. [Nagoya Inst. of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-08-20

    Polyethylene is used widely as electrical insulating materials for electric power cables, while the heat-resistance and mechanical properties of low-density polyethylene are problematic since the crystal melting point thereof is around 105 to 110{degree}C. In this paper, curing by-products such as acetophenone are coated on the surface of low-density polyethylene film specimens to make the same diffusing into said specimen, and the effects thereof on localized heat generation and dielectric breakdown are examined. The following matters are clarified by the results of this study. Under dc voltage application, the increasing of temperature is observable in lower electrical field and more remarkable localized heat generation can be found simultaneously with the decrease of breakdown strength in said specimens compared with an un-coated specimen. Especially in acetophenone-coated specimen, dielectric breakdown strength is decreased to about half. Under ac voltage application, localized heat generation is increased and breakdown strength is decreased somewhat. 14 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Effect of graphite nodule count and Mn content on successive austempering process of austempered ductile iron; ADI no chikuji austemper ho ni oyobosu kokuen tsubusu to Mn ryo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oide, T.; Ahmadabadi, M.; Saito, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-02-25

    Shock test was executed for a test piece where the combination of a wide range of austempering conditions was selected and the effective graphite nodule count in the successive austempering process method, the range of Mn amount, etc. were discussed. The low and high graphite nodule counts of sample were 82 - 114 and 229 - 364 piece/mm{sup 2}, respectively. The low and high Mn were 0.26 - 0.65 % and 0.96 - 1.05 %, respectively. The heat treatment cycle was retained to be 1173K, 648K, and 588K in argon gas atmosphere. The Sharpy shock test and organization observation were performed for each test piece, thus revealing that a higher toughness value than that obtained by normal treatment could be obtained by the HLAT method; the better the graphite nodulation count was, the higher the toughness was; it was effective that the Mn was approximately 0.6 %; the influence given to the shock energy value was extremely larger by residual austenite volume than the untransformed austenite module. 7 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Effect of leisure orientation on fuel consumption of cars. Survey of the actual state of travel of privately owned cars; Reja shiko ga joyosha no nenryo shohi ni oyobosu eikyo. Jikayo joyosha no soko jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The actual state of car travel was surveyed to know an effect of leisure orientation on fuel consumption of cars. An questionnaire survey was conducted in Chiba city where the number of cars privately owned is close to the national average. The average annual travel distance per car used at leisure is 4200km, 43% of the total travel distance. The travel distance at leisure of a recreational vehicle (RV), especially, is about 1800km/year longer than that of the other cars. In a single household, 58% of the total travel distance are for leisure. In a household including a couple and preschoolers or a couple and school children, dependence on the car use at leisure is large, but the travel distance itself is short. In a household including a couple and college students or a couple and working members of society, children become drivers, and the distance at leisure gets as long as in a single household. Cars of the head of household are much used at leisure and those of children are used sometimes. The travel distance at leisure of cars of spouses is short. In the enhancing leisure orientation, the rate of travel for leisure will increase in the background of convenience of cars. 68 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Reproductive and offspring developmental effects following maternal inhalation exposure to methanol in nonhuman prinates; Methanol no kyunyu bakiuro ga hi hito reichoryi no bosei no seisho ku to kodomo no seicho ni oyobosu eiky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    The paper summarizes the results of the experimental study on effects of the long-term exposure to methanol on the metabolism and reproduction of grown-up female Macaca and effects of monkeys exposed to methanol in a period of the unborn baby on the development. In this study, grown-up female monkeys (11-12 in each group) were exposed to methanol vapor of concentration 4 (0, 200, 600, 1800ppm) for 2.5 hours/day, for 7 days, and in each period of pre-breeding/in-breeding/in-pregnancy. The concentration of methanol and folic acid in blood was measured, and changes caused by repeated methanol exposures were evaluated which relate to internal dynamic states (inhalation, dispersion, metabolism and excretion) and pregnancy. Also evaluated were the development in the first 9 months after birth of infant monkeys (8-9 in each group) at high concentration and the nervous action development. As a result, there were found no evidences of giving marked effects such as effects of the methanol concentration in blood, formate concentration, folic acid concentration, and internal dynamic states of the pregnant animal, and effects of the methanol exposure before birth on nervous actions of children of nonhuman primates. (NEDO)

  7. Effects of the pre-transformation microstructures on the grain refining of medium-carbon 5Cr-Mo-V steels; Chutanso 5Cr-Mo-V ko no gyaku hentai sairyuka ni oyobosu zenhentai soshiki no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukauda, Y.; Shibata, T.; Ono, S.; Ishiguro, T. [Nippon Steel Works, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    For the purpose of obtaining refined grains over full cross section for improved ductility in heavy-gage products of a medium carbon 5Cr- Mo-V steel, the effects of pre-transformation microstructures on the grain refining during austenitizing were investigated. Samples were prepared to possess either one of three different microstructures , pearlite, bainite and martensite. These samples were heated slowly to the desired austenitizing temperature followed by rapid cooling, and the formation of new austenite grains was examined. Though austenite grains were not refined in cases of martensite and bainite microstructures, these were remarkably refined in case of pearlite. Portions of pearlite were enriched with carbon, where the transformation temperature into austenite was lower, and this is considered to be the reason that finer austenite grains were formed.Above results show that arranging pearlite microstructure before quenching heat treatment is effective for obtaining refined grains over full cross section in heavy-gage products. (author)

  8. Effect of VN precipitates on formation of grain boundary and intragranular ferrite in a high N-V bearing steel; V-N tenkako no ryukai oyobi ryunai ferrite hentai ni oyobosu austenite chu no VN sekishutsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, A.; Oi, K.; Kawabata, F.; Amano, K. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    The enhancement of ferrite nucleation owing to vanadium nitride (VN) precipitated in the austenite phase was studied for a 0.14%C- 1.45%Mn-0.06%V-0.009%N steel and the isothermal ferrite transformation behavior associated with VN precipitation was also quantitatively discussed. Vanadium nitrides precipitate on the austenite grain boundary in preference to the grain interior and increase the density of grain boundary ferrites. On the other hand, VN precipitates in austenite grain interior are less effective to intragranular ferrite nucleation. The calculation based on the classical nucleation theory shows that the activation energy of VN precipitates for a critical ferrite nucleus formation is one-fifth lower than that in case of no precipitate. The ferrite nucleation potency of VN precipitates is kept high even in higher temperature range above 700degreeC. (author)

  9. Effect of NbC particles on {gamma}{yields}{epsilon} Martensitic transformation in Fe-22mass%Mn alloys; Fe-22 mass % Mn gokin no {gamma}{yields}{epsilon} marutensaito hentai ni oyobosu NbC ryushi no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Y.; Nakatsu, E.; Takaki, S. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-07-20

    The yield and transformation of epsilon ({epsilon}) martensite which is expected to be utilized as reinforcing texture of high Mn non-magnetic steel, are alternated greatly by the fining of crystal particles since said epsilon martensite is effected obviously by austenite ({gamma}) grain during the deformation in cooling process. In this study, in respect of Fe-22mass%Mn-Nb-C alloys wherein Nb and C are added to make the maximum volume rate of NbC being 1 vol%, samples wherein the size of {gamma} grains is fined to 10{mu}m or less by recrystalization are prepared, and the effect of the size of {gamma} grains and the effect of NbC particles dispersed in {gamma} grains on {epsilon} transformation are investigated. The following points are clarified by the results of said investigation. {gamma}{yields}{epsilon} transformation is suppressed remarkably by the existence of NbC particles dispersed homogeneously and finely in {gamma} grains. A large elastic stress field causing conformity deviation is formed around NbC particles by NbC particles themselves. 25 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Effect of strain on ferrite transformation from super-cooled austenite in Fe-0. 5%C alloy. Fe-0. 5%C gokin no karei osutenaito/feraito hentai ni oyobosu kako no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, K.; Ito, Y.; Narita, T. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    During the cooling of a steel, when austenite is applied by strain, the temperature of ferrite transformation would increase accompanied with decrease of its given temperature and increase of strain. In this study, the isothermal transformation behaviour from austenite to ferrite applied by strain in the super-cooled state was investigated, effect of strain on size of ferrite particles and increase of volume rate during transformation were explained by using the velocity theory. That is, concerning to the alloy of two-elemental system Fe-0.51%C cooled at 0.3[degree]C/s and applied by strain at 710[degree]C, at which austenite was super-cooled by 55[degree]C, its isothermal transformation behaviour was investigated. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained. Time required for the transformation remarkably decreased and the size of ferrite particles became ultra-fine subjected to strain. The nucleation rate of ferrite particles remarkably increased with increasing strain. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Effect of austenite grain size in Fe-Mn alloys on {epsilon} martensitic transformation and their mechanical properties; Fe-Mn gokin no {epsilon} marutensaito hentai oyobi kikaiteki seishitsu ni oyobosu kessho ryukei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsu, H. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School; Takaki, S. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-02-20

    The Fe-Mn two-components alloy samples varied with Mn content of 12 to 31 mass% were prepared by charging {gamma}-crystalline grain size using its recrystallization, and were surveyed on effects of the {gamma}-crystalline grain size on athermal {epsilon}-martensitic ({epsilon})-transformation and machining- induced {epsilon}-transformation. As a result of examining the relationship between the {gamma}-crystalline grain size or the {epsilon}-transformation and their mechanical properties, conclusion shown as follows is obtained. The athermal {epsilon} was formed at the alloy containing more than 10 mass% of Mn, maximum {epsilon} was shown at the composition containing about 17 mass% of Mn and the {epsilon} was almost not formed at the steel containing more than 27 mass% of Mn. When crushing the {gamma}-crystalline grain to fine powder, the {epsilon} martensitic transformation beginning temperature tended to reduce somewhat and production amount of the {epsilon} decreased extremely. On the steel containing Mn ranged 15 to 31 mass%, the fine powdering affected scarcely its durability but improved its elongation and its tensile strength. 26 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Effects of heating and cooling rate on transformation behaviors in weld heat affected zone of low carbon steel; Teitanso koban no yosetsu netsu eikyobu no hentai kyodo ni oyobosu kanetsu reikyaku sokudo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanetsuki, Y.; Katsumata, M. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1998-01-25

    Discussions were given on effects of welding heat cycles on transformation behaviors in a weld heat affected zone (HAZ). Test pieces are low-carbon fine ferrite pearlite organization steel sheets, which have been treated with a thermomechanical control process (TMCP). The heat cycling was experimented at a maximum temperature of 1350 degC by using a high-frequency heating coil, heating rates from 0.15 to 200 degC/s, cooling rates from 10 to 80 degC/s at an elevated temperature region (higher than 900 degC), and transformation regions (lower than 900 degC) from 0.5 to 6 degC. A transformation curve in actual welding heat cycling was interpreted from these results. Shear-type inverse transformation (from ferrite to austenite) occurs in a rate region corresponding to the heating rate realized during welding. Austenite containing internal stress and a lower structure formed by this inverse transformation accelerates transformation into grain boundary ferrite (GBF) and acerous ferrite (AF). On the other hand, slow cooling in the elevated temperature region releases the internal stress, restores the lower structure, and suppresses the GBF and AF transformation. The GBF tends to precipitate pearlite in adjacent regions and deteriorates the HAZ tenacity. 17 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Effects of bainitic transformation temperature on microstructure and tensile properties of 0.6C-Si-Mn steel; 0.6C-Si-Mn ko no bisai soshiki to hippari tokusei ni oyobosu benaito hentai ondo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Y. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-06-15

    To acquire excellent mechanical properties of Si-Mn steel by using an austempering treatment to have the steel undergo a bainitic transformation, it is important to identify the effect of its transformation temperature. This paper describes a transformation of 0.6% C-Si-Mn steel at temperatures ranging from 593 K to 673 K, and discussions on the effect of the transformation temperature on the microstructure and tensile properties. The following results were obtained: bainitic ferrite containing very little carbon is produced in layers at any transformation temperature, but a trend was shown that the bainitic ferrite is produced with its width grown larger and denser as the transformation temperature rises; the {gamma}R amount increases remarkably with increasing transformation temperature, and at the same time massive {gamma}R begins to remain in addition to thin film {gamma}R that exists between individual bainitic ferrites; and the result of this experiment revealed that when the transformation temperature is sufficiently high, the fracture elongation increases notably because of the transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) effect of the {gamma}R that occurs effectively during the transformation. 12 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Effect of bacteria combined with diatom on ennoblement of electrode potential for stainless in natural sea water; Shizen kaishu shu sutenresu no sizen denikika ni oyobosu bakuteria no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Yasuko.; Tsujikawa, Shigeo. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). School of Engineering

    1999-08-15

    When stainless steels samples are immersed in natural sea water, an ennoblement of the electrode potential (E{sub sp}) up to approximately 400 m V vs. SCE can occur, due to the development of biofilm on the samples. The main organisms in the biofilm include bacteria and deatom. In this paper it was invesigated the relationship between the ennoblement of E{sub sp} and bacteria species in the biofilm, and the interaction between bacteria and diatom in the E{sub sp} ennoblement. To study effect of various becteria species in the biofilm n the ennoblement of E{sub sp}, type 316 stainless steel samples were immersed in 0.4 {mu}m filtered natural sea water, where the filtering was expected to restrict bacteria as the only organisms in the water. Under this condition, ennoblement of E{sub sp} up to 400 m V vs. SCE could not be attained, and the need of other organisms in biofilm, becteria, to promote ennoblement was shown. The enalysis of biofilm, foemed in natural sea water, on sample with ennobled E{sub sp}, detected the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria, acidic and neutral sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (A-SOB and N-SOB, respectively). It was also observed that the E{sub sp}, type 304 stainless steel was immersed in solutions containing Thiobacillus thioparus (as N-SOB) and T. thiooxidans (as A-SOB).Remarkable E{sub sp} ennoblement was induced by N-SOB, but not by A-SOB. However, as the density of attached N-SOB on the ennobled sample was too much higher than the density to be attained under immersion in unfiltered natural sea water, the ennoblement of E{sub sp} was concluded not to occur by that single bacteria. When samples were transferred to diatom containing solution, after immersion in natural sea water for a few days, to promote attachment of bacteria on the samples, the E{sub sp} of the samples presented high values, similar to the values observed for samples immersed in natural sea water in summer. After immersion in diatom containing solution, the effect of the density of attached bacteria and diatom on E{sub sp} was investigated. For E{sub sp} ennoblement up to 200 mV vs. SCE, the density of attached bacteria increased up to about 3.5x10{sup 4} pg/cm{sup 2}, with increasing density of diatom. For E{sub sp} ennoblement higher than 200mV vs. SCE, it is suggested that the attachment of diatom on the sample plays a more important role. (author)

  15. Effect of aluminum on the growth and nutrient uptake in cryptomeria japonica D.Don and Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.; Sugi oyobi hinoki no ikusei to yobun kyushu ni oyobosu aluminium no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Y.; Matsumura, H.; Kobayashi, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-10

    Two-year-old seedlings of Sugi (Japanese cedar: Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and Hinoki (Japanese cypress: Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.) were grown for 4 months in 1/5 Hoagland`s No.2 nutrient culture solution containing aluminum chloride in the concentration range of 0.5 to 20 mM within the pH range of 3.5 to 4.0. Aluminium supplied at or below 1 mM of Al had no effect on the mortality of these species. However, the increase Al concentration higher than 2 mM increased the mortality. While they showed significant growth reduction at or higher Al concentration of 5 mM, there were no difference in growth response to Al between the two species in this experiment. While Al contents in leaf and root significantly increased with increasing Al concentration in the solution, contents of Ca, Mg and P in leaf decreased. Roof p content in Sugi increased with the increase of Al concentration in the solution, while no such change was observed in Hinoki root. This result suggests that Al might make phosphate immobile or inviolable form in Sugi root and this might lead to the reduced translocation of P into the leaf. In contrast, Al did not interfere with the uptake of phosphate in the root, however, it might interrupt phosphate transport into leaf from root system in Hinoki. The Al concentration such as 5 mM in the root sphere induced growth reductions in Sugi and Hinoki, with no significant difference in the response between the two species. This concentration was much higher than those reported in the field crops, vegetables and/or herbs. Thus, if soil acidification will be induced by acidic deposition in future, these herbaceous plants will be influenced faster than the conifer trees. This also means that ground vegetation change will be observed earlier than the conifer decline by the soil acidification stress. 23 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Effect of solution pH on the growth of Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa grown in nutrient solution culture; Sugi to hinoki no seiiku ni oyobosu baiyoeki pH no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Y.; Matsumura, H.; Kobayashi, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-10

    When wet deposition including acid rain, mist and fog, and dry deposition including gaseous and particulate SOx and NOx are added to soil, the soil acidification occurs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the soil acidification stress, which may contribute to the conifer decline. Two-year-old seedlings of Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa were cultivated to examine the effect of root sphere acidity on the plant growth in the nutrient solution culture. Acidity of one fifth Hoagland`s nutrient culture solution was adjusted to the pH in five levels, i.e., 3.5 to 4.0, 4.0 to 4.5, 4.5 to 5.0, 5.0 to 5.5, and 5.5 to 6.0. Cultivation period was for 15 weeks. The growth performance of both Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa was best under the lowest pH level of 3.5 to 4.0. Both species, however, decreased plant dry weight at high pH level. Total cation contents in the leaves and roots of both species cultivated at pH 3.5 to 4.0 were highest. These results suggested that both species have a characteristic adaptability to such a low pH condition. 13 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Effects of electrode properties on transition limit to big-arcs in combustion gas plasma boundary layer. Nensho gas plasma kyokaisonai deno daidenryu kyodai arc hassei genkai ni oyobosu denkyoku bussei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, K.; Okumura, Y. (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Kokumai, M.; Yoshikawa, N. (Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan))

    1994-05-25

    The effect of physical properties of electrode on the transition from micro-arc to big-arc in the boundary layer of combustion gas plasma such as MHD power generation, the method for preventing the occurrence of big-arc at the electrode surface side, and the possibility of small dispersion of micro-arc are experimentally investigated. The critical current for transition from micro-arc to big-arc is mainly determined by the main part temperature. It is also affected by the electrode properties. This is due to the change in arc shape caused by the heat transfer to the electrode surface and the melting and evaporation of the electrode. In the case of electrode which is likely to give rise to the abrupt gushing of metal vapor, the transition from micro-arc to big-arc is likely to occur because the boundary layer is easily broken as the momentum of the gushing vapor directed rectangularly to the electrode surface which is generating the micro-arc is large. For the prevention of transition from micro-arc to big-arc even at a large current density, it is important to select the electrode material which is characterized by high thermal conductivity, high boiling point, and high latent heat of evaporation. 17 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Effects of free stream turbulence on turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with zero pressure gradient. 4th Report. Calculation of flow field; Seiatsu ittei no heiban ranryu kyokaiso ni oyobosu shuryubu midare no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, M.; Yata, J. [Kyoto Inst. of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Minamiyama, T. [Fukuyama University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1996-04-25

    The effects of free stream turbulence on turbulent boundary layer were calculated using a {kappa}-{epsilon} two-equation model. The calculations were performed with respect to velocity profiles on a flat plate wall shear stress turbulence energy integral length scales of turbulence and decay of free stream turbulence and the results were compared with experimental results. The energy of free stream turbulence and the dissipation values at the leading edge of flat plate were used, as the initial conditions for calculation. These initial values of dissipation were determined from the integral length scales of free stream turbulence at the leading edge. The calculated wall shear stress increased with the free stream turbulence and integral length scales of turbulence. The velocity profiles and turbulence energy agreed well with the experimental results and the effects of free stream turbulence on the wall shear stress agreed fairly well with those observed in experiments. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Influence of shape change of impeller and scroll in the axial direction on performance and noise for multiblade blower; Tayoku sofuki no haneguruma oyobi scroll keijo no jiku hoko henka ga seino to soon ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanazaki, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Fukasaku, Y. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-25

    In this paper, the influence of shape change of the impeller and scroll in the axial direction on performance and noise are investigated. It is shown that a 14% increase in the hub-side diameter of the impeller over that of the shroud side leads to a 4% increase in the efficiency {eta}t, and a 2dB reduction in the specific sound level SLs. It is also shown that an increase in the diffusion angle of the hub side of the scroll to that of the shroud side raises the efficiency by 2%. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Influence of the helical impeller and the silencer within the scroll on performance and noise for multiblade blower; Tayoku sofuki no hane herikaruka oyobi shoon kiko naizoka ga seino to soon ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Fukasaku, Y. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-25

    In this paper, the velocity distributions around the impeller of a multiblade blower and noise reduction by the silencer within the scroll are investigated. It is shown that the region of small meridian velocity Cm2 at the outlet of the impeller is about 40% of the blade width b2 due to the inclination of the main sow to the hub. It is also shown that the velocity fluctuations at the trailing edge of a blade are about 30% of the maximum velocity and that a silencer composed of sound-absorbing fiber and an air chamber within the scroll can reduce the specific sound level SLs by 2.5 dB. 10 refs., 14 figs.

  1. Influence of carbon content on superplastic behaviour in Ti and B doped Cr-Mo steels; Ti, B tenka kuromu moribudenko no chososei ni oyobosu tanso gan`yuryo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramaki, M.; Nakai, O.; Onodera, R.; Higashida, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-12-01

    Superplasticity has been investigated in various ferrous alloys and steels. However, in these materials, especially in the hypoeutectoid steel bellow A1 temperature, the relationship between the content of carbon and elongation to failure is not obvious. In the present investigation, the influence of carbon content on superplastic behaviour is studied using carbon steels based on Cr-Mo steel. In order to obtain the fine grain structure, a small amount of Ti and B were added and the content of carbon was controlled to be in the range of 0.24% to 0.83%. The largest value of elongation to failure was 644% which was obtained by the tensile test of the specimen containing 0.58% carbon. The temperature and strain rate at which the maximum value was obtained were 710degC and 5 times 10{sup -4}s{sup -1}, respectively. Of all the specimens, this. specimen had the minimum grain size. Moreover, the area fraction of carbide took the maximum value at the temperature where the largest elongation value was obtained. These results show that the addition of carbon has an effect on grain refinement by formation of carbide, but excess amounts of carbons (>0.6%) bring about premature failure because of coarse microstructure and larger carbide. 17 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Effects on annual cost of solar/air-heat utilization system of carbon tax and interest rate for a residential house; Jutakuyo taiyo/taikinetsu riyo system no nenkan keihi ni oyobosu tansozei kinri no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Q.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    In recent years, a system has been proposed that utilizes river heat, air-heat, exhaust heat from a cooler, etc., in addition to natural energy for the heat pump. With the introduction of such system, the amount of energy used and that of CO2 exhaust will be greatly reduced, but annual expenses will be increased as it stands. In order to improve the cost efficiency of the system, a proposal has been made for the introduction of an economic policy such as the carbon tax and a low interest financing system. With these matters in the background, the subject study predicts the production of solar cells in the future and, on the basis of this production, determines the price, conversion efficiency and equipment energy of solar cells in the future. Using these values and taking into consideration the introduction of the carbon tax and the low interest financing system, the optimum area was determined for solar cells and heat concentrators in a future residential solar/air-heat energy system. The carbon tax, being imposed on all CO2 discharges, had a large effect. Moreover, as the tax increased, annual expenses decreased for the solar/air-heat system. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Effect of insolation forecasting error on reduction of electricity charges for solar hot water system; Taiyonetsu kyuto system no denki ryokin sakugen koka ni oyobosu nissharyo yosoku gosa no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A solar hot water system can be economically operated if inexpensive midnight power is purchased to cover the shortage of solar energy predicted for the following day. Investigations were conducted because error in insolation prediction affects the system operation and electric charge reduction effect. The target temperature of the heat accumulation tank at every predetermined time point is calculated on the previous evening in consideration of predicted insolation so that the water will be as hot as prescribed at the feeding time on the following day. Midnight power is used for uniform heating to attain the target temperature for 7 o`clock on the following morning. The uniform heating continues from 8 o`clock to the feeding time, this time using solar energy and daytime power to attain the target temperature. Accordingly, the division between the midnight power and daytime power is determined in view of the target temperature for 7 o`clock on the following morning, which target temperature is so set that the charge will be the minimum by optimizing the allocation of the above-said two. When the insolation prediction error rate is beyond 30%, the electric charge grows higher as the rate rises. But, when the rate is not higher than 30%, the charge is little affected by a rise in the rate. 5 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Effects of inlet passage width contraction of low-solidity cascade diffusers on performance of transonic centrifugal compressor; Sen`onsoku enshin asshukuki no seino ni oyobosu shogensetsuhi yokuretsu diffuser joryu tsurohaba shibori no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayami, H.; Kawaguchi, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study; Umemoto, A. [Toto Ltd., Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1996-02-25

    Low-solidity circular cascades have been applied successfully as a part of the diffuser system of a transonic centrifugal compressor. Three types of diffusers with and without an inlet passage width contraction or a pinch upstream of a cascade were tested. An appropriately contracted diffuser realized high compressor efficiency at high rotor speed due to the decrement in input power. Effects of a pinch on surge and choke were also discussed. Choke occurred at the throat of cascades of a pinched-type diffuser at lower flow rate than the inducer choke flow in spite of a low-solidity cascade. A pinched diffuser had a stabilizing effect on the diffuser characteristics but only a small amount of gain in the surge margin was obtained owing to the change in impeller characteristics. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Alkylation reaction by the 2-chloropropane of benzene on the hyper saline element processes alumina catalyst; Koenso shori arumina shokubaijo deno benzen no 2-kuroropuropan ni yoru arukiruka hanno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanishi, Kazuhiro; Saeki, Takayuki; Sawada, Tetsuro; Shobu, Akinori

    1999-09-01

    The semibatch reactor was used at atmospheric pressure, 273K in respect of isopropyl reaction by 2-chloropropane (2CP) of benzene on aluminia catalyst (AmLSA) chlorinated in the high temperature. The AmLSA catalyst showed the activity, which was higher than the AlCl{sub 3} catalyst. Main products were isopropyl benzene (IPB) and para - diisopropyl benzene (dj-IPB) - 1,3,5-triisopropyl benzene (tri-IPB) and, and the generation of 4 substitutes was as a trace. Product composition at 2CP 100% conversion ratio is IPB 76%, di-IPB I9%, tri-IPB 5% Di-IPB in the isopropyl reaction of IPB be 82%, tri-IPB It was 18%. The catalyst was perfectly toxified, even if it is deaerated at the temperature of pyridine adsorption post 573K or less, and it began to recover in the de-aeration of 673K, and it recovered after the de-aeration at 873K to active 43% before the toxification. It was concluded, when the reaction perfectly stops, when the catalyst is removed from system of reaction, and when the elution of the active species has not been generated. In comparison with the result of result of the superscription and alkylation reaction by 1 - chloropropane (ICP) and isopropyl reaction by the aluminum chloride catalyst, the reaction on the AmLSA catalyst was explained with that it progressed by the mechanism of the Friedel-Crafts type. (translated by NEDO)

  6. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Effect of prethermal treatment condition with process solvent to increase oil yields; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. Sekitan no maeshori joken to yozai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, T.; Komatsu, N.; Kishimoto, M.; Okui, T.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Process solvent was hydrogenated in the brown coal liquefaction, to investigate the influence of it on the prethermal treatment and liquefaction. Consequently, it was found that the n-hexane soluble (HS) yield was improved. In this study, capacity of hydrogen transfer from solvent during prethermal treatment and effects of catalyst were investigated. Since prethermal treatment in oil was effective for improving the oil yield in the presence of hydrogen/catalyst or high hydrogen-donor solvent, influence of hydrogen-donor performance of solvent or addition of catalyst on the hydrogenation behavior of coal and the characteristics of products during prethermal treatment were investigated in relation to successive liquefaction results. As a result, it was found that the increase of HS yield was due to the acceleration of conversion of THF-insoluble using high hydrogen-donor solvent and/or by adding catalyst. It was also found that the use of high hydrogen-donor solvent and highly active catalyst at the stage of prethermal treatment before the successive liquefaction was effective for improving the HS yield, i.e., liquefied oil yield. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Co-C binding cleavage by the hydrolysis reaction of the Vitamins B{sub 12} coenzyme; Bitamin B{sub 12} hokoso no kasui bunkai hanno ni yoru Co-C setsugo kairetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonemura, T. [Kochi Univ., Kochi (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Vitamin B{sub 12} isolated as antineoplastic anemia agent in 1948 were organometallic complex found in the nature at first, and it was noticed as a metal compound with the unique cobalt-carbon sigma (Co-C{sigma}) combination. Halpern et al. had estimated the dissociation energy to be 26-31kcal/mol when the Co-C combination of the segregated adenosylcobalamin clove in the homolysis, and Finke et al. reported that the cleavage speed is hastened over 10 {sup 10} times under the enzymatic reaction condition inside such a protein. Based on this important factor, the contribution of the electro-donicity of the shaft configuration base was indicated, and other factors to cause the Co-C binding cleavage were recently examined by Halpern and Finke et al. According to the research by Halpern, homolysis reaction and heterolysis reaction were competitively generated, and pH value, temperature, type of the alkyl ligand had a great influence. Especially, it has been clarified that the difference due to the substituent is remarkable. (NEDO)

  8. Study of reaction and heat release from solid combustion in strong magnetic field; Kyojiba wo riyoshita hikinshitsu kotai nensho shori no hanno to netsu no seigy ni kansuru kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, K.; Fujita, O.; Iiya, M.; Kudo, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    To establish the inhomogeneous solid combustion control technology, effects of the strong magnetic field on the solid combustion were examined. When applying the sufficiently strong magnetic field, it is possible to control the air flow in combustion field by utilizing the force applying to constituent oxygen with large susceptibility. Based on this possibility, combustion experiments of expanded polystyrene plates were conducted between the magnetic poles of electro-magnet having the maximum flux density of 1 T and the maximum magnetic field gradient of 0.5 T/cm. To observe the effects of magnetic field without the effects of natural convection, combustion experiments of acrylic sheets were conducted between the magnetic poles of electro-magnet having the maximum flux density of 0.6 T and the magnetic field gradient of about 0.1 T/cm under the microgravity conditions between 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -5}g using a microgravity test facility. Consequently, prospective combustion results could be obtained, in which the force of flame received from the magnetic field is almost equivalent to the buoyancy of flame. It was demonstrated that combustion can be controlled by the magnetic field. 1 ref., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Deactivation of REY zeolite during catalytic cracking of heavy oil obtained from the pyrolysis of waste plastics; REY zeolite shokubai ni yoru hai plastic netsu bunkaiyu no sesshoku bunkai hanno no kassei rekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, T.; Mukai, S.; Akiyama, T.; Fujikata, Y.; Hashimoto, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1995-12-10

    A model has been developed to represent the deactivation of REY zeolite caused by coke deposition during catalytic cracking of heavy oil obtained from pyrolysis of waste plastics. Coke deposition not only leads to coverage of the acid sites, which contribute to the reaction, but also leads to a decrease in the intracrystalline diffusivity of the zeolite due to the reduction in effective pore opening, resulting in deactivation of the catalyst. In this work, firstly the amount of strong acid sites and the diffusivity of catalysts with different amounts of coke loading were measured, and empirical equations, which represent the relationships between the amount of coke loading and these two values, were obtained. Finally, a model was developed to calculate the transient change of the catalyst activity and the concentration distributions of the components within the reactor by employing the obtained empirical equations. The calculated results agreed well with experimental results. Using this model, it was found that the deactivation rate of the catalyst was reduced under diffusion control conditions, and large catalyst particles could maintain their activity longer than small catalyst particles. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Experimental results of 2-propanol dehydrogenation with a falling-liquid film reactor for solar chemical heat pump; Solar chemical heat pump ni okeru ryuka ekimakushiki 2-propanol bunkai hanno jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Ando, Y.; Takashima, T. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Koike, M.; Kamoshida, J. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A solar chemical heat pump is intended to attempt multi-purposed effective utilization of solar energy by raising low temperature solar heat of about 100 degC to 150 to 200 degC by utilizing chemical reactions. The chemical heat pump under the present study uses a 2-propanol (IPA)/acetone/hydrogen system which can utilize low-temperature solar heat and has large temperature rising degree. It was found from the result of experiments and analyses that IPA dehydrogenation reaction can improve more largely the heat utilization rate in using a falling-liquid film reactor than using a liquid phase suspended system. As an attempt to improve further the heat utilization rate, this paper reports the result of experimental discussions on inclination angles of a reaction vessel and feed liquid flow rate which would affect the fluid condition of the liquid film. As a result of the experiments, the initial deterioration in the catalyst has settled in about 15 hours, and its activity has decreased to about 60% of the initial activity. It was made clear that the influence of the inclination angle of the reaction vessel on the reaction is small. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Metallurgy of multifilamentary superconductors. Fabrication of new materials by designing structure and controlling diffusion reaction; Kyokusai tashin chodendosen no metaraji. Kozo sekkei/kakusan hanno seigyo ni yoru shinzairyo no sosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, T. [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-03-20

    Multifilamentary structure aimed to keep the stability of superconducting condition has made possible the control of diffusion reaction, phase stability, introduction of pinning center (heterogeneity point) and so forth because of the design possibility of metallurgical parameters like boundary arrangement/density and so forth. These controls are of course important for the other materials except superconducting materials. In this report, firstly, the originally role of the multifilamentary structure is outlined from electromagnetic point of view. Secondly, bronze method which is the production method of Nb3Sn compounds wire and is an appropriate method for the fabrication of multifilamentary structure is introduced. This method is a collection of elemental tecnologies for the metallurgy of multifilamentary materials like material design, plastic fabrication, diffusion heat treatment, composition control and so forth. New material can be fabricated by controlling diffusion reaction when this multifilamentary structure is applied positively. Further, high performance of superconductivity is possible by the optimization of the distribution of the heterogeneous point, pinning point of magnetic flux line. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Experiment for deep seismic reflections in Hidaka, Hokkaido. Comparison between Vibroseis and explosive data; Hidaka chiiki ni okeru shinbu hanno data no shutoku jikken. Vibroseis to dynamite no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, N.; Ikawa, T. [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, T.; Tsumura, N.; Shinohara, M.; Ikawa, T. Ikawa, H.; Asano, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Miyazono, N. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Arita, K.; Moriya, T.; Otsuka, K.; Omura, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kimura, M. [Osaka Prefectural University, Osaka (Japan); Hirata, N. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Okuike, S.

    1997-05-27

    This is a prompt report. These days the importance of acquiring knowledge about the structure from the lower crust down to the upper mantle is often discussed with reference taken to Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake. The Hidaka collision belt where the lower crust is exposed on the surface is a rare phenomenon in the world and has been the subject of seismic survey. As a part of the survey, experiments are conducted by the use of vibrations produced by Vibroseis and dynamite sources. Every one of the shot records (20-second record) from the two types of vibration sources contains a clear echo in the vicinity of 16 seconds supposedly from a level deeper than 40 kilometers, not to mention reflections from shallow levels. Although some studies have to be conducted before the reflecting geological boundary (possibly the upper mantle) of the echo near the 16-second point can be identified, yet this is probably the reflection from the deepest level ever obtained in the seismic reflection survey conducted in Japan`s land area. It is proved by this experiment that vibration from a vibrator can reach as far as that from explosion if the vibrator specifications are rightly chosen. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  13. The exchange bias effect in Ni/NiO and NiO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Angela; Feygenson, Mikhail; Kreno, Lauren; Patete, Jonathan; Tiano, Amanda; Zhang, Fen; Wong, Stanislaus; Aronson, Meigan

    2009-03-01

    We used magnetic measurements, X-ray diffraction, and HRTEM to study the exchange bias field in Ni/NiO and NiO nanoparticles made by a modified wet chemistry method. We oxidized re-dispersed powders of bare Ni nanoparticles in air at 400^oC and 900^oC. HRTEM showed that annealing at 900^oC of bare Ni nanoparticles led to the formation of exceptionally high quality NiO nanoparticles, resembling perfect bulk-like crystalline order. To our knowledge, there are no reports of NiO particles of such quality in the literature. The loop shift was 1000 Oe at 300K for the NiO nanoparticles, while it was only 120 Oe at 10K for the Ni/NiO nanoparticles. The difference is explained by the different origins of the loop shift in Ni/NiO and NiO nanoparticles. In Ni/NiO nanoparticles, the loop shift is associated with exchange interactions between ferromagnetic Ni and antiferromagnetic NiO. In NiO nanoparticles, however, the origin of the shift is an uneven number of ferromagnetic sublattices present in NiO nanoparticles, which interact differently with an applied magnetic field (Kodama, 1999).

  14. Bridging exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia, E-mail: nataliarin@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro [Departamento de Física & IUTA, EPI, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33203 Gijón (Spain); Martínez-Blanco, David [Servicios Científico-Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain); Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbón, CSIC, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Fernández Barquín, Luis [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Puente-Orench, Inés [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Blanco, Jesús A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Among all bi-magnetic core(transition metal)@shell(transition metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), Ni@NiO ones show an onset temperature for the exchange bias (EB) effect far below the Néel temperature of bulk antiferromagnetic NiO. In this framework, the role played by the magnetism of NiO at the nanoscale is investigated by comparing the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiO and Ni@NiO NPs. With the aim of bridging the two systems, the diameter of the NiO NPs (~4 nm) is chosen to be comparable to the shell thickness of Ni@NiO ones (~2 nm). The EB effect in Ni@NiO NPs is attributed to the exchange coupling between the core and the shell, with an interfacial exchange energy of ΔE~0.06 erg cm{sup −2}, thus comparable to previous reports on Ni/NiO interfaces both in thin film and NP morphologies. In contrast, the EB detected in NiO NPs is explained in a picture where uncompensated spins located on a magnetically disordered surface shell are exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. In all the studied NPs, the variation of the EB field as a function of temperature is described according to a negative exponential law with a similar decay constant, yielding a vanishing EB effect around T~40–50 K. In addition, the onset temperature for the EB effect in both NiO and Ni@NiO NPs seems to follow a universal dependence with the NiO crystallite size. - Highlights: • Comparison of the exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles. • Universal temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Suggested similar physical origin of the effect in both systems. • Size and crystallinity of the NiO shell hold the key for exchange bias properties.

  15. OpenNI cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Falahati, Soroush

    2013-01-01

    This is a Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes enriched with explained code and relevant screenshots to ease your learning curve. If you are a beginner or a professional in NIUI and want to write serious applications or games, then this book is for you. Even OpenNI 1 and OpenNI 1.x programmers who want to move to new versions of OpenNI can use this book as a starting point. This book uses C++ as the primary language but there are some examples in C# and Java too, so you need to have about a basic working knowledge of C or C++ for most cases.

  16. Magnetic Properties of Ni Nanoparticles and Ni(C) Nanocapsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Structure and magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles and Ni(C) nanocapsules were studied. The carbon atoms hardly affect the lattice of Ni to form Ni-C solid solution or nickel carbides. The large thermal irreversibility in zerofield-cooled and zero-field magnetization curves indicates magnetic blocking with a wide energy barrier. Saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity of Ni(C) nanocapsules decrease with increasing temperature.

  17. Combustion-driven oscillation in a furnace with multispud-type gas burners. 4th Report. Effects of position of secondary air guide sleeve and openness of secondary air guide vane on combustion oscillation condition; Multispud gata gas turner ni okeru nensho shindo. 4. Nijigen kuki sleeve ichi oyobi nijigen kuki vane kaido no shindo reiki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, I.; Okiura, K.; Baba, A.; Orimoto, M. [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-25

    Effects of the position of a secondary air guide sleeve and the openness of a secondary air guide vane on combustion oscillation conditions were studied experimentally for multispud-type gas burners. Pressure fluctuation in furnaces was analyzed with the previously reported resonance factor which was proposed as an index to represent the degree of combustion oscillation. As a result, the combustion oscillation region was largely affected by both position of a guide sleeve and openness of a guide vane. As the openness having large effect on the ratio of primary and secondary air/tertiary air and the position hardly having effect on the ratio were adjusted skillfully, the burner with no combustion oscillation region was achieved in its normal operation range. In addition, as the effect of preheating combustion air was arranged with a standard flow rate or mass flow flux of air, it was suggested the combustion oscillation region due to preheating can be described with the same manner as that due to no preheating. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Research on variable swirl intake port for high-speed multivalve DI diesel engine. Effects of port configuration on flow characteristics and swirl generation capacity; 4 ben kogata kosoku DI diesel engine no kahen swirl kyuki port ni kansuru kenkyu. Kyuki port haichi ga ryudo tokusei to swirl seino ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, J.; Ogawa, H.; Tsuru, Y. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In our previous papers, the variable swirl intake port system which can control a wide swirl ratio range (from 4 to 10) was described. This system consisted of two separate intake ports, one of them has a flow control valve for changing the swirl ratio. In this type of variable swirl system, some variations of port combination, port shape, and position can be designed. In this paper, the intake flow characteristics of various port combinations were analyzed on the basis of a steady-state air flow test and 3-dimensional computations. The results indicate that the total performance of the twin ports can be estimated from that of a single port in any kind of port combination. Some difference in flow patterns were found in a variety of port combinations even if each swirl ratio is similar. The selected port combinations in our previous study are good for a wide swirl control range. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Influence of soil-structure interaction on system identification of building. Part 2. Iterative identification method using regression curves; Jiban kozobutsu sogo sayo ga kozobutsu no shindo tokusei suitei ni oyobosu eikyo. 2. Kaikishiki to hanpuku keisan ni yoru tokusei suiteiho no teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaya, H.; Naito, Y.; Ishibashi, T. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-20

    When the dynamic characteristics of structures are identified using data obtained from microtremors or earthquakes as well as from vibration tests with an exciter, the effect of soil-structure interaction on the data together with the effects of disturbances, such as wind force, makes it difficult to identify the characteristics of the structure and soil. A method was previously provided for identifying the characteristics of structure and soil-structure interaction respectively using two-particle systems composed of one particle for the super-structure and another for the base. In this paper, a method is proposed for determining two regression curves with two unknown parameters, i.e., a resonance frequency and a damping ratio, through numeric iteration. At first, parameters were extracted, for which regression curves seem relatively easy to obtain according to the previous discussion, and then, regression curves were calculated by numeric iteration to improve accuracy. Consequently, it was found that regression curves can be used to identify unknown parameters when two among four parameters, i.e., resonance frequencies and damping ratios of super-structure and interaction components, are obtained through experiments. 1 ref., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Influence of wind force on system identification of buildings during microtremors. Part 3. Mechanism of deformation of transfer function; Joji bido ni yoru kozobutsu no shindo tokusei suitei ni oyobosu kaze no eikyo . 3. Dentatsu kansu ga mikakejo henkasuru mechanism no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, T.; Naito, Y.; Yamaya, H.; Sato, K. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-20

    To evaluate the system identification of buildings by measurement of the microtremors, influence of wind force on the result has been investigated taking into account the mechanism of deformation of transfer function. Wind mainly affects the primary vibration of buildings. The primary frequency is almost constant even with changing the wind velocity. The damping ratios of vibration are hardly affected by the wind velocity, when they are determined from the power spectrum at the top of buildings. While, the apparent damping ratios are overestimated for higher wind velocities, when they are determined from the transfer function to the base. The mechanism causing an increase of such damping ratios has been investigated. Assuming that the system of particles with soil-structure interaction or the wave model structure receives the force (wind force) at the upper part, that two types of input force exist at the upper and lower part (wind force and ground motion), and that the two input forces are independent, the mechanism has been examined by using a simple theoretical model. It was found that all these factors remarkably contribute to the increase in the damping ratios. 5 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Effect of chromium and carbon contents in cast iron on bonded microstructure of copper brazed high chromium cast iron and mild steel. Braze ho ni yoru kokuromu chutetsu to ko hagane no setsugo soshiki ni oyobosu chutetsuchu kuromu oyobi tansoryo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaguri, N.; Matsubara, Y. (Kurume College of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan)); Ogi, K. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan))

    1993-08-25

    For the purpose of enhancing toughness, workability and weldability of high chromium castiron, hypoeutectic, eutectic and hypereutectic high chromium cast irons containing 10 to 30mass% Cr and mild steel were bonded by the brazing method using pure copper filler. This paper describes the effect of chromium and carbon contents in cast iron on the microstructural variations and behaviors of alloying elements in the bonded zone. The length of rod-like crystal precipitated at the cast iron-copper interface and the width of bonded zone decreased with an increase in Cr/C value of cast iron. It was considered that this is because diffusion of iron from steel to cast iron becomes less due to the decrease of difference in chemical potential of iron between the cast iron and the steel sides. Furthermore, alloy phase was composed of Fe, Cr, Cu and C, and the iron concentration in the alloy phase decreased and the chromium concentration increased with increasing the Cr/C value. The copper concentration was almost constant independent of the Cr/C value. It was suggested that the growth of alloy phase occurs under the diffusion control. 9 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Effect of Ca/Al molar ratio on the growth of Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa and Chamaecyparis pisifera grown in nutrient solution culture and their critical point; Suiko saibai jokenka ni okeru sugi, hinoki, sawara no seiiku ni oyobosu Ca/Al no eikyo to critical point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Umezawa, T.; Murakoshi, M. [Bio-Environment Research, Co. Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1998-11-10

    A solution culture is experimented for the investigation of the effect of Ca/Al on the growth of Sugi (cryptomeria), Hinoki (cypress), and Sakura (cherry tree), and of CP (critical point for the emergence of the effect of Al). The solution culture is performed in water under specified conditions, the harvest is assortedly collected after 14 weeks, and is measured for dried weight. Sugi and Hinoki wither and die at an Al concentration of 5mM, but not at an Al concentration of 1mM or less. The concentration of Ca fails to exert any significant influence. At the Al concentration of 5mM, the trees are inhibited from growing in height or trunk diameter, but not affected by Ca concentration. The dried weight shares the same trend. The dried weight begins to decrease when the mol concentration ratio of Ca/Al or (K+Ca+Mg)/Al lowers to four or less. It may be concluded that conifers are inhibited from growing when the Al concentration is 2mM or higher, Ca/Al is one or lower, or (K+Ca+Mg)/Al is five or lower. If the point where growth is inhibited by 20% or 50% is chosen as the reference point, the CP of (K+Ca+Mg)/Al will be 1 or 0.5, respectively. This means that a different reference point yields a different value. There is an experimental outcome stating that growth is not affected even when this value is 0.4 in the case of soil exposed to artificial acid rain. 22 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Microstructure and properties of hot roll bonding layer of dissimilar metals. 1. Effect of oxide layer on titanium surface on bonding strength of titanium clad steel by hot roll bonding; Ishu kinzoku no atsuen setsugo kaimen soshiki to shotokusei ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Atsuen chitan clad ko no kaimen kyodo ni oyobosu chitan hyomen sankabutsuso no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, K.; Komizo, Y.; Yasuyama, M. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Ikezaki, H.; Murayama, J.

    1996-01-25

    The effect of surface oxide layer on the titanium before bonding on the bonding strength of titanium clad steel by hot roll bonding was investigated from a view point of microstructure of the bonding interface. The bonding test of iron and titanium by hot roll bonding at 850{degree}C was conducted under the various surface conditions of titanium plate such as as-relieved, oxidized or machined. The mechanical properties of clad steel was evaluated in terms of tensile test in the rectangular direction to the bonding interface and observation of micro structures of bonding layer. As results, the bonding strength deteriorated remarkably in the clad steel produced using the titanium having oxide layer on the surface comparing with that using the machined surface of titanium. In the clad steel produced using the titanium with surface oxide, uncontinuous intermetallic compound was observed at the interface of {beta}-Ti and Fe, while in the clad steel produced by the titanium without surface oxide, no remarkable intermetallic compound was observed. Oxide layer on the titanium surface promotes the formation of inter metallic compound of titanium and iron at the bonding interface and deterioration of bonding strength. Such oxide layer, however, was found to be not an obstacle to the accomplishment of metallurgical bonding. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  4. Fiscal 1997 survey of overseas coal import base arrangement and promotion. Effects of the expansion of coal trade by IPP on the supply/demand of general coal in Asia; 1997 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. IPP ni yoru sekitan boeki no kakudai ga Asia no ippantan jukyu ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In consideration of the coal situation in the Asia/Pacific region, a study was made of effects of the expansion of coal trade by IPP on supply/demand of general coal in Asia. When aggregating increases in demand of general coal for electric power use in ten Asian counties, they will be an increase of 130.75 million tons in 2005 over 1997. Fifty nine percent of it is equivalent to the increase by IPP and exceeds the demand expanded by electric utilities operators. Further, a possibility is predicted of contracts and coal quality being different from until now. However, there will be a lot of cases in which plans of constructing power plants in Asia are not so developed as expected except Japan, Korea and Taiwan, and also the effect of the currency crisis starting in Thailand largely affects. In terms of the coal supply, countries which export general coal are only China and Indonesia. Indonesian coal is expanding its production and export rapidly and remarkably. The environmental control in Asia has been tightening, and the fuel selected by IPP is mainly coal rather than natural gas. 40 refs., 94 figs., 179 tabs.

  5. Study on a constant-tip-speed-ratio operation of wind power generation system. Effect of load control system on dynamic behavior; Furyoku hatsuden system no hensoku seigyo unten ni kansuru kenkyu. Fuka seigyokei ga system no rikigakuteki kyodo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, T.; Yamaguchi, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Y. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Hashizume, T.; Ota, E. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1998-06-01

    The effect that the set data of the load control system in a wind power generation system exerts on the dynamic behavior of a system was investigated. The wind power generation system consists of a hybrid wind turbine with combined Darrieus and Savonius rotors, load with a generator and battery in the center, and a controller. A constant-tip-speed ratio operation that holds the circumferential speed ratio in which the power coefficient is maximized irrespective of the change in wind velocity was used to extract and convert the wind energy more effectively. In a high-wind velocity area, the system is operated at a fixed speed, and the increase in rotation is suppressed to protect the wing strength. In a large system, the response characteristics are only slightly improved by the limited load operation range and influenced rotor inertial. Power cannot be fully extracted even if the control system is changed in setting, and the applicability to the wind situation remains low. During the actual operation, the adjustment value of the control system should be set so that the output operation is satisfactorily possible in the specified load operation range, that is, the change in the instantaneous value of an effective power coefficient indicates almost flat gain characteristics in frequency characteristics. 14 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Korrast ja selle kaitsest / Hanno Pevkur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pevkur, Hanno, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Korrakaitseseaduse eelnõust. Ilmunud ka Hiiu Leht 20. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Vali Uudised 20. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Põhjarannik 20. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Sakala 20. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Elva Postipoiss 21. aprill 2007, lk. 4 ; Koit 24. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Nädaline 24. aprill 2007, lk. 4 ; Oma Saar 26. aprill 2007, lk. 5 ; Valgamaalane 26. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Pärnu Postimees 9. mai 2007, lk. 19

  7. Into a flowering garden / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    Viimane projekt seeriast "Reformatsioon" oli tekstiinstallatsioon avalikus paigas seoses propagandaportselani näitusega Väliskunsti Muuseumis Tallinnas. Loosung "Me muudame kogu maailma õitsvaks aiaks" Kadrioru pargis. Kadrioru lossist kunstimuuseumina

  8. Tselluloidi aura ja kaasaegne kunst / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Muutustest filmitegemises ja filmiesteetikas. Filmi sarnanemisest tehniliselt üha enam videoga. Kunstnike tegelemisest filmiga. 26. XI näeb kinos "Sõprus" "1+1=1" raames kaasaegsete kunstnike teoseid laiekraanil: Eija-Liisa Ahtila "If 6 was 9" (1995), "Today" (1996-97), "Consolation Service" (1999); Sara Lunden ja Henry Moore Selder (sünd. 1973, Stockholm) "Deadly Boring" (2001), "She is Dead" (2003)

  9. Korrast ja selle kaitsest / Hanno Pevkur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pevkur, Hanno, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Korrakaitseseaduse eelnõust. Ilmunud ka Hiiu Leht 20. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Vali Uudised 20. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Põhjarannik 20. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Sakala 20. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Elva Postipoiss 21. aprill 2007, lk. 4 ; Koit 24. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Nädaline 24. aprill 2007, lk. 4 ; Oma Saar 26. aprill 2007, lk. 5 ; Valgamaalane 26. aprill 2007, lk. 2 ; Pärnu Postimees 9. mai 2007, lk. 19

  10. Into a flowering garden / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    Viimane projekt seeriast "Reformatsioon" oli tekstiinstallatsioon avalikus paigas seoses propagandaportselani näitusega Väliskunsti Muuseumis Tallinnas. Loosung "Me muudame kogu maailma õitsvaks aiaks" Kadrioru pargis. Kadrioru lossist kunstimuuseumina

  11. Tselluloidi aura ja kaasaegne kunst / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Muutustest filmitegemises ja filmiesteetikas. Filmi sarnanemisest tehniliselt üha enam videoga. Kunstnike tegelemisest filmiga. 26. XI näeb kinos "Sõprus" "1+1=1" raames kaasaegsete kunstnike teoseid laiekraanil: Eija-Liisa Ahtila "If 6 was 9" (1995), "Today" (1996-97), "Consolation Service" (1999); Sara Lunden ja Henry Moore Selder (sünd. 1973, Stockholm) "Deadly Boring" (2001), "She is Dead" (2003)

  12. Surface Tension of Molten Ni and Ni-Co Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng XIAO; Liang FANG; Kiyoshi NOGI

    2005-01-01

    Surface tension of molten Ni and Ni-Co (5 and 10 mass fraction) alloys was measured at the temperature range of 1773~1873 K using an improved sessile drop method with an alumina substrate in an Ar+3%H2 atmosphere. The error of the data obtained was analyzed. The surface tension of molten Ni and Ni-Co (5 and 10 mass fraction) alloys decreases with increasing temperature. The influence of Co on the surface tension of Ni-Co alloys is little in the studied Co concentration range.

  13. Room temperature ferromagnetism of Ni, (Ni, Li), (Ni, N)-doped ZnO thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AU; ChakTong

    2010-01-01

    Ni-doped ZnO thin films (Ni concentration up to 10 mol%) were generated on Si (100) substrates by a sol-gel technique. The films showed wurtzite structure and no other phase was found. The chemical state of Ni was found to be bivalent by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results of magnetic measurements at room temperature indicated that the films were ferromagnetic, and magnetic moment decreased with rise of Ni concentration. The magnetization of Ni (10 mol%)-doped ZnO film annealed in nitrogen was lower than that annealed in argon, suggesting that the density of defects had an effect on ferromagnetism.

  14. ZnNi data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    www.asetsdefense.org Teaming website: www.materialoptions.com Other data .. •• • Zinc - nickel alloy coatings r~.., ataTECH Corrosion...cathodic corrosion protection with y- zinc - nickel alloy! () ToTAL ----------------- · ---------------- . A ~ESTCP ~§g.~J?.P Keith Legg 847-680...2009 Boeing. All rights reserved. Fatigue Test Results (Alkaline Zinc - Nickel , Phase IV) • Nickel Alloy 718 Bolts – 3/8” diameter Cd or Zn-Ni

  15. Ni landsbyer i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Denne rapport beskriver en evaluering af statsstøttede forsøg med at styrke og udvikle mindre lokalsamfund. Forsøgene er gennemført i ni kommuner. Da der i disse år er stor opmærksomhed om de små byers og samfunds udviklingsmuligheder, har erfaringerne fra forsøgsprojekterne bred interesse. Forsø...

  16. Ab Initio MO study on the nucleophilic oxirane ring opening of exo and endo Aflatoxin B{sub 1} 8,9-Oxide; Ekiso oyobi endo Aflatoxin B{sub 1} 8,9-Oxide no kyukaku kaikan hanno ni taisuru Ab Initio ho ni yoru kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okajima, Toshiya; Hashikawa, Akane [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Department of Chemistry

    1999-08-10

    The difference of the reactivity for S{sub N}2 type oxirane ring opening of exo and endo Aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) 8,9-oxide (exo-1 and endo-1, respectively) was analyzed with ab initio molecular orbital theory. All stationary points including transition-state structures were optimized with no geometry constraint at the RHF/3-21G basis set, and energies were evaluate at Becke3LYP/3-21G level based on the RHF/3-21G geometries. The calculation clarified the following three points: (1) the activation energy ({delta}E{sup {ne}}) for endo attacking of NH{sub 3} molecule (the reaction with exo derivatives containing exo-1) is considerably smaller than those for exo attacking (the reaction with endo ones containing endo-1), (2) the reactivity for nucleophilic oxirane ring opening is controlled by the distortion of LUMO{sub C-O} of oxirane ring, which is probably caused by exo/endo relationship between oxirane ring and five-membered dihydrofurano ring (B) with respect to A ring, and (3) the remaining part (inclusing coumarin skeleton) of AFB{sub 1} oxid has little influence on the geometry around the reaction center and the activation energy. (author)

  17. Preparation of nanoporous Ni and Ni-Cu by dealloying of rolled Ni-Mn and Ni-Cu-Mn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakamada, Masataka, E-mail: masataka-hakamada@aist.go.j [Materials Research Institute for Sustainable Development, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimosihidami, Moriyama, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Mabuchi, Mamoru [Department of Energy Science and Technology, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2009-10-19

    Nanoporous Ni, Ni-Cu and Cu with ligament sizes of 10-20 nm were fabricated by dealloying rolled Ni-Mn, Cu-Ni-Mn and Cu-Mn alloys, respectively. Unlike conventional Raney nickel composed of brittle Ni-Al intermetallic compounds, the initial alloys had good workability. Ni and Cu atoms formed a homogeneous solid solution in the nanoporous architecture. The ligament sizes of nanoporous Ni and Ni-Cu were smaller than that of nanoporous Cu, reflecting the difference between the surface diffusivities of Ni and Cu.

  18. Niños investigadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Liebel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available EN LA SOCIOLOGÍA INFANTIL, EL PRINCIPIO DE HACER PARTICIPAR A NIÑAS Y NIÑOS en los procesos de investigación está ampliamente reconocido. Tomando como punto de partida ese principio de participación, el presente aporte analiza la pregunta de en qué medida y de qué manera los niños mismos pueden actuar como investigadores. A fin de apreciar en lo justo la perspectiva de los niños, el presente trabajo aboga por que –con el debido acompañamiento de personas adultas– la investigación esté en manos de los niños. Por medio de varios ejemplos de países del Sur, se muestra cómo poner en práctica esta forma de investigación encabezada por niños. Tomando en cuenta la desigualdad en las relaciones entre niñas, niños y personas adultas, el trabajo hace referencia a problemas de ética y práctica investigativa que surgen en el proceso de investigación y también en el tema del uso de los resultados. Finalmente, se explican los beneficios que niñas y niños pueden obtener de sus propias investigaciones.

  19. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm{sup 2}. The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased.

  20. Enhanced collectivity in 74Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Aoi, N; Takeuchi, S; Suzuki, H; Bazin, D; Bowen, M D; Campbell, C M; Cook, J M; Dinca, D -C; Gade, A; Glasmacher, T; Iwasaki, H; Kubo, T; Kurita, K; Motobayashi, T; Mueller, W F; Nakamura, T; Sakurai, H; Takashina, M; Terry, J R; Yoneda, K; Zwahlen, H

    2010-01-01

    The neutron-rich nucleus 74Ni was studied with inverse-kinematics inelastic proton scattering using a 74Ni radioactive beam incident on a liquid hydrogen targetat a center-of-mass energy of 80 MeV. From the measured de-excitation gamma-rays, the population of the first 2+ state was quantified. The angle-integrated excitation cross section was determined to be 14(4) mb. A deformation length of delta = 1.04(16) fm was extracted in comparison with distorted wave theory, which suggests that the enhancement of collectivity established for 70Ni continues up to 74Ni. A comparison with results of shell model and quasi-particle random phase approximation calculations indicates that the magic character of Z = 28 or N = 50 is weakened in 74Ni.

  1. Enhanced collectivity in 74Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, N.; Kanno, S.; Takeuchi, S.; Suzuki, H.; Bazin, D.; Bowen, M. D.; Campbell, C. M.; Cook, J. M.; Dinca, D.-C.; Gade, A.; Glasmacher, T.; Iwasaki, H.; Kubo, T.; Kurita, K.; Motobayashi, T.; Mueller, W. F.; Nakamura, T.; Sakurai, H.; Takashina, M.; Terry, J. R.; Yoneda, K.; Zwahlen, H.

    2010-09-01

    The neutron-rich nucleus 74Ni was studied with inverse-kinematics inelastic proton scattering using a 74Ni radioactive beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target at a center-of-mass energy of 80 MeV. From the measured de-excitation γ rays, the population of the first 2+ state was quantified. The angle-integrated excitation cross section was determined to be 14(4) mb. A deformation length of δ=1.04(16) fm was extracted in comparison with distorted wave theory, which suggests that the enhancement of collectivity established for 70Ni continues up to 74Ni. A comparison with results of shell model and quasi-particle random phase approximation calculations indicates that the magic character of Z=28 or N=50 is weakened in 74Ni.

  2. Nitriding behavior of Ni and Ni-based binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonovic, Matej

    2015-01-15

    Gaseous nitriding is a prominent thermochemical surface treatment process which can improve various properties of metallic materials such as mechanical, tribological and/or corrosion properties. This process is predominantly performed by applying NH{sub 3}+H{sub 2} containing gas atmospheres serving as the nitrogen donating medium at temperatures between 673 K and 873 K (400 C and 600 C). NH{sub 3} decomposes at the surface of the metallic specimen and nitrogen diffuses into the surface adjacent region of the specimen whereas hydrogen remains in the gas atmosphere. One of the most important parameters characterizing a gaseous nitriding process is the so-called nitriding potential (r{sub N}) which determines the chemical potential of nitrogen provided by the gas phase. The nitriding potential is defined as r{sub N} = p{sub NH{sub 3}}/p{sub H{sub 2}{sup 3/2}} where p{sub NH{sub 3}} and p{sub H{sub 2}} are the partial pressures of the NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} in the nitriding atmosphere. In contrast with nitriding of α-Fe where the nitriding potential is usually in the range between 0.01 and 1 atm{sup -1/2}, nitriding of Ni and Ni-based alloys requires employing nitriding potentials higher than 100 atm{sup -1/2} and even up to ∞ (nitriding in pure NH{sub 3} atmosphere). This behavior is compatible with decreased thermodynamic stability of the 3d-metal nitrides with increasing atomic number. Depending on the nitriding conditions (temperature, nitriding potential and treatment time), different phases are formed at the surface of the Ni-based alloys. By applying very high nitriding potential, formation of hexagonal Ni{sub 3}N at the surface of the specimen (known as external nitriding) leads to the development of a compound layer, which may improve tribological properties. Underneath the Ni{sub 3}N compound layer, two possibilities exist: (i) alloying element precipitation within the nitrided zone (known as internal nitriding) and/or (ii) development of metastable and

  3. Measurement of {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni by accelerator mass spectrometry at CIAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoming [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); He, Ming, E-mail: minghe@ciae.ac.cn [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Ruan, Xiangdong [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Xu, Yongning [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Shen, Hongtao [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Du, Liang; Xiao, Caijin; Dong, Kejun; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Xuran [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Lan, Xiaoxi [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Wu, Shaoyong; Zhao, Qingzhang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Cai, Li [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Pang, Fangfang [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The long lived isotopes {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni can be used in many areas such as radioactive waste management, neutron dosimetry, cosmic radiation study, and so on. Based on the large accelerator and a big Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the measurement method for {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni is under development at the AMS facility at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). By using the ΔE-Q3D technique with the Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the isobaric interferences were greatly reduced in the measurements of {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni. A four anode gas ionization chamber was then used to further identify isobars. With these techniques, the abundance sensitivities of {sup 59}Ni and {sup 63}Ni measurements are determined as {sup 59}Ni/Ni = 1 × 10{sup −13} and {sup 63}Ni/Ni = 2 × 10{sup −12}, respectively.

  4. Magnetic property and interface structure of Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta multilayers, utilizing Ta as buffer layer, were prepared by rf reactive and dc magnetron sputtering. The exchange coupling field between NiO and NiFe reached a maximum value of 9.6×103 A/m at a NiO film thickness of 50 nm. The composition and chemical states at interface region of Ta/NiO/Ta were studied by using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and peak decomp- osition technique. The results show that there is an "inter- mixing layer" at the Ta/NiO (and NiO/Ta) interface due to a thermodynamically favorable reaction 2Ta + 5NiO = 5Ni + Ta2O5. This interface reaction has a great effect on exchange coupling. The thickness of Ni+NiO estimated by XPS depth- profiles is about 8-10 nm.

  5. Interface chemical states of NiO/NiFe films and their effects on magnetic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于广华; 柴春林; 朱逢吾; 赖武彦

    2002-01-01

    Ta/NiOx/Ni81Fe19/Ta multilayers were prepared by rf reactive and dc magnetron sputtering.The exchange coupling field (Hex) and the coercivity (Hc) of NiOx/Ni81Fe19 as a function of the ratio of Ar to O2 during the deposition process were studied.The composition and chemical states at the interface region of NiOx/NiFe were also investigated using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and peak decomposition technique.The results show that the ratio of Ar to O2 has great effect on the nickel chemical states in NiOx film.When the ratio of Ar to O2 is equal to 7 and the argon sputtering pressure is 0.57 Pa,the x value is approximately 1 and the valence of nickel is +2.At this point,NiOx is antiferromagnetic NiO and the corresponding Hex is the largest.As the ratio of Ar/O2 deviates from 7,the exchange coupling field (Hex) will decrease due to the presence of magnetic impurities such as Ni+3 or metallic Ni at the interface region of NiOx/NiFe,while the coercivity (Hc) will increase due to the metallic Ni.XPS studies also show that there are two thermodynamically favorable reactions at the NiO/NiFe interface: NiO+Fe=Ni+FeO and 3NiO+2Fe=3Ni+Fe2O3.These interface reaction products are magnetic impurities at the interface region of NiO/NiFe.It is believed that these magnetic impurities would have effect on the exchange coupling field (Hex) and the coercivity (Hc) of NiO/NiFe.

  6. Numerical analysis flow around the main valve of hydraulic damper and effect of axial flow force on stability of the damper; Yuatsu benshiki semi acative damper shuben mawari no ryudo suchi kaiseki to ryutairyoku ga damper no anteisei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, N. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Hayashi, S.; Hayase, T.; Shirai, A. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Fluid Science

    2000-01-15

    In this study, the effect of a flange on the compensation of flow force in the main poppet valve of the hydraulic semi-active damper has been studied via numerical simulation. First, validity of the numerical analysis was confirmed by comparison between the computational and experimental results. Then, the mathematical models for the flow force acting on the poppet valves both with or without flange for converged flow were obtained based on the computational results. Introducing these mathematical models to the equivalent model of the whole semi-active damper system in the previous paper, the effects of the flow force on the stability of the damper system were investigated. As the result, the flange improves the stability of the system when the pressure difference and the main valve displacement are relatively large. (author)

  7. Effect of the velocity ratio on the turbulent structure of the plane wall jet under the self-preserving state. 2nd Report. Turbulent field; Jiko hozon jokenka no heimen hekimen funryu no ranryu kozo ni oyobosu sokudohi no eikyo. 2. Ranryuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osaka, H.; Mochizuki, S. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sugihara, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-25

    In this study the plane wall jet under the self-preserving pressure gradient was measured to investigate the effect of the ratio of the maximum velocity Um to the external stream velocity Ue on the turbulent quantities. Velocity ratio Um/Ue was set at three values within the range of 2.0 to 4.0. Under such conditions, three components of turbulent intensity and Reynolds shear stress were measured by using two linearized hot wire anemometers. The turbulent flow is closely self-preserving in the range of 57

  8. Effect of processed oils and fats on cholesterol metabolism. III. ; Comparison of the effects of palm oil, hardened soybean oil and cacao butter. Kako yushi no cholesterol taisha ni oyobosu eikyo. (3). ; Palm yu to koka daizuyu oyobi cacao abura tono eikyo no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, C.; Chimi, K.; Kanematsu, H.; Niiya, I. (Japan Institute of Oils and Fats, Other Foods Inspection, Foundation, Tokyo (Japan)); Shimura, M. (Japan Margaruibe, Shortening and Lard Industries Association, Tokyo (Japan)); Mizutani, H. (Ueda Oils and Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Kobe (Japan)); Hirai, C. (Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Industrial Technology)

    1991-09-20

    Effects on cholesterol contained in serum lipids, levers and feces of rats and the metabolism were compared between palm oil, hardened soybean oil and cacao butter. In addition, the relations to the physical and chemical properties of these oils were also studied. In the case of cacao butter, saturated triglyceride of high fusing point was not contained at all and the main component is 2-oleo-1,3-disaturated glycerides. This component was the main cause for cacao butter to show the unique behavior. Concerning the cholesterol concentrations in lever, the hardened soybean oil group tended to be lower than other 3 groups and this tendency agreed approximately with that in serum. Cholesterol in the feces was also analyzed. Cholesteol content in the case of cacao butter was higher than those for the hardened soybean oil group and palm oil group, and much higher than that of the soybean oil group. But the lathosterol content did not show any significant difference compared with that of palm oil group, and the coprostanol content showed the lower value, which had the significant difference. 14 refs., 1 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Effect of the velocity ratio on the turbulent structure of the plane wall jet under the self-preserving state. 1st Report. ; Conditions for self-preservation and mean flow field. Jiko hozon jokenka no heimen hekimen funryu no ranryu kozo ni oyobosu sokudohi no eikyo. 1. ; Jiko hozon no joken to heikin sokudoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osaka, H.; Mchizuki, S. (Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan)); Tominaga, T. (Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan))

    1991-11-25

    Relation was studied between the turbulent structure and velocity ratio of plane wall jet of the self-preserving liquid, constant in pressure gradient (velocity ratio). The experimental unit for the study is 100mm in height (S{sub 1}) of jet outlet in the flowing field, 384mm in height of external flow outlet, 400mm in width of both those outlets and approximately 2400mm in length of aluminum made plane for the measurement. To measure the mean velocity and frictional stress against wall surface, used were Pitot and Preston tubes. As a velocity ratio, setting was made at the three values, i.e., 2.0, 2.9 and 4.0. The mean flow gives self-preserving characteristics in the range of 57

  10. Surface characterization and gas desorptin measurements. (I). ; Effects of surface treatment for the gas desorption from type 6063 aluminium alloy. Aluminium gokin no hyomen tokusei to gas hoshutsu tokusei. (I). ; 6063 aluminium gokin kara no gas hoshutsu ni oyobosu hyomen shori no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirohata, Y.; Hashiba, M.; Hino, T.; Yamashina, T. (Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1992-01-31

    In the present report, extruded element material of type 6063 aluminum alloy and its diamond lathe-milled material were observed in surface roughness and morphology, and directionally analyzed in surface layer depth to study the correlation between the heated gas desorption and surface processing in the present research report. As a result of study, desorbed gas was known to be mainly water, hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Regardless of desorbed species, the desorbed quantity of gas is larger on the extruded surface. The surface roughness factor being also larger on the extruded surface than that on the diamond lathe-milled surface, the former is about 2.6 times as large as the latter in effective surface area. But, their difference in desorbed quantity of water can not be elucidated by that in surface roughness factor only. In case of using type 6063 aluminum alloy as vacuum vessel material, necessity was known, from the above conclusion, to exist in smoothing the surface to narrow the surface area, strenuously thinning the oxide layer by lathe milling and other processings on the surface, and putting out at about 130 centigrade in temperature to meet the desorption characteristics of water. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Report on the survey made under the research contract with NEDO, `The International Work Division/Energy Demand Effect Survey.`. Influence of the economic growth in Asia on the energy demand; 1996 nendo `kokusai suihei bungyo energy juyo eikyo chosa` itaku chosa kekka hokokusho. Asia no keizai hatten ga energy juyo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report includes surveys on the following: (1) the progress situation of the Asian information society, (2) changes of corporate network, business flow, material flow and money flow in association with the information society, (3) the present situation of the industry-accumulated region in Asia and inter-region network, (4) impacts of the above-mentioned changes on the trade and investment structure in Japan, (5) how to tackle the energy issue in Asia in the future. First, effects of the advance of the information society on energy supply/demand were studied. Next, an analysis was made of effects of the progress of the high-grade information society in Asia on economy, industry and corporate action. The degree of the progress of the information society in Asian countries was made clear from the infrastructure arrangement and the developmental status of application. Contribution of the financial network to the economic growth in Asia and the development were clarified. The organization of corporate networks in Asia where paradigms are converting was made clear to consider industrial clusters in Asia. Last, in the light of the economic relationship between Japan and Asia, a study was made on the future policy of Japan for Asia. 238 refs., 77 figs., 89 tabs.

  12. GRAIN BOUNDARY CHEMISTRY IN Ni3Al AND Ni3Si

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, I; Schulson, E.; Michael, J.; Padgett, R.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the Ni/Al ratio at grain boundary regions in Ni3Al have been performed, using x-ray microanalysis of thin foils in a scanning transmission electron microscope, as a function of both alloy stoichiometry and the addition of boron. It is shown that whilst grain boundaries of Al-rich and stoichiometric Ni3Al have a composition similar to the matrix composition, boundaries in Ni-rich Ni3Al can be highly Ni-enriched. The addition of B to Ni3Al produces Ni enrichment in grain boundar...

  13. Thermodynamic reassessment of Gd–Ni system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahou, Z., E-mail: rahou.zakarea@gmail.com; Mahdouk, K.

    2015-11-05

    By means of CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagrams) approach, the phase diagram and thermodynamic data of the Gd–Ni system were critically assessed. The Gd–Ni system contains four solution phases (liquid, face-centered cubic FCC-A1, body-centered cubic BCC-A2 and hexagonal close-packed HCP-A3) modeled with the Redlich-Kister polynomials and seven intermetallic compounds Gd{sub 3}Ni, GdNi, GdNi{sub 2}, GdNi{sub 3}, Gd{sub 2}Ni{sub 7}, GdNi{sub 5} and Gd{sub 2}Ni{sub 17}, which are all treated as stoichiometric compounds. A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters describing various phases in this binary system was obtained. The phase diagram and thermodynamic quantities calculated from assessed parameters agree well with experimental data.

  14. Electron Density Distributions for Millerite, Vaesite , Heazlewoodite and Ni metal: A Case for the Importance of NiNi Bond Paths for Electron Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, N. L.; Gibbs, G. V.; Downs, R. T.; Prewitt, C. T.; Rosso, K. M.; Cox, D. F.

    2006-12-01

    Bond paths and the bond critical point properties have been calculated for the bonded interactions comprising the Ni sulfide minerals millerite, vaesite and heazlewoodite and Ni metal. The experimental NiS bond lengths decrease linearly as the magnitudes of the properties each increases in value. Bond paths exist between the Ni atoms in heazlewoodite and millerite for NiNi separations that match the shortest separation in Ni metal, an indicator that the Ni atoms are bonded. Bond paths also exist between the Ni atoms in bulk Ni metal. In addition, the bcp properties of the bonded interactions in Ni metal are virtually the same as those in heazlewoodite and millerite. In contrast, NiNi bond paths are absent in vaesite where the NiNi separations are 60% greater than those in Ni metal. The bcp properties for the NiNi bonded interactions scatter along protractions of the NiS bond length-bcp property trends, suggesting that the two bonded interactions have similar characteristics. NiNi bond paths radiate throughout Ni metal and the metallic heazlewoodite structures as continuous networks whereas the NiNi paths in millerite are restricted to isolated Ni3 rings. Electron transport in Ni metal and heazlewoodite is pictured as occurring along the bond paths, which behave as networks of atomic size wires that radiate in a contiguous circuit throughout the two structures. Unlike heazlewoodite, the electron transport in millerite is pictured as involving a cooperative hopping of the d orbital electrons from the Ni3 rings comprising Ni3S9 clusters to Ni3 rings in adjacent clusters via the p orbitals on the interconnecting S atoms. Vaesite, an insulator at low temperatures and a doped semiconductor at higher temperatures, lacks NiNi bond paths.

  15. Submicron particles of Co, Ni and Co–Ni alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Saravanan; T A Jose; P John Thomas; G U Kulkarni

    2001-10-01

    Magnetic sub-micron sized particles (with diameters in the range 100–600 nm) of Co, Ni and Co–Ni alloys, protected with polyvinylpyrrolidone have been prepared in gram quantities using the polyol process. Experiments carried out with different metal precursors and starting compositions have yielded reliable routes to produce particles of the desired diameters in the 100–600 nm range. The particles were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and magnetic measurements. The particles are found to be stable under ambient conditions indefinitely. The coercivity values of the Co and Ni particles are ∼ 50% higher compared to the corresponding bulk values. The alloy particles follow a trend similar to the bulk alloys.

  16. Ni putes ni soumises. Media and women with other gender?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THIÉBLEMONT Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, new women's movements emerge like Ni putes ni soumises (NPNS who give a new approach to activism: not the one on feminists in the classi- cal sense of the term with the connotations it carries, but women carrying claims in the media and through the media on the living conditions of the residents of the suburbs. So, many media will take part in the mediatization of NPNS and its dis-courses, and will serve in some way as a place of “factory” for the public opinion.

  17. Effects of plate thickness on reverse martensitic transformation of prestrained NiTi/NiTi alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhu; CUI Lishan; ZHENG Yanjun

    2007-01-01

    In this Paper, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC)was used to study the effects of predeformation and plate thickness on the reverse martensitic transformation of explosively welded NiTi/NiTi alloy.Results showed that there was a constraint between Ni50.4Ti(NiTi-1)and Ni49.8Ti (NiTi-2),which led to that the thickness of NiTi-1 or NiTi-2 strongly affected the reverse martensitic transformation behavior because residual stress variations in thickness wound enable bias force to be built inside the composite.The DSC measurements showed that after deformation,the reverse martensitic transformation temperature of the composite was increased with the increasing thickness of NiTi-2.Also.the XRD results revealed that the microstructure of NiTi/NiTi alloy changed from B2 phase to B19'phase along the thickness direction.

  18. Preparation and property of duplex Ni-B-TiO2/Ni nano-composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Jen; Wang, Yuxin; Shu, Xin; Tay, Seeleng; Gao, Wei; Shakoor, R. A.; Kahraman, Ramazan

    2015-03-01

    The duplex Nickel-Boron-Titania/Nickel (Ni-B-TiO2/Ni) coatings were deposited on mild steel by using two baths with Ni as the inner layer. TiO2 nanoparticles were incorporated into the Ni-B coatings as the outer layer by using solid particle mixing method. The microstructure, morphology and corrosion resistance of the duplex Ni-B-TiO2/Ni nanocomposite coatings were systemically investigated. The results show that the duplex interface was uniform and the adhesion between two layers was very good. The microhardness of duplex Ni-B-TiO2/Ni coating was much higher than the Ni coating due to the outer layer of Ni-B-TiO2 coating. The corrosion resistance of the duplex Ni-B-TiO2/Ni coating was also significantly improved comparing with single Ni-B coating. The Ni-B-10 g/L TiO2/Ni coating was found to have the best corrosion resistance among these duplex coatings. This type of duplex Ni-B-TiO2/Ni coating, with high hardness and good corrosion resistance properties, should be able to find broad applications under adverse environmental conditions.

  19. The Ni-YSZ interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karin Vels

    The anode/electrolyte interface in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is known to cause electrical losses. Geometrically simple Ni/yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) interfaces were examined to gain information on the structural and chemical changes occurring during experiments at 1000°C in an atmosphere...... content (99.8% Ni and 99.995% Ni) were used to examine the impact of impurities on the polarisation resistance and contact area morphology. The electropolished nickel wires were pressed against a polished 8 mol% YSZ surface. Extensive structural changes from a flat interface to a hill and valley structure...... between polarised and non-polarised samples. With pure nickel wires, however, the microstructures depended on the polarisation/non-polarisation conditions. At non-polarised conditions a hill and valley type structure was found. Anodic polarisation produced an up to 1 μm thick interface layer consisting...

  20. Thermal modeling of NiH2 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponthus, Agnes-Marie; Alexandre, Alain

    1994-01-01

    The following are discussed: NiH2 battery mission and environment; NiH2 cell heat dissipation; Nodal software; model development general philosophy; NiH2 battery model development; and NiH2 experimental developments.

  1. Comprehensive theoretical studies on the low-lying electronic states of NiF, NiCl, NiBr, and NiI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wenli; Liu, Wenjian

    2006-04-21

    The low-lying electronic states of the nickel monohalides, i.e., NiF, NiCl, NiBr, and NiI, are investigated by using multireference second-order perturbation theory with relativistic effects taken into account. For the energetically lowest 11 lambda-S states and 26 omega states there into, the potential energy curves and corresponding spectroscopic constants (vertical and adiabatic excitation energies, equilibrium bond lengths, vibrational frequencies, and rotational constants) are reported. The calculated results are grossly in very good agreement with those solid experimental data. In particular, the ground state of NiI is shown to be different from those of NiF, NiCl, and NiBr, being in line with the recent experimental observation. Detailed analyses are provided on those states that either have not been assigned or have been incorrectly assigned by previous experiments.

  2. CONFIGURATION-INTERACTION IN NI METAL AND NI-ALLOYS AND HIGH-ENERGY SPECTROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TANAKA, A; JO, T; SAWATZKY, GA

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the electronic state of Ni atoms in Ni metal and of Ni impurity in Cu and Au metals from the viewpoint of 3d configuration interaction (CI) using the Anderson impurity model including atomic multiplets. On the basis of the discussion, we give an interpretation for the Ni 2p-core X-ray pho

  3. Density of Liquid Ni-Cr Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloy was measured by a modified sessile drop method. The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloywas found to decrease with increasing temperature and Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of liquidNi-Cr alloy increases with increasing the Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of Ni-Cr alloy determinedin the present work shows a positive deviation from the linear molar volume.

  4. On the similarity of the bonding in NiS and NiO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The bonding in NiS is found to be quite similar to that in NiO, having an ionic contribution arising from the donation of the Ni 4s electron to the S atom and a covalent component arising from bonds between the Ni 3d and the S 3p. The one-electron d bonds are found to be of equal strength for NiO and NiS, but the two-electron d bonds are weaker for NiS.

  5. How carbon nanofibers attach to Ni foam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinthaginjala, J.K.; Thakur, D.B.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2008-01-01

    A stable Carbon-Nano-Fiber (CNF) layer was catalytically grown on Ni foam by decomposing ethylene. Scanning electron microscopy of the cross-section of the deposited layer on Ni foam revealed the presence of two distinct carbon layers; an apparently dense layer (‘C-layer’) at the carbon–Ni interface

  6. Mechanisms of High Coercivity in Ni/NiO Composite Films by Post Annealing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A coercivity as large as 2.4 kOe has been achieved in the Ni/NiO composite film after an annealing under a magnetic field of 10 kOe and an O2 partial pressure of 0.001 torr. The coercivity was attributed to the strong exchange coupling of Ni and NiO. Small grain size of Ni and NiO was observed after the post-annealing. The enhanced coercivity is probably associated with the domain wall pinning by local energy minima, the distribution of Ni and NiO, and the domain structure in the interface of Ni/NiO generated under the presence of the magnetic field during the post-annealing.

  7. Effects of chemical coating with Ni on electrochemical properties of Mg2Ni hydrogen storage alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effects of nickel coating on the electrochemical properties of Mg2Ni hydrogen storage alloys are presented in this paper. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were employed to examine the crystal structure and surface morphologies of the bare and Ni-coated Mg2Ni alloys. The electrochemical properties of alloys were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that Ni coating not only decreased the charge transfer resistance, but also decreased the H atom diflusion resistance for Mg2Ni alloys. It was also found that Ni coating effectively improved the discharge capacity, but decreased the cycling performance of the as-synthesized Ni-coated Mg2Ni alloys. The discharge current has a great impact on the cycling performance of the as-synthesized Ni-coated Mg2Ni alloys.

  8. Kinetics of Ni sorption in soils: roles of soil organic matter and Ni precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenqing; Peltier, Edward; Sparks, Donald L

    2012-02-21

    The kinetics of Ni sorption to two Delaware agricultural soils were studied to quantitatively assess the relative importance of Ni adsorption on soil organic matter (SOM) and the formation of Ni layered double hydroxide (Ni-LDH) precipitates using both experimental studies and kinetic modeling. Batch sorption kinetic experiments were conducted with both soils at pH 6.0, 7.0, and 7.5 from 24 h up to 1 month. Time-resolved Ni speciation in soils was determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) during the kinetic experiments. A kinetics model was developed to describe Ni kinetic reactions under various reaction conditions and time scales, which integrated Ni adsorption on SOM with Ni-LDH precipitation in soils. The soil Ni speciation (adsorbed phases and Ni-LDH) calculated using the kinetics model was consistent with that obtained through XAS analysis during the sorption processes. Under our experimental conditions, both modeling and XAS results demonstrated that Ni adsorption on SOM was dominant in the short term and the formation of Ni-LDH precipitates accounted for the long-term Ni sequestration in soils, and, more interestingly, that the adsorbed Ni may slowly transfer to Ni-LDH phases with longer reaction times.

  9. Synthesis and catalytic performance of SiO2@Ni and hollow Ni microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Liu, Yanhua; Shi, Xueting; Yu, Zhengyang; Feng, Libang

    2016-11-01

    Nickel (Ni) catalyst has been widely used in catalytic reducing reactions such as catalytic hydrogenation of organic compounds and catalytic reduction of organic dyes. However, the catalytic efficiency of pure Ni is low. In order to improve the catalytic performance, Ni nanoparticle-loaded microspheres can be developed. In this study, we have prepared Ni nanoparticle-loaded microspheres (SiO2@Ni) and hollow Ni microspheres using two-step method. SiO2@Ni microspheres with raspberry-like morphology and core-shell structure are synthesized successfully using SiO2 microsphere as a template and Ni2+ ions are adsorbed onto SiO2 surfaces via electrostatic interaction and then reduced and deposited on surfaces of SiO2 microspheres. Next, the SiO2 cores are removed by NaOH etching and the hollow Ni microspheres are prepared. The NaOH etching time does no have much influence on the crystal structure, shape, and surface morphology of SiO2@Ni; however, it can change the phase composition evidently. The hollow Ni microspheres are obtained when the NaOH etching time reaches 10 h and above. The as-synthesized SiO2@Ni microspheres exhibit much higher catalytic performance than the hollow Ni microspheres and pure Ni nanoparticles in the catalytic reduction of methylene blue. Meanwhile, the SiO2@Ni catalyst has high stability and hence it can be recycled for reuse.

  10. Structural evaluation and nonlinear optical properties of Ni/NiO, Ni/NiCo2O4 and Co/Co3O4 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahulan, K. Mani; Padmanathan, N.; Philip, Reji; Balamurugan, S.; Kanakam, Charles C.

    2013-10-01

    Nanocomposites of Ni/NiO, Ni/NiCo2O4 and Co/Co3O4 have been synthesized by a chemical reduction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirm the mixed composite nature of the sample and uniform particle size of approximately 13 nm. Formation of Ni/NiCo3O4 solid solution or NiCo2O4 spinel phase in the mixed composite is confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum. Magnetic hysteresis (M-H) curves of the nanocomposites show excellent ferromagnetic (FM) nature at room temperature. Nonlinear optical transmission of the nanocomposites is measured using the open aperture Z-scan technique employing 7 nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm. Experimental results show that NiO/NiO-Co3O4/Co3O4 nanocomposites exhibit good optical limiting performance. From the measurements and numerical fitting of the data to theory, it is found that nonlinear absorption has contributions from excited state absorption and two-photon absorption. Optical limiting is enhanced in Co3O4 and Ni/NiCo2O4 in which the Co3O4 content has a larger volume ratio.

  11. In situ observation of surface reactions with synchrotron radiation induced semiconductor processes by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy using buried metal layer substrates; Umekomi kinzokuso kiban wo mochiita sekigai hansha kyushu supekutoruho ni yoru hoshako reiki handotai process hanno no sonoba kansatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshigoe, A.; Hirano, S. [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Yokohama (Japan); Mase, K.; Urisu, T. [Institute for Molecular Science, Aichi (Japan)

    1996-11-20

    It is known that infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) on semiconductor or insulator surfaces becomes practicable by using buried metal layer (BML) substrates, in which the metal thin film is buried order semiconductor or insulator films. In this work, IRAS has been measured for Langmuir-Blodgett films deposited on the BML substrate with SiO2/Al/Si(100) structure and the observed spectrum intensity has been quantitatively compared with the calculation assuming the ideal multilayer structure for the BML substrate. The BML-IRAS using CoSi2 has been adopted to the detection of SiHn on the Si (100) substrate during synchrotron radiation (SR) stimulated Si2H6 gas source molecular beam epitaxy. It has been found that SiH2 and SiH3 on the Si (100) surface are easily decomposed by SR, but SiH can`t be decomposed. From these experiments, it has been concluded that the BML-IRAS is an useful in situ observation technique for the photo-stimulated surface reactions. 26 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Influence of bonding temperature on interfacial phases in diffusion-bonded joints of 6063, 5005, and 7NO1 alloys. Report 3. Diffusion-bonding mechanism of aluminum alloys by transmission electron microscopy; 6063, 5005 oyobi 7NO1 gokin no setsugo kaimen no keiseiso ni oyobosu setsugo ondo no eikyo. 3. Toka denshi kenbikyo kansatsu ni yoru Al gokin no kakusan setsugo kiko no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, K. [Industrial Research Inst. of Aichi Prefecture, Aichi (Japan); Ikeuchi, K.; Matsuda, F. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Welding Research Inst.

    1996-05-05

    The authors of the paper have observed oxide films and oxide grains formed at joint interfaces of practical alloys with a transmission electron microscopy up to now. In this paper, among the practical alloys reported in the former report, 3 kinds of alloys with different Mg contents, Al-Mg-Si 6063 alloy, Al-Mg 5005 alloy and Al-Zn-Mg 7N01 alloy are selected, the joint interfaces of the alloys at different bonding temperatures are observed with TEM and the formed phases in the joint interfaces are identified by electron ray diffraction. Then, by comparing the TEM observation results with the bonding strength as well as the tensile fracture, the influences of the formed phase on the bondability are investigated. As the results of the study, the followings are clarified. The oxides formed at the joint interfaces alter from uncrystallized oxide films to crystallized grains with the increasing of the bonding temperature. The uncrystallized oxide films disappear at lower bonding temperature as the Mg content is higher. 7 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Continuum mechanics simulations of NiO/Ni-YSZ composites during reduction and re-oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Kaiser, Andreas;

    2010-01-01

    for the dimensional change arises from the volumetric change related to the phase change NiO ↔ Ni. The measurable change in bulk length is given by the ceramic YSZ backbone as a response to the stress created by the chemical strain. The different subprocesses described in the model for YSZ were elastic and anelastic...... expansion, diffusional creep, grain boundary sliding (GBS) and microcracking due to excessive stress. In the Ni/NiO phase, nonelastic strains in terms of diffusional and power law creep were implemented, and additionally for NiO deformation due to microcracking and/or pseudoplasticity. Semi......-empirical correlations were employed for creep limiting grain growth of Ni and NiO, particle coarsening of Ni and particle growth in NiO during the oxidation. Seven experimental cases of high temperature redox dilatometry were simulated. The model shows good qualitative agreement with the measurements. The different...

  14. Monoligated monovalent Ni: the 3d(Ni)9 manifold of states of NiCu and comparison to the 3d9 States of AlNi, NiH, NiCl, and NiF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschopf, Gretchen K; Morse, Michael D

    2005-12-22

    A dispersed fluorescence investigation of the low-lying electronic states of NiCu has allowed the observation of four out of the five states that derive from the 3d(Ni)9 3d(Cu)10 sigma2 manifold. Vibrational levels of the ground X2delta(5/2) state corresponding to v = 0-11 are observed and are fit to provide omega(e) = 275.93 +/- 1.06 cm(-1) and omega(e)x(e) = 1.44 +/- 0.11 cm(-1). The v = 0 levels of the higher lying states deriving from the 3d(Ni)9 3d(Cu)10 sigma2 manifold are located at 912, 1466, and 1734 cm(-1), and these states are assigned to omega values of 3/2, 1/2, and 3/2, respectively. The last of these assignments is based on selection rules and is unequivocal; the first two are based on a comparison to ab initio and ligand field calculations and could conceivably be in error. It is also possible that the v = 0 level of the state found at 912 cm(-1) is not observed, so that T0 for the lowest excited state actually lies near 658 cm(-1). These results are modeled using a matrix Hamiltonian based on the existence of a ground manifold of states deriving from the 3d9 configuration on nickel. This matrix Hamiltonian is also applied to the spectroscopically well-known molecules AlNi, NiH, NiCl, and NiF. The term energies of the 2sigma+, 2pi, and 2delta states of these molecules, which all derive from a 3d9 configuration on the nickel atom, display a clear and understandable trend as a function of the electronegativity of the ligands.

  15. Bipolar resistive switching of Au/NiOx/Ni/Au heterostructure nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brivio, S.; Perego, D.; Tallarida, G.; Bestetti, M.; Franz, S.; Spiga, S.

    2013-10-01

    Arrays of Au/NiOx/Ni/Au nanowires with a diameter of 50 nm were characterized by conductive atomic force microscopy, which was used to probe the electrical behavior of single nanowires still included in the array. A bipolar switching of the single Au/NiOx/Ni/Au nanowires is demonstrated and is attributed to the choice of an asymmetric couple of electrode materials and, possibly, to a non-uniform Ni oxidation profile inside the NiOx segments. An analysis of the conduction mechanism in a single nanowire is presented to further support this conclusion.

  16. Study on Transfer of Ni in Soil—Plant System Using 63Ni Tracer Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TUCONG

    1996-01-01

    A study was carried out on the transfer of native and added Ni towards plant both in different soils and at different time by using 63 Ni tracer technique.The transfer of added Ni in soil was greater than native Ni and declined as time increased.The mobility was greater for soluble plus exchangeable fraction of soil Ni but very smaller for residual and Fe/Mn oxide bound fractions.These indicated that Ni was more mobile and more harmful in soils with a low pH and /or low content of Fe/Mn oxides.

  17. Manufacture of Raney Ni catalyst with metastable Ni2Al3 by high—energy milling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕荣厚; 马如璋; 等

    1999-01-01

    The Ni-Al alloy containing Cr,Fe additives were prepared as Raney Ni Catalyst by high energy milling.The size and surface state of Ni-Al alloy powder were studied by particle size analyzer and sanning electron microscopy.the Structure was analyzed by XRD and Moessbauer methods.The results showed that after a high-energy milling(HEM).the Ni-Al alloy transforms to a nano-scale NiAl structure with rich Al.By annealing the alloy,a metastable Ni2Al3 phase can be obtained.

  18. Manufacture of Raney Ni catalyst with metastable Ni2Al3 by high-energy milling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The Ni-Al alloy containing Cr, Fe additives were prepared as Raney Ni catalyst by high energy milling. The size and surface state of Ni-Al alloy powder were studied by particle size analyzer and sanning electron microscopy, the structure was analyzed by XRD and Mossbauer methods. The results showed that after a high-energy milling (HEM), the Ni-Al alloy transforms to a nano-scale NiAl structure with rich Al. Byannealing the alloy, a metastable Ni2Al3 phase can be obtained.

  19. El niño

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Freire, Carlos; Aristizábal, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Aquella Navidad Pedro estaba triste porque no paraba de llover y su padre, pescador, regresaba a casa desanimado con las redes vacías. El abuelo de Pedro, otro viejo pescador, consiguió cambiar el semblante de su pequeño nieto contándole las bondades del pronóstico del tiempo. Conoce el fenómeno de El Niño a través de este cuento.

  20. Exclusive study of Ni+Ni and Ni+Au central collisions: phase coexistence and spinodal decomposition; Etude exclusive des collisions centrales Ni+Ni et Ni+Au: coexistence de phase et decomposition spinodale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiot, B

    2002-12-01

    The INDRA multidetector allowed us to study the Ni+Ni collisions at 32A MeV and the Ni+Au collisions at 52,4 MeV. Central collisions leading to 'quasi-fused' systems were isolated using multidimensional analysis techniques: the Discriminant Analysis and the Principal Component Analysis. Comparison with a statistical model shows that the selected events are compatible with thermodynamical equilibrium. The average thermal excitation energy is 5A MeV for both systems. Calculations of heat capacities show that the deexcitation of the hot sources are akin to a liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter. Indeed heat capacities exhibit a negative branch as expected for a phase transition of a finite system. The dynamics of this phase transition has been investigated by applying the charge correlation method. An enhanced production of events with equal-sized fragments has been evidenced for Ni+Au at 52A MeV. No signal was found for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. Finally this method was improved by taking into account the total charge conservation. The signal is seen more clearly for Ni+Au at 52A MeV, but is ambiguous for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. The path followed in the state diagram, or the involved time scales, seem to be different for these systems. (authors)

  1. niños preescolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rosario Portilla Ramírez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio explora la relación entre la escritura y la comprensión de la referencia a través de una tarea de sinonimia en niños entre 5 y 6 años de edad, de origen latinoamericano, escolarizados en Barcelona (España. Las variables relacionadas con la tarea de sinonimia fueron (a la comprensión de la entidad lingüística nombre y (b el nivel de conceptualización de la escritura de los niños y la presencia de etiquetas escritas durante la tarea. Para la tarea de sinonimia se utilizaron pares de sinónimos dialectales del español (de Latinoamérica y de la Península Ibérica. Los resultados mostraron una diferenciación en el razonamiento de los niños, la cual dependía de la comparación entre lenguaje oral y lenguaje escrito en el desarrollo de la tarea, evidenciando una mayor aceptación de la sinonimia en la modalidad de lenguaje oral que en la modalidad de lenguaje escrito.

  2. Comparison of the thermal stabilities of NiSi films in Ni/Si, Ni/Pd/Si and Ni/Pt/Si systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, R N

    2003-01-01

    The effects of different interlayer materials (Pd and Pt) deposited between Ni films and Si substrates on the NiSi thermal stability are discussed. Ni sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 4 sub 3 Pd sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 5 sub 7 Si and Ni sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 4 sub 5 Pt sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 5 sub 5 Si solid solutions were formed when the samples were annealed at high temperatures and the lattice parameters of Ni sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 4 sub 3 Pd sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 5 sub 7 Si were calculated according to Vegard's law. The NiSi thermal stability was enhanced by interposing a Pd or Pt interlayer, and the sample with the Pt interlayer had the highest NiSi thermal stability among all the samples studied. This is attributed to the reduction of the interface energy between NiSi and Si substrates and the decrease of the driving force for the nucleation of NiSi sub 2 , induced by formation of the NiSi(200) preferred orientation and the solid solution respectively.

  3. Magnetic Properties of Grain Boundaries of Nanocrystalline Ni and of Ni Precipitates in Nanocrystalline NiCu Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, H.; Guan, Z.; Li, X.; Wichert, Th.

    2001-11-01

    Perturbed γγ-angular correlation spectroscopy (PAC) was used to investigate nanocrystalline Ni and NiCu alloys, which are prepared by pulsed electrodeposition (PED). Using diffusion for doping nanocrystalline Ni with 111In four different ordered grain boundary structures are observed, which are characterized by unique electric field gradients. The incorporation of 111In on substitutional bulk sites of Ni is caused by moving grain boundaries below 1000 K and by volume diffusion above 1000 K. The nanocrystalline NiCu alloys prepared by PED are microscopically inhomogeneous as observed by PAC. In contrast, this inhomogeneity cannot be detected by X-ray diffraction. The influence of the temperature of the electrolyte, the current density during deposition, and the optional addition of saccharin to the electrolyte on the homogeneity of nanocrystalline NiCu alloys was investigated.

  4. Mixing behaviors in Cu/Ni and Ni/V multilayers induced by cold rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1509 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Perepezko, J.H., E-mail: perepezk@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1509 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Larson, D.; Reinhard, D. [CAMECA Instruments Inc., 5500 Nobel Drive, Madison, WI 53711 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The composition profiles of Cu/Ni and Ni/V multilayers were investigated. • A compositional oscillation was observed in the Cu/Ni composition profile. • The Ni/V composition profile varies smoothly and continuously between end members. • The effective diffusion coefficients were enhanced by about 30 order of magnitudes. • The effective temperature were estimated as 946 K for Cu/Ni and 936 K for Ni/V. - Abstract: Multilayers of Cu60/Ni40 and Ni70/V30 foil arrays were cold rolled in order to study the transformation reactions and mixing behaviors induced by deformation. Upon cold rolling, the layer thicknesses were refined to about 20 nm and solid solution phases were induced from pure end members (i.e. Cu, Ni and V) in both cases. The composition profiles for Cu/Ni and Ni/V multilayer samples at the deformation level where the solid solution phases coexist with end members were investigated by means of atom probe tomography and electron energy loss spectrum, respectively. An oscillation in the composition of Cu–Ni solid solution phase was observed, however the composition profile of Ni/V shows a smoothly varying curve between the end members. The effective diffusion coefficients were promoted by about 30 orders of magnitude for both Cu/Ni and Ni/V compared to room temperature diffusion. The effective temperature for Cu/Ni multilayers after 36 passes and Ni/V after 60 passes are estimated as 946 K and 936 K respectively.

  5. The impact of Ni on the physiology of a Mediterranean Ni-hyperaccumulating plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccotiello, Enrica; Serrano, Helena Cristina; Mariotti, Mauro Giorgio; Branquinho, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    High nickel (Ni) levels exert toxic effects on plant growth and plant water content, thus affecting photosynthesis. In a pot experiment, we investigated the effect of the Ni concentration on the physiological characteristics of the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssoides utriculata when grown on a vermiculite substrate in the presence of different external Ni concentrations (0-500 mg Ni L(-1)). The results showed that the Ni concentration was higher in leaves than in roots, as evidenced by a translocation factor = 3 and a bioconcentration factor = 10. At the highest concentration tested (500 mg Ni L(-1)), A. utriculata accumulated 1100 mg Ni per kilogram in its leaves, without an effects on its biomass. Plant water content increased significantly with Ni accumulation. Ni treatment did not, or only slightly, affected chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. The photosynthetic efficiency (FV/FM) of A. utriculata was stable between Ni treatments (always ≥ 0.8) and the photosynthetic performance of the plant under Ni stress remained high (performance index = 1.5). These findings support that A. utriculata has several mechanisms to avoid severe damage to its photosynthetic apparatus, confirming the tolerance of this species to Ni under hyperaccumulation.

  6. Transparent nanostructured electrodes: Electrospun NiO nanofibers/NiO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamastra, F.R. [Italian Interuniversity Consortium on Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Research Unit Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Nanni, F. [Italian Interuniversity Consortium on Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Research Unit Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Enterprise Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Menchini, F. [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Nunziante, P. [Italian Interuniversity Consortium on Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Research Unit Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Grilli, M.L., E-mail: marialuisa.grilli@enea.it [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy)

    2016-02-29

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/nickel(II) acetate precursor fibers were deposited by electrospinning directly on radio frequency sputtered thin Ni and NiO films grown on quartz substrate, starting from Ni(II) acetate and PVP solution in ethanol. The samples were calcined in air in the temperature range 400–500 °C to obtain transparent and conductive p-type NiO nanofibers on NiO films. A higher density of nanofibers was obtained on Ni/quartz substrates, as compared to NiO/quartz ones, demonstrating the feasibility of fiber adhesion directly to an insulating substrate previously coated by a thin Ni layer. Samples were characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, spectrophotometric and resistance measurements. - Highlights: • Nanostructured electrodes: electrospun NiO nanofibers/NiO films were fabricated. • NiO fibers were directly grown on insulating substrate coated by thin Ni or NiO films. • Good quality crystalline fibers were obtained at low calcination temperatures. • Transparent and conductive p-type electrodes were fabricated.

  7. A threonine stabilizes the NiC and NiR catalytic intermediates of [NiFe]-hydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hamdan, Abbas; Ceccaldi, Pierre; Lebrette, Hugo; Gutiérrez-Sanz, Oscar; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Guigliarelli, Bruno; De Lacey, Antonio L; Léger, Christophe; Volbeda, Anne; Burlat, Bénédicte; Dementin, Sébastien

    2015-03-27

    The heterodimeric [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans catalyzes the reversible oxidation of H2 into protons and electrons. The catalytic intermediates have been attributed to forms of the active site (NiSI, NiR, and NiC) detected using spectroscopic methods under potentiometric but non-catalytic conditions. Here, we produced variants by replacing the conserved Thr-18 residue in the small subunit with Ser, Val, Gln, Gly, or Asp, and we analyzed the effects of these mutations on the kinetic (H2 oxidation, H2 production, and H/D exchange), spectroscopic (IR, EPR), and structural properties of the enzyme. The mutations disrupt the H-bond network in the crystals and have a strong effect on H2 oxidation and H2 production turnover rates. However, the absence of correlation between activity and rate of H/D exchange in the series of variants suggests that the alcoholic group of Thr-18 is not necessarily a proton relay. Instead, the correlation between H2 oxidation and production activity and the detection of the NiC species in reduced samples confirms that NiC is a catalytic intermediate and suggests that Thr-18 is important to stabilize the local protein structure of the active site ensuring fast NiSI-NiC-NiR interconversions during H2 oxidation/production.

  8. Electroless Plated Co-Ni-P-B/Ni Foam Catalyst for Hydrogen Generation from Sodium Borohydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daeil; Kim, Taegyu

    2016-02-01

    Co-Ni-P-B catalyst supported on Ni foam was prepared using electroless plating for hydrogen generation from an alkaline NaBH4 solution. Co-B, Co-P-B, and Co-Ni-B were prepared for comparison. Surface morphology of catalyst/Ni foams were observed using SEM analysis. The Co- Ni-P-B/Ni foam catalyst showed the superior performance on hydrogen generation rate due to the uniform formation of catalyst particles on the surface of Ni foam. Characteristics of hydrogen generation rate on the Co-N-P-B/Ni foam catalyst were investigated at the variety of NaBH4 and NaOH concentrations. The hydrogen generation rate increased with decreasing NaBH4 concentration, while increasing NaOH concentration. Durability test was performed, resulting in the stable hydrogen generation for 6 hours.

  9. Study of the interfacial magnetism in NiO/NiFe system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafur, Miguel, E-mail: umiguelt@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150 - Urca - Rio de Janeiro - 22290-180 RJ (Brazil); Alayo, W. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150 - Urca - Rio de Janeiro - 22290-180 RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, V.P. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo, Rua Humberto de Almeida Francklin 257 - Bairro Universitario, Sao Mateus - 29933-415 ES (Brazil); Xing, Y.T.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150 - Urca - Rio de Janeiro - 22290-180 RJ (Brazil)

    2010-05-31

    The interfacial magnetism of NiO/NiFe bilayers with different NiFe layer thicknesses, produced by DC and RF magnetron sputtering, has been studied by magnetometry and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). In magnetic hysteresis loops, the exchange bias field was found to be inversely proportional to the NiFe layer thickness. The fit using the Meiklejohn and Bean model gives a coupling energy at the NiO/NiFe interface of approximately 0.027 mJ/m{sup 2}. The analysis of the XMCD spectra of Fe and Ni, using the sum rules, shows a reduction of the effective spin magnetic moments in bilayers with NiFe thickness less than 4 nm. This reduction is attributed to hybridization of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic atoms d orbitals near the interface and/or formation of antiferromagnetic alloys due to atomic diffusion at the interfaces.

  10. Composite Ni/NiO-Cr2O3 Catalyst for Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, MK; Jia, QY; Ramaswamy, N; Allen, RJ; Mukerjee, S

    2015-03-12

    We report a Ni-Cr/C electrocatalyst with unpreeedented massactivity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). in alkaline electrolyte. The HER Oietics of numerous binary and ternary Ni-alloys and composite Ni/metal-euride/C samples were evaluated in aquebus 0.1 M KOH electrolyte. The highest HER mass-activity was observed for Ni-Cr materials which exhibit metallic Ni as well as NiOx and Cr2O3 phases as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis. The onset of the HER is significantly improved compared to munerous binary dor ternary Ni-alloys, inCluding Ni Mg materials. It is likely that at adjacent Ni/NiOx sites, the oxide acts as a sink for OHads, while the metallic Ni acts as a, sink for the H-ads, intermediate of the HER, thus minimizing the high activation energy of hydrogen evolution via water reduction. This is confirmed by in situ XAS studies that show that the synergistic HER enhancement is due to NiO content and that the Cr2O3 appears to stabilize the composite NiO component-under HER conditions (where NiOx would typically be reduced to metallic Ni-0). Furthermore, in contrast to Pt, the Ni(O-x)/Cr2O3 catalyst appears resistant to poisoning by the anion.exchange ionomer (AEI), a serloua consideration when applied to an anionic polymer electrolyte interface. Furthermore, we report a: detailed model of the double layer interface which helps explain the observed ensemble effect in the presence of AEI.

  11. Determination of isothermal sections of the Co-Nb-Ni and Ni-Mo-Re ternary systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yan; WANG Richu; YU Kun; WEN Danhua

    2008-01-01

    The isothermal sections of the Co-Nb-Ni ternary system at 1373 K and the Ni-Mo-Re ternary system at 1473 K were determined by means of diffusion triple and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA).The results indicate that there are three three-phase regions found in the Co-Nb-Ni ternary system at 1373 K:(Ni,Co)+NbCo3+ Ni3Nb,NbCo3+NbCo2+Ni3Nb,and NbCo2+μ+Ni3Nb;and four three-phase regions found in the Ni-Mo-Re ternary system at 1473 K:Re+Ni+χ,Ni+NiMo+σ,σ+χ+ Ni,and σ+Mo+NiMo.No ternary eompoond is observed in the two isothermal sections.The isothermal sections arc contrasted with the previous study.

  12. Ni clay neoformation on montmorillonite surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dähn, R; Scheidegger, A; Manceau, A; Schlegel, M; Baeyens, B; Bradbury, M H

    2001-03-01

    Polarized extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (P-EXAFS) was used to study the sorption mechanism of Ni on the aluminous hydrous silicate montmorillonite at high ionic strength (0.3 M NaClO4), pH 8 and a Ni concentration of 0.66 mM. Highly textured self-supporting clay films were obtained by slowly filtrating a clay suspension after a reaction time of 14 days. P-EXAFS results indicate that sorbed Ni has a Ni clay-like structural environment with the same crystallographic orientation as montmorillonite layers.

  13. The Ni-Al-Hf Multiphase Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The generalized Darken method was applied to simulate the diffusion between γ-Ni| γ’-Ni3Al and γ’-Ni3Al|β-NiAl interfaces. The results of calculations were compared with the experimental concentration’s profiles of nickel, aluminum and hafnium in aluminide and hafnium doped aluminide coatings deposited by the CVD and PVD methods on pure nickel. The method deals with the Wagner’s integral diffusion coefficients and thermodynamic data - activities of components. The experimental results agree with the simulated ones.

  14. 酸度对化学镀Ni-P和Ni-Mo-P的影响%Effect of acidity on Ni-P and Ni-Mo-P chemical plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方永奎; 邱安娥; 张翼; 邱万忠

    2002-01-01

    研究了镀液pH值对Ni-P和Ni-Mo-P化学镀镀层的生成速度和镀层中Ni质量分数的影响. 结果表明,镀液的pH值不仅影响Ni的沉积速度,而且影响镀层中Ni的质量分数;镀层生成速度均随镀液pH值增大而出现极大值,但两者的位置有所不同;随镀液pH值增加,Ni-Mo-P镀镀层中w(Ni)出现极大值,而Ni-P镀则是pH值增至一定值后w(Ni)趋于平稳;镀层的生成速度与镀层中w(Ni)的最高点都出现在相同的酸度下,Ni-P镀镀液的最佳pH值为5.5,而Ni-Mo-P镀镀液的最佳pH值为6.5.

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF Ni BIOACCUMULATION BY SYNECHCOCCUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haoran Li; Zhuwei Du; Jianglong Liang; Huiqing Bai; Yali Feng

    2006-01-01

    Influencing factors on bioaccumulation of Ni by Synechcoccus were studied in this paper. The equilibration time of Ni bioaccumulation was about 80 min in aqueous solution. Bioaccumulation quantity reached maximum when mass ratio of Ni to dry weight concentration of Synechcoccus was 16-18%. Bioaccumulation quantity increased with increasing pH. The optimum pH was 9-10 and higher pH led to precipitation of Ni(OH)2. Bioaccumulation quantity was also influenced by temperature and light intensity reaching their optima at 35℃ and 3 000 Ix respectively. Bioaccumulation of nonliving algae was larger than that of living algae.

  16. Morphology controlled synthesis of 2-D Ni-Ni3S2 and Ni3S2 nanostructures on Ni foam towards oxygen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Nitin Kaduba; Oh, Aram; Sa, Young Jin; Jin, Haneul; Baik, Hionsuck; Kim, Sang Gu; Lee, Suk Joong; Joo, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kwangyeol

    2017-03-01

    Catalysts for oxygen evolution reactions (OER) are at the heart of key renewable energy technologies, and development of non-precious metal catalysts with high activity and stability remain a great challenge in this field. Among various material candidates, metal sulfides are receiving increasing attention. While morphology-dependent catalytic performances are well established in noble metal-based catalysts, relatively little is known for the morphology‒catalytic performance relationship in metal sulfide catalysts. In this study, uniform spider web-like Ni nanosheets-Ni3S2 and honeycomb-like Ni3S2 structures are deposited on nickel foam (Ni3S2/NF) by a facile one-step hydrothermal synthetic route. When used as an oxygen evolution electrode, the spider web-like Ni-Ni3S2/NF with the large exposed surface area shown excellent catalytic activity and stability with an overpotential of 310 mV to achieve at 10 mA/cm2 and a Tafel slope of 63 mV/dec in alkaline media, which is superior to the honeycomb-like structure without Ni nanosheet. The low Tafel slope of the spider web-like Ni-Ni3S2/NF represents one of the best OER kinetics among nickel sulfide-based OER catalysts. The results point to the fact that performance of the metal sulfide electrocatalysts might be fine-tuned and optimized with morphological controls.

  17. Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the third-order elastic constants and mechanical properties of NiAl

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaohua

    2014-12-01

    Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite in Al sublattice, Cr in Al sublattice, Pt in Ni sublattice on the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) and third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of the B2 NiAl have been investigated using the first-principles methods. Lattice constant and the SOECs of NiAl are in good agreement with the previous results. The brittle/ductile transition map based on Pugh ratio G/B and Cauchy pressure Pc shows that Ni antisite, Cr, Pt and pressure can improve the ductility of NiAl, respectively. Ni vacancy and lower pressure can enhance the Vickers hardness Hv of NiAl. The density of states (DOS) and the charge density difference are also used to analysis the effects of vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the mechanical properties of NiAl, and the results are in consistent with the transition map. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. First principles exploration of NiO and its ions NiO+ and NiO-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaris, Constantine N; Mavridis, Aristides

    2013-02-07

    We present a high level ab initio study of NiO and its ions, NiO(+) and NiO(-). Employing variational multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) and single reference coupled-cluster methods combined with basis sets of quintuple quality, 54, 20, and 10 bound states of NiO, NiO(+), and NiO(-) have been studied. For all these states, complete potential energy curves have been constructed at the MRCI level of theory; in addition, for the ground states of the three species core subvalence (3s(2)3p(6)∕(Ni)) and scalar relativistic effects have been taken into account. We report energetics, spectroscopic parameters, dipole moments, and spin-orbit coupling constants. The agreement with experiment is in the case of NiO good, but certain discrepancies that need further investigation have arisen in the case of the anion whose ground state remains computationally a tantalizing matter. The cation is experimentally almost entirely unexplored, therefore, the study of many states shall prove valuable to further investigators. The ground state symmetry, bond distances, and binding energies of NiO and NiO(+) are (existing experimental values in parenthesis), X(3)Σ(-)(X(3)Σ(-)), r(e) = 1.606 (1.62712) Å, D(0) = 88.5 (89.2 ± 0.7) kcal/mol, and X(4)Σ(-)(?), r(e) = 1.60(?) Å, D(0) = 55 (62.4 ± 2.4) kcal/mol, respectively. The ground state of NiO(-) is (4)Σ(-) (but (2)Π experimentally) with D(0) = 85-87 (89.2 ± 0.7) kcal/mol.

  19. Effect of air annealing on structural and magnetic properties of Ni/NiO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, K.; Ullah, Asmat; Mushtaq, M.; Kamran, M.; Hussain, S. S.; Mumtaz, M.

    2016-11-01

    We reported systematic study on structural and magnetic properties of nickel/nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) nanoparticles annealed under air atmosphere at different temperatures in the range 400-800 °C. The XRD spectra revealed two phases such as Ni and NiO. The average crystallite size increases with increasing annealing temperature. A phase diagram was developed between two phases versus annealing temperature using XRD analysis. At lower annealing temperatures, Ni phase is dominant which does not easily undergo oxidation to form NiO. The NiO phase increases with increasing annealing temperature. FTIR spectroscopy revealed an increase in the NiO phase content at higher annealing temperature, which is in agreement with the XRD analysis. SEM images showed that nanoparticles are well separated at lower annealing temperatures but get agglomerated at higher annealing temperatures. The ferromagnetic (FM) Ni phase content and saturation magnetization (Ms) showed nearly the same trend with increasing annealing temperature. The nanoparticles annealed at 500 °C and 800 °C revealed highest and lowest Ms values, respectively, which is in accordance with the XRD phase diagram. Coercivity showed an overall decreasing trend with increasing annealing temperature due to decreased concentration of FM Ni phase and increasing average crystallite size. All these measurements indicate that the structural and magnetic properties of Ni/NiO nanoparticles are strongly influenced by the annealing temperature.

  20. Magnetic anisotropy studies on pulsed electrodeposited Ni/Ag/Ni trilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanapal, K.; Revathy, T.A.; Raj, M. Anand [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India); Narayanan, V. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India); Stephen, A., E-mail: stephen_arum@hotmail.com [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Ni/Ag/Ni layered film has been prepared using pulsed electrodeposition method. • Crystalline nature of layered films is confirmed using XRD. • Magnetic easy axis is observed to be parallel to the plane of the film. • Magnetic anisotropy change is dependent on number of layers. • Ni/Ag/Ni layered film shows higher anisotropy energy than pure Ni film. - Abstract: The pulsed electrodeposition method was employed for the deposition of pure Ni, Ni/Ag and Ni/Ag/Ni films due to its greater advantages while comparing with other methods. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the formation of fcc structure for both nickel and silver. The cross sectional scanning electron microscopy shows the layer formation in Ni/Ag and Ni/Ag/Ni films. The metallic nature of the nickel and silver were also confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The magnetic anisotropy behaviour was studied using vibrating sample magnetometer which gives that the easy axis is in plan of the film for all the film.

  1. Porous NiTi shape memory alloys produced by SHS: microstructure and biocompatibility in comparison with Ti2Ni and TiNi3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Paola; Panseri, Silvia; Ruffini, Andrea; Montesi, Monica; Ghetti, Martina; Zanotti, Claudio; Tampieri, Anna; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-10-01

    Shape memory alloys based on NiTi have found their main applications in manufacturing of new biomedical devices mainly in surgery tools, stents and orthopedics. Porous NiTi can exhibit an engineering elastic modulus comparable to that of cortical bone (12-17 GPa). This condition, combined with proper pore size, allows good osteointegration. Open cells porous NiTi was produced by self propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), starting from Ni and Ti mixed powders. The main NiTi phase is formed during SHS together with other Ni-Ti compounds. The biocompatibility of such material was investigated by single culture experiment and ionic release on small specimen. In particular, NiTi and porous NiTi were evaluated together with elemental Ti and Ni reference metals and the two intermetallic TiNi3, Ti2Ni phases. This approach permitted to clearly identify the influence of secondary phases in porous NiTi materials and relation with Ni-ion release. The results indicated, apart the well-known high toxicity of Ni, also toxicity of TiNi3, whilst phases with higher Ti content showed high biocompatibility. A slightly reduced biocompatibility of porous NiTi was ascribed to combined effect of TiNi3 presence and topography that requires higher effort for the cells to adapt to the surface.

  2. Structure-activity relations for Ni-containing zeolites during NO reduction II. Role of the chemical state of Ni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosqueda-Jiménez, B.I.; Jentys, A.; Seshan, K.; Lercher, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the metal in Ni-containing zeolites used as catalysts for the reduction of NO with propane and propene was studied. In the fresh catalysts, Ni is located in ion exchange positions for Ni/MOR, Ni/ZSM-5, and Ni/MCM-22. The formation of carbonaceous deposits, the removal of Al from fra

  3. Characterization of Electrodeposited Nanoporous Ni and NiCu Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koboski, Kyla; Hampton, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Nanoporous thin films are interesting candidates to catalyze certain reactions because of their large surface areas. This project focuses on the deposition of Ni and NiCu thin films on a Au substrate and further explores the catalysis of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Depositions are created using controlled potential electrolysis. Samples are then dealloyed using linear sweep voltammetry. Before and after the dealloying, all the samples are characterized using multiple techniques. Electrochemical capacitance measurements allow comparisons of sample roughness. HER measurements characterize the reactivity of the sample with respect to the specific catalytic reaction. The Tafel equation is fit to the data to obtain information about the kinetics of the HER of the samples. Other methods for characterizing the samples include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The use of SEM allows images to be taken of the deposition to determine the change in the structure pre- and post- dealloy of the sample. EDS allows the elemental composition of the deposition to be determined before and after the dealloy stage. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under RUI Grant DMR-1104725, MRI Grant CHE-1126462, MRI Grant CHE-0959282, and ARI grant PHY-0963317.

  4. Spin polarization effect of Ni2 molecule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Shi-Ying; Zhu Zheng-He

    2008-01-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) method (b3p86) of Gaussian 03 is used to optimize the structure of the Ni2 molecule. The result shows that the ground state for the Ni2 molecule is a 5-multiple state, symbolizing a spin polarization effect existing in the Ni2 molecule, a transition metal molecule, but no spin pollution is found because the wavefunction of the ground state does not mingle with wavefunctions of higher-energy states. So the ground state for Ni2 molecule, which is a 5-multiple state, is indicative of spin polarization effect of the Ni2 molecule, that is, there exist 4 parallel spin electrons in Ni2 molecule. The number of non-conjugated electrons is greatest. These electrons occupy different spatial orbitals so that the energy of the Ni2 molecule is minimized. It can be concluded that the effect of parallel spin in the Ni2 molecule is larger than that of the conjugated molecule, which is obviously related to the effect of electron d delocalization. In addition, the Murrell-Sorbie potential functions with the parameters of the ground state and other states of the Ni2 molecule are derived. The dissociation energy De for the ground state of the Ni2 molecule is 1.835 eV, equilibrium bond length Re is 0.2243 nm, vibration frequency ωe is 262.35 cm-1. Its force constants f2, f3 and f4 are 1.1901 aJ.nm-2, 5.8723 aJ.nm-3, and 21.2505 aJ.nm-4 respectively. The other spectroscopic data for the ground state of the Ni2 molecule ωexe, Be and αe are 1.6315cm-1, 0.1141 cm-1, and 8.0145×10-4 cm-1 respectively.

  5. Angle-resolved XPS Studies of Magnetic Multilayers Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta%磁性多层膜Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta角分辨XPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于广华; 朱逢吾; 马纪东; 王安荣

    2002-01-01

    磁性多层膜Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta由磁控溅射方法制备.采用角分辨X射线光电子能谱(XPS)研究了反铁磁(NiO)/铁磁(NiFe)界面.结果表明,在NiO/NiFe界面发生了化学反应: NiO+Fe = Ni+FeO和3NiO+2Fe =3Ni+Fe2O3,此反应深度约为1~1.5 nm.反应产物将影响NiO对NiFe的交换耦合.

  6. Models of the Ni-L and Ni-SIa States of the [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Active Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Geoffrey M; Huynh, Mioy T; Li, Yulong; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Rauchfuss, Thomas B; Reijerse, Edward; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2016-01-19

    A new class of synthetic models for the active site of [NiFe]-hydrogenases are described. The Ni(I/II)(SCys)2 and Fe(II)(CN)2CO sites are represented with (RC5H4)Ni(I/II) and Fe(II)(diphos)(CO) modules, where diphos = 1,2-C2H4(PPh2)2(dppe) or cis-1,2-C2H2(PPh2)2(dppv). The two bridging thiolate ligands are represented by CH2(CH2S)2(2-) (pdt(2-)), Me2C(CH2S)2(2-) (Me2pdt(2-)), and (C6H5S)2(2-). The reaction of Fe(pdt)(CO)2(dppe) and [(C5H5)3Ni2]BF4 affords [(C5H5)Ni(pdt)Fe(dppe)(CO)]BF4 ([1a]BF4). Monocarbonyl [1a]BF4 features an S = 0 Ni(II)Fe(II) center with five-coordinated iron, as proposed for the Ni-SIa state of the enzyme. One-electron reduction of [1a](+) affords the S = 1/2 derivative [1a](0), which, according to density functional theory (DFT) calculations and electron paramagnetic resonance and Mössbauer spectroscopies, is best described as a Ni(I)Fe(II) compound. The Ni(I)Fe(II) assignment matches that for the Ni-L state in [NiFe]-hydrogenase, unlike recently reported Ni(II)Fe(I)-based models. Compound [1a](0) reacts with strong acids to liberate 0.5 equiv of H2 and regenerate [1a](+), indicating that H2 evolution is catalyzed by [1a](0). DFT calculations were used to investigate the pathway for H2 evolution and revealed that the mechanism can proceed through two isomers of [1a](0) that differ in the stereochemistry of the Fe(dppe)CO center. Calculations suggest that protonation of [1a](0) (both isomers) affords Ni(III)-H-Fe(II) intermediates, which represent mimics of the Ni-C state of the enzyme.

  7. Oxidation kinetics of Ni metallic films: Formation of NiO-based resistive switching structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtade, L.; Turquat, Ch. [L2MP, Laboratoire Materiaux et Microelectronique de Provence, UMR CNRS 6137, Universite du Sud Toulon Var, BP 20132, F-83957 La Garde Cedex (France); Muller, Ch. [L2MP, Laboratoire Materiaux et Microelectronique de Provence, UMR CNRS 6137, Universite du Sud Toulon Var, BP 20132, F-83957 La Garde Cedex (France)], E-mail: christophe.muller@l2mp.fr; Lisoni, J.G.; Goux, L.; Wouters, D.J. [IMEC, Interuniversity MicroElectronics Center, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Goguenheim, D. [L2MP, Laboratoire Materiaux et Microelectronique de Provence, UMR CNRS 6137, ISEN-Toulon, Maison des Technologies, Place Georges Pompidou, F-83000 Toulon (France); Roussel, P. [UCCS, Unite de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, UMR CNRS 8181, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ortega, L. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, UPR CNRS 5031, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-04-30

    Resistive switching controlled by external voltage has been reported in many Metal/Resistive oxide/Metal (MRM) structures in which the resistive oxide was simple transition metal oxide thin films such as NiO or TiO{sub 2} deposited by reactive sputtering. In this paper, we have explored the possibility to form NiO-based MRM structures from the partial oxidation of a blanket Ni metallic film using a Rapid Thermal Annealing route, the remaining Ni layer being used as bottom electrode. X-ray diffraction was used to apprehend the Ni oxidation kinetics while transmission electron microscopy enabled investigating local microstructure and film interfaces. These analyses have especially emphasized the predominant role of the as-deposited Ni metallic film microstructure (size and orientation of crystallites) on (i) oxidation kinetics, (ii) NiO film microstructural characteristics (crystallite size, texture and interface roughness) and (iii) subsequent electrical behavior. On this latter point, the as-grown NiO films were initially in the low resistance ON state without the electro-forming step usually required for sputtered films. Above the threshold voltage varying from 2 to 5 V depending on oxidation conditions, the Pt/NiO/Ni MRM structures irreversibly switched into the high resistance OFF state. This irreversibility is thought to originate in the microstructure of the NiO films that would cause the difficulty to re-form conductive paths.

  8. Purification of a Ni sup 2+ -binding protein, pNiXa, from Xenopus ovary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, B.L.; Makowski, G.S.; Nomoto, S.; Sunderman, F.W. (Univ. of Connecticut, Farmington (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Previous research on nickel-induced teratogenesis in Xenopus laevis identified several Ni{sup 2+}-binding proteins, including pNiXa in Xenopus ovaries, unfertilized eggs, and embryos. A major goal of this research project is elucidating the role of pNiXa in the uptake, embryotoxicity, and teratogenicity of Ni{sup 2+} in Xenopus. To purify and identify pNiXa, ovarian tissue from mature Xenopus females was homogenized in 3 vol of Tris buffer and centrifuged. The supernatant was centrifuged; the ultracentrifugal supernatant was batch-adsorbed onto DEAE-cellulose. The pNiSa remained unbound and was subsequently adsorbed on phosphocellulose and eluted by a step-wise NaCl gradient. The pNiXa was eluted in 0.25 M NaCl; this fraction was concentrated, and further purified by reverse phase chromatography on a 5 {mu}m C-8 column, with a linear trifluoroacetic acid/acetonitrile gradient. The pNiXa was eluted at {approximately}56% acetonitrile, yielding a single protein band with mol wt {approximately}47 kD,based on SDS-PAGE analysis. Comparison of the amino acid composition of pNiXa versus the results obtained by automated Edman degradation indicated that the N-terminus of pNiXa was blocked. Sequencing of peptide fragments of pNiXa is underway.

  9. Formation of dioxins on NiO and NiCl2 at different oxygen concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Yan, Mi; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Chen, Tong; Yan, Jianhua; Olie, Kees; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-08-01

    Model fly ash (MFA) containing activated carbon (AC) as source of carbon, NaCl as source of chlorine and either NiO or NiCl2 as de novo catalyst, was heated for 1h at 350 °C in a carrier gas flow composed of N2 containing 0, 6, 10, and 21 vol.% O2, to study the formation of PCDD/Fs (dioxins) and its dependence on oxygen. The formation of PCDD/Fs with NiCl2 was stronger by about two orders of magnitude than with NiO and the difference augmented with rising oxygen concentration. The thermodynamics of the NiO-NiCl2 system were represented, X-ray absorption near edge structural (XANES) spectroscopy allowed to probe the state of oxidation of the nickel catalyst in the MFA and individual metal species were distinguished using the LCF (Linear combination fitting) technique: thus three supplemental nickel compounds (Ni2O3, Ni(OH)2, and Ni) were found in the fly ash. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicates that both Ni2O3 and NiCl2 probably played an important role in the formation of PCDD/Fs.

  10. Abrasive wear property of laser melting/deposited Ti2Ni/TiNi intermetallic alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A wear resistant intermetallic alloy consisting of TiNi primary dendrites and Ti2Ni matrix was fabricated by the laser melting deposition manufacturing process. Wear resistance of Ti2Ni/TiNi alloy was evaluated on an abrasive wear tester at room temperature under the different loads. The results show that the intermetallic alloy suffers more abrasive wear attack under low wear test load of 7, 13 and 25 N than high-chromium cast-iron. However, the intermetallic alloy exhibits better wear resistance under wear test load of 49 N. Abrasive wear of the laser melting deposition Ti2Ni/TiNi alloy is governed by micro-cutting and plowing.Pseudoelasticity of TiNi plays an active role in contributing to abrasive wear resistance.

  11. Preparation of ZnNiMo/{gamma}-alumina catalysts from recycled Ni for hydrotreating reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, Carlos F.; Lopez, Julio [Laboratorio de Catalisis y Metales de Transicion, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia Edo Carabobo, Apartado Postal 3336 (Venezuela); Scaffidi, Adriana; Scott, Carlos E. [Centro de Catalisis, Petroleo y Petroquimica, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ciencias, Apartado 47102, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2005-09-18

    Ni, recovered from Ni-Cd cellular phone batteries, was used in the preparation of ZnNiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by temperature programmed reductions (TPR), surface area determinations (BET) and chemical analysis. Vanadyl octaethyl porphyrin (VOOEP) hydrodeporphyrinization (HDP) and thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) were used as catalytic tests. It was found that the addition of Zn increases the ratio between octahedral and tetrahedral Mo in ZnMo and ZnNiMo catalysts, and that Ni addition lowers the reduction temperature of Mo species. Both results induce a positive synergetic effect for HDP and HDS reactions. An activity maximum was found for the catalyst with a Zn/(Zn+Ni) atomic ratio equal to 0.29, for both reactions. Finally, the use of a possible pollutant (Ni-Cd batteries) to produce a catalyst to eliminate contaminants in fuels was shown to be feasible.

  12. Predictability of the Ningaloo Niño/Niña.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Takeshi; Behera, Swadhin K; Yamagata, Toshio

    2013-10-08

    The seasonal prediction of the coastal oceanic warm event off West Australia, recently named the Ningaloo Niño, is explored by use of a state-of-the-art ocean-atmosphere coupled general circulation model. The Ningaloo Niño/Niña, which generally matures in austral summer, is found to be predictable two seasons ahead. In particular, the unprecedented extreme warm event in February 2011 was successfully predicted 9 months in advance. The successful prediction of the Ningaloo Niño is mainly due to the high prediction skill of La Niña in the Pacific. However, the model deficiency to underestimate its early evolution and peak amplitude needs to be improved. Since the Ningaloo Niño/Niña has potential impacts on regional societies and industries through extreme events, the present success of its prediction may encourage development of its early warning system.

  13. Preparation and Properties of Amorphous NiFe/Cu/NiFe Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Yun; JIANG Ya-dong; HU Wen-cheng; ZENG Hong-juan

    2004-01-01

    The amorphous of Permalloy on the copper subtract was studied using composite electroplating method. A portion of hydrogen brings the counteraction on the surface of cathode leading nickel-iron alloys to be anomalous in the process of co-depositing. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) show that the Ni-Fe alloys layer is amorphous. The Giant Magneto -Impedance (GMI) effect of Ni-Fe alloys was obtained under the optimal conditions, dependence on the soft magnetic property of Ni-Fe amorphous thin film. As a result, the ratios△ Z/Z of NiFe/Cu/NiFe amorphous thin film are 30% at 40 kHz which is in low frequency. Furthermore, the GMI value of NiFe/Cu/NiFe amorphous thin film with a sandwich structure is higher than that of single-layer ferromagnetic films of the same thickness.

  14. Nanoscale structural heterogeneity in Ni-rich half-Heusler TiNiSn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, Jason E., E-mail: jedouglas@mrl.ucsb.edu; Pollock, Tresa M. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Chater, Philip A. [Diamond Light Source, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Brown, Craig M. [Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Seshadri, Ram [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-10-28

    The structural implications of excess Ni in the TiNiSn half-Heusler compound are examined through a combination of synchrotron x-ray and neutron scattering studies, in conjunction with first principles density functional theory calculations on supercells. Despite the phase diagram suggesting that TiNiSn is a line compound with no solid solution, for small x in TiNi{sub 1+x}Sn there is indeed an appearance—from careful analysis of the scattering—of some solubility, with the excess Ni occupying the interstitial tetrahedral site in the half-Heusler structure. The analysis performed here would point to the excess Ni not being statistically distributed, but rather occurring as coherent nanoclusters. First principles calculations of energetics, carried out using supercells, support a scenario of Ni interstitials clustering, rather than a statistical distribution.

  15. Thermodynamic Analysis of Electrodeposited Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-P Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhong-cheng; XU Rui-dong; WANG Ji-kun

    2004-01-01

    The potential-pH diagram of Ni-P-H2O system is calculated and constructed by use of thermodynamic data. On the basis of the potential-pH diagram the electrochemical behaviors of electrodepositing Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-P alloys are analyzed. The phases of Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-P coatings are identified by means of X-ray diffraction analysis. The thermodynamic analysis shows that it is difficult to deposit Mo or P individually from its aqueous solution, and they must be co-deposited with other metals by induced deposition; P and Ni can be deposited as compound Ni3P on the cathode; Mo is deposited in two forms: one is in the form of MoO3 solid particles and the other is in the form of compound MoC. X-ray diffraction analysis is in agreement with the thermodynamic analysis.

  16. Charge ordering in Ni1 +/Ni2 + nickelates: La4Ni3O8 and La3Ni2O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botana, Antia S.; Pardo, Victor; Pickett, Warren E.; Norman, Michael R.

    2016-08-01

    Ab initio calculations allow us to establish a close connection between the Ruddlesden-Popper layered nickelates and cuprates not only in terms of filling of d levels (close to d9) but also because they show Ni1 +(S =1 /2 ) /Ni2 +(S =0 ) stripe ordering. The insulating charge-ordered ground state is obtained from a combination of structural distortions and magnetic order. The Ni2 + ions are in a low-spin configuration (S =0 ) yielding an antiferromagnetic arrangement of Ni1 + S =1 /2 ions like the long-sought spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic insulator analog of the cuprate parent materials. The analogy extends further with the main contribution to the bands near the Fermi energy coming from hybridized Ni dx2-y2 and O p states.

  17. NiAl alloys for structural uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys based on the intermetallic compound NiAl are of technological interest as high temperature structural alloys. These alloys possess a relatively low density, high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity, and (usually) good oxidation resistance. However, NiAl and NiAl-base alloys suffer from poor fracture resistance at low temperatures as well as inadequate creep strength at elevated temperatures. This research program explored macroalloying additions to NiAl-base alloys in order to identify possible alloying and processing routes which promote both low temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength. Initial results from the study examined the additions of Fe, Co, and Hf on the microstructure, deformation, and fracture resistance of NiAl-based alloys. Of significance were the observations that the presence of the gamma-prime phase, based on Ni3Al, could enhance the fracture resistance if the gamma-prime were present as a continuous grain boundary film or 'necklace'; and the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was ductile in ribbon form despite a microstructure consisting solely of the B2 beta phase based on NiAl. The ductility inherent in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was explored further in subsequent studies. Those results confirm the presence of ductility in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy after rapid cooling from 750 - 1000 C. However exposure at 550 C caused embrittlement; this was associated with an age-hardening reaction caused by the formation of Fe-rich precipitates. In contrast, to the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy, exploratory research indicated that compositions in the range of Ni-35Al-12Fe retain the ordered B2 structure of NiAl, are ductile, and do not age-harden or embrittle after thermal exposure. Thus, our recent efforts have focused on the behavior of the Ni-35Al-12Fe alloy. A second parallel effort initiated in this program was to use an alternate processing technique, mechanical alloying, to improve the properties of NiAl-alloys. Mechanical alloying in the

  18. One-neutron knockout from $^{57}$Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Yurkewicz, K L; Brown, B A; Enders, J; Gade, A; Glasmacher, T; Hansen, P G; Maddalena, V; Navin, A; Sherrill, B M; Tostevin, J A

    2006-01-01

    The single-particle structure of $^{57}$Ni and level structure of $^{56}$Ni were investigated with the \\mbox{$^{9}$Be ($^{57} $Ni,$^{56}$Ni+$\\gamma$)$\\it{X}$} reaction at 73 MeV/nucleon. An inclusive cross section of 41.4(12)~mb was obtained for the reaction, compared to a theoretical prediction of 85.4 mb, hence only 48(2)% of the theoretical cross section is exhausted. This reduction in the observed spectroscopic strength is consistent with that found for lighter well-bound nuclei. One-neutron removal spectroscopic factors of 0.58(11) to the ground state and 3.7(2) to all excited states of $^{56}$Ni were deduced.

  19. Tensile deformation of NiTi wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Ken; Tyber, Jeff; Brice, Valerie; Frick, Carl P; Maier, Hans J; Morgan, Neil

    2005-12-15

    We examine the structure and properties of cold drawn Ti-50.1 at % Ni and Ti-50.9 at % Ni shape memory alloy wires. Wires with both compositions possess a strong fiber texture in the wire drawing direction, a grain size on the order of micrometers, and a high dislocation density. The more Ni rich wires contain fine second phase precipitates, while the wires with lower Ni content are relatively free of precipitates. The wire stress-strain response depends strongly on composition through operant deformation mechanisms, and cannot be explained based solely on measured differences in the transformation temperatures. We provide fundamental connections between the material structure, deformation mechanisms, and resulting stress-strain responses. The results help clarify some inconsistencies and common misconceptions in the literature. Ramifications on materials selection and design for emerging biomedical applications of NiTi shape memory alloys are discussed.

  20. A dinuclear Ni(II) complex with two types of intramolecular magnetic couplings: Ni(II)-Ni(II) and Ni(II)-TTF*+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi-Xia; Ambrus, Christina; Dolder, Stefan; Neels, Antonia; Decurtins, Silvio

    2006-11-27

    A dinuclear Ni(II) complex involving tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) radicals as ligands has been prepared and characterized, [Ni2(mu-Cl)2(L*+)2(I3)4(I2)3.(H2O)2.(C4H8O)3 (1), L = 4,5-bis(2-pyridylmethylsulfanyl)-4',5'-ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene. There are two types of intramolecular magnetic exchange interactions, namely one ferromagnetic Ni(II)-Ni(II) and one antiferromagnetic Ni(II)-TTF*+. This study is new in the respect of revealing a magnetic exchange interaction between a TTF*+ radical and a paramagnetic transition metal ion. This is due to the fact of a direct binding of the transition metal ion to the skeleton of the TTF*+ radical.

  1. Microscopic phase field study of the antisite defect of Ni3 Al in binary Ni-Al alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The temporal evolution feature of a microscopic phase field model is utilized to study the antisite defects of L1 2-Ni 3 Al;this is quite different from other physicist’ interests.There are mainly two points in brief.Firstly,antisite defects Ni Al and Al Ni ,which are caused by the deviation from the stoichiometric Ni 3 Al,coexist in the Ni 3 Al phase.The surplus Ni atom in the Ni-rich side is prone to substitute Al thus producing the antisite defect Ni Al that maintains the stability of the L1 2 structure.In other case,the surplus Al atom in the Al-rich side is accommodated by a Ni sublattice consequently giving rise to antisite defect Al Ni .The calculated equilibrium occupancy probability of Ni Al is much higher than that of Al Ni .This point is generally in line with other theoretical and experimental works.Additionally,both Ni Al and Al Ni have a strong negative correlation to time step during the disorder-order transformation.Since the initial value of Ni Al and Al Ni on each site of the matrix is right at the concentration that we set,we can observe the decrease process of Ni Al and Al Ni from the initial disordered high anti-structure state to their respective equilibrium state,i.e.to the result of the ordering process further coarsening.

  2. Thermodynamic assessment of the Ni-Sb binary system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zhanmin; TAKADU Yoshikazu; OHNUMA Ikuo; KAINUMA Ryosuke; ZHU Hongmin; ISHIDA Kiyohito

    2008-01-01

    The Ni-Sb binary alloy system was thermodynamically assessed using CALPHAD approach in this article.Excess Gibbs energies of solution phases,liquid and fcc phases,were formulated using the Redlich-Kister expression.The intermediate phases were modeled by the sublattice model with (Ni,Va)0.5(Ni,Sb)0.25(Ni)0.25 for Ni3Sb_HT phase and (Ni,Va)0.3333(Sb)0.3333(Ni,Va)0.3333 for NiSb phase.The other phases including Ni3Sb,Ni7Sb3,and NiSb2 were treated as stoichiometric compound owing to their narrow composition ranges.Based on the reported thermodynamic properties and phase diagram data,the thermodynamic parameters of these phases were optimized,and the obtained values can reproduce the available experimental data well.

  3. See kunst ei ela su korteri seinal! / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2009-01-01

    Kiasma näitus "Full House" (17.10.2008-18.01.2009) eksponeeris minimalistlikku kunsti. Näitus oli koostatud kunstikoguja Pentti Kouri kollektsiooni baasil, lisaks oli eksponaate Guggenheimi Muuseumist (New York)

  4. Various investigations in Tallinn and Harjumaa / Villu Kadakas, Hanno Nilov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kadakas, Villu

    2004-01-01

    Eeluuringud Rataskaevu 22/Lühike Jalg 4 ; keskaegse eluhoone väljakaevamine Pirita Kloostri tee 12 ; veetrassi järelevalve Toompeal Kohtu t. 8 kinnistul ; eeluuringud Ristikangrumäe kalmeväljal Manniva külas ; eeluuringud Padise kloostri lõunatiivas ; kaevamised Sulevimägi 4/6 kinnistul ; järelevalve ja veetrassi kaevamine Pikk t. 33/35 ; kaevamised Lehmja asulakohal

  5. Lasteaiad jäägu lastele / Hanno Pevkur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pevkur, Hanno, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna volikogu liige selgitab, miks temas tekitab küsitavusi linnavalitsuse kava rajada Tallinnasse 100 uut mänguväljakut. Autor leiab, et mänguväljakud saab rajada kavandatust neli korda odavamalt ning nad peaksid jääma ainult lasteaedade laste kasutada

  6. Asjade seis, viimane vaatus... / Anders Härm, Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Muutustest ühiskonnas ja vastuoludest kunstielus pärast kolme üheaegselt toimunud noortenäitust - Härmi-Soansi kureeritud "Uus laine. 21. sajandi Eesti kunstnikud", Non Grata "Uus laine. 21. sajandi kunst" ja Andres Lõo kureeritud "Pomo Sapiens"i, ka näituse kuraatorikontseptsioonidest, Non Grata juhtfiguuridest ja kriitikast

  7. Kahe venna suured ärid / Peeter Raidla, Hanno Tomberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raidla, Peeter, 1955-

    1997-01-01

    Ärimeestest vendade tegevus ja nende osalusega firmad: AS BKE, AS Eferelt, AS Standard, AS Kodax, Eesti Näituste AS, Expodi-Saini AS. Ilmunud ka: Molodjozh Estonii : Kupetsheskaja Gavan 11. apr. lk. 8

  8. Hea tahte mängud Helsingis / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2003-01-01

    3. ja 4. XII Kiasmas toimunud seminarist "Institutsioonid ruudus", mis tutvustas kümmet kaasaegse kunstiga tegelevat institutsiooni Euroopas ja nende uusi töömudeleid seminari, workshopide ja näituse abil. Eestit esindas Silva Lutsu sketsh Tellervo Kalleineni videos "In the Middle of the Movie", seminaril olid H. Soans, Reiu Tüür, Eve Kiiler

  9. Teine nahk ehk Ornament ja meie / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2003-01-01

    Arhitekt Adolf Loosi suhtumine ornamenti ja nahakaunistustesse, tattoo tagasitulek käibesse läänes XX sajandi II poolel. EKA nahakunsti eriala diplomandi Kerstin Raidma lõputööst, mis sisaldas seeria levinumaid tätoveeringupiirkondi katvaid nahast ehteid, lühidalt sama eriala lõpetaja Agnetha Kurusoni lõputööst "Kest" ja lõputööde hinnetest

  10. Various investigations in Tallinn and Harjumaa / Villu Kadakas, Hanno Nilov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kadakas, Villu

    2004-01-01

    Eeluuringud Rataskaevu 22/Lühike Jalg 4 ; keskaegse eluhoone väljakaevamine Pirita Kloostri tee 12 ; veetrassi järelevalve Toompeal Kohtu t. 8 kinnistul ; eeluuringud Ristikangrumäe kalmeväljal Manniva külas ; eeluuringud Padise kloostri lõunatiivas ; kaevamised Sulevimägi 4/6 kinnistul ; järelevalve ja veetrassi kaevamine Pikk t. 33/35 ; kaevamised Lehmja asulakohal

  11. Palgatöölise perspektiivid rahvusvahelises kunstis / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2010-01-01

    Töötemaatikat käsitlev rahvusvaheline näitus "Blue Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt Santiago Sierra (Hispaania), kunstnikeduo Kennedy Browne'i (Iirimaa) ja Francis Alÿs'e (Belgia, Mehhiko) töödest

  12. Skaalanihe : kunstnikud räägivad / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Kunstnikud tutvustavad Kumus avanäitusel eksponeeritud kunstiteoseid: Anssi Kasitonni "Jah-monstrum", Chris Evans "Radikaalne lojaalsus", Neeme Külm "Betooni valatud lehm", Cevdet Erek "Teine sild", Heli Ryhänen "Ootus", Hans Hammert "Õhupallikabel", Veronica Brovall "Lahutus", Karsten Konrad "Supersuziseacat", Anders Krüger "Mis silma alt ära, see unustatud", Tommy Stockel "Tulevaste asjade kuju"

  13. Lasteaiad jäägu lastele / Hanno Pevkur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pevkur, Hanno, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna volikogu liige selgitab, miks temas tekitab küsitavusi linnavalitsuse kava rajada Tallinnasse 100 uut mänguväljakut. Autor leiab, et mänguväljakud saab rajada kavandatust neli korda odavamalt ning nad peaksid jääma ainult lasteaedade laste kasutada

  14. Hea tahte mängud Helsingis / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2003-01-01

    3. ja 4. XII Kiasmas toimunud seminarist "Institutsioonid ruudus", mis tutvustas kümmet kaasaegse kunstiga tegelevat institutsiooni Euroopas ja nende uusi töömudeleid seminari, workshopide ja näituse abil. Eestit esindas Silva Lutsu sketsh Tellervo Kalleineni videos "In the Middle of the Movie", seminaril olid H. Soans, Reiu Tüür, Eve Kiiler

  15. Palgatöölise perspektiivid rahvusvahelises kunstis / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2010-01-01

    Töötemaatikat käsitlev rahvusvaheline näitus "Blue Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt Santiago Sierra (Hispaania), kunstnikeduo Kennedy Browne'i (Iirimaa) ja Francis Alÿs'e (Belgia, Mehhiko) töödest

  16. Skaalanihe : kunstnikud räägivad / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Kunstnikud tutvustavad Kumus avanäitusel eksponeeritud kunstiteoseid: Anssi Kasitonni "Jah-monstrum", Chris Evans "Radikaalne lojaalsus", Neeme Külm "Betooni valatud lehm", Cevdet Erek "Teine sild", Heli Ryhänen "Ootus", Hans Hammert "Õhupallikabel", Veronica Brovall "Lahutus", Karsten Konrad "Supersuziseacat", Anders Krüger "Mis silma alt ära, see unustatud", Tommy Stockel "Tulevaste asjade kuju"

  17. Udo Ivask on eesti eksliibrise vanaisa / Hanno Lepik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepik, Hanno

    2008-01-01

    Esimesest eesti kunstipärase eksliibrise loojast ja eksliibristeuurijast Udo-Nestor Ivaskist. Udo Ivaski esimene eksliibris valmis tema isale 14. märtsil 1898. aastal. Illustratsiooniks eri loomeperioodide töid

  18. Teine nahk ehk Ornament ja meie / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2003-01-01

    Arhitekt Adolf Loosi suhtumine ornamenti ja nahakaunistustesse, tattoo tagasitulek käibesse läänes XX sajandi II poolel. EKA nahakunsti eriala diplomandi Kerstin Raidma lõputööst, mis sisaldas seeria levinumaid tätoveeringupiirkondi katvaid nahast ehteid, lühidalt sama eriala lõpetaja Agnetha Kurusoni lõputööst "Kest" ja lõputööde hinnetest

  19. The cytotoxicity of NiO nanoparticle with borate capping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zunjing; Wang, Yongjing; Pan, Danmei; Chen, Zhi; Pan, Xiaohong; Wang, Yonghao; Lin, Zhang

    2011-11-01

    The impact of surface capping on cytotoxicity of NiO nanoparticle was investigated with Escherichia coil (E.coli) in this work. The NiO nanoparticle and NiO nanoparticle capped by borate (denoted as NiO-borate) were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The average size of both nanoparticles is about 4.0 nm. The plate experiments demonstrated that NiO-borate nanoparticles show lower cytotoxicity than NiO nanopaticles. Further spectrophotometric analysis revealed that the concentration of both extracellular and intercellular Ni2+ in NiO-borate system were lower than that of uncapped one. Intracellular ICP-AES analysis also showed the concentration of Ni element was higher than Ni2+, suggesting the NiO nanoparticles might penetrate into the cellular interior. Comprehensive AFM, SEM and TEM observation illustrated both NiO-borate and NiO nanoparticles lead to the collapse of cellular body, the convex on the cell wall and the damage of cell wall ultimately. In summary, the surface capping with borate on NiO nanopaticles will suppress the release of the Ni2+ ions and impede the contact between the NiO nanoparticle and cell wall, which ultimately decreased the cytotoxicity of NiO nanoparticles.

  20. Relation between shape of Ni-particles and Ni migration in Ni-YSZ electrodes – a hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hauch, Anne; Sun, Xiufu

    2016-01-01

    pressure (pH2O) gradient as previously observed [1], but in the present cases Ni seems to migrate up the pH2O gradient. However, it is also observed that there is a preceding phase in this Ni-YSZ electrode degradation, namely that the Ni-particles closest to the YSZ electrolyte loose contact to each other....... This means that the active three phase boundary (TPB) moves away from the electrolyte and causes a significant increase in the ohmic resistance as is also observed in electrochemical impedance spectra....

  1. Synthesis, structure and reactivity of Ni site models of [NiFeSe] hydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombwell, Claire; Reisner, Erwin

    2014-03-21

    A series of structural models of the Ni centre in [NiFeSe] hydrogenases has been developed which exhibits key structural features of the Ni site in the H2 cycling enzyme. Specifically, two complexes with a hydrogenase-analogous four-coordinate 'NiS3Se' primary coordination sphere and complexes with a 'NiS2Se2' and a 'NiS4' core are reported. The reactivity of the complexes towards oxygen and protons shows some relevance to the chemistry of [NiFeSe] hydrogenases. Exposure of a 'NiS3Se' complex to atmospheric oxygen results in the oxidation of the selenolate group in the complex to a diselenide, which is released from the nickel site. Oxidation of the selenolate ligand on Ni occurs approximately four times faster than oxidation with the analogous sulfur complex. Reaction of the complexes with one equivalent of HBF4 results in protonation of the monodentate chalcogenolate and the release of this ligand from the metal centre as a thiol or selenol. Unrelated to their biomimetic nature, the complexes serve also as molecular precursors to modify electrodes with Ni-S-Se containing particles by electrochemical deposition. The activated electrodes evolve H2 in pH neutral water with an electrocatalytic onset potential of -0.6 V and a current density of 15 μA cm(-2) at -0.75 V vs. NHE.

  2. Niño maltratado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ivis Crespo Barrios

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 200 niños maltratados que acuden al Hospital Pediátrico Docente "Juan Manuel Márquez" en el período comprendido de diciembre de 1990 a enero de 1992; éstos fueron seleccionados teniendo en cuenta los criterios de maltrato, y era el objetivo fundamental del estudio conocer cómo se comporta en nuestro medio. En los resultados se muestra que la forma más frecuente fue el tipo no intencional; la ingestión de tóxicos fue la forma de negligencia física más frecuente dentro del maltrato no intencional, ésta es más usual en los niños menores de 5 años; los trastornos psiquiátricos y el alcoholismo son favorecedores del maltrato intencional, la madre es la que más maltrata; la mortalidad por esta causa no fue elevada (5 fallecidos y los criterios de riesgo de maltrato tienen utilidad para su identificación.200 mistreated children who were seen at the "Juan Manual Márquez" Pediatric Teaching Hospital from December, 1990 to January, 1992, are presented. These patients were selected taking into consideration the abuse criteria. The main objective of this paper was to know how these criteria behave in our enviroment. According to the results, the most common form was the non-intentional type. The ingestion of toxic agents was the most frequent form of physical neglect within the non-intentional mistreatment, and it is the most usual among children under 5. Psychiatric disorders and alcoholism favor the intentional mistreatment, and the mother mistreats the most. Mortality due to this cause was not high (5 deaths, and the abuse risk criteria are useful for its identification.

  3. Effect of Electromigration on Interfacial Reaction in Ni/Sn/Ni-P Solder Joint%电迁移对Ni/Sn/Ni-P焊点界面反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雷达; 周少明; 黄明亮

    2012-01-01

    The line-type Ni/Sn/Ni-P(Au) solder joints were used to determine the effect of electromigration (EM) on interfacial reaction under the current density of 5.0×103 A/cm2 at 150 ℃. For comparison, the Ni/Sn/Ni-P(Au) interconnects were aged at the same temperature for the same duration. The results show that the current direction plays an important rule on Ni-P layer consumption. When electrons flowed from Ni-P side to Ni side (Ni-P layer was the cathode), EM accelerated the Ni-P layer consumption. More Ni-P layer was consumed with increasing EM time. After EM for 100 h and 200 h, 5.88 μm and 13.46 urn Ni-P layer were consumed, respectively. Instead of Ni3Sn4, Ni2SnP IMC layer was observed at the Sn/Ni-P interface, and there was a porous Ni3P layer between Ni2SnP IMC and Ni-P. When electrons flowed from Ni side to Ni-P side (Ni-P layer was the anode), no obvious Ni-P layer consumption was observed during EM, and Ni3Sn4 IMC formed at the Sn/Ni-P interface. The thickness of the Ni3Sn4 IMC increased slowly with increasing EM time and reached to 1.81 μm after EM for 200 h.%研究了温度为150℃,电流密度为5.0×103A/cm2的条件下电迁移对Ni/Sn/Ni-P(Au)线性接头中界面反应的影响.结果表明电流方向对Ni-P层的消耗起着决定作用.当Ni-P层为阴极时,电迁移加速了Ni-P层的消耗,即随着电迁移时间的延长,Ni-P层的消耗显著增加;电迁移100 h后Ni-P层消耗了5.88 μm,电迁移200 h后Ni-P层消耗了13.46μm.在Sn/Ni-P的界面上形成了一层Ni2SnP化合物而没有观察到Ni3Sn4化合物的存在,多孔状的Ni3P层位于Ni2SnP化合物与Ni-P层之间.当Ni-P层为阳极时,在电迁移过程中并没有发现Ni-P层的明显消耗,在Sn/Ni-P的界面处生成层状的Ni3Sn4化合物,其厚度随着电迁移时间的延长而缓慢增加,电迁移200 h后Ni3Sn4层的厚度达到1.81 μm.

  4. niños pre-escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra León Muñoz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las producciones narrativas orales de niños de pre-escolar y relacionar estos desempeños con la lectura de imágenes. Se conformó una muestra de 9 niños entre 4 y 6 años que pertenecían a instituciones de educación formal. Se realizó un análisis de tarea de la historieta presentada y la aplicación de ésta fue de manera individual en el contexto familiar del niño. Los resultados mostraron que los niños identificaban la situación inicial de la narración, en la cual relacionaban personajes principales, actividades propias de ellos y del espacio donde sucedían sin embargo, a medida que se avanzaban en el procedimiento, se observó cómo se dificultaba para los niños la elaboración de las otras categorías que estructuran la narración como la complicación, la reacción, la resolución y la situación final. En relación con las estrategias cognitivas se observó que cuatro niños se encuentra en un nivel cognitivo bajo, cuatro se encuentra en un nivel cognitivo medio y un niño, en un nivel cognitivo alto. En cuanto a los procesos de lectura de imágenes se encontró que sólo dos niños utilizaron la referencia y dos niños usaron conectores temporales

  5. Synthesis of Supported NiPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles, Methods for Controlling the Surface Coverage of Ni Nanoparticles With Pt, Methods Of Making NiPt Multilayer Core-Shell Structures and Application of the Supported Catalysts for CO2 Reforming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong

    2015-06-25

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for supported Ni/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles, compositions including supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of making supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of using supported NiPt nanoparticles, and the like.

  6. Nickel Release, ROS Generation and Toxicity of Ni and NiO Micro- and Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siiri Latvala

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to airborne nickel is associated with an elevated risk for respiratory tract diseases including lung cancer. Therefore, the increased production of Ni-containing nanoparticles necessitates a thorough assessment of their physical, chemical, as well as toxicological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the characteristics of nickel metal (Ni and nickel oxide (NiO particles with a focus on Ni release, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Four Ni-containing particles of both nano-size (Ni-n and NiO-n and micron-size (Ni-m1 and Ni-m2 were tested. The released amount of Ni in solution was notably higher in artificial lysosomal fluid (e.g. 80-100 wt% for metallic Ni than in cell medium after 24h (ca. 1-3 wt% for all particles. Each of the particles was taken up by the cells within 4 h and they remained in the cells to a high extent after 24 h post-incubation. Thus, the high dissolution in ALF appeared not to reflect the particle dissolution in the cells. Ni-m1 showed the most pronounced effect on cell viability after 48 h (alamar blue assay whereas all particles showed increased cytotoxicity in the highest doses (20-40 μg cm2 when assessed by colony forming efficiency (CFE. Interestingly an increased CFE, suggesting higher proliferation, was observed for all particles in low doses (0.1 or 1 μg cm-2. Ni-m1 and NiO-n were the most potent in causing acellular ROS and DNA damage. However, no intracellular ROS was detected for any of the particles. Taken together, micron-sized Ni (Ni-m1 was more reactive and toxic compared to the nano-sized Ni. Furthermore, this study underlines that the low dose effect in terms of increased proliferation observed for all particles should be further investigated in future studies.

  7. Preparation of hcp and fcc Ni and Ni/NiO Nanoparticles Using a Citric Acid Assisted Pechini-Type Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. García-Cerda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and characterization of hcp and fcc Ni and Ni/NiO nanoparticles is reported. Ni and Ni/NiO nanoparticles were obtained starting from a precursor material prepared using a citric assisted Pechini-type method and, then, followed by a calcination of the precursor in air at either 400 or 600°C for different times. The precursor was analyzed using thermogravimetric and differential thermal methods (TGA-DTA, and the resulting nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, and vibrational sample magnetometry. Nanoparticles showed a phase transformation for Ni from hcp to fcc and/or to fcc NiO structure as the calcination time increased. The influence of the phase transition and the formation of NiO on the magnetic properties of the samples are discussed.

  8. Ni nanoparticles prepared by simple chemical method for the synthesis of Ni/NiO-multi-layered graphene by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mokhtar; Remalli, Nagarjuna; Gedela, Venkataramana; Padya, Balaji; Jain, Pawan Kumar; Al-Fatesh, Ahmed; Rana, Usman Ali; Srikanth, Vadali V. S. S.

    2017-02-01

    A new chemical method was used to obtain a high yield of nickel nanoparticles (Ni-NPs). The effect of solvent (distilled water, ethylene glycol, and ethanol) and surfactant (oleic acid and polyvinyl pyrrolidinone) on the morphology and crystallinity of the synthesized Ni-NPs has been investigated. The experimental results revealed that among the solvents mentioned above, ethanol gives the best results in terms of complete reduction, controlled morphology and size distribution of Ni-NPs. The surfactants played an important role in impeding the agglomeration and surface oxidation of Ni-NPs. The surfactants also affected the morphology of the Ni-NPs. The synthesized Ni-NPs are found to be quite stable in air. The best of the synthesized Ni-NPs were effectively used as catalysts for the synthesis of Ni/NiO-multi-layered graphene using catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique.

  9. Thermal diffusion in Ni/Al multilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Singh, S.; Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gupta, M. [UGC-DAE-Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India)

    2013-02-05

    Two Ni/Al multilayers deposited by ion beam sputtering of nominal design [Ni(200A)/Al(100A)] Multiplication-Sign 5 and [Ni(50A)/Al(227A)] Multiplication-Sign 5 on Si substrates were annealed at 200 Degree-Sign C. As-deposited and annealed samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray reflectometry (XRR). The effort was to study the path of alloying in the above two multilayers of same elements but of opposite stoichiometric ratio. We find distinct differences in alloying of these samples.

  10. De niños e infancias

    OpenAIRE

    Camenen, Gersende; Liendo, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    A Sarmiento, el niño sabio, lo llevan de casa en casa como al prodigio del pueblo para oírlo leer en voz alta. Norah Lange, la niña excéntrica, grita desaforada en distintos idiomas y finge carcajadas enloquecidas desde el techo de su casa hasta gastar la voz. Reinaldo Arenas, el niño salvaje, escribe, como Celestino, poemas con un cuchillo en el tronco los árboles para que no amanezca. Borges, el traductor precoz, lee a los seis años el Quijote en inglés sin tener la menor sospecha de que el...

  11. New developments in Ni/Ti multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I.; Hoghoj, P. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    It is now 20 years since super-mirrors were first used as a neutron optical element. Since then the field of multilayer neutron-optics has matured with multilayers finding their way to application in many neutron scattering instruments. However, there is still room for progress in terms of multilayer quality, performance and application. Along with work on multilayers for neutron polarisation Ni/Ti super-mirrors have been optimised. The state-of-the-art Ni/Ti super-mirror performance and the results obtained in two neutron-optics applications of Ni/Ti multilayers are presented. (author).

  12. Ni{sub 3}Al aluminide alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.

    1993-10-01

    This paper provides a brief review of the recent progress in research and development of Ni{sub 3}Al and its alloys. Emphasis has been placed on understanding low ductility and brittle fracture of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys at ambient and elevated temperatures. Recent studies have resulted in identifying both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing the fracture behavior of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys. Parallel efforts on alloy design using physical metallurgy principles have led to properties for structural use. Industrial interest in these alloys is high, and examples of industrial involvement in processing and utilization of these alloys are briefly mentioned.

  13. Nanocrystalline Ni-W coatings on copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulos, C.N., E-mail: chpanag@metal.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780, Athens (Greece); Plainakis, G.D.; Lagaris, D.A. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780, Athens (Greece)

    2011-04-15

    Nanocrystalline Ni-W coatings were produced on copper substrates with the aid of electrodeposition technique. The morphology, chemical composition and structure of the produced coatings were examined with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The microhardness of alloy Ni-W coatings on copper substrate was also studied. The adhesion between the Ni-W coating, having W content 50 wt%, and the copper substrate, was also studied with a scratch testing apparatus. The scratch tests resulted in the coatings suffering an intensive brittle fracture and minor delamination.

  14. Synthesis of Ni-poor NiO nanoparticles for p-DSSC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polteau, Baptiste; Tessier, Franck; Cheviré, François; Cario, Laurent; Odobel, Fabrice; Jobic, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    To improve the performances of p-Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (p-DSSC) for the future, the synthesis of modified p-type nickel oxide semiconductor, commonly used as photocathode in such devices, was initiated with Ni3O2(OH)4 as precursor. This specific nickel oxyhydroxide was first characterized by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Then its thermal decomposition was thoroughly studied in order to control the particles size of the as-prepared NiO nanopowders. Low temperature decomposition in air of this precursor allows the formation of Ni1-xO nanoparticles with a large amount of Ni vacancies and specific surface areas up to 250 m2 g-1. Its ammonolysis at 250 °C leads to nanostructured N-doped NiO (NiO:N) materials.

  15. NiCo-lead zirconium titanate-NiCo trilayered magnetoelectric composites prepared by electroless deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, M. H.; Wang, Y. G.; Bi, K., E-mail: bike@bupt.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications and School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Fan, H. P. [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University Qindao College, Qingdao 266106 (China); Zhao, Z. S. [Shandong Engineering Consulting Institute, Jinan 250013 (China)

    2015-04-15

    The NiCo layers with various Ni/Co atomic ratio have been successfully electroless deposited on PZT layers by varying the bath composition. As the cobalt atomic ratio in the deposited layer increases from 17.2 to 54.8 wt%, the magnetostrictive coefficient decreases. The magnetoelectric effect depends strongly on the magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive phase. The magnetoelectric coefficient of NiCo/PZT/NiCo trilayers increases with Ni/Co atomic ratio of the deposited NiCo layers increasing from 45:55 to 83:17. A maximum ME voltage coefficient of α{sub E,31} = 2.8 V ⋅ cm{sup −1} ⋅ Oe{sup −1} is obtained at a frequency of about 88 kHz, which makes these trilayers suitable for applications in actuators, transducers and sensors.

  16. NiCo-lead zirconium titanate-NiCo trilayered magnetoelectric composites prepared by electroless deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The NiCo layers with various Ni/Co atomic ratio have been successfully electroless deposited on PZT layers by varying the bath composition. As the cobalt atomic ratio in the deposited layer increases from 17.2 to 54.8 wt%, the magnetostrictive coefficient decreases. The magnetoelectric effect depends strongly on the magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive phase. The magnetoelectric coefficient of NiCo/PZT/NiCo trilayers increases with Ni/Co atomic ratio of the deposited NiCo layers increasing from 45:55 to 83:17. A maximum ME voltage coefficient of αE,31 = 2.8 V ⋅ cm−1 ⋅ Oe−1 is obtained at a frequency of about 88 kHz, which makes these trilayers suitable for applications in actuators, transducers and sensors.

  17. Microstructure and Martensitic Transformation Behaviors of Explosively Welded NiTi/NiTi Laminates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhu; CUI Li-shan; ZHENG Yan-jun

    2007-01-01

    The study is a first attempt to prepare bulk NiTi/NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) laminates with a macroscopic heterogeneous composition by explosive welding and investigate their microstructures and martensitic transformation behaviors. After explosive welding, a perfect interfacial bonding between the two components and a reversible martensitic transformation are realized in the tandem.Results show achievement of a fine granular structure and the maximum value of microhardness near the welding interface because of the excessive cold plastic deformation and the high impact velocity during the explosive welding. Meanwhile, the effects of aging on the transformation of the welded tandem are investigated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and subject to discussion. The transformation temperatures of NiTi/NiTi SMAs increase with the rise of the aging temperature. The experimental results indicate the shape memory properties of NiTi/NiTi SMA fabricated by explosive welding can be improved by optimizing the aging technology.

  18. Crystallographic Orientation Effect on Electromigration in Ni-Sn Microbump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Ting; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chakroborty, Subhendu; Wu, Albert T.

    2017-09-01

    This article addresses the reliability challenges regarding electromigration in developing three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs). The line-type sandwich structure of Ni/Sn3.5Ag(15 μm)/Ni was used to simulate microbumps to examine the reliability of electromigration in 3D-IC technology. The solder strip of Ni/Sn3.5Ag(15 μm)/Ni was stressed with a current density of 1.0 × 104 A/cm2 at 150°C. The current stressing enhanced the reaction between the solder and Ni to form Ni3Sn4, which occupied the entire joint and transformed into a Ni/Ni3Sn4/Ni structure when the solder was completely consumed. Electron backscatter diffraction was used to analyze the crystallographic characteristics of Sn and Ni3Sn4 as related to the electromigration effect. The results indicated that the crystallographic orientation of Sn plays a significant role in the Ni/Sn3.5Ag/Ni, whereas the orientation of Ni3Sn4 is the dominant factor of diffusion behavior in the Ni/Ni3Sn4/Ni.

  19. Crystallographic Orientation Effect on Electromigration in Ni-Sn Microbump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Ting; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chakroborty, Subhendu; Wu, Albert T.

    2017-07-01

    This article addresses the reliability challenges regarding electromigration in developing three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs). The line-type sandwich structure of Ni/Sn3.5Ag(15 μm)/Ni was used to simulate microbumps to examine the reliability of electromigration in 3D-IC technology. The solder strip of Ni/Sn3.5Ag(15 μm)/Ni was stressed with a current density of 1.0 × 104 A/cm2 at 150°C. The current stressing enhanced the reaction between the solder and Ni to form Ni3Sn4, which occupied the entire joint and transformed into a Ni/Ni3Sn4/Ni structure when the solder was completely consumed. Electron backscatter diffraction was used to analyze the crystallographic characteristics of Sn and Ni3Sn4 as related to the electromigration effect. The results indicated that the crystallographic orientation of Sn plays a significant role in the Ni/Sn3.5Ag/Ni, whereas the orientation of Ni3Sn4 is the dominant factor of diffusion behavior in the Ni/Ni3Sn4/Ni.

  20. Photoactivation of the Ni-SIr state to the Ni-SIa state in [NiFe] hydrogenase: FT-IR study on the light reactivity of the ready Ni-SIr state and as-isolated enzyme revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Hulin; Xu, Liyang; Inoue, Seiya; Nishikawa, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Hirota, Shun

    2016-08-10

    The Ni-SIr state of [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F was photoactivated to its Ni-SIa state by Ar(+) laser irradiation at 514.5 nm, whereas the Ni-SL state was light induced from a newly identified state, which was less active than any other identified state and existed in the "as-isolated" enzyme.

  1. Effect of metallic content on mechanical property of Ni/(10NiO-NiFe2O4) cermets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; ZHANG Gang; YE Shao-long; LAI Yan-qing; TIAN Zhong-liang; SUN Xiao-gang

    2006-01-01

    Ni/ (10NiO-NiFe2O4 ) cermets were fabricated by using cold pressing-sintering method. The phase composition and effect of metallic content on the mechanical properties such as bending strength, Vickers' hardness,fracture toughness and thermal shock resistance were studied. The results show that the cermets consist of Ni, NiO and NiFe2O4. Within the range of metallic content from 0 to 17% (mass fraction), the relative density decreases with the increase of metallic content and the decrease of sintering temperature, Vickers' hardness decreases from 7 097 MPa to 4 814 MPa and the bending strength increases from 110 MPa to 157 MPa, and the fracture toughness mal shock testing falls sharply as the thermal shock temperature difference is above 200℃. The cermets samples,whose metallic content is 10% and 15%, respectively, exhibit promising property of thermal shock resistance at 960 ℃ with six cycles of heating and quenching testing.

  2. Electronic structure of graphene on Ni surfaces with different orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudikov, D.A., E-mail: gelbry@gmail.com; Zhizhin, E.V.; Rybkin, A.G.; Rybkina, A.A.; Zhukov, Y.M.; Vilkov, O. Yu.; Shikin, A.M.

    2016-08-15

    An experimental study of the graphene, synthesized by propylene cracking on Ni surfaces with different orientation: (100) and (111), using angle-resolved photoemission, has been performed. It has been shown that graphene on Ni(111) had a perfect lateral structure due to consistency of their lattices, whereas graphene/Ni(100) consisted of a lot of domains. For both systems electronic structure was quite similar and demonstrated a strong bonding of graphene to the underlying Ni surface. After Au intercalation the electronic structure of graphene in both systems was shifted to the Fermi level and became linear in the vicinity of the K point of the Brillouin zone. - Highlights: • Graphene on Ni(111) is well-ordered, whereas on Ni(100) – multi-domain. • Graphene on Ni(111) and Ni(100) is strongly bonded with substrate. • Intercalation of Au atoms restores the linearity in dispersion and makes graphene quasi-free on both Ni(100) and Ni(111).

  3. Electrodeposited NiCu Alloy Catalysts for Glucose Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jieun; Park, Hansoo; Kim, Sookil [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang Hyun; Jang, Jong Hyun [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    NiCu alloys have been suggested as potential candidates for catalysts in glucose oxidation. In this study, NiCu alloys with different compositions were prepared on a glassy carbon substrate by changing the electrodeposition potential to examine the effect of Ni/Cu ratios in alloys on catalytic activity toward glucose oxidation. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry showed that NiCu alloys had higher catalytic activity than pure Ni and Cu catalysts. Especially, Ni{sub 59}Cu{sub 41} had superior catalytic activity, which was about twice that of Ni at a given oxidation potential. X-ray analyses showed that the oxidation state of Ni in NiCu alloys was increased with the content of Cu by lattice expansion. Ni components in alloys with higher oxidation state were more effective in the oxidation of glucose.

  4. Mechanical properties of NiO/Ni-YSZ composites depending on temperature, porosity and redox cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Kaiser, Andreas; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2009-01-01

    with the Neel temperature, 250 degrees C, of NiO was observed. Above this temperature, a linear decrease occurred. Specific damping showed a peak at 170-180 degrees C and increased above ca. 1000 degrees C in NiO-YSZ. In the reduced state the elastic modulus decreased linearly with temperature; specific damping......The Impulse Excitation Technique (IET) was used to determine the elastic modulus and specific damping of different Ni/NiO-YSZ composites suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The porosity of the as-sintered samples varied from 9 to 38% and that of the reduced ones from 31 to 52...

  5. Studies on the valence electronic structure of Fe and Ni in FeNi1- alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D K Basa; S Raj; H C Padhi; M Polasik; F Pawlowski

    2002-05-01

    -to- X-ray intensity ratios of Fe and Ni in pure metals and in FeNi1- alloys ( = 0.20, 0.50, 0.58) exhibiting similar crystalline structure have been measured following excitation by 59.54 keV -rays from a 241Am point source, to understand as to why the properties of permalloy Fe0.2Ni0.8 is distinct from other alloy compositions. It is observed that the valence electronic structure of Fe0.2Ni0.8 alloy is totally different from other alloys which may be attributed to its special magnetic properties.

  6. Polymer stabilized Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe alloy nanoclusters: Structural and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, A.R. [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731 235 (India); Mandal, S.K., E-mail: sk_mandal@hotmail.co [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731 235 (India)

    2010-04-15

    We report here the structural and magnetic behaviors of nickel-silver (Ni-Ag) and nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoclusters stabilized with polymer (polypyrrole). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates Ni-Ag nanoclusters to stabilize in core-shell configuration while that of Ni-Fe nanoclusters in a mixed type of geometry. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the possibility of alloying in such bimetallic nanoclusters to some extent even at temperatures much lower than that of bulk alloying. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra clearly reveal two different absorption behaviors: one is ascribed to non-isolated Ni{sup 2+} clusters surrounded by either silver or iron giving rise to a broad signal, other (very narrow signal) being due to the isolated superparamagnetic Ni{sup 2+} clusters or bimetallic alloy nanoclusters. Results obtained for Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe nanoclusters have been further compared with the behavior exhibited by pure Ni nanoclusters in polypyrrole host. Temperature dependent studies (at 300 and 77 K) of EPR parameters, e.g. linewidth, g-value, line shape and signal intensity indicating the significant influence of surrounding paramagnetic silver or ferromagnetic iron within polymer host on the EPR spectra have been presented.

  7. Directional Solidification and Mechanical Properties of NiAl-NiAlTa Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. R.; Chen, X. F.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Directional solidification of eutectic alloys is a promising technique for producing in-situ composite materials exhibiting a balance of properties. Consequently, the microstructure, creep strength and fracture toughness of directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloys were investigated. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques to minimize alloy contamination. The eutectic composition was found to be NiAl-15.5 at% Ta and well-aligned microstructures were produced at this composition. A near-eutectic alloy of NiAl-14.5Ta was also investigated. Directional solidification of the near-eutectic composition resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The off-eutectic alloy exhibited promising compressive creep strengths compared to other NiAl-based intermetallics, while preliminary testing indicated that the eutectic alloy was competitive with Ni-base single crystal superalloys. The room temperature toughness of these two-phase alloys was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa.

  8. Differences of transformation behavior between Ni-rich TiNi shape memory films and alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺志荣; 周敬恩

    2002-01-01

    The differences of transformation behavior between Ni-rich TiNi shape memory film (SMF) and shape memory alloy (SMA) age-treated at 773K after solution-treatment at 973K have been investigated, using Ti-51.5Ni thin film and Ti-51.5Ni bulk alloy as examples, by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), SEM and EDX. It is found that the age-treated Ni-rich TiNi SMF and SMA are of the same types of transformation, i.e., A→R→M (during cooling), and M→A (during heating) (A: parent phase; R: R-phase; M: martensite); the transformation temperature of the TiNi SMF is lower than that of the SMA, but the SMFs hysteresis is larger. The transformation heat of the TiNi SMF and SMA is nearly the same. The reason that TiNi SMFs strain is sensitive to temperature is not hysteresis, but its thickness is thinner, and the temperature is easy to distribute homogeneously.

  9. Martensitic Transformation of TiNi Shape Memory Alloy Fiber Reinforced Ni Matrix Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lishan CUI; Yan LI; Yan jun ZHENG; Huibin XU

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a TiNi shape memory alloy fiber Ni matrix composite was fabricated by an electroplating method using TiNialloy as the cathode and Ni as the anode. The constrained martensitic transformation behaviors of the TiNi alloy were studiedby differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and the results showed that two endothermic peaks appear on the DSC heatingcurves and the reverse transformation temperatures increase with increasing prestrain levels. Moreover, comparing to the freetransformation, the temperature window of the constrained reverse transformation is widely expanded due to the influence ofrecovery stress.

  10. Layering and temperature-dependent magnetization and anisotropy of naturally produced Ni/NiO multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, S. D.; Trachylis, D.; Velgakis, M. J. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Kapaklis, V.; Joensson, P. E.; Papaioannou, E. Th. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Delimitis, A. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute (CPERI), Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Poulopoulos, P. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Materials Science Department, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Fumagalli, P. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Politis, C. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Ni/NiO multilayers were grown by magnetron sputtering at room temperature, with the aid of the natural oxidation procedure. That is, at the end of the deposition of each single Ni layer, air is let to flow into the vacuum chamber through a leak valve. Then, a very thin NiO layer ({approx}1.2 nm) is formed. Simulated x-ray reflectivity patterns reveal that layering is excellent for individual Ni-layer thickness larger than 2.5 nm, which is attributed to the intercalation of amorphous NiO between the polycrystalline Ni layers. The magnetization of the films, measured at temperatures 5-300 K, has almost bulk-like value, whereas the films exhibit a trend to perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with an unusual significant positive interface anisotropy contribution, which presents a weak temperature dependence. The power-law behavior of the multilayers indicates a non-negligible contribution of higher order anisotropies in the uniaxial anisotropy. Bloch-law fittings for the temperature dependence of the magnetization in the spin-wave regime show that the magnetization in the multilayers decreases faster as a function of temperature than the one of bulk Ni. Finally, when the individual Ni-layer thickness decreases below 2 nm, the multilayer stacking vanishes, resulting in a dramatic decrease of the interface magnetic anisotropy and consequently in a decrease of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  11. Modeling and simulation of NiO dissolution and Ni deposition in molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Suk Woo; Choi, Hyung-Joon; Lim, Tae Hoon [Korea Institute of Science & Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Dissolution of NiO cathode into the electrolyte matrix is an important phenomena limiting the lifetime of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The dissolved nickel diffuses into the matrix and is reduced by dissolved hydrogen leading to the formation of metallic nickel films in the pores of the matrix. The growth of Ni films in the electrolyte matrix during the continuous cell operation results eventually in shorting between cathode and anode. Various mathematical and empirical models have been developed to describe the NiO dissolution and Ni deposition processes, and these models have some success in estimating the lifetime of MCFC by correlating the amount of Ni deposited in the matrix with shorting time. Since the exact mechanism of Ni deposition was not well understood, deposition reaction was assumed to be very fast in most of the models and the Ni deposition region was limited around a point in the matrix. In fact, formation of Ni films takes place in a rather broad region in the matrix, the location and thickness of the film depending on operating conditions as well as matrix properties. In this study, we assumed simple reaction kinetics for Ni deposition and developed a mathematical model to get the distribution of nickel in the matrix.

  12. Thermal stability of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers; an EBSD-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Gholinia, A.; Trimby, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and the microtexture of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers was investigated with Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) with high resolution. Samples were annealed for 1 hour at 523 K and 673 K, the temperature region wherein recrystallisat......The influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and the microtexture of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers was investigated with Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) with high resolution. Samples were annealed for 1 hour at 523 K and 673 K, the temperature region wherein...

  13. Effect of Mg/Ni ratio on microstructure of Mg–Ni films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Junko, E-mail: junko.matsuda@i2cner.kyushu-u.ac.jp [International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Uchiyama, Naoki; Kanai, Tomomi; Harada, Kazumi [ATSUMITEC CO., LTD., Ubumi 7111, Yuto-cho, Nishi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-0192 (Japan); Akiba, Etsuo [International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • Hydrogenation/dehydrogenation properties of Mg–Ni films depend on the Mg/Ni ratio. • Mg{sub 6}Ni films are composed of Mg-rich amorphous matrix and Mg{sub 2}Ni nanocrystals. • Mg{sub 2}Ni is fully amorphous, in contrast Mg crystallization occurs in Mg{sub 10}Ni films. • Mg{sub 6}Ni films after hydrogenation include Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4}, MgH{sub 2} and Mg crystals. • Mg crystallization causes to reduce desorption kinetics and cycle ability. - Abstract: The relationship between the Mg/Ni ratio and microstructure of Mg–Ni films with a Pd-cap deposited by magnetron sputtering is investigated using transmission electron microscopy. As a result, the 6Mg–Ni films are observed to be composed of a Mg-rich amorphous matrix and Mg{sub 2}Ni nanocrystals. In contrast, the 10Mg–Ni films contain Mg nanocrystals and Mg-rich amorphous. The 2Mg–Ni films, which absorb/desorb hydrogen repeatedly as well as 6Mg–Ni films, are fully amorphous and have a homogeneous distribution of Mg and Ni. The hydrogenated 6Mg–Ni film, after 200 cycles of hydrogenation/dehydrogenation, includes Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4} and MgH{sub 2} nanocrystals as well as Mg crystals. In conclusion, the crystallization of Mg reduces desorption kinetics and cycle ability of the Mg–Ni films. Our results suggested that Mg crystallization occurs in films with an initial Mg/Ni ratio greater than 7.7 the eutectic composition between Mg and Mg{sub 2}Ni.

  14. GRAFIČNI PRISTOP K FIGURATIVNEMU SLIKARSTVU

    OpenAIRE

    Bergles, Niko

    2010-01-01

    V diplomskem delu z naslovom Grafični pristop k figurativnemu slikarstvu sem se posvetil tistim področjem likovne teorije in zgodovine, na podlagi katerih sem sam ustvarjal. Nalogo sem razdelil na tri dele

  15. Cavitation erosion of NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, A. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, British Columbia (Canada)]|[Univ. of British Columbia (Canada). Metals and Materials Engineering Dept.; Salvi, R. [Univ. of British Columbia (Canada). Metals and Materials Engineering Dept.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1999-02-01

    Vibratory cavitation erosion tests were carried out on as-cast NiAl intermetallic compounds containing 46.5 to 62.1 at. pct Ni. The erosion rate decreased with increasing nickel content by over two orders of magnitude, from a high of 16.4 to 0.11 mg{center_dot}h{sup {minus}1}. These low erosion rates exhibited by the nickel-rich alloys containing 58 and 62.1 at. pct Ni, the interruptions in their mass loss with time, and the unusual effects associated with surface finish and intensity of cavitation were found to be associated with the stress-induced martensitic transformation. Alloys containing 58 to 62 at. pct Ni have the potential for use as materials for the cavitation protection of hydraulic machinery.

  16. Prospect of MH-Ni Batteries Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Shaoping; Xing Zhiqiang; Liang Wanlong; Ma Yijun

    2004-01-01

    The development trend and promising application prospects of high-power MH-Ni battery were reviewed by studying and comparing the current high-power batteries research area.High-power MH-Ni batiery has good performlife with 500 ~ 1000 times, abundant material resource, especially abundant rare earth resource in China, high-rate discharging, rapid charging, good safety as well as no pollution, etc., which is regarded as the most promising storage battery for electric vehicles.The performance of high power MH-Ni battery can be brought into play fully and ensure electric vehicles performance if it is equipped with appropriate chargers, controlling system and electric motors.Facing opportunities and challenges, MH-Ni battery has promising application prospects on hybrid electric automobile, electric bicycle and a variety of small sized electric vehicles by improving its technology constantly and developing market actively.

  17. Ni adsorption and Ni-Al LDH precipitation in a sandy aquifer: An experimental and mechanistic modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regelink, I.C.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Mining activities and industries have created nickel (Ni) contaminations in many parts of the world. The objective of this study is to increase our understanding of Ni adsorption and Nickel-Aluminium Layered Double Hydroxide (Ni-Al LDH) precipitation to reduce Ni mobility in a sandy soil aquifer. At

  18. Amorphous Ni-P Hollow Spheres Prepared by Self-assembly of Ni-P Nanoparticles on Polystyrene Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The first preparation of amorphous Ni-P/PS (polystyrene) core-shell and Ni-P hollow microspheres was per-formed using a surface seeding-electroless plating method. The preliminary magnetic properties of the amorphous Ni-P hollow sphere were investigated and compared with those of the Ni hollow sphere.

  19. Density and Structure Analysis of Molten Ni-W Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng XIAO; Liang FANG

    2004-01-01

    Density of molten Ni and Ni-W alloys was measured in the temperature range of 1773~1873 K with a sessile drop method.The density of molten Ni and Ni-W alloys trends to decrease with increasing temperature. The density and molar volume of the alloys trend to increase with increasing W concentration in the alloys. The calculation result shows an ideal mixing of Ni-W alloys.

  20. Towards Single-component Molecular Conductor [Ni(dmit)2] by Charge Disproportionation:2[Ni(dmit)2]-0.5 →[Ni(dmit)2 ]+ [Ni(dmit)2]-

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi FANG; Hong LEI; Wen XU

    2003-01-01

    A new method of synthesizing single-component molecular conductor [Ni(dmit)2] by the reaction 2(Me4N)[Ni(dmit)2]2→[Ni(dmit)2] + (Me4N)[Ni(dmit)2] is reported. [Ni(dmit)2] exhibits a semiconductive behavior above 167 K, while from 167 K down to the measuring limit of 60 K, it exhibits metallic conductivity.

  1. Autothermal Reforming and Partial Oxidation of Methane in Fluidized Reactor over Highly Dispersed Ni Catalyst Prepared from Ni Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jing; HOU Zhao-Yin; SHEN Kai; LOU Hui; FEI Jin-Hua; ZHENG Xiao-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Highly dispersed Ni catalysts on spherical SiO2 were prepared by simple impregnation of Ni(acac)2, [Ni-(NH3)6-n(H2O)n]2+, [Ni(en)3]2+ and [Ni(EDTA)]2-. Pulse adsorption of H2 and TEM analysis results confirmed that Ni was dispersed very well on the surface of SiO2 even after calcination (4 h) and reduction (1 h) at high temperature of 800 ℃. These highly dispersed and uniquely sized Ni crystallites were more stable and more reactive for both autothermal reforming and partial oxidation of methane in fluidized reactor.

  2. Effects of Ni content on the shape memory properties and microstructure of Ni-rich NiTi-20Hf alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghaian, S. M.; Karaca, H. E.; Tobe, H.; Pons, J.; Santamarta, R.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Noebe, R. D.

    2016-09-01

    Shape memory properties and microstructure of four Ni-rich NiTiHf alloys (Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20, Ni50.7Ti29.3Hf20, Ni51.2Ti28.8Hf20, and Ni52Ti28Hf20 (at.%)) were systematically characterized in the furnace cooled condition. H-phase precipitates were formed during furnace cooling in compositions with greater than 50.3Ni and the driving force for nucleation increased with Ni content. Alloy strength increased while recoverable strain decreased with increasing Ni content due to changes in precipitate characteristics. When the precipitates were small (˜5-15 nm), they were readily absorbed by martensite plates, which resulted in maximum recoverable strain of 2% in Ni50.7Ti29.3Hf20. With increasing Ni content, the size (>100 nm) and volume fraction of precipitates increased and the growth of martensite plates was constrained between the precipitates when the Ni concentration was greater than 50.7 at.%. Near perfect dimensional stability with negligible irrecoverable strain was observed at stress levels as high as 2 GPa in the Ni52Ti28Hf20 alloy, though the recoverable strain was rather small. In general, strong local stress fields were created at precipitate/matrix interphases, which lead to high stored elastic energy during the martensitic transformation.

  3. Heavy metal environmental impact. Nickel (Ni); Impatto ambientale da metalli pesanti. Il Nichel (Ni)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. [Padua Univ. Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Farmacologia, Lab. di Tossicologia

    2001-02-01

    Nickel (Ni) is a heavy metal in over 3.000 different alloys used to produce kitchen utensils, batteries, coins, etc.. Human extractive and industrial activities are therefore a cause for environmental dispersion of this metal into the biosphere. This shows how in urban areas car traffic and house-heating are the main sources of nickel pollution. Nickel is relatively non-toxic, such as iron, cobalt, copper and zinc; nevertheless prolonged inhalation of dust containing such compounds as Ni O or NiCl{sub 2} concurs in the outbreak of respiratory pathologies. The carcinogenic effect of such compounds as Ni S, Ni O and Ni(CO){sub 4} has been confirmed by experiments on laboratory animals. Ni potentially toxic concentrations, and as a consequence of potential environmental impact, are to be mainly found in populated areas where the main sources are represented by industries and landfills. [Italian] Il nichel (Ni) e' un metallo presente in oltre 3.000 differenti leghe che vengono utilizzate per la produzione di utensili da cucina, batterie, monete, ecc.. Le attivita' estrattive ed industriali dell'uomo sono quindi causa di una dispersione del metallo nella biosfera. Sono stati riscontrati elevati tassi di Ni nell'atmosfera di aree urbane. Cio' sta a dimostrare che nelle aree urbane il traffico automobilistico e il riscaldamento domestico sono le fonti principali di inquinamento da tale metallo. Il nichel e' relativamente atossico, analogamente a ferro, cobalto, rame e zinco, tuttavia l'inalazione protratta di polveri contenenti composti come il NiO o il NiCl{sub 2} contribuisce al manifestarsi di patologie dell'apparato respiratorio. E' stato confermato sperimentalmente su animali da laboratorio l'effetto cancerogeno di alcuni composti quali NiS, NiO e Ni(CO){sub 4}. Concentrazioni potenzialmente tossiche di Ni, e quindi di probabile impatto ambientale, sono maggiormente da ricercare nelle zone antropizzate dove le fonti

  4. Improvement of Ni phytostabilization by inoculation of Ni resistant Bacillus megaterium SR28C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Mani; Ma, Ying; Freitas, Helena

    2013-10-15

    The use of metal tolerant plants for the phytostabilization of metal contaminated soil is an area of extensive research and development. In this study the effects of inoculation of Ni-resistant bacterial strains on phytostabilization potential of various plants, including Brassica juncea, Luffa cylindrica and Sorghum halepense, were studied. A Ni-resistant bacterial strain SR28C was isolated from a nickel rich serpentine soil and identified as Bacillus megaterium based on the morphological features, biochemical characteristics and partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The strain SR28C tolerated concentrations up to 1200 mg Ni L(-1) on a Luria-Bertani (LB) agar medium. Besides, it showed high degree of resistance to various metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr) and antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, penicillin and kanamycin) tested. In addition, the strain bound considerable amounts of Ni in their resting cells. Besides, the strain exhibited the plant growth promoting traits, such as solubilization of phosphate and production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in modified Pikovskayas medium and LB medium, respectively in the absence and presence of Ni. Considering such potential, the effects of SR28C on the growth and Ni accumulation of B. juncea, L. cylindrica and S. halepense, were assessed with different concentrations of Ni in soil. Inoculation of SR28C stimulated the biomass of the test plants grown in both Ni contaminated and non-contaminated soils. Further, SR28C alleviated the detrimental effects of Ni by reducing its uptake and translocation to the plants. This study suggested that the PGPB inoculant due to its intrinsic abilities of growth promotion and attenuation of the toxic effects of Ni could be exploited for phytostabilization of Ni contaminated site.

  5. Electroless Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings: preparation and evaluation of microhardness, wear and corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, T.S.N. Sankara; Krishnaveni, K.; Seshadri, S.K

    2003-12-20

    The present work deals with the formation of Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings by electroless plating process and evaluation of their hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. The Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings were prepared using dual baths (acidic hypophosphite- and alkaline borohydride-reduced electroless nickel baths) with both Ni-P and Ni-B as inner layers and with varying single layer thickness. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to assess the duplex interface. The microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of electroless nickel duplex coatings were compared with electroless Ni-P and Ni-B coatings of similar thickness. The study reveals that the Ni-P and Ni-B coatings are amorphous in their as-plated condition and upon heat-treatment at 450 deg. C for 1 h, both Ni-P and Ni-B coatings crystallize and produce nickel, nickel phosphide and nickel borides in the respective coatings. All the three phases are formed when Ni-P/Ni-B and Ni-B/Ni-P duplex coatings are heat-treated at 450 deg. C for 1 h. The duplex coatings are uniform and the compatibility between the layers is good. The microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the duplex coating is higher than Ni-P and Ni-B coatings of similar thickness. Among the two types of duplex coatings studied, hardness and wear resistance is higher for coatings having Ni-B coating as the outer layer whereas better corrosion resistance is offered by coatings having Ni-P coating as the outer layer.

  6. Dissolution and Interfacial Reactions of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 Intermetallic Compound in Molten Sn-Cu-Ni Solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-hong; Lai, Wei-han; Chen, Sinn-wen

    2014-01-01

    (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 is an important intermetallic compound (IMC) in lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints on Ni substrate. The formation, growth, and microstructural evolution of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 are closely correlated with the concentrations of Cu and Ni in the solder. This study reports the interfacial behaviors of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 IMC (Sn-31 at.%Cu-24 at.%Ni) with various Sn-Cu, Sn-Ni, and Sn-Cu-Ni solders at 250°C. The (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 substrate remained intact for Sn-0.7 wt.%Cu solder. When the Cu concentration was decreased to 0.3 wt.%, (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 significantly dissolved into the molten solder. Moreover, (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 dissolution and (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 formation occurred simultaneously for the Sn-0.1 wt.%Ni solder. In Sn-0.5 wt.%Cu-0.2 wt.%Ni solder, many tiny (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 particulates were formed and dispersed in the solder matrix, while in Sn-0.3 wt.%Cu-0.2 wt.%Ni a lot of (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 grains were produced. Based on the local equilibrium hypothesis, these results are further discussed based on the liquid-(Cu, Ni)6Sn5-(Ni,Cu)3Sn4 tie-triangle, and the liquid apex is suggested to be very close to Sn-0.4 wt.%Cu-0.2 wt.%Ni.

  7. The Influence of Sintering Temperature in NiO Target on the Properties of Exchange Coupling NiO/Ni81Fe19 Double-Layered Films%NiO靶烧结温度对NiO/Ni81Fe19双层膜的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡用时; 邱进军; 李佐宜; 刘兴阶

    2000-01-01

    在不同的温度下烧结制备NiO靶,用射频磁控溅射法淀积NiO/Ni81Fe19双层膜,研究了不同的温度烧结NiO靶对NiO/NiFe双层膜特性的影响,结果表明,使用不同的烧结温度制备的NiO靶溅射所得的NiO膜中Ni的化学价态及其含量不同,进而影响NiO/Ni81Fe19双层膜的磁滞回线的矩形度及层间交换耦合作用.

  8. Synthesis and characterizations of Ni-NiO nanoparticles on PDDA-modified graphene for oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Tung-Yuan; Huang, Li-Ying; Chan, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Kuan-Syun; Liu, Ting-Yu; Chen, Po-Tuan; Chao, Chi-Yang; Liu, Ling-Kang

    2014-01-01

    We are presenting our recent research results about the Ni-NiO nanoparticles on poly-(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-modified graphene sheet (Ni-NiO/PDDA-G) nanocomposites prepared by the hydrothermal method at 90°C for 24 h. The Ni-NiO nanoparticles on PDDA-modified graphene sheets are measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern for exploring the structural evidence to apply in the electrochemical catalysts. The size of Ni-NiO nanoparticles is around 5 nm based on TEM observations. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show the Ni in the (012), (110), (110), (200), and (220) crystalline orientations, respectively. Moreover, the crystalline peaks of NiO are found in (111) and (220). The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) result represents the loading content of the Ni metal which is about 34.82 wt%. The electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis/X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA/XPS) reveals the Ni(0) to Ni(II) ratio in metal phase. The electrochemical studies with Ni-NiO/PDDA-G in 0.5 M aqueous H2SO4 were studied for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).

  9. Impacts of Two Types of El Niño and La Niña Events on Typhoon Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chun Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The HadISST (Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature dataset is used to define the years of El Niño, El Niño Modoki, and La Niña events and to find out the impacts of these events on typhoon activity. The results show that the formation positions of typhoon are farther eastward moving in El Niño years than in La Niña years and much further eastward in El Niño Modoki years. The lifetime and the distance of movement are longer, and the intensity of typhoons is stronger in El Niño and in El Niño Modoki years than in La Niña years. The Accumulated Cyclone Energy of typhoon is highly correlated with the Oceanic Niño Index with a correlation coefficient of 0.79. We also find that the typhoons anomalously decrease during El Niño years but increase during El Niño Modoki years. Besides, there are two types of El Niño Modoki, I and II. The intensity of typhoon in El Niño Modoki I years is stronger than in El Niño Modoki II years. Furthermore, the centroid position of the Western Pacific Warm Pool is strongly related to the area of typhoon formation with a correlation coefficient of 0.95.

  10. Synthesis and characterizations of Ni-NiO nanoparticles on PDDA-modified graphene for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Tung-Yuan; Huang, Li-Ying; Chan, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Kuan-Syun; Liu, Ting-Yu; Chen, Po-Tuan; Chao, Chi-Yang; Liu, Ling-Kang

    2014-08-01

    We are presenting our recent research results about the Ni-NiO nanoparticles on poly-(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-modified graphene sheet (Ni-NiO/PDDA-G) nanocomposites prepared by the hydrothermal method at 90°C for 24 h. The Ni-NiO nanoparticles on PDDA-modified graphene sheets are measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern for exploring the structural evidence to apply in the electrochemical catalysts. The size of Ni-NiO nanoparticles is around 5 nm based on TEM observations. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show the Ni in the (012), (110), (110), (200), and (220) crystalline orientations, respectively. Moreover, the crystalline peaks of NiO are found in (111) and (220). The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) result represents the loading content of the Ni metal which is about 34.82 wt%. The electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis/X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA/XPS) reveals the Ni0 to NiII ratio in metal phase. The electrochemical studies with Ni-NiO/PDDA-G in 0.5 M aqueous H2SO4 were studied for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sputter deposited Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer films at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Feng, Kai, E-mail: fengkai@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: lizg@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lu, Fenggui; Huang, Jian; Wu, Yixiong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers are prepared by magnetron sputtering. • Both grain size and phase constitution of annealed Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers are dependent on individual layer thickness. • The hardness of annealed Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers varies with individual layer thickness and annealing temperature. • 40 nm Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer exhibits excellent hardness at elevated temperature. - Abstract: Nano-structured Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer was prepared by magnetron sputtering, with individual layer thicknesses h varying from 10 to 160 nm. The microstructure and hardness of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nanoindentation. The results show that the hardness increases with decreasing h for as-deposited and 500 °C annealed multilayers. When annealed at 700 °C, the hardness approach a peak value at h = 40 nm with followed by softening at smaller h. The influence of individual layer thickness, grain size as well as formation of ordered Ni{sub 3}Al on strengthening mechanisms of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers at elevated temperature are discussed.

  12. Fracture of FeNiB-NiP amorphous bilayer ribbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miskuf, J; Csach, K; Ocelik, [No Value; Duhaj, P; Ocelik, Vaclav

    1997-01-01

    The Study of failure surfaces of amorphous bimetal ribbons Fe40Ni40B20-Ni82P18 failed during tensile testing in the as-quenched and relaxed states (anneaIed at 250 degrees C) is presented. Two different fracture morphologies are observed on failed as-quenched samples: (i) near the maximum shear

  13. Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity for Water Splitting on NiO/Ni/Carbon Fiber Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoyu Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale growth of low-cost, efficient, and durable non-noble metal-based electrocatalysts for water splitting is crucial for future renewable energy systems. Atomic layer deposition (ALD provides a promising route for depositing uniform thin coatings of electrocatalysts, which are useful in many technologies, including the splitting of water. In this communication, we report the growth of a NiO/Ni catalyst directly on carbon fiber paper by atomic layer deposition and report subsequent reduction and oxidation annealing treatments. The 10–20 nm NiO/Ni nanoparticle catalysts can reach a current density of 10 mA·cm−2 at an overpotential of 189 mV for hydrogen evolution reactions and 257 mV for oxygen evolution reactions with high stability. We further successfully achieved a water splitting current density of 10 mA·cm−2 at 1.78 V using a typical NiO/Ni coated carbon fiber paper two-electrode setup. The results suggest that nanoparticulate NiO/Ni is an active, stable, and noble-metal-free electrocatalyst, which facilitates a method for future water splitting applications.

  14. Investigation on microstructures of NiO-YSZ composite and Ni-YSZ cermet for SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talebi, Tahereh; Sarrafi, Mohammad Hassan; Haji, Mohsen; Raissi, Babak; Maghsoudipour, Amir [Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj, Tehran 14155-4777 (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    NiO-YSZ composites and Ni-YSZ cermets were successfully performed for solid oxide fuel cell applications. These composites must have enough porosity and appropriate microstructure for transferring the fuel gases. In this study, ball-milling was used as a simple, cost-effective method for the purpose of mixing the raw materials. The homogeneity of NiO-YSZ composites was examined by Map mode of SEM. NiO-YSZ composites were reduced at the high temperature under the controlled atmosphere to fabricate Ni-YSZ cermet. Variations in the anode phases were investigated by XRD and microstructure and porosity of composites were observed by SEM. Effective parameters like temperatures and the amount of pore former were investigated on open porosity, bulk density, electrical conductivity as well as electrochemical impedance of NiO-YSZ composites and Ni-YSZ cermet. A thin layer of YSZ was deposited by EPD as an electrolyte on NiO-YSZ composites which had various amount of open porosity, to study its effect on the performance of semi-cells by electrochemical impedance. (author)

  15. Phase equilibria in the Gd-Ni binary and Mg-Ni-Gd ternary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guanglong; Fei, Houjun [Central South Univ., Hunan (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Cui, Yu-Wen [Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies of Materials, Madrid (Spain); Zhang, Ligang [Central South Univ., Hunan (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Freiberg Univ. of Mining and Technology (Germany). Centre for Innovation Competence; Zheng, Feng; Liu, Libin; Jin, Zhanpeng [Central South Univ., Hunan (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Scientific Center of Phase Diagram and Materials Design and Preparation, Hunan (China)

    2012-10-15

    Phase equilibria of the Gd-Ni binary and Mg-Ni-Gd ternary systems were critically investigated using equilibrated alloys and differential scanning calorimeter measurements. The phase diagram of the Gd-Ni binary system was updated from scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimeter results obtained on binary samples over the entire composition range. Major changes made in the present work include the absence of the Gd{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} and GdNi{sub 4} compounds and the congruent melting point of the GdNi compound. An isothermal section of the Mg-Ni-Gd ternary system at 673K was constructed from the investigations on 22 ternary alloys. In total, six ternary compounds were identified in this work, three of which were observed to crystallize in the Cu{sub 4}MgSn ({tau}1), Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2} ({tau}2), and Ru{sub 4}Al{sub 3}B{sub 2}-type ({tau}3) structures, respectively. As in most of the Mg-rare-earth metal-transition metal ternary systems, a long-period-stacking ordered phase was identified to have an 18R structure and a melting temperature of 806K. Noticeable solid solubility of Ni in the Mg{sub 5}Gd and Mg{sub 3}Gd binary compounds was observed.

  16. Reduction mechanism of Ni2+ into Ni nanoparticles prepared from different precursors: Magnetic studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Ningthoujam; N S Gajbhiye; Sachil Sharma

    2009-03-01

    The reduction mechanism of Ni2+ into Ni particles using different precursors such as NiCl2 solution, NiO powder and Ni[(NH3)6]Cl2 complex has been established. Different particle sizes can be designed from these precursors. The smallest crystallite size (12 nm) can be obtained from Ni[(NH3)6]Cl2 complex in the presence of the stabilizing ligand (oleic acid). The field-cooled (FC) and zero-field-cooled (ZFC) magnetization of Ni particles obtained from Ni[(NH3)6]Cl2 complex in the temperature range 5–300 K established the ferromagnetic interaction up to 300 K. The magnetization values at three different temperatures 5, 70 and 300 K are 50.2, 49.5 and 45.5 Oe respectively at 3 × 104 Oe applied field and such values are less than that of the bulk value. The Curie temperature (c) decreases slightly with the decrease of particle size. This study will provide guidance in the preparation of metal nanoparticles from different precursors.

  17. Combustion Synthesis of NiAl and In-situ Joining to Ni-based Superalloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Combustion synthesis is used as a joining technology to join Ni-based superalloys with in-situ synthesized NiAl filler. The synthesis mechanism is discussed. The microstructure of the joints is investigated and the joint strength is also evaluated by tensile testing.

  18. Electronic circuits having NiAl and Ni.sub.3 Al substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deevi, Seetharama C. (Midlothian, VA); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  19. Electronic circuits having NiAl and Ni{sub 3}Al substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deevi, S.C.; Sikka, V.K.

    1999-10-12

    An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises NiAl and/or Ni{sub 3}Al, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  20. Electronic circuits having NiAl and Ni.sub.3 Al substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  1. Ni(salen): a system that forms many solvates with interacting Ni atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegler, M.A.M.; Lutz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Recrystallization of [N,N’-Ethylene-bis(salicylideneiminato)]-nickel(II) [Ni(salen)] has been carried out from a large selection of solvents. Crystals can be either solvent free or solvates. This study is based on X-ray crystal structure determinations, which include the redetermination of Ni(salen)

  2. Fabrication of Ni-,Co-and NiCo-coated Graphite Microspheres by Heterogeneous Precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jianxin; SHEN Xiangqian; CHEN Dong

    2009-01-01

    The precursors with NiCO_3·2Ni(OH)_2·2H2_O,Co_2(OH)_2CO_3,or both NiCO_3·2Ni(OH)_2·2H_2O and Co_2(OH)-2CO_3 coated graphite microspheres were prepared respectively by the aqueous heterogeneous precipitation using nickel sulfate,cobalt nitrate,sodium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and graphite microspheres as the main starting materials.Subsequently,Ni-, Co-and NiCo-coated graphite microspheres were successfully obtained by thermal reduction of the as-prepared precursors at 500℃for 2 h,respectively.These metal-coated graphite microspheres were characterized with a smooth,cohesive surface consisting of fine metallic particles.Optimized precipitation processing parameters of the concentration of graphite microspheres(10 g/L),the rate of adding reactants(3 mL/min)and pH value(8.0)were determined by a trial and error method.The thermal analysis of the precursors was investigated by TG.Powders of the precursors and the resultant metal-(Ni,Co and NiCo alloy)coated graphite microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM),energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDS)and X-ray diffraction(XRD).

  3. Fracture of FeNiB-NiP amorphous bilayer ribbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miskuf, J; Csach, K; Ocelik, [No Value; Duhaj, P; Ocelik, Vaclav

    1997-01-01

    The Study of failure surfaces of amorphous bimetal ribbons Fe40Ni40B20-Ni82P18 failed during tensile testing in the as-quenched and relaxed states (anneaIed at 250 degrees C) is presented. Two different fracture morphologies are observed on failed as-quenched samples: (i) near the maximum shear stre

  4. Materials science of Mg-Ni-based new hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orimo, S.; Fujii, H. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences

    2001-02-01

    One of the advantageous functional properties of Mg alloys (or compounds) is to exhibit the reversible hydriding reaction. In this paper, we present our systematic studies regarding the relationship between nanometer- or atomistic-scale structures and the specific hydriding properties of the Mg-Ni binary system, such as(1) nanostructured (n)-Mg{sub 2}Ni, (2) a mixture of n-Mg{sub 2}Ni and amorphous (a)-MgNi,(3) pure a-MgNi, and(4) n-MgNi{sub 2}. Further studies on(5) an a-MgNi-based system for clarifying the effect of the short-range ordering on the structural and hydriding properties and(6) a MgNi{sub 2}-based system for synthesizing the new Laves phase structure are also presented. The materials science of Mg-Ni-based new hydrides will provide indispensable knowledge for practically developing the Mg alloys as hydrogen-storage materials. (orig.)

  5. Probing the semi-magicity of $^{68}$Ni via the $^{3}$H($^{66}$Ni,$^{68}$Ni)p two-neutron transfer reaction in inverse kinematics

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Blazhev, A A; Kruecken, R; Franchoo, S; Mertzimekis, T; Darby, I G; Van de walle, J; Raabe, R; Elseviers, J; Gernhaeuser, R A; Sorlin, O H; Georgiev, G P; Bree, N C F; Habs, D; Chapman, R; Gaudefroy, L; Diriken, J V J; Jenkins, D G; Kroell, T; Axiotis, M; Huyse, M L; Patronis, N

    We propose to perform the two-neutron transfer reaction $^{3}$H($^{66}$Ni, $^{68}$Ni)$p$ using the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam at 2.7 $A$ MeV and the MINIBALL + T-REX setup to characterize the 0$^{+}$ and 2$^{+}$ states in $^{68}$Ni.

  6. Hydride reactivity of Ni(II)-X-Ni(II) entities: mixed-valent hydrido complexes and reversible metal reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Henrike; Metzinger, Ramona; Herwig, Christian; Intemann, Julia; Harder, Sjoerd; Limberg, Christian

    2013-01-28

    After the lithiation of PYR-H(2) (PYR(2-) =[{NC(Me)C(H)C(Me)NC(6)H(3)(iPr)(2)}(2)(C(5)H(3)N)](2-)), which is the precursor of an expanded β-diketiminato ligand system with two binding pockets, its reaction with [NiBr(2) (dme)] led to a dinuclear nickel(II)-bromide complex, [(PYR)Ni(μ-Br)NiBr] (1). The bridging bromide ligand could be selectively exchanged for a thiolate ligand to yield [(PYR)Ni(μ-SEt)NiBr] (3). In an attempt to introduce hydride ligands, both compounds were treated with KHBEt(3). This treatment afforded [(PYR)Ni(μ-H)Ni] (2), which is a mixed valent Ni(I)-μ-H-Ni(II) complex, and [(PYR-H)Ni(μ-SEt)Ni] (4), in which two tricoordinated Ni(I) moieties are strongly antiferromagnetically coupled. Compound 4 is the product of an initial salt metathesis, followed by an intramolecular redox process that separates the original hydride ligand into two electrons, which reduce the metal centres, and a proton, which is trapped by one of the binding pockets, thereby converting it into an olefin ligand on one of the Ni(I) centres. The addition of a mild acid to complex 4 leads to the elimination of H(2) and the formation of a Ni(II)Ni(II) compound, [(PYR)Ni(μ-SEt)NiOTf] (5), so that the original Ni(II) (μ-SEt)Ni(II) X core of compound 3 is restored. All of these compounds were fully characterized, including by X-ray diffraction, and their molecular structures, as well as their formation processes, are discussed.

  7. Effect of NiO content on corrosion behaviour of Ni-xNiO-NiFe2O4 cermets in Na3AlF6-Al2O3 melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李劼; 段华南; 赖延清; 田忠良; 刘业翔

    2004-01-01

    5Ni-xNiO-NiFe2O4 cermets with different NiO contents were prepared and the corrosion behaviour in Na3 AlF6-Al2O3 melts was investigated in laboratory electrolysis tests. The results indicate that adding NiO is unfavorable to the densification of NiFe2O4-xNiO ceramics, while small Ni doping can greatly improve the sintering property. The electrolysis tests show that excess NiO is beneficial to the reduction of Fe while has little effects on that of Ni in the bath; the steady-state concentrations of Ni, Fe are below the corresponding solubilities of NiFe2O4-xNiO, implying that corrosion mechanism changes while electrifying. Post-electrolysis examination of anodes shows that Ni metal leaches at the anode surface, yet the substrate ceramic prevents the penetration of bath and the further loss of metal phase.

  8. Ni(OH){sub 2} and NiO nano structures: Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghatforoush, Lotf Ali; Sanati, Soheila; Mehdizadeh, Robabeh [Payam Noor Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hasanzadeh, Mohammad [Tabriz Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Hydrothermal route have been used in different conditions for preparation of Ni(OH){sub 2} nano structures. The NiO nanoparticles were obtained by calcining the Ni(OH){sub 2} precursor at 450 .deg. C for 2 h. The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) as surfactant on the morphology and size of Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles were discussed in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the products. The growth mechanism of the as-synthesized nano structures was also discussed in detail based on the experimental results. Coming up, the NiO nanoparticle modified carbon paste electrode was applied to the determination of captopril in aqueous solution.

  9. Exchange coupling and noncollinear magnetic states in Ni/Fen/Ni(1 0 0) multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malonda-Boungou, B. R.; Stojić, N.; Binggeli, N.; M'Passi-Mabiala, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Ni interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) and the atomic-scale magnetic configurations in fcc Ni /Fen /Ni (1 0 0) multilayers, with ultrathin Fe spacers, are investigated using first-principles density-functional theory including the noncollinear spin formalism. The trends with changing Fe thickness (n) between 3 and 5 monolayers (MLs) are examined. For n = 3 and 4 MLs, we find the ground state to display antiferromagnetic IEC between the Ni films, while for the 5-ML Fe spacer, the IEC changes into ferromagnetic. Upon reversal of the magnetization alignment, from antiparallel to parallel, between the Ni films with 3- and 4-ML thick Fe spacer, we find noncollinear magnetic configurations in the Fe layer as the lowest-energy states, which are related to the magnetic instability towards noncollinear solutions in bulk γ -Fe.

  10. Standard Specification for Electric Fusion-Welded Ni-Cr-Co-Mo Alloy (UNS N06617), Ni-Fe-Cr-Si Alloys (UNS N08330 and UNS N08332), Ni-Cr-Fe-Al Alloy (UNS N06603), Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy (UNS N06025), and Ni-Cr-Fe-Si Alloy (UNS N06045) Pipe

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2014-01-01

    Standard Specification for Electric Fusion-Welded Ni-Cr-Co-Mo Alloy (UNS N06617), Ni-Fe-Cr-Si Alloys (UNS N08330 and UNS N08332), Ni-Cr-Fe-Al Alloy (UNS N06603), Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy (UNS N06025), and Ni-Cr-Fe-Si Alloy (UNS N06045) Pipe

  11. Magnetoresistance of nanogranular Ni/NiO controlled by exchange anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, L., E-mail: lucia.delbianco@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Spizzo, F.; Tamisari, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Allia, P. [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, I-10129 Torino (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    A link between exchange anisotropy and magnetoresistance has been found to occur in a Ni/NiO sample consisting of Ni nanocrystallites (mean size ∼13 nm, Ni content ∼33 vol%) dispersed in a NiO matrix. This material shows metallic-type electric conduction and isotropic spin-dependent magnetoresistance as well as exchange bias effect. The latter is the outcome of an exchange anisotropy arising from the contact interaction between the Ni phase and the NiO matrix. Combined analysis of magnetization M(H) and magnetoresistance MR(H) loops measured in the 5–250 K temperature range after zero-field-cooling (ZFC) and after field-cooling (FC) from 300 K reveals that the magnetoresistance is influenced by exchange anisotropy, which is triggered by the FC process and can be modified in strength by varying the temperature. Compared to the ZFC case, the exchange anisotropy produces a horizontal shift of the FC MR(H) loop along with a reduction of the MR response associated to the reorientation of the Ni moments. A strict connection between magnetoresistance and remanent magnetization of FC loops on one side and the exchange field on the other, ruled by exchange anisotropy, is indicated. - Highlights: • Nanogranular Ni/NiO with giant magnetoresistance (MR) and exchange bias effect. • Exchange anisotropy produces a shift of the field-cooled MR(H) loop and reduces MR. • MR, remanence of field-cooled loops and exchange field are three correlated quantities. • It is possible to control MR of nanogranular systems through the exchange anisotropy.

  12. Oxide Scales Formed on NiTi and NiPtTi Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialek, James L.; Garg, Anita; Rogers, Richard B.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Ni-49Ti and Ni-30Pt-50Ti (at.%) shape memory alloys were oxidized isothermally in air over the temperature range of 500 to 900 C. The microstructure, composition, and phase content of the scales were studied by SEM, EDS, XRD, and metallography. Extensive plan view SEM/EDS identified various features of intact or spalled scale surfaces. The outer surface of the scale was a relatively pure TiO2 rutile structure, typified by a distinct highly striated and faceted crystal morphology. Crystal size increased significantly with temperature. Spalled regions exhibited some porosity and less distinct features. More detailed information was obtained by correlation of SEM/EDS studies of 700 C/100 hr cross-sections with XRD analyses of serial or taper-polishing of plan surfaces. Overall, multiple layers exhibited graded mixtures of NiO, TiO2, NiTiO3, Ni(Ti) or Pt(Ni,Ti) metal dispersoids, Ni3Ti or Pt3Ti depletion zones, and substrate, in that order. The NiTi alloy contained a 3 at.% Fe impurity that appeared in embedded localized Fe-Ti-rich oxides, while the NiPtTi alloy contained a 2 v/o dispersion of TiC that appeared in lower layers. The oxidation kinetics of both alloys (in a previous report) indicated parabolic growth and an activation energy (250 kJ/mole) near those reported in other Ti and NiTi studies. This is generally consistent with TiO2 existing as the primary scale constituent, as described here.

  13. Exchange bias effect in polycrystalline NiO/NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas Cabral, A.J. [Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Naturais, Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Belém, PA (Brazil); Peña Serna, J.; Rache Salles, B.; Novak, M.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinto, A.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha Remédios, C.M. [Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Naturais, Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Belém, PA (Brazil)

    2015-05-05

    Highlights: • Antiferromagnetic NiO/ferrimagnetic NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxide composites. • Grains are well faceted, indicating that the specimen was well crystallized. • The micrographs suggests that NiO and NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} may be stuck to each other. • EB effect in NiO/NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxide composites. • EB effect increases with the amount of NiO. - Abstract: Calcination of aqueous solutions formed by different molar ratios between the nickel and manganese chlorides led to the formation of antiferromagnetic NiO/ferrimagnetic NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxide composites, as determined by X-ray powder diffraction technique and Rietveld refinement. Low temperature zero field cooled and field cooled magnetic hysteresis cycles show an exchange bias effect, presumably due to interaction at the interfaces between the antiferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic materials.

  14. Low-lying excitations in 72Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A. I.; Benzoni, G.; Watanabe, H.; Nishimura, S.; Browne, F.; Daido, R.; Doornenbal, P.; Fang, Y.; Lorusso, G.; Patel, Z.; Rice, S.; Sinclair, L.; Söderström, P.-A.; Sumikama, T.; Wu, J.; Xu, Z. Y.; Yagi, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Baba, H.; Avigo, R.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Blasi, N.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Ceruti, S.; Crespi, F. C. L.; de Angelis, G.; Delattre, M.-C.; Dombradi, Zs.; Gottardo, A.; Isobe, T.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Kuti, I.; Matsui, K.; Melon, B.; Mengoni, D.; Miyazaki, T.; Modamio-Hoyborg, V.; Momiyama, S.; Napoli, D. R.; Niikura, M.; Orlandi, R.; Sakurai, H.; Sahin, E.; Sohler, D.; Shaffner, H.; Taniuchi, R.; Taprogge, J.; Vajta, Zs.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Wieland, O.; Yalcinkaya, M.

    2016-03-01

    Low-lying excited states in 72Ni have been investigated in an in-flight fission experiment at the RIBF facility of the RIKEN Nishina Center. The combination of the state-of-the-art BigRIPS and EURICA setups has allowed for a very accurate study of the β decay from 72Co to 72Ni, and has provided first experimental information on the decay sequence 72Fe→72Co→72Ni and on the delayed neutron-emission branch 73Co→72Ni . Accordingly, we report nearly 60 previously unobserved γ transitions which deexcite 21 new levels in 72Ni. Evidence for the location of the so-sought-after (42+) ,(62+) , and (81+) seniority states is provided. As well, the existence of a low-spin β -decaying isomer in odd-odd neutron-rich Co isotopes is confirmed for mass A =72 . The new experimental information is compared to simple shell-model calculations including only neutron excitations across the f p g shells. It is shown that, in general, the calculations reproduce well the observed states.

  15. Evolution of Ni nanofilaments and electromagnetic coupling in the resistive switching of NiO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuxiang; Zhao, Diyang; Zhao, Yonggang; Chiang, Fu-Kuo; Chen, Pengcheng; Guo, Minghua; Luo, Nannan; Jiang, Xingli; Miao, Peixian; Sun, Ying; Chen, Aitian; Lin, Zhu; Li, Jianqi; Duan, Wenhui; Cai, Jianwang; Wang, Yayu

    2014-12-01

    Resistive switching effect in conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stacks is promising for resistance random access memory with high-density, fast speed, low power dissipation and high endurance, as well as novel computer logic architectures. NiO is a model system for the resistive switching effect and the formation/rupture of Ni nanofilaments is considered to be essential. However, it is not clear how the nanofilaments evolve in the switching process. Moreover, since Ni nanofilaments should be ferromagnetic, it provides an opportunity to explore the electromagnetic coupling in this system. Here, we report a direct observation of Ni nanofilaments and their specific evolution process for the first time by a combination of various measurements and theoretical calculations. We found that multi-nanofilaments are involved in the low resistance state and the nanofilaments become thin and rupture separately in the RESET process with subsequent increase of the rupture gaps. Theoretical calculations reveal the role of oxygen vacancy amount in the evolution of Ni nanofilaments. We also demonstrate electromagnetic coupling in this system, which opens a new avenue for multifunctional devices.Resistive switching effect in conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stacks is promising for resistance random access memory with high-density, fast speed, low power dissipation and high endurance, as well as novel computer logic architectures. NiO is a model system for the resistive switching effect and the formation/rupture of Ni nanofilaments is considered to be essential. However, it is not clear how the nanofilaments evolve in the switching process. Moreover, since Ni nanofilaments should be ferromagnetic, it provides an opportunity to explore the electromagnetic coupling in this system. Here, we report a direct observation of Ni nanofilaments and their specific evolution process for the first time by a combination of various measurements and theoretical calculations. We found

  16. Exchange bias beyond the superparamagnetic blocking temperature of the antiferromagnet in a Ni-NiO nanoparticulate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.roy@ua.pt, E-mail: aparnaroy15@gmail.com; Ferreira, J. M. F. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); De Toro, J. A.; Muniz, P.; Riveiro, J. M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Amaral, V. S. [Department of Physics and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2014-02-21

    We report magnetic and exchange bias studies on Ni-NiO nanoparticulate systems synthesized by a two-step process, namely, chemical reduction of a Ni salt followed by air annealing of the dried precipitate in the temperature range 400–550 °C. Size of Ni and NiO crystallites as estimated from X–ray diffraction line broadening ranges between 10.5–13.5 nm and 2.3–4 nm, respectively. The magneto-thermal plots (M-T) of these bi-magnetic samples show a well developed peak in the vicinity of 130 K. This has been identified as the superparamagnetic blocking temperature “T{sub B}” of NiO. Interestingly, all samples exhibit exchange bias even above their respective NiO blocking temperatures, right up to 300 K, the maximum temperature of measurement. This is in contrast to previous reports since exchange bias requires the antiferromagnetic NiO to have a stable direction of its moment in order to pin the ferromagnet (Ni) magnetization, whereas such stability is unlikely above T{sub B} since the NiO is superparamagnetic, its moment flipping under thermal activation. Our observation is elucidated by taking into account the core-shell morphology of the Ni-NiO nanoparticles whereby clustering of some of these nanoparticles connects their NiO shells to form extended continuous regions of NiO, which because of their large size remain blocked at T > T{sub B}, with thermally stable spins capable of pinning the Ni cores and giving rise to exchange bias. The investigated samples may thus be envisaged as being constituted of both isolated core-shell Ni-NiO nanoparticles as well as clustered ones, with T{sub B} denoting the blocking temperature of the NiO shell of the isolated particles.

  17. Optimization of the Ni(P) Thickness for an Ultrathin Ni(P)-Based Surface Finish in Soldering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. E.; Wang, S. J.; Fan, C. W.; Wu, W. H.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the Ni(P) thickness δ Ni(P) on the interfacial reaction between an Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder and an Au/Pd(P)/Ni(P)/Cu pad (thickness: 0.05/0.05/0.1-0.3/20 μm) and the resulting mechanical properties were investigated using scanning electron microscopy equipped with an electron backscatter diffraction system, a focused ion beam system, electron probe microanalysis, and high-speed ball shear (HSBS) testing. Regardless of δ Ni(P), all of the Au/Pd(P)/Ni(P) surface finishes examined were completely exhausted in one reflow, exposing the Cu pad underneath the solder. Cu6Sn5 dissolved with various Ni contents, termed (Cu,Ni)6Sn5, was the dominant intermetallic compound (IMC) species at the solder/Cu interface. Additionally, Ni2SnP and Ni3P IMCs might form with the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 in the thick Ni(P) case, i.e., δ Ni(P) = 0.3 μm, and the two IMCs (Ni2SnP and Ni3P) were gradually eliminated from the interface after multiple reflows. A mass balance analysis indicated that the growth of the Ni-containing IMCs, rather than the dissolution of the metallization pad, played a key role in the Ni(P) exhaustion. The HSBS test results indicated that the mechanical strength of the solder joints was also δ Ni(P) dependent. The combined results of the interfacial reaction and the mechanical evaluation provided the optimal δ Ni(P) value for soldering applications.

  18. Enhanced cycle performance of a Na/NiCl2 battery based on Ni particles encapsulated with Ni3S2 layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Xin; Wen, Zhaoyin; Hu, Yingying; Wu, Tian; Wu, Xiangwei; He, Qiming

    2017-02-01

    Nickel particles with different contents of Ni3S2 surface layer were prepared for their application as cathode materials in Na/NiCl2 batteries. The surface modification of nickel particles is found to prevent their growth and battery degradation during cycling. The optimum level of surface modification was determined by electrochemical tests and morphology characterization. Excessive Ni3S2 layer seems to cause particle aggregation resulting in low reversible capacity. The capacity of the cell with optimum level of Ni3S2 surface modification layer after 50 cycles is about 4 times greater than that without Ni3S2 surface modification layer.

  19. Effect of silicon on oxidation of Ni-15Al alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ying; NIU Yan; WU Wei-tao

    2005-01-01

    The oxidation of binary Ni-Al alloy containing 15% (mole fraction, the same below if not mentioned)Al (Ni-15Al), and of a ternary alloy with the same Al content but also containing 4% Si (Ni-4Si-15Al) has been studied at 1 000 ℃ under 1.0× 105Pa O2 to examine the effect of the addition of Si on the oxidation of Ni-15Al. Oxidation of Ni-15Al produces a duplex scale composed of an outer NiO layer and an inner layer riched in Al2O3. On the contrary, Ni-4Si-15Al forms an external alumina layer directly in contact with the alloy presenting only trace of NiO and the Ni-Al spinel. As a result, the kinetics of Ni-15Al shows a fast initial stage followed by two subsequent parabolic stages with decreasing rate constants, while Ni-4Si-15Al presents essentially a single nearly-parabolic behavior with a rate constant similar to that of the final stage of Ni-15Al. Therefore, the addition of 4% Si significantly reduces the oxidation rate during the initial stage by preventing the formation of Ni-riched scales and promoting an earlier development of an exclusive external alumina layer on the alloy surface.

  20. The acceleration intermediate phase (NiS and Ni3S2) evolution by nanocrystallization in Li/NiS2 thermal batteries with high specific capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chuanyu; Zhou, Lingping; Fu, Licai; Zhu, Jiajun; Li, Deyi; Yang, Wulin

    2017-06-01

    The intermediate phase of NiS2 is thought to be a bottleneck currently to improve the overall performance of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries because of its low conductivity and close formation enthalpy between NiS2 and the intermediate phase (NiS, Ni3S2, etc). For improving the discharge performances of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries, the nano NiS2 with an average size of 85 ± 5 nm is designated as a cathode material. The electrochemical measurements show that the specific capacity of nano NiS2 cathode is higher than micro NiS2. The nano NiS2 cathode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances with high specific capacities of 794 and 654 mAh g-1 at current density of 0.1 and 0.5 A cm-2 under a cut-off voltage of 0.5 V, respectively. These results show that the rapid intermediate phase evolution from the nanocrystallization can obviously enhance use efficiency of NiS2 and improve discharge performances of thermal batteries.

  1. Cutting NiTi with Femtosecond Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Quintino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Superelastic shape memory alloys are difficult to machine by thermal processes due to the facility for Ti oxidation and by mechanical processes due to their superelastic behavior. In this study, femtosecond lasers were tested to analyze the potential for machining NiTi since femtosecond lasers allow nonthermal processing of materials by ablation. The effect of processing parameters on machining depth was studied, and material removal rates were computed. Surfaces produced were analyzed under SEM which shows a resolidified thin layer with minimal heat affected zones. However, for high cutting speeds, that is, for short interaction times, this layer was not observed. A depletion of Ni was seen which may be beneficial in biomedical applications since Ni is known to produce human tissue reactions in biophysical environments.

  2. La niña proletaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cartabia, Sabrina A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone trazar un paralelo entre el cuento de Osvaldo Lamborghini “El niño proletario”, el cual, según la autora del ensayo, introduce al lector en la lucha de clases y el sometimiento de los/as proletarios/as, que sufren las mujeres, en particular a través de la violencia sexual. De esa forma la autora se pregunta si el poder que ciertas clases detentan sobre otras no influye también sobre el sometimiento de la mujer. El ensayo analiza además cómo la violencia sexual es una herramienta que constituye la base de la desigualdad, el sometimiento y la degradación de la mujer, al igual que constituye una herramienta de opresión de otros grupos vulnerables como los niños y niñas.

  3. De niño a niño, un programa de niños tutores en alfabetización

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemberg, Celia Renata; Alam, Florencia

    2015-01-01

    El programa "De niño a niño: un programa de niños tutores en alfabetización" (Rosemberg y Alam, 2009- en curso) tiene por objeto promover simultáneamente el desarrollo lingüístico y cognitivo de niños de 4 y 5 años y niños de 12 y 13 años a través de la realización de actividades de alfabetización y de la lectura de cuentos de los niños mayores a los pequeños. En talleres semanales los coordinadores pedagógicos y miembros del equipo de investigación capacitan a los niños mayores para llevar a...

  4. Radiation damage buildup and dislocation evolution in Ni and equiatomic multicomponent Ni-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levo, E.; Granberg, F.; Fridlund, C.; Nordlund, K.; Djurabekova, F.

    2017-07-01

    Single-phase multicomponent alloys of equal atomic concentrations (;equiatomic;) have proven to exhibit promising mechanical and corrosion resistance properties, that are sought after in materials intended for use in hazardous environments like next-generation nuclear reactors. In this article, we investigate the damage production and dislocation mobility by simulating irradiation of elemental Ni and the alloys NiCo, NiCoCr, NiCoFe and NiFe, to assess the effect of elemental composition. We compare the defect production and the evolution of dislocation networks in the simulation cells of two different sizes, for all five studied materials. We find that the trends in defect evolution are in good agreement between the different cell sizes. The damage is generally reduced with increased alloy complexity, and the dislocation evolution is specific to each material, depending on its complexity. We show that increasing complexity of the alloys does not always lead to decreased susceptibility to damage accumulation under irradiation. We show that, for instance, the NiCo alloy behaves very similarly to Ni, while presence of Fe or Cr in the alloy even as a third component reduces the saturated level of damage substantially. Moreover, we linked the defect evolution with the dislocation transformations in the alloys. Sudden drops in defect number and large defect fluctuations from the continuous irradiation can be explained from the dislocation activity.

  5. Application of Nanocrystalline LaNi5-type Hydrogen Absorbing Alloys in Ni-MHx Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jurczyk M; Nowak M

    2004-01-01

    The structure and electrochemical properties of nanocrystalline LaNi5-type alloys were studied. These materials were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) followed by annealing. The properties of hydrogen host materials can be modified substantially by alloying to obtain the desired storage characteristics. It was found that the partial substitution of Ni by Al or Mn in LaNi5-xMx alloy leads to an increase in discharge capacity. The alloying elements such as Al, Mn and Co greatly improved the cycle life of LaNi5 material. For example, in the nanocrystalline LaNi3.75Mn0.75Al0.25Co0.25 powder, discharge capacity up to 258 mAh·g-1 was measured (at 40 mA·g-1 discharge current). Furthermore,the effect of the graphite coating on the structure of some nanocrystalline alloys and the electrodes characteristics were investigated. The mechanical coating with graphite effectively reduced the degradation rate of the studied electrode materials. The combination of a nanocrystalline LaNi5-type hydride electrodes and a nickel positive electrode to form a Ni-MH battery, was successful.

  6. Easy access to Ni3N- and Ni-carbon nanocomposite catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Guylhaine; Molinari, Valerio; Kraupner, Alexander; Giordano, Cristina

    2014-07-14

    In the search for alternative materials to current expensive catalysts, Ni has been addressed as one of the most promising and, on this trail, its corresponding nitride. However, nickel nitride is a thermally unstable compound, and therefore not easy to prepare especially as nanoparticles. In the present work, a sol-gel-based process (the urea glass route) is applied to prepare well-defined and homogeneous Ni3N and Ni nanoparticles. In both cases, the prepared crystalline nanoparticles (∼25 nm) are dispersed in a carbon matrix forming interesting Ni3N- and Ni-based composites. These nanocomposites were characterised by means of several techniques, such as XRD, HR-TEM, EELS, and the reaction mechanism was investigated by TGA and IR and herein discussed. The catalytic activity of Ni3N is investigated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, for hydrogenation reactions involving H2, and here compared to the one of Ni. Both materials show good catalytic activities but, interestingly, give a different selectivity between different functional groups (namely, nitro, alkene and nitrile groups).

  7. Atomistic structure of the coherent Ni/Ni[sub 3]Al interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, D. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Campos, M.F. de; Souze, R.M. de; Goldenstein, H. (Escola Politecnica USP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia)

    1994-02-01

    Most Ni-based superalloys are strengthened by the presence of coherent precipitates of an ordered fcc bases phase, known as [gamma][prime]. This phase is basically Ni[sub 3]Al. The precipitates are coherent up to a certain size and they present a cubic shape with faces oriented in the (100) planes of both matrix and precipitate. The detailed atomistic structure of this interface has not been studied. Interest in the use of ordered intermetallic compounds as possible structural materials has resulted in a large amount of work in Ni[sub 3]Al and in particular, the development of interatomic potentials for the Ni-Al system using the embedded atom technique. These potentials have been employed in the simulation of a variety of defects in Ni[sub 3]Al, including dislocation cores, grain boundaries and free surfaces. However, there is no simulation of the Ni/Ni[sub 3]Al interface structure using the embedded atom method. The objective of the present work is to carry out such a simulation. Besides the practical importance of the interface in superalloys, it is the simplest type of interface that can be modeled and it is a good starting point for interface work using the embedded atom technique.

  8. PRECIPITATION HARDENING IN B2-ORDERED NiAl BY Ni2AlTiCOMPOUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.H. Tian; K. Ohishi; M. Nemoto

    2001-01-01

    Microstructural variations and correlated hardness changes in B2-ordered NiAl containing fine precipitation of Ni2AlTi have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and hardness tests. The amount of age hardening is not large as compared to the large microstructural variations during aging. TEM observations have revealed that the L21-type Ni2AlTi precipitates keep a lattice coherency with the NiAl matrix at the beginning of aging. By longer periods of aging Ni2AlTi precipitates lose their coherency and change their morphology to the globular ones surrounded by misfit dislocations. The temperature dependence of the yield strength of precipitate-containing B2-ordered NiAl was investigated by compression tests over the temperature range of 873-1273K. The fine precipitation of Ni2AlTi was found to enhance greatly the yield strength and the high-temperature strength is comparison with that of superalloy Mar-M200.``

  9. Zn,Ni ferrite/NiO nanocomposite powder obtained from acetylacetonato complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucinic-Vasic, M.; Antic, B.; Kremenovic, A.; Nikolic, A. S.; Stoiljkovic, M.; Bibic, N.; Spasojevic, V.; Colomban, Ph

    2006-10-01

    The results on the synthesis, microstructure, structure and DC magnetization studies of nanocomposite Zn,Ni ferrite/NiO powder obtained by thermal decomposition of acetylacetonato complexes are reported in this paper. According to the results obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) element analysis and multiphase Rietveld refinement, the three samples made are composed of spinel-ferrite (86.7% 96.7%) and NiO (3.3% 13.3%) phases. The compositions of the spinel-ferrite (SP) phase in the investigated samples, S1 S3, are Zn0.72Ni0.24Fe1.98O4, Zn0.56Ni0.29Fe2.07O4 and Zn0.40Ni0.40Fe2.10O4, respectively. Due to the cation deficiency in spinels, created vacancies induce a partial change in the cation valence, \\mathrm {Ni^{2+}} \\to \\mathrm {Ni^{3+}} . The vacancy distribution is found to be random at 8a and 16d cation sites, except in sample S3, where all vacancies are over octahedral sites. The x-ray line broadening due to crystallite size effect is found to be isotropic for all spinels, while the x-ray line broadening due to the strain effect is anisotropic. A correlation between the Zn2+ occupancy of the tetrahedral site and the 650 cm-1 Raman peak intensities is shown. The observed coercivity decrease and shift in hysteresis loop in the samples are caused by the interaction between spinel and NiO phase. The results of M(H) measurements point to the properties of an ensemble of interacting nanoparticles. High saturation magnetization values and superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature point to the technological significance of the title compounds.

  10. Fe-Ni-O体系中Fe/Ni的还原行为%Reduction behavior of Fe/Ni in the Fe-Ni-O system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏文洁; 张延玲; 魏芬绒; 杨小刚; 胡晓军

    2013-01-01

    取电阻炉实验和热重分析等手段,探讨了Fe-Ni-O体系中不同条件下的产物组成及Fe/Ni的还原行为.结果表明:五种样品的还原难度由低到高依次为NiO<Fe2O3+Ni<Fe2O3+NiO<NiFe2O4 <Fe2O3; Ni元素能够促进铁氧化物还原,其促进作用由Ni元素的初始状态决定,单质Ni>氧化物NiO>NiFe2O4中的Ni;NiFe2O4的还原过程中各产物由低温到高温依次出现的次序为Fe3O4、Ni、(Fe,Ni)、Fe和Fe0.64Ni0.36.根据实验结果,对五种氧化物体系的还原过程进行了探讨,并获得了活化能、控速环节等重要参数及相关反应机理.%The product composition under different conditions and the reduction behavior of Fe and Ni in the Fe-Ni-O system were studied by electric resistance furnace experiments and thermogravimetric analysis. The order of difficult degree for reducing Fe/Ni oxides in five systems is NiONiO>Ni released from NiFe2O4. As the temperature increases, the reduction products of NiFe2O4 are in order of Fe3O4, Ni, (Fe, Ni), Fe, and Fe0.64Ni0.36- Based on these experimental results, the reduction processes and the kinetics such as activation energy and rate-controlling step for reducing the five oxides were analyzed and discussed.

  11. Participar como niña o niño en el mundo social

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Paulina Díaz

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo presento la participación como resultado de un trabajo investigativo realizado durante el año 2007, con niños y niñas escolarizados habitantes de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia, cuyo objetivo fue analizar las representaciones sociales que ellos y ellas comparten sobre el ejercicio ciudadano. El análisis de la información tiene como ejes fundamentales, la salud colectiva, la sociología de la infancia y la participación en la niñez, en una aproximación que se realiza desde un ...

  12. Synthesis of TiNi/Ti2Ni Composite Particles in Molten Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Rui-song; CUI Li-shan; ZHENG Yan-jun

    2006-01-01

    A new process of synthesizing TiNi/Ti2Ni composite particles, high temperature molten salts method, is introduced. This method uses molten salts as a reaction medium that does not take part in the chemical reaction and can be easily dissolved in rinsing water. According this method, the composite particles were prepared in molten salts at 700 ℃-900 ℃. By means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the reversible martensitic transformation of TiNi particles in these composite particles was confirmed.

  13. IMPURITY CENTRES.Ni+ and Ni3+ centers in X-irradiated CaF2

    OpenAIRE

    Casas, J.; Den Hartog, H.; Alcalá, R

    1980-01-01

    Optical and EPR measurements of CaF2 : Ni before and after X-irradiation are reported. An absorption band at 255 nm grows during X-irradiation. The thermal evolution of this band and some bleaching experiments in 15 K X-irradiated samples containing Vk centers indicate that the 255 nm band is due to Ni+ centers. Some EPR signals associated with the Ni+ centers are also observed. Low temperature measurements show that there are two slightly different kinds of centers one of them having tetrago...

  14. Exchange bias in finite sized NiO nanoparticles with Ni clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Ashish Chhaganlal; Lin, Jauyn Grace

    2017-02-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of finite sized NiO nanoparticles are investigated with synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, magnetometer and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy. A minor Ni phase is detected with synchrotron XRD, attributed to the oxygen defects in the NiO core. A considerable exchange bias of 100 Oe is observed at 50 K and it drops abruptly and vanishes above 150 K, in association with the reduction of frozen spins. FMR data indicate a strong interaction between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) phases below 150 K, consistent with the picture of isolated FM clusters in AFM matrix.

  15. Microstructure of Ni-Al powder and Ni-Al composite coatings prepared by twin-wire arc spraying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-xiao Wang; Gui-xian Wang; Jing-shun Liu; Lun-yong Zhang; Wei Wang; Ze Li; Qi-xiang Wang; Jian-fei Sun

    2016-01-01

    Ni–Al powder and Ni–Al composite coatings were fabricated by twin-wire arc spraying (TWAS). The microstructures of Ni-5wt%Al powder and Ni-20wt%Al powder were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spec-troscopy (EDS). The results showed that the obtained particle size ranged from 5 to 50μm. The morphology of the Ni–Al powder showed that molten particles were composed of Ni solid solution, NiAl, Ni3Al, Al2O3, and NiO. The Ni–Al phase and a small amount of Al2O3 parti-cles changed the composition of the coating. The microstructures of the twin-wire-arc-sprayed Ni–Al composite coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the main phase of the Ni-5wt%Al coating consisted of Ni solid solution and NiAl in addition to a small amount of Al2O3. The main phase of the Ni-20wt%Al coating mainly consisted of Ni solid solution, NiAl, and Ni3Al in addition to a small amount of Al and Al2O3, and NiAl and Ni3Al intermet-allic compounds effectively further improved the final wear property of the coatings. TEM analysis indicated that fine spherical NiAl3 pre-cipitates and a Ni–Al–O amorphous phase formed in the matrix of the Ni solid solution in the original state.

  16. Interface structure between epitaxial NiSi2 and Si

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Long Liu; Wen-Jauh Chen; Ting-Kan Tsai; Hsun-Heng Tsai; Shu-Huei Hsieh

    2006-01-01

    The interface structure between the Si and NiSi2 epitaxially grown on the ((-1)12) Si substrate was studied using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and computer image simulation. The results showed that the interface between Si and NiSi2 epitaxially grown on the ((-1)12) Si substrate has six different types: type A NiSi2 ((-1)11 )/( (-1)11 ) Si, type A NiSi2 (001)/(001) Si, type B NiSi2 (1(-1)(-1))/(1(-1)1) Si, type B NiSi2 ((-1)12)/(1(-1)2) Si, type B NiSi2 (2(-2)1)/(001) Si, and type B NiSi2 (1(-1)(4))/( 1(-1)0 ) Si. And there are one or more different atomic structures for one type of interface.

  17. Electrochemical performance study of Ni/Ni-GDC double-layer anode-supported IT-SOFC%Ni/Ni-GDC双层阳极支撑型IT-SOFC性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭桂平; 彭开萍

    2015-01-01

    采用硝酸盐-柠檬酸溶胶-凝胶低温自蔓延燃烧法制备GDC粉末,用共压法制备了NiO-GDC单层阳极、NiO/NiO-GDC双层阳极及其单电池,并测试了其性能。研究结果表明:经H2还原后,Ni/Ni-GDC双层阳极外层为多孔结构,由粒径较大的Ni粒子团形成了稳定的电子电导通道及燃料通道;内层孔隙较小、较少,Ni均匀分布于GDC构成的支撑骨架中。Ni/Ni-GDC双层阳极的孔隙率及电导率都高于Ni-GDC单层阳极,从450~700℃,其电导率比Ni-GDC单层阳极都稳定高出15%~20%。单电池的测试结果表明:Ni/Ni-GDC双层阳极支撑单电池在700、650、600℃的最大功率密度分别为0.383、0.329、0.204 W/cm2,比Ni-GDC单层阳极支撑单电池分别高出了8.95%、79.38%、84.76%。Ni/Ni-GDC双层阳极支撑单电池具有比Ni-GDC单层阳极支撑单电池更高的中温、特别是低温电化学性能。%GDC electrolyte powder was synthesized by nitrate-citric acid sol-gel auto combustion method in low temperature. NiO-GDC single-layer anode, NiO/NiO-GDC double-layer anode and their single cells were prepared by co-pressing, then their properties were tested. The test results show that after reduction by H2, the outer layer of the Ni/Ni-GDC double-layer anode is porous and stable electronic conductivity channel and fuel channel is formed by the Ni particle groups with large size. In the inner layer, pores are less and smal er, and Ni particles distribute uniformly in the skeleton structure formed by GDC particle. Both the porosity and conductivity of Ni/Ni-GDC double-layer anode are higher than Ni-GDC single-layer anode; its conductivities from 450 to 700℃are al 15%~20%higher than Ni-GDC single-layer anode. The single celltest shows that the peak power densities of Ni/Ni-GDC double-layer anode-supported single cellat temperature 700, 650 and 600℃are respectively 0.383, 0.329 and 0.204 W/cm2, which are respectively 8.95%, 79.38%, 84

  18. Funciones cognoscitivas en niños y niñas con trastorno disocial comparados con niños y niñas sin el trastorno

    OpenAIRE

    Urazán Torres, Gina Rocio

    2011-01-01

    Este proyecto de investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar y caracterizar las funciones cognoscitivas de un grupo de niños y niñas con Trastorno Disocial (TD), comparándolas con las de un grupo de niños y niñas normales. Se utilizó un diseño de casos y controles con una muestra de 39 niños y niñas entre 6 y 12 años de edad con TD y 39 niños y niñas del mismo rango de edades y los mismos estratos socioeconómicos. Los participantes fueron seleccionados de diferentes instituciones educativas de B...

  19. Fabrication of CdTe/NiTe films on Ni foils by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Yannan [National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Department of Physics and Chemistry, Heihe University, Heihe 164300 (China); Zhou, Xiaoming [College of Physics, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); Yao, Huizhen; Su, Shi; Lv, Pin; Chen, Yanli; Wang, Jun; Fu, Wuyou [National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Song, Wenxu [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); Yang, Haibin, E-mail: yanghb@jlu.edu.cn [National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • The effects of T{sub s} on CdTe deposited on Ni by magnetron sputtering is investigated. • An effective method is studied of making CdTe/NiTe without post-treatment. • As-prepared CdTe/NiTe raised optical absorption and PEC properties. • Pre-deposited Te can react with Ni to generate NiTe at T{sub s} = 350 °C. - Abstract: Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) semiconductor thin films are fabricated on flexible Ni foil substrates using radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering under different substrate temperatures. The crystal structure and properties of the prepared functional thin films were characterized with series analysis technologies. The characterization results revealed that Nickel Telluride (NiTe) phase formatted at the interface of CdTe and Ni substrate when substrate temperature (T{sub s}) is 450 °C. Specially, XRD results demonstrated that CdTe/NiTe films could also be obtained by pre-depositing Te film on Ni and reducing T{sub s} to 350 °C. The investigation on optical and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the products illustrated that compact CdTe/NiTe films had improved the absorption in the visible region. Furthermore, PEC measurements indicated that CdTe/NiTe/Ni photoelectrode can have a promising application in photovoltaic devices.

  20. Hydrogenation of ethyl acetate to ethanol over Ni-based catalysts obtained from Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beixiao; Lin, Lu; Zhuang, Junping; Liu, Ying; Peng, Lincai; Jiang, Longfei

    2010-07-29

    A series of Ni-based catalysts were prepared using hydrogen reduction of Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds (Ni/Al HTlcs) synthesized by coprecipitation. The physico-chemical properties of Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds and the corresponding Ni-based catalysts were characterized using inductively coupled plasma (ICP), BET surface areas, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results indicated that Ni/Al HTlcs with layered structures could be successfully prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the characteristic HTlcs reflections were also observed in the XRD analysis. The NiO and Ni0 phases were identified in all Ni-based catalysts, which displayed randomly interconnected pores and no layer structures. In addition, the studies also found the Ni/Al HTlcs and Ni-based catalysts had high specific surface areas, low pore volumes and low pore diameters. The catalytic hydrogenation of ethyl acetate to ethanol with Ni-based catalysts was also investigated. Among the studied catalysts, RE1NASH-110-3 showed the highest selectivity and yield of ethyl acetate to ethanol, which were 68.2% and 61.7%, respectively. At the same time, a major by-product, butyl acetate, was formed due to an ester-exchange reaction. A proposed hydrogenation pathway for ethyl acetate over Ni-based catalysts was suggested.

  1. Hydrogenation of Ethyl Acetate to Ethanol over Ni-Based Catalysts Obtained from Ni/Al Hydrotalcite-Like Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Jiang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of Ni-based catalysts were prepared using hydrogen reduction of Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds (Ni/Al HTlcs synthesized by coprecipitation. The physico-chemical properties of Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds and the corresponding Ni-based catalysts were characterized using inductively coupled plasma (ICP, BET surface areas, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. The results indicated that Ni/Al HTlcs with layered structures could be successfully prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the characteristic HTlcs reflections were also observed in the XRD analysis. The NiO and Ni0 phases were identified in all Ni-based catalysts, which displayed randomly interconnected pores and no layer structures. In addition, the studies also found the Ni/Al HTlcs and Ni-based catalysts had high specific surface areas, low pore volumes and low pore diameters. The catalytic hydrogenation of ethyl acetate to ethanol with Ni-based catalysts was also investigated. Among the studied catalysts, RE1NASH-110-3 showed the highest selectivity and yield of ethyl acetate to ethanol, which were 68.2% and 61.7%, respectively. At the same time, a major by-product, butyl acetate, was formed due to an ester-exchange reaction. A proposed hydrogenation pathway for ethyl acetate over Ni-based catalysts was suggested.

  2. A Comparative Study of Elastic Constants of NiTi and NiAl Alloys from First-Principle Calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianmin Lu; Qingmiao Hu; Rui Yang

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the origin of the strong dependence of martensitic transformation temperature on composition,the elastic properties of high temperature B2 phases of both NiTi and NiAl were calculated by a first-principle method, the exact-muffin orbital method within coherent potential approximation. In the composition range of 50-56 at. pct Ni of NiTi and 60-70 at. pct Ni of NiAI in which martensitic transformation occurs, non-basalplane shear modulus c44 increases with increasing Ni content, while basal-plane shear modulus c' decreases.In the above composition ranges however the transformation temperature of NiAI increases with increasing Ni content while that of NiTi decreases from experimental observation. The softening of c' is experimentally observed only in NiAl, and the decrease of c' with increasing Ni content is responsible for the increase of transformation temperature. The result of the present work demonstrates that, besides c', c44 also influences the martensitic transformation of NiTi and plays quite important a role.

  3. Structural study of radiolytic catalysts Ni-Ce/Al2O3 and Ni-Pt/Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seridi, F.; Chettibi, S.; Keghouche, N.; Beaunier, P.; Belloni, J.

    2017-01-01

    Ni-Ce and Ni-Pt bimetallic catalysts supported over α-Al2O3 are synthesized by using co-impregnation method, and then reduced, each via radiolytic process or thermal H2-treatment. For Ni-Ce/Al2O3, the structural study reveals that Ce is alloyed with Ni as Ce2Ni7 nanoparticles in the radiation-reduced catalysts, while it segregates to the surface in the form of CeO2 in the H2-reduced catalysts. For Ni-Pt/Al2O3 radiolytic catalysts, Ni, Pt, NiPt and Ni3Pt nanoparticles, which size is 3.5 nm, are observed. When the radiation-reduced samples are tested in the benzene hydrogenation, they both display high conversion rate. However, the Ni-Pt/Al2O3 is more efficient than Ni-Ce/Al2O3. The performance of the catalysts is correlated with the high dispersion of the metal and the presence of intermetallic Ni-Pt and Ni-Ce phases. It is compared to that of other radiolytic monometallic/oxide catalysts of the literature.

  4. Anomalous self-reduction of layered double hydroxide (LDH): from α-Ni(OH)2 to hexagonal close packing (HCP) Ni/NiO by annealing without a reductant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, X; Gu, C D; Wang, X L; Tu, J P

    2015-01-21

    The traditional concept that nickel layered double hydroxide (Ni LDH, also known as α-Ni(OH)2) converts to NiO after annealing has been taken without doubt and utilized to fabricate NiO for years. This work reports that an anomalous self-reduction phenomenon can occur for Ni LDH synthesized from an ionic liquid system.

  5. NiO Nanofibers as a Candidate for a Nanophotocathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Macdonald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available p-type NiO nanofibers have been synthesized from a simple electrospinning and sintering procedure. For the first time, p-type nanofibers have been electrospun onto a conductive fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO surface. The properties of the NiO nanofibers have been directly compared to that of bulk NiO nanopowder. We have observed a p-type photocurrent for a NiO photocathode fabricated on an FTO substrate.

  6. Development of the dentistry alloy Ni-Cr-Nb; Desenvolvimento de ligas odontologicas Ni-Cr-Nb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.A.; Ramos, A.S.; Hashimoto, T.M., E-mail: mari_sou@hotmail.co [UNESP/FEG, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia

    2010-07-01

    This work reports on the structural characterization of Ni-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Nb alloys produced by arc melting. Samples were characterized by means of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and EDS analysis. Results indicated that the arc melting process was efficient to produce homogeneous structures in Ni-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Nb alloys. The nickel dissolved large amounts of Cr, Mo and Nb, which was detected by EDS analysis and X-ray diffraction. The alloy containing molybdenum indicated the presence of structure based on Ni{sub SS}, while that the alloys containing niobium presented primary grains of Ni{sub SS} and precipitates formed by the simultaneous transformation of the Ni and Ni{sub 3}Nb phases. (author)

  7. Nickel recovery from electronic waste II electrodeposition of Ni and Ni-Fe alloys from diluted sulfate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotin, B; Ispas, A; Coman, V; Bund, A; Ilea, P

    2013-11-01

    This study focuses on the electrodeposition of Ni and Ni-Fe alloys from synthetic solutions similar to those obtained by the dissolution of electron gun (an electrical component of cathode ray tubes) waste. The influence of various parameters (pH, electrolyte composition, Ni(2+)/Fe(2+) ratio, current density) on the electrodeposition process was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) were used to provide information about the obtained deposits' thickness, morphology, and elemental composition. By controlling the experimental parameters, the composition of the Ni-Fe alloys can be tailored towards specific applications. Complementarily, the differences in the nucleation mechanisms for Ni, Fe and Ni-Fe deposition from sulfate solutions have been evaluated and discussed using cyclic voltammetry and potential step chronoamperometry. The obtained results suggest a progressive nucleation mechanism for Ni, while for Fe and Ni-Fe, the obtained data points are best fitted to an instantaneous nucleation model.

  8. Epitaxial fabrication of two-dimensional NiSe2 on Ni(111) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yan; Song, Shiru; Wu, Xu; Qi, Jing; Lu, Hongliang; Liu, Chen; Zhu, Shiyu; Liu, Zhongliu; Wang, Jiaou; Shi, Dongxia; Du, Shixuan; Wang, Yeliang; Gao, H.-J.

    2017-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) receive significant attention due to their intriguing physical properties for both fundamental research and potential applications in electronics, optoelectronics, and catalysis. A high-quality 2D film of NiSe2, a TMD material, is grown epitaxially by a single step direct selenization of a Ni(111) substrate. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, and density functional theory calculations are combined to confirm the formation and structure of the film, revealing a (√3 × √3) superlattice of the NiSe2 film formed on the (√7 × √7) superlattice of the substrate. Fabrication of this 2D NiSe2 film opens opportunities to research its applications, especially for electrocatalysis and energy storage devices.

  9. Ferroelectric strain modulation of antiferromagnetic moments in Ni/NiO ferromagnet/antiferromagnet heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jun; Chen, Jia-Hui; Li, Liang-Liang; Ma, Jing; Nan, Ce-Wen; Lin, Yuan-Hua

    2017-05-01

    Electric field manipulation of magnetic properties has attracted a lot of research interest recently in solid-state physics. However, ferroelectric strain modulation of antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer is rarely studied in ferromagnet/antiferromagnet/ferroelectric heterostructures. In this paper, we prepared a Ni/NiO(001) heterostructure on ferroelectric Pb (Mg1/3N b2 /3 ) 0.7T i0.3O3(001 ) substrates and observed an out-of-plane electric field modulation of exchange bias and magnetic anisotropy in the Ni layer. The exchange bias was easily eliminated by an electric field cycle, which was due to the AFM domain switching induced by piezoelectric strain in the NiO layer. Synchrotron x ray linear dichroism results confirmed the AFM moment alignment induced by ferroelectric strain as well. Our work showed a promising strategy to manipulate AFM moments and domains, serving the blooming AFM spintronics.

  10. Irradiation induced defects in deformed $Ni_{3}Ge$ and $Ni_{3}Al$ single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Murakumo, T; Miyahara, A; Hannuki, T; Sato, A

    2000-01-01

    The effect of plastic deformation on the formation of point defects and defect clusters by electron irradiation has been studied in Ll /sub 2/ ordered Ni/sub 3/Ge and Ni/sub 3/Al by high voltage electron microscopy. It is found that defects are formed preferentially along the Burgers vector directions as linear lines and grow into linear chains of clusters by electron irradiation. This phenomenon is explained by preferential generation of the defects along the antiphase boundary (APE) tubes, in specimens deformed both below and above the peak temperature T/sub p/. Based on three-dimensional analyses of the defect distribution, the formation mechanism of the APE tubes is discussed with particular reference to superdislocation motion and the strengthening of the Ll/sub 2/ ordered compounds of Ni /sub 3/Ge and Ni/sub 3/Al. (44 refs).

  11. Evolution of collectivity in the 78Ni region: Coulomb excitation of 74Ni at intermediate energies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchi T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of the collective properties of nuclear excitations far from stability provides information about the shell structure at extreme conditions. Spectroscopic observables such as the energy or the transition probabilities of the lowest states, in nuclei with large neutron excess, allow to probe the density and isospin dependence of the effective interaction. Indeed, it was recently shown that tensor and three-body forces play an important role in breaking and creating magic numbers. Emblematic is the case of the evolution of the Ni isotopic chain where several features showed up moving from the most neutron rich stable isotope (64Ni towards the 78Ni nucleus where the large neutron excess coincides with a double shell closure. In this framework, we have recently performed an experiment with the goal to extract the B(E2; 0+ → 2+ value for the 74Ni nucleus in an intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiment: preliminary results are discussed.

  12. Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Ni and Carbon Coated Ni by Levitational Gas Condensation (LGC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Rang Uhm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nickel (Ni, and carbon coated nickel (Ni@C nanoparticles were synthesized by levitaional gas condensation (LGC methods using a micron powder feeding (MPF system. Both metal and carbon coated metal nano powders include a magnetic ordered phase. The synthesis by LGC yields spherical particles with a large coercivity. The abnormal initial magnetization curve for Ni indicates a non-collinear magnetic structure between the core and surface layer of the particles. The carbon coated particles had a core structure diameter at and below 10 nm and were covered by 2-3 nm thin carbon layers. The hysteresis loop of the as-prepared Ni@Cs materials with unsaturated magnetization shows a superparamagnetic state at room temperature.

  13. Transformation characteristics of TiNi/TiNi alloys synthesized by explosive welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Juntao; ZHENG Yanjun; CUI Lishan

    2007-01-01

    Effects of severe deformation and heat treatment on the transformation behaviors of explosively welded duplex TiNi/TiNi shape memory alloys(SMAs)were investigated by the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC).The explosively welded duplex TiNi/TiNi plate of 0.7mm in thickness was cold-rolled at room temperature to the extent of 60%reduction in thickness and then annealed at different temperatures (573-973K)for different time(15min-10h).Low temperature(623-723K)heat treatment led to amorphous crystallization.At higher temperature(873K),the re-crystallization took place in the specimens.Analysis showed that the change of internal stresses is iust the root cause of the change of transformation temperature.The relationships between the transformation behaviors and the heat treatment were discussed in the present report.

  14. Optical, magnetic, and microwave properties of Ni/NiO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostamnejadi, Ali; Bagheri, Saber

    2017-04-01

    In this research, the optical, magnetic, and microwave properties of NiO and Ni/NiO nanoparticles have been studied. The absorbance spectra of the samples show the electronic d-d excitations with energy band gap of about 3.8 eV. The magnetization measurement confirms the existence of ferromagnetic phase at room temperature, which could be originated from the uncompensated surface spins or ferromagnetic clusters in the antiferromagnetic ground state of NiO nanoparticles. The microwave parameters such as ac conductivity, skin depth, electric and magnetic loss tangents, attenuation constant, and reflection loss have been calculated. While both magnetic and dielectric relaxation processes have been observed in the complex permeability and permittivity, the microwave absorption is mainly attributed to the dielectric relaxation processes.

  15. Bottom and top AF/FM interfaces of NiFe/FeMn/NiFe trilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, V. P.; Passamani, E. C.; Alvarenga, A. D.; Biondo, A.; Pelegrini, F.; Saitovitch, E. Baggio

    2008-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity analyses were performed in the Si/WTi (7 nm)/NiFe (30 nm)/FeMn (13 nm)/NiFe (10 nm)/WTi (7 nm) exchange-biased system prepared by magnetron sputtering under three different argon working pressures. Layer-by-layer analyses were realized in order to obtain the interfacial roughness parameters quantitatively. For a fixed argon pressure, the root-mean-square roughness (including the atomic grading) of the upper (FeMn/NiFe) interface are greater than that for the lower one in all studied samples. Argon working pressure also has severe influence over the NiFe/FeMn interfaces, being more pronounced at the upper interfaces.

  16. Synthetic Ni3S2/Ni hybrid architectures as potential contrast agents in MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Chen, K.

    2016-04-01

    Traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents mainly include superparamagnetic (SPM) iron oxide nanoparticle as T 2 contrast agent for liver and paramagnetic Gd (III)-chelate as T 1 contrast agent for all organs. In this work, weak ferromagnetic kale-like and SPM cabbage-like Ni3S2@Ni hybrid architectures were synthesized and evaluated as potential T 1 MRI contrast agents. Their relatively small r 2/r 1 ratios of 2.59 and 2.38, and high r 1 values of 11.27 and 4.89 mmol-1 L s-1 (for the kale-like and cabbage-like Ni3S2@Ni, respectively) will shed some light on the development of new-type MRI contrast agents.

  17. Modelling of rechargeable NiMH batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Verbitskiy, E.; Ayeb, A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2003-01-01

    A new mathematical model has been developed for rechargeable NiMH batteries, which is based on the occurring physical–chemical processes inside. This model enables one to simultaneously simulate the battery voltage, internal gas pressures (both PO2 and PH2) and temperature during battery operation.

  18. Modelling of rechargeable NiMH batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Verbitskiy, E.; Ayeb, A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2003-01-01

    A new mathematical model has been developed for rechargeable NiMH batteries, which is based on the occurring physical–chemical processes inside. This model enables one to simultaneously simulate the battery voltage, internal gas pressures (both PO2 and PH2) and temperature during battery operation.

  19. Laser alloyed Al-Ni-Fe coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, SL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available analysed by menas of X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that when alloying with Fe-rich mixtures, the thin surface layers contained a number of cracks in the heat affected zones (HAZ). Alloying with Ni...

  20. Cancer en los niños

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Fabio; Ramírez Wurttenberger, Óscar; Lotero, Viviana; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiología/ ¿Por qué se presenta el cáncer en los niños?/ ¿Cómo se realiza el diagnóstico?/ ¿Cómo es el tratamiento?/ ¿Resultados del tratamiento?/Recomendaciones/Otras formas de tratamiento: El trasplante de médula ósea.

  1. Two-stage Strain Recovery of Explosively Welded NiTi/NiTi Shape Memory Alloys Prestrained in Martensitic Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhu; Cui Lishan; Zheng Yanjun

    2006-01-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the transformation behavior and strain recovery characteristics of Ni50.2Ti/Ni51Ti shape memory alloys (SMAs) prepared by explosive welding. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed that the reverse transformation temperatures and the temperature range of NiTi-NiTi alloys increased with increasing prestrain level. Meanwhile, a two-stage strain recovery over a wide temperature range was obtained.

  2. Morphological Evolution of Multilayer Ni/NiO Thin Film Electrodes during Lithiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evmenenko, Guennadi; Fister, Timothy T; Buchholz, D Bruce; Li, Qianqian; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Wu, Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak P; Hersam, Mark C; Fenter, Paul; Bedzyk, Michael J

    2016-08-10

    Oxide conversion reactions in lithium ion batteries are challenged by substantial irreversibility associated with significant volume change during the phase separation of an oxide into lithia and metal species (e.g., NiO + 2Li(+) + 2e(-) → Ni + Li2O). We demonstrate that the confinement of nanometer-scale NiO layers within a Ni/NiO multilayer electrode can direct lithium transport and reactivity, leading to coherent expansion of the multilayer. The morphological changes accompanying lithiation were tracked in real-time by in-operando X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and ex-situ cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy on well-defined periodic Ni/NiO multilayers grown by pulsed-laser deposition. Comparison of pristine and lithiated structures reveals that the nm-thick nickel layers help initiate the conversion process at the interface and then provide an architecture that confines the lithiation to the individual oxide layers. XRR data reveal that the lithiation process starts at the top and progressed through the electrode stack, layer by layer resulting in a purely vertical expansion. Longer term cycling showed significant reversible capacity (∼800 mA h g(-1) after ∼100 cycles), which we attribute to a combination of the intrinsic bulk lithiation capacity of the NiO and additional interfacial lithiation capacity. These observations provide new insight into the role of metal/metal oxide interfaces in controlling lithium ion conversion reactions by defining the relationships between morphological changes and film architecture during reaction.

  3. Morphological Evolution of Multilayer Ni/NiO Thin Film Electrodes during Lithiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evmenenko, Guennadi; Fister, Timothy T.; Buchholz, D. Bruce; Li, Qianqian; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Wu, Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Hersam, Mark C.; Fenter, Paul; Bedzyk, Michael J.

    2016-08-10

    Oxide conversion reactions in lithium ion batteries are challenged by substantial irreversibility associated with significant volume change during the phase separation of an oxide into lithia and metal species (e.g., NiO + 2Li(+) + 2e(-) -> Ni + Li2O). We demonstrate that the confinement of nanometer-scale NiO layers within a Ni/NiO multilayer electrode can direct lithium transport and reactivity, leading to coherent expansion of the multilayer. The morphological changes accompanying lithiation were tracked in real-time by in-operando X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and ex situ cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy on well-defined periodic Ni/NiO multilayers grown by pulsed-laser deposition. Comparison of pristine and lithiated structures reveals that the nm-thick nickel layers help initiate the conversion process at the interface and then provide an architecture that confines the lithiation to the individual oxide layers. XRR data reveal that the lithiation process starts at the top and progressed through the electrode stack, layer by layer resulting in a purely vertical expansion. Longer term cycling showed significant reversible capacity (similar to 800 mA h g(-1) after similar to 100 cycles), which we attribute to a combination of the intrinsic bulk lithiation capacity of the NiO and additional interfacial lithiation capacity. These observations provide new insight into the role of metal/metal oxide interfaces in controlling lithium ion conversion reactions by defining the relationships between morphological changes and film architecture during reaction.

  4. The electronic structure of NiAl and NiSi

    OpenAIRE

    Sarma, D. D.; Speier, W.; Zeller, R.; Leuken, E. van; Groot, R.A. de; Fuggle, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the electronic structures of NiSi and NiAl employing electron spectroscopies and theoretical calculations is presented. Experimental results, obtained with x-ray photoemission and bremsstrahlung isochromat spectroscopy, are interpreted by means of density of states and matrix element calculations for the compounds in their real crystal structure. This gives a detailed picture of the electronic states over the whole bonding-anti-bonding region below and above the Fermi level. Cluste...

  5. Characteristics of Reactive Ni3Sn4 Formation and Growth in Ni-Sn Interlayer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Adrian; Kenel, Christoph; Leinenbach, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The near-isothermal growth and formation of Ni3Sn4 intermetallic compounds (IMC) in Ni-Sn interlayer systems was studied in the solid state at 473 K (200 °C) and under solid-liquid conditions at 523 and 573 K (250 °C and 300 °C) from an initial state of a few seconds. Scalloped solid-state IMC formation was mainly driven by grain boundary diffusion of Ni through the IMC layer combined with the grain coarsening of the IMC layer. Under solid-liquid conditions, the formation of faceted and needle-shaped Ni3Sn4 grains as well as an atypical IMC growth behavior with similar parabolic growth constants for 523 K and 573 K (250 °C and 300 °C) was observed within the first 180 seconds of the holding time, and IMC growth occurred as an isothermal solidification from the Ni-saturated Sn melt. Due to the progressive densification of the IMC layer and the diffusion-controlled growth, the kinetics slowed down by approximately one order of magnitude after 180 seconds of annealing. The final stage was characterized by the formation of IMC islands ahead of the interfacial Ni3Sn4 layer. Needle-like IMC growth was effectively suppressed under combined solid-state and solid-liquid conditions. Textured Ni3Sn4 IMC formation at the Ni-Sn interface was approved with pole figure measurements. The activation energy Q for solid-liquid IMC formation was calculated as 43.3 kJ/mol, and processing maps for IMC growth and Sn consumption were derived as functions of temperature and time, respectively.

  6. On the origin of resistive switching volatility in Ni/TiO2/Ni stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Cortese, Simone; Trapatseli, Maria; Khiat, Ali; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2016-01-01

    Data for the paper "Cortese, Simone, Trapatseli, Maria and Khiat, Ali et al. (2016) On the origin of resistive switching volatility in Ni/TiO2/Ni stacks. Journal of Applied Physics" \\ud \\ud The file contains all the current versus voltage measurements described in the paper: the resistive switching mechanism curves are presented, as well as subthreshold effects related to the filament instability. The area dependence of the resistances involved is also present in the file.

  7. Ni-based Ni-Fe-B-Si-Ta bulk metallic glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The glass-forming ability and properties of Ni-based Ni-Fe-B-Si-Ta bulk metallic glasses are explored in this work. The alloy compositions are determined by using a combination of the cluster line approach, the multi-alloying strategy and the substitutions of similar elements. Bulk metallic glasses with diameters of 3 mm take shape at compositions formulated under the clus- ter-plus-glue-atom model [M9B]B~[(Ni1-xFex)7.71(Si0.66Ta0.34)1.29B]B0.94=(Ni1-xFex)70.5B17.7Si7.8Ta4, x=0.35–0.45, where the bracketed part is the cluster and the unbracketed part is the glue atoms. These alloys exhibit good magnetic properties. The maximum Is is found in the (Ni0.55Fe0.45)70.5B17.7Si7.8Ta4 alloy which reaches 0.51 T, with its Hc as low as 8.5 A/m. Interestingly, these alloys display dual glass transitions at (Ni0.65Fe0.35)70.5B17.7Si7.8Ta4, (Ni0.60Fe0.4)70.5B17.7Si7.8Ta4 and (Ni0.55Fe0.45)70.5B17.7- Si7.8Ta4 as unveiled by Temperature-Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry.

  8. Effect of deposition technique of Ni on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co/Ni multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbulut, S., E-mail: sakbulut@gtu.edu.tr [Gebze Technical University, Physics Department, Istanbul Cad, PK 41400 Gebze/Kocaeli (Turkey); Akbulut, A. [Gebze Technical University, Physics Department, Istanbul Cad, PK 41400 Gebze/Kocaeli (Turkey); Özdemir, M. [Marmara University, Physics Department, Göztepe, Istanbul (Turkey); Yildiz, F., E-mail: fyildiz@gtu.edu.tr [Gebze Technical University, Physics Department, Istanbul Cad, PK 41400 Gebze/Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2015-09-15

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of Si/Pt 3.5/(Co 0.3/Ni 0.6){sub n} /Co 0.3/ Pt 3 (all thicknesses are nm) multilayers were investigated for two different sample sets by using ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and magnetooptic Kerr effect (MOKE) techniques. In the first sample set all layers (buffer, cap, Co and Ni) were grown by magnetron sputtering technique while in the second sample set Ni sub-layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at high vacuum. Apart from deposition technique of Ni, all other parameters like thicknesses and growth rates of each layers are same for both sample sets. Multilayers in these two sample sets display PMA in the as grown state until a certain value of bilayer repetition (n) and the strength of PMA decreases with increasing n. Magnetic easy axis's of the multilayered samples switched from film normal to the film plane when n is 9 and 5 for the first and second sample sets, respectively. The reason for that, PMA was decreased due to increasing roughness with increasing n. This was confirmed by X Ray Reflectivity (XRR) measurements for both sample sets. Moreover, in the first sample set coercive field values are smaller than the second sample set, which means magnetic anisotropy is lower than the latter one. This stronger PMA is arising due to existence of stronger Pt (111) and Co/Ni (111) textures in the second sample set. - Highlights: • Effect of deposition techniques for Ni sub-layers on magnetic properties in [Co/Ni]{sub n} multilayered films was studied. • Ni sub-layers were deposited by two different techniques, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and magnetron sputtering. • Spin reorientation thickness and magnitude of the anisotropy are strongly depending on growing techniques.

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of laser melting deposited Ti2Ni3Si/NiTi Laves alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two Ti2Ni3Si/NiTi Laves phase alloys with chemical compositions of Ni-39Ti-11 Si and Ni-42Ti-8Si (%, mole fraction, the same below), respectively, were fabricated by the laser melting deposition manufacturing process, aiming at studying the effect of Ti,Si contents on microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloys. The Ni-39Ti-llSi alloy consisting of Ti2Ni3Si primary dendrites and Ti2Ni3Si/NiTi eutectic matrix is a conventional hypereutectic Laves phase alloy while the Ni-42Ti-8Si alloy being made up of NiTi primary dendrites uniformly distributed in Ti2Ni3Si/NiTi eutectic is a new hypoeutectic alloy. Mechanical properties of the alloys were investigated by nano-indentation test. The results show that the decrease of Si and the increase of Ti contents change the microstructures of the alloys from hypereutectic to hypoeutectic, which influences the mechanical properties of the alloys remarkably. Corrosion behaviors of the alloys were also evaluated by potentiodynamic anodic polarization curves.

  10. The electronic structure of NiO for Ni 3s-hole states including full orbital relaxation and localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagus, Paul S.; Broer, R; Graaf, C. de; Nieuwpoort, W.C.

    1999-01-01

    The electronic structure of NiO, with emphasis on the Ni 3s-hole ionic states, is studied using non-orthogonal configuration interaction, NOCI, wavefunctions for an NiO6 model of the crystal. Orbital sets are relaxed, or optimized, separately for each configuration used in the NOCI and orbital

  11. Dealloying Behavior of NiCo and NiCoCu Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E. Peecher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous metals and alloys, such as those fabricated via electrochemical dealloying, are of interest for a variety of energy applications, ranging from their potential for enhanced catalytic behavior to their use as high surface area supports for pseudocapacitor materials. Here, the electrochemical dealloying process was explored for electrodeposited binary NiCo and ternary NiCoCu thin films. For each of the four different metal ratios, films were dealloyed using linear sweep voltammetry to various potentials in order to gain insight into the evolution of the film over the course of the linear sweep. Electrochemical capacitance, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to examine the structure and composition of each sample before and after linear sweep voltammetry was performed. For NiCo films, dealloying resulted in almost no change in composition but did result in an increased capacitance, with greater increases occurring at higher linear sweep potentials, indicating the removal of material from the films. Dealloying also resulted in the appearance of large pores on the surface of the high nickel percentage NiCo films, while low nickel percentage NiCo films had little observable change in morphology. For NiCoCu films, Cu was almost completely removed at linear sweep potentials greater than 0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl. The linear sweep removed large Cu-rich dendrites from the films, while also causing increases in measured capacitance.

  12. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of NiTi-Nb eutectic joined NiTi wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Chen, Liangyu; Lu, Weijie; Zhang, Di

    2016-04-06

    NiTi wires were brazed together via eutectic reaction between NiTi and Nb powder deposited at the wire contact region. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of the NiTi-Nb eutectic microstructure were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic loading-unloading tests. Results show that R phase and B19' martensite transformation are induced by plastic deformation. R phase transformation, which significantly contributes to superelasticity, preferentially occurs at the interfaces between NiTi and eutectic region. Round-shaped Nb-rich phase with rod-like and lamellar-type eutectics are observed in eutectic regions. These phases appear to affect the deformation behavior of the brazed NiTi-Nb region via five distinct stages in stress-strain curves: (I) R phase reorientation, (II) R phase transformation from parent phase, (III) elastic deformation of reoriented martensite accompanied by the plastic deformation of Nb-rich phase and lamellar NiTi-Nb eutectic, (IV) B19' martensitic transformation, and (V) plastic deformation of the specimen.

  13. Cathodic stripping voltammetry of nickel: sonoelectrochemical exploitation of the Ni(III)/Ni(II) couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James; Vaughan, D Huw; Stirling, David; Nei, Lembit; Compton, Richard G

    2002-07-19

    The exploitation of the Ni(III)/Ni(II) transition as a means of quantifying the concentration of nickel within industrial samples was assessed. The methodology relies upon the reagentless electrodeposition of Ni onto a glassy carbon electrode and the subsequent oxidative conversion of the metallic layer to Ni(III). The analytical signal is derived from a cathodic stripping protocol in which the reduction of the Ni(III) layer to Ni(II) is monitored through the use of square wave voltammetry. The procedure was refined through the introduction of an ultrasonic source which served to both enhance the deposition of nickel and to remove the nickel hydroxide layer that results from the measurement process. A well-defined stripping peak was observed at +0.7 V (vs. Agmid R:AgCl) with the response found to be linear over the range 50 nM to 1 muM (based on a 30 s deposition time). Other metal ions such as Cu(II), Mn(II), Cr(III), Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Fe(III) and Co(II) did not interfere with the response when present in hundred fold excess. The viability of the technique was evaluated through the determination of nickel within a commercial copper nickel alloy and validated through an independent comparison with a standard ICP-AES protocol.

  14. A New Polycrystalline Co-Ni Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, M.; Mulvey, P.; Ismail, F.; Radecka, A.; Rahman, K. M.; Lindley, T. C.; Shollock, B. A.; Hardy, M. C.; Moody, M. P.; Martin, T. L.; Bagot, P. A. J.; Dye, D.

    2014-12-01

    In 2006, a new-ordered L12 phase, Co3(Al,W), was discovered that can form coherently in a face-centered cubic (fcc) A1 Co matrix. Since then, a community has developed that is attempting to take these alloys forward into practical applications in gas turbines. A new candidate polycrystalline Co-Ni γ/ γ' superalloy, V208C, is presented that has the nominal composition 36Co-35Ni-15Cr-10Al-3W-1Ta (at.%). The alloy was produced by conventional powder metallurgy superalloy methods. After forging, a γ' fraction of ~56% and a secondary γ' size of 88 nm were obtained, with a grain size of 2.5 μm. The solvus temperature was 1000°C. The density was found to be 8.52 g cm-3, which is similar to existing Ni alloys with this level of γ'. The alloy showed the flow stress anomaly and a yield strength of 920 MPa at room temperature and 820 MPa at 800°C, similar to that of Mar-M247. These values are significantly higher than those found for either conventional solution and carbide-strengthened Co alloys or the γ/ γ' Co superalloys presented in the literature thus far. The oxidation resistance, with a mass gain of 0.08 mg cm-2 in 100 h at 800°C, is also comparable with that of existing high-temperature Ni superalloys. These results suggest that Co-based and Co-Ni superalloys may hold some promise for the future in gas turbine applications.

  15. The accumulation of Ni in serpentines and garnierites from the Falcondo Ni-laterite deposit (Dominican Republic) elucidated by means of μXAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roqué-Rosell, Josep; Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Proenza, Joaquín A.

    2017-02-01

    Ni-bearing serpentines and garnierites (Ni-bearing Mg-phyllosilicates) are the main Ni ores in the Falcondo Ni-laterite deposit (Dominican Republic). In the present paper a set of garnierite samples and the associated Ni-bearing serpentines with characteristic mineral compositions and textures, from the saprolite horizon, were studied by EMPA, μXRF and μXAS. The ultimate goal is to elucidate, for the first time, the Fe speciation and the Ni local environment of saprolite ores from Ni-laterites of the Dominican Republic. The chemical composition of the minerals has been obtained by means of EMPA and the Ni, Fe and Cr elemental maps obtained by μXRF allowed distinguishing the saprolite fragments containing Ni-bearing serpentines and Fe oxyhydroxides from the garnierite veins. The Fe K-edge μXANES demonstrated that Fe in the Ni-poor primary serpentine is mostly in the Fe2+ form, whereas in the Ni-bearing serpentine constituting the bulk of the saprolite and in the Fe-bearing garnierite Type I Fe was in the form of Fe3+. In parallel, the local environment of Ni determined by means of Ni K-edge μEXAFS confirmed that in Ni-poor primary serpentines Ni formed a homogeneous Ni-Mg solid solution, in garnierites formed Ni-Ni clusters, and in Ni-bearing secondary serpentines Ni was found in Ni-Mg and Ni-Ni mixed sites. This paper explains the accumulation of Ni, the speciation of Fe in garnierites with various mineral compositions and in Ni-bearing serpentines from the saprolite horizon in Ni-laterite deposits.

  16. A Study on Production of Carbon Nanotubes by CH4 Decomposition over LaNiO3, La4Ni3O10, La3Ni2O7 and La2NiO4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of narrow size distribution can be abundantly produced in the catalytic decomposition of CH4 over pre-reduced LaNiO3, La4Ni3O10, La3Ni2O7 and La2NiO4.The CNTs obtained were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM).Thermal oxidation of CNTs in air was monitored thermogravimetrically (TG). The resultsrevealed that a lower La/Ni ratio of the catalysts would lead to a wider diameter distribution and a higher degree of graphitic nature.

  17. Preparation and Oxygen Evolution Reaction Performance of Ni/NiCo2O4 Electrode%Ni/NiCo2O4电极的制备及其析氧反应性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王森林; 王丽品; 张振洪

    2013-01-01

      采用溶胶-凝胶法制备NiCo2O4尖晶石粉体,然后以多孔Ni为基体,通过复合溶胶涂覆结合烧结制备Ni/NiCo2O4涂层电极.运用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、能量色散谱(EDS)和X射线衍射(XRD)表征粉体以及Ni/NiCo2O4涂层电极的组成和结构.采用循环伏安(CV),稳态极化(LSV),电化学阻抗谱(EIS),恒电位阶跃以及恒电位长时间电解研究涂层电极在5 mol·L-1 KOH溶液中的电催化析氧反应(OER).结果表明:Ni/NiCo2O4涂层电极与多孔Ni电极对比,具有低的析氧过电位、高的比表面积和高的稳定性能;其中比表面积增大了28.69倍,表观活化能在不同过电位分别降低了166.78和162.15 kJ·mol-1.%Spinel-type NiCo2O4 powders were prepared by a sol-gel method, and Ni/NiCo2O4 electrode was prepared through composite sol method combined with sintering. The composition and structure of Ni/NiCo2O4 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Electrocatalytic properties of the Ni/NiCo2O4 electrode in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) were studied in 5 mol·L-1 KOH solution, using cyclic voltammertry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), chronoamperometry, and extended duration constant potential electrolysis. The Ni/NiCo2O4 electrode exhibited a lower OER over-potential, higher specific surface area, and better stability than a porous Ni electrode. The specific surface area of the Ni/NiCo2O4 electrode was 28.69 times greater than that of the porous Ni electrode, and its apparent activation energies decrease 166.78 and 162.15 kJ·mol-1 at different overpotentials, respectively.

  18. Atomistic modeling of ternary additions to NiTi and quaternary additions to Ni-Ti-Pd, Ni-Ti-Pt and Ni-Ti-Hf shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, H.O., E-mail: hmosca@cnea.gov.ar [Gcia. Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina); GCMM, UTN, FRG Pacheco, Av. H. Yrigoyen 288, Gral. Pacheco (Argentina); Bozzolo, G. [Loyola University Maryland, 4501 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Grosso, M.F. del [Gcia. Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina); GCMM, UTN, FRG Pacheco, Av. H. Yrigoyen 288, Gral. Pacheco (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    The behavior of ternary and quaternary additions to NiTi shape memory alloys is investigated using a quantum approximate method for the energetics. Ternary additions X to NiTi and quaternary additions to Ni-Ti-Pd, Ni-Ti-Pt, and Ni-Ti-Hf alloys, for X=Au, Pt, Ir, Os, Re, W, Ta,Ag, Pd, Rh, Ru, Tc, Mo, Nb, Zr, Zn, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, V, Sc, Si, Al and Mg are considered. Bulk properties such as lattice parameter, energy of formation, and bulk modulus of the B2 alloys are studied for variations due to the presence of one or two simultaneous additives.

  19. Magnetic properties of nanostructural γ-Ni-28Fe alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yin; QIN Xiao-ying; QIU Tai

    2006-01-01

    Nanostructural γ-Ni-28Fe alloy (nano γ-Ni-28Fe) was successfully prepared by mechanochemical alloying(MCA). The relationship between the microstructure and the synthesis conditions was investigated by using XRD, TEM, SEM as well as BET analyzer. The results show that nano γ-Ni-28Fe alloy is composed ora gamma phase (FCC structure). Its grain size is about 20 nm at reduction temperature below 600 ℃. The magnetic measurements indicate that the saturation magnetization ofnano γ-Ni-28Fe alloy to its decrease of the grain size and chemical composition in nano γ-Ni-28Fe alloy.

  20. Effect of adding methods of metallic phase on microstructure and thermal shock resistance of Ni/(90NiFe2O4-10NiO) cermets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ball mixing and electroless plating were respectively used as the adding methods of metallic phase to prepare Ni/(90NiFe2O4-10NiO) cermets for the inert anode in aluminum electrolysis. The microstructure and thermal shock resistance of cermet samples were studied. The results show that, for the samples prepared by ball mixing method, aggregation of metallic phase is found in either the green blocks or sintered samples and the extent of aggregation increases with the increase of metal content. For 6.5Ni/(90NiFe2O4-10NiO) cermets prepared with electroless plating method, the homogeneous and fine metallic particles are found in either the green compacts or sintered samples, but the relative density and thermal shock residual strength decrease by 3% and 28%-58% respectively, compared with samples prepared with ball mixing method.

  1. Composition and structure of NiAu nanoparticles formed by laser ablation of Ni target in Au colloidal solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrović, Suzana, E-mail: spetro@vinca.rs [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Science-Vinča, POB 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Milovanović, D. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Science-Vinča, POB 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Salatić, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Peruško, D. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Science-Vinča, POB 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Kovač, J. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dražić, G. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mitrić, M.; Trtica, M. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Science-Vinča, POB 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Jelenković, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-09-15

    Bimetallic NiAu and complex NiO:Au nanoparticles were formed by laser ablation of Ni target immersed in the colloidal gold solution. Effect of laser parameters (pulse duration, fluences and ablation times) on size and composition of nanoparticles was investigated by ablating the target with two Nd:YAG lasers at 1064 nm, operating with different pulse durations, 150 ps and 20 ns. Stronger ablation of the Ni target and subsequient synthesis of nanoparticles is achieved with picosecond pulses, compared to the nanoparticles production with nanosecond pulses, because the former ablation induces activation of different reactions between species in the colloidal solution. Shape, size and composition of the synthesized nanopraticles were found to correlate with the concentration of Ni species in the colloidal solution. Higher Ni concentration leads to formation of larger NiAu nanoparticles in form of solid solution. Smaller nanoparticles with lower Ni concentration in the colloidal solution were achieved by their synthesis during nanosecond pulses, when the obtained distribution of composition corresponds to the NiO matrix with incorporated golden nanoparticles. The results also demonstrate that the formation of bimetallic NiAu and complex NiO:Au nanoparticles were possible by means of laser ablation in liquids. - Highlights: • Bimetallic NiAu and complex NiO:Au nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation in liquids. • Influence of the laser pulse duration on the characteristics of the NiAu nanoparticles. • Composition of the nanopraticles is correlated with content of Ni in the colloidal solution.

  2. Properties of highly crystalline NiO and Ni nanoparticles prepared by high-temperature oxidation and reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feygenson, Mikhail; Kou, Angela; Kreno, Lauren E.; Tiano, Amanda L.; Patete, Jonathan M.; Zhang, Fen; Kim, Moo Sung; Solovyov, Vyacheslav; Wong, Stanislaus S.; Aronson, Meigan C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe here the use of high-temperature oxidation and reduction to produce highly crystalline nanoparticles of Ni and NiO. Starting with an amorphous Ni powder, we demonstrate that oxidation at 900°C produces faceted NiO nanocrystals with sizes ranging from 20 to 60 nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate near-perfect atomic order, truncated by (200) surfaces. Magnetization measurements reveal that the Néel temperature of these NiO nanoparticles is 480 K, substantially reduced by finite-size effects from the bulk value of 523 K. The magnetization of these faceted NiO nanoparticles does not saturate in fields as large as 14 T while a loop offset is observed which increases from 1000 Oe at 300 K to its maximum value of 3500 Oe at 50 K. We have used high-temperature reduction to transform the faceted NiO nanoparticles into highly ordered Ni nanoparticles, with a Curie temperature of 720 K and blocking temperatures in excess of 350 K. Subsequent efforts to reoxidize these Ni nanoparticles into the core-shell morphology found that the Ni nanoparticles are much more resistant to oxidation than the original Ni powder, perhaps due to the relative crystalline perfection of the former. At 800°C , an unusual surface roughening and subsequent instability was observed, where 50-nm-diameter NiO rods grow from the Ni surfaces. We have demonstrated that high-temperature oxidation and reduction in Ni and NiO are both reversible to some extent and are highly effective for creating the highly crystalline nanomaterials required for applications such as exchange-bias devices.

  3. Properties of Highly Crystalline NiO and Ni Nanoparticles Prepared by High-temperature Oxidation and Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feygenson, M.; Kou, A.; Kreno, L.E.; Tiano, A.L.; Patete, J.M.; Zhang, F.; Kim, M.S.; Solovyov, V.; Wong, S.S.; Aronson, M.C.

    2010-01-26

    We describe here the use of high-temperature oxidation and reduction to produce highly crystalline nanoparticles of Ni and NiO. Starting with an amorphous Ni powder, we demonstrate that oxidation at 900 C produces faceted NiO nanocrystals with sizes ranging from 20 to 60 nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate near-perfect atomic order, truncated by (200) surfaces. Magnetization measurements reveal that the Neel temperature of these NiO nanoparticles is 480 K, substantially reduced by finite-size effects from the bulk value of 523 K. The magnetization of these faceted NiO nanoparticles does not saturate in fields as large as 14 T while a loop offset is observed which increases from 1000 Oe at 300 K to its maximum value of 3500 Oe at 50 K. We have used high-temperature reduction to transform the faceted NiO nanoparticles into highly ordered Ni nanoparticles, with a Curie temperature of 720 K and blocking temperatures in excess of 350 K. Subsequent efforts to reoxidize these Ni nanoparticles into the core-shell morphology found that the Ni nanoparticles are much more resistant to oxidation than the original Ni powder, perhaps due to the relative crystalline perfection of the former. At 800 C, an unusual surface roughening and subsequent instability was observed, where 50-nm-diameter NiO rods grow from the Ni surfaces. We have demonstrated that high-temperature oxidation and reduction in Ni and NiO are both reversible to some extent and are highly effective for creating the highly crystalline nanomaterials required for applications such as exchange-bias devices.

  4. Structure and Phase Transformation Behavior of Ni-P and Ni-W-P Electroless Plating Layer on Aluminium Alloy%铝合金化学镀Ni-P、Ni-W-P组织及相转变行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天旭; 蒙继龙; 胡永俊

    2006-01-01

    采用差示扫描热分析仪(DSC)、X射线衍射(XRD)等研究了6061铝合金基体化学镀Ni-P、Ni-W-P合金的组织结构及相转变行为.结果表明,镀态Ni-P、Ni-W-P镀层的结构都是微晶结构;200℃热处理1h后,Ni-P、Ni-W-P镀层仍为微晶,但微晶有所长大;300、400、525和600℃热处理1h后,Ni-P、Ni-W-P镀层析出Ni3P和Ni晶体,没有其它亚稳相析出;400℃时Ni-P、Ni-W-P镀层硬度达到峰值,其值分别为840HV100和940HV100.

  5. Densities of molten Ni-(Cr, Co, W) superalloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; YANG Ren-hui; FANG Liang; LIU Lan-xiao; ZHAO Hong-kai

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain more accurate density for molten Ni-(Cr, Co, W) binary alloy, the densities of molten pure Ni and Ni-Cr, Ni-Co, Ni-W alloys were measured with a sessile drop method. It is found that the measured densities of molten pure Ni and Ni-Cr, Ni-Co, Ni-W alloys decrease with increasing temperature in the experimental temperature range. The density of alloys increases with increasing W and Co concentrations while it decreases with increasing Cr concentration in the alloy at 1 773-1 873 K. The molar volume of Ni-based alloys increases with increasing W concentration while it decreases with increasing Co concentration. The effect of Cr concentration on the molar volume of the alloy is little in the studied concentration range. The accommodation among atomic species was analyzed. The deviation of molar volume from ideal mixing shows an ideal mixing of Ni-(Cr, Co, W) binary alloys.

  6. CO2 activation on bimetallic CuNi nanoparticles☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalie Austin; Brandon Butina; Giannis Mpourmpakis⁎

    2016-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the structural, electronic, and CO2 adsorption properties of 55-atom bimetallic CuNi nanoparticles (NPs) in core-shell and decorated architectures, as well as of their monometallic counterparts. Our results revealed that with respect to the monometallic Cu55 and Ni55 parents, the formation of decorated Cu12Ni43 and core-shell Cu42Ni13 are energetically favorable. We found that CO2 chemisorbs on monometallic Ni55, core-shell Cu13Ni42, and decorated Cu12Ni43 and Cu43Ni12, whereas, it physisorbs on monometallic Cu55 and core-shell Cu42Ni13. The presence of surface Ni on the NPs is key in strongly adsorbing and activating the CO2 molecule (linear to bent transition and elongation of C˭O bonds). This activation occurs through a charge transfer from the NPs to the CO2 molecule, where the local metal d-orbital density localization on surface Ni plays a pivotal role. This work identifies insightful structure-property relationships for CO2 activation and highlights the importance of keeping a balance between NP stability and CO2 adsorption behavior in designing catalytic bimetallic NPs that activate CO2.

  7. CO2 activation on bimetallic CuNi nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Austin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the structural, electronic, and CO2 adsorption properties of 55-atom bimetallic CuNi nanoparticles (NPs in core-shell and decorated architectures, as well as of their monometallic counterparts. Our results revealed that with respect to the monometallic Cu55 and Ni55 parents, the formation of decorated Cu12Ni43 and core-shell Cu42Ni13 are energetically favorable. We found that CO2 chemisorbs on monometallic Ni55, core-shell Cu13Ni42, and decorated Cu12Ni43 and Cu43Ni12, whereas, it physisorbs on monometallic Cu55 and core-shell Cu42Ni13. The presence of surface Ni on the NPs is key in strongly adsorbing and activating the CO2 molecule (linear to bent transition and elongation of C˭O bonds. This activation occurs through a charge transfer from the NPs to the CO2 molecule, where the local metal d-orbital density localization on surface Ni plays a pivotal role. This work identifies insightful structure-property relationships for CO2 activation and highlights the importance of keeping a balance between NP stability and CO2 adsorption behavior in designing catalytic bimetallic NPs that activate CO2.

  8. State of Supported Nanoparticle Ni during Catalysis in Aqueous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, Zizwe; Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John; Camaioni, Donald; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Lercher, Johannes

    2015-11-09

    The state of Ni supported on HZSM-5 zeolite, silica, and sulfonated carbon was studied during aqueous-phase catalysis of phenol hydrodeoxygenation using in situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. On sulfonated carbon and HZSM-5 supports, NiO and Ni(OH)(2) were readily reduced to Ni-0 under reaction conditions (approximate to 35bar H-2 in aqueous phenol solutions containing up to 0.5wt.% phosphoric acid at 473K). In contrast, Ni supported on SiO2 was not stable in a fully reduced Ni-0 state. Water enables the formation of Ni-II phyllosilicate, which is more stable, that is, difficult to reduce, than either -Ni(OH)(2) or NiO. Leaching of Ni from the supports was not observed over a broad range of reaction conditions. Ni-0 particles on HZSM-5 were stable even in presence of 15wt.% acetic acid at 473K and 35bar H-2.

  9. Property comparisons between NiZn ferrites prepared using NiO raw materials of different suppliers%采用不同厂家的NiO原料制备的NiZn铁氧体性能对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂敏; 徐方舟; 孙蒋平; 申志刚

    2011-01-01

    In this research, conventional oxide ceramic method was used to prepare NiZn ferrites, and the effect of NiO raw materials of different suppliers on the magnetic properties of corresponding materials was studied. The experimental results showed that the purity, particle size and surface morphology of NiO raw material seriously affect the reactivity and magnetic properties of the prepared materials. NiO raw material with high purity, homogeneous particle size and pinecone shape is the best choice for preparing high performance NiZn ferrite.%采用传统氧化物法制备NiZn铁氧体材料,考查不同厂家的NiO原料对于高性能NiZn铁氧体材料电磁性能的影响.实验表明,NiO原料的纯度、颗粒尺寸、颗粒形貌严重影响材料的烧结活性和电磁性能.高纯度、颗粒尺寸较均匀、形状为松果状的NiO原料是制备高性能NiZn铁氧体材料的最佳选择.

  10. Crystal structure of Tb5Ni2In4 and Y5Ni2In4, and magnetic properties of Dy5Ni2In4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provino, A.; Mudryk, Y.; Smetana, V.; Manfrinetti, P.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Gschneidner Jr, Karl; Corbett, J.D.

    2012-02-27

    The crystal structure of the R5Ni2In4 intermetallic compounds was earlier reported for R Ho, Er, Tm, and Lu (Lu5Ni2In4-type, oP22, Pbam); more recently the isostructural phases Dy5Ni2In4 and Sc5Ni2In4 have also been identified. Three inequivalent crystallographic sites are occupied by the R atoms in these compounds. We have synthesized and characterized Dy5Ni2In4 and the two new isotypic compounds Tb5Ni2In4 and Y5Ni2In4. So far, none of the physical properties have been reported on any of these phases; in this article we report on the physical properties of the Dy5Ni2In4 and the crystal structure of Tb5Ni2In4 and Y5Ni2In4 compounds. Measurements of the magnetic properties performed on Dy5Ni2In4 show a ferromagnetic-like ordering with a T-C approximate to 105 K, followed by multiple magnetic orderings at lower temperatures. The fit of the inverse susceptibility in the paramagnetic state follows the Curie-Weiss law, where mu(eff). - 10.3 mu(B)/Dy-atom (close to theoretical value of 10.64 mu(B) for the free ion Dy3+) and a positive paramagnetic Curie temperature theta(p) - 58 K. Ni atoms are most likely to be nonmagnetic. The heat capacity also shows three peaks: a large one at 103K and two weaker at 12 and 8 K, respectively; the in-field heat capacity data corroborate these results, suggesting ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic orderings at the temperature of 103 and 12 K, respectively. Low temperature x-ray diffraction has shown that the compound does not undergo any structural change down to 5K. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics

  11. Developing AMS measurement of $^{59}$Ni at CIAE

    CERN Document Server

    Ming, He; Xiangdong, Ruan; Chaoli, Li; Kejun, Dong; liang, Du; Bo, Xie Lin; Zhenyu, Li; Guowen, Zhen; Hao, Hu; J, Liu

    2013-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement of $^{59}$Ni has been established at CIAE with the HI-13 tandem accelerator and the recently developed $\\Delta E$-Q3D detection system. $^{59}$Ni standard and commercial NiO samples were measured to check the performance of the $\\Delta E$-Q3D detection system on $^{59}$Ni isobar separation and suppression. An overall suppression factor of about 10$^{7}$ for the interfering isobar $^{59}$Co resulting in detection sensitivity as low as 3.8$\\times 10^{-13}$ atomic ratio ($^{59}$Ni/Ni) has been obtained. Based on these techniques, the AMS measurement method of $^{59}$Ni with high sensitivity is developed.

  12. Measurement and analyses of molten Ni-Co alloy density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; K. MUKAI; FANG Liang; FU Ya; YANG Ren-hui

    2006-01-01

    With the advent of powerful mathematical modeling techniques for material phenomena, there is renewed interest in reliable data for the density of the Ni-based superalloys. Up to now, there has been few report on the density of molten Ni-Co alloy.In order to obtain more accurate density data for molten Ni-Co alloy, the density of molten Ni-Co alloy was measured with a modified sessile drop method, and the accommodation of different atoms in molten Ni-Co alloy was analyzed. The density of alloy is found to decrease with increasing temperature and Co concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of molten Ni-Co alloy increases with increasing Co concentration. The molar volume of Ni-Co alloy determined shows a positive deviation from the linear molar volume, and the deviation of molar volume from ideal mixing increases with increasing Co concentration over the experimental concentration range.

  13. Oxidation Behaviour of Sputtered Ni-3Cr-20Al Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of sputtered Ni-3Cr-20Al coating at 900°C in air was investigated. A dense Al2O3 layer was formed on the sputtered Ni-3Cr-20Al coating after 200 h oxidation.However, owing to the segregation of Ni3Al during oxidation Focess at high temperature, the spinel NiAl2O4 was also formed in the Al2O3 layer. It was found that the formation of NiAl2O4had no detrimental effect on the oxidation resistance of the sputtered Ni-3Cr-20Al coating due to the excellent adhesion shown by the Al2O3 and NiAl2O4 complex oxide scale.

  14. Martensitic Transformation in Ni-Mn-Sn-Co Heusler Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Deltell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermal and structural austenite to martensite reversible transition was studied in melt spun ribbons of Ni50Mn40Sn5Co5, Ni50Mn37.5Sn7.5Co5 and Ni50Mn35Sn10Co5 (at. % alloys. Analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns confirms that all alloys have martensitic structure at room temperature: four layered orthorhombic 4O for Ni50Mn40Sn5Co5, four layered orthorhombic 4O and seven-layered monoclinic 14M for Ni50Mn37.5Sn7.5Co5 and seven-layered monoclinic 14M for Ni50Mn35Sn5Co5. Analysis of differential scanning calorimetry scans shows that higher enthalpy and entropy changes are obtained for alloy Ni50Mn37.5Sn7.5Co5, whereas transition temperatures increases as increasing valence electron density.

  15. Moessbauer analysis and magnetic properties of Invar Fe-Ni-C and Fe-Ni-Mn-C alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadutov, V. M., E-mail: nadvl@imp.kiev.ua; Svystunov, Ye. O.; Kosintsev, S. G.; Tatarenko, V. A. [G.V. Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine)

    2006-02-15

    The saturation magnetization and the hyperfine magnetic field of different f.c.c. Fe-Ni based alloys containing nearby 29 at .% Ni were studied as a function of temperature and for different Carbon and Manganese contents. We have observed abnormal behaviors that are explained in terms of mixed exchange interactions between atomic spins: J{sub NiNi}(r{sub i}) < 0, J{sub FeFe}(r{sub i}) > 0, J{sub NiFe}(r{sub i}) < 0.

  16. Structural characterization of Ni and Ni/Ti ohmic contact on n-type 4H-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siad, M., E-mail: siadmenouar@yahoo.fr [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon (Algeria); Abdesselam, M. [USTHB, Faculte de Physique, BP 32, El Alia, Bab Ezzouar (Algeria); Souami, N. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon (Algeria); Chami, A.C. [USTHB, Faculte de Physique, BP 32, El Alia, Bab Ezzouar (Algeria)

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we report on the structural characterization of Ni layer and Ni/Ti bilayer contacts on n-type 4H-SiC. The resulting Ni-silicides and the redistribution of carbon, after annealing at 950 deg. C, in the Ni/SiC and the Ni/Ti/SiC contacts are particularly studied by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) at E{sub {alpha}} = 3.2 MeV, nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) at E{sub d} = 1 MeV, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) techniques.

  17. Peculiarities of thermoelectric half-Heusler phase formation in Gd-Ni-Sb and Lu-Ni-Sb ternary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, V.V., E-mail: romakav@lp.edu.ua [Department of Applied Material Science and Materials Engineering, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Romaka, L.; Horyn, A. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Rogl, P. [Institute of Materials Chemistry and Research, University of Vienna, Währingerstrasse 42, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Stadnyk, Yu; Melnychenko, N. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Orlovskyy, M.; Krayovskyy, V. [Department of Applied Material Science and Materials Engineering, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2016-07-15

    The phase equilibria in the Gd–Ni–Sb and Lu-Ni-Sb ternary systems were studied at 873 K by X-ray and metallographic analyses in the whole concentration range. The interaction of the elements in the Gd–Ni–Sb system results the formation of five ternary compounds at investigated temperature: Gd{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Sb (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-type), Gd{sub 5}NiSb{sub 2} (Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type), GdNiSb (MgAgAs-type), Gd{sub 3}Ni{sub 6}Sb{sub 5} (Y{sub 3}Ni{sub 6}Sb{sub 5}-type), and GdNi{sub 0.72}Sb{sub 2} (HfCuSi{sub 2}-type). At investigated temperature the Lu-Ni-Sb system is characterized by formation of the LuNiSb (MgAgAs-type), Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Sb (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-type), and Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 0.56}Sb{sub 2.44} (Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type) compounds. The disordering in the crystal structure of half-Heusler GdNiSb and LuNiSb was revealed by EPMA and studied by means of Rietveld refinement and DFT modeling. The performed electronic structure calculations are in good agreement with electrical transport property studies. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure model and electron localization function of Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Sb. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Gd-Ni-Sb and Lu-Ni-Sb phase diagrams were constructed at 873 K. • GdNiSb and LuNiSb are characterized by disordered crystal structure. • Crystal structure optimization with DFT calculations confirmed crystal structure disorder in GdNiSb and LuNiSb.

  18. The formation model of Ni-Cr oxides on NiCoCrAlY-sprayed coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, G.Y., E-mail: gyliang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Material Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhu, C.; Wu, X.Y.; Wu, Y. [Department of Material Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The atomic arrangement and distribution of oxides (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and NiO) on the sprayed-NiCoCrAlY coating after oxidation are analyzed. The formation and the growth model of Ni-Cr oxide phases are discussed according to the matching relationship between atoms. The outline character and a scale of spinel NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} are discussed. The results show that Cr atoms can form two close-packed arrangements in the crystal plane of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} perpendicular to <0 0 1> orientation. The atomic spacing in the first arrangement corresponds to double that of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al in {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} crystal face. This suggests that Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al is the substrate for Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} to grow along <0 0 1> direction. The lattice mismatch between Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al is less than that of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which indicates that Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} is easier to form than Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} during the oxidation process. The atomic spacing in another close-packed arrangement of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} perpendicular to <0 0 1> orientation is approximately equal to that of Ni or Cr in the plane of NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and NiO perpendicular to <1 1 1> orientation. So Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be the substrate for NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and NiO to grow in the <0 0 1> direction. NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and NiO can grow directly along the <1 1 1> orientation on each other. NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} can grow outward in the planes of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} perpendicular to <0 0 1> and grow inward along <1 1 1> orientation of NiO.

  19. Effects of alloying Re and Ru in the edge-dislocation core of the Ni/Ni3Al interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Cong; Wang Chong-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Investigations of alloying Re and Ru in the [110](001) dislocation core of the Ni/Ni3Al interface were conducted within the framework of density functional theory. The energetic calculations show that both elements can stabilize the [110](001) dislocation core. In the dislocation core region,Re and Ru prefer to substitute for Ni on the site in the γ-phase. Re is easier to segregate into the dislocation core region as compared with Ru; it especially prefers to substitute for Ni on the γ-(Ni)l site.

  20. Two new [Ni(tren)2]2+ complexes: [Ni(tren)2]Cl2 and [Ni(tren)2]WS4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellermeier, Jan; Stähler, Ralph; Bensch, Wolfgang

    2002-02-01

    Both title compounds, bis[tris(2-aminoethyl)amine]nickel(II) dichloride, [Ni(tren)(2)]Cl(2), (I), and bis[tris(2-aminoethyl)amine]nickel(II) tetrathiotungstate, [Ni(tren)(2)]WS(4), (II), contain the [Ni(tren)(2)](2+) cation [tren is tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, C(6)H(18)N(4)]. The tren molecule acts as a tridentate ligand around the central Ni atom, with the remaining primary amine group not bound to the central atom. In (I), Ni(2+) is located on a centre of inversion surrounded by one crystallographically independent tren molecule. In the [Ni(tren)(2)](2+) cation of (II), the Ni atom is bound to two crystallographically independent tren molecules. The Ni atoms in the [Ni(tren)(2)](2+) complexes are in a distorted octahedral environment consisting of six N atoms from the chelating tren molecules. The counter-ions are chloride anions in (I) and the tetrahedral [WS(4)](2-) anion in (II). Hydrogen bonding is observed in both compounds.

  1. Thermodynamic characterization of Ni3TeO6, Ni2Te3O8 and NiTe2O5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawar, Rimpi; Babu, R.; Ananthasivan, K.; Anthonysamy, S.

    2017-09-01

    Measurement of vapour pressure of TeO2(g) over the biphasic mixture Ni3TeO6 (s) + NiO(s) in the temperature range 1143-1272 K was carried out using transpiration-thermogravimetric technique (TTG). Gibbs energy of formation of Ni3TeO6 was obtained from the temperature dependence of vapour pressure of TeO2 (g) generated by the incongruent vapourisation reaction, Ni3TeO6 (s) → NiO(s) + TeO2 (g) + 1/2 O2 in the temperature range 1143-1272 K. An isoperibol type drop calorimeter was used to measure the enthalpy increments of Ni3TeO6, Ni2Te3O8 and NiTe2O5. Thermodynamic functions viz., heat capacity, entropy and Gibbs energy functions of these compounds were derived from the experimentally measured enthalpy increment values. Third-law analysis was carried out to ascertain absence of temperature dependent systematic errors in the measurement of vapour pressure of TeO2 (g). A value of -1265.1 ± 1.5 kJ mol-1 was obtained for ΔHf,298Ko (Ni3TeO6) using third-law analysis.

  2. Ni cycling in mangrove sediments from New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, V. S.; Morin, G.; Juillot, F.; Marchand, C.; Brest, J.; Bargar, J.; Munoz, M.; Ardo, S.; Brown, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    In New Caledonia, mangroves receive large inputs of lateritic materials eroded from massive ultramafic deposits enriched in Fe, Ni, Mn, Cr, and Co. Because of the major physicochemical gradients, especially redox gradients, that characterize these ecosystems, mineralogical transformations may influence the crystal-chemistry and bioavailability of Ni and its mobility towards a lagoon of over 20,000 km2. Bulk and spatially resolved chemical analyses by SEM-EDXS were coupled with Ni K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy analysis to characterize the vertical and lateral changes in Ni speciation across the intertidal zone of a mangrove forest in the Vavouto Bay (New Caledonia) where Ni concentrations range from 1000 to 5300 mg•kg-1. XAFS results indicate that phyllosilicates and goethite inherited from the eroded lateritic materials are the dominant Ni-bearing phases in the surface horizons of the mangrove sediments. They are fully preserved at depth in the dry and oxic salt flat area, located on the inland side of the coast. In contrast, beneath the vegetated Rhizophoras and Avicennias stands Ni-bearing goethites rapidly diminish with increasing depth in the anoxic horizons of the sediments, and pyrite and organic complexes become the dominant Ni-containing species. Moreover, Ni incorporation in pyrite is more developed in the sediments beneath the intermediate Avicennia stand than beneath the Rhizophora stand that is closest to the shore. Such lateral changes in Ni speciation may be related to reoxidation of Ni-bearing pyrites in the Rhizophora stand, which is subject to periodic alternation of reducing and oxidizing events due to tidal fluctuations. These major changes in Ni speciation could significantly influence Ni mobility across the interidal zone. Indeed, as estimated with respect to Ti concentration, which is taken as a geochemical invariant, Ni is found to be immobile in the salt flat, to accumulate beneath the Avicennia stand, and to

  3. Fe-Ni/NiFe2O4纳米复合颗粒的制备与磁性研究∗%The preparation and magnetic characterization of Fe-Ni/NiFe2 O4 nanocomposite particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 何峻; 安静; 赵栋梁

    2015-01-01

    结合共沉淀法和氢气还原法成功制备出Fe-Ni/NiFe2 O4纳米复合颗粒,所制备的纳米复合颗粒包含NiFe2 O4和 Fe-Ni 合金,其中 Fe-Ni 合金具有体心立方和面心立方两种结构。用 XRD 和 TEM对所得样品进行结构分析。用 SQUID 测量样品在室温时的磁滞回线,发现 Fe-Ni/NiFe2 O4纳米复合颗粒的矫顽力和饱和磁化强度与制备态 NiFe2 O4纳米颗粒相比随着退火时间的增加呈现出逐渐增加的趋势。为了进一步研究所制备的纳米复合颗粒的磁性特征,测量退火时间相同而退火温度不同的两个样品在零磁场冷却(ZFC)和带磁场冷却(FC)条件下的M-T 曲线。%NiFe2 O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method and Fe-Ni/NiFe2 O4 nanocom-posite particles were obtained by reducing NiFe2 O4 nanoparticles under hydrogen atmosphere.The as-prepared nanoparticles contain NiFe2 O4 with spinel phase and Fe-Ni alloy with body centered cubic and face-centered cu-bic phase.The structure and morphology of Fe-Ni/NiFe2 O4 nanocomposite particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.The room temperature magnetization was analyzed by SQUID. We found that with the increase of annealing time,the coercivity and saturation magnetization of Fe-Ni/NiFe2 O4 nanocomposite particles exhibit a gradually increasing trend compared with as-quenched NiFe2 O4 nano-particles.In order to further study magnetic characteristics of as-prepared nanoparticles,we measured the M-T curves under the condition of zero field cooling (ZFC)and field cooling (FC)of two different samples which have different annealing temperature but the same annealing time.

  4. Anti-corrosive and anti-microbial properties of nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghupathy, Y.; Natarajan, K.A.; Srivastava, Chandan, E-mail: csrivastava@materials.iisc.ernet.in

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrodeposition yielded phase-segregated, nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings. • Ni-Ag alloys exhibited smaller Ni crystals compared to pure Ni. • Ultra fine Ni grains of size 12–14 nm favoured Ni-Ag solid solution. • Nanocrystalline Ag resisted bio-fouling by Sulphate Reducing bacteria. • Ni-Ag outperformed pure Ni in corrosion and bio-corrosion tests. - Abstract: Anti-corrosive and anti-bacterial properties of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings are illustrated. Pure Ni, Ni-7 at.% Ag, & Ni-14 at.% Ag coatings were electrodeposited on Cu substrate. Coating consisted of Ni-rich and Ag-rich solid solution phases. With increase in the Ag content, the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ag coating initially increased and then decreased. The initial increase was due to the Ni-Ag solid solution. The subsequent decrease was due to the increased galvanic coupling between the Ag-rich and Ni-rich phases. For all Ag contents, the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ag coating was higher than the pure Ni coating. Exposure to Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) revealed that the extent of bio-fouling decreased with increase in the Ag content. After 2 month exposure to SRB, the Ni-Ag coatings demonstrated less loss in corrosion resistance (58% for Ni-7 at.% Ag and 20% for Ni-14 at.% Ag) when compared pure Ni coating (115%).

  5. Evaluation of structure and mechanical properties of Ni-rich NiTi/Kapton composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohri, Maryam [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nili-Ahmadabadi, Mahmoud [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); PouryazdanPanah, Mohsen; Hahn, Horst [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Joint Research Labaratory Nanomaterials, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-06-21

    NiTi thin films are usually sputtered on silicon wafers by magnetron sputtering. But the systems composed of thin film on flexible polymeric substrate are used in many applications such as micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Investigation on mechanical properties of thin films has attracted much attention due to their widespread applications. In this paper, the mechanical properties of 1 µm-thick crystallized Ni-49.2 at%Ti thin film alloy deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on Kapton substrate are investigated by using tensile test. The as-deposited thin films are in amorphous state, then for crystallization, the thin film was annealed at 450 °C for 30 min. Formation of the austenite phase after annealing was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The surface morphology of as deposited and crystallized thin films were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stress-strain curves of the NiTi alloy thin film were obtained by subtracting of the stress-strain Kapton curves from the corresponding curves of the NiTi/Kapton composite. The XRD results revealed that the NiTi thin film deposited on the Kapton is austenitic and presents super-elastic effect at room temperature. This pseudo elastic effect leads to more recoverable strain in NiTi/Kapton composite film compared with Kapton foils on loading/unloading test. Furthermore, it was concluded that nanostructure of the NiTi thin film is responsible for remarkable improvement of ultimate tensile strength (1.4 GPa) at a strain of 30% compared with the bulk material.

  6. Niños y niñas como cuidadores familiares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Estupiñán Aponte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto familiar, el cuidado de otra persona por parte de niños y niñas constituye un terreno inexplorado tanto en su significado como en las implicaciones que podrían darse en el proceso. Aunque históricamente se ha asignado el cuidado familiar a las mujeres generando condiciones de inequidad, incrementada con los cambios sociales de los últimos tiempos, es necesario reconocer que en muchos hogares niños y niñas se han visto obligados a desempeñar esta labor sin la preparación ni las destrezas necesarias. Desde una perspectiva de género, el artículo busca evidenciar esta situación mediante la revisión de los abordajes que sobre el tema se han hecho en países de Europa y Norteamérica, así como el análisis de información obtenida a partir de las Encuestas de Hogares y Uso del Tiempo (EUT en algunos países de Latinoamérica. Se establece la forma como las problemáticas sociales inciden en las dinámicas, tipo de tareas y responsabilidades que deben asumir niños y niñas en los hogares, mostrando delgados límites entre la colaboración al interior de las familias, la transmisión cultural de roles y funciones y las actividades que podrían incidir negativamente en su crecimiento y el ejercicio de sus derechos.

  7. Facile synthesis of self-supported Ni2P nanosheet@Ni sponge composite for high-rate battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, F.; Xie, D.; Zhong, Y.; Wang, D. H.; Xia, X. H.; Gu, C. D.; Wang, X. L.; Tu, J. P.

    2016-10-01

    To meet the requirements for high-rate battery with desirable performance, a self-supported Ni2P@Ni sponge electrode is synthesized via simple steps, in which the Ni sponge substrate is synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal method and the Ni2P nanosheets grown on the novel substrate are converted from Ni(OH)2 via a phosphorization reaction. This hybrid composite combines the 3D porous structure of Ni sponge and high capacity of Ni2P nanosheets, which exhibits lightweight, flexible and highly-conductive properties, resulting in an excellent specific capacity of 430.3 mAh g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and remaining as high as 77.0% capacity even at 40 A g-1. More importantly, the Ni2P@Ni sponge//C cell exhibits the maximum energy density of 182.1 W h kg-1 at a power density of 205 W kg-1 along with superior capacity retention of 85.2% after 3000 cycles. It is suggested that the Ni2P nanosheet@ Ni sponge composite is a promising electrode material for high-rate batteries.

  8. Effect of Ni concentration on microstructure, magnetic and microwave properties of electrodeposited NiCoFe films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phua, L.X., E-mail: g0700691@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Phuoc, N.N. [Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Ong, C.K. [Centre for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2012-12-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BCC crystallographic structure is gradually suppressed with increment of Ni content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The M{sub s} and H{sub c} values show similar behavior with increase of Ni concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The FMR frequency has a maximum value of 1.9 GHz at Ni concentration of 0.3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sufficient addition of Ni may lead to significant enhancement of film properties. - Abstract: The influence of Ni addition on the microstructure, magnetic properties and microwave characteristics of Ni{sub x}(Co{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x} (x = 0-0.7 wt. ratio) films fabricated by electrodeposition technique was investigated. It is revealed by the characterization of an X-ray Diffractometer that the films show a mixture of both FCC and BCC structures and the BCC structure is gradually suppressed with increasing Ni concentration. The morphology study by Scanning Electron Microscopy shows that with the addition of Ni, the film surface becomes smoother and grain size is reduced. The saturation magnetization and coercivity values show a similar behavior with increased Ni concentration. The ferromagnetic resonance frequency is increased from 1.07 to 1.9 GHz with the increase of Ni concentration from 0 to 0.3 and is decreased upon further Ni concentration increment which was interpreted in terms of contribution of the stress of films.

  9. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterization of Ni/NiO nanoparticles as electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation in alkaline solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Prabhakarn; Ghanem, Mohamed A.; Al-Mayouf, Abdullah M.; Al-shalwi, Matar; Hamed Abd-Elkader, Omar

    2017-02-01

    Nickel/Nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) nanoparticles catalyst is prepared by microwave-assisted liquid-phase deposition using ethylene glycol (EG) and water mixture under atmospheric conditions. The physicochemical characterizations of the catalyst carried out by surface area analyzer, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron microscopes measurements suggest the formation of crystalline nanoparticles structure of NiO. The surface area of Ni/NiO prepared using EG/water mixture reaches 70 m2 g-1 which is 2-fold enhsancement in surface area in comparison with NiO prepared in pure EG and an order of magnitude higher than that of bulk nickel prepared in pure water. The methanol electro-oxidation activity of the Ni/NiO nanoparticles obtained in EG/water mixture displayed more than 4-fold increase in oxidation current at 1.7 V versus RHE in comparison with NiO nanoparticles obtained in EG and 20-fold increase compared to bulk nickel catalyst concord with the enhancement of electro-active surface area. The results show the Ni/NiO nanoparticles produced by microwave assisted synthesis has superior activity for methanol oxidation in alkaline solution over the other nickel based catalysts and has potential for mass production.

  10. XAFS方法研究纳米非晶态NiB和NiP合金的结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜政; 杨宏伟; 陈栋梁; 闫文盛; 谢治; 韦世强

    2001-01-01

    不同退火温度处理后的纳米非晶态NiB和NiP合金催化剂XAFS和XRD的结果表明,在300℃温度退火后,纳米非晶态NiB合金晶化生成纳米晶Ni和晶态Ni3B中间态;纳米非晶态NiP合金直接晶化生成稳定的晶态NiNi3P。在500℃温度退火后,NiB和NiP样品都晶化为金属Ni,但NiB样品中的Ni原子周围的局域结构与金属Ni箔的几乎相同,而NiP样品由于Ni原于受到元素P的影响,生成的晶态Ni的结构有较大的畸变,结构与金属Ni相差很大。

  11. Influence of aging on damping behavior of TiNi/TiNi alloys synthesized by explosive welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Ting-yong; ZHENG Yan-jun; CUI Li-shan; MI Xu-jun

    2009-01-01

    The influence of aging time,measuring frequency and strain amplitude on the internal friction of TiNi_(51)/TiNi_(50.2) sandwich composite was investigated.The DSC and internal friction measurements were employed to characterize the sample.The two internal friction peaks of the specimen were confirmed corresponding to the reverse transformation of TiNi_(51) and TiNi_(50.2) component,respectively.The internal friction as a function of the temperature at different measuring frequencies was presented and it was found that the height of both internal friction peaks increased with decreasing frequency; however,the increase corresponding to TiNi_(50.2) component was larger than that of TiNi_(51) component.Furthermore,the internal friction of the TiNi/TiNi composite alloy decreased with increasing the measuring strain amplitude.The height of internal friction peak of TiNi_(51) component increased with increasing the aging time,whereas that of the TiNi_(50.2) component did not change significantly.The increase in internal friction of TiNi_(51) appeared to be associated with the formation and growth of precipitate during the aging process.

  12. Role of Ni-tolerant Bacillus spp. and Althea rosea L. in the phytoremediation of Ni-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Waheed Ullah; Yasin, Nasim Ahmad; Ahmad, Sajid Rashid; Ali, Aamir; Ahmed, Shakil; Ahmad, Aqeel

    2017-05-04

    In our current study, four nickel-tolerant (Ni-tolerant) bacterial species viz, Bacillus thuringiensis 002, Bacillus fortis 162, Bacillus subtilis 174, and Bacillus farraginis 354, were screened using Ni-contaminated media. The screened microbes exhibited positive results for synthesis of indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore production, and phosphate solubilization. The effects of these screened microbes on Ni mobility in the soil, root elongation, plant biomass, and Ni uptake in Althea rosea plants grown in Ni-contaminated soil (200 mg Ni kg(-1)) were evaluated. Significantly higher value for water-extractable Ni (38 mg kg(-1)) was observed in case of Ni-amended soils inoculated with B. subtilis 174. Similarly, B. thuringiensis 002, B. fortis 162, and B. subtilis 174 significantly enhanced growth and Ni uptake in A. rosea. The Ni uptake in the shoots and roots of B. subtilis 174-inoculated plants enhanced up to 1.7 and 1.6-fold, respectively, as compared to that in the un-inoculated control. Bacterial inoculation also significantly improved the root and shoot biomass of treated plants. The current study presents a novel approach for bacteria-assisted phytoremediation of Ni-contaminated areas.

  13. Alignment of primary Al3Ni phases in hypereutectic Al-Ni alloys with various compositions under high magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Al-Ni hypereutectic alloys with various compositions were solidified under various magnetic field con- ditions to investigate the alignment of primary Al3Ni phases. The results showed that the application of high magnetic fields could improve the homogeneity of the primary Al3Ni phase distribution and induce the alignment of primary Al3Ni phases in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field direction to form chain-like structures. However, the alignment was different from the orientation of the Al3Ni phases. Furthermore, the degree of the alignment decreased with the increasing concentration of Ni element. This can be attributed to the combination effects of high magnetic field and alloy composition on the concentration field around the crystallized primary Al3Ni crystals.

  14. Alignment of primary Al3Ni phases in hypereutectic AI-Ni alloys with various compositions under high magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; WANG ZhongYing; LIU Tie; WANG ChunJiang; ZHANG Chao; HE JiCheng

    2009-01-01

    Al-Ni hypereutectic alloys with various compositions were solidified under various magnetic field conditions to investigate the alignment of primary Al3Ni phases. The results showed that the application of high magnetic fields could improve the homogeneity of the primary Al3Ni phase distribution and induce the alignment of primary Al3Ni phases in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field direction to form chain-like structures. However, the alignment was different from the orientation of the Al3Ni phases. Furthermore, the degree of the alignment decreased with the increasing concentration of Ni element. This can be attributed to the combination effects of high magnetic field and alloy composition on the concentration field around the crystallized primary Al3Ni crystals.

  15. Effect of Ni Core Structure on the Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt-Ni/C in Methanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Linkov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Methanol oxidation catalysts comprising an outer Pt-shell with an inner Ni-core supported on carbon, (Pt-Ni/C, were prepared with either crystalline or amorphous Ni core structures. Structural comparisons of the two forms of catalyst were made using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and methanol oxidation activity compared using CV and chronoamperometry (CA. While both the amorphous Ni core and crystalline Ni core structures were covered by similar Pt shell thickness and structure, the Pt-Ni(amorphous/C catalyst had higher methanol oxidation activity. The amorphous Ni core thus offers improved Pt usage efficiency in direct methanol fuel cells.

  16. Molecular Dynamics Study on Interfacial Energy and Atomic Structure of Ag/Ni and Cu/Ni Heterophase System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijiang LIU; Shaoqing WANG; An DU; Caibei ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    The results of molecular dynamics calculations on the interfacial energies and atomic structures of Ag/Ni and Cu/Ni interaces are presented. Calculation on Ag/Ni interfaces with low-index planes shows that those containing the (111) plane have the lowest energies, which is in agreement with the experiments. Comparing surface energy with interracial energy, it is found the order of the interfacial energies of Ag/Ni and Cu/Ni containing the planes fall in the same order as solid-vapor surface energies of Ag, Cu and Ni. In this MD simulation, the relaxed atomic structure and dislocation network of (110)Ag||(110)Ni interface are coincident to HREM observations.

  17. Stripe-to-bubble transition of magnetic domains at the spin reorientation of (Fe/Ni)/Cu/Ni/Cu(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.; Choi, J.; Won, C.; Wu, Y. Z.; Scholl, A.; Doran, A.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z.

    2010-06-09

    Magnetic domain evolution at the spin reorientation transition (SRT) of (Fe/Ni)/Cu/Ni/Cu(001) is investigated using photoemission electron microscopy. While the (Fe/Ni) layer exhibits the SRT, the interlayer coupling of the perpendicularly magnetized Ni layer to the (Fe/Ni) layer serves as a virtual perpendicular magnetic field exerted on the (Fe/Ni) layer. We find that the perpendicular virtual magnetic field breaks the up-down symmetry of the (Fe/Ni) stripe domains to induce a net magnetization in the normal direction of the film. Moreover, as the virtual magnetic field increases to exceed a critical field, the stripe domain phase evolves into a bubble domain phase. Although the critical field depends on the Fe film thickness, we show that the area fraction of the minority domain exhibits a universal value that determines the stripe-to-bubble phase transition.

  18. Combustion Synthesis of Ti-2B-Cu/Ni and 3Ti-2BN-Cu/Ni Bilayered Cermets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiping SHEN; Wenbin CAO; Changchun GE; E.H.Grigoryan; A.E.Sytschev; A.S.Rogachev

    2003-01-01

    The effects of Cu and Ni (x=0, 10, 20 and 40 wt pct) and compaction pressures (12, 24, 84 and 108 MPa)on combustion wave velocity and wave front shape for Ti-2B-Cu/Ni and 3Ti-2BN-Cu/Ni bilayered cermets were investigated by a video camera. Since the boiling point of Cu is lower, the wave velocities of specimens are slower.Due to the higher specific heat of Ni than that of Cu, the wave velocities of specimens was slowed down a lot with increasing the Ni diluent. The wave velocity differences of the specimens containing Ni are more than that of the bilayered specimens containing Cu. Wave velocities of the specimens containing Ni increased more than that of the specimens containing Cu when higher pressure was employed for green mixture. The more the wave velocity difference of the bilayer, the more curved the specimen.

  19. Crystalline NiCo2S4 nanotube array coated with amorphous NiCoxSy for supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Zhang, Mingyi; Yao, Yunhe; Gao, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Hierarchical NiCo2S4@NiCoxSy core/shell nanoarrays grown on carbon cloth were successfully synthesized via a two-step hydrothermal route and following an electrodeposition process. Compared with bare NiCo2S4, the electrochemical performance of NiCo2S4@NiCoxSy nanoarrays have been apparently improved, which shows areal capacitance as high as 3.9F/cm(2) at a constant current density of 1mA/cm(2). And the composite material exhibits excellent rate capability that a high areal capacitance of 2.9F/cm(2) is still retaining as the current density increase to 50mA/cm(2). The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to the reasonably designed core/shell hierarchical structure of NiCo2S4@NiCoxSy nanoarrays, which would be promising for high-performance supercapacitor materials.

  20. Magnetic-field-tuned charge density wave in SmNiC2 and NdNiC2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hechang; Wang, Kefeng; Petrovic, C.

    2017-02-01

    We report magnetic field tuned competition between magnetic order and charge density wave (CDW) states in SmNiC2 and NdNiC2 polycrystals. The destruction of CDW can be observed not only in SmNiC2 below ferromagnetic (FM) but also in NdNiC2 below antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition temperature. Moreover, the CDW states near magnetic transition temperatures can be tuned by the magnetic field for both compounds. Magnetic-field induced FM state in NdNiC2 is more effective in weakening the CDW than the AFM state at temperatures near Neel temperature T N but both ordering states have the same effect on CDW below T N. The interplay between magnetic and CDW states in SmNiC2 and NdNiC2 may be different, suggesting that these materials are good models to study correlations between magnetic and CDW wave order.

  1. Effect of Paste Composition on the Microstructure of NiO Electrode%浆料成分对NiO电极微观结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 夏风; 王晓昳; 鄢文超; 肖建中

    2012-01-01

    NiO paste, Ni paste and Ni/YSZ paste were used to prepare NiO sensing electrodes, respectively. Ni/YSZ paste was fabricated by adding 15 vol% YSZ powder into Ni paste. The results indicated that the NiO electrodes made by NiO paste using ordinary sintering are compact and contained a lot of cracks. By contrast, the NiO electrodes and NiO/YSZ composite electrodes prepared by Ni paste and Ni/YSZ paste adopting reaction sintering, respectively, are porous and no cracks are observed. The addition of YSZ in pastes have a strong particle refining effect on NiO grains, enhance interface adhesion between NiO electrode and YSZ electrolyte and increase the amount and length of three phase boundary.%分别采用NiO浆料、Ni浆料和Ni/YSZ浆料制备NiO敏感电极.其中Ni/YSZ浆料是由在Ni浆料中添加15vol% YSZ粉末制备的.结果表明,采用NiO浆料普通烧结得到的NiO电极致密且有裂纹;采用Ni浆料和Ni/YSZ浆料反应烧结分别制备的NiO电极和NiO/YSZ复合电极则疏松多孔且无裂纹.浆料中添加的YSZ不仅能够细化NiO电极晶粒,同时能增强电极和基底的界面附着,增加三相界面的数量和长度.

  2. Incoherent Ag islands growth on Ni(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, J. B.; Braems, I.; Bellec, A.; Chacon, C.; Creuze, J.; Girard, Y.; Gueddani, S.; Lagoute, J.; Repain, V.; Rousset, S.

    2017-02-01

    Growth of two-dimensional superstructure and island morphologies of silver atoms evaporated on a nickel (100) surface are studied by scanning tunneling microscopy. Near-equilibrium islands form at moderate annealing temperature (lower than 500 K) and present two kinds of morphologies. While they share a common monolayer c(2×8) superstructure, two distinct populations of islands coexist: rounded islands grown on the surface and spindle-shaped islands grown inside the Ni surface. The latter present a clear saturation of their density with increasing coverage. These shapes are mostly dominated by boundary energies as confirmed by a simple two-dimensional Wulff model whose parameters are derived using molecular statics simulations. Further annealing to 700 K leads to long Ag strips decorating the Ni step edges.

  3. Interface stress in Au/Ni multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweitz, K.O.; Böttiger, J.; Chevallier, J.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of intermixing on the apparent interface stress is studied in -textured dc-magnetron sputtered Au/Ni multilayers by use of two methods commonly used for determining interface stress. The method using profilometry and in-plane x-ray diffraction does not take intermixing...... into account and yields an apparent interface stress of -8.46 +/- 0.99 J m(-2). However, observed discrepancies between model calculations and measured high-angle x-ray diffractograms indicate intermixing, and by use of the profilometry and sin(2) psi method the real interface stress value of -2.69 +/- 0.43 J...... to be inapplicable to interface stress determinations in systems exhibiting a modulation period-dependent stress-free lattice parameter. Finally, a deviation of the interface stress in the Au/Ni sample with the smallest modulation period as compared to specimens with larger bilayer lengths is observed...

  4. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Viswanathan, S.; Santella, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, wire, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for: (1) high-strength castable composition for many applications that have been identified; (2) castability (mold type, fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) workability of cast or powder metallurgy product to sheet, bar, and wire. The four issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes the work completed to address some of these issues during FY 1996.

  5. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for (1)high-strength castable composition for turbochargers, furnace furniture, and hot-die applications; (2) castability (fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) hot fabricability of cast ingots. All of the issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes work completed to address some of these issues during the fourth quarter of FY 1994.

  6. Internal chlorination of Ni-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berztiss, D.; Hennesen, K.; Grabke, H.J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In contrast to internal oxidation, sulfidation and carburization, very little information is available regarding internal chlorination, especially diffusion of chlorine in metallic alloys. This paper describes results of experiments on Ni-Cr alloys (<10 wt% Cr) exposed in an atmosphere containing radioactive HCl. The diffusion of chlorine in the alloy can be determined by measurement of residual {beta}-activity from the sample surface. Successively thin layers (0.5-10 {mu}m) of the alloy were removed by lapping and the surface activity was measured to obtain a depth profile. Both single and polycrystalline materials were tested. Through this work it should be determined if there is in fact solubility and diffusion of chlorine in Ni-based alloys as some authors have proposed or if the ingress of chlorine is mainly a grain boundary phenomenon. (orig.)

  7. Resiliencia en Niños

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Ivonne González Arratia Lopez Fuentes; José Luis Valdez Medina

    2007-01-01

    Con el objetivo de acercarse al constructo teórico de resiliencia, y desde la propuesta de Grotberg (1995a) y Melillo (2003), del modelo donde es posible caracterizar a un niño resiliente a través de la posesión de condiciones que en el lenguaje se expresan diciendo: Yo tengo , Yo soy , Yo estoy , Yo puedo , es que se procedió a hacer la aplicación de la técnica de Redes Semánticas Naturales a 400 niños de ambos sexos, de 6° año de primaria de escuelas públicas y privadas de la ciudad de ...

  8. Niño, inteligencia, devenir

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo Olaya, Juan Diego

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo nos proponemos mostrar cómo actúan en conjunto el plano de organización y el plano de consistencia que conforman el mapa del pensamiento en la escuela, según el cual, se puede afirmar que el pensamiento se escapa a la inhibición, la interpretación y la sujeción que provoca su traducción en términos de inteligencia, cuando, como resultado de la experimentación, se gesta un encuentro indeterminado con fuerzas que pueden conducir al devenir-niño del niño en la escuela. En este s...

  9. Ni-Based Solid Oxide Cell Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Holtappels, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a critical review of the literature on nickel-based electrodes for application in solid oxide cells at temperature from 500 to 1000 _C. The applications may be fuel cells or electrolyser cells. The reviewed literature is that of experimental results on both model electrodes...... and practical composite cermet electrodes. A substantially longer three-phase boundary (TPB) can be obtained per unit area of cell in such a composite of nickel and electrolyte material, provided that two interwoven solid networks of the two solid and one gaseous phases are obtained to provide a three...... - dimensional TPB throughout the electrode volume. Variables that are used for controlling the properties of Ni-cermet electrodes are: (1) Ni/YSZ volume ratio, and (2) porosity and particle size distribution, which mainly affected by raw materials morphology, application methods and production parameters...

  10. Thermodynamic characterization of NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, C.A. [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)], E-mail: alexandc@Battelle.org; Ogden, J.S.; Risser, S.M.; Wood, Van E. [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Thermodynamic properties of the high-stability intermetallic compound nickel aluminide, NiAl, have been determined from mass-spectrometric, weight-loss effusion, and calorimetric measurements, using samples from a single preparation with a composition determined to be Ni{sub 0.986}Al{sub 1.014}. Per mole of NiAl molecules, the specific heat capacity at room temperature of 298 K is 48.54 J . K{sup -1} . mol{sup -1}, with a linear temperature dependence of +0.0104 J . K{sup -2} . mol{sup -1}. At the same temperature, the enthalpy of formation is -133.7 kJ . mol{sup -1}, the entropy is about 53.8 J . K{sup -1} . mol{sup -1} and the enthalpy difference between room temperature and absolute zero is 7.97 kJ . mol{sup -1}. The Gibbs free-energy is -130.2 kJ . mol{sup -1} at T = 298 K, with a linear temperature dependence of +5.04 J . K{sup -1} . mol{sup -1}. The Debye temperature is 452 K, while the electronic density-of-states at the Fermi-level is about 0.29 states per eV-atom. The NiAl{sup +} ions were observed in the high-temperature mass spectra. Pressures for the gas at these temperatures were estimated and used with the results of quantum-mechanical calculations of total energy, specific heat, and entropy to calculate free-energy functions for the gas. These and additional results are compared with other measurements and discussed in terms of current theories of the electronic and structural properties of the compound.

  11. Participar como niña o niño en el mundo social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Paulina Díaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presento la participación como resultado de un trabajo investigativo realizado durante el año 2007, con niños y niñas escolarizados habitantes de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia, cuyo objetivo fue analizar las representaciones sociales que ellos y ellas comparten sobre el ejercicio ciudadano. El análisis de la información tiene como ejes fundamentales, la salud colectiva, la sociología de la infancia y la participación en la niñez, en una aproximación que se realiza desde un enfoque cualitativo y etnográfico. En los hallazgos, sobresale cómo las niñas y niños se muestran preparados para ejercer su derecho a la participación como aspecto de sus vidas que se haría posible dentro del marco normativo existente, pero que aún no es asumido en prácticas sociales que los incluyan.

  12. Participar como niña o niño en el mundo social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Paulina Díaz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presento la participación como resultado de un trabajo investigativo realizado durante el año 2007, con niños y niñas escolarizados habitantes de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia, cuyo objetivo fue analizar las representaciones sociales que ellos y ellas comparten sobre el ejercicio ciudadano. El análisis de la información tiene como ejes fundamentales, la salud colectiva, la sociología de la infancia y la participación en la niñez, en una aproximación que se realiza desde un enfoque cualitativo y etnográfico. En los hallazgos, sobresale cómo las niñas y niños se muestran preparados para ejercer su derecho a la participación como aspecto de sus vidas que se haría posible dentro del marco normativo existente, pero que aún no es asumido en prácticas sociales que los incluyan.

  13. Resistance behaviour and interdiffusion of layered CuNi-NiCr films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckner, W. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany); Schumann, J. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany); Baunack, S. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany); Pitschke, W. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany); Knuth, T. [Microtech GmbH, Teltow (Germany)

    1995-03-15

    On the basis of sputtered NiCr/CuNi/NiCr triple layers and multilayers, investigations of the electrical resistance R and its temperature coefficient TCR, as well as of the concentration depth profiles and of the temperature dependence of the lattice parameter have been carried out to study the influences of the interfaces in the as-deposited state as well as annealed ones. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the film stress has been considered. As to the resistance, the influence of the diffusion zone can be described by a parallel resistor R{sub i} having {Delta}TCR{sub i}. These quantities are dependent on both deposition and annealing and were determined for the two configurations on silicon wafers in the as-deposited state as well as in the 300 C annealed one. The AES investigations show distinct interdiffusion effects after annealing above 300 C. The Ni impoverishment observed in the CuNi results in a lattice parameter decrease. The film stress is only slightly influenced by interfacial effects. ((orig.))

  14. Theoretical Study of CO Adsorption on Ni(111), Pt(111) and Pt/Ni(111) Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, G. F.; Castellani, N. J.; Légaré, P.

    CO adsorption on a pseudomorphic Pt overlayer supported by Ni(111) has been studied with the use of extended Huckel calculations. Experimental information on the pure Pt(111) and Ni(111) single crystals was employed to select a consistent parameter set for our bimetallic system. This gives a good description of the chemisorption bond changes between the various systems considered in our study. The CO chemisorption energy on Pt/Ni(111) was found to be lowered in comparison with Pt(111) and Ni(111), in good agreement with experimental data on Pt-rich Pt-Ni surface alloys. This observation could be justified by the electronic changes of the Pt states (valence band broadening and decreasing density at the Fermi level). Indeed, they induce, in comparison with the pure substrates, a repulsion between Pt and CO although the 2π* population of the chemisorbed molecule increases. This points to the necessity of going beyond arguments based on an analysis of the 5σ donation and 2π* backdonation for a complete description of the chemisorption bond.

  15. Multifunction of Ni/Ag Nanocompound Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Jung Kao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An arc-submerged nanoparticle synthesis system (ASNSS is proposed and developed for fabricating Ni/Ag nanocompound fluid. In the development process, the positive and negative electrodes in the system are Ni and Ag, respectively. Applied electrical energy then produces heating source by generating an adequate arc with a high temperature that can melt and vaporize the two electrodes. The nanocompound fluid that is generated by the synthesis system is analyzed by morphological analysis, Zeta potential analysis, heat conductivity analysis, magnetic characteristic analysis, and UV-Vis absorption spectra analysis. Experimental results show that increasing the concentration of added particles and the higher temperature can be helpful to the enhancement of thermal conductivity. The Ni/Ag nanofluid not only preserves the magnetic character of the nickel and the ability of silver to absorb visible light but also enhances the thermal conductivity. The absorption occurs at 406 nm wavelength (redshift from 396 nm to 406 nm, which means that, under the excitement of visible light range (400~700 nm, it can let more easy electrons jump to the conductivity zone from the valence electron zone.

  16. NiTi superelasticity via atomistic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Piyas; Ren, Guowu; Sehitoglu, Huseyin

    2015-12-01

    The NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) are promising candidates for the next-generation multifunctional materials. These materials are superelastic i.e. they can fully recover their original shape even after fairly large inelastic deformations once the mechanical forces are removed. The superelasticity reportedly stems from atomic scale crystal transformations. However, very few computer simulations have emerged, elucidating the transformation mechanisms at the discrete lattice level, which underlie the extraordinary strain recoverability. Here, we conduct breakthrough molecular dynamics modelling on the superelastic behaviour of the NiTi single crystals, and unravel the atomistic genesis thereof. The deformation recovery is clearly traced to the reversible transformation between austenite and martensite crystals through simulations. We examine the mechanistic origin of the tension-compression asymmetries and the effects of pressure/temperature/strain rate variation isolatedly. Hence, this work essentially brings a new dimension to probing the NiTi performance based on the mesoscale physics under more complicated thermo-mechanical loading scenarios.

  17. Electric Monopole Transition Strengths in 62Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evitts, L. J.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Kibédi, T.; Moukaddam, M.; Alshahrani, B.; Eriksen, T. K.; Holt, J. D.; Hota, S. S.; Lane, G. J.; Lee, B. Q.; McCormick, B. P.; Palalani, N.; Reed, M. W.; Stroberg, S. R.; Stuchbery, A. E.

    2016-09-01

    Excited states in 62Ni were populated with a (p, p') reaction using the 14UD Pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. Electric monopole transition strengths, ρ2(E0), were measured through simultaneous detection of the internal conversion electrons and γ rays emitted from the de-excitation of populated states, using the Super-e spectrometer coupled with a germanium detector. The strength of the 02+ to 01+ transition has been measured to be 77-34+23 × 10-3 and agrees with previously reported values. Upper limits have been placed on the 03+ to 01+ and 03+ to 02+ transitions. The measured ρ2(E0) value of the 22+ to 21+ transition in 62Ni has been measured for the first time and found to be one of the largest ρ2(E0) values measured to date in nuclei heavier than Ca. The low-lying states of 62Ni have previously been classified as one- and two-phonon vibrational states based on level energies. The measured electric quadrupole transition strengths are consistent with this interpretation. However as electric monopole transitions are forbidden between states which differ by one phonon number, the simple harmonic quadrupole vibrational picture is not suffcient to explain the large ρ2(E0) value for the 22+ to 21+ transition.

  18. Electric Monopole Transition Strengths in 62Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evitts L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excited states in 62Ni were populated with a (p, p’ reaction using the 14UD Pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. Electric monopole transition strengths, ρ2(E0, were measured through simultaneous detection of the internal conversion electrons and γ rays emitted from the de-excitation of populated states, using the Super-e spectrometer coupled with a germanium detector. The strength of the 02+ to 01+ transition has been measured to be 77−34+23 × 10−3 and agrees with previously reported values. Upper limits have been placed on the 03+ to 01+ and 03+ to 02+ transitions. The measured ρ2(E0 value of the 22+ to 21+ transition in 62Ni has been measured for the first time and found to be one of the largest ρ2(E0 values measured to date in nuclei heavier than Ca. The low-lying states of 62Ni have previously been classified as one- and two-phonon vibrational states based on level energies. The measured electric quadrupole transition strengths are consistent with this interpretation. However as electric monopole transitions are forbidden between states which differ by one phonon number, the simple harmonic quadrupole vibrational picture is not suffcient to explain the large ρ2(E0 value for the 22+ to 21+ transition.

  19. Laser ablation of Al-Ni alloys and multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Johannes; Trebin, Hans-Rainer; Kiselev, Alexander; Rapp, Dennis-Michael

    2016-05-01

    Laser ablation of Al-Ni alloys and multilayers has been studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The method was combined with a two-temperature model to describe the interaction between the laser beam, the electrons, and the atoms. As a first step, electronic parameters for the alloys had to be found and the model developed originally for pure metals had to be generalized to multilayers. The modifications were verified by computing melting depths and ablation thresholds for pure Al and Ni. Here known data could be reproduced. The improved model was applied to the alloys Al_3Ni, AlNi and AlNi_3. While melting depths and ablation thresholds for AlNi behave unspectacular, sharp drops at high fluences are observed for Al_3Ni and AlNi_3. In both cases, the reason is a change in ablation mechanism from phase explosion to vaporization. Furthermore, a phase transition occurs in Al_3Ni. Finally, Al layers of various thicknesses on a Ni substrate have been simulated. Above threshold, 8 nm Al films are ablated as a whole while 24 nm Al films are only partially removed. Below threshold, alloying with a mixture gradient has been observed in the thin layer system.

  20. Fabrications of High-Capacity Alpha-Ni(OH2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwo-Hsiung Young

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Three different methods were used to produce α-Ni(OH2 with higher discharge capacities than the conventional β-Ni(OH2, specifically a batch process of co-precipitation, a continuous process of co-precipitation with a phase transformation step (initial cycling, and an overcharge at low temperature. All three methods can produce α-Ni(OH2 or α/β mixed-Ni(OH2 with capacities higher than that of conventional β-Ni(OH2 and a stable cycle performance. The second method produces a special core–shell β-Ni(OH2/α-Ni(OH2 structure with an excellent cycle stability in the flooded half-cell configuration, is innovative and also already mass-production ready. The core–shell structure has been investigated by both scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The shell portion of the particle is composed of α-Ni(OH2 nano-crystals embedded in a β-Ni(OH2 matrix, which helps to reduce the stress originating from the lattice expansion in the β-α transformation. A review on the research regarding α-Ni(OH2 is also included in the paper.

  1. A Novel Processing Route for Ni-doped Alumina Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Mao-xiang; SHEN Xiang-qian; ZHOU Jian-xin; LI Dong-hong; LI Wang-xing

    2006-01-01

    Alumina-based composites containing 0-15wt% Ni metallic phase were produced by hot press-sintering Ni-coated alumina powders. The Ni-coated alumina powders were prepared by the aqueous heterogeneous precipitation of alumina micro-powders and nickel sulfate salt followed by reduction process. The microstructural features and dispersion of Ni phase in Ni-coated alumina powders and the subsequent alumina-Ni cermets were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The relative density of the hot press-sintered composites was measured with the Archimedes' method while the fracture strength and the fracture toughness were defined with the three-point bending method and the micro-indentation fracture method. In the formation of alumina-Ni cermets from sintered Ni-coated alumina powders, Ni phase to some extent limits the densification rate and stifles the coarsening and growing process of alumina grains. The Ni phase is found to be located at the interfaces and the triple-joint junctions of alumina grains which results into alteration of the fracture mode of alumina and its increased fracture strength and fracture toughness if compared with monolithic alumina.

  2. Microporous Ni@NiO nanoparticles prepared by chemically dealloying Al3Ni2@Al nanoparticles as a high microwave absorption material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Xie, Xiubo; Li, Da; Chou, Wusheng; Liu, Tong

    2017-03-01

    The Al3Ni2@Al nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared from Ni45Al55 master alloy by hydrogen plasma-metal reaction method, and were subsequently dealloyed to produce porous Ni@NiO NPs of 36 nm. The pore size ranges from 0.7 to 1.6 nm, leading to large specific surface area of 69.5 m2/g and big pore volume of 0.507 cc/g. The saturation magnetization (MS) and coercivity (HC) of the microporous Ni@NiO NPs are 11.5 emu/g and 5.2 Oe. They exhibit high microwave absorption performance with a minimum reflection coefficient (RC) of -86.9 dB and an absorption bandwidth of 2.6 GHz (RC≤-10 dB) at thickness of 4.5 mm. The enhanced microwave absorption properties are attributed to the synergistic effect of the magnetic Ni core and dielectric NiO shell, and the micropore architecture. The NPs with micropore morphology and core/shell structure open a new way to modify the microwave absorption performance.

  3. Spray Forming of NiTi and NiTiPd Shape-Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabe, James; Ruggeri, Robert; Noebe, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In the work to be presented, vacuum plasma spray forming has been used as a process to deposit and consolidate prealloyed NiTi and NiTiPd powders into near net shape actuators. Testing showed that excellent shape memory behavior could be developed in the deposited materials and the investigation proved that VPS forming could be a means to directly form a wide range of shape memory alloy components. The results of DSC characterization and actual actuation test results will be presented demonstrating the behavior of a Nitinol 55 alloy and a higher transition temperature NiTiPd alloy in the form of torque tube actuators that could be used in aircraft and aerospace controls.

  4. Self-diffusion of Ni in the intermetallic compound Ni{sub 3}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Guoxiang [School of Science, Xi' an Shiyou University, Xi' an 710065, Shaanxi (China)], E-mail: guoxchen@xsyu.edu.cn; Wang Doudou [Institute of Telecommunication Engineering of the Air Force Engineering University (AFEU1), Xi' an 710077, Shaanxi (China); Zhang Jianmin [College of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Changan South Road, Xi' an 710062, Shaanxi (China); Huo Hanping [School of Science, Xi' an Shiyou University, Xi' an 710065, Shaanxi (China); Xu Kewei [State-Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China)

    2008-10-01

    Combining molecular dynamic (MD) simulation with modified analytic embedded-atom method (MAEAM) potential, the defect formation, migration and activation energies of Ni self-diffusion in intermetallic compound Ni{sub 3}Al have been calculated for five diffusion mechanisms, nearest-neighbor (NN) jump, next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) jump, straight [0 1 0] six-jump cycle (6JC), bent [0 1 0] 6JC and two concerted jumps. The results show that the Ni self-diffusion is dominated by the NN jump since it requires essentially the lowest migration or activation energy (Q=2.511 eV) in the five diffusion mechanisms. This is consistent with the experimental results.

  5. Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of single Au-Ni/NiO-Au nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinweg, Corinna; Sewcz, Rene; Baldus, Sabrina; Fischer, Saskia F. [Werkstoffe und Nanoelektronik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Daub, Mihaela [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle (Germany); Nielsch, Kornelius [Multifunctional Nanostructures, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Ferromagnetic metallic nanowires are of high interest for magnetic sensing and storage applications. However, due to surface oxidation of the nanowires electrical contacts easily lead to high-contact resistances of a few k{omega}. Here, we present multisegmented Au-Ni(NiO)-Au nanowires with a direct Au-Ni interface. Individual nanowires were laterally contacted in a four-terminal geometry via optical lithography, electron-beam lithography, thermal evaporation and lift-off patterning. The nanowires exhibit low-ohmic contacts of about 20 {omega}. The resistivity decreases with the temperature (300 K to 4.2 K) and is in the order of that of high-purity bulk nickel. The longitudinal anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) is about 1.5 % at 80 K and decreases with higher temperatures, 0.5 % at 300 K. The coercive field and the AMR are investigated for different angles between the current and magnetic field.

  6. Spray Forming of NiTi and NiTiPd Shape-Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabe, James; Ruggeri, Robert; Noebe, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In the work to be presented, vacuum plasma spray forming has been used as a process to deposit and consolidate prealloyed NiTi and NiTiPd powders into near net shape actuators. Testing showed that excellent shape memory behavior could be developed in the deposited materials and the investigation proved that VPS forming could be a means to directly form a wide range of shape memory alloy components. The results of DSC characterization and actual actuation test results will be presented demonstrating the behavior of a Nitinol 55 alloy and a higher transition temperature NiTiPd alloy in the form of torque tube actuators that could be used in aircraft and aerospace controls.

  7. Hot corrosion performance of a NiCr coated Ni-based alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, T.S.; Prakash, S.; Agrawal, R.D. [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2006-07-15

    The hot corrosion performance of high velocity oxy-fuel sprayed Ni-20Cr wire coating on a Ni-based superalloy is evaluated for 1000 h at 900{sup o}C under cyclic conditions in a coal-fired boiler. The performance of bare and Ni-20Cr coated Superni 75 is assessed via thermogravimetric data, metal thickness loss corresponding to the corrosion scale formation, scale thickness loss and the depth of internal corrosion attack. The better hot corrosion resistance of the coated alloy is mainly attributed to the formation of a thick band of chromium oxide just above the scale-substrate interface and chromium oxide stringers along the splat boundaries, as well as to the nickel oxide and the dense and uniform fine grain structure of the as sprayed coating.

  8. Predictive Modeling of the Constitutive Response of Precipitation Hardened Ni-Rich NiTi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A.; Franco, B.; Wang, S.; Baxevanis, T.; Karaman, I.; Lagoudas, D. C.

    2017-03-01

    The effective thermomechanical response of precipitation hardened near-equiatomic Ni-rich NiTi alloys is predicted on the basis of composition and heat treatment using a microscale-informed model. The model takes into account the structural effects of the precipitates (precipitate volume fraction, elastic properties, elastic mismatch between the precipitates and the matrix, and coherency stresses due to the lattice mismatch between the precipitates and the matrix) on the reversible martensitic transformation under load as well as the chemical effects resulting from the Ni-depletion of the matrix during precipitate growth. The post-aging thermomechanical response is predicted based on finite element simulations on representative microstructures, using the response of the solutionized material and time-temperature-martensitic transformation temperature maps. The predictions are compared with experiments for materials of different initial compositions and heat treatments and reasonably good agreement is demonstrated for relatively low precipitate volume fractions.

  9. NiO-Microflower Formed by Nanowire-weaving Nanosheets with Interconnected Ni-network Decoration as Supercapacitor Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Suqing; Wen, Zhenhai; Qian, Yuanyuan; Mao, Shun; Cui, Shumao; Chen, Junhong

    2015-07-13

    We propose a 'weaving' evolution mechanism, by systematically investigating the products obtained in controlled experiments, to demonstrate the formation of Ni-based 'microflowers' which consists of multiple characteristic dimensions, in which the three dimensional (3D) NiO 'microflower' is constructed by a two-dimensional (2D) nanosheet framework that is derived from weaving one-dimensional (1D) nanowires. We found such unique nanostructures are conducive for the generation of an electrically conductive Ni-network on the nanosheet surface after being exposed to a reducing atmosphere. Our study offers a promising strategy to address the intrinsic issue of poor electrical conductivity for NiO-based materials with significant enhancement of utilization of NiO active materials, leading to a remarkable improvement in the performance of the Ni-NiO microflower based supercapacitor. The optimized Ni-NiO microflower material showed a mass specific capacitance of 1,828 F g(-1), and an energy density of 15.9 Wh kg(-1) at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1). This research not only contributes to understanding the formation mechanism of such 'microflower' structures but also offers a promising route to advance NiO based supercapacitor given their ease of synthesis, low cost, and long-term stability.

  10. Effects of heat treatment on characteristics of porous Ni-rich NiTi SMA prepared by SHS technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and compressive properties of porous Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) fabricated by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) were investigated. The solution treatment at 1050℃ has little effects on stable Ti2Ni second phase, however, it decreases the amount of Ni4Ti3 phase derived from the SHS process and results in the improvement of the ductility of porous NiTi SMA. The subsequent aging treatment after solution treatment could lead to the precipitation of the discrete Ni4Ti3 phase in NiTi matrix grains, which increases the brittleness of porous NiTi SMA. Porous NiTi SMA presents a composite fracture behavior consisting of a ductile fracture of NiTi matrix and a cleavage fracture of second phase particles. Many cracks existing on the interfaces indicate that the bonding of the matrix with second phase particles is weak.

  11. Ni adsorption and Ni-Al LDH precipitation in a sandy aquifer: an experimental and mechanistic modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelink, Inge C; Temminghoff, Erwin J M

    2011-03-01

    Mining activities and industries have created nickel (Ni) contaminations in many parts of the world. The objective of this study is to increase our understanding of Ni adsorption and Nickel-Aluminium Layered Double Hydroxide (Ni-Al LDH) precipitation to reduce Ni mobility in a sandy soil aquifer. At pH ≥ 7.2 both adsorption and Ni-Al LDH precipitation occurred. In batch experiments with the sandy soil up to 70% of oxalate-extractable Al was taken up in LDH formation during 56 days. In a long term column experiment 99% of influent Ni was retained at pH 7.5 due to Ni adsorption (≈ 34%) and Ni-Al LDH precipitation (≈ 66%) based on mechanistic reactive transport modeling. The subsequent leaching at pH 6.5 could be largely attributed to desorption. Our results show that even in sandy aquifers with relatively low Al content, Ni-Al LDH precipitation is a promising mechanism to immobilize Ni.

  12. NiO-Microflower Formed by Nanowire-weaving Nanosheets with Interconnected Ni-network Decoration as Supercapacitor Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Suqing; Wen, Zhenhai; Qian, Yuanyuan; Mao, Shun; Cui, Shumao; Chen, Junhong

    2015-07-01

    We propose a ‘weaving’ evolution mechanism, by systematically investigating the products obtained in controlled experiments, to demonstrate the formation of Ni-based ‘microflowers’ which consists of multiple characteristic dimensions, in which the three dimensional (3D) NiO ‘microflower’ is constructed by a two-dimensional (2D) nanosheet framework that is derived from weaving one-dimensional (1D) nanowires. We found such unique nanostructures are conducive for the generation of an electrically conductive Ni-network on the nanosheet surface after being exposed to a reducing atmosphere. Our study offers a promising strategy to address the intrinsic issue of poor electrical conductivity for NiO-based materials with significant enhancement of utilization of NiO active materials, leading to a remarkable improvement in the performance of the Ni-NiO microflower based supercapacitor. The optimized Ni-NiO microflower material showed a mass specific capacitance of 1,828 F g-1, and an energy density of 15.9 Wh kg-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1. This research not only contributes to understanding the formation mechanism of such ‘microflower’ structures but also offers a promising route to advance NiO based supercapacitor given their ease of synthesis, low cost, and long-term stability.

  13. Kinetics of Ni-Mo electrodeposition from Ni-rich citrate baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltowska-Lehman, E., E-mail: nmbeltow@imim-pan.krakow.pl; Indyka, P.

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of Ni-Mo alloy electrodeposition on steel substrates from an aqueous citrate-ammonia complex baths has been investigated by means of steady-state polarisation measurements in a system with a rotating disc electrode (RDE). Partial current densities for discharge of Ni(II) and Mo(VI) ions and hydrogen evolution as a function of molybdate concentration in the bath, cathode potentials and the rate of mass transport were determined. It has been shown that - under all investigated conditions - Ni-Mo alloy deposition is more favourable than pure nickel and the cathodic process is strongly influenced by the Mo(VI) content in the solution. The Ni(II) electroreduction rate initially increases, as the cathode potential shifts towards more negative values and the concentration of molybdate grows in the solution. However, for the highest examined MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-} content, a considerable decrease in the rate of the process is subsequently observed at certain limit potentials, the values of which depend on molybdate concentration and hydrodynamic conditions. This effect, related to the formation of intermediate molybdenum oxides (characterised by very low overvoltage for hydrogen evolution), becomes less pronounced when the RDE rotation speed is increased. Hydrogen evolution is strongly associated with molybdenum deposition. An increase of the molybdate ions concentration in the bath, as well as an increase in the rate of mass transport, leads to an increase in Mo content in deposits and to the reduction of current efficiency. The Ni-Mo coatings electrodeposited from the designed bath (with the current efficiency of about 70%) containing about 30 wt.% Mo, are characterised by a shiny-grey appearance and good adhesion to the steel substrate. They are characterised by column growth and amorphous microstructure with randomly distributed nanocrystallites of the MoNi{sub 4} intermetallic phase.

  14. Transmutation-induced embrittlement of V-Ti-Ni and V-Ni alloys in HFIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuki, S.; Takahashi, H. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapparo (Japan); Garner, F.A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Pawel, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Vanadium, V-1Ni, V-10Ti and V-10Ti-1Ni (at %) were irradiated in HFIR to doses ranging from 18 to 30 dpa and temperatures between 300 and 600C. Since the irradiation was conducted in a highly thermalized neutron spectrum without shielding against thermal neutrons, significant levels of chromium (15-22%) were formed by transmutation. The addition of such large chromium levels strongly elevated the ductile to brittle transition temperature. At higher irradiation temperatures radiation-induced segregation of transmutant Cr and solute Ti at specimen surfaces leads to strong increases in the density of the alloy.

  15. Estilos parentales en niños y niñas con TDAH

    OpenAIRE

    Rocío González; Liliana Bakker; Josefina Rubiales

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: el Trastorno por Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad (TDAH) es una de las alteraciones neuroconductuales más frecuentes en la infancia. La disfuncionalidad familiar es una variable de riesgo sobre la evolución de los síntomas. El objetivo fue analizar y comparar los estilos parentales en niños con y sin TDAH. Metodología: diseño expo facto con dos grupos, uno cuasi control. Se aplicaron dos escalas que evalúan estilos parentales. Resultados: tanto los niños con TDAH como sus pa...

  16. Mechanical properties of hypoeutectic Al-Ni alloys with Al{sub 3}Ni intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakulak, Erdem; Koc, Funda Guel; Yamanoglu, Ridvan; Zeren, Muzaffer [Kocaeli Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the effect of nickel content on the mechanical properties of aluminum were investigated. High purity Al and Ni were melted in an induction furnace and cast into a metal mold. Microstructural characteristic and mechanical properties of the alloys were studied in detail. The addition of nickel to pure aluminum increased the tensile strength and decreased the elongation at break value of the specimens. Maximum wear resistance was obtained with the addition of 3 wt.-% Ni. Further addition of nickel caused a decrease in wear resistance.

  17. Sideward flow of $K^{+}$ mesons in Ru+Ru and Ni+Ni reactions near threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Crochet, Philippe; Wisniewski, K; Leifels, Y; Andronic, A; Averbeck, R; Devismes, A; Finck, C; Gobbi, A; Hartmann, O; Hildenbrand, K D; Koczón, P; Kress, T; Kutsche, R; Reisdorf, W; Schull, D; Alard, J P; Barret, V; Basrak, Z; Bastid, N; Belyaev, I; Bendarag, A; Berek, G; Caplar, R; Cindro, N; Dupieux, P; Dzelalija, M; Eskef, M; Fodor, Z; Grishkin, Yu L; Hong, B; Kecskeméti, J; Kim, Y J; Kirejczyk, M; Korolija, M; Kotte, R; Kowalczyk, M; Lebedev, A; Lee, K S; Man'ko, V I; Merlitz, H; Mohren, S; Moisa, D; Neubert, W; Nyanin, A; Pelte, D; Petrovici, M; Plettner, C; Rami, F; De Schauenburg, B; Seres, Z; Sikora, B; Sim, K S; Simion, V; Siwek-Wilczynska, K; Smolyankin, V T; Somov, A; Stockmeier, M R; Stoicea, G; Vasilev, M A; Wagner, P; Wohlfarth, D; Yang, J T; Yushmanov, I E; Zhilin, A V

    2000-01-01

    Experimental data on K+ meson and proton sideward flow measured with the FOPI detector at SIS/GSI in the reactions Ru+Ru at 1.69 AGeV and Ni+Ni at 1.93 AGeV are presented. The K+ sideward flow is found to be anti-correlated (correlated) with the one of protons at low (high) transverse momenta. When compared to the predictions of a transport model, the data favour the existence of an in-medium repulsive K+ nucleon potential.

  18. Electrochemical deposition and characterization of Ni-Mo alloy powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Pavlović

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of Ni-Mo alloy powders from ammonium sulfate and ammonium chloride containing electrolytes of different Ni/Mo ions concentration ratios was investigated by polarization measurements. The morphology, chemical composition and phase composition of electrodeposited Ni-Mo alloy powders were investigated using DSC, TGA, SEM, EDS and XRD analysis. EDS results showed that powder composition depends on Ni/Mo ions concentration ratio, as well as on the position where the EDS analysis was performed. As-deposited alloy powders were nanocrystalline showing no XRD peaks with undefined morphology (SEM. After recrystallization for 2 h in N2 atmosphere at 600°C the presence of NiMoO4 phase was identified in the powder electrodeposited from chloride electrolyte at the Ni/Mo ions concentration ratio 1/3, with well defined crystalline powder particles.

  19. Superconductivity and ferromagnetism in nanostructured Bi{sub 3}Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenemann, R.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Kuehne, H.; Zhang, Z.; Naumann, M.; Wosnitza, J. [Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD), Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Skrotzki, R. [Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD), Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Department of Chemistry and Food Chemistry, TU Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Kaiser, M.; Heise, M.; Ruck, M. [Department of Chemistry and Food Chemistry, TU Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Kummer, K. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble (France); Graf, D. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida (United States)

    2015-07-01

    We have demonstrated the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in Bi{sub 3}Ni nanostructures which have been prepared by making use of novel chemical-reaction paths [1]. Here, we present recent experiments on new nanostructures, such as supercrystals consisting of packed Bi{sub 3}Ni nanofibers. We have investigated their structural, magnetic and electrical-transport properties by means of NMR, XMCD, SQUID magnetometry and ac-resistance measurements. In agreement with x-ray diffraction experiments, the {sup 209}Bi NMR spectra indicate a distribution of local structural parameters in the Bi{sub 3}Ni nano fibres. While bulk Bi{sub 3}Ni is nonmagnetic, XMCD measurements on nanostructured Bi{sub 3}Ni indicate a magnetic 3d{sup 8} configuration of Ni. Resistivity measurements demonstrate that superconductivity persists well above the Pauli limiting field - with strong anisotropy.

  20. Microstructure and superelasticity of porous NiTi alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丙运; 戎利建; 李依依

    1999-01-01

    The microstructure, porosity, phase composition and superelasticity (SE) in porous NiTi alloys produced by elemental powder sintering are examined by SEM, image analysis and XRD. It is found that it is feasible to produce porous NiTi alloy by elemental powder sintering, and the porosity of sintered porous NiTi alloy is in the range of 36.0 %-41.5 %. The pores are interconnected and the microstructure is sponge-like. Meanwhile, porous NiTi alloy has good SE. XRD patterns show that there is no pure Ni in alloy sintered at 1223 K-9 h. Compared with the biomedical criteria for choice of implanting materials, porous NiTi alloy is satisfying to a great degree.