Sample records for hangzhou xinfu pharmaceutical

  1. Xinfu Pharmaceutical: Bright Prospect of D-Calcium Pantothenate


    @@ Zhejiang Hangzhou Xinfu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (Xinfu Pharmaceutical,SZ: 002019) was established in 1994. It is a comprehensive high-tech listed company integrating medicines,health-care foods and biological chemicals.

  2. Tea Time In Hangzhou

    Brandon Taylor


    There's a saying in China:Above is heaven,below is Hangzhou.Having visited this city in east central China,I'm willing to vouch for this ancient adage,one that suggests heaven's beauty has somehow trickled down to Earth.But I would suggest a slight amendment:Above is heaven,below is Hangzhou and people,and people,and people.The lakes,hills and pagodas make Hangzhou China's most visited tourist destination-around 20 million foreign and domestic tourists visit each year.Hangzhou is known for tea,some of the best and most expensive in China.The hills and valleys to the west of Hangzhou that I saw were littered with villages and tea plantations.That's where I needed to be.

  3. Hangzhou Institute of Petroleum Geology

    Qian Yizhong


    @@ Hangzhou Institute of Petroleum Geology (HIPG) is not only the center of petroleum geological research & information, but also the technical supporter of the Exploration Department for frontier areas in South China, subordinate to CNPC.

  4. The Bicycle Rental Market In Hangzhou


    On May 1, 2008, Hangzhou, capital of east China’s Zhejiang Province, included bicycle rentals in the public transportation system. Now, bicycles have become the most convenient form of transport for Hangzhou residents. Data from the Hangzhou Bureau of Transportation show that on average each bicycle gets rented five times a day.

  5. Celebrated Scriptwriter as Art Adviser to Hangzhou

    Xu Zhongyou


    @@ Hangzhou,the capital of eastern China's coastal Zhejiang Province,has engaged a team of art and literary celebrities as cultural and art advisors.These celebrities include novelists,actors,directors and painters.On June 8th,2010,the city held a forum in Hangzhou for these advisers to brainstorm for ideas that can boost the progress of the city's cultural and art undertakings in the next decade.

  6. Hangzhou Kelida Fabric Products Co.,Ltd


    @@ Hangzhou Kelida Fabric Products Co.,Ltd is Iocated in Yuhang RenHe,a cradle of Liangzhu Culture.Developed from Hangzhou Kelida Textile Mill Co.,Ltd ,and as the National Fabric developing base,Kelida has imported more than 70 SMITG6300S360 jacquard looms from Italy,and STAWBLI2688 looms from France.All above facilities make KELIDA a succesful weaving mill who has the production capacity of six million meters of fabric and three million sets of finished goods per year.

  7. Hangzhou People and Bamboo Shoots Dish



    SOON we’ll celebrate the new year. According to Hangzhou tradition, every family will cook a hot dish for this feast which will include shredded winter bamboo shoots, hotbed chives, shredded meat and smoked bean curd. In addition, some families will also cook a dish of "braised



    @@ View over West Lake,Hangzhou is in Zhejiang Province,eastern coast area of China.It is one of the most important tourism cities here,famous for its natural beauty and historical and cultural heritages,and the political,economic and cultural center of Zhejiang province as well.

  9. Analysis of economic impacts of the Hangzhou-Ningbo expressway



    This paper presents an analysis of the effects of the Hangzhou-Ningbo Expressway (in Zhejiang Province of the People's Republic of China) on the region's economic development. An econometric model shows the estimated contributions attributable to the expressway have increased year by year. And statistical data indicate that the Hangzhou-Ningbo Expressway has promoted to some extent the region's economic development in various aspects.

  10. 2009 APEC SME Summit Held in Hangzhou,China


    @@ On September 11th 2009,2009 APEC SME Summit,themed by "small enterprises,big dreams" was held in Hangzhou,China.Entrepreneur delegates trom 21 Asian-pacltiC countries and regions gathered in Hangzhou,discussing the issues concerning the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and sorting out the experience for the SME to bottom out of the recession.Zhang Wei,Vice Chairman of CCPIT attended and addressed the summit.

  11. Retreaded Tire of Hangzhou Zhongce Company Regarded as Resources Comprehensive Utilization Product

    Shu Wen


    Recently, Hangzhou Economic and Information Commission issued an announcement that the retreaded tire produced by Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Cycle Technology Co., Ltd. was certified to be the resources comprehensive utilization product.

  12. An Insight into the Growth of Department Stores in Hangzhou

    XIE Yuan-yuan


    This assignment will critically examine the competitive strategies of four selected department stores in Hangzhou and the reasons why the choice of them depends on different customer values. It will also highlight the capabilities that companies used to realize their strategies.

  13. 山西省忻府区小学生口腔疾病发病率及影响因素的多因素分析%Multivariate analysis on morbidity and influencing factors of oral diseases in elementary school students of Xinfu district of Shanxi province



    Objective: To analyze the morbidity and influencing factors of oral diseases in elementary school students of Xinfu district of Shanxi province.Methods: A total of 1 250 primary school students were selected from four elementary schools in Xinfu district of Shanxi province as respondents, the prevalences of caries and periodontal diseases, daily performances and family status of the elementary school students were investigated.Results: The morbidities of caries and periodontal diseases were 28.0% and 20.8% , respectively; the morbidities of caries and periodontal diseases in low age group were statistically significantly higher than those in high age group (P 0.05 ) .The results of multivariate analysis showed that the occurrence of caries in elementary school students was statistically significantly correlated with age, tooth brushing, oral health education, and family economic status.Conclusion: The morbidities of caries and periodontal diseases in elementary school students of Xinfu district of Shanxi province are still relatively high, which are significantly correlated with age, tooth brushing, oral health education, and family economic status, thus, prevention and treatment of caries and periodontal diseases should be enhanced actively.%目的:分析山西省忻府区小学生口腔疾病的发病率及影响因素.方法:抽取山西省忻府区4所小学的1 250名小学生为调查对象,对龋病和牙周病的发病情况及小学生的日常行为与家庭状况进行调查.结果:龋病发病率为28.0%,牙周病发病率为20.8%;低年龄组的发病率明显高于高年龄组(P<0.05).不同性别龋患率无明显差异(P>0.05).多因素分析表明,小学生龋病的发生与年龄、刷牙情况、口腔卫生知识和家庭经济状况明显相关(P<0.05).结论:山西省忻府区小学生的龋病与牙周病率仍较高,与年龄、刷牙情况、口腔卫生知识和家庭经济状况明显相关,因此还要积极加强防治工作.

  14. Spatial distribution of urban heat island in Hangzhou and its mitigation countermeasures

    Wang, W.-W.; Li, G.-L.; Xue, J.


    Taking Hangzhou City in summer as a case, the thermal infrared remote sensing image (Landsat 5 TM) was used to extract and inverse the surface land cover types and surface temperature of Hangzhou City. The spatial distribution characteristics of urban heat island was analyzed in the city......-scale through the thermal field analysis and profile analysis method. The corresponding relationship between the spatial distribution characteristics of Hangzhou urban heat island and landuse types were revealed. Then, the generative mechanisms of Hangzhou urban heat island were analyzed in the aspects...... of the evolution of urban landuse types, the changes of urban spatial pattern, the rationality of the urban land layout, and the emission of anthropogenic heat. Finally, in the perspective of urban planning, some mitigation countermeasures including the reasonable control of the expansion of urban landuse...

  15. Pharmaceutical Frenzy



    @@ When shares of Shanghai Pharmaceutical(Group)Co.Ltd.(Shanghai Pharma)resumed normal transactions on March9,2010,the biggest listed pharmaceutical company on China's stock market was born.By the time the closing bell rang at the end of the trading day,the market value of Shanghai Pharma had reached 32.28 billion yuan($4.73 billion).

  16. Indicators and impact analysis of sediment from the Changjiang Estuary and East China Sea to the Hangzhou Bay

    WANG Hong; FAN Wei; YUN Caixing


    Based on the historical evolution of the Hangzhou Bay, by making use of the conclusions made by the previous research workers and the integration of concrete data, five distinct impact indicators of the sediment from the Changjiang Estuary and the East China Sea to the Hangzhou Bay are summarized. Numerical calculation and analysis indicate that the scouring and deposition of seabed in the Hangzhou Bay are subject to the direct impact of the evolution of the Changjiang Estuary, and the growth and decline and the direction of the sandy bar at Nanhuizui give traces to the sediment transport between the Changjiang Estuary and the Hangzhou Bay. The transport of sediment from the Changjiang Estuary to the Hangzhou Bay occurs mainly in winter and spring seasons and the increase of the Changjiang River runoff and the decrease of sediment charge have caused scouring in the northern coast of the Hangzhou Bay and the seabed erosion along the frontal margin of the Changjiang River Delta.

  17. Heavy Metals Accumulation Characteristics of Vegetables in Hangzhou City, China

    GU Yan-qing


    Full Text Available A field survey of heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables grown in 30 vegetable farmlands of Hangzhou City were carried out. Through calculating the bioconcentration factor(BCFand transfer factor(TFfor different heavy metals(Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pbin 27 kinds of different vegetables which belong to leafy vegetables, root vegetables or eggplant fruit vegetables, assessing their accumulation characteristics of heavy metals according to the differences of the bio-concentration factor, the reasonable proposals were put forward to optimize the planting structure of vegetables in mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination soils. The experimental results were as follows: In soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination, leafy vegetables, such as crown daisy, cabbage, celery and Chinese long cabbage, had relatively low enrichment ability of heavy metals, so as the root and fruit vegetables like white radish, carrot, tomatoes, hence these vegetables could be planted preferentially. In contrast, some kinds of vegetables, including white amaranth, red amaranth, tatsoi, broccoli, gynura, brassica juncea and lettuce of leafy vegetables, lactuca sativa, taro, red radish and cherry radish of rhizome vegetables and sweet pepper of fruit vegetables, had relatively high accumulation ability of heavy metal, which should be avoided to be planted in soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination.

  18. Humor styles and loneliness: a study among Hong Kong and Hangzhou undergraduates.

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Wong, Ashley Yuen Man; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan


    This study examined the relationship between humor styles and loneliness among a sample of Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese. A total of 159 Hong Kong undergraduates and 178 Hangzhou undergraduates were recruited to complete a survey composed of the Humor Styles Questionnaire and the Emotional and Social Loneliness Scales. Multiple regression analyses showed that self-defeating humor explained significant variance in both social and emotional loneliness for Hong Kong students, but only in social loneliness for Hangzhou students. Hong Kong students scored significantly higher on aggressive humor and self-defeating humor, and scored significantly lower on affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor than did their counterparts in Hangzhou. This could be attributed to the greater influence of Confucianism in Mainland China than in Hong Kong.

  19. China Domestic Travel Fair Finshed in 2004 Hangzhou City Was Awarded the Special Contribution Prize


    <正> China Domestic Travel Fair2004 sponsored by China Nation-al Tourism Administration andZhejiang Provincial Governmentand held by Zhejiang Tourism Ad-ministration and Hangzhou Mu-nicipal Government.finished inHangzhou on June 6 afternoon.The organizing committeeawarded 16 units the best organizing praise, 23 units excellent organizingpraise, 10 units the best exhibition praise, 21 units excellent exhibitionprize, 2 units the best advertisement praise and 5 units excellent advertise-ment praise. The Zhejiang Tourism Administration and Hangzhou People’sGovernment were awarded the special contribution prize.The next domestic travel fair will be held in Gulling City. The flag of do-mestic travel fair was handed over solemnly to Pan Jianmin,the deputymayor of Guiling City, on the June 6 afternoon.

  20. Pharmaceutical virtue.

    Martin, Emily


    In the early history of psychopharmacology, the prospect of developing technologically sophisticated drugs to alleviate human ills was surrounded with a fervor that could be described as religious. This paper explores the subsequent history of the development of psychopharmacological agents, focusing on the ambivalent position of both the industry and its employees. Based on interviews with retired pharmaceutical employees who were active in the industry in the 1950s and 1960s when the major breakthroughs were made in the development of MAOIs and SSRIs, the paper explores the initial development of educational materials for use in sales campaigns. In addition, based on interviews with current employees in pharmaceutical sales and marketing, the paper describes the complex perspective of contemporary pharmaceutical employees who must live surrounded by the growing public vilification of the industry as rapacious and profit hungry and yet find ways to make their jobs meaningful and dignified. The paper will contribute to the understudied problem of how individuals function in positions that require them to be part of processes that on one description constitute a social evil, but on another, constitute a social good.

  1. Emergence of KPC-2-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sequence Type 463 Isolates in Hangzhou, China

    Hu, Yan-yan; Gu, Dan-xia; Cai, Jia-chang; Zhou, Hong-wei


    Thirty-nine Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, all exhibiting high-level resistance to carbapenems and other β-lactam antibiotics, were isolated in Hangzhou, China. Molecular epidemiology analysis indicated the presence of two dominant clones, namely, clones A and B, both of which belong to sequence type 463 (ST463). A genetic environment analysis demonstrated that both clones harbor an ISKpn8 transposase, blaKPC-2, and an ISKpn6-like transposase. These findings depict the features of clonal expansion and transmission of KPC-2-producing P. aeruginosa strains in Hangzhou, China. PMID:25691651

  2. [Distribution of atmospheric ultrafine particles during haze weather in Hangzhou].

    Chen, Qiu-Fang; Sun, Zai; Xie, Xiao-Fang


    Atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFPs) were monitored with fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS) in continuous haze weather and the haze fading process during December 6 to 11, 2013 in Hangzhou. Particle concentration and size distribution were studied associated with meteorological factors. The results showed that number concentrations were the highest at night and began to reduce in the morning. There was a small peak at 8 o'clock in the morning and 18 o'clock in the afternoon. It showed an obvious peak traffic source, which indicated that traffic emissions played a great role in the atmospheric pollution. During haze weather, the highest number concentration of UFPs reached 8 x 10(4) cm(-3). Particle size spectrum distribution was bimodal, the peak particle sizes were 15 nm and 100 nm respectively. Majority of UFPs were Aitken mode and Accumulation mode and the size of most particles concentrated near 100 nm. Average CMD(count medium diameter) was 85.89 nm. During haze fading process, number concentration and particles with size around 100 nm began to reduce and peak size shifted to small size. Nuclear modal particles increased and were more than accumulation mode. Average CMD was 58.64 nm. Meteorological factors such as the visibility and wind were negatively correlated with the particle number concentration. Correlation coefficient R were -0.225 and - 0.229. The humidity was correlated with number concentration. Correlation coefficient R was 0.271. The atmosphere was stable in winter and the level temperature had small correlation with number concentration. Therefore, study on distribution of atmospheric ultrafine particles during haze weather had the significance on the formation mechanism and control of haze weather.

  3. Panel Meeting for A3 Foresight Program 2008 held in Hangzhou


    @@ Jointly organized by the Bureau of International Cooperation,Department of Engineering & Material Sciences and Department of Mathematical & Physical Sciences of NSFC,the panel evaluation meeting for A3 Foresight Program for the year 2008 was held in Hangzhou from May 28 to 30,2008.


    Graham N Thompson


    @@ I had joined a Chinese group for a tour of the famous resort of Hangzhou, some 175km from the bustle of Shanghai. First impressions, leaving the railway station after my two and a half hour s' journey, were not good-a modern city with traffic as manic as the one I had just left. But then I saw the West Lake.

  5. Characteristics of Water and Sediment Exchange Between Yangtze Estuary and Hangzhou Bay

    KONG Jun; SONG Zhi-yao; XIA Yun-feng; ZHANG Wei-sheng


    Based on the 2-D flow and sediment numerical model of the Yangtze Estuary and the Hangzhou Bay, the characteristics of water and sediment exchange in their joint waters is studied through quantitative calculation and analysis of the characteristics of water flow and sediment transportation. The results show that there is periodical water and sediment exchange in this joint waters, that the net water exchange appears mainly between 0~6 m depth (theoretical datum plane, the same below) offshore and the maximum is near the depth of 2 m, and that the net sediment exchange mainly appears between 0~5 m depth and the maximum is near the depth of 3 m, indicating that the range of water flow passage is different from that of sediment transport from the Yangtze Estuary to the Hangzhou Bay. Combined with the results of numerical simulation, this paper also analyzes the hydrodynamical mechanism influencing water and sediment exchange between the Yangtze Estuary and the Hangzhou Bay, including tidal fluctuation, tidal current kinetic energy, tide-induced residual current and the trace of water particles. Finally, the sediment transportation passage on the Nanhui tidal flat is discussed, and the results show that sediment is transported into the Hangzhou Bay from the south side of Shipilei, while sediment is brought back to the South Channel of the Yangtze Estuary from the north side.

  6. 杭州大剧院舞台监督系统%Stage supervisor system in Hangzhou Grand Theater



    This paper mainly introduces the stage supervisor system in Hangzhou Grand Theater. The stage master console, internal comunication technique, digital calling system, video camera matrix in this system are discussed in detail.

  7. Performance assessment, social accountability and sustainability governance in Hangzhou: Leveraging the implementation gap?

    Delman, Jørgen

    This is an explorative case study that examines how ideas and concepts relating to sustainable development are factored into new approaches to urban governance in Hangzhou. The proposition is that traditional performance assessment procedures combined with innovative surveys of the city government......’s social accountability and with various forms of social participation have created a new framework for urban governance, both conceptually and as a series of practical measures. More specifically, the study examines a dramatic redesign of the performance assessment system in Hangzhou aimed at developing...... transparency of government and new forms of public accountability. This could pave the way for further progress with regard to development of sustainable city governance due to the strategic green turn pursued by Hangzhou’s leadership for some years now....

  8. An analysis on spatial variation of urban human thermal comfort in Hangzhou,China

    WANG Wei-wu; ZHU Li-zhong; WANG Ren-chao


    Urban human thermal comfort (UHTC) is affected for interacting of weather condition and underlyingsurface framework of urban area. Urban underlying surface temperature value and Normalized Difference VegetationIndex(NDVI) were calculated using image interpreting and supervised classification technique by ERDAS IMAGEsoftware using 1991 and 1999 Landsat TM images data. Reference to the relational standard of assessing humanthermal comfort and other meteorology data of Hangzhou City in summer, air temperature and relative humidityvariation of different land types of underlying surface were inversed. By choosing discomfort index as an indictor, thespatial distribution characteristic and the spatial variation degree of UHTC were estimated and mapped on a middlescale, that is, in six districts of Hangzhou. The main characteristics of UHTC spatial variation from 1991 to 1999 wererevealed using a GIS-based calculation model. The variation mechanism were analyzed and discussed from theviewpoint of city planning, construction and environmental protection.

  9. [Ecological environmental quality assessment of Hangzhou urban area based on RS and GIS].

    Xu, Pengwei; Zhao, Duo


    In allusion to the shortage of traditional ecological environmental quality assessment, this paper studied the spatial distribution of assessing factors at a mid-small scale, and the conversion of integer character to girding assessing cells. The main assessing factors including natural environmental condition, environmental quality, natural landscape and urbanization pressure, which were classified into four types with about eleven assessing factors, were selected from RS images and GIS-spatial analyzing environmental quality vector graph. Based on GIS, a comprehensive assessment model for the ecological environmental quality in Hangzhou urban area was established. In comparison with observed urban heat island effects, the assessment results were in good agreement with the ecological environmental quality in the urban area of Hangzhou.

  10. Thrips species diversity in urban green spaces of Hangzhou (Zhejiang Province, China

    M. Mirab-balou


    Full Text Available Research was conducted on the fauna of Thysanoptera in the urban green spaces of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, during 2008- 2012. The thrips were collected in different plant communities (mainly in parks in the city. A total of 26 species from 19 genera in three different families were collected, among them Scolothrips latipennis Priesner, which is newly recorded for the fauna of China. New distribution records of seven species in China are reported. Results of the research indicate that the fauna of thrips of green areas of Hangzhou was quite abundant and diversified, and the occurrence of Selenothrips, Scirtothrips, Thrips, Frankliniella and Haplothrips species seems diverse and should be investigated further.

  11. Exploring the consumer habits of the Carrefour buyers in Hangzhou, China

    Clemente Hernández Rodríguez


    Full Text Available This study examines the consumer behavior in the Carrefour Supercenter of Hangzhou, China, in the attempt of finding results that will display the shopping patterns of an evolving clientele. The city of Hangzhou is one of the cities with the highest per capita income, and because of its proximity to Shanghai it has been used as a test city before introducing products to mayor markets. Using observation as the main tool for such an analysis, the research considered a sample of consumers seeking to detect their shopping patterns, furthermor, a number of interviews generating useful information for strategic decisions was performed. The results show information about attitude towards promotional stands, the demographic characteristics of the consumer and the way of choosing products, among other variables. Additionally, it is verified that the Chinese culture impacts every aspect of the average People´s Republic of China (PRC consumer.

  12. Potential Sources and Formations of the PM2.5 Pollution in Urban Hangzhou

    Jian Wu


    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of meteorological parameters, gaseous pollutants, particulate matters, and the major chemical species in PM2.5 were conducted in urban Hangzhou from 1 September to 30 November 2013 to study the potential sources and formations of PM2.5 pollution. The average PM2.5 concentration was 69 µg·m−3, ~97% higher than the annual concentration limit in the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS of China. Relative humidity (RH and wind speed (WS were two important factors responsible for the increase of PM2.5 concentration, with the highest value observed under RH of 70%–90%. PM2.5 was in good correlation with both NO2 and CO, but not with SO2, and the potential source contribution function (PSCF results displayed that local emissions were important potential sources contributing to the elevated PM2.5 and NO2 in Hangzhou. Thus, local vehicle emission was suggested as a major contribution to the PM2.5 pollution. Concentrations of NO2 and CO significantly increased in pollution episodes, while the SO2 concentration even decreased, implying local emission rather than region transport was the major source contributing to the formation of pollution episodes. The sum of SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ accounted for ~50% of PM2.5 in mass in pollution episodes and the NO3−/EC ratios were significantly elevated, revealing that the formation of secondary inorganic species, particularly NO3−, was an important contributor to the PM2.5 pollution in Hangzhou. This study highlights that controlling local pollution emissions was essential to reduce the PM2.5 pollution in Hangzhou, and the control of vehicle emission in particular should be further promoted in the future.

  13. Strategic Planning Approaches for Creating Resilient Cities: A Case Study on Hangzhou City

    Liu; Dan; Hua; Chen


    In the twenty-first century, the population in China will be increasingly urbanized – focusing the sustainability challenge on cities and raising new challenges to address the urban resilience capacity. During the past two decades, China’s urban policies are state institution-directed, growth-oriented, and land-based, imposing unprecedented challenges on sustainability. Strengthening the capacity of cities to manage resilience appears to be a key factor for cities to effectively pursue sustainable development. The aim of this paper is to explore strategic planning approaches for creating resilient cities in China through a study on Hangzhou City in an integrated framework. Firstly, the paper gives a systematic insight into the structure of Hangzhou City. Secondly, the development trajectory of the urban system is analyzed to understand how the past has shaped the present and to get a broader perspective on its evolution. Thirdly, scenario planning is conducted to explore the adaptive capacity of Hangzhou City under different future conditions. At last, having analyzed the past, present, and future of the urban system, the paper discusses the strategies for resilient planning, which helps to identify factors and trends that might enhance or inhabit the adaptability.

  14. The use of a brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay to assess the water quality in Hangzhou section of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal.

    Lu, Yin; Xu, Xiaolu; Li, Tian; Xu, Yifei; Wu, Xu


    As physical and chemical tests alone are not sufficient enough for the assessment of potential effects on aquatic organisms, bioassays are required for the integrated evaluation of water pollution. In this study, invertebrate crustacean Artemia salina (brine shrimp) was applied as an indicator to assess the water quality of Hangzhou Section of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal. The percentage mortality of brine shrimp was recorded after 24-h exposure to the Canal water. The water samples were collected from five typical sites during October 2008 and April 2009. It exhibited 11% ± 8.3%, 26.7% ± 17%, 31.7% ± 8.5%, 28.0% ± 11.7%, and 4% ± 4.3% percentage mortality for the sample from Tangxi Bridge, Yi Bridge, Gongchen Bridge, Maiyu Bridge, and Gujia Bridge in 2008, respectively. And it exhibited 5.7% ± 4.2%, 10.3% ± 8.2%, 24.3% ± 12.3%, 16.0% ± 12.3%, and 0%, percentage mortality in 2009, respectively. According to the results, a relative improvement in water quality was observed, although the results were not significantly different at the p < 0.05 level. It suggested that 24-h A. salina exposure trials represent an acceptable bioassay for water toxicity when alternative bioassays were unavailable.

  15. Air quality real-time forecast before and during the G-20 Summit 2016 in Hangzhou with the WRF-CMAQ and WRF/Chem systems: Evaluation and Emission Reduction Effects

    The 2016 G-20 Hangzhou summit, the eleventh annual meeting of the G-20 heads of government, will be held during September 3-5, 2016 in Hangzhou, China. For a successful summit, it is important to ensure good air quality. To achieve this goal, governments of Hangzhou and its surr...

  16. Hedonic price analysis of urban housing:An empirical research on Hangzhou, China

    WEN Hai-zhen; JIA Sheng-hua; GUO Xiao-yu


    The hedonic price model is widely applied to study the urban housing market because of the heterogeneity of housing products. Literature indicated that the hedonic price theory mainly includes two parts: Lancaster's partiality theory and Rosen's characteristic market equilibrium analysis. This paper chose 18 characteristics as independent variables and set up a linear hedonic price model for Hangzhou City. The model was tested with 2473 housing samples and field survey data of 290 housing communities. This research found that 14 out of 18 characteristics had significant influence on housing price. They were classified into 5groups according to their impact degree.

  17. 杭长客专杭州南站站房工程施工过渡方案研究%Interim Scheme for the Construction of Hangzhou South Station on Hangzhou-Changsha Passenger Railway



    结合杭州枢纽相关项目的建设条件,从枢纽整体建设运营的角度对杭州南站站房建设期间的施工过渡方案进行了研究。提出了杭州东站过渡、杭州南站过渡、杭州南站和杭州东站共同过渡等三个方案,分析了不同方案对枢纽运输和客专施工建设的影响,推荐杭州南站和杭州东站共同过渡方案。%Based on the conditions of relevant project of Hangzhou pivot,from the perspective of overall construction and operation of the pivot,study is carried out on the interim scheme of the construction of the Hangzhou South Station.Three interim schemes Hangzhou East Station as interim station,Hangzhou South Station as interim station,and South Station and East Station together as interim station is proposed and their impact on the pivot transportation and the construction of passenger railway is analyzed.

  18. Biological and Pharmaceutical Nanomaterials

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.


    This first comprehensive yet concise overview of all important classes of biological and pharmaceutical nanomaterials presents in one volume the different kinds of natural biological compounds that form nanomaterials or that may be used to purposefully create them. This unique single source of information brings together the many articles published in specialized journals, which often remain unseen by members of other, related disciplines. Covering pharmaceutical, nucleic acid, peptide and DNA-Chitosan nanoparticles, the book focuses on those innovative materials and technologies needed for the continued growth of medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. For chemists, biochemists, cell biologists, materials scientists, biologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  19. Does brand differentiate pharmaceuticals?

    Bednarik, Josef


    Role of marketing in pharmaceutical industry is increasing and inspiration by successful brands known from consumer goods market influenced pharmaceutical companies enough to switch their attention to branding initiatives. Still there is little evidence that pharmaceutical brands represent anything more than product only. This study aims to explore the area of branding in pharmaceutical industry. Central hypothesis of the research has been that brand and its emotional content differentiate pharmaceuticals as well as rational data derived from clinical studies. It has been tested by extensive review of available literature as well as by primary research focused on drivers of physicians' attitudes towards products and their influence on prescribing behavior. The research has been conducted in the sample of psychiatrists in the Czech Republic. No evidence about pharmaceutical brand exceeding value of product has been found in reviewed literature. Nevertheless, the primary research conducted in the sample of Czech psychiatrists indicates that emotional brand in pharmaceutical industry exists and enables author to draw a model of Customer/product life cycle that describes likely impact of functional, emotional and self-expressive benefits throughout pharmaceutical product's market presence. Pharmaceutical brand is likely to develop differently than the same of consumer goods products--it seems to be built predominantly on long-term positive experience. Marketing role in this process should lie in finding relevant product position and building brand identity compliant with real product capabilities.

  20. PAHs in aquatic sediment in Hangzhou, China: analytical methods, pollution pattern, risk assessment and sources.

    Zhu, Li-zhong; Cai, Xue-fen; Wang, Jing


    Eleven surface sediment samples, from Hangzhou section of Qiantang River and Jinghang Canal, west Lake the inland river were collected to investigate 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in aquatic sediments of Hangzhou. Accelerated solvent extraction(ASE) was used to extract PAHs from sediments with satisfactory recoveries. It was found that the total PAHs in the sediments ranged from 308.4 to 3037 ng/g dw, and PAHs pollution in sediments from Jinghang Canal were the heaviest. Lowest effect level (LEL) and severe effect level (SEL) sediment quality guidelines were introduced to perform risk assessment for PAHs pollution in aquatic sediments. Only one sample in Jinghang Canal had adverse impact on benthic organism. 2-3 ring PAHs had a noticeable contribution to total PAHs, especially NA, PHEN. A quantity method was used to determine the major source, the results showed petroleum origin was the chief source to PAHs pollution in all sediments with the exception of sediments from Jinghang Canal where combustion sources had a larger contribution.

  1. Examining Urban Impervious Surface Distribution and Its Dynamic Change in Hangzhou Metropolis

    Longwei Li


    Full Text Available Analysis of urban distribution and its expansion using remote sensing data has received increasing attention in the past three decades, but little research has examined spatial patterns of urban distribution and expansion with buffer zones in different directions. This research selected Hangzhou metropolis as a case study to analyze spatial patterns and dynamic changes based on time-series urban impervious surface area (ISA datasets. ISA was developed from Landsat imagery between 1991 and 2014 using a hybrid approach consisting of linear spectral mixture analysis, decision tree classifiers, and post-processing. The spatial patterns of ISA distribution and its dynamic changes in eight directions—east, southeast, south, southwest, west, northwest, north, and northeast—at the temporal scale were analyzed with a buffer zone-based approach. This research indicated that ISA can be extracted from Landsat imagery with both producer and user accuracies of over 90%. ISA in Hangzhou metropolis increased from 146 km2 in 1991 to 868 km2 in 2014. Annual ISA growth rates were between 15.6 km2 and 48.8 km2 with the lowest growth rate in 1994–2000 and the highest growth rate in 2005–2010. Urban ISA increase before 2000 was mainly due to infilling within the urban landscape, and, after 2005, due to urban expansion in the urban-rural interfaces. Urban expansion in this study area has different characteristics in various directions that are influenced by topographic factors and urban development policies.

  2. PAHs in aquatic sediment in Hangzhou, China: Analytical methods, pollution pattern, risk assessment and sources

    ZHU Li-zhong; CAI Xue-fen; WANG Jing


    Eleven surface sediment samples, from Hangzhou section of Qiantang River and Jinghang Canal, west Lake the inland river were collected to investigate 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) pollution in aquatic sediments of Hangzhou. Accelerated solvent extraction(ASE) was used to extract PAHs from sediments with satisfactory recoveries. It was found that the total PAHs in the sediments ranged from 308.4 to 3037 ng/g dw, and PAHs pollution in sediments from Jinghang Canal were the heaviest. Lowest effect level(LEL)and severe effect level (SEL) sediment quality guidelines were introduced to perform risk assessment for PAHs pollution in aquatic sediments. Only one sample in Jinghang Canal had adverse impact on benthic organism. 2-3 ring PAHs had a noticeable contribution to total PAHs, especially NA, PHEN. A quantity method was used to determine the major source, the results showed petroleum origin was the chief source to PAHs pollution in all sediments with the exception of sediments from Jinghang Canal where combustion sources had a larger contribution.

  3. 7Be content and its seasonal variation in the ground air around Hangzhou area


    Twice investigations around Hangzhou area show that 7Be content average in the ground air is 5.9 mBq.m-3.The content of 7Be is the highest in autumn-winter period reaching about 7.7 mBq.m-3;the next is in spring about 6.2 mBq.m-3;then is in the early summer about 5.7 mBq.m-3,close to the annual average level; and the lowest in a year is in summer-autumn period with a value about 3.8 mBq.m-3. Exhibited is a decreasing trend from autumn-winter period to summer-autumn of the next year,which is negatively correlated with the variation of the seasonal rainfall in Hangzhou area. But this trend is different from that reported by UNSCEAR: it is the highest in spring and the lowest in the late autumn, which is based only on 7Be falling down from the stratosphere. However, the present investigation shows that the seasonal rainfall is the main factor influencing the variation trend of 7Be content in the air.

  4. Spatiotemporal Co-existence of Female Thyroid and Breast Cancers in Hangzhou, China.

    Fei, Xufeng; Christakos, George; Lou, Zhaohan; Ren, Yanjun; Liu, Qingmin; Wu, Jiaping


    Thyroid and breast cancers (TC, BC) are common female malignant tumors worldwide. Studies suggest that TC patients have a higher BC risk, and vice versa. However, it has not been investigated quantitatively if there is an association between the space-time TC and BC incidence distributions at the population level. This work aims to answer this question. 5358 TC and 8784 BC (female) cases were diagnosed in Hangzhou (China, 2008-2012). Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficients of the TC and BC incidences were high, and their patterns were geographically similar. The spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions was investigated using the integrative disease predictability (IDP) criterion: if TC-BC association is part of the disease mapping knowledge bases, it should yield improved space-time incidence predictions. Improved TC (BC) incidence predictions were generated when integrating both TC and BC data than when using only TC (BC) data. IDP consistently demonstrated the spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions throughout Hangzhou (2008-2012), which means that when the population experiences high incidences of one kind of cancer attention should be paid to the other kind of cancer too. The strength of TC-BC association was measured by the IDP coefficients and incidence prediction accuracy.

  5. Large outbreak of herpangina in children caused by enterovirus in summer of 2015 in Hangzhou, China

    Li, Wei; Gao, Hui-hui; Zhang, Qiong; Liu, Yu-jie; Tao, Ran; Cheng, Yu-ping; Shu, Qiang; Shang, Shi-qiang


    Herpangina, usually caused by coxsackie virus A, is prevalent in children spreading through the fecal-oral transmission and the respiratory droplets dissemination. Also, it is mostly asymptomatic and self-limiting. In our study, we found that large outbreak of herpangina in children occurred in the summer of 2015 in Hangzhou, China. From May 1th to August 31th, a total of 10 210 children were diagnosed with herpangina in Children’s Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. 2 310 throat swabs were collected and tested for enterovirus detection by real-time RT-PCR, while 1 651 cases were positive with the rate of 71.5%. Based on VP1 gene or 5′UTR region sequences, Coxsackievirus A2, A4, A6, A10, B2, B4 and echovirus 30 were detected in these cases. More importantly, Coxsackievirus A2 may be the major subtype of enterovirus resulting in children with herpangina in hangzhou, China. PMID:27752104

  6. Spatiotemporal Co-existence of Female Thyroid and Breast Cancers in Hangzhou, China

    Fei, Xufeng; Christakos, George; Lou, Zhaohan; Ren, Yanjun; Liu, Qingmin; Wu, Jiaping


    Thyroid and breast cancers (TC, BC) are common female malignant tumors worldwide. Studies suggest that TC patients have a higher BC risk, and vice versa. However, it has not been investigated quantitatively if there is an association between the space-time TC and BC incidence distributions at the population level. This work aims to answer this question. 5358 TC and 8784 BC (female) cases were diagnosed in Hangzhou (China, 2008–2012). Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficients of the TC and BC incidences were high, and their patterns were geographically similar. The spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions was investigated using the integrative disease predictability (IDP) criterion: if TC-BC association is part of the disease mapping knowledge bases, it should yield improved space-time incidence predictions. Improved TC (BC) incidence predictions were generated when integrating both TC and BC data than when using only TC (BC) data. IDP consistently demonstrated the spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions throughout Hangzhou (2008–2012), which means that when the population experiences high incidences of one kind of cancer attention should be paid to the other kind of cancer too. The strength of TC-BC association was measured by the IDP coefficients and incidence prediction accuracy.

  7. Sources and distribution of sedimentary organic matter along the Andong salt marsh, Hangzhou Bay

    Yuan, Hong-Wei; Chen, Jian-Fang; Ye, Ying; Lou, Zhang-Hua; Jin, Ai-Min; Chen, Xue-Gang; Jiang, Zong-Pei; Lin, Yu-Shih; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Loh, Pei Sun


    Lignin oxidation products, δ13C values, C/N ratios and particle size were used to investigate the sources, distribution and chemical stability of sedimentary organic matter (OM) along the Andong salt marsh located in the southwestern end of Hangzhou Bay, China. Terrestrial OM was highest at the upper marshes and decreased closer to the sea, and the distribution of sedimentary total organic carbon (TOC) was influenced mostly by particle size. Terrestrial OM with a C3 signature was the predominant source of sedimentary OM in the Spartina alterniflora-dominated salt marsh system. This means that aside from contributions from the local marsh plants, the Andong salt marsh received input mostly from the Qiantang River and the Changjiang Estuary. Transect C, which was situated nearer to the Qiantang River mouth, was most likely influenced by input from the Qiantang River. Likewise, a nearby creek could be transporting materials from Hangzhou Bay into Transect A (farther east than Transect C), as Transect A showed a signal resembling that of the Changjiang Estuary. The predominance of terrestrial OM in the Andong salt marsh despite overall reductions in sedimentary and terrestrial OM input from the rivers is most likely due to increased contributions of sedimentary and terrestrial OM from erosion. This study shows that lower salt marsh accretion due to the presence of reservoirs upstream may be counterbalanced by increased erosion from the surrounding coastal areas.

  8. Hangzhou Jinjiang Group Shanxi Fusheng Aluminum Phase I 800,000 t/a Aluminum Oxide Project Started Operation


    <正>On October 19,the Shanxi Province Pinglu County Phase I 800,000t/a Aluminum Oxide Project of Shanxi Fusheng Aluminum Co.,Ltd,a subordinate of Hangzhou Jinjiang Group,started operation.This is the fourth Aluminum oxide project constructed and operated by Jinjiang Group.

  9. Wisdom Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.


    @@ Wisdom Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (Wisdom) headquartered in Haimen, Nantong, Jiangsu Province, China, is specialized in providing highly efficient production processes of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and intermediates. Currently, Wisdom is in the process of expanding GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) capabilities, which is expected to be approved by the authorities before the end of September 2003.

  10. 华北半干旱区农田土壤肥力变化及培肥管理对策——以山西忻府区为例%Change in Farmland Soil Fertility and Nutrient Management Strategy in the Semiarid Regions of North China——As a Case of Xinfu County of Shanxi Province

    孙树荣; 董文旭; 胡春胜; 杨萍果; 周进才


    In order to reveal characteristics of soil nutrients and guiding the fertility maintaining practices in the farmland in semiarid regions,the trend and mechanism of change in main soil fertilities (organic matter,total nitrogen,available P and available K) in farmlands of Xinfu County,Shanxi Province was analyzed by using soil survey data for 1963,1980,2006 and 2010,from which a sustainable strategy for agricultural nutrient resource management was put forward. The results indicated that,a significant change in soil fertility for 1963 through 2010. Since 1963,whole area mean soil nutrient contents in the overall decreased significantly,down to the minimum level in 1980. And then,the nutrients began to raise slowly,higher speed after 2006. Serious shortage of inputs and change of cropping patterns lead to fertility decline in the former stage,while a dosage augment of chemical fertilizer and improving irrigation promoted soil fertility after 1980,and returning straw to field speeded up the recovery of soil fertility after 2006. By 2010,organic matter,total nitrogen,available phosphorus and available potassium content reached 15.3,0.79,15.6,149 mg/kg,respectively. To further enhance the soil fertility,implementation of precision fertilization,combined the application of organic and inorganic fertilizers,increment of incorporated straw into the soil,and implement conservation tillage,improving irrigation and the expansion of irrigated area,should be the main regulation direction of agricultural management in the future in the area.%为了揭示华北半干旱区农田养分丰缺状况和演变规律,和指导培肥地力管理措施,以忻府区为例,采用1963年、1980年、2006年和2010年4次土壤肥力监测及农业统计数据和农户调查资料,研究4个主要土壤肥力指标(有机质、全氮、有效磷和速效钾)的变化程度,并分析忻府区农田土壤肥力演变趋势及原因,提出未来培肥管理的相应对策.结果表明,自1963

  11. Relationship between serum uric acid and selected cardiovascular risk factors in Hangzhou populations

    Jiajin Zhu


    Full Text Available Uric acid is the final metabolite of purine. Increased serum uric acid level is associated with incidence of gout and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum uric acid and parameters of biochemistry and haematology in Hangzhou populations, China. In this crosssectional study, 186 male (56±14 y and 85 female (55±11 y free-living subjects were recruited from Hangzhou, China. The physiological parameters were measured. Each subject gave fasting blood, urine and faeces samples, from which serum uric acid and other parameters of biochemistry and haematology were measured with standard methods. Serum uric concentration was significantly higher in males than in females, 329±69 µmol/L for male and 237±53 µmol/L for female (P<0.0001. Compared with female subjects, male had significantly higher BMI (P = 0.0215, serum TAG (P = 0.0012 and creatinine (P<0.0001, significantly lower TC (P = 0.0013 and HDL-C (P<0.0001. Bivariate analysis results showed that serum uric acid was significantly positively correlated with age (r = 0.171, P = 0.0076, BMI (r = 0.343, P<0.0001, systolic blood pressure (r = 0.234, P = 0.0002, diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.204, P = 0.0014, blood urea nitrogen (r = 0.251, P<0.0001, serum concentrations of total cholesterol (r = 0.192, P = 0.0026 and triacylglycerol (r = 0.306, P<0.0001, and significantly negatively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r = -0.381, P<0.0001. In the bivariate analysis for separate gender, serum uric acid concentration was significantly positively correlated with TC (r = 0.255, P = 0.001, LDL-C (r = 0.329, P<0.0001 and HDL-C (r = -0.185, P = 0.0181 for males, but not for females. Serum uric acid concentration was significantly positively correlated with age for females (r = 0.289, P = 0.0081, but not for males. The results from the present study indicated that increased serum uric acid concentration was associated with a cluster of the

  12. PAHs pollution from traffic sources in air of Hangzhou, China: Trend and influencing factors

    ZHU Li-zhong; WANG Jing


    PAHs pollution in air of arterial roads was investigated from October 1998 to October 2001 in Hangzhou, China. The results showed that ∑10 PAHs was 13-36 μg/m3 , among which, BaP, a strong carcinogenic kind ranged from 0.034 μg/m3 to 0. 12 μg/m3 . PAHs pollutions in four seasons were winter > autumn > spring-summer. The annual averages of ∑PAHs concentration were 25 μg/m3 for 1999, 28μg/m3 for 2000, and 29 μg/m3 for 2001, respectively. Leaded gasoline was banned in December 1998 in Hangzhou, thus comparative measurements with PAHs in leaded and lead-free gasoline powered motor exhausts made it certain that the use of lead-free gasoline leaded to a heavier PAHs pollution in roadside air from December, 1998, in China, and ∑PAHs in air samples after the lead-banning were more than twice of that in samples before the action. For the large contribution of vehicle discharge to air pollution in roadside, further research was performed to suggest the factors influencing PAHs distribution in vehicle exhaust in order to control air pollution effectively.Compared to gasoline engines, emissions from diesel engines were less toxic, although they might produce more PAHs. Of the same vehicular and oil type, automobiles of longer mileages produced more toxic PAHs. PAHs distributions in the vehicular exhausts were related to the oil type. Large difference was found in the abundance of 3-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs between exhausts from gasoline and diesel oil engines. Diesel oil engines produced relative lighter PAHs such as NAPH, ACEN, FLUOR, while gasoline engines emitted heavier kinds such as BkF, IN and BP. The automobile produced more PAHs with the increase of mileage especially FLUR, PY, BaP, BP. Some significant ratios for traffic source in Hangzhou such as PHEN/AN, FLUR/PY, IN/BP were 0.50-4.3, 0.58-7.4, 0.51-1.5,respectively. A source fingerprint for vehicle exhausts of a mixture of vehicle and oil types in the city district for light-duty vehicle was the

  13. Pharmaceutical policy in China.

    Sun, Qiang; Santoro, Michael A; Meng, Qingyue; Liu, Caitlin; Eggleston, Karen


    Contradictory goals plague China's pharmaceutical policy. The government wants to develop the domestic pharmaceutical industry and has used drug pricing to cross-subsidize public hospitals. Yet the government also aims to control drug spending through price caps and profit-margin regulations to guarantee access even for poor patients. The resulting system has distorted market incentives, increased consumers' costs, and financially rewarded inappropriate prescribing, thus undermining public health. Pharmaceuticals account for about half of total health spending in China, representing 43 percent of spending per inpatient episode and 51 percent of spending per outpatient visit. Yet some essential medicines are unavailable or of questionable quality.

  14. [Study on number concentration distribution of atmospheric ultrafine particles in Hangzhou].

    Xie, Xiao-Fang; Sun, Zai; Fu, Zhi-Min; Yang, Wen-Jun; Lin, Jian-Zhong


    Atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFPs) were measured with fast mobility particle sizer(FMPS) in Hangzhou, during March 2011 to February 2012. The number concentration and size distribution of UFPs associated with meteorology were studied. The results showed that the number concentration of UFPs was logarithmic bi-modal distribution, and the seasonal levels presented winter > summer > spring> autumn. The highest monthly average concentration was 3.56 x 10(4) cm-3 in December and the lowest was 2.51 x 10(4) cm-3 in October. The seasonal values of count medium diameter(CMD) were spring > winter > autumn > summer. The highest monthly average CMD was 53. 51 nm in April and the lowest was 16.68 nm in June. Meteorological factors had effects on concentration of UFPs.

  15. Applicability of Synthetic Aperture Radar Wind Retrievals on Offshore Wind Resources Assessment in Hangzhou Bay, China

    Chang, Rui; Zhu, Rong; Badger, Merete


    In view of the high cost and sparse spatial resolution of offshore meteorological observations, ocean winds retrieved from satellites are valuable in offshore wind resource assessment as a supplement to in situ measurements. This study examines satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images from...... ENVISAT advanced SAR (ASAR) for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 181 collected pairs of wind data from SAR wind maps and from 13 meteorological stations in Hangzhou Bay are compared. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based wind speed show a standard...... density functions are compared at one meteorological station. The SAR-based results appear not to estimate the mean wind speed, Weibull scale and shape parameters and wind power density from the full in situ data set so well due to the lower number of satellite samples. Distributions calculated from...

  16. Pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in communication air of Hangzhou, China


    Nine PAHs were surveyed in communication air of Hangzhou. The results indicated that the PAHs pollution is very serious and the total sum of 9 PAHs, on the average are 3.39- 13.82 μg/m3. The PAHs signatures for all streets are similar to each other. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to investigate source apportionment for PAHs. A factor analysis/multiple regression model was successfully applied to the study. The most important three PAHs sources in communication air are diesel emission, gasoline engine emission, coal-burning accounting for 61. 1 ± 6.4%, 19.9± 8.3%, 10.8 ± 10.8% of total PAHs, respectively. The relationship for three source tracers and total PAHsis: [PAHs] =1.471(±0.155)[Phen] + 2.538 (±2.522)[1-Mepy] +2.254 (±0.943)[Chry] + 1.022 (± 1.767).

  17. Landscape pattern evolution of the north of Hangzhou bay coastal area in Shanghai

    LIANG Shuai


    Full Text Available Since the 1980s in Shanghai,fast economic development,rapid urbanization,population explosion,all of these phenomena are driving radical changes in landscape pattern of coastal area.The landscape pattern evolution at the coastal regions of the north of the Hangzhou bay is analysed based on the landscape ecology theory and method by using Fragstats 3.3 software.3S technology is utilized to interpretate the sensing images at three phase in 1994,2003,2007,and selected two landscape index of the landscape level to study six town from time and space on the contrast analysis.The results show that farmland landscape is the dominant landscape in research area,landscape diversity is high and shows ascendant trend;For 13 years,six towns’(street fragmentation degree increase,the Luchaogang town has the highest degree of fragmentation.

  18. New-generation Migrant Workers’ Urban Adaptation: A Case Study of Jianggan District in Hangzhou City

    Fei; SU; Bo; LI; Jianyi; HUANG; Zhimei; LI; Jiamiao; ZENG


    New-generation migrant workers are the " elite" among migrant workers,and whether they can really adapt to the city is one of the real problems to be urgently solved during China’s new urbanization,related to the success of new urbanization construction. From the perspective of livelihood capital,this paper uses the measuring indicators in line with the new-generation migrant workers’ livelihood characteristics,to analyze the typical characteristics and causes of new-generation migrant workers’ urban adaptation in Jianggan District of Hangzhou City based on field survey data. In the study,it is found that the new-generation migrant workers’ urban adaptation characteristics are focused on life adaptation,work adaptation and cultural adaptation,but the adaptation in the three areas is not good and there is a big room for improvement.

  19. Factors Influencing Urban Residents’ Tea Consumption Habits: An Empirical Study of Hangzhou City

    CHEN Fu-qiao; JIANG Ai-qin


    Based on the survey data concerning residents in Hangzhou City, we analyze the main factors influencing consumers’ spending decisions, using Probit model. The results show that gender, age, and personal income have a significant positive effect on whether to drink tea; the degree of understanding of the tea, and the number of acquaintances drinking water also have a significant positive effect on whether to drink tea; but individual career, unit characteristics, and educational level have no significant positive effect on whether to drink tea. This research conclusion can provide microscopic evidence for the tea industry’s healthy development and formulation of marketing strategies; at the same time, provide a reference for marketing of the other hobby products.

  20. [Ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China].

    Li, Rui; Rong, Liang


    In this paper, an integrated estimation on the ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China was made from the aspects of ecological carrying capacity, spatial carrying capacity, facility carrying capacity, management carrying capacity, and psychological carrying capacity. The results indicated that the tourism carrying capacity of the Park was 4 145 - 6 450 persons per day. The rational distance between man and bird was first adopted to determine the ecotourism carrying capacity of wetland, which provided an effective solution both to fully ensure bird safety and to appropriately develop wetland tourism. The estimation of psychological carrying capacity based on tourist satisfaction degree reflected more objectively the extent the tourist demands satisfied at the planning, construction and management of tour places. Such an integrated estimation method based on the distance between man and bird and the tourist satisfaction degree could be of practical and instructive significances in the planning and management of wetland parks.

  1. Observations on a Xiphinema insigne Population with Several Males from Hangzhou, China.

    Robbins, R T; Zheng, J W; Brown, D J


    A population of Xiphinema insigne with several males was found on the campus of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, in November 1998 in the rhizosphere of Yulan Magnolia. Morphometrics of nine males and 25 females of this population are given herein. No sperm were found in the genital tracts of 118 females that were examined. This agrees with all other observations reported for this species except for the synonym of X. insigne, X. neodimorphicaudatum, in which males are as common as females and the females genital tracts contain numerous sperm. In the males of this study population, sperm were observed only in the seminal vesicles at the distal end of the testes before their juncture with the vas deferens. The population did not fit within either of the two forms of the species. This and other populations have filled in the gaps between the two forms, making the morphometrics for all reported populations a continuum.

  2. Effect of urbanization on the urban meteorology and air pollution in Hangzhou

    Liu, Hongnian; Ma, Wanli; Qian, Junlong; Cai, Juzhen; Ye, Xianman; Li, Jiahui; Wang, Xueyuan


    Urbanization has a substantial effect on urban meteorology. It can alter the atmospheric diffusion capability in urban areas and therefore affect pollutant concentrations. To study the effects of Hangzhou's urban development in most recent decade on its urban meteorological characteristics and pollutant diffusion, 90 weather cases were simulated, covering 9 weather types, with the Nanjing University City Air Quality Prediction System and high-resolution surface-type data and urban construction data for 2000 and 2010. The results show that the most recent decade of urban development in Hangzhou substantially affected its urban meteorology. Specifically, the average urban wind speed decreased by 1.1 m s -1; the average intensity of the heat island increased by 0.5°C; and the average urban relative humidity decreased by 9.7%. Based on one case for each of the nine weather types, the impact of urbanization on air pollution diffusion was investigated, revealing that the changes in the meteorological environment decreased the urban atmosphere's diffusion capability, and therefore increased urban pollutant concentrations. For instance, the urban nitrogen oxides concentration increased by 2.1 μg m -3 on average; the fine particulate matter (diameter of 2.5 μm or less; PM2.5) pollution concentration increased by 2.3 μg m -3 on average; in highly urbanized areas, the PM2.5 concentration increased by 30 μg m -3 and average visibility decreased by 0.2 km, with a maximum decrease of 1 km; the average number of daily hours of haze increased by 0.46 h; and the haze height lifted by 100-300 m. The "self-cleaning time" of pollutants increased by an average of 1.5 h.

  3. Pharmaceutical Industry Develops Steadily


    @@ With the development of the economy, the growth of the total population, the growing proportion of older citizens, and the increasing awareness of people's health care,the pharmaceutical market in China has seen a sustained and rapid expansion.

  4. Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal: Submissions

    Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal (EPJ) is a bian-nual Journal, which ... Acknowledgements, References, Illustrations (Tables, Figures and chemistry ... Nomenclature and spelling should conform to the directions given by IUPAC and IUB.

  5. Amorphous pharmaceutical solids.

    Vranić, Edina


    Amorphous forms are, by definition, non-crystalline materials which possess no long-range order. Their structure can be thought of as being similar to that of a frozen liquid with the thermal fluctuations present in a liquid frozen out, leaving only "static" structural disorder. The amorphous solids have always been an essential part of pharmaceutical research, but the current interest has been raised by two developments: a growing attention to pharmaceutical solids in general, especially polymorphs and solvates and a revived interest in the science of glasses and the glass transition. Amorphous substances may be formed both intentionally and unintentionally during normal pharmaceutical manufacturing operations. The properties of amorphous materials can be exploited to improve the performance of pharmaceutical dosage forms, but these properties can also give rise to unwanted effects that need to be understood and managed in order for the systems to perform as required.

  6. Optimum selection on bridge erection with floating crane in East China Sea Bridge and Hangzhou Bay Bridge

    Shunquan Qin; Pu Zhou; Youheng Hua


    @@ Introduction With the rapid development of China′s economy, many bridges will be built over the Chinese coastal waters of Pacific Ocean. Among them, construction of East China Sea Bridge has been commenced in June 2001, and will be completed at the end of 2005, Hangzhou Bay Bridge was also started to construct in June 2003(Fig. 1). These two ultralong bridges are designed as twin expressway bridges standing side by side each carries a 3-lane one-way carriageway. The total width is 31.5m and 33.0m respectively. East China Sea Bridge starts from Nanhui District, Shanghai and extends to the Yangshan Deep Water Port Area, which is located at one of the Qiqu Islands. The total length of the bridge is about 31.0 km, in which 25 km are on the sea, and 22 km is in the unnavigable region. Hangzhou Bay Bridge across the mouth of Qiantang River.

  7. Internal Structure of the Incised Valley Fill in the Hangzhou Bay,Eastern China and Its Geological Implications

    LIN Chunming; LI Guangyue; WANG Baichang; GU Lianxing; ZHUO Hongchun


    This paper presents the sedimentary facies and formation of the Qiantangjiang and Taihu incised valleys, and the characteristics of shallow gas reservoir distribution, based on a large number of data of drilling, static sounding and chemical analysis obtained from the present Hangzhou Bay coastal plain. The incised valleys were formed during the last glacial maximum and were subsequently filled with fluvial facies during the post-glacial period. All commercial gases are stored in the flood plain sand lenses of the incised valleys.

  8. The analysis on the extreme water shortage event in Hangzhou in 1247 AD and its natural and social backgrounds

    Liu, Haolong


    Yangtze River Delta locating in the north subtropics of China, is famous for numerous rivers and lakes. Because of East Asian monsoon rainfall, flood is always the most primary disaster in this area during the past 2000 years. However, there were also several extreme water shortage events in the history. Example in Hangzhou in 1247 AD was such a typical year in the area. In the paper, the severity of this extreme event and the closely tied spatiotemporal variation of drought in Yangtze River Delta was quantitatively analyzed on the basis of documentary records during Southern Song Dynasty. Furtherly, its natural and social backgrounds was discussed. The result s are summarized as follows: 1) Wells, canals and West Lake of Hangzhou dried up in 1247 AD. The water level of canals was about 1.32-2.64 m lower than that in the normal year. The reduction of storage capacity in West Lake was 21 million stere or so. 2) The droughts in Yangtze River Delta was moderate on the whole, but that in the west of Zhejiang Province was severe. The drought in Hangzhou lasted from the 2nd lunar month to the end of this year. 3) The water shortage event was closely related to the quick going north and farther northern location of summer rain belt. The descending sea-level weakening the tide in Qiantang River, can also reduce the supply of water resources. 4) The quick growth of urban population, excessive aquaculture, and ineffective government supervision played an important social role in the process of this event. In the all, this extreme water shortage event was the result of both natural and social factors. This research is very helpful for the futuristic water resource forecast in Yangtze River Delta, and it also affords us lessons on the risk management and heritage conservation that merit attention. Key Words: Hangzhou, 1247 AD, water shortage, canal, West Lake, natural factors, social factors

  9. Characterization of tropospheric ozone based on lidar measurement in Hangzhou, East China during the G20 Leaders' Summit

    Su, Wenjing; Liu, Cheng; Fan, Guangqiang; Hu, Qihou; Huang, Xin; Dong, Yunsheng; Zhang, Tianshu; Liu, Jianguo


    Owing to the G20 (Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors) Leaders' Summit (Sep.5th-6th, 2016), a series of strict air quality control measures were implemented in Hangzhou and its surrounding regions from Aug.26th to Sep.6th. A differential absorption lidar was employed to monitor tropospheric ozone in urban Hangzhou during a campaign from Aug. 24th to Sep. 10th, and the satellite-based NO2 VCDs and HCHO VCDs in the troposphere were also retrieved using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). During our campaign, six O3 pollution events, which were determined according to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of China (GB-3095-2012), and two stages with rapid reduction of O3 concentration on Aug. 26th and Sep.4-6th were observed. The temporal variation tendency of O3 concentrations was well reproduced by the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). Typical cases with the abrupt rise and decline of O3 concentrations were analyzed using Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) back trajectory, satellite NO2 and HCHO product and the prediction by WRF-Chem model. The transport from northern cities have an important impact on pollutants observed in Hangzhou, and the chemical sensitivity of O3 production, which were approximately evaluated using the ratio of HCHO VCDs to NO2 VCDs in the troposphere, was turned from a mixed VOC-NOx-limited regime into a NOX-limited regime in Hangzhou due to the strict emission control measures.

  10. [Relationships between distribution of soil-born bryophytes in urban area of Hangzhou and related ecological factors].

    Liu, Yan; Cao, Tong; Wang, Jian; Cao, Yang


    At the 21 sampling sites in urban area of Hangzhou, 47 species of soil-born bryophytes belonging to 31 genera and 22 families were recorded. Based on the ecological importance value of these species and the data of ecological factors at the sampling sites, the relationships between the distribution of the bryophytes species in urban area of Hangzhou and related ecological factors were studied by canonical correspondence analysis. The results showed that human disturbance and soil pH were the most important factors determining the distribution of the bryophytes. In urban parks and green lands where human disturbance was greater, soil pH was alkali, and the species were mainly belonging to the genera of Haplocladium and Bryum and the family of Pottiaceae. In hilly area where human disturbance was lesser, soil pH turned to acidic, and the bryophytes were more, with pleurocarpous mosses and liverworts being relatively rich. The niche width of the 47 bryophytes was calculated, which revealed that most of them had very narrow niche width (<0.1). The Pseudotaxiphyllum pohliaecarpum widely distributed in the hilly area of southwest Xihu Lake had the widest niche width (0.3510), followed by Trichostomum planifolium (0.2239) and Haplocladium microphyllum (0.2185), the commonest species in the parks and greenlands in urban area of Hangzhou.

  11. [Fourcroy and pharmaceutical journals].

    Bonnemain, Bruno


    Cadet de Gassicourt wrote a brief Eloge of Fourcroy in January 1810 as he died in December of 1809. Fourcroy had a major role concerning the new ideas on the place of pharmacy at the beginning of the 19th century. Fourcroy has had a key influence for the start of several pharmaceutical journals that wanted to emphasize the link between the new chemistry and pharmacy. None of these journals created with him will survive and one has to wait for 1909 to see the creation, without Fourcroy, of a new pharmaceutical journal, the "Journal de Pharmacie" that will become "Journal de Pharmacie et des Sciences accessoires", then "Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie", before taking the name of"Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises", the present official journal of the French Academy of Pharmacy. In spite of the essential role of Fourcroy at the start of pharmaceutical journals, Cadet did not even mention it in his Eloge of 1810.

  12. Occurrence and distribution of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic environments: a comparative study of regions in China with different urbanization levels.

    Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Saichang


    We analyzed and compared the distributions of 13 target pharmaceuticals in different water samples from the Hangzhou metropolitan area and Linan County, Southeast China. Sampling was conducted in five hospitals, two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and Qiantang River. Samples were concentrated by solid-phase extraction and PPCP concentrations were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. Trimethoprim, erythromycin A dihydrate, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, diclofenac sodium, and atenolol were the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in hospital effluents. Most of the pharmaceutical concentrations in hospital effluents were higher than those in the WWTP influents. Although both WWTPs adopt the anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic treatment process, the removal rates for pharmaceuticals, such as trimethoprim and diclofenac sodium, were completely different. Meanwhile, erythromycin A dihydrate, ofloxacin, penicillin-G, cephalexin, cefazolin, ibuprofen, and diclofenac sodium were detected in Qiantang River. These results indicate that hospitals are more concentrated sources of pharmaceuticals than WWTPs, and the WWTPs are not the only route of entry of pharmaceuticals into aquatic environments in these two regions.

  13. Conceptualizing Pharmaceutical Plants

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Gjøl, Mikkel


    In the conceptual design phase of pharmaceutical plants as much as 80%-90% of the total cost of a project is committed. It is therefore essential that the chosen concept is viable. In this design process configuration and 3D models can help validate the decisions made. Designing 3D models...... is a complex task and requires skilled users. We demonstrate that a simple 2D/3D configuration tool can support conceptualizing of pharmaceutical plants. Present paper reports on preliminary results from a full scale implementation project at a Danish engineering company....

  14. Rheology in Pharmaceutical Sciences

    Aho, Johanna; Hvidt, Søren; Baldursdottir, Stefania


    Rheology is the science of flow and deformation of matter. Particularly gels and non-Newtonian fluids, which exhibit complex flow behavior, are frequently encountered in pharmaceutical engineering and manufacturing, or when dealing with various in vivo fluids. Therefore understanding rheology...... is important, and the ability to use rheological characterization tools is of great importance for any pharmaceutical scientist involved in the field. Flow can be generated by shear or extensional deformations, or a combination of both. This chapter introduces the basics of both shear and extensional rheology...

  15. Assessing the Impacts of Chinese Sustainable Ground Transportation on the Dynamics of Urban Growth: A Case Study of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge

    Qing Zheng


    Full Text Available Although China has promoted the construction of Chinese Sustainable Ground Transportation (CSGT to guide sustainable development, it may create substantial challenges, such as rapid urban growth and land limitations. This research assessed the effects of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge on impervious surface growth in Cixi County, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. Changes in impervious surfaces were mapped based on Landsat images from 1995, 2002, and 2009 using a combination of multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA and landscape metrics. The results indicated that the area and density of impervious surfaces increased significantly during construction of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge (2002–2009. Additionally, the bridge and connected road networks promoted urban development along major roads, resulting in compact growth patterns of impervious surfaces in urbanized regions. Moreover, the Hangzhou Bay Bridge promoted the expansion and densification of impervious surfaces in Hangzhou Bay District, which surrounds the bridge. The bridge also accelerated socioeconomic growth in the area, promoting rapid urban growth in Cixi County between 2002 and 2009. Overall, the Hangzhou Bay Bridge is an important driver of urban growth in Cixi County, and policy suggestions for sustainable urban growth should be adopted in the future.

  16. The Effectiveness of Pharmaceutical Marketing

    E.R. Kappe


    textabstractPharmaceutical marketing effectiveness comprises the measurement of marketing efforts of pharmaceutical firms towards doctors and patients. These firms spend billions of dollars yearly to promote their prescription drugs. This dissertation provides empirical analyses and methods to contr

  17. The Effectiveness of Pharmaceutical Marketing

    E.R. Kappe


    textabstractPharmaceutical marketing effectiveness comprises the measurement of marketing efforts of pharmaceutical firms towards doctors and patients. These firms spend billions of dollars yearly to promote their prescription drugs. This dissertation provides empirical analyses and methods to

  18. Free trade in pharmaceuticals.

    Outterson, M Kevin


    Provisions in the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) may threaten the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), the "gold standard" of such programs worldwide. If Australia postpones passing of the US Free Trade Agreement Implementation Bill in the Senate, there will be opportunity for broader interests in both the United States and Australia to carefully study the agreement. The provisions of AUSFTA relating to the PBS are supposed to promote transparency, but the pharmaceutical manufacturers themselves (who are demanding transparency) do not reveal the content of their submissions to the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee, or disclose all their financial relationships with researchers and policymakers. In AUSFTA, the "public health" language of affordable prescription drugs is missing and is replaced by language supporting "pharmaceutical innovation". Debate as to whether AUSFTA will force significant changes to the PBS, including higher drug prices, is currently under way in Australia. Perhaps the appropriate target of reforms should be the excessive US drug prices, and not the economically efficient Australian drug prices.

  19. Doctors and pharmaceutical industry.

    Beran, Roy G


    The pharmaceutical industry is seen as seducing doctors by providing expensive gifts, subsidising travel and underwriting practice expenses in return for those doctors prescribing products that otherwise they would not use. This paints doctors in a very negative light; suggests doctors are available to the highest bidder; implies doctors do not adequately act as independent agents; and that doctors are driven more by self-interest than by patient needs. Similar practices, in other industries, are accepted as normal business behaviour but it is automatically assumed to be improper if the pharmaceutical industry supports doctors. Should the pharmaceutical industry withdraw educational grants then there would be: fewer scientific meetings; reduced attendance at conferences; limited post graduate education; and a depreciated level of maintenance of professional standards. To suggest that doctors prescribe inappropriately in return for largesse maligns their integrity but where there is no scientific reason to choose between different treatments then there can be little argument against selecting the product manufactured by a company that has invested in the doctor and the question arises as to whether this represents bad medicine? This paper will examine what constitutes non-professional conduct in response to inducements by the pharmaceutical industry. It will review: conflict of interest; relationships between doctors and pharma and the consequences for patients; and the need for critical appraisal before automatically decrying this relationship while accepting that there remain those who do not practice ethical medicine.

  20. The extended pharmaceutical enterprise.

    Cavalla, David


    The availability of widespread contractual services led to the birth of the virtual company in the 1990s. As the concept has matured, and the biotechnology sector diversified, interchange of intellectual property in the form of collaborative and license arrangements opens up still further the opportunities for outsourced forms of pharmaceutical R&D.

  1. Life-cycle assessment of the municipal solid waste management system in Hangzhou, China (EASEWASTE).

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Hong-Tao; Lu, Wen-Jing; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas H


    With the purpose of assessing the environmental impacts and benefits of the current municipal solid waste management system and two modified systems, EASEWASTE, a life-cycle-based model, was used to evaluate the waste system of Hangzhou city in China. An integrated model was established, including waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment, disposal and accompanying external processes. The results showed that CH(4) released from landfilling was the primary pollutant contributing to global warming, and HCl and NH(3) from incineration contributed most to acidification. Material recycling and incineration with energy recovery were important because of the induced savings in material production based on virgin materials and in energy production based on coal combustion. A modified system in which waste is transported to the nearest incinerators would be relatively better than the current system, mainly due to the decrease of pollution from landfilled waste and the increase in energy production from waste avoiding energy production by traditional power plants. A ban on free plastic bags for shopping was shown to reduce most environmental impacts due to saved oil resources and other materials used in producing the plastic bags. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. LCA methodology and a model like EASEWASTE are very suitable for evaluating the overall environmental consequences, and can be used for decision support and strategic planning in developing countries such as China where pollution control has become increasingly important with the rapid increase of waste generation as well as the increasing public awareness of environmental protection.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Pollutant Transport and Accumulation Areas in the Hangzhou Bay

    LI Ning; MAO Zhihua; ZHANG Qinghe


    Based on the COHERENS model (a coupled hydrodynamic ecological model for regional and shelf seas), a numerical hydrodynamic model of the Hangzhou Bay, influenced by tide, regional winds and freshwater from the Yangtze River and the Qiantangjiang River was established. The Lagrangian particle tracking was simulated to provide tracer trajectories. For convenience, the modeling area was divided into 8 subdomains and the modeling focused on March (dry season) and July (wet season). Numerical simulation and analysis indicate that the tracer trajectories originated in different subdomains are quite different. Most particles released in the mouth of the bay move outside the bay quickly and reach the farthest place at 122.5°E; while particles released in the inner part of the bay mostly remain in the same subdomain, with only minor migrations in two opposite directions along the shore. The tracer experiments also indicate that the northwest region of the bay is an area where pollutant can easily accumulate in both wet and dry seasons, and that the southeast region of the bay is another area for pollutant to accumulate in dry season because it is the main path for the contaminant.

  3. The impact of physical processes on pollutant transport in Hangzhou Bay

    LI Ning; MAO Zhihua; ZHANG Qinghe


    A Lagrangian tracer model is set up for Hangzhou Bay based on Coupled Hydrodynamical Ecological model for Regional Shelf Sea (COHERENS). The study area is divided into eight subdomains to identify the dominant physical processes, and the studied periods are March (the dry season) and July (the wet season). The model performance has been first verified by sea-surface elevation and tidal current observations at several stations. Eight tracer experiments are designed and Lagrangian particle tracking is simulated to examine the impact of physical processes (tide, wind and river runoff) on the transport of passive tracer released within the surface layer. Numerical simulations and analysis indicate that: (1) wind does not change the tracer distribution after 30 days except for those released from the south area of then bay during the wet season; (2) the tide and the Qiantang River runoff are important for particle transport in the head area of the bay; (3) the Changjiang River runoff affects the tracer transport at the mouth of the bay, and its impact is smaller in the dry season than in the wet season.

  4. High frequencies of HGV and TTV infections in blood donors in Hangzhou

    Jie Yan; Li-Li Chen; Yi-Hui LUO; Ya-Fei Mao; Meng He


    ALM To determine the frequencies of HGV and TTVinfections in blood donors in Hangzhou.METHODS RT-nested PCR for HGV RNA detection and semi-nested PCR for TTV DNA detection in the sera from 203 blood donors, and nucleotide sequence analysis were performed.``RESULTS Thirty-two ( 15.8%) and 30 (14.8%) of the 203serum samples were positive for HGV RNA and TTV DNA,respectively. And 5 (2.5%) of the 203 serum samples were detectable for both HGV RNA and TTV DNA.Homology of the nucleotide sequences of HGV RT-nested PCR products and TTV semi-nested PCR products from 3serum samples compared with the reported HGV and TTV sequences was 89.36%. 87.94%, 88.65% and 63.51%.65.77% and 67.12%. respectively.``CONCLUSION The infection rates of HGV and/or TTV inblood donors are relatively high. and to establish HGV and TTV examinations to screen blood donors is needed for transfusion security. The genomic heterogeneity of TTV or HGV is present in the isolates from different areas.``

  5. Survey of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in arterial street air of Hangzhou


    The presence of particulate and vapor PAHs, SO2 and Nox and other interrelated conditions (temperature, traffic intensity and wind velocity) were investigated in the arterial street air of Hangzhou. The concentration of the nine PAHs in the air was mean to 11.7 μg/m3, and the content of benzo(a)pyrene was up to 0.108 μg/m3. The contents of PAHs in the sampling sites were in good relation to the traffic intensity, and would be also affected by the terrain and meteorological conditions. The occurrences of PAHs in ambient air were mainly affected by their physical, chemical characters and temperature. The three- and four-ring PAHs (MW>228) mainly existed in the vapor phase and the five-ring PAHs (MW>228) existed predominately in the particulate phase. The fraction of vapor PAHs in the total nine PAHs was 84.2% in the air of the sampling sites. In the morning and evening, the concentrations of PAHs in the arterial street air were higher than that on the noon and the diurnal variation of PAHs was similar to that of the traffic gas NOx. A conclusion would be drawn that the major source of PAHs in the arterial street air was the traffic. And the results indicated that 75% of BaP would come from traffic source and remaining 25% of BaP would come from non-traffic source.

  6. Environmental assessment of heavy metal transport and transformation in the Hangzhou Bay, China.

    Fang, Hongwei; Huang, Lei; Wang, Jingyu; He, Guojian; Reible, Danny


    The environmental impact of heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, (90)Sr and (137)Cs) transport and transformation in the Hangzhou Bay (China) was assessed through a comprehensive model that integrates hydrodynamics, sediment and heavy metal transport. A mechanistic surface complexation model was used to estimate the adsorption and desorption of heavy metal by suspended sediment under different aqueous chemistry conditions. The dynamics of metal exchange to and from the seabed was also assessed. The primary processes regulating heavy metal distribution, i.e., convection-diffusion, adsorption-desorption, sedimentation-resuspension, as well as other physical and chemical processes related to mass exchange between adjacent sediment layers, were considered in detail. The accidental discharge of (137)Cs was simulated as an example and results showed that (137)Cs transported along the coast driven by tidal flow. Most (137)Cs distributed near the outfall and accumulated in the seabed sediment. The proposed model can be a useful tool for predicting heavy metal transport and fate and provide a theoretical basis to guide field sampling, assessment of risks and the design of remediation strategies.

  7. Probability Model of Hangzhou Bay Bridge Vehicle Loads Using Weigh-in-Motion Data

    Dezhang Sun


    Full Text Available To study the vehicle load characteristics of bay bridges in China, especially truck loads, we performed a statistical analysis of the vehicle loads on Hangzhou Bay Bridge using more than 3 months of weigh-in-motion data from the site. The results showed that when all the vehicle samples were included in the statistical analysis, the histogram of the vehicles exhibited a multimodal distribution, which could not be fitted successfully by a familiar single probability distribution model. When the truck samples were analyzed, a characteristic multiple-peaked distribution with a main peak was obtained. The probability distribution of all vehicles was fitted using a weighting function with five normal distributions and the truck loads were modeled by a single normal distribution. The results demonstrated the good fits with the histogram. The histograms of different time periods were also analyzed. The results showed that the traffic mainly comprised two-axle small vehicles during the rush hours in the morning and the evening, and the histogram could be fitted approximately using three normal distribution functions. And the maximum value distributions of vehicles during the design life of the bay bridge were predicted by maximum value theory.

  8. Phosphorus sorption and buffering mechanisms in suspended sediments from the Yangtze Estuary and Hangzhou Bay, China

    M. Li


    Full Text Available The adsorption isotherm and the mechanism of the buffering effect are important controls on phosphorus (P behaviors in estuaries and are important for estimating phosphate concentrations in aquatic environments. In this paper, we derive phosphate adsorption isotherms in order to investigate sediment adsorption and buffering capacity for phosphorus discharged from sewage outfalls in the Yangtze Estuary and Hangzhou Bay near Shanghai, China. Experiments were also carried out at different temperatures in order to explore the buffering effects for phosphate. The results show that P sorption in sediments with low fine particle fractions was best described using exponential equations. Some P interactions between water and sediment may be caused by the precipitation of CaHPO4 from Ca2+ and HPO42− when the phosphate concentration in the liquid phase is high. Results from the buffering experiments suggest that the Zero Equilibrium Phosphate Concentrations (EPC0 vary from 0.014 mg L−1 to 0.061 mg L−1, which are consistent with measured phosphate concentrations in water samples collected at the same time as sediment sampling. Values of EPC0 and linear sorption coefficients (K in sediments with high fine particle and organic matter contents are relatively high, which implies that they have high buffering capacity. Both EPC0 and K increase with increasing temperature, indicating a higher P buffering capacity at high temperatures.

  9. Applicability of Synthetic Aperture Radar Wind Retrievals on Offshore Wind Resources Assessment in Hangzhou Bay, China

    Rui Chang


    Full Text Available In view of the high cost and sparse spatial resolution of offshore meteorological observations, ocean winds retrieved from satellites are valuable in offshore wind resource assessment as a supplement to in situ measurements. This study examines satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR images from ENVISAT advanced SAR (ASAR for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 181 collected pairs of wind data from SAR wind maps and from 13 meteorological stations in Hangzhou Bay are compared. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based wind speed show a standard deviation (SD of 1.99 m/s and correlation coefficient of R = 0.67. The model wind directions, which are used as input for the SAR wind speed retrieval, show a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.89 but a large standard deviation (SD = 42.3° compared to in situ observations. The Weibull probability density functions are compared at one meteorological station. The SAR-based results appear not to estimate the mean wind speed, Weibull scale and shape parameters and wind power density from the full in situ data set so well due to the lower number of satellite samples. Distributions calculated from the concurrent 81 SAR and in situ samples agree well.

  10. [Breeding ecology of Chinese Bulbul in the urban environment of Hangzhou, China].

    Lan, Si-Si; Zhang, Qin; Huang, Qin; Chen, Shui-Hua


    The Chinese Bulbul, Pycnonotus sinensis, is one of the most abundant and widely distributed birds of south China, settling even in dense urban areas. From March-July 2012, we surveyed the Chinese Bulbul in the urban environment of Hangzhou, China, to gain a clearer perspective on their breeding ecology. Totally, 117 nests were found, mainly on the trees of Osmanthus fragrans (84.6%, n=117) in residential areas,street tree strips, and green belt. Our results include several noteworthy observations: nest height from the ground was 3.16±0.91 m (n=117); egg-laying begins in early April with peak times from April 11-25; and the nesting period was 11.85±1.12 days (n=47). In terms of fertility and reproduction, we also observed that the average incubation period was 11.34±1.12 days (n=32); average clutch size was 3.37±0.48 eggs (n=103); hatching success 68.3%, fledging rate 52.1%, and the total breeding success 35.58% (n=117). The main causes of breeding failure included egg and fledgling predation, as well as human disturbance.

  11. Pollution characteristics of the recent sediments in the Hangzhou section of the Grand Canal, China

    CHEN Ying-xu; LIU He; ZHU Guang-wei; CHEN Hua-lin; TIAN Guang-min


    Spatial distribution of heavy metals, arsenic and organic matter in recent sediments in the Hangzhou section of the Grand Canal and their relationships were analyzed. The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals and organic matters varied widely along the canal, and the average geological accumulation factors decreased in the following orders: organic carbon(2.6), zinc(2.1 ), cadmium (2.0), copper(1.5), 1ead(1.1), nitrogen(0.9), mercury (0.8), phosphorus(0.4), arsenic(0.2) and chromium(0). Content of heavy metals and organic carbon in the top t0 cm layer were lower than that of lower layers, except for mercury and organic carbon in the S9section. Contents of organic carbon in the top 50 cm layer of the mud sediments are significantly higher than those undemeath. In the bottom mud layer, there is a concentration peak of the pollutants. In the mud sediments of the canal, cadmium mainly occurred in the Fe and Mn oxide fraction, copper in the organic fraction, lead in the Fe and Mn oxide fraction, and zinc in the carbonate and the Fe and Mn oxide fraction.

  12. Characterization and energy potential of food waste from catering service in Hangzhou, China.

    Guo, Xiao-Hui; Sun, Fa-Qian; Sun, Ying-Jun; Lu, Hao-Hao; Wu, Wei-Xiang


    Safe disposal of food waste is becoming an impending issue in China with the rapid increase of its production and the promotion of environmental awareness. Food waste from catering services in Hangzhou, China, was surveyed and characterized in this study. A questionnaire survey involving 632 units across the urban districts showed that 83.5% of the food waste was not properly treated. Daily food waste production from catering units was estimated to be 1184.5 tonnes. The ratio of volatile solid to total solid, easily biodegradable matter (including crude fat, crude protein and total starch) content in total solid and the ratio of total organic carbon to nitrogen varied in ranges of 90.1%-93.9%, 60.9%-72.1%, and 11.9-19.9, respectively. Based on the methane yield of 350 mL g VS(-1) in anaerobic batch tests, annual biogas energy of 1.0 × 10(9) MJ was estimated to be recovered from the food waste. Food waste from catering services was suggested to be an attractive clean energy source by anaerobic digestion. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Pharmaceutical Public-Private Partnerships

    Bagley, Constance; Tvarnø, Christina D.


    This article provides a game theory and law-and-management analysis of for- profit pharmaceutical public-private partnerships, a complex type of legal arrangement in the highly regulated pharmaceutical industry. A pharmaceutical public-private partnership (PPPP) agreement is a legally binding con...

  14. Application of the capture-recapture method in estimating the size of the active homosexual male population in Hangzhou city of China.

    Zhou, Weihua; Huang, Manli; Wei, Ning; Hu, Shaohua; Wei, Erqing; Xu, Yi


    The homosexual population is particularly susceptible to sexually transmitted disease because of various high-risk sexual behaviors among them. The authors explored the application of capture-recapture methods in estimating the size of the sexually active homosexual male population in Hangzhou. Homosexual men at 9 activity sites were investigated in Hangzhou, Zhejiang. The total active homosexual male population of Hangzhou estimated by the capture-recapture method and multiplier method was 2014 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1899-2129) and 2012.5 (95% CI 1925 to 2101), respectively. This study shows that the capture-recapture method can be used to enumerate and provide accurate and reliable estimates of the active homosexual population in any area, provided that certain conditions are controlled.

  15. Pharmaceutical market in Serbia

    Veselin Tima Dickov


    Full Text Available Marketing concept formed around the focus on the consumers, their needs, wants and demands, evolves in the case of pharmaceutical into a care of the complex interest of constituents generating demand on this market and #8211; pres scribers whose role is to select therapies, pharmacists who dispense drugs within a specialized distribution channel to the final consumer -patient, alongside the payers and #8211; the state and or insurance companies refund a part of or total costs of the pharmaceutical product. A special challenge that the subject raises is the existence of controversy generated from two sources. Marketing controversy stems from criticism leveled at the effectiveness and efficiency of marketing activities and the debatable ethical code of conduct. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 44-51

  16. A Case Study Report for Urban Forestry Policy Project Co-funded by EC:Analysis of Urban Forestry Policy in Hangzhou,China

    Stephan; Pauleit


    Hangzhou is a typical city on the establishment of urban forest in China, so it was identified as a case study site in Urban Forestry Policy Project Co-funded by EC. The name of the project is "Developing Policy Formulation and Implementation Tools for Providing Support for Ecological Forest Management in China’s Urban and Peri-Urban Areas". Experts from the project team have conducted a field survey on urban forestry policy in Hangzhou for one week. Through the field survey and the workshop, the experts un...

  17. The Pharmaceutical Commons

    Lezaun, Javier; Catherine M Montgomery


    In the last decade, the organization of pharmaceutical research on neglected tropical diseases has undergone transformative change. In a context of perceived “market failure,” the development of new medicines is increasingly handled by public-private partnerships. This shift toward hybrid organizational models depends on a particular form of exchange: the sharing of proprietary assets in general and of intellectual property rights in particular. This article explores the paradoxical role of p...

  18. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia


    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus.

  19. The pharmaceutical quality revolution

    Jordi Botet


    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical products are patient-oriented. If they had a deficient quality they might put live at risk. Ensuring their quality is not, however, a straightforward task and this is why different approaches have been used along the way. This article analyzes them and shows how our present approach, if well implemented, is very effective in ensuring quality.Methods. This article analyzes the current pharmaceutical quality system as described by international guidances in the light of practical experience gathered by the author as an international GMP-consultant.Result. Nowadays we have come to understand that as quality is a global concept in terms of time and of requirements, it has to be assured in a global way too. This is why quality assurance is a permanent process that starts during the development of a product and goes on during its manufacturing life. Manufacturing should be performed within a pharmaceutical quality system which ensures GMP compliance. Decisions should be science and risk-based. Products and processes are monitored by means of critical variables.Conclusions. The approach followed in the 21st century for ensuring quality is very effective and allows for a progressive reduction of the level of quality risk. However, this quality system is either comprehensive or there is no quality




    Full Text Available Objective: To review the risk in pharmaceutical industries and the risk management process and tools. There is risk always in anything we do. All the industries on this globe perform actions that involve risks; risk is only dangerous when there is no anticipation to manage it. Risks if assessed and controlled properly will benefit the industries against the fall and makes stronger. Risk should not be assessed as bad, but should assess as an opportunity for making things resilient by proper management. Risk management can benefit industries from disasters either natural or human. The impact of the risk should be assessed in order to plan alternatives and minimize the effect of the impact. Risk in pharmaceutical industry is very high because it involves research, money and health. The impact is severe and the probability of the risk is more often in pharmaceutical industry. A risk management plans and control measures will help the companies to do better at the time of uncertainties and create positive opportunities to turn those risks into benefits which maximize quality. Materials and Methods: The information was collected and compiled from scientific literature present in different databases and articles, books. Results: The risk management process and tools helps to minimize the risk and its effects. Conclusion: The risk management is at the core of any organization. Risk management should be part of organization culture. The risk management is a wise investment if properly processed.

  1. Food Waste Management in Hangzhou%杭州市餐厨垃圾管理探析

    张永芳; 吴宏杰; 张媛


    结合杭州市餐厨垃圾管理现状,分析了餐厨垃圾管理本质,并提出加强源头强制管理,加快收运市场化推进,加强资源化产品监管等对策.%Combining with management status of food waste in Hangzhou, the nature of food waste management was analyzed. And some countermeasures were put forward, such as enhancing force administration at source, accelerating to promote marketization of waste collection, transportation and disposal, and enhancing supervision of resource products.

  2. Magmatism and polymetallic mineralization in southwestern Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt, South China

    Huang, Xudong; Lu, Jianjun; Wang, Rucheng; Ma, Dongsheng


    As Neoproterozoic suture zone between the Yangtze Block and Cathaysia Block, Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt is one of the 21 key metallogenic belts in China. Intensive multiple-aged felsic magmatism and related polymetallic mineralization take place in this belt. Although Neoproterozoic, Paleozoic, Triassic granites and associated deposits have been found in southwestern Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt, Middle-Late Jurassic (150-165 Ma) magmatism and related mineralization is of the most importance. Three major kinds of Middle-Late Jurassic granitoids have been distinguished. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids are slightly differentiated, calc-alkaline and metaluminous dioritic to granodioritic rocks. Sn-(W)-bearing granites contain dark microgranular enclaves and have high contents of REE and HFSE, suggesting affinities of aluminous A-type (A2) granites. W-bearing granites are highly differentiated and peraluminous rocks. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids have ɛNd(t) values of -11 ˜ -4 and ɛHf(t) values of -12 ˜ -7, corresponding to TDMC(Nd) from 1.4 to 1.8 Ga and TDMC(Hf) from 1.6 to 2.0 Ga, respectively. The ɛNd(t) values of W-bearing granites vary from -11 to -8 with TDMC(Nd) of 1.6 ˜ 1.9 Ga and ɛHf(t) values change from -16 to -7 with TDMC(Hf) of 1.5 ˜ 2.0 Ga. Compared with (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids and W-bearing granites, the Sn-(W)-bearing granites have higher ɛNd(t) (-8 ˜ -2) and ɛHf(t) (-8 ˜ -2) values and younger TDMC(Nd) (1.1 ˜ 1.6 Ga) and TDMC(Hf) (1.2 ˜ 1.8 Ga) values, showing a more juvenile isotopic character. Sn-(W)-bearing granites originate from partial melting of granulitized lower crust involved with some mantle-derived materials. W-bearing granites are derived from partial melting of crust. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids are also derived from crust but may be influenced by more mantle-derived materials. For (Cu)-Pb-Zn deposits, skarn and carbonate replacement are the most important mineralization types. Cu ore bodies mainly

  3. Formaldehyde concentration and its influencing factors in residential homes after decoration at Hangzhou, China

    Min Guo; Xiaoqiang Pei; Feifei Mo; Jianlei Liu; Xueyou Shen


    Air pollution surveys of formaldehyde (HCHO) were conducted in 2324 rooms decorated within one year in 2007-2009 in Hangzhou,China.The mean HCHO concentration (CHCHO) was 0.107 + 0.095 mg/m3,and 38.9% of samples exceeded the Chinese National Standard GB 50325-2010.Over the past 3 years,the CHCHO decreased with time (p < 0.05).Relationships of potential factors to indoor CHCHO were also evaluated.CHCHO was related to temperature (T),relative humidity (RH),time duration of the windows and doors being closed before sampling (DC),time duration from the end of decoration to sampling (DR) and source characteristics (d).A model to relate indoor CHCHO to these five factors (T,RH,DC,DR,d) was established based on 298 samples (R2 =0.87).Various factors contributed to Cacao in the following order:T,43.7%; d,31.0%; DC,10.2%; DR,8.0%; RH,7.0%; specifically,meteorological conditions (i.e.,RH plus T) accounted for 50.7%.The coefficient of T and RH,RTH,was proposed to describe their combined influence on HCHO emission,which also had a linear relationship (R2 =0.9387) with HCHO release in a simulation chamber test.In addition,experiments confirm that it is a synergistic action as T and RH accelerate the release of HCHO,and that is a significant factor influencing indoor HCHO pollution.These achievements could lead to reference values of measures for the efficient reduction of indoor HCHO pollution.

  4. [Pharmaceutical technology and pharmaceutical care in the dispensary].

    Remon, J P


    In this lecture the science 'Pharmaceutical Technology' was briefly elucidated, but the main part was about the concept of 'Pharmaceutical Care' in the community pharmacy. Pharmaceutical Care aims at ensuring a safe, efficacious, and cost-effective pharmacotherapy. Thus the pharmacist tries--in collaboration with other healthcare professionals --to improve the clinical and humanistic outcomes of the therapy. Moreover, an efficacious and rational drug therapy is cost-saving, for the patient as well as for the health insurer. A pharmacist delivering Pharmaceutical Care not only dispenses medication, but also takes responsibility about the outcome of the drug therapy. Pharmaceutical Care in community pharmacies encompasses the following activities: Advice about prescribed drugs, to ensure that patients take their medication as correct, as safe and as compliant as possible. Advice about self-care: counselling about OTC-medication. Prevention of medication errors, for example drug interactions. Pay attention to prevention of diseases: for example stimulation of vaccination. Collaboration with physicians, especially general practitioners, both aiming at an optimal drug therapy for the patient Pharmaceutical Care in the hospital setting ('Clinical Pharmacy'): clinical pharmacists participate in drawing up, evaluating and following up the pharmacotherapy of every individual patient, in close collaboration with physicians, nurses and other healthcare professionals on the ward. In Belgium Pharmaceutical Care is in the making. Scientific research on this topic is carried out by the Pharmaceutical Care Unit of Ghent University. An overview of their ongoing research projects was given. Finally, the problems encountered with the implementation of Pharmaceutical Care were highlighted.

  5. China's Chemical Pharmaceutical Industry Rebounding


    @@ After reorganization in 2006, China's chemical pharmaceutical industry began to pick up in 2007. According to the China Pharmaceutical Industry Association,China's chemical pharmaceutical industry achieved sales revenues of RMB202.5 billion in the first eight months this year, a growth of 24.6% - 5.6 percentage points faster than January to May this year. The net profit was RMB17.4 billion, an increase of 50.8% over the same period of 2006.

  6. [Adhesive cutaneous pharmaceutical forms].

    Gafiţanu, E; Matei, I; Mungiu, O C; Pavelescu, M; Mîndreci, I; Apostol, I; Ionescu, G


    The adhesive cutaneous pharmaceutical forms aimed to local action release the drug substance in view of a dermatological, traumatological, antirheumatic, cosmetic action. Two such preparations were obtained and their stability, consistency and pH were determined. The "in vitro" tests of their bioavailability revealed the dynamics of calcium ions release according to the associations of each preparation. The bioavailability determined by evaluating the pharmacological response demonstrated the antiinflammatory action obtained by the association of calcium ions with the components extracted from poplar muds. The therapeutical efficiency of the studied preparations has proved in the treatment of some sport injuries.

  7. [Amorphization in pharmaceutical technology].

    Révész, Piroska; Laczkovich, Orsolya; Eros, István


    The amorphization of crystalline active ingredients may be necessary because of the polymorphism of the active substance, the poor water-solubility of the drug material, difficult processing in the crystalline form and the taking out of a patent for a new (amorphous) form. This article introduces protocols for amorphization, which use methods traditionally applied in pharmaceutical technology. The protocols involve three possible routes: solvent methods, hot-melt technologies and milling procedures. With this presentation, the authors suggest help for practising experts to find the correct amorphization method.

  8. Bolaamphiphiles: A Pharmaceutical Review

    Mayur Fariya


    Full Text Available The field of drug discovery is ever growing and excipients play a major role in it. A novel class of amphiphiles has been discussed in the review. The review focuses on natural as well as synthetic bolaamphiphiles, their chemical structures and importantly, their ability to self assemble rendering them of great use to pharmaceutical industry. Recent reports on their ability to be used in fabrication of suitable nanosized carriers for drug as well as genes to target site, has been discussed substantially to understand the potential of bolaamphiphiles in field of drug delivery.

  9. Assessing the willingness of the public to pay to conserve urban green space: the Hangzhou City, China, case.

    Chen, Bo; Bao, Zhiyi; Zhu, Zhujun


    The authors assessed the willingness of residents to pay for urban green-space conservation in Hangzhou, China, using the contingent-valuation method. The aim of the study was to provide policy makers with information that would be useful for making informed decisions in urban-development planning. The findings of the study are as follows: 1) The willingness of residents to pay for urban green-space conservation was positively correlated with their perceptions of the benefits of green spaces and negatively correlated with perceptions of the annoyances. 2) The willingness to pay a higher premium for green-space conservation is directly related to gender, income level, and residential-ownership status. Age and education level are not significantly correlated with willingness to pay. 3) A majority of respondents view the conservation of urban green spaces as a very important function of the city, and most of them are willing to pay additional taxes for this conservation. 4) The total value per year to the public of the conservation program in Hangzhou is about $15.4 million. These qualitative and quantitative findings can be used in the policy-making process for urban-development plans.

  10. Application of neural network and MODIS 250 m imagery for estimating suspended sediments concentration in Hangzhou Bay, China

    Wang, Fan; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Jianming; Song, Lishong; Wang, Xin


    Suspended sediments concentration (SSC) in surface water derived from bottom sediment resuspension or discharge of sediment-laden rivers is an important indication of coastal water quality and changes rapidly in high-energy coastal area. Since artificial neural networks (ANN) had been proven successful in modeling a variety of geophysical transfer functions, an ANN model to simulate the relationship between surface water SSC and satellite-received radiances was employed. In situ SSC measurements from the Hangzhou Bay and the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250 m daily products were adopted in this study. Significant correlations were observed between in situ measurements and band 1-2 reflectance values of MODIS images, respectively. Results indicated that application of ANN model with one hidden layer appeared to yield superior simulation performance ( r 2 = 0.98; n = 25) compared with regression analysis method. The RMSE for the ANN model was less than 10%, whereas the RMSE for the regression analysis was more than 25%. Results also showed that different tidal situations affect the model simulation results to some extent. The SSC of surface water in Hangzhou Bay is high and changes rapidly due to tidal flood and ebb during a tidal cycle. The combined utilization of Terra and Aqua MODIS data can capture the tidal cycle induced dynamic of surface water SSC. This study demonstrated that MODIS 250 m daily products and ANN model are useful for monitoring surface SSC dynamic within high-energy coastal water environments.

  11. 民国时期杭州素食研究%Research into Hangzhou Vegetarian Food in Republic of China



    During the period of the Republic of China( 1912 - 1949) , the vegetarian food of Hangzhou was really a unique kind. It' s indeed the case that monks, nuns and Taoists in hundreds of temples formed a crowd in Hangzhou, and for some economic reasons, their food had always been vegetarian until now. At the same time, the habit of eating vegetarian between the religious believers and yogis in the folk had become a kind of conscious behavior. The Vegetarian- only restaurants began to appear in this city. The food there was delicate, popular and also secular.%民国时期,杭州素食极富特色。因经济原因,下层市民多以素食为主;僧尼和道士形成的庞大人群,也延续着上千年来的素食习惯;民间的宗教信仰者和修行者的素食已经成为一种自觉。因此,杭州出现了一些专门供应素食的餐馆,这里的素食精致、繁盛,更为世俗化。

  12. Pollution level, phase distribution and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air at public places of Hangzhou, China

    Lu Hao [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail:; Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail:; Chen Shuguang [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail:


    PAHs pollution survey in air of public places was conducted in Hangzhou, China. The most serious PAHs pollution was observed in indoor air of shopping centers and the slightest was in train stations. The molecular weight of chrysene (MW 228) appeared to be the dividing line for the PAHs with a larger or smaller distribution in the vapor or particulate phase. Concentrations of 15 PAHs on PM{sub 2.5} accounted for 71.3% of total particulate PAHs, and followed by PM{sub 2.5-10} fraction (17.6%) and >PM{sub 10} fraction (11.1%). In shopping centers and supermarkets, emission of 2-4 rings PAHs occurred from indoor sources, whereas 5-6 rings PAHs predominantly originated from transport of outdoor air. In temples, PAHs in indoor air mainly originated from incense burning. Health risks associated with the inhalation of PAHs were assessed, and naphthalene made the greatest contribution (62.4%) to the total health risks. - Concentrations of PAHs in the air of selected public places in Hangzhou correspond to 10{sup -3} life-time lung cancer risk.

  13. The distribution and composition characteristics of siliceous rocks from Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, South China: constraint on the tectonic evolution of plates in South China.

    Li, Hongzhong; Zhai, Mingguo; Zhang, Lianchang; Zhou, Yongzhang; Yang, Zhijun; He, Junguo; Liang, Jin; Zhou, Liuyu


    The Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt is a significant tectonic zone between the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates, where plentiful hydrothermal siliceous rocks are generated. Here, the authors studied the distribution of the siliceous rocks in the whole tectonic zone, which indicated that the tensional setting was facilitating the development of siliceous rocks of hydrothermal genesis. According to the geochemical characteristics, the Neopalaeozoic siliceous rocks in the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt denoted its limited width. In comparison, the Neopalaeozoic Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt was diverse for its ocean basin in the different segments and possibly had subduction only in the south segment. The ocean basin of the north and middle segments was limited in its width without subduction and possibly existed as a rift trough that was unable to resist the terrigenous input. In the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, the strata of hydrothermal siliceous rocks in Dongxiang copper-polymetallic ore deposit exhibited alternative cycles with the marine volcanic rocks, volcanic tuff, and metal sulphide. These sedimentary systems were formed in different circumstances, whose alternative cycles indicated the release of internal energy in several cycles gradually from strong to weak.

  14. The Distribution and Composition Characteristics of Siliceous Rocks from Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay Joint Belt, South China: Constraint on the Tectonic Evolution of Plates in South China

    Hongzhong Li


    Full Text Available The Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt is a significant tectonic zone between the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates, where plentiful hydrothermal siliceous rocks are generated. Here, the authors studied the distribution of the siliceous rocks in the whole tectonic zone, which indicated that the tensional setting was facilitating the development of siliceous rocks of hydrothermal genesis. According to the geochemical characteristics, the Neopalaeozoic siliceous rocks in the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt denoted its limited width. In comparison, the Neopalaeozoic Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt was diverse for its ocean basin in the different segments and possibly had subduction only in the south segment. The ocean basin of the north and middle segments was limited in its width without subduction and possibly existed as a rift trough that was unable to resist the terrigenous input. In the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, the strata of hydrothermal siliceous rocks in Dongxiang copper-polymetallic ore deposit exhibited alternative cycles with the marine volcanic rocks, volcanic tuff, and metal sulphide. These sedimentary systems were formed in different circumstances, whose alternative cycles indicated the release of internal energy in several cycles gradually from strong to weak.

  15. The Pharmaceutical Commons

    Lezaun, Javier


    In the last decade, the organization of pharmaceutical research on neglected tropical diseases has undergone transformative change. In a context of perceived “market failure,” the development of new medicines is increasingly handled by public-private partnerships. This shift toward hybrid organizational models depends on a particular form of exchange: the sharing of proprietary assets in general and of intellectual property rights in particular. This article explores the paradoxical role of private property in this new configuration of global health research and development. Rather than a tool to block potential competitors, proprietary assets function as a lever to attract others into risky collaborative ventures; instead of demarcating public and private domains, the sharing of property rights is used to increase the porosity of that boundary. This reimagination of the value of property is connected to the peculiar timescape of global health drug development, a promissory orientation to the future that takes its clearest form in the centrality of “virtual” business models and the proliferation of strategies of deferral. Drawing on the anthropological literature on inalienable possessions, we reconsider property’s traditional exclusionary role and discuss the possibility that the new pharmaceutical “commons” proclaimed by contemporary global health partnerships might be the precursor of future enclosures. PMID:25866425

  16. Pharmaceutical Education and the Translation of Pharmaceutical Care into Practice.

    Newton, Gail D.


    A systematic approach to reform of pharmaceutical education is seen as necessary to link intended outcomes of reform to a progressive and generally accepted mission of professional practice. Cooperation between pharmaceutical education, professional organizations, and regulatory agencies is viewed as necessary and refinement of professional…

  17. Pharmaceutical Receivables, the Source of the Pharmaceutical Units Solvency

    Doina Margaritti


    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the current assets recorded by the pharmaceutical units, namely the role of the pharmaceutical receivables to improve the financial performances carried out by the pharmaceutical entities. The study was carried out through the analysis of the financial statements drawn up by a community pharmaceutical entity from Bucharest. In order to achieve the proposed objective, we analyzed the current assets in their structure, namely the pharmaceutical receivables which are to be recovered by the Bucharest Health Insurance House and the Insurance House OPSNAJ, resulting from the issuance of the compensated drugs prescriptions. Thus, it was determined the total receivables, but also differentiated release programs, how they are created, the term of settlement and the manner in which they have influenced the level of financial performance indicators.

  18. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 266 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage in Hangzhou, China

    Yun-zhen HU; Jian-wen WANG; Ben-yan LUO


    Ethnicity and socioeconomic factors can influence disease susceptibility,clinical presentation,and outcome.We investigated the clinical characteristics (age,sex,seasonal variation,lesion site,symptoms,complications,prognosis,and sequelae) and risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in 266 cases treated at our hospital in Hangzhou City,China,from January 2011 to December 2011.Risk of ICH increased dramatically with age; only 4.3%of cases were <30 years old,while 44.4% were >60 years of age.Men outnumbered women by 2:1 (67.3% vs.32.7%).Single hemorrhage was most often located in the cerebral lobes (37.2% of cases),basal ganglia (34.2%),thalamus (8.3%),cerebellum (6.8%),ventricle (1.5%),and brainstem (1.1%),while 10.9% of cases exhibited hemorrhages at multiple sites.Hypertension was also a major risk factor for ICH,as 47% of all patients were hypertensive and the percentage increased with age.In hypertensive patients,the most common hemorrhage site was the basal ganglia and ICH was often associated with thrombopenia.In patients with leukemia (all forms),most hemorrhages were lobar.Warfarin-and encephalic operation-associated ICHs were all lobar.Headache was the major symptom of occipital,temporal,and frontal lobe hemorrhage.Dizziness,nausea,and vomiting were the major symptoms of cerebellum hemorrhage.Limb dysfunction was the major symptom of thalamic and basal ganglia hemorrhage.Disturbed level of consciousness was the major symptom in multisite,ventricular,parietal lobe,and brainstem hemorrhage.Hyperspasmia occurred most often in lobar hemorrhage and blurred vision in occipital lobe hemorrhage.Hospital mortality was 24.4% (n=65) with a mean delay from presentation to death of (10.5±18.5) d.The majority of fatalities were cerebral hernia cases (58.5%) and these patients also had the shortest time to death [(2.9±3.5) d].Mortality was 100%in brainstem ICH and hemorrhagic conversion of cerebral infarct

  19. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli sequence type 131 in Hangzhou, China

    Lou Zhengqing; Qi Yan; Qian Xiang; Yang Wei; Wei Zeqing


    Background Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Escherichia (E.) coil has been reported in China since 2008.However,there is no information about the molecular epidemiology of KPC-producing E.coil in China.In this study,we aimed to investigate the sequence type (ST) and characteristics of KPC-producing E.coil isolates in China.Methods Three carbapenem-resistant isolates of E.coil (E1,E2,and E3) from one teaching hospital in Hangzhou covering a one year period were analyzed.Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by Etest.Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used for epidemiological analysis.The genetic structure around blaKPC,the major plasmid incompatibility typing,and the identification of 3-lactamase gene types were performed by PCR and the positive products were subsequently sequenced.Plasmids were analyzed by transformation,restriction,and Southern blotting.Results PFGE demonstrated that patterns of isolates E1 and E2 were clonally-related and designated as patterns A1 and A2; pattern of isolate E3 was different and designated as pattern B.MLST analysis showed that the three isolates displayed one common sequence type ST131.The identification of bla gene types by PCR and sequencing showed that blaKPC-2,blaCTX-M-14,and blaTEM-1 were detected in all three isolates.All three isolates carried a KPC-2-encoding plasmid of the IncN replicon.Plasmid analysis and hybridization experiments showed that the isolates were found simultaneously to carry two or four plasmids.The blaKPc-2 gene in E1 and E2 was located in a plasmid with size of ca.50 kb.However,the blaKPC-2 gene in E3 was located in a plasmid with size of ca.130 kb.Conclusions E.coil ST131 with KPC-2 β-1actamase has emerged in China,which enlarges the geographical area where the ST131 KPC-oroducing E.coil strains have diffused.

  20. [Soil organic carbon content and its distribution pattern in Hangzhou Bay coastal wetlands].

    Shao, Xue-xin; Yang, Wen-ying; Wu, Ming; Jiang, Ke-yi


    In this paper, the soil organic carbon (SOC) content and its distribution pattern in the natural intertidal zones and reclaimed wetlands of Hangzhou Bay were studied, aimed to explore the effects of vegetation succession, exotic species invasion, and reclamation on the SOC in costal wetlands of the Bay. In intertidal zones, the surface SOC content ranged from 4.41 to 8.58 g x kg(-1), with an average of 6.45 g x kg(-1), and differed significantly under different vegetations, with a tendency of under Phragmites australis (8.56 +/- 0.04 g x kg(-1)) > Spartina alterniflora (7.31 +/- 0.08 g x kg(-1)) > Scirpus mariqueter (5.48 +/- 0.29 g x kg(-1)) > mudflats (4.47 +/- 0.09 g x kg(-1)); in reclaimed wetlands, the surface SOC content was 7.46 +/- 0.25 g x kg(-1) in the 1960s, 1.96 +/- 0.46 g x kg(-1) in the 1980s, and 5.12 +/- 0.16 g x kg(-1) in 2003, showing a trend of increased after an initial decrease with increasing reclamation year. The SOC in the profiles all showed a decreasing trend from the surface to the bottom. The SOC in intertidal zones and reclaimed wetlands was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH, and positively correlated with soil total nitrogen (TN), suggesting a large reserve of organic nitrogen in TN. The correlation between SOC and soil C/N ratio was not obvious in intertidal zones, but significantly positive in reclaimed wetlands, indicating that reclamation affected soil C/N ratio to a certain extent. This study showed that in the intertidal zones, soil carbon sequestration capacity increased gradually with plant community succession. However, the invasion of exotic species Spartina alternflora might decrease the capacity of carbon sequestration in intertidal zones. It was also found that the changes of soil moisture content, particle composition, vegetation coverage, and reclamation history were the main factors affecting the SOC distribution in reclaimed wetlands.

  1. PSE in Pharmaceutical Process Development

    Gernaey, Krist; Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Woodley, John


    The pharmaceutical industry is under growing pressure to increase efficiency, both in production and in process development. This paper will discuss the use of Process Systems Engineering (PSE) methods in pharmaceutical process development, and searches for answers to questions such as: Which PSE...

  2. Designing a Pharmaceutical Care Curriculum.

    Perrier, Donald G.; And Others


    Guidelines for developing a pharmacy school curriculum based on the principle of pharmaceutical care and professional responsibility are offered, beginning with mission statements for profession, practice, and pharmaceutical education in general. The University of Toronto experience in designing such a curriculum is chronicled as an illustration…

  3. Patents in the pharmaceutical industry

    Jovanović Slobodanka


    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry is characterized by dynamic development, the existence of big multinational companies and a global market. Such development of the pharmaceutical industry was highly influenced by the introduction of patent protection and compliance with intellectual property regulations. One of the most important international obligations is the TRIPS Agreement.

  4. Patents in the pharmaceutical industry

    Jovanović Slobodanka


    The pharmaceutical industry is characterized by dynamic development, the existence of big multinational companies and a global market. Such development of the pharmaceutical industry was highly influenced by the introduction of patent protection and compliance with intellectual property regulations. One of the most important international obligations is the TRIPS Agreement.

  5. Horizon Scanning for Pharmaceuticals

    Lepage-Nefkens, Isabelle; Douw, Karla; Mantjes, GertJan

    will collect country-specific information, liaise between the central HS unit and country-specific clinical and other experts, coordinate the national prioritization process (to select products for early assessment), and communicate the output of the HSS to national decision makers.  The outputs of the joint...... for a joint horizon scanning system (HSS).  We propose to create a central “horizon scanning unit” to perform the joint HS activities (a newly established unit, an existing HS unit, or a third party commissioned and financed by the collaborating countries). The unit will be responsible for the identification...... and filtration of new and emerging pharmaceutical products. It will maintain and update the HS database, organise company pipeline meetings, and disseminate the HSS’s outputs.  The HS unit works closely together with the designated national HS experts in each collaborating country. The national HS experts...

  6. [Pharmaceutical technology: development and research].

    Traisnel, M


    Production of pharmaceutics cannot be compared to the manufacture of consumer goods: pharmaceutical manufacturing is the study and bulk manufacture of the ingredients from which medicines are made, and is concerned with the mixing, preparing, packing, of the ingredients into a dosage form for the patient, in according to the good manufacturing practices (GMP). Development and manufacture are not discrete activities but links in a single chain of activity. Research and development, pharmaceutical training, regulatory requirements: these concepts are present with three ways: bioavailability, targeting and compliance.

  7. Wetland ecosystem health assessment through integrating remote sensing and inventory data with an assessment model for the Hangzhou Bay, China.

    Sun, Tengteng; Lin, Wenpeng; Chen, Guangsheng; Guo, Pupu; Zeng, Ying


    Due to rapid urbanization, industrialization and population growth, wetland area in China has shrunk rapidly and many wetland ecosystems have been reported to degrade during recent decades. Wetland health assessment could raise the public awareness of the wetland condition and guide policy makers to make reasonable and sustainable policies or strategies to protect and restore wetland ecosystems. This study assessed the health levels of wetland ecosystem at the Hangzhou Bay, China using the pressure-state-response (PSR) model through synthesizing remote sensing and statistical data. Ten ecological and social-economic indicators were selected to build the wetland health assessment system. Weights of these indicators and PSR model components as well as the normalized wetland health score were assigned and calculated based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. We analyzed the spatio-temporal changes in wetland ecosystem health status during the past 20years (1990-2010) from the perspectives of ecosystem pressure, state and response. The results showed that the overall wetland health score was in a fair health level, but displayed large spatial variability in 2010. The wetland health score declined from good health level to fair health level from 1990 to 2000, then restored slightly from 2000 to 2010. Overall, wetland health levels showed a decline from 1990 to 2010 for most administrative units. The temporal change patterns in wetland ecosystem health varied significantly among administrative units. Our results could help to clarify the administrative responsibilities and obligations and provide scientific guides not only for wetland protection but also for restoration and city development planning at the Hangzhou Bay area.

  8. GMK (Progenics Pharmaceuticals).

    Knutson, Keith L


    Progenics Pharmaceuticals is developing GMK vaccine (a ganglioside conjugate vaccine coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and formulated with the adjuvant QS-21), licensed from the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, for the potential treatment of melanoma and other cancers [194258], [325284]. It was previously under co-development with Bristol-Myers Squibb, but in May 2001, all rights to the GMK vaccine were returned to Progenics [409168]. It was the first of a new class of ganglioside conjugate vaccine evaluated by Progenics [194258]. GMK vaccination induces antibodies against GM2 ganglioside capable of specifically killing melanoma cells. Melanoma patients with antibodies against GM2 ganglioside have significantly improved disease-free and overall survival compared to antibody-negative subjects. The vaccine is undergoing two phase III trials, the first comparing GMK to high-dose IFNalpha in melanoma patients with more serious disease and at a high risk of relapse, and the second, in collaboration with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, comparing GMK (14 doses of GMK over three years) to no treatment other than close monitoring of malignant melanoma patients at immediate risk of relapse [409168]. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers predicted that the vaccine had a 50% probability of reaching market, with an estimated first launch date in 2002. The analysts predicted potential peak sales in 2008 of $150 million in the US and $100 million in the rest of the world at that time [319225]. In January 2000, Lehman Brothers expected that an NDA filing would take place in 2002, with possible launch of the vaccine in 2003. In addition, Lehman Brothers estimated potential peak sales at $500 million [357788]. In August 2000, Punk, Ziegel & Company predicted that Progenics Pharmaceuticals will become sustainably profitable in 2003 following the launch of GMK and PRO-542 in 2002 [390063]. In July 2001, Ladenburg Thalmann predicted a $257 million


    Those chemical pollutants that are regulated under various international, federal, and state programs represent but a small fraction of the universe of chemicals that occur in the environment as a result of both natural processes and human influence. Although this galaxy of targeted chemicals might be minuscule compared with the universe of both known and yet-to-be identified chemicals, an implicit assumption is that these selective lists of chemicals are responsible for the most significant share of risk with respect to environmental or economic impairment or to human health. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise a particularly large and diverse array of unregulated pollutants that occur in the environment from the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and agricultural use. Although the concentration of any individual PPCP rarely ever exceeds the sub-ppm level (if present in drinking water, concentrations of individual PPCPs are generally less than the ppt-ppb level), evidence is accumulating that these trace-Ievel pollutants are ubiquitous, they can have a continuous presence regardless of environmental half-lives ( e.g., where sanitary wastewaters enter the environment), and the numbers of distinct and varied chemical entities could be extremely large (given that thousands are in commercial use). The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-ar

  10. OSI-774 OSI Pharmaceuticals.

    Norman, P


    OSI-774 (formerly CP-358774), a quinazoline derivative, is an orally active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor which was originally under joint development by Pfizer and OSI Pharmaceuticals (formerly Oncogene Science) for the potential treatment of cancer (eg, ovarian, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and head and neck). It is being evaluated in phase II trials [304305], [372201]. On 8 January 2001, OSI announced that it had signed an agreement with Roche and Genentech for the global co-development and marketing of OSI-774. The agreement with Genentech covers the United States, that with Roche the rest of the world [395371], [395526]. In June 2000, OSI gained all development and marketing rights for OSI-774 following Pfizer's merger with Warner-Lambert [371439]. In September 2000, Pfizer transferred the IND dossierfor OSI-774 to OSI ahead of the timeline agreed in the June 2000 development and marketing rights agreement [383786]. The phase II trials will assess OSI-774 both as a single agent and in combination with existing chemotherapy regimens [347783]. Phase III trials are expected to be initiated in 2001 [347783]. In October 2000, Lehman Brothers predicted that OSI-774 would move into pivotal trials in thefirst half of 2001 and that the drug would be launched in 2003. The analysts also estimated worldwide sales of US $66 million, $285 million and $461 million in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively, and peak sales in excess of US $500 million [395189].

  11. The argument for pharmaceutical policy

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna


    Pharmaceutical policy is a global concern. It has become a hot political topic in most countries--developed as well as developing--and can be found on the agenda of international organizations such as WHO, OECD, EU, WTO and even the World Bank. Pharmaceutical policy affects everyone in the world...... of pharmacy and it is therefore imperative that it be understood, discussed and debated within the pharmacy profession and included in the curriculum of schools of pharmacy. This, the first article in a series, argues for the importance of the academic discipline of pharmaceutical policy analysis...... and the involvement of pharmacists in this endeavour. The aim of the authors is to stimulate an informed and critical appreciation of this field. The authors begin with an introduction to the field of pharmaceutical policy, introducing several important concepts and current trends including: medicines regulation; how...


    Юрий Владимирович Тарасов


    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical products market is one of the most saturated consumers’ markets. Characteristic features of it are: high competition, fierce struggle for the customer, specific technologies of promotion. In conditions of globalization and increase in competition both in world pharmaceutical market and in the market of medicines and goods of medical purpose in Russia modern marketing techniques of promotion of the products to the end consumers are the key tools for strengthening market positions – both of producers of pharmaceutical goods and their suppliers, distributors, big whole-sale companies. Among main tools of promotion are: advertising, public relations, stimulation of sales on the market of medicines, personal sales, computer technologies. The article describes different technologies of promotion of medicines: indoor-advertising, hot lines, pharmaceutical exhibitions, packing. DOI:

  13. Recognizing misleading pharmaceutical marketing online.

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J


    In light of decision-making psychology, this article details how drug marketing operates across established and novel web domains and identifies some common misleading trends and influences on prescribing and patient-initiated medication requests. The Internet has allowed pharmaceutical marketing to become more salient than ever before. Although the Internet's growth has improved the dissemination of pharmaceutical information, it has also led to the increased influence of misleading pharmaceutical marketing. Such mismarketing is of concern, especially in psychiatry, since psychotropics generate considerable revenue for drug companies. In a climate of resource-limited drug regulation and time-strapped physicians, we recommend improving both independent monitoring and consumer awareness of Internet-enabled, potentially misleading, pharmaceutical marketing influences.

  14. Marketing orientation in pharmaceutical industry

    Prošić Danica


    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical companies are major stakeholders in the global health agenda Virtually all drugs used by patients in Europe reach markets through the promotion tactics of a small number of corporations with a tremendous impact on global health. The sector is both fast growing and highly profitable. Effective marketing strategies are a crucial ingredient in making sure pharmaceutical products and profits flow in a virtuous cycle. At first glance, the relationship between doctors and drug companies, as well as advertising practices for over-the-counter medication, appears tightly regulated. According to many consumer organizations, drug promotion in Europe today can be characterized as nice and friendly marketing. This refers to the creation of a false sense of trust that consumers associate with branded pharmaceutical products, as a result of pharmaceutical marketing efforts disguised as genuine corporate responsibility.

  15. The argument for pharmaceutical policy

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna


    of pharmacy and it is therefore imperative that it be understood, discussed and debated within the pharmacy profession and included in the curriculum of schools of pharmacy. This, the first article in a series, argues for the importance of the academic discipline of pharmaceutical policy analysis......Pharmaceutical policy is a global concern. It has become a hot political topic in most countries--developed as well as developing--and can be found on the agenda of international organizations such as WHO, OECD, EU, WTO and even the World Bank. Pharmaceutical policy affects everyone in the world...... and the involvement of pharmacists in this endeavour. The aim of the authors is to stimulate an informed and critical appreciation of this field. The authors begin with an introduction to the field of pharmaceutical policy, introducing several important concepts and current trends including: medicines regulation; how...


    Юрий Владимирович Тарасов


    Pharmaceutical products market is one of the most saturated consumers’ markets. Characteristic features of it are: high competition, fierce struggle for the customer, specific technologies of promotion. In conditions of globalization and increase in competition both in world pharmaceutical market and in the market of medicines and goods of medical purpose in Russia modern marketing techniques of promotion of the products to the end consumers are the key tools for strengthening market position...

  17. [Pharmaceutical chemistry of general anaesthetics].

    Szász, György; Takácsné, Novák Krisztina


    The paper represents the first part of a planned series of reviews about pharmaceutical chemistry of drugs acting on the central nervous system. The authorial aim and editorial concepts are the same were followed in a former series of papers about pharmaceutical chemistry of agents effecting the heart, blood circulation and vegetative nervous system. Consequently, general anaesthetics are discussed in the present paper through the chapters "history, preparation; structure-properties-activity; application; analysis".

  18. Pharmaceutical compounds in drinking water

    Vikas Chander


    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical products and their wastes play a major role in the degradation of environment. These drugs have positive as well as negative consequences on different environmental components including biota in different ways. Many types of pharmaceutical substances have been detected with significant concentrations through various advanced instrumental techniques in surface water, subsurface water, ground water, domestic waste water, municipal waste water and industrial effluents. The central as well as state governments in India are providing supports by creating excise duty free zones to promote the pharmaceutical manufacturers for their production. As a result, pharmaceutical companies are producing different types of pharmaceutical products at large scale and also producing complex non-biodegradable toxic wastes byproducts and releasing untreated or partially treated wastes in the environment in absence of strong regulations. These waste pollutants are contaminating all types of drinking water sources. The present paper focuses on water quality pollution by pharmaceutical pollutants, their occurrences, nature, metabolites and their fate in the environment.

  19. 杭州市生活垃圾处理资源化评价初探%Resource Evaluation of Domestic Waste Treatment in Hangzhou

    章嫣; 张束空


    依据垃圾资源化的4种途径,并根据杭州多年来积累的基础数据设想了1个4层级的垃圾资源化评价模型,并初步设定了各层级间的换算系数(即权重的经验值),该模型在杭州的应用与事实基本吻合.%According to four ways of waste resources and the basic data over the years in Hangzhou,a evaluation model of waste resources with four level was designed.The conversion factors (empirical value of weight) among the levels were set preliminarily.The applying results of this model in Hangzhou were agreeable with the facts.

  20. The Study of Quality of Life of Community People in Hangzhou City%杭州市社区人群生活质量研究

    蒋琼萍; 陈树林; 张伟文


    Objective:Evaluating quality of life of comm unity people in Hangzhou city. Methods:492 community peopl e were sampled from community and tested by Generic Quality of L if e Inventory-74.Results:(1) Generic quality of life of comm unity people was well, and their body and mind were in good health; (2) Effects of mental health、physic health and social function on quality life were over ef fect of material life conditions;(3) Qualities of life of elders、workers、non-p rofession people were worse than qualities of young、profession people and cadre (P<0.01).Conclusion:Quality of life of community peop le of Hangzhou was in good condition, but attentions should be paid to qualities of life of elders and workers.

  1. Study on Hangzhou Style Women's Dress Enterprises Visual Merchandising Innovation Ability%杭派女装企业视觉营销创新能力研究



    Through the analysis of Hangzhou style women's dress enterprise visual merchandising innovation ability, the paper proposed the solution of improving display management ability and data analysis ability, strengthening the innovation of visual merchandising technology and improving visual merchandising innovation environment to finally realize the improvement of Hangzhou style women's dress enterprise's visual merchandising innovation ability.%本文通过对杭派女装企业视觉营销创新能力现状的分析,提出增强陈列管理能力、提高数据分析能力、加强视觉营销的陈列技术创新、完善视觉营销创新环境等对策,最终实现杭派女装企业视觉营销创新能力的提高.

  2. Aripiprazole (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co).

    Ozdemir, Vural; Fourie, Jeanne; Ozdener, Fatih


    Otsuka Pharmaceuticals in collaboration with Bristol-Myers Squibb is developing aripiprazole, a dual dopamine autoreceptor agonist and postsynaptic D2 receptor antagonist, for the potential treatment of psychoses including schizophrenia [281327], [340364]. A regulatory filing for schizophrenia in the US was submitted at the end of 2001 [340364]. The compound entered phase III trials in Japan in 1995 [192966]. Although presynaptic dopamine autoreceptor agonists may be efficacious in the treatment of schizophrenia, they may also potentially increase the risk for exacerbation of psychosis through stimulation of postsynaptic dopaminergic receptors [245791], [350478], [350479]. However, earlier neuropharmacology studies have shown that aripiprazole can act as a presynaptic D2 agonist while displaying an antagonistic effect at the postsynaptic D2 receptors [281327], [337126], [350479], [424587], [424588]. In animal models, aripiprazole inhibits the apomorphine-induced stereotypy, without causing catalepsy [281327], [337126]. Moreover, in contrast to classical antipsychotics that produce disabling movement disorders, aripiprazole does not cause an upregulation of D2 receptors or an increase in expression of the c-fos mRNA in the striatum, in agreement with the low risk for extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) during aripiprazole treatment [245781], [262096], [350481], [350483]. Collectively, aripiprazole is an important atypical antipsychotic candidate with a favorable safety profile. Moreover, the mechanism of action of aripiprazole differentiates it from both typical and atypical antipsychotics and hence, may provide important leads for pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. In January 2000, Lehman Brothers predicted peak sales of aripiprazole could reach US $500 million [357788]. In February 2001, Credit Suisse First Boston predicted sales of US $403 million in 2005 [399484].

  3. A survey of the development of nursing care job market in Hangzhou%杭州市护工市场现状的调查与分析

    顾成靖; 孟凡莉


    目的:了解当前杭州市护工市场人员的基本情况、护工管理状况等,为规范护工市场、提高护工服务水平的策略制定提供依据。方法问卷调查结合访谈对杭州市14家医院的250名护工进行调查。结果113名护工为50~59岁(48.9%),长期护工工资水平为每月2240~2850元;目前护工行业无明确的准入标准,多数不具备专业技能,仅参与患者的生活护理。结论杭州市护工薪资相差大,专业技能匮乏,医院的护工缺乏规范化管理。%Objective To understand the status quo of the nursing care job market in Hangzhou and to provide scientific knowledgeformanagingtheworkofnursingcareandimprovingtheserviceinquestion.Method 250careworkersfrom 14 hospitals in Hangzhou were interviewed and asked to answer a questionnaire to collect the data for the study .Findings The survey indicated that 113 of the 250 care workers were in the age range from 50 and 59 years old (48.9%), and that care workers'monthly salary was between 2240 and 2850 Yuan; At present, no standard job requirements or criteria are available in the care industry in Hangzhou .Few care workers have the specialized skills .They just care for the day to day living of the patients .Conclusion There is a big difference in salary between the care workers in Hangzhou .There is no standard management of the market in question .

  4. 杭州湾湾口水体含沙量的时空分布%Spaciai-temporai distribution of suspended sediment concentration in Hangzhou Bay

    吴明阳; 许家帅; 冯玉林


    利用卫星遥感资料,结合现场实测数据,研究杭州湾湾口水体含沙量的时空分布,综合分析得出:杭州湾水体含沙量具有冬大夏小、高浓度悬沙广泛分布的特性,岛屿效应引起的局部高含沙是杭州湾岛屿群的共性.%Based on the information from the satelite remote sensing image and the measured SSC data from the field stations, this paper studies the spacial-temporal distribution of the sediment concentration in the Hangzhou Bay. The SSC of the Hangzhou Bay is high in winter and low in summer and the high SSC distributes extensively in the bay. It is common in the Hangzhou Bay that the locally high sediment concentration is caused by the archipelago effect.



    Urban heat environmental quality (UHEQ) is affected by the interacting of weather condition and underlying surface framework of urban area. In the last two decades, many researchers from domestic and overseas have studied many problems at the aspect of urban heat environment such as urban heat islands, urban air temperature and their relation with urban land cover, city population, air pollution etc. In the recent years, Hangzhou, acting as a center city of Zhejiang Province in China, its urbanization quantum and quantity have both changed greatly, in particular, representing as business affairs building, resident real property and all kinds of specialty market having arisen in built-up zone. Based on Landsat TM images data in 1991 and 1999, urban underlying surface temperature value and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were calculated using image interpreting and supervised classification technique by remote sensing software ERDAS image 8.4. The relation model between urban underlying surface temperature (UUST) and urban air temperature was setup according to the certain correlation pattern. Reference to the relational standard of assessing human comfort and other meteorology data of Hangzhou City in summer, the spatial distribution characteristic and the spatial variation degree of human comfort of heat environmental quality are estimated and mapped on a middle scale, that is, in six districts of Hangzhou City . Then the paper reveals the main characteristic of spatial variation from 1991 to 1999. Lastly, the change mechanism is analyzed and discussed from the viewpoint of city planning, construction and environmental protection.

  6. Concentrations and compositions of organochlorine contaminants in sediments, soils, crustaceans, fishes and birds collected from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay and Shanghai city region, China

    Nakata, Haruhiko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Hirakawa, Yuko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kawazoe, Masahiro [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555, (Japan); Nakabo, Tetsuji [Kyoto University Museum, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Arizono, Koji [Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Kumamoto Prefectural University, 3-1-100 Tsukide, Kumamoto 862-8502 (Japan); Abe, Shin-Ichi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kitano, Takeshi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Shimada, Hideaki [Faculty of Education, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Watanabe, Izumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchuu-city, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Li Weihua [Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xie Tu road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Ding Xucheng [Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xie Tu road, Shanghai 200032 (China)


    Contamination by persistent organochlorines (OCs), such as DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were examined in sediments, soils, fishes, crustaceans, birds, and aquaculture feed from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay, and in the vicinity of Shanghai city in China during 2000 and 2001. OCs were detected in all samples analyzed, and DDT and its metabolites were the predominant contaminants in most sediments, soils and biota. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT and ratio of p,p'-DDT to {sigma}DDTs were significantly higher in marine fishes than those in freshwater fishes. While the use of DDTs has been officially banned in China since 1983, these results indicate a recent input of technical DDTs into the marine environment around Hangzhou Bay. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in fishes collected from Lake Tai and Hangzhou Bay suggests the presence of local sources of HCHs, chlordanes and PCBs at Lake Tai. Higher proportions of penta- and hexa-PCB congeners in fishes at Lake Tai may suggest the use of highly chlorinated PCB product, such as PCB{sub 5}, around this lake. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive study to examine the present status of organochlorine contamination in various environmental media, such as sediments, soils and wildlife, in China. - Elevated concentrations of DDTs were detected in sediments, soils, and wildlife collected from China.

  7. Virtual pharmaceutical companies: collaborating flexibly in pharmaceutical development.

    Forster, Simon P; Stegmaier, Julia; Spycher, Rene; Seeger, Stefan


    Research and development (R&D) collaborations represent one approach chosen by the pharmaceutical industry to tackle current challenges posed by declining internal R&D success rates and fading of the blockbuster model. In recent years, a flexible concept to collaborate in R&D has emerged: virtual pharmaceutical companies (VPCs). These differ from other R&D companies, such as biotech start-ups, collaborating with big pharmaceutical companies, because they solely comprise experienced teams of managers. VPCs have only been described anecdotally in literature. Thus, we present here the characteristics of a VPC and suggest how big pharma can leverage the concept of VPCs by introducing five possible modes of collaboration. We find that one mode, investing, is particularly promising for big pharma.

  8. [Bioequivalence studies of pharmaceutical preparations].

    Vetchý, D; Frýbortová, K; Rabisková, M; Danecková, H


    Bioequivalence studies are very important for the development of a pharmaceutical preparation in the pharmaceutical industry. Their rationale is the monitoring of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters after the administration of tested drugs. The target of such study is to evaluate the therapeutic compatibility of tested drugs (pharmaceutical equivalents or pharmaceutical alternatives). The importance of bioequivalence studies is increasing also due to the large growth of the production and consumption of generic products. Generic products represent approximately 50 % of the whole consumption in many European countries and USA. The search output of bioequivalence study is together with the pharmaceutical quality data of medical product one of the main part of the registration file submitted to a national regulatory authorities. The registration of generic products does not demand complicated and expensive clinical study contrary to original product. The comparison of the original and the generic product via bioequivalence study is suggested as sufficient. The aim of this article is to provide to a medical public a summary about the types of bioequivalence studies, their range, rules of their practise and let them gain their own attitude to this question.

  9. The Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline of Pharmaceutical Consortium for Protein Structure Analysis

    Nishijima, K


    The Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline was constructed by the Pharmaceutical Consortium for Protein Structure Analysis which was established in April 2001. The consortium is composed of 22 pharmaceutical companies affiliating with the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association. The beamline is the first exclusive on that is owned by pharmaceutical enterprises at SPring-8. The specification and equipments of the Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline is almost same as that of RIKEN Structural Genomics Beamline I and II. (author)

  10. 杭州古代陶制泥人探寻%An Investigation into Ancient Clay Figures in Hangzhou

    田宇原; 郭艺


    杭州古代陶制泥人,在形制上具有独特的个性特征,大部分是独立头像的形式,个体尺寸在几公分至十几公分不等,人物表情丰富,采用整团陶土模压成型,无相同形态,烧成温度约8000C左右,这些陶制泥人存在于杭州古代民间生活中。陶制泥人在杭州民间的发现,说明其制作与需求已形成相当的规模。杭州陶制泥人与同时期的陶俑在造型上差异颇大,呈现出丰富生动的市井生活情态。这些古代陶制泥人有鲜明的独创性和普及性,其蕴含的文化内涵和所具有的艺术特征,有着与那个时代密不可分的文化信息。通过研究杭州古代陶瓷泥人的手工艺体系以及古代陶瓷泥人的功能用途,探寻杭州古代民间手工艺与经济文化的关系,从而剖析杭州古代社会与民俗的状态。%Ancient clay figures in Hangzhou are unique in shape, most of which have independent heads and expressive faces with individual sizes varying from one to tens of centimeters. They were molded through compression from a chtrnp of pot clay at 800~C firing temperature and produces different forms. These clay figures come from the daily life of ancient people in Hangzhou, the discovery of which indi- cates that the production and needs had been operated on a scale. Different considerably from contempo- raneous pottery figurines in modeling, these figures demonstrate a rich and vivid picture of common life at the time. With distinct originality and universality of artistic characteristics and embedded cultural conno- tations, the figures have delivered cultural information inseparable with those days. By studying the sys-tern of workmanship and functions of the figures, this paper intends to investigate into the relationship be- tween ancient folk handcrafts and economy and culture in Hangzhou, and analyze the state of ancient so- ciety and folk customs.

  11. Basic Research on Environmental Education Legislation in Hangzhou City%杭州市环境教育立法的基础研究


    The legislation of environmental education is the needs of regulating the environmental education and improving the people's awareness of environmental protection, but also the requirement of promoting the solution of environmental problems and achieving the ecological civilization.Laws and policies provide a basis for the environmental education legislation in Hangzhou . Legislative experience of domestic and abroad provides a reference for the legislation of Hangzhou , Hangzhou's own practical expe-rience lays a very good foundation for legislation.On the basis of investigation and research, this paper explores the legal terms, expounds the key problems of the legislation, puts forward the basic framework of the regulations of the promotion of environmental education in Hangzhou.Some theoretical support and practical reference for the next step of the legislation work in Hangzhou were provided.%环境教育立法是规范环境教育工作、提高全民环保意识的需要,也是推动解决环境问题、实现生态文明的要求。法律政策为杭州环境教育立法提供了依据,国内外立法经验为杭州市立法提供了参考,杭州市自身的实践经验为立法奠定了很好的基础。在调查研究的基础上,探讨了杭州市环境教育立法法律的名称,阐述了立法要重点解决的问题,初步形成了杭州市环境教育促进条例的基本框架,为杭州市下一步立法工作提供了一定的理论支撑和实践参考。

  12. Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Poindexter, Graham S.; Pendri, Yadagiri; Snyder, Lawrence B.; Yevich, Joseph P.; Deshpande, Milind

    This chapter will discuss the role of chemistry within the pharmaceutical industry. Although the focus will be upon the industry within the United States, much of the discussion is equally relevant to pharmaceutical companies based in other first world nations such as Japan and those in Europe. The major objective of the pharmaceutical industry is the discovery, development, and marketing of efficacious and safe drugs for the treatment of human disease. Of course drug companies do not exist as altruistic, charitable organizations but like other share-holder owned corporations within our capitalistic society must achieve profits in order to remain viable and competitive. Thus, there exists a conundrum between the dual goals of enhancing the quality and duration of human life and that of increasing stock-holder equity. Much has been written and spoken in the lay media about the high prices of prescription drugs and the hardships this places upon the elderly and others of limited income.

  13. An assessment of pharmaceutical waste management in some ...

    An assessment of pharmaceutical waste management in some Nigerian pharmaceutical industries. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... waste, pharmaceuticals, wastewater, waste management, environment, regulatory authorities, effluent.

  14. [Spherical crystallization in pharmaceutical technology].

    Szabóné, R P; Pintyéné, H K; Kása, P; Erös, I; Hasznosné, N M; Farkas, B


    Physical properties of crystals, such as size, crystal size distribution and morphology, may predetermine the usefulness of crystalline materials in many pharmaceutical application. The above properties can be regulated with the crystallization process. The spherical crystals are suitable for direct tablet-making because of their better flowability and compressibility properties. These crystals can be used in the filling of the capsule. In this work, the spherical crystals such as "single crystal", "poly-crystals" and agglomerates with other excipients are collected from the literature and the experimental results of the authors. A close cooperation between chemists and the pharmaceutical technologists can help for doing steps in this field.

  15. International research networks in pharmaceuticals

    Cantner, Uwe; Rake, Bastian


    Knowledge production and scientific research have become increasingly more collaborative and international, particularly in pharmaceuticals. We analyze this tendency in general and tie formation in international research networks on the country level in particular. Based on a unique dataset...... of scientific publications related to pharmaceutical research and applying social network analysis, we find that both the number of countries and their connectivity increase in almost all disease group specific networks. The cores of the networks consist of high income OECD countries and remain rather stable...

  16. Pharmaceuticals Outsourcing Industry: China Strategies for Indian Pharmaceutical Companies

    Amruth Das


    @@ Since last 5 years both India and China, have made rapid strides in the space of pharmaceutical outsourcing.Indian companies, with the largest number of US-FDA approved manufacturing plants outside the USA,has the potential to be a global leader in the outsourcing market.

  17. Epidemiological Investigation of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in Hangzhou Area


    To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Hangzhou area. Methods Male subjects (n=375) aged 18-70 years,attending the STD clinic were recruited. Urethral swabs were assessed for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)with the consensus primers MY09/11. HPV genotypes of positive PCR products were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms and direct sequence analysis. Results Of the 375 swabs collected, 305 (81.3%) yielded sufficient DNA for the subsequent HPV analysis. Among the 305 subjects, the prevalence of HPV was 13.8%. Nononcogenic HPV types were found in 8.5% (26/305) of subjects, oncogenic types in 4.3% (13/305), and multiple types in 1.0% (3/305). The prevalence of HPV infection was higher in subjects from urban area than in those from rural area (P<0.05). The prevalence was also higher in those who received fewer years of education (P<0.05) and those who had more sex partners (P<0.05). Conclusions HPV infection among men at high risk is not uncommon. The detection rate of HPV DNA is significantly related to some sociodemographic factors, such as residence, educational level and the number of sex partners.

  18. Excavation collapse of Hangzhou subway station in soft clay and numerical investigation based on orthogonal experiment method

    Xiao-nan GONG; Xue-chan ZHANG


    This paper studies the excavation collapse at the Xianghu subway station on Hangzhou metro line I.The objective is to present an overview of this case study and discuss the cause of the failure.Through field investigation and preliminary analysis,the reasons for the excavation collapse were the misuse of the soil parameters,over excavation,incorrect installation of steel struts,invalid monitoring data,and inadequate ground improvement.Finally,a small strain constitutive model was used for further analysis.In order to estimate damage efficiently,the orthogonal array (OA) was introduced for screening the key factor in the numerical experiments.Six estimated indexes including deformations and internal forces of the excavation were taken,and the effectiveness of four factors which may cause the collapse was evaluated.Through numerical experiments and interaction analysis,it is found that the deformation and internal force can be well controlled by jet grouting of the subsoil under the final cutting surface,but increasing the improvement ratio of the jet grouting cannot help optimize the excavation behavior efficiently,and without jet grouting and the fourth level struts,the deformation and internal force of the excavation in this case will far surpass the allowable value.

  19. Concentrations and chemical forms of potentially toxic metals in road-deposited sediments from different zones of Hangzhou, China

    ZHANG Mingkui; WANG Hao


    The 25 road-deposited sediments were collected from five different land-use zones (industrial, residential, commercial, park, and countryside) in Hangzhou, China. The concentrations of metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in these samples were determined using the ICP-AES after digestion with the mixture of HNO3-HF-HCl (aqua regia), and chemically fractionated using the modified BCR (the European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure. The highest metal concentration level was detected in the sample from industrial zone and commercial zone having heavy traffic. While the lowest metal level was noted in the street dust sample from residential zone, park, and countryside zone. The mobility sequence based on the sum of the BCR sequential extraction stages was: Zn (80.28%), Pb (78.68%), Cd (77.66%) > Cu (73.34%) > Mn (67.92%) > Co (41.66%) > Ni (30.36%) > Cr (21.56%), Fe (20.86%). Correlation analysis and principal component analysis were applied to the data matrix to evaluate the analytical results and to identify the possible pollution sources of metals. Factor analysis showed that these areas were mainly contaminated by three sources, namely lithology, traffic, and industry.

  20. [Ecological benefits of greening and related controlling factors in urban residential areas of Hangzhou: a quantitative analysis].

    Sun, Yong-guang; Li, Xiu-zhen; Guo, Wen-yong; He, Yan-long; Jia, Yue


    Based on the 1 m x 1 m high resolution aerial images in 2007 and the 30 m x 30 m Landsat 5 TM images in summer 2007, and with the help of GIS and remote sensing image interpretation, this paper calculated the normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI) representing the overall ecological benefits of greening as well as the six controlling factors, i.e., multilayer structure height, area ratio of softness to hardness, greening rate, floor area ratio, greening area, and building density, in 30 typical urban residential quarters of west Hangzhou. The contributions of the controlling factors to the ecological benefits of greening as well as the quantitative relationships between the overall ecological benefits and the six controlling factors were analyzed by multiple linear regression and correspondence analysis, and some advises were given for the improvement of the ecological benefits. The contribution rate of the six factors was in the order of multilayer structure height > area ratio of softness to hardness > greening rate > floor area ratio > greening area > building density, and the contribution of multilayer structure height was far greater than that of the others whereas building density had the weakest effect on the ecological benefits. Correspondence analysis was effective in simplifying a complex data table into an intuitive two-dimensional chart, and thus, a potential powerful tool in decision-making for the improvement of ecological benefits of greening in urban residential quarters.

  1. Endocrine-Active Pharmaceuticals: An Environmental Concern?

    Recently, there has been growing interest in pharmaceuticals that are specifically designed to have endocrine activity, such as the estrogens used in birth control pills, exerting unintended effects on fish and other aquatic organisms. These pharmaceuticals may not be persistent...

  2. Endocrine-Active Pharmaceuticals: An Environmental Concern?

    Recently, there has been growing interest in pharmaceuticals that are specifically designed to have endocrine activity, such as the estrogens used in birth control pills, exerting unintended effects on fish and other aquatic organisms. These pharmaceuticals may not be persistent...

  3. Pharmaceutical and Medicine Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 3254)

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the pharmaceutical manufacturing sector, including essential uses of CFCs, NESHAP for pharmaceutical production, effluent guidelines for wastewater and management of hazardous waste.

  4. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: Editorial Policies

    The Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is an online international ... and molecular biology, medical and other life sciences, and related engineering fields). ... Professor Peter York, Institute of Pharmaceutical Innovation, University of ...

  5. Patrick Couvreur: inspiring pharmaceutical innovation.

    Stanwix, Hannah


    Patrick Couvreur speaks to Hannah Stanwix, Managing Comissioning Editor: Professor Patrick Couvreur received his pharmacy degree from the Université Catholique de Louvain (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium) in 1972. He holds a PhD in pharmaceutical technology from the same university and completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (Zürich, Switzerland). Since 1984, Professor Couvreur has been Full Professor of Pharmacy at the Paris-Sud University (Paris, France) and was holder of the Chair of Innovation Technologique at the prestigious Collège de France (Paris, France). He has published more than 450 peer-reviewed articles and has an H-index of 73, with over 19,000 citations. Professor Coureur has been recognized by numerous national and international awards, including the 2004 Pharmaceutical Sciences World Congress Award, the prestigious Host Madsen Medal, the Prix Galien, the European Pharmaceutical Scientist Award 2011 from the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Sciences, the Médaille de l'Innovation from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, and recently the European Inventor Award 2013 from the European Patent Office.

  6. Tria Pharmaceuticals in the Baltics

    Kratochvil, Renate; Nell, Phillip C.


    Linda, a management consultant, had to solve a tricky problem regarding difficulties with the 'Baltic region subsidiary' of a global pharmaceutical company. She was hired by their Regional Headquarters (RHQ) for Central and Eastern Europe to disentangle this multifaceted challenge (eg sales down...

  7. The argument for pharmaceutical policy

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna


    and the involvement of pharmacists in this endeavour. The aim of the authors is to stimulate an informed and critical appreciation of this field. The authors begin with an introduction to the field of pharmaceutical policy, introducing several important concepts and current trends including: medicines regulation; how...

  8. Effect of pharmaceutical care on medication adherence of patients newly prescribed insulin therapy: a randomized controlled study

    Xin C


    Full Text Available Chuanwei Xin, Zhongni Xia, Cheng Jiang, Mengmeng Lin, Gonghua Li Department of Pharmacy, Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Poor adherence to insulin medications leads to a high rate of hospital admissions and poor health-related quality of life in the patients with diabetes mellitus. However, few strategies are effective and acceptable in improving medication adherence. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the effectiveness of pharmaceutical care by clinical pharmacists on medication adherence of patients newly prescribed insulin therapy.Patients and methods: A single-center, prospective randomized controlled study (pharmaceutical care group and control group was performed from January 1, 2014 to December 30, 2014. Medication adherence was measured at the baseline and up to 12 months with Morisky–Green test and computerized dispensed medication history. The absolute change in A1c vs baseline, the change of hospitalization between two groups, and the number of patients to achieve Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS goals at the baseline were the main outcome measures.Results: A total of 322 patients were included in the study. After the 12-month interventions, significant improvements in the medication adherence were verified for the pharmaceutical care group according to the Morisky–Green test (50.8% of adherent patients at baseline vs 80.7% of adherent patients after 12-month interventions; P<0.01 and the computerized dispensed medication history (55.2% at baseline vs 83.3% after interventions; P<0.01, while no significant changes were verified in the control group. After follow-up, the pharmaceutical care group showed a greater percent change in A1c (2.2±0.4 vs 0.8±0.2, P<0.05.Conclusion: This study provides new evidence from a randomized controlled trial on the beneficial effect of pharmaceutical care to enhance adherence in

  9. Pharmaceuticals: pharmaceutical cost controls--2005. End of Year Issue Brief.

    Seay, Melicia; Varma, Priya


    The enactment of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 (OBRA '90) gave states the option of offering pharmaceutical benefits within their Medicaid programs. But the law placed restrictions on states' flexibility to control what prescriptions they would cover and required the states to reimburse outpatient prescription drugs from manufacturers that signed rebate agreements with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Forty-nine states--Arizona is excluded, based on its program structure--and the District of Columbia currently offer prescription drug coverage under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. During the past four years, states all over the country have been plagued with revenue shortfalls in their state Medicaid budgets. While the fiscal situation improved for most states in the 2004 legislative session, many states still face budget pressures in 2005. Compounding existing budget pressures are threats from the Bush Administration to shift increased costs of the Medicaid program on to the states. All things considered, the economic pressure of funding Medicaid is at the top of legislative agendas in 2005. As in previous years, states are attempting to reduce costs to their Medicaid programs by seeking savings in their pharmaceutical programs. Prescription drug costs are highly attributed as a contributing factor to the fiscal climate of state Medicaid programs. Currently, prescription drug spending outpaces that of every other category of health care and drug prices are rising faster than inflation. In response, states are instituting a variety of pharmaceutical cost control measures such as creating preferred drug lists (PDLs), negotiating supplemental rebates, forming bulk purchasing pools, promoting generic drug substitution and implementing price controls. As prescription drug cost containment tools have gained acceptance and momentum, they continue to be controversial. This issue brief explores the debate, history, methodology, utilization

  10. 南宋杭州的开封宫观——宗教文化转移之实例研究%Kaifeng Daoist temples in the Southern Song Dynasty Hangzhou: Research in actual examples of religious cultural changes



    The central government of the empire moved south from Kaifeng to Hangzhou after the collapse of the Northern Song Dynasty, resulting in some of the Daoist temples that were originally in Kaifeng to be re-established in Hangzhou.These reestablished temples were, for the most part, intimately related to the imperial politics. They were a manifestation of the continuation and legitimacy of the imperial regime and were a psychological confirmation of the safety of the regime and the imperial household. From this we can see, in the midst of religious cultural changes, how the basic cultural factors were interrelated with particular believers.

  11. On Species Diversity of Epiphytic Bryophytes in Hangzhou%杭州市树附生苔藓植物多样性

    官飞荣; 茹雅璐; 胡忠健; 陈尊委; 吴玉环


    通过野外调查和标本鉴定,对杭州市树附生苔藓植物的多样性进行研究。结果发现,杭州市区共有树附生苔藓植物21科38属48种,包含多于4个种的树附生苔藓植物优势科为灰藓科、丛藓科、碎米藓科和牛舌藓科。α多样性分析结果显示不同样地树附生苔藓植物多样性有比较明显的差别。杭州植物园、浙江大学玉泉校区、龙井等几个样地多样性明显较高,而虎跑和浙江大学紫金港校区最低。%The species diversity of epiphytic bryophytes in Hangzhou is researched by field investigations and lab specimen identifications .48 species of epiphytic bryophytes belonging to 38 genera and 21 families are found in Hangzhou city .Dominant families with more than four species are Hypnaceae , Pottiaceae , Fabroniaceae and Anomodontaceae .αdiversity analysis shows that there are obvious differences of epiphytic bryophyte diversity among different sample sites .The epiphytic bryophyte diversities are relatively high in Hangzhou Botanical Garden ,Yuquan Campus of Zhejiang University and Longjing ,while low in Hupao and Zijingang Campus of Zhejiang University .

  12. Ethics and the pharmaceutical industry.

    Green, Stephen


    Relationships between the pharmaceutical industry and the medical profession enhance the potential for physicians to become involved in conflicts of interest. Whether or not these rise to a level that violates standards of medical ethics depends on the degree to which they detract from the quality of health care and its cost, the objectivity of research, and the profession's integrity. This paper explores those issues from two perspectives--the micro-level of the medical profession and the macro-level of society. Practices and policies that affect varied aspects of the interaction between the pharmaceutical industry and the medical profession--such as education, research and marketing--are discussed. The reader is asked to reflect on the ethics of issues raised; the author offers suggestions for mitigating conflicts of interest and, in turn, the potential for unethical medical care.

  13. Public policy and pharmaceutical innovation.

    Grabowski, H G


    Historically, new drug introductions have played a central role in medical progress and the availability of cost-effective therapies. Nevertheless, public policy toward pharmaceuticals has been characterized in recent times by increasingly stringent regulatory controls, shorter effective patent terms, and increased encouragement of generic product usage. This has had an adverse effect on the incentives and capabilities of firms to undertake new drug research and development activity. The industry has experienced sharply rising research and development costs, declining annual new drug introductions, and fewer independent sources of drug development. This paper considers the effects of government regulatory policies on the pharmaceutical innovation process from several related perspectives. It also examines the merits of current public policy proposals designed to stimulate drug innovation including patent restoration and various regulatory reform measures.

  14. An Alternative Model to Determine the Financing Structure of PPP-Based Young Graduate Apartments in China: A Case Study of Hangzhou

    Yelin Xu


    Full Text Available Public-private partnerships (PPP can be employed to provide public rental housing for young graduates, which has been urgent to achieve social sustainability in China. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate the financing structure of PPPs, particularly the ratio of private investment, which is important in initiating a PPP project. This study develops a robust model to determine the financing structure through considering the uncertainties in operation. A case study in Hangzhou demonstrates the process of the model. The relevant findings provide private investors and the local government with effective references for negotiating the financing structure of a PPP project.

  15. Organic Chemicals from Bioprocesses in China

    Huang, Jin; Huang, Lei; Lin, Jianping; Xu, Zhinan; Cen, Peilin

    Over the last 20 years, China has successfully established a modern biotechnology industry from almost nothing. Presently, China is a major producer of a vast array of products involving bioprocesses, for some China is even the world's top producer. The ever-increasing list of products includes organic acids, amino acids, antibiotics, solvents, chiral chemicals, biopesticides, and biopolymers. Herein, the research and development of bioprocesses in China will be reviewed briefly. We will concentrate on three categories of products: small molecules produced via fermentation, biopolymers produced via fermentation and small chemicals produced by enzyme-catalyzed reactions. In comparison with the traditional chemical process, in which, nonrenewable mineral resources are generally used, products in the first and second categories noted above can use renewable bioresources as raw materials. The bioprocesses are generally energy saving and environmentally benign. For products developed via the third category, although the raw materials still need to be obtained from mineral resources, the biocatalysts are more effective with higher selectivity and productivity, and the bioprocesses occur under ambient temperature and pressure, therefore, these are "green processes." Most of the products such as citric acid, xanthan and acrylamide etc., discussed in this paper have been in large-scale commercial production in China. Also introduced herein are three scientists, Prof. Shen Yinchu, Prof. Ouyang Pingkai and Prof. Chen Guoqiang, and six enterprises, Anhui Fengyuan Biochemical Co. Ltd., Shandong Hiland Biotechnology Co. Ltd., Shandong Fufeng Fermentation Co. Ltd., Shandong Bausch & Lomb-Freda Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Zhejiang Hangzhou Xinfu Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., and Changzhou Changmao Biochemical Engineering Co. Ltd.; they have all contributed a great deal to research and development in the commercialization of bioprocesses.

  16. Pharmaceutical microparticle engineering with electrospraying

    Bohr, Adam; Wan, Feng; Kristensen, Jakob


    , acetone, and an anti-solvent, methanol, for PLGA were studied in different ratios. Properties of the spraying solutions were examined and the resulting microparticles were characterized with regard to size, morphology, porosity, solid state form, surface chemistry and drug release. Particle formation...... demonstrated by the increasingly higher drug release rates. The results demonstrate the importance of solvent composition in particle preparation and indicate potential for exploiting this dependence to improve pharmaceutical particle design and performance....

  17. International research networks in pharmaceuticals

    Cantner, Uwe; Rake, Bastian


    Knowledge production and scientific research have become increasingly more collaborative and international, particularly in pharmaceuticals. We analyze this tendency in general and tie formation in international research networks on the country level in particular. Based on a unique dataset...... over time. Using network regression techniques to analyze the network dynamics our results indicate that accumulative advantages based on connectedness and multi-connectivity are positively related to changes in the countries' collaboration intensity whereas various indicators on similarity between...

  18. Understanding pharmaceutical quality by design.

    Yu, Lawrence X; Amidon, Gregory; Khan, Mansoor A; Hoag, Stephen W; Polli, James; Raju, G K; Woodcock, Janet


    This review further clarifies the concept of pharmaceutical quality by design (QbD) and describes its objectives. QbD elements include the following: (1) a quality target product profile (QTPP) that identifies the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the drug product; (2) product design and understanding including identification of critical material attributes (CMAs); (3) process design and understanding including identification of critical process parameters (CPPs), linking CMAs and CPPs to CQAs; (4) a control strategy that includes specifications for the drug substance(s), excipient(s), and drug product as well as controls for each step of the manufacturing process; and (5) process capability and continual improvement. QbD tools and studies include prior knowledge, risk assessment, mechanistic models, design of experiments (DoE) and data analysis, and process analytical technology (PAT). As the pharmaceutical industry moves toward the implementation of pharmaceutical QbD, a common terminology, understanding of concepts and expectations are necessary. This understanding will facilitate better communication between those involved in risk-based drug development and drug application review.

  19. [E-commerce of pharmaceuticals].

    Shani, Segev


    The emergence of the Internet as a new communications and information technology caused major social and cultural changes. The dramatic increase in accessibility and availability of information empowered the consumer by closing the information gap between the consumer and different suppliers. The objective of this article is to review many new internet-supported applications related to the pharmaceutical market. E-commerce is divided into two major components: Business to Consumer (B to C), and Business to Business (B to B). The main applications in B to C are dissemination of medical and drug information, and the sale of drugs through the Internet. Medical information on the Internet is vast and very helpful for patients, however, its reliability is not guaranteed. Online pharmacies increase the accessibility and availability of drugs. Nevertheless, several obstacles such as security of the data provided (both financial and clinical) prevent the widespread use of online pharmacies. Another risk is the health authorities' inability to regulate Internet sites effectively. Therefore, unregulated sale of prescription drugs, fake or substandard, often occurs on the Internet. B to B relates to physicians, clinics, hospitals, HMO's and pharmaceutical companies. There is a vast number of applications ranging from clinical research, marketing and sales promotion, to drug distribution and logistics. In conclusion, the Internet is dynamic and has contributed to the development of numerous new applications in the field of pharmaceuticals. Regulatory authorities should be active in developing new policies that will deal with those new Internet-based applications.

  20. Stability of Pharmaceuticals in Space

    Nguyen, Y-Uyen


    Stability testing is a tool used to access shelf life and effects of storage conditions for pharmaceutical formulations. Early research from the International Space Station (ISS) revealed that some medications may have degraded while in space. This potential loss of medication efficacy would be very dangerous to Crew health. The aim of this research project, Stability of Pharmacotherapeutic Compounds, is to study how the stability of pharmaceutical compounds is affected by environmental conditions in space. Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing medications in different dosage forms (liquid for injection, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the ISS aboard a Space Shuttle. One of the four kits was stored on that Shuttle and the other three were stored on the ISS for return to Earth at various time intervals aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight. The Pharmacotherapeutics laboratory used stability test as defined by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), to access the degree of degradation to the Payload kit medications that may have occurred during space flight. Once these medications returned, the results of stability test performed on them were compared to those from the matching ground controls stored on Earth. Analyses of the results obtained from physical and chemical stability assessments on these payload medications will provide researchers additional tools to promote safe and efficacious medications for space exploration.


    While the point-source emissions of pollutants from manufacturing waste streams have long been monitored and subject to controls, the environmental impact of the public's (i.e., the individual's) activities regarding the use of chemicals is more difficult to assess. Of particular question is the widespread release to sewage and surface/ground waters of pharmaceuticals and personal care products after their ingestion, external application, or disposal. Certain pharmaceutically active compounds (e.g., caffeine, nicotine, and aspirin) have been known for over 20 years to enter the environment by a variety of routes - primarily via treated and untreated sewage effluent. A larger picture, however, has emerged only more recently, where it is evident that numerous personal care products (such as fragrances and sunscreens) and drugs from a wide spectrum of therapeutic classes can occur in the environment and drinking water (albeit at very low concentrations), especially in natural waters receiving sewage. Nearly all ecological monitoring studies for pharmaceuticals and personal care products (informally referred to as

  2. [Composition and Environmental Effects of LFOM and HFOM in "Incense-Ash" Sediments of West Lake, Hangzhou, China].

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Guang-wei; Zhu, Meng-yuan; Gong, Zhi-jun; Xu, Hai; Yang, Gui-jun


    To understand the organic matter pollution characteristic and its relationship with nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients in sediments of high organic matter type of urban shallow lakes, the organic matter content, light fraction organic matter (LFOM), heavy fraction organic matter (HFOM), and nitrogen and phosphorus contents were investigated in eight different regions of West Lake, Hangzhou. The results showed that, the organic matter content of the west lake sediment was 28-251 g x kg(-1), belonging to typical high organic matter sediment. The difference of organic matter content in different lake sediments was very big. The sediments located at the input site of water diversion engineering had significantly lower organic content than the rest regions. The LFOM content of West Lake sediment ranged 0.57-9.17 g x kg(-1), which averagely occupied 2.83% of the total organic matter, and the HFOM content ranged 5.35-347.41 g x kg(-1), which occupied more than 90% of the total organic matter. Compared to other shallow lakes located in China, sediments of West Lake had significantly high percentage of HFOM/LFOM ratio. But the HFOM content was obviously on the high side, reflecting the west lake as an urban lake with a long history, as well as high organic matter pollution load and sediment humification degree. Both the content and the ratio of LFOM/HFOM in sediment were related to nitrogen and phosphorus contents in sediment. This suggested that the composition of organic matter in West Lake sediments had potential control ability for the internal loading of N and P of the lake.

  3. Coupling hydrodynamic models with GIS for storm surge simulation: application to the Yangtze Estuary and the Hangzhou Bay, China

    Liang WANG; Xiaodong ZHAO; Yongming SHEN


    Storm surge is one of the most serious oceanic disasters.Accurate and timely numerical prediction is one of the primary measures for disaster control.Traditional storm surge models lack of accuracy and time effects.To overcome the disadvantages,in this paper,an analytical cyclone model was first added into the Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) consisting of high resolution,flooding and drying capabilities for 3D storm surge modeling.Then,we integrated MarineTools Pro into a geographic information system (GIS) to supplement the storm surge model.This provided end users with a friendly modeling platform and easy access to geographically referenced data that was required for the model input and output.A temporal GIS tracking analysis module was developed to create a visual path from storm surge numerical results.It was able to track the movement of a storm in space and time.Marine Tools Pro' capabilities could assist the comprehensive understanding of complex storm events in data visualization,spatial query,and analysis of simulative results in an objective and accurate manner.The tools developed in this study further supported the idea that the coupled system could enhance productivity by providing an efficient operating environment for accurate inversion or storm surge prediction.Finally,this coupled system was used to reconstruct the storm surge generated by Typhoon Agnes (No.8114) and simulated typhoon induced-wind field and water elevations of Yangtze Estuary and Hangzhou Bay.The simulated results show good correlation with actual surveyed data.The simple operating interface of the coupled system is very convenient for users,who want to learn the usage of the storm surge model,especially for first-time users,which can save their modeling time greatly.

  4. The routine utilization of dental care during pregnancy in eastern China and the key underlying factors: a Hangzhou City study.

    Wei Sun

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Oral diseases are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The routine utilization of dental care (RUDC during pregnancy is an effective way to improve pregnant women's oral health, and thus safeguard the health of their babies. As China has one fifth of the world's population, it is especially meaningful to encourage RUDC there. However, the status of RUDC in China and the key underlying factors are largely unknown. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey investigated the current status of RUDC during pregnancy and the key underlying factors in Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, eastern China. We collected participants' demographics, individual oral-hygiene behaviors, individual lifestyle, oral-health conditions and attitudes, and also their RUDC during pregnancy. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis was used to analyze the key underlying factors. RESULTS: Only 16.70% of the participants reported RUDC during pregnancy. The percentage of RUDC was significantly lower among pregnant women with the following characteristics: aged 30 or less, an annual household income under $8,000, brushing once a day or less, never flossing or rinsing the mouth, paying no attention to pregnancy-related oral-health knowledge, and being dissatisfied with one's individual dental hygiene behavior. CONCLUSIONS: RUDC during pregnancy is very low in eastern China and is greatly influenced not only by a woman's age, annual income, individual hygiene behavior, but also by her attention and attitudes to oral health. To improve this population's access to and use of dental care during pregnancy, appropriate programs and policies are urgently needed.

  5. In Silico Models for Ecotoxicity of Pharmaceuticals.

    Roy, Kunal; Kar, Supratik


    Pharmaceuticals and their active metabolites are one of the significantly emerging environmental toxicants. The major routes of entry of pharmaceuticals into the environment are industries, hospitals, or direct disposal of unwanted or expired drugs made by the patient. The most important and distinct features of pharmaceuticals are that they are deliberately designed to have an explicit mode of action and designed to exert an effect on humans and other living systems. This distinctive feature makes pharmaceuticals and their metabolites different from other chemicals, and this necessitates the evaluation of the direct effects of pharmaceuticals in various environmental compartments as well as to living systems. In this background, the alarming situation of ecotoxicity of diverse pharmaceuticals have forced government and nongovernment regulatory authorities to recommend the application of in silico methods to provide quick information about the risk assessment and fate properties of pharmaceuticals as well as their ecological and indirect human health effects. This chapter aims to offer information regarding occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment, their persistence, environmental fate, and toxicity as well as application of in silico methods to provide information about the basic risk management and fate prediction of pharmaceuticals in the environment. Brief ideas about toxicity endpoints, available ecotoxicity databases, and expert systems employed for rapid toxicity predictions of ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals are also discussed.

  6. Characterization and source apportionment of aerosol light extinction with a coupled model of CMB-IMPROVE in Hangzhou, Yangtze River Delta of China

    Wang, Jiao; Zhang, Yu-fen; Feng, Yin-chang; Zheng, Xian-jue; Jiao, Li; Hong, Sheng-mao; Shen, Jian-dong; Zhu, Tan; Ding, Jing; Zhang, Qi


    To investigate the characteristics and sources of aerosol light extinction in the Yangtze River Delta of China, a campaign was carried out in Hangzhou from December 2013 to November 2014. Hourly data for air pollutants including PM2.5, SO2, NO2, O3 and CO, and aerosol optical properties including aerosol scattering coefficient and aerosol absorbing coefficient was obtained in the environmental air quality automatic monitoring station. Meteorological parameters were measured synchronously in the automated meteorology monitoring station. Additionally, around seven sets of ambient PM2.5 samples per month were collected and analyzed during the campaign. The annual mean aerosol scattering coefficient, aerosol absorbing coefficient and aerosol single scattering albedo measured in this study was 514 ± 284 Mm- 1, 35 ± 20 Mm- 1 and 94% respectively. The aerosol extinction coefficient reconstructed using the modified IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environment) formula was compared to the measured extinction coefficient. Better correlations could be found between the measured and reconstructed extinction coefficient when RH was under 90%. A coupled model of CMB (chemical mass balance) and modified IMPROVE was used to apportion the sources of aerosol light extinction in Hangzhou. Vehicle exhaust, secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate were identified as the most significant sources for aerosol light extinction, accounted for 30.2%, 24.1% and 15.8% respectively.

  7. Study on Control Strategy of Vehicle Emission Pollution in Hangzhou%杭州市机动车尾气污染控制策略研究

    相晨; 李伟东


    杭州市机动车数量已逾250万辆,其保有量仍在不断增长。机动车已成为城市能源消费、大气灰霾形成和温室气体排放的主要来源之一。基于杭州机动车尾气治理现状和特点,从排放控制、燃料优化、用车管理、淘汰老旧车型、加强路网建设、改革交通管理方式及发展公共交通等方面提出基于低碳理念的机动车防治对策与建议。%There are more than 2.5 million vehicles in Hangzhou and the number is expecting to increase.Vehicles have become one of the most energy consumers as well as the major source of greenhouse gases causing haze weath-er.A control strategy of vehicle emission pollution based on the low-carbon theory was put forward to alleviate the air pollution in Hangzhou.The strategies covered emission control,improvement of gas quality,management of ve-hicle usage,obsoleting old vehicles,strengthening the construction of highway network,reforming traffic manage-ment,developing public transportation and so on.

  8. Using GOCI Retrieval Data to Initialize and Validate a Sediment Transport Model for Monitoring Diurnal Variation of SSC in Hangzhou Bay, China

    Xuefei Yang


    Full Text Available The diurnal variation of the suspended sediment concentration (SSC in Hangzhou Bay, China has been investigated using remotely-sensed SSC derived from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI in combination with a coupled hydrodynamic-ecological model for regional and shelf seas (COHERENS. The SSC maps were inferred through a UV-AC atmospheric correction algorithm and an empirical inversion algorithm from the GOCI Level-1B data. The sediment transport model was initialized from maps of the GOCI-derived SSC and the model results were validated through a comparison with remotely-sensed data. The comparison demonstrated that the model results agreed well with the observations. The relationship between SSC distribution and hydrodynamic conditions was analyzed to investigate the sediment transport dynamics. The model’s results indicate that the action of tidal currents dominate the sediment deposition and re-suspension in the coastal waters of the East China Sea. This is especially the case in Hangzhou Bay where the tidal currents are strongest. The satellite-derived sediment data product can not only dramatically improve the specification of the initial conditions for the sediment model, but can also provide valuable information for the model validation, thereby improving the model’s overall performance.

  9. Chlorophenols in marine organisms from the southern coast of Hangzhou Bay, China, and an assessment of risks posed to human health

    Zheng, Dan; Jiao, Haifeng; Zhong, Huiying; Qiu, Jishi; Yan, Xiaojun; Duan, Qingyuan; Chai, Liyue


    The composition of chlorophenols in marine organisms from the southern coast of Hangzhou Bay, China, was analyzed and the health risks posed to humans assessed. A total of 19 chlorophenols from 16 types of marine organism were analyzed across nine survey sections in Hangzhou Bay. The chlorophenols were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a DB-5MS quartz capillary column. The concentrations of monochlorophenol, dichlorophenol, trichlorophenol, tetrachlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol ranged from below the detection limit (ND) to 132 μg/kg, ND-51.0 μg/kg, ND-42.5 μg/kg, ND-69.0 μg/kg, and ND-9.06 μg/kg, respectively. Additionally, concentration differences between each type of chlorophenol were not signifi cant (P>0.05). However, signifi cant differences were found between monochlorophenol (F=8.13, Prisk indices were risk was posed by 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol to humans consuming marine organisms from the study area. Furthermore, the carcinogenic risks posed by 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol were lower than limits set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the US Environmental Protection Agency. However, the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks posed by chlorophenols in marine organisms from four of the survey sections (Sizaopu, Niluoshan, Longshan Town and Xinhong zha) were higher than the other survey sections.

  10. Introduction: Institutional corruption and the pharmaceutical policy.

    Rodwin, Marc A


    Today, the goals of pharmaceutical policy and medical practice are often undermined due to institutional corruption - that is, widespread or systemic practices, usually legal, that undermine an institution's objectives or integrity. In this symposium, 16 articles investigate the corruption of pharmaceutical policy, each taking a different look at the sources of corruption, how it occurs, and what is corrupted. We will see that the pharmaceutical industry's own purposes are often undermined. Furthermore, pharmaceutical industry funding of election campaigns and lobbying skews the legislative process that sets pharmaceutical policy. Moreover, certain practices have corrupted medical research, the production of medical knowledge, the practice of medicine, drug safety, the Food and Drug Administration's oversight of the pharmaceutical market, and the trustworthiness of patient advocacy organizations. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  11. China: current trends in pharmaceutical drug discovery.

    Luo, Ying


    Pharmaceutical discovery and development is expensive and highly risky, even for multinational corporations. As a developing country with limited financial resources, China has been seeking the most cost-effective means to reach the same level of innovation and productivity as Western countries in the pharmaceutical industry sector. After more than 50 years of building up talent and experience, the time for China to become a powerhouse in pharmaceutical innovation is finally approaching. Returnee scientists to China are one of the reasons for the wave of new discovery and commercialization occurring within the country. The consolidation of local Chinese pharmaceutical companies and foreign investment is also providing an agreeable environment for the evolution of a new generation of biotechnology. The opportunity for pharmaceutical innovation is also being expedited by the entry of multinational companies into the Chinese pharmaceutical market, and by the outsourcing of research from these companies to China.

  12. Vulnerabilities to misinformation in online pharmaceutical marketing

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J


    Given the large percentage of Internet users who search for health information online, pharmaceutical companies have invested significantly in online marketing of their products. Although online pharmaceutical marketing can potentially benefit both physicians and patients, it can also harm these groups by misleading them. Indeed, some pharmaceutical companies have been guilty of undue influence, which has threatened public health and trust. We conducted a review of the available literature on...

  13. Obesity Epidemic: Pharmaceutical Weight Loss.

    Curry, Stephanie A


    Obesity is a chronic disease universally defined as an excess of adipose tissue resulting in body mass index (BMI) > 30.0 kg/m2. Over the past few years, the concept of prevention has gained increased awareness, thus leading to the development of additional pharmaceutical options for the treatment of obesity since 2012. Treating obesity revolves around an individualized, multi-disciplinary approach with additional focus on a healthy and supportive lifestyle to maintain the weight loss. [Full article available at].


    Lahkar Sunita


    Full Text Available Pulmonary drug delivery system is found to have a wide range of application in the treatment of illness as well as in the research field due to its beneficial effect over the other dosage form. It is used not only in treatment of illness of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD but also finds its application in the treatment of diseases like diabetes, angina pectoris. This review article deals with an overview of one of the pulmonary drug delivery system called pharmaceutical aerosols.

  15. Evaluation of P-Listed Pharmaceutical Residues in Empty Pharmaceutical Containers

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), some pharmaceuticals are considered acute hazardous wastes because their sole active pharmaceutical ingredients are P-listed commercial chemical products (40 CFR 261.33). Hospitals and other healthcare facilities have stru...

  16. Evaluation of P-Listed Pharmaceutical Residues in Empty Pharmaceutical Containers

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), some pharmaceuticals are considered acute hazardous wastes because their sole active pharmaceutical ingredients are P-listed commercial chemical products (40 CFR 261.33). Hospitals and other healthcare facilities have stru...

  17. Pharmacy residents' attitudes toward pharmaceutical industry promotion.

    Ashker, Sumer; Burkiewicz, Jill S


    The attitudes of pharmacy residents toward pharmaceutical industry promotion and the perceived effects of such promotion on the knowledge and professional practice of the residents were studied. A questionnaire study of current postgraduate year 1 and postgraduate year 2 pharmacy residents was conducted. Questions were adapted from instruments used in studies of medical student or physician attitudes regarding the pharmaceutical industry. The questionnaire requested demographic information about the resident, information regarding the resident's exposure to specific types of pharmaceutical company-related activities, and the resident's perception of whether the residency program or department had policies or guidelines regarding interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. Questions investigated the attitudes toward pharmaceutical industry promotion and the perceived influence of pharmaceutical industry promotion on the professional knowledge and behavior of the residents. Responses were received from 496 pharmacy residents. Nearly all (89%) residents agreed that pharmaceutical company-sponsored educational events enhance knowledge. Almost half (43%) of the respondents reported that information from educational events influences therapeutic recommendations. One quarter (26%) of the pharmacy residents indicated prior training regarding pharmacist-industry interactions, and most (60%) residents indicated that their institution's residencies or departments have policies regarding interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. Most surveyed pharmacy residents believed that educational events sponsored by pharmaceutical companies enhance knowledge. Respondents whose institutions had policies or who had received training about such events were less likely than other respondents to perceive an influence of the events on their knowledge and behavior.

  18. Toward a definition of pharmaceutical innovation.

    Morgan, Steven; Lopert, Ruth; Greyson, Devon


    ONGOING DEBATES IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR ABOUT INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, PRICING AND REIMBURSEMENT, AND PUBLIC RESEARCH INVESTMENTS HAVE A COMMON DENOMINATOR: the pursuit of innovation. However, there is little clarity about what constitutes a true pharmaceutical innovation, and as a result there is confusion about what kind of new products should be pursued, protected and encouraged through health policy and clinical practice. If the concept of pharmaceutical innovation can be clarified, then it may become easier for health policy-makers and practitioners to evaluate, adopt and procure products in ways that appropriately recognize, encourage and give priority to truly valuable pharmaceutical innovations.


    N. M. Sergeeva


    Full Text Available Strategy of pharmaceutical goods (PG promotion is a working out of methods of goods realization stimulation. To make PG promotion maximum effective, and to receive a sufficient result for pharmaceutical organization (PO it is necessary to conduct marketing studies (MS, to work out a marketing plan for PG promotion and to offer marketing strategies for goods promotion. To resolve these problems we have formed a concept of marketing promotion of PG system for one of big retail PO of Kursk and Kursk oblast (code name “A”. With this purpose we have identified a problem of PG promotion organization, studied an influence of external and internal environment on the PO “A” activity, determined strong and weak sides of PO activity. We have systematized the results in SWOT-analysis, and formed the strategies of PO for the improvement of work efficiency on the market. On the basis of the results received we have worked out the recommendations for the marketing strategies of PG promotion for the certain PO.

  20. Enzymatic biodegradation of pharmaceutical wastewater

    Uwadiae, S.E.; Yerima, Y.; Azik, R.U. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Igbinedion University, Okada, P.M.B. 0006, Benin City, Edo State (Nigeria)


    The present effort is an attempt to reduce pollution caused by the discharge of untreated wastewater (effluents) to the environment by using a low cost method. The effluent was bio-remediated using yeast and amylase as the active agents. The greater the decomposable matters present in an effluent, the greater the oxygen demand; the greater the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD) values, the less Dissolved Oxygen(DO) values. 10g of yeast and amylase were added to 1000ml each of pharmaceutical effluent. 150 ml of the effluent (from the yeast and amylase) dosed was withdrawn weekly for analysis alongside with the effluent without enzymes for turbidity, DO, BOD and COD. After a period of six weeks the effluent dosed with yeast gave the highest performance followed by that dosed with amylase. The result shows that as time increases, the amount of oxygen demand reduces while the dissolved oxygen content of the effluent increases. This indicates that the yeast enzyme was able to aid remediation of the pharmaceutical effluent.

  1. Pharmaceutical Industry Oriented Homogeneous Catalysis

    Zhang Xumu


    Chiral therapeutics already makes up over one-third of pharmaceutical drugs currently sold worldwide. This is a growing industry with global chiral drug sales for 2002 increasing by 12%to $160 billion (Technology Catalysts International) of a total drug market of $410bn. The increasing demand to produce enantiomerically pure pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, flavors, and other fine chemicals has advanced the field of asymmetric catalytic technologies.We aim to become a high value technology provider and partner in the chiral therapeutics industry by offering proprietary catalysts, novel building blocks, and collaborative synthetic solutions. In decade, we have developed a set of novel chiral homogeneous phosphorus ligands such as Binaphane, Me-KetalPhos, TangPhos, f-Binaphane, Me-f-KetalPhos, C4TunePhos and Binapine,which we called Chiral Ligand ToolKit. Complementing the ToolKit, (R, S, S, R)-DIOP*, T-Phos,o-BIPHEP, o-BINAPO and FAP were added recently[1].These ligands can be applied to a broad variety of drug structural features by asymmetric hydrogenation of dehydroamino acid derivatives, enamides, unsatisfied acids and esters, ketones,beta ketoesters, imines and cyclic imines. And ligand FAP had been apllied succefully in allylic alkylation and [3+2] cycloaddition.

  2. Seasonal variations and sources of mass and chemical composition for PM10 aerosol in Hangzhou,China

    Junji Cao; Zhenxing Shen; Judith C.Chow; Guowei Qi; John G.Watsonc


    Aerosol observation was conducted for four seasons from September 2001 to August 2002 at five sampling sites in Hangzhou, South China, on PM10 mass, 22 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Cd, Ba, and Pb), 5 major ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, and NH4+), and organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), showing that PM10 mass ranged from 46.7 to 270.8 μg/m3, with an annual average of 119.2 μg/m3. Na, AI, Si, S. K, Ca, and Fe were the most abundant elements in PM10, most ors being in the form of SO42-. SO42-, NO4-, and NH4+ were the major ions, which contributed to about 20%; of the PM10 mass. The mean seasonal concentrations for SO42- , averaged over all sites, were found to be 18.0, 18.5, 24.Z and 21.4 μg/m3. for spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively, while the corresponding Ioadings for NO3- were 72, 4.7, 7.1, and 11.2μg/m3. and for NH4+ were 6.0, 5.9, 8.2. and 9.3 μg/m3, in the form mostly of NH4NO3 in spring, autumn, and winter, and mostly of (NH4)2SO4 in summer. The low NO3-/SO42- ratio found indicates coal combustion as the major source throughout the year. The mean annual concentrations of OC and EC in PM10 were found to be 21A, and 4.1 μg/m3, respectively. Material balance calculation indicated that fugitive dust, the secondary aerosol, and carbonaceous matter were the most abundant species in PM10 for the four seasons, as is characteristic for cities in South China.

  3. Exploration the Path of Public Services of Hangzhou Public Library Based on Micro-Blog Event%从“微博”事件探寻杭州图书馆公共服务之路



    多年来,杭州图书馆一直在探索并切实践行"平等、免费、无障碍"的公共服务,以保障每个人能平等地享用图书馆服务。杭州图书馆努力建设"平等、免费、无障碍"的杭州地区图书馆联盟,"关注弱势、个性化服务"的杭州盲文图书馆,"平民图书馆、市民大书房"的杭州图书馆新馆,"无处不在、触手可及"的杭州数字图书馆及开展"贴近民众、贴近生活"的读者活动,这些无不体现了公共图书馆的包容精神。%For years,Hangzhou Public Library is exploring and effectively practicing public services with the principle of being "equally accessible,free of charge,and barrier-free" to provide everyone universal and equitable services.Hangzhou Public Library has made efforts in followings: constructing Hangzhou library consortia according to"equally accessible,free of charge,and barrier-free",the Braille Branch Library according to "focusing on impaired people,provide individual service",the new Hangzhou Public Library according to "library for the common people,and study room for citizens",the Hangzhou digital library according to "information access facilities,easy to touch",and holding the readers' activities according to "close to people,close to life".It all embodies the spirit of inclusiveness of public libraries.

  4. 杭州湾海域水污染演变及污染源分析%Evolution of Water Pollution and Analysis of Pollutant Source in Hangzhou Bay



    以杭州湾海域水环境调查的相关数据为依据,研究杭州湾海域水污染演变及污染源情况。杭州湾海域常年以劣四类海水为主,水质状况极差,部分指标仍有恶化趋势。其主要超标污染物为无机氮和活性磷酸盐,化学需氧量浓度波动较大,但不是杭州湾水污染的主要威胁。从海域污染源来看,从富春江电站上游区域汇入的污染物占比最多;其次是杭州湾沿岸支流河道汇入的污染物;再次是从排海污水处理厂纳入的污染物。%Based on the related data from the survey on Hangzhou Bay water environment,the paper analyzed the process and the degree of the water deterioration and pollution in Hangzhou Bay.All year round, the water in Hangzhou bay contains mainly of four categories of poor sea water,some indexes of which are turn-ing worse.The main non-compliance pollutants are Inorganic nitrogen and Active phosphate in Hangzhou Bay. Although the concentration of chemical oxygen has fluctuations,it is not the main threat for the water pollution. With regard to the pollution source of the sea,the upstream region of Fuchun Rive power plant produced the largest proportion of pollutants;second,the pollutant coming from the tributaries along the coast of the Hang-zhou Bay;last,the pollutants from the wastewater treatment plant.

  5. Pharmaceutic Crisis:Why the Industry Despairs


    China's pharmaceutical industry isn't feeling warm and fuzzy, but it's not unlike the giant panda "We are now struggling for survival," said Niu Zhengqian, Chief Advisor at the China Center for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research, whose feeling is shared by many who are engaged with the pharmaceutical

  6. Pharmaceutical experiment aboard STS-67 mission


    Astronaut William G. Gregory, pilot, works with a pharmaceutical experiment on the middeck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour during the STS-67 mission. Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instruments Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX-03) includes not only pharmaceutical, but also biotechnology, cell biology, fluids, and crystal growth investigation

  7. International Price Discrimination: The Pharmaceutical Industry

    F.T. Schut (Erik); P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter)


    textabstractIt is generally asserted that price discrimination is a common feature of the international pharmaceutical market, resulting in unnecessarily high medical costs to developing countries, since it is pharmaceuticals that are the largest component of their health care expenditures. However,

  8. Drivers of peak sales for pharmaceutical brands

    Fischer, Marc; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Verhoef, Peter C.


    Peak sales are an important metric in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, managers are focused on the height-of-peak-sales and the time required achieving peak sales. We analyze how order of entry and quality affect the level of peak sales and the time-to-peak-sales of pharmaceutical brands.

  9. National transparency assessment of Kuwait's pharmaceutical sector.

    Badawi, Dalia A; Alkhamis, Yousif; Qaddoumi, Mohammad; Behbehani, Kazem


    Corruption is one of several factors that may hinder the access to pharmaceuticals. Since Kuwait has the highest per-capita spending on pharmaceuticals in the region, we wanted to evaluate the level of transparency in its pharmaceutical sector using an established assessment tool adapted by the World Health Organization. Standardized questionnaires were conducted via semi-structured interviews with key informants to measure the level of transparency in eight functions of the public pharmaceutical sector. The scores for the degree of vulnerability to corruption reflected marginal to moderate venerability to corruption for most pharmaceutical sectors. The perceived strengths included availability of appropriate laws, the presence of clear standard operating procedures, and the use of an efficient registration/distribution system. Weaknesses included lack of conflict of interest guidelines and written terms of reference, absence of pharmacoeconomic studies, and inconsistencies in law enforcement. Findings reveal that few functions of Kuwait pharmaceutical sector remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. However, the willingness of Kuwait Ministry of Health to adopt the assessment study and the acknowledgement of the weaknesses of current processes of the pharmaceutical sector may assist to achieve a transparent pharmaceutical system in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthetic biology advances for pharmaceutical production

    Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko


    Synthetic biology enables a new generation of microbial engineering for the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and other high-value chemicals. This review presents an overview of recent advances in the field, describing new computational and experimental tools for the discovery, optimization and production of bioactive molecules, and outlining progress towards the application of these tools to pharmaceutical production systems. PMID:25744872

  11. Northeast Pharmaceutical from Relocation Acquires Opportunity


    @@ Northeast Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd., an old state-owned company, has met a major development opportunity in its relocation. According to the municipal program made by Shenyang City, Northeast Pharmaceutical Group located in the Tiexi District of Shenyang will move to Shenyang Xihe Development Zone.

  12. Nanostructured materials in electroanalysis of pharmaceuticals.

    Rahi, A; Karimian, K; Heli, H


    Basic strategies and recent developments for the enhancement of the sensory performance of nanostructures in the electroanalysis of pharmaceuticals are reviewed. A discussion of the properties of nanostructures and their application as modified electrodes for drug assays is presented. The electrocatalytic effect of nanostructured materials and their application in determining low levels of drugs in pharmaceutical forms and biofluids are discussed.

  13. 杭州植物园野生鸟类多样性调查%Wild Bird Diversity of Hangzhou Botanic Garden

    于炜; 吕敏; 刘锦


    2009年7月~2010年8月,采用样线法和定点观测法对杭州植物园所辖范围内的野生鸟类进行调查观测,共记录到鸟类9目26科94种,占浙江省鸟类种数的22.71%。其中,国家Ⅱ级保护物种1种。从留居类型看,留鸟49种,夏候鸟16种,冬候鸟24种,旅鸟5种。属古北界的有37种,占39.36%,东洋界54种,占57.45%,两界广布种3种,占3.19%,鸟类组成具有由东洋界向古北界过渡的特征。该区鸟类多样性水平较高,从调查研究的4种生境看,多样性指数(Shannon-Wiener指数)从高到低分别是疏林、灌丛、山林、水域。对比分析发现疏林和山林之间的物种相似性指数最高,水域和疏林之间的相似性指数最低。%We completed line - transect surveys and point - counts at Hangzhou Botanic Garden to quantify wild bird diversity between July 2009 and August 2010.We recorded 94 bird species of 26 families and 9 orders,accounting for 23%of the bird species reported for Zhejiang Province.Among our records,1 recorded species is nationally protected at category 2,49 species are resident in Hangzhou,16 species are summer visitors,24 species are winter visitors,and 5 species are typically recorded only on migration.Recorded species are palaearctic(37 species or 39%),oriental(54 species or 57%) and globally widespread species(3 species or 3%).The avifauna of the Hangzhou region represents a transition from the Palaearctic to the Oriental. The wild bird diversity of this region was high and the bird diversity indices of various habitats ranked from high to low as:open forest,shrub,mountain forest,and water body.Similarity was highest between open forest and mountain forest,and lowest between water body and open forest.

  14. Integrating systems Approaches into Pharmaceutical Sciences

    Westerhoff, H.V.; Mosekilde, Erik; Noe, C. R.


    of the conference was to promote the ‘Integration of Systems Approaches into Pharmaceutical Sciences’ in view of optimising the development of new effective drugs. And a challenge this is, considering both the high attrition rates in the pharmaceutical industry and the failure of finding definitive drug solutions......During the first week of December 2007, the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences (EUFEPS) and BioSim, the major European Network of Excellence on Systems Biology, held a challenging conference on the use of mathematical models in the drug development process. More precisely, the purpose...... for many of the diseases that plague mankind today. The conference was co-sponsored by the American College of Clinical Pharmacology, the European Center for Pharmaceutical Medicine, and the Swiss Society of Pharmaceutical Sciences and, besides representatives from the European Regulatory Agencies and FDA...

  15. Pharmaceutical counterfeiting and the RFID technology intervention.

    Coustasse, Alberto; Arvidson, Cody; Rutsohn, Phil


    Both nationally and internationally, pharmaceutical counterfeiting has become a problem that is threatening economic stability and public health. The purpose of the present research study review was to analyze the scope and severity of pharmaceutical counterfeiting and to establish if the implantation of the Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) model can more efficiently be used within the pharmaceutical supply chain to reduce the problem counterfeit drugs impose on public health and international economic stability. Results indicated that implementing the RFID model for tracking drugs at the item level in the pharmaceutical supply chain has potential to alleviate the scope of the counterfeit drug problem. Recommendations for how the pharmaceutical industry may sooner adopt the RFID model are made.

  16. Analytical techniques in pharmaceutical analysis: A review

    Masoom Raza Siddiqui


    Full Text Available The development of the pharmaceuticals brought a revolution in human health. These pharmaceuticals would serve their intent only if they are free from impurities and are administered in an appropriate amount. To make drugs serve their purpose various chemical and instrumental methods were developed at regular intervals which are involved in the estimation of drugs. These pharmaceuticals may develop impurities at various stages of their development, transportation and storage which makes the pharmaceutical risky to be administered thus they must be detected and quantitated. For this analytical instrumentation and methods play an important role. This review highlights the role of the analytical instrumentation and the analytical methods in assessing the quality of the drugs. The review highlights a variety of analytical techniques such as titrimetric, chromatographic, spectroscopic, electrophoretic, and electrochemical and their corresponding methods that have been applied in the analysis of pharmaceuticals.

  17. Launch Decisions of Pharmaceutical Companies

    Abdülkadir Civan


    Full Text Available This paper models the launch decision of pharmaceutical companies in regard to new drugs and country markets. New drugs are launched with a delay or not launched at all in many countries. Considering that many of these new drugs would have created health benefits to the patients, there seems to be welfare loss. We use market characteristics to explain this phenomenon. We show that most of the estimated launch with a delay and no-launch decision is due to observable market characteristics. The model has an accuracy of 70 percent in explaining the no-launch decision. Intellectual property rights protection is especially important. The policy implication is that stronger property rights increase the likelihood and speed of new drug launch.

  18. Discussion on Website System Construction in Hangzhou Electric Power Bureau%杭州市电力局网站系统建设的探讨

    沙力; 冯雪


      根据杭州市电力局网站系统的构建目标,从网站系统子站数目、安全性和快速恢复3个方面提出网站系统的设计要求,消除了之前网站存在的多个信息孤岛,实现了信息的有效共享,增强了系统的安全性。%According to the general aim of website system construction in Hangzhou Municipal Electric Power Bureau and takes account of number of website system subsystems, safety and fast recovery. This poper for-wards the design require of website system. Information isolated islands in former website construction are e-liminated, which enables effective information sharing and enhances security of the system.

  19. 迄今被人们所忽视的英语西湖风景诗%The Little Known English Poems on the West Lake in Hangzhou



    The cultural heritage of the West Lake in Hangzhou does not only confine to the long history of its well-known scenic spots and the beautiful natural landscape, but should also include the large amount of poems written on the West Lake by the literati of different historical periods. For instance, those classical poems written Bai Juyi of the Tang Dynasty, and by Su Shi and Lin Sheng of the Song Dynasty, are generally considered to be the masterpieces and the fact that they are so popular actually contributs a lot to the fame of those scenic spots on the West Lake. Since the 13th century, Marco Polo and many other Western people have visited Hangzhou, and they left behind quite a few poems on the West Lake. Unfor- tunately, those poe~as written in Western languages have not drawn enough attention so far. The present paper aims to introduce ten English poems on the West Lake, written respectively by an American woman poet, Winona Montgomery Gilliland, as well as by a newly-wed American couple, Benjamin Franklin March, Jr. and Dorothy Rowe in early 20th century. Considering the fact that the West Lake has success- fully become a world cultural heritage site, and that Hangzhou municipal government is trying hard to in- troduce it to the outside world, we have reason to assert that these English poems written by foreigners are part of the West Lake's cultural heritage, and they should become one of.the best media for introducing Hangzhou and the West Lake to the external world.%杭州西湖的人文底蕴不仅在于风景名胜的历史悠久,也包括各个历史时期文人骚客们写景状物、叙事咏史和抒情寓怀的大量诗歌作品。例如白居易的《钱塘湖春行》、苏东坡的《饮湖上初晴后雨》和林升的《题临安邸》等经典的诗歌作品脍炙人口,千古传唱,对于西湖的名胜古迹起到了锦上添花的作用。自从十三世纪的马可波罗以来,也曾有过众多外国人来

  20. 杭州市归因于吸烟的疾病负担研究%An analysis on the disease burden of smoking in Hangzhou City

    陈臖芳; 马海燕; 汤静; 李金涛; 马先富; 李莉


    Objective To analyze the disease burden of Hangzhou City in 2013 due to smoking.Methods Using attributable risk of smoking from literatures,the demographic data,mortality surveillance,medical insurance information system of smoking related diseases expense,the direct economic burden and indirect economic burden due to smoking in Hangzhou were measured.Main indicators including disability adjusted life year (DALY),direct medical economic burden,production years of losses,early death of indirect economic loss and smoking cause cost and cost of passive smoking were calculated.Results In 2013,The DALY of Hangzhou 6 city area attributed to smoking was 8.11 years over one thousand people.That was less than other domestic cities.There were 1.118 174 1 billion Yuan due to the direct medical economic burden .And the production loss of smoking was 834.41 years.The early death of indirect economic loss of smoking was 57.659 4 million Yuan,and the cost of pathogenic of smoking was 56.936 2 million Yuan,and the cost of pathogenic of passive smoking was 50.915 1 million Yuan.Conclusion The total economic burden of Hangzhou due to smoking was still at a higher level,which could lead to more serious consequences for the health of people and social economic development.Measures should be conducted to strengthen the control of tobacco.%目的:分析杭州市归因于吸烟的疾病负担,为制定控烟策略提供依据。方法利用文献报道的吸烟相关疾病危险度指标及杭州市2013年人口学数据、死因监测数据、医疗保险信息系统吸烟相关疾病费用等资料,计算归因于吸烟的直接医疗经济负担和间接经济负担。主要指标包括伤残调整寿命年(DALY)、直接医疗经济负担、生产年损失、早死间接经济损失、吸烟致病成本和被动吸烟成本等。结果2013年杭州市6个主城区归因于吸烟的每千人 DALY 为8.11人年,归因于吸烟的直接医疗经济负担为111817.41万元

  1. The Disposition of Aquatic Plants in Hangzhou West Lake Scenic Area%杭州西湖风景区水生植物配置



    通过实地调查,杭州西湖风景区内应用的水生植物有74种。在现状调查的基础上,本文探讨了西湖风景区不同水体形式下水生植物的配置模式,并就存在的问题进行了讨论,同时提出对策。%According to the field investigation, there are 74 species of aquatic plants applied in Hangzhou West Lake Scenic Area. Based on the status survey, this paper discusses the dispositions of aquatic plants in different Water forms, and analyses the existing prob-lems,then offers solutions.

  2. Experience Marketing Strategies of Hangzhou World Leisure Expo Garden%杭州世界休闲博览园的体验营销策略研究



    体验营销是以顾客为中心,并提供有价值体验过程的营销活动。杭州世界休闲博览园将休闲与体验两者紧密结合,通过丰富的感官营销、情感营销、思考营销、行动营销、关联营销策略的完善,发展成为一个国际性的游乐世界、休闲王国、购物天堂。%Experience marketing is one of marketing activities of customer orientation and offers value experience process.Hangzhou World Leisure Expo Garden combines leisure and experience together,and grows intoa global play world,leisure kingdom and shopping paradise through the development of sense,feeling,thinking,action and related marketing strategies.

  3. 杭州西湖生态系统服务价值评估%Evaluation on ecosystem service value of West Lake in Hangzhou

    徐洪; 赵鹏大; 武俊梅; 李新宁; 吴振斌


    Value of material production,water conservation,water quality purification,leisure tourism,culture/research/education,energy absorbed by transpiration,and habitat,as well as existing value,option value,and heritage value of West Lake in Hangzhou were evaluated by monetization.This analysis was based on market price method,shadow engineering method,cost of pollution prevention and control method,travel cost method,results reference method,benefits substitution method,contingent valuation method,The results shown that the total ecosystem services value of West Lake in Hangzhou was 73 576.247 million yuan/a,which was equal to 10.5% of gross national product in Hangzhou.The value of leisure tourism (73 157.602 million yuan/a) was the largest of the 10 evaluation indicators,accounting for 99.431% of the total ecosystem services value,followed by the value of absorbed by transpiration (138.642 million yuan/a),accounting for 0.188%.Ecosystem services function of West Lake in Hangzhou is mostly leisure tourism.The accounting of its economic value is beneficial to construct economic account of urban ecological,and can provide scientific reference for the sustainable development of the city.%基于市场价格法、影子工程法、污染防治成本法、旅行费用法、成果参照法、等效益替代法和条件价值法等方法,对杭州西湖物质生产、涵养水源、水质净化、休闲旅游、文化科研教育、蒸腾吸热、栖息地、存在价值、选择价值和遗产价值等进行货币化评估.计算得杭州西湖生态系统服务总价值为7 357 624.7万元/a,是杭州市国民生产总值的10.5%.其中休闲旅游价值量最大(7 315 760.2万元/a),占生态系统服务总价值的99.431%,其次是蒸腾吸热价值(13 864.2万元/a),占0.188%.杭州西湖的生态系统服务功能主要是休闲旅游,其经济价值的核算有利于城市生态经济账户的构建,为城市的可持续发展提供科学参考.

  4. 杭州市2009年科技成果统计评价分析%Statistical Evaluation of the Scientific and Technological Achievementsin Hangzhou,2009

    钱种明; 沈悦林


    In this article,we reviewed the registrations of the scientific and technological achievements in Hangzhou in the year of 2009,and analyzed characteristics of these achievements.By examining the existing problems,proposals for improvement were made on aspects including system construction, models of management, communication platform, and results applications etc.%回顾了杭州市科技成果登记工作,分析了2009年科技成果特点,对存在问题进行了思考,并从制度建设、管理模式、交流平台、成果应用等方面提出了建议.

  5. 杭州市伏、秋旱灾害风险区划%Risk Divisions of Summer and Autumn Drought Disaster in Hangzhou City

    陈鑫; 缪启龙; 俞布; 沈伟风; 宋健


    Based on the 1959-2010 pr ecipitation data combined with the natural environment and the society economic factors of Hangzhou city, a regional drought risk disaster assessment model including disaster environment factor, disaster prevention and mitigation disaster capacity, was built up to analyze disaster prevention ability. By using the ArcGIS spatial analysis technology, combined with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, the autumn drought disaster risk zoning based on the 100 m ×100 m evaluation grid as the basic unit of Hangzhou city was established. The results show that, in the northwest of Chun'an, central and southern Jiande, central Tonglu, southern Fuyang, eastern Lin'an and Yuhang and the main urban areas, summer and autumn drought disaster presented higher risk.%根据杭州市1959-2010年降水资料、自然环境以及社会经济要素,综合致灾因子、孕灾环境、承灾环境及防灾减灾能力,构建区域干旱灾害风险评价模型。通过ArcGIS空间分析技术结合模糊综合评价法,编制以100 m×100 m栅格为基本评价单元的杭州市伏、秋旱灾害风险区划图。区划结果表明,淳安西北部、建德中南部、桐庐中部、富阳南部、临安东部以及余杭、主城区,伏旱、秋旱灾害风险均较高。

  6. Evolution of plant-made pharmaceuticals.

    Thomas, David R; Penney, Claire A; Majumder, Amrita; Walmsley, Amanda M


    The science and policy of pharmaceuticals produced and/or delivered by plants has evolved over the past twenty-one years from a backyard remedy to regulated, purified products. After seemingly frozen at Phase I human clinical trials with six orally delivered plant-made vaccines not progressing past this stage over seven years, plant-made pharmaceuticals have made a breakthrough with several purified plant-based products advancing to Phase II trials and beyond. Though fraught with the usual difficulties of pharmaceutical development, pharmaceuticals made by plants have achieved pertinent milestones albeit slowly compared to other pharmaceutical production systems and are now at the cusp of reaching the consumer. Though the current economic climate begs for cautious investment as opposed to trail blazing, it is perhaps a good time to look to the future of plant-made pharmaceutical technology to assist in planning for future developments in order not to slow this technology's momentum. To encourage continued progress, we highlight the advances made so far by this technology, particularly the change in paradigms, comparing developmental timelines, and summarizing the current status and future possibilities of plant-made pharmaceuticals.

  7. Vulnerabilities to misinformation in online pharmaceutical marketing.

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J


    Given the large percentage of Internet users who search for health information online, pharmaceutical companies have invested significantly in online marketing of their products. Although online pharmaceutical marketing can potentially benefit both physicians and patients, it can also harm these groups by misleading them. Indeed, some pharmaceutical companies have been guilty of undue influence, which has threatened public health and trust. We conducted a review of the available literature on online pharmaceutical marketing, undue influence and the psychology of decision-making, in order to identify factors that contribute to Internet users' vulnerability to online pharmaceutical misinformation. We find five converging factors: Internet dependence, excessive trust in the veracity of online information, unawareness of pharmaceutical company influence, social isolation and detail fixation. As the Internet continues to change, it is important that regulators keep in mind not only misinformation that surrounds new web technologies and their contents, but also the factors that make Internet users vulnerable to misinformation in the first place. Psychological components are a critical, although often neglected, risk factor for Internet users becoming misinformed upon exposure to online pharmaceutical marketing. Awareness of these psychological factors may help Internet users attentively and safely navigate an evolving web terrain.

  8. Strategic Management of Innovations at Pharmaceutical Enterprises

    Honcharova Svіtlana Yu.


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical and practical issues of the use of the concept of strategic management of innovations at pharmaceutical enterprises. It studies main barriers, which restrict development of Ukrainian pharmaceutical enterprises. It analyses the state and tendencies of development of innovation activity of pharmaceutical enterprises and studies foreign experience of innovation activity. It marks out specific features of strategic management of innovation development in pharmaceutical industry. It specifies the role and advantages of methods of strategic analysis in the system of management of a pharmaceutical enterprise. It considers the essence of “innovation development” and “innovation model of development” notions and analyses their organisational and legal provision. It justifies strategic tasks of the pharmaceutical filed to focus on in order to achieve a breakthrough when building an innovation model of economic development. The article proves that the most important factors that ensure growth of efficiency of pharmaceutical production are: wide application of the concept of strategic management and creation of innovations.

  9. Pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement reforms in Greece.

    Yfantopoulos, John


    Pharmaceutical price regulation in Greece is centralized. The National Drug Organization (EOF) is the main regulatory authority functioning under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity. In 2004, total pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece reached the level of 2.9 billion euro, of which 77.9% were public expenditure and the remaining 22.1% private. According to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) data the total per-capita expenditure on pharmaceutical care in Greece is among the lowest in Europe, representing 58% of the EU-12 average. In 1998, Greece introduced a reimbursement list, and the lowest reference pricing system among the 15 European Union member states with the purpose of controlling the growth of pharmaceutical expenditure. The measures proved to be ineffective since pharmaceutical expenditure, after a short-term reduction, continued to increase at similar rates to those before the introduction of price control mechanisms. The average annual increase of pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece over the period 1998-2003 was 7.9%, which is among the highest in the OECD countries (average 6.1%). New pharmaceutical legislation, no. 3457, was enacted on May 8th 2006, aiming at greater access to medicines, improvements to citizens' quality of life, effective and efficient utilization of health resources, transparency in public management, protecting public health, and maintaining long-term financial viability of the insurance system. The innovative aspect of the new legislation is the abolition of the positive list and the establishment of a rebate system granting the National Insurance Funds a rebate rate paid by the pharmaceutical companies. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First to assess the effectiveness of the positive list introduced in 1988 in Greece, using simple econometric models. Second to present the recent pharmaceutical reforms aimed at the introduction of a rebate system and establishing

  10. Metrology in Pharmaceutical Industry - A Case Study

    Yuvamoto, Priscila D.; Fermam, Ricardo K. S.; Nascimento, Elizabeth S.


    Metrology is recognized by improving production process, increasing the productivity, giving more reliability to the measurements and consequently, it impacts in the economy of a country. Pharmaceutical area developed GMP (Good Manufacture Practice) requeriments, with no introduction of metrological concepts. However, due to Nanomedicines, it is expected this approach and the consequent positive results. The aim of this work is to verify the level of metrology implementation in a Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, using a case study. The purpose is a better mutual comprehension by both areas, acting together and governmental support to robustness of Brazilian pharmaceutical area.

  11. Quality Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Formulations Containing Hydrochlorothiazide

    Marcelo Antonio de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic used to treat hypertension that belongs to class IV of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. The drug was evaluated by quality control, thermal characterization tests, and pharmaceutical formulation compatibility studies. It was concluded that the generic drug, Lab 2, was not a pharmaceutical equivalent. The compounded drugs, Lab 5 and Lab 6, produced unsatisfactory but expected results, since there is no requirement for dissolution and dissolution profile testing for the commercialization of these products. In a compatibility study, lactose and mannitol were shown to be incompatible with HCTZ, which may explain the lack of equivalence of the generic pharmaceutical product, associated with other situations.

  12. Quality evaluation of pharmaceutical formulations containing hydrochlorothiazide.

    de Oliveira, Marcelo Antonio; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Silva, Daphne Carina Gonçalves Monteiro da


    Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic used to treat hypertension that belongs to class IV of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. The drug was evaluated by quality control, thermal characterization tests, and pharmaceutical formulation compatibility studies. It was concluded that the generic drug, Lab 2, was not a pharmaceutical equivalent. The compounded drugs, Lab 5 and Lab 6, produced unsatisfactory but expected results, since there is no requirement for dissolution and dissolution profile testing for the commercialization of these products. In a compatibility study, lactose and mannitol were shown to be incompatible with HCTZ, which may explain the lack of equivalence of the generic pharmaceutical product, associated with other situations.

  13. [On the Chosen Pharmaceutical Association and "The Journal of the Chosen Pharmaceutical Association"].

    Ushikubo, Hiroko; Chiba, Yoshihiko; Misawa, Miwa


    In the 20th century, the medical and pharmaceutical fields in Korea and Japan were markedly developed. There was a deep relationship between the two countries as Japan had annexed Korea from 1910 to 1945, until the end of World War II. The present study was performed to investigate the Chosen Pharmaceutical Association and "The Journal of the Chosen Pharmaceutical Association" to research part of the history of Korean pharmacology in those days. In 1914, the Chosen Pharmaceutical Association was established; Takasato Kojima was appointed as the first chairman. The first issue of "The Journal of the Chosen Pharmaceutical Association" was published in 1921 as the only chemical bulletin in Korea. The contents of the journals mainly consisted of academic papers, investigations on hygiene and health in Korea and management reports of the association. Concerning the academic papers, most of them were on studies of environmental health and medicinal plants in Korea. The Chosen Pharmaceutical Association was disbanded by 1945.


    Those chemical pollutants that are regulated under various international, federal, and state programs represent but a small fraction of the universe of chemicals that occur in the environment as a result of both natural processes and human influence. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-revi


    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  16. Indigenous and multinational pharmaceutical companies.

    Lilja, J


    There is a set of complex relationships between governments and the pharmaceutical companies. These relationships can be analysed in many different ways. In the following article the drug system of each country will be the unit of analysis. The drug system includes all the decision processes, formal as well as informal, from the production or importation of drugs to the intake of the drug by the patient. The aim of this paper is to discuss how environmental factors, the strategies of the drug companies and the national policies, will effect the drug system of a country. Satisfying solutions to the economical and health goals of the country will be searched for. If we want a more rational discussion in this area, professionally and politically, we need more empirical knowledge about the multinational drug companies and their effects on society. This does not mean that we shall sit waiting for this new knowledge. We have to make decisions using todays knowledge. However, in the long run rational decision strategy must include ways to collect important empirical data about the phenomenom under investigation. The aim of this survey is to indicate areas where we already have quite good knowledge and indicate other areas where this data is missing.

  17. Animal-derived pharmaceutical proteins.

    Redwan, el-Rashdy M


    Livestock animals have made a significant contribution to human health and well-being throughout humankind's history. A significant contribution of farm animals to human health are the longstanding use of bovine and porcine for production of insulin (for treatment of diabetes), gelatin (for pharmaceutical and other purposes), as well as horse and sheep antibody against natural venoms, toxins, drugs and microbial peptides. Gelatin being the biggest animal protein consumed in human health, follows with antibodies fragments. The chronic problem of animal-derived therapeutics, especially those of high molecular weight, is the immunogenicity induction in addition to their biosafety. However, the invertebrates and lower vertebrates donate the human being a several crucial emergency saving life small-peptides or their analogs such as Refludan, Prialt, Exendin. Not only, but the farm animals are enormously using as models for novel surgical strategies, testing of biodegradable implants and sources of tissue replacements, such as skin and heart valves. Recently, they are being harnessing as bioreactor for production of biopharmaceutical related products through gene farming with efficiency far greater than any conventional microbial or cell-culture production systems. Only 16 transgenic cows would be covering the worldwide needs from human growth hormone. The transgenic, especially animal, technology would be solving a several biopharmaceutical products disadvantages, such as cost, biosafety, immunogenicity and the availability dimensions.

  18. Clinical audit of structured pharmaceutical care plans recorded within a hospital pharmaceutical care service

    Christensen, Marit Bergheim


    Background Pharmaceutical care as a health care service has already made its mark and been shown to make an important contribution to the health care system. However, there is still a demand from the NHS among others, that pharmacist to a greater extent must document their provision of pharmaceutical care. Tested out in this project, is the application of a Care Issue Categorisation System. Aims To compare two clinical settings in terms of the profile of pharmaceutical care deli...


    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of conceited attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environme...

  20. Sample Preparation for Bioanalytical and Pharmaceutical Analysis.

    Clark, Kevin D; Zhang, Cheng; Anderson, Jared L


    Biological and pharmaceutical samples represent formidable challenges in sample preparation that hold important consequences for bioanalysis and genotoxic impurity quantification. This Feature will emphasize significant advances toward the development of rapid, sensitive, and selective sample preparation methods.

  1. Funding pharmaceutical innovation through direct tax credits.

    Lybecker, Kristina M; Freeman, Robert A


    Rising pharmaceutical prices, increasing demand for more effective innovative drugs and growing public outrage have heightened criticism of the pharmaceutical industry. The public debate has focused on drug prices and access. As a consequence, the patent system is being reexamined as an efficient mechanism for encouraging pharmaceutical innovation and drug development. We propose an alternative to the existing patent system, instead rewarding the innovating firm with direct tax credits in exchange for marginal cost pricing. This concept is based on the fundamental assumption that innovation that benefits society at large may be financed publicly. As an industry which produces a social good characterized by high fixed costs, high information and regulatory costs, and relatively low marginal costs of production, pharmaceuticals are well-suited to such a mechanism. Under this proposal, drug prices fall, consumer surplus increases, access is enhanced, and the incentives to innovate are preserved.

  2. Mergers and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Comanor, William S; Scherer, F M


    Conflicting trends confound the pharmaceutical industry. The productivity of pharmaceutical innovation has declined in recent years. At the same time, the cohort of large companies who are the leading engines of pharmaceutical R&D has become increasingly concentrated. The concurrent presence of these trends is not sufficient to determine causation. In response to lagging innovation prospects, some companies have sought refuge in mergers and acquisitions to disguise their dwindling prospects or gain R&D synergies. On the other hand, the increased concentration brought on by recent mergers may have contributed to the declining rate of innovation. In this paper, we consider the second of these causal relationships: the likely impact of the recent merger wave among the largest pharmaceutical companies on the rate of innovation. In other words, have recent mergers, which may have been taken in response to lagging innovation, represented a self-defeating strategy that only made industry outcomes worse?

  3. Assessment of pharmaceutical care practices of community ...

    Assessment of pharmaceutical care practices of community pharmacists in patients with co-morbidity of hypertension and diabetes in Delta state. ... The most encountered drug therapy problem was non- compliance. The low level of ...

  4. Pharmaceutical marketing research and the prescribing physician.

    Greene, Jeremy A


    Surveillance of physicians' prescribing patterns and the accumulation and sale of these data for pharmaceutical marketing are currently the subjects of legislation in several states and action by state and national medical associations. Contrary to common perception, the growth of the health care information organization industry has not been limited to the past decade but has been building slowly over the past 50 years, beginning in the 1940s when growth in the prescription drug market fueled industry interest in understanding and influencing prescribing patterns. The development of this surveillance system was not simply imposed on the medical profession by the pharmaceutical industry but was developed through the interactions of pharmaceutical salesmen, pharmaceutical marketers, academic researchers, individual physicians, and physician organizations. Examination of the role of physicians and physician organizations in the development of prescriber profiling is directly relevant to the contemporary policy debate surrounding this issue.

  5. Pharmaceutical technology management--profitable business avenue.

    Puthli, Shivanand P


    Growing research expenditure, regulatory framework and generic erosion have forced pharmaceutical companies globally to resort to pharmaceutical technology management (PTM). Indeed, the pharmaceutical industry has witnessed the impact of innovative drug delivery and device technologies and their influence on business. PTM has given a new business insight with greater profits and enhancement of product franchise. Promising breakthrough technologies have not been able to reach a commercial platform largely owing to lack of capital at the preliminary stages of the product development program. Intellectual property plays a considerable role in protecting innovative technologies. Joint ventures and strategic alliances also become important for commercializing a new technology. The synergy of PTM with options of in-licensing is expected to infuse newer opportunities to the pharmaceutical business.

  6. Sleep complaints and daytime sleepiness among pharmaceutical ...

    Sleep complaints and daytime sleepiness among pharmaceutical students in Tripoli. ... Background: The effect of sleep difficulties has achieved a great deal of ... not increasing education programs or tea/coffee consumption is associated with ...


    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of conceited attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environme...

  8. Vulnerabilities to misinformation in online pharmaceutical marketing

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J


    .... We conducted a review of the available literature on online pharmaceutical marketing, undue influence and the psychology of decision-making, in order to identify factors that contribute to Internet users...

  9. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad


    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead.

  10. Development of Bird-watching Ecological Tourism in Hangzhou Bay National Wetland Park%杭州湾国家湿地公园观鸟生态旅游开发及对策研究



    Abstract A review was presented on bird watching tourism development in China and abroad. The conditions for developing bird watching tourism and existing problems in Hangzhou Bay Wetland Park were analyzed.Suggestions were proposed to develop bird-watching ecotourism in Hangzhou bay wetland.%对观鸟旅游在国内外的发展进行概要梳理之后,分析了杭州湾湿地公园发展观鸟旅游的条件及存在问题,最后提出了杭州湾湿地公园发展观鸟生态旅游的建议与对策.

  11. Future Perspectives of Pharmaceutical Research and Development

    Shein-Chung Chow; Fuyu Song


    As more and more innovative drug products (e.g., chemical drug and biological drug products) are going off patent protection, the development of generics/biosimilars products have become the center of attention of many pharmaceutical companies. In addition, as new drug research and development has reached the bottle-neck, the pharmaceutical industry begin to focus on the search for new or alternative medicines such as traditional Chinese medicine that can treat critical and/or life-threatenin...

  12. Paying for On-Patent Pharmaceuticals

    Fuller, Richard L.; Goldfield, Norbert


    In this article we propose a new approach to pricing for patent-protected (on-patent) pharmaceuticals. We describe and define limit pricing as a method for drug companies to maximize revenue for their investment by offering budget-neutral pricing to encourage early adoption by payers. Under this approach, payers are incentivized to adopt innovative but expensive drugs more quickly if drug companies provide detailed analyses of the net impact of the new pharmaceutical upon total health budgets...

  13. Wastewaters: occurrence of pharmaceutical substances and genotoxicity

    Tauxe Würsch, Annick; Tarradellas, Joseph


    The major pathways of human pharmaceuticals into the environment are from their use by individuals either at home or under medical supervision in hospitals, and to a lesser extent by the disposal of unwanted or out of date drugs. The administered pharmaceuticals will be excreted as the parent compound, metabolite or conjugate and will be transported to sewage treatment works. In sewage treatment, the compound may be degraded or partially degraded, adsorbed to sludge if lipophilic, be ...

  14. Economic Drivers of Pharmaceutical Investment Location

    David Lewis; Edward Bramley-Harker; Joshua Farahnik


    The article examines the range of economic factors that underlie decision making about the location of investments by research-based pharmaceutical companies. Set in the context of the commercial challenges facing the industry, structured interviews with 34 senior executives in pharmaceutical companies examined hypothetical investment scenarios. Unsurprisingly, both cost and quality factors are important to decision making, but their nature and relative importance depend heavily on the type o...

  15. Evaluating Innovation and Moral Hazard in Pharmaceuticals

    Paris Cleanthous


    This paper formulates an empirical methodology that evaluates pharmaceutical innovation in the American antidepressant market by quantifying patient welfare benefits from innovation. While evaluating pharmaceutical innovation in antidepressants, I uncover and address the moral hazard issue that arises due to the existence of prescription drug insurance coverage. A combination of market-level data, drug and patient characteristics are used to estimate demand for all antidepressants between 198...

  16. Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of quantum dots.

    Bajwa, Neha; Mehra, Neelesh K; Jain, Keerti; Jain, Narendra K


    Quantum dots (QDs) have captured the fascination and attention of scientists due to their simultaneous targeting and imaging potential in drug delivery, in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. In the present study, we have exhaustively reviewed various aspects of QDs, highlighting their pharmaceutical and biomedical applications, pharmacology, interactions, and toxicological manifestations. The eventual use of QDs is to dramatically improve clinical diagnostic tests for early detection of cancer. In recent years, QDs were introduced to cell biology as an alternative fluorescent probe.

  17. Ethical evaluation of pharmaceutical marketing in Pakistan

    Ahmad, M.; Akhtar, N.; Awan,M.H.A; Murtaza, G.


    Our aim in this study is to give a broad overview of the main ethical and legal challenges of pharmaceutical marketing. The purpose of this study was also to investigate unethical pharmaceutical marketing, the effect on physicians of receiving gifts, the influences of perceptions regarding the importance of ethics and social responsibility on ethical intentions of marketing professionals. It also investigates the effect of unethical marketing on ultimate consumer (patient). Questionnaire base...

  18. Pharmaceutical Distribution Market Channels in Poland

    Agnieszka Woś


    Full Text Available Distribution on the pharmaceutical market in Poland is interesting and the most difficult sphere to manage. Numerous varied and specialized companies operating on the market cause that the processes of choosing middlemen in distribution channels are very complex. The hereby article presents the role and location of the companies operating within distribution channels on the pharmaceutical market. It draws attention to the development of non-pharmacy and non-wholesale sales channels.

  19. Pharmaceutical regulation in 15 European countries review.

    Panteli, Dimitra; Arickx, Francis; Cleemput, Irina; Dedet, Guillaume; Eckhardt, Helen; Fogarty, Emer; Gerkens, Sophie; Henschke, Cornelia; Hislop, Jennifer; Jommi, Claudio; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Kawalec, Pawel; Keskimaki, Ilmo; Kroneman, Madelon; Lopez Bastida, Julio; Pita Barros, Pedro; Ramsberg, Joakim; Schneider, Peter; Spillane, Susan; Vogler, Sabine; Vuorenkoski, Lauri; Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Wouters, Olivier; Busse, Reinhard


    In the context of pharmaceutical care, policy-makers repeatedly face the challenge of balancing patient access to effective medicines with affordability and rising costs. With the aim of guiding the health policy discourse towards questions that are important to actual and potential patients, this study investigates a broad range of regulatory measures, spanning marketing authorization to generic substitution and resulting price levels in a sample of 16 European health systems (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain and Sweden). All countries employ a mix of regulatory mechanisms to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and ensure quality and efficiency in pharmaceutical care, albeit with varying configurations and rigour. This variation also influences the extent of publicly financed pharmaceutical costs. Overall, observed differences in pharmaceutical expenditure should be interpreted in conjunction with the differing volume and composition of consumption and price levels, as well as dispensation practices and their impact on measurement of pharmaceutical costs. No definitive evidence has yet been produced on the effects of different cost-containment measures on patient outcomes. Depending on the foremost policy concerns in each country, different levers will have to be used to enable the delivery of appropriate care at affordable prices.

  20. Bromination of selected pharmaceuticals in water matrices.

    Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Real, Francisco J; Roldan, Gloria; Casas, Francisco


    The bromination of five selected pharmaceuticals (metoprolol, naproxen, amoxicillin, phenacetin, and hydrochlorothiazide) was studied with these compounds individually dissolved in ultra-pure water. The apparent rate constants for the bromination reaction were determined as a function of the pH, obtaining the sequence amoxicillin>naproxen>hydrochlorothiazide≈phenacetin≈metoprolol. A kinetic mechanism specifying the dissociation reactions and the species formed for each compound according to its pK(a) value and the pH allowed the intrinsic rate constants to be determined for each elementary reaction. There was fairly good agreement between the experimental and calculated values of the apparent rate constants, confirming the goodness of the proposed reaction mechanism. In a second stage, the bromination of the selected pharmaceuticals simultaneously dissolved in three water matrices (a groundwater, a surface water from a public reservoir, and a secondary effluent from a WWTP) was investigated. The pharmaceutical elimination trend agreed with the previously determined rate constants. The influence of the main operating conditions (pH, initial bromine dose, and characteristics of the water matrix) on the degradation of the pharmaceuticals was established. An elimination concentration profile for each pharmaceutical in the water matrices was proposed based on the use of the previously evaluated apparent rate constants, and the theoretical results agreed satisfactorily with experiment. Finally, chlorination experiments performed in the presence of bromide showed that low bromide concentrations slightly accelerate the oxidation of the selected pharmaceuticals during chlorine disinfection.

  1. 基于DEA方法的杭州城市旅游用地效率评价研究∗%Research on Efficiency of Urban Tourism Land of Hangzhou Based on the Data Envelopment Analysis



    In this paper,the effectiveness of the input-output efficiency of Hangzhou city tourism land from 2005 to 2012 is evalu-ated with the DAE method.The economic efficiency of its tourism land is highest,followed by eco-efficiency and social efficiency, the overall characteristics tend effectiveness.For the non-validity of its urban tourism land,it mostly relies on the input redundan-cy,which has a direct relationship with the preliminary stage in Hangzhou of new tourism development plan.By evaluating the ef-ficiency of urban tourism land of Hangzhou Tourism(2005-2012),the corresponding suggestions about the urban tourism develop-ment and the investment of tourism land are provided to promote the sustainable utilization of urban tourism land in Hangzhou.%以 DEA 为方法,对杭州2005-2012年城市旅游用地效率投入产出有效性进行评价,其旅游用地经济效率最高,其次为生态效率、社会效率,总体特征趋于有效性。针对旅游用地非有效性,分析影响有效性的主要原因为投入冗余,这与杭州市处于旅游发展新规划初级阶段有着直接的关系。通过对杭州2005-2012年城市旅游用地效率评价,为杭州城市旅游发展及旅游用地的投入提供了一定的建议,以期促进杭州城市旅游用地的可持续发展。

  2. Ecotoxicological assessment using six pharmaceuticals commonly found in wastewaters

    Taipale, Paula; Ursin, Sisko


    Pharmaceutical residues in wastewaters are relatively new concern in environment protection. The usage of pharmaceuticals has increased a lot and their impact on the environment is unknown. Low levels of pharmaceuticals have been detected in many countries in sewage treatment plant effluents, surface waters, seawaters, groundwater and some drinking waters. Pharmaceutically-active compounds until recently have not been studied however even small residues of pharmaceuticals can have an effect o...

  3. Strengthen the Supervision over Pharmaceuticals via Modern Automatic Identification


    Fake pharmaceuticals inflicts severely upon people(?)~-s health through its circulation in markets.To strengthen the supervision of the pharmaceutical market,China is improving and is perfecting its national coding system in the field of pharmaceuticals. Bar-code tag and IC tag are available to the coding system.This paper summarizes the significance of IC tag to the supervision of pharmaceuticals and gives us a strategically general prospect of pharmaceutical supervision.

  4. Water and stability of pharmaceutical solids

    Shalaev, Evgenyi


    Solid pharmaceuticals are multi-component systems consisting of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and inactive ingredients (excipients). Excipients may include inorganic salts (e.g., NaCl), carbohydrates (e.g., lactose), and polymers, to name a few, whereas APIs range from relatively simple molecules (e.g., aspirin) to proteins and olygonucleotides. Pharmaceutical solids could exist either as single-phase or heterophase systems. They also may have different extent of order, such as highly ordered crystalline phases, amorphous solids that are thermodynamically unstable but might be kinetically stable under the time frame of observation, and crystalline mesophases including liquid crystals. With all this diversity, there are common features for such systems, and two of them will be discussed in the presentation. (i) Requirements for chemical stability of pharmaceuticals are very strict. A very limited (e.g., less than 0.1%) extent of conversion is allowed in these materials over the shelf life, i.e., during several years of storage at ambient and (sometimes) not fully controlled (e.g., a medicine cabinet in one's bathroom) conditions. (ii) All pharmaceutical solids contain some water, although its amount and physical state are highly variable and may change during manufacturing and shelf life. There are many challenging questions and issues associated with the ``Water and stability of pharmaceutical solids'' subject; some of them will be considered in the presentation: (i) What are the features of chemical reactivity of crystalline vs disordered systems? (ii) What is the role of water in solid state chemical reactivity of amorphous solids, e.g., water as plasticizer vs reactant vs reaction media? (iii) How homogeneous are pharmaceutical amorphous solid solutions, e.g., carbohydrate-water systems? (iv) What is the optimal water content? With water being the most common destabilizing factor, is ``the drier - the better'' always the case?

  5. An Investment Opportunity China's Pharmaceutical Industry: TIANJIN JINHUI PHARMACEUTICAL CO, LTD

    Xianping; Liu


    @@ People say, pharmaceutical is an eternal industry "facing the Sun" in the world market. In 1970, the total revenue pharmaceutical industry was only ($)2.17 Billion, which was raised greatly to ($)41.10 Billion in 2002 and increased further by 7% annually, reaching ($)500 Billion in 2005.

  6. Pharmaceutical interventions by collaboration between staff pharmacists and clinical pharmacists and implementation of Joint Commission International Accreditation Standards on medication use may optimize pharmacotherapy in geriatric patients

    Chen M


    Full Text Available Meng Chen, Quan Zhou Department of Pharmacy, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of ChinaWe read with great interest the prospective study by Cortejoso et al,1 which describes the characteristics of pharmaceutical interventions in two geriatric wards (orthogeriatric ward and geriatric day unit of a general teaching hospital. We strongly agree with their finding that shows the importance of clinical pharmacist involvement in the optimization of pharmacotherapy in elderly patients. Furthermore, we especially appreciate their new and interesting findings that the clinical pharmacist was more frequently requested by physicians and nurses for information about the pharmacotherapy of the patients on the geriatric day unit, compared with the orthogeriatric ward at admission and discharge (5.7% vs 1.2% and 1.7%, respectively, P<0.05, and that the pharmacist asked for more confirmation of the physician orders on the geriatric day unit rather than the orthogeriatric ward (19.8% vs 1.8% and 15.7% at admission and discharge, respectively, P<0.05. We are from a Joint Commission International (JCI-accredited academic medical center hospital with 3200 beds in China. Safe medication management and use are pivotal to patient safety and quality of care on which the state-of-the-art standards of the Joint Commission focus. We would like to share our perspectives in the following paragraphs.View original paper by Cortejoso and colleagues. 

  7. AG-3340 (Agouron Pharmaceuticals Inc).

    Griffioen, A W


    Agouron Pharmaceuticals is developing AG-3340 (prinomastat), the lead compound in a series of structurally related metalloproteinase inhibitors, for the potential treatment of cancer and age-related macular degeneration. AG-3340, an oral, non-peptide inhibitor of gelatinase types A and B (MMP-2 and -9), MT1-MP (MMP-14) and collagenase III [234058], was selected following demonstration of activity in a variety of in vivo preclinical models upon oral dosing. In May 1999, phase III trials for lung and prostate cancers of AG-3340 in front-line combination with chemotherapy was begun in the US and Canada [286380,326640]. The tested dose for these trials is 5 to 15 mg bid. Following demonstration of the enhanced efficacy of chemotherapy when supplemented with AG-3340 in preclinical tumor models, pilot combination studies and double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase III trials in 700 patients are in progress for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer or advanced hormone-refractory prostate cancer [302584,327014]. In August 1999, Agouron initiated a second, confirmatory phase III trial of AG-3340 in combination with chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer [337253]. Pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted in healthy male volunteers and single agent dose-escalation studies in patients demonstrated toxicities (grade 1 or 2; joint related) were not doselimiting [302238]. At the 10th European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) meeting in Amsterdam (June 1998), Agouron released encouraging results from two phase I studies and one preclinical study of AG-3340 [289688]. In a further 15- patient, phase I study of AG-3340 with paclitaxel and carboplatin, the combination was safe and well tolerated [326268]. AG-3340 has demonstrated significant antimetastatic and antitumor activity in animal models, as well as oral bioavailability and a favorable pharmacokinetic profile. Daily doses of 50 mg/kg completely halted growth of

  8. Diversity of bird communities in southern Hangzhou Bay and the Qiantang River estuary and their responses to reclamation of intertidal mudflats

    Keyi Jiang


    Full Text Available Bird communities were surveyed in southern Hangzhou Bay and the Qiantang River estuary from November 2008 to September 2011. A total of 220 bird species belonging to 16 orders and 52 families were recorded, of which, 173 (78.6% were migrants and 24 were listed as state key protected wildlife grade I or II. The composition and diversity of bird communities in eight habitat types were compared using the G-F index and the Jaccard index. Ninety-five species (43.2% were observed in the ponds located in Cixi Wetland Centre with common reed (Phragmites australis marshes, 93 species (42.3% in the coastal woodland, and 78 species (35.5% in intertidal mudflats and coastal reservoirs. About 82.5% of the Charadriiformes species were recorded in intertidal mudflats; 69.2% of the Anatidae species in coastal reservoirs, and 73.4% of the Passeriformes species in the coastal woodland which provides the breeding habitat for the Ardeidae birds. Compared with intertidal mudflats, the highest value of the Jaccard index was obtained for bird communities in the newly reclaimed but undeveloped areas (0.56, followed by coastal reservoirs (0.34 and ponds located in Cixi Wetland Centre with common reed marshes (0.30. For the whole bird community, the highest value of G-F index was obtained in coastal reservoirs and coastal woodland, whereas the lowest value was recorded in the intertidal mudflats. However, newly reclaimed but undeveloped sites had the highest value of G-F index for the waterbird community, followed by coastal reservoirs and intertidal mudflats. Our results indicate that suitable habitat availability and human disturbance are the main factors influencing the spatial distribution of bird communities in the Hangzhou Bay and the Qiantang River estuary. The most serious human disturbance in this region was found to be coastal reclamation. Thus, diversity of local avian communities in the Hangzhou Bay and the Qiantang River estuary could increase if moderate

  9. Concept of the Ural pharmaceutical cluster formation

    Aleksandr Petrovich Petrov


    Full Text Available This paper substantiates the necessity of cluster organization of the pharmaceutical industry in the region. The estimation of the state and prospects of development of such structures in the domestic economy is given. Sverdlovsk region was chosen as the object of study on the possibility of forming a pharmaceutical cluster. Objective prerequisites for the organization of a cluster of pharmaceutical production in Sverdlovsk region are considered, among these were distinguished: capacious and fast-growing market for pharmaceutical products, availability of potential development of the pharmaceutical industry in the territory and the key success factors for enterprises - potential participants of the cluster. Indicated key success factors are: presence of a creative team and close interaction between business and government, high level of cooperation among the enterprises of the cluster and commercialization of products, implementation of research and development expenditures etc. Thus, it was substantiated that in there all references and resources for the formation of a pharmaceutical cluster. The concept of formation and development of the Ural pharmaceutical cluster was elaborated. Inside the concept, the goals, objectives, processing, product and organizational priorities for cluster formation are identified. Architecture of this structure with a justification of its members and certain forms of interaction between them is proposed. The stages of formation and development of the Ural pharmaceutical cluster on the basis of a ten-year settlement period for the full range of activities for this project are substantiated. At each stage, a set of key objectives and results of the cluster was defined. The choice of phases was carried out on the basis of investment programs of cluster's enterprises strategic position on the mastering of markets and infrastructure development. An assessment of socio-economic efficiency of the Ural pharmaceutical

  10. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review.

    Jaberidoost, Mona; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahiasl, Akbar; Dinarvand, Rassoul


    Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies.

  11. New pharmaceuticals reduce cost of illness.

    Hansen, R W


    The cost of illness includes not only the funds required to treat illness, but also the effect on the patient's quality of life. Recent concern about rising health costs have focused on the direct expenditures without noting that the cost of illness in terms of mortality and morbidity has declined significantly. Pharmaceuticals have played a major role in reducing the total cost of illness. Several studies of the cost-effectiveness of past introductions of vaccines and pharmaceuticals reveal large cost savings. Although the focus of most studies has been on major advances, the continuing process of less dramatic therapeutic improvements has significantly trimmed the cost of illness. Cost-benefit studies of new drugs or changes in drug use, while more difficult to perform, make it possible to influence the selection of therapy. Since pharmaceuticals represent less than 10% of total treatment costs, reduction in the cost of pharmaceutical products can only have a minor impact on the total cost of illness. Pharmaceuticals can reduce the cost of illness by providing alternative therapies that reduce direct treatment cost or improve the public health.

  12. Lubricants in Pharmaceutical Solid Dosage Forms

    Jinjiang Li


    Full Text Available Lubrication plays a key role in successful manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms; lubricants are essential ingredients in robust formulations to achieve this. Although many failures in pharmaceutical manufacturing operations are caused by issues related to lubrication, in general, lubricants do not gain adequate attention in the development of pharmaceutical formulations. In this paper, the fundamental background on lubrication is introduced, in which the relationships between lubrication and friction/adhesion forces are discussed. Then, the application of lubrication in the development of pharmaceutical products and manufacturing processes is discussed with an emphasis on magnesium stearate. In particular, the effect of its hydration state (anhydrate, monohydrate, dihydrate, and trihydrate and its powder characteristics on lubrication efficiency, as well as product and process performance is summarized. In addition, the impact of lubrication on the dynamics of compaction/compression processes and on the mechanical properties of compacts/tablets is presented. Furthermore, the online monitoring of magnesium stearate in a blending process is briefly mentioned. Finally, the chemical compatibility of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API with magnesium stearate and its reactive impurities is reviewed with examples from the literature illustrating the various reaction mechanisms involved.

  13. Microbial growth in small-volume pharmaceuticals.

    Whyte, W; Niven, L; Bell, N D


    The ability of aseptically filled pharmaceuticals to support microbial growth was tested on 43 small-volume products (mainly parenterals). These were inoculated with a variety of microorganisms which were known to be associated with contamination of pharmaceutical products. In general, Gram-negative bacteria were found to be much more likely to grow than Gram-positive. It was possible for an inoculum of a few cells to multiply to levels up to 10(7)/mL. The presence of preservatives also influenced the likelihood of growth, 12 out of 19 (63%) of the pharmaceuticals without preservatives supporting growth of one or more microorganisms; only 3 out of 24 (12%) of those with preservatives supported growth. The importance of these observations is discussed with reference to formulation of aseptically filled products, environmental sampling and the quality of cleanroom conditions necessary for production. It is suggested that those pharmaceuticals which are designed to be sterile but not to be terminally sterilized, should be tested before production begins, for their ability to support microbial growth. In this way, the risks involved in aseptically filling can be ascertained. A test is proposed in which "indicator" microorganisms would predict the likelihood of pharmaceutical formulations supporting growth.

  14. Study of the Tourism Ecological Security Assessment for Hangzhou%杭州市旅游生态安全评价研究



    Tourism ecological security is the important premise of tourism activities, which has a certain practical significance to tourist ecological security evaluation. According to the ecological footprint model and tourism contribution factor, it transforms regional ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity into tourism ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity, so as to get travel ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity per capita. Comparing their ratio and difference, it determines tourism ecological surplus situation and ecological safety. Taking Hangzhou an empirical case, in 2013, its tourism ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity per capita were 0.058627809hm2/person and 0.007362505hm2/person. Ecological deficit was 0.051265304hm2/person. Travel safety is in the deterioration of which the TVC is greater than 1. Hangzhou tourism ecological security problems are worthy of attention.%旅游地生态安全是开展旅游活动的重要前提,对旅游地生态安全评价具有一定的现实意义。根据生态足迹模型,凭借旅游贡献率因子,将区域生态足迹和生态承载力转换为旅游生态足迹和旅游生态承载力,从而获得人均旅游生态足迹和人均旅游生态承载力,对比两者差值和比值,确定旅游生态盈余情况和旅游生态安全度。以杭州市为实证研究,2013年杭州市人均旅游生态足迹和人均旅游生态承载力分别为0.058627809hm2/人和0.007362505hm2/人,生态赤字0.051265304hm2/人,旅游安全度处于安全值大于1的恶化状态,杭州市旅游生态安全问题值得重视。

  15. [Relations between attitude and practice of smoking and the training program regarding tobacco control among community medical staff members in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province].

    Liu, Qing-Min; Ren, Yan-Jun; Cao, Cheng-Jian; Liu, Bing; Lv, Jun; Li, Li-Ming


    To investigate the relations between training and both the attitude and practice on smoking control among community medical staff members in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province. Three representative districts including Xiacheng, Gongshu and Westlake were chosen from Hangzhou city. Questionnaire survey was applied to collect information from the related community medical staff members. The survey mainly contained three aspects: knowledge, attitude and practice regarding smoking control involved in the community medical activities. Availability and application of the resources on smoking cessation were also studied. Logistic regression analysis was applied to explore the factors associated with the smoking control training programs. Differences of rates between groups were assessed with chi-square statistics. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to study the relationships among knowledge, attitude and practice related to smoking control programs, targeted to the community medical staff members. Eight hundred forty-six community medical workers were involved. Sixty-five percent of the community medical staff members had learned related knowledge on smoking control. Proportion of the community medical staff who had taken lessons on smoking control with 3-10 working years was 1.77 times more than the ones with experience less than two years (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.25-2.51). Eighty-eight point seven percent of the medical staff who had received smoking control training programs were identified with the consciousness that they should advise the patients to quit smoking, comparing to the proportion 81.60% (Z=-2.87, P=0.00) in the control group. In terms of the practice regarding smoking control, data showed that 21.62% of the medical staff who had received smoking control training programs would provide 'how to quit smoking' to more than 90% of the smoking patients, while the proportion in the control group was 10.65% (Z = -5.68, P = 0.00). The use of drugs, traditional Chinese medicine

  16. Urban Traffic Congestion Distribution Characteristics of Hangzhou%杭州市交通拥堵路网分布特征研究

    侯树展; 李燕; 毛燕武


    通过对杭州市近3年交通拥堵路段分布数据的统计分析,提出以交通拥堵概率作为衡量路段交通拥堵发生频率的指标。按照工作日、节假日、周六日等3类日期分别对杭州交通拥堵路段的分布情况进行了定量描述;以10等阶拥堵概率统计结果为基础,对不同拥堵概率路段占路网的比例及分布位置进行了探讨。提出当前杭州市的交通拥堵特征主要表现为晚比早堵、南比北堵,以时间上的偶发性拥堵和地点上的点拥堵为主,并提出了拥堵概率相对较大的路段、交叉口等的分布范围,可以为后续重点突破、全面疏导地治理杭州市交通拥堵提供决策支持。%Traffic congestion road data from 2012 to 2015 of Hangzhou was used for statistical analysis.The traffic congestion probability was proposed to indicate the frequency of traffic congestion on the urban streets in the data period.All days of the data were grouped into three categories ,such as Workday ,Holiday and Weekend.Based on the classifi-cation of days ,the traffic congestion distribution was analyzed in a quantitative manner.And traffic congestion probability was divided every 10 percent.The rule of correspondence was studied between congestion probability and congestion road sections'length proportion to the highway network length.The main congested road sections were listed by morning peak , evening peak for Workday ,Holiday and Weekend.On Hangzhou urban streets ,the evening traffic congestion is worse than morning ,southern part worse than northern part of the city.And the main congestion always happened occasionally and probably at intersections and other area of population aggregation.

  17. Marketing concepts for pharmaceutical service development.

    Grauer, D W


    Marketing concepts as a mechanism to help pharmacy develop, communicate, and sell future pharmaceutical services to consumers are discussed. Pharmacy as a profession must define itself broadly to take advantage of future growth opportunities. These growth opportunities will be realized from unmet health-care needs and changing consumer life style trends and values. New services must therefore be oriented toward consumers (i.e., patients, health professionals, and third-party agencies) to gain acceptance. Dispensing and drug-knowledge-distribution pharmaceutical services are reviewed by a product life cycle analysis of sales profits versus time. A marketing mix for new pharmaceutical services is developed consisting of service, price, distribution, and promotion strategies. Marketing can encompass those key elements necessary to meet the organizational goals of pharmacy and provide a systematic, disciplined approach for presenting a new service to consumers.

  18. Pharmaceutical policy and the lay public

    Traulsen, Janine M; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna


    research which includes studies that look at: lay attitudes towards pharmaceutical policy; lay experiences of drug therapy and how it affects their daily lives; the problem of identifying lay representatives; the relationship between industry and the consumers; the effect of the media on medicine users...... organisations, industry and, most recently, the media. Although the overall aim of health and pharmaceutical policy is to address the needs of all citizens, there are only a few, well organised groups who are actually consulted and involved in the policymaking process, often with the support of the industry....... The reasons for this lack of citizen involvement in health and pharmaceutical policymaking are many, for example: there is no consensus about what public involvement means; there is a predominance of special interest groups with narrow, specific agendas; not all decision makers welcome lay participation...

  19. Pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession

    Traulsen, Janine M; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna


    In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy...... and industrial policy. In order to analyse and understand pharmaceutical policy, it is important to know how policymakers view pharmacy and pharmacists. The authors look at the issues that arise when policy regulates pharmacy as a business, and what this means for the profession. The perspective of pharmacy...... in managerialism, and how the division of labour with other health professionals such as physicians and pharmacy assistants is affecting the pharmacy profession's position in the labour market. Next the authors look at ways in which the pharmacy profession has affected policy. Pharmacists have been instrumental...

  20. Pharmaceutical strategy and innovation: an academics perspective.

    Baxendale, Ian R; Hayward, John J; Ley, Steven V; Tranmer, Geoffrey K


    The pharmaceutical industry is under increasing pressure on many fronts, from investors requiring larger returns to consumer groups and health authorities demanding cheaper and safer drugs. It is also feeling additional pressure from the infringement upon its profit margins by generic drug producers. Many companies are aggressively pursuing outsourcing contracts in an attempt to counter many of the financial pressures and streamline their operations. At the same time, the productivity of the pharmaceutical industry at its science base is being questioned in terms of the number of products and the timeframes required for each company to deliver them to market. This has generated uncertainties regarding the current corporate strategies that have been adopted and the levels of innovation being demonstrated. In this essay we discuss these topics in the context of the global pharmaceutical market, investigating the basis for many of these issues and highlighting the hurdles the industry needs to overcome, especially as they relate to the chemical sciences.

  1. Thermal properties of food and pharmaceutical powders

    Abiad, Mohamad Ghassan

    Foods and pharmaceuticals are complex systems usually exposed to various environmental conditions during processing and thus storage, stability, functionality and quality are key attributes that deserve careful attention. The quality and stability of foods and pharmaceuticals are mainly affected by environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, time, and processing conditions (e.g. shear, pressure) under which they may undergo physical and/or chemical transformations. Glass transition as well as other thermal properties is a key to understand how external conditions affect physical changes of such materials. Development of new materials and understanding the physico-chemical behavior of existing ones require a scientific foundation that translates into safe and high quality foods, improved quality of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals with lower risk to patients and functional efficacy of polymers used in food and medicinal products. This research provides an overview of the glass transition and other thermal properties and introduces novel methods developed to characterize such properties.

  2. The men behind the eponymous pharmaceuticals companies

    Khalid Al Aboud


    Full Text Available There are different sources of names in medical field. Similarly, the names given to pharmaceuticals companies are derived from different things. Selecting a good name is not always easy. In fact, there are now professional companies to help finding proper names for medical organizations and medications [1]. These were of help in naming pharmaceutical companies. For instance; ”Zeneca” was an invented name created by the branding consultancy Interbrand. Interbrand had been instructed to find a name which began with a letter from either the top or bottom of the alphabet and was phonetically memorable, of no more than three syllables and did not have an offensive meaning in any language. However, using the names of the founders (eponyms is a common type of naming pharmaceuticals companies.

  3. Quality of pharmaceutical care in surgical patients.

    Monica de Boer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surgical patients are at risk for preventable adverse drug events (ADEs during hospitalization. Usually, preventable ADEs are measured as an outcome parameter of quality of pharmaceutical care. However, process measures such as QIs are more efficient to assess the quality of care and provide more information about potential quality improvements. OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of pharmaceutical care of medication-related processes in surgical wards with quality indicators, in order to detect targets for quality improvements. METHODS: For this observational cohort study, quality indicators were composed, validated, tested, and applied on a surgical cohort. Three surgical wards of an academic hospital in the Netherlands (Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam participated. Consecutive elective surgical patients with a hospital stay longer than 48 hours were included from April until June 2009. To assess the quality of pharmaceutical care, the set of quality indicators was applied to 252 medical records of surgical patients. RESULTS: Thirty-four quality indicators were composed and tested on acceptability and content- and face-validity. The selected 28 candidate quality indicators were tested for feasibility and 'sensitivity to change'. This resulted in a final set of 27 quality indicators, of which inter-rater agreements were calculated (kappa 0.92 for eligibility, 0.74 for pass-rate. The quality of pharmaceutical care was assessed in 252 surgical patients. Nearly half of the surgical patients passed the quality indicators for pharmaceutical care (overall pass rate 49.8%. Improvements should be predominantly targeted to medication care related processes in surgical patients with gastro-intestinal problems (domain pass rate 29.4%. CONCLUSIONS: This quality indicator set can be used to measure quality of pharmaceutical care and detect targets for quality improvements. With these results medication safety in surgical patients can be enhanced.

  4. The uncertainty budget in pharmaceutical industry

    Heydorn, Kaj

    Measurements in a pharmaceutical industry are usually carried out to ascertain the quality of a product or the control of a process; in either case the measurement result serves to demonstrate that the value of the measurand is within specified limits. No method is without bias, and no result...... of their uncertainty, exactly as described in GUM [2]. Pharmaceutical industry has therefore over the last 5 years shown increasing interest in accreditation according to ISO 17025 [3], and today uncertainty budgets are being developed for all so-called critical measurements. The uncertainty of results obtained...

  5. Professiology and Education of Pharmaceutical Industry Specialists

    Starostenkova T.A.


    Full Text Available The article investigates the pharmaceutical industry professions. In this field, new professions has emerged, and the functions of the traditional ones has changed. Changed are also the content of activities and the level of responsibility of specialists. All this requires improved employees training. Scientific basis for the professional standards, educational standards and educational programs are different job analysis. The author substantiates the need for job description research for different specializations in pharmacy, as well as the feasibility of combining efforts of professiologists and representatives of educational institutions to address the actual problem of training for pharmaceutical industry professionals.

  6. Globalization of pharmaceutical industry brings opportunities



    Pharmaceutical industry has been experiencing a difficult time over the last few years. Despite record high investment on R&D,the overall productivity reached a historic low level. The growth rate of pharmaceutical industry based on total sales hit a low of 9% in 2002, a sharp decline from double-digit growth rates in late 1990s. A shortage of good new drugs in the pipeline, the imminent patent expirations on blockbuster drugs, and fierce competitions from generic drugs are major challenges.

  7. [Quality improvement potential in the pharmaceutical industry].

    Nusser, Michael


    The performance of the German pharmaceutical industry, future challenges and obstacles to quality improvement are assessed from a systems-of-innovation perspective, using appropriate innovation indicators. The current close-to-market performance indicators paint an unfavourable picture. Early R&D indicators (e.g., publications, patents), however, reveal a positive trend. A lot of obstacles to quality improvements are identified with respect to knowledge base, knowledge/technology transfer, industrial R&D processes, capital markets, market attractiveness and both regulatory and political framework conditions. On this basis, recommendations will finally be derived to improve quality in the pharmaceutical industry.

  8. Research in the Division of Pharmaceutical Technology.

    Junginger, H E


    Within the Center for Bio-Pharmaceutical Sciences the release characteristics of drugs form the major research object of the Division of Pharmaceutical Technology. Transdermal systems are being developed that can supply a drug during several days. Irritation of the skin may be avoided by using hydrogels. To enable long-term transdermal application also the colloidal structure of creams and ointments is investigated. As most drugs are to be taken orally, however, a research project was also started to make cheap and easy to produce controlled release tablets. The results with a microporous polypropylene polymer are promising.

  9. Hangzhou Hosts Third National Collegiate Student Art Festival%全国第三届大学生艺术展演活动在杭州开幕



    Hangzhou, the capital city of Zhejiang Province, hosted the 3rd National Collegiate Student Art Festival from February 7 through 13,2012. Thirty-one delegations representing provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions across the country spent the 6 days showing 172 programs in vocal art, musical instrument, dance, and theater. Also held during the 6-day gala were such events as an art exhibition and art education forum. This picture shows a performance staged by college students from Hebei Province at the opening ceremony of the art festival. (Text and photograph by Ju Huanzong)%2012年2月7日,以“青春·使命”为主题的全国第三届大学生艺术展演活动在杭州开幕。来自全国各省、市、自治区的31个代表团在6天的时间里参加声乐、器乐、舞蹈和戏剧4个项目共172个节目的现场展演。活动期间还举办了艺术作品展览、高校艺术教育论文报告会等,图为河北省代表团的大学生在开幕式上表演。

  10. A Survey of 42 Semi-Volatile Organic Contaminants in Groundwater along the Grand Canal from Hangzhou to Beijing, East China

    Xiaojie Li


    Full Text Available The status of organic pollution in groundwater in eastern China along the Grand Canal from Hangzhou to Beijing was evaluated. Forty-two semi-volatile organic contaminants were analyzed, including 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 12 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs and seven organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs. Among the detected contaminants, PAHs were the most widespread compounds. One PCB and six OCPs were detected in the groundwater samples, but none of the target OPPs was detected. The total concentration of the 16 PAHs ranged from 0.21 to 1006 ng/L, among which phenanthrene (271 ng/L and fluoranthene (233 ng/L were present at very high concentrations and naphthalene (32 positive detections in 50 samples and fluorene (28 detections in 50 samples were the most frequently detected. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalents indicated a high environmental risk related to PAHs in a few groundwater samples. To identify the possible sources of PAHs, three concentration ratios, low molecular weight PAHs/high molecular weight PAHs, anthracene/(anthracene + phenanthrene and fluoranthene/(fluoranthene + pyrene, were determined, that indicated that the PAHs mainly originated from mixed sources: pyrolytic and petrogenic sources with different ratios at different sites.

  11. Improving China’s Environmental Performance through Adaptive Implementation—A Comparative Case Study of Cleaner Production in Hangzhou and Guiyang

    Ting Guan


    Full Text Available This paper examines local policy implementation of Cleaner Production (CP in China. As the major policy implementer, China’s local government plays a crucial role in promoting CP. A better understanding of the factors affecting local government’s incentives regarding CP and different strategies available to the local government can help policy makers and implementers improve CP practices and other environmental policy outcomes. This paper uses the cases of Hangzhou and Guiyang to demonstrate that local conditions of policy implementation have a direct impact on the success of CP promotion. Based on 35 in-depth interviews, statistical data and internal government reports, we find that the location-based incentives of local government strongly influence their implementation strategies; and that the choices of different strategies can bring out various policy results. From this study, the identified location-based incentives are affected by energy resource endowment, economic development stage and technological competence. The successful implementation strategies involve using different policy instruments synthetically, regulating CP service organizations by controlling their qualifications, differentiating CP subsidizations, and improving transparency of project progress and outcomes.

  12. Studies on Material Cycling in Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest Ecosystem in Hangzhou:Ⅱ.Dynamics and Decomposition Characteristics of Litter


    Through the long-term plot study on the litter and its decomposition in the evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem in Hangzhou for more than two years,it was resulted that the annual litter production was 5.85 t ha-1,most of which was the fallen leave (79.5 percent) and the withered branches and fruits were far less (7.1 and 13.4 percents respectively).The dynamics of the fallen litter was shown as a curve of two-peak pattern which appeared in April and September each year.The half-life of the litter was 1.59 years.The decay rate of the litter attenuted as an exponential function.The annual amount of the nutrient returned to the ground through the litter was as large as 223.69kg ha-1.The total current amount of the litter on the ground was 7.47t ha-1.The decay rate in the first half of a year was 45.18 percent.This ecosystem remained in the stage of litter increasing with time.

  13. On Quoting Allusions Made by Sushi in His Poem Writing in Hangzhou%苏轼初次仕杭词用典分析



    Sushi quoted allusions many times in his 36 poems which are written in Hangzhou .As far as the content of allusions are concerned , it indicated that Sushi cared about the life of common people .And his writing style has changed from the imperial court style to the folk one .As for the writing skills Sushi used , they embodied his ability to control the allusions .%苏轼初次外放到杭州所作的36首词,多处使用典故,且典故遍布经、史、子、集。从典故的内容来看,可以看出苏轼外表洒脱而心系百姓,并且已经开始由朝廷走向民间;从用典技巧来看,词中灵活地运用了多种用典手法,这无疑体现了苏轼娴熟的典故驾驭能力。

  14. Studies on Material Cycling in Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest Ecosystem in Hangzhou:Ⅳ.Uptake,Storage and Return of S by Vegetation


    The work was carried out to study the uptake,storage and return of S in the evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem of Hangzhou in Zhejiang Province,based on the annuam increments of plants and Scontents per unit weight plant organs as well as the measured data about the biological return and decomposition.Results showed that the vegetation layer had an annual S uptake of 55.02kg ha-1,which accounted for 15.8% of the total S storage in the vegetation layer,The S uptake was the highest in the arbor layer but the lowest in the shrub layer,the biological return of S was 50% higher than the biological uptake,indicating the relatively high cycling effciency of S.Nevertheless,S had a relatively low rate opf biological release,so that S trended to accumulate in the litter layer,S taken up by plants each year came mostly from precipitation and the reserve of soil.

  15. Investigation of Helicobacter pylori infection among symptomatic children in Hangzhou from 2007 to 2014: a retrospective study with 12,796 cases

    Shu, Xiaoli; Ping, Mingfang; Yin, Guofeng


    Background and Aim The infection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is acquired in childhood and the prevalence vary greatly in different countries and regions. The study aimed to investigate the characteristics of H. pylori infection among children with gastrointestinal symptoms in Hangzhou, a representative city of eastern China. Methods A systematic surveillance of H. pylori infection according to the 13C-urea breath test was conducted from January 2007 to December 2014 in the Children’s hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine. The demographic information and main symptoms of every subject were recorded. Results A total of 12,796 subjects were recruited and 18.6% children evaluated as H. pylori positive. The annual positive rates decreased from 2007 to 2014 (χ2 = 20.461, p pylori infection. Age, gender, gastrointestinal symptoms and history of H. pylori infected family member were all significantly associated with H. pylori infection (all p pylori infection rates in children with gastrointestinal symptoms were lower than most of those reported in mainland China. Further studies are required to determine the prevalence in the general population. Comprehensively understanding of the characteristics and the possible risk factors of H. pylori infection will be helpful to its management strategies in children in China. PMID:28168109

  16. Relationship of public preferences and behavior in residential outdoor spaces using analytic hierarchy process and principal component analysis——a case study of Hangzhou City, China

    SHI Jian-ren; ZHAO Xiu-min; GE Jian; HOKAO Kazunori; WANG Zhu


    This study examined public attitudes concerning the value of outdoor spaces which people use daily. Two successive analyses were performed based on data from common residents and college students in the city of Hangzhou, China. First, citizens registered various items constituting desirable values of residential outdoor spaces through a preliminary questionnaire. The result proposed three general attributes (functional, aesthetic and ecological) and ten specific qualities of residential outdoor spaces. An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to an interview survey in order to clarify the weights among these attributes and qualities. Second, principal factors were extracted from the ten specific qualities with principal component analysis (PCA) for both the common case and the campus case. In addition, the variations of respondents' groups were classified with cluster analysis (CA)using the results of the PCA. The results of the AHP application found that the public prefers the functional attribute, rather than the aesthetic attribute. The latter is always viewed as the core value of open spaces in the eyes of architects and designers. Furthermore, comparisons of ten specific qualities showed that the public prefers the open spaces that can be utilized conveniently and easily for group activities, because such spaces keep an active lifestyle of neighborhood communication, which is also seen to protect human-regarding residential environments. Moreover, different groups of respondents diverge largely in terms of gender,age, behavior and preference.

  17. Occurrence and risk assessment of four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics in raw and treated sewage and in receiving waters in Hangzhou, China.

    Tong, Changlun; Zhuo, Xiajun; Guo, Yun


    A sensitive liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method, combined with one-step solid-phase extraction, was established for detecting the residual levels of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics (ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin) in influent, effluent, and surface waters from Hangzhou, China. For the various environmental water matrices, the overall recoveries were from 76.8 to 122%, and no obvious interferences of matrix effect were observed. The limit of quantitation of this method was estimated to be 17 ng/L for ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, 20 ng/L for ofloxacin, and 27 ng/L for enrofloxacin. All of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics were found in the wastewaters and surface waters. The residual contents of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics in influent, effluent, and surface water samples are 108-1405, 54-429, and 7.0-51.6 ng/L, respectively. The removal rates of the selected fluoroquinolone antibiotics were 69.5 (ofloxacin), 61.3 (norfloxacin), and 50% (enrofloxacin), indicating that activated sludge treatment is effective except for ciprofloxacin and necessary to remove these fluoroquinolone antibiotics in municipal sewage. The risk to the aquatic environment was estimated by a ratio of measured environmental concentration and predicted no-effect concentration. At the concentrations, these fluoroquinolone antibiotics were found in influent, effluent, and surface waters, and they should not pose a risk for the aquatic environment.

  18. The Application of MPLS VPN in Hangzhou-Ningbo Railway%MPLS VPN在杭甬客专铁路中的应用



    With the development of the data networks of high speed railway,MPLS(Multiprotocol Label Switch)technology has been adopted to implement the plan of VPN.It provides QOS(Quality of Service) and Grade of Service(GOS) for various services carried by railway data networks.Based on Hangzhou-Ningbo Passenger Dedicated Line,applications of MPLSVPN technology in high-speed railway communication projects will be involved in this paper.%随着高速铁路数据网的发展,近年来提出的采用MPLS(Multiprotocol Label Switch,多协议标记交换)技术实现VPN的方案,为铁路数据网承载的各类业务提供服务质量保证和服务等级,并具有安全性高,扩展性强的特点。结合杭甬客专工程实例,对MPLS VPN技术在高速铁路通信工程中的应用加以探讨。

  19. Research on construction of smart urban management in Hangzhou%杭州“智慧城管”建设探究

    李圣权; 齐韬; 河江


    “智慧城管”是一项系统工程、惠民工程,是智慧城市建设的重要组成部分。建设“智慧城管”是全面建设小康社会、加强社会管理、实施新型城市化战略的要求。文章探讨了杭州“智慧城管”建设的战略定位,分析了杭州推进“智慧城管”建设的核心要素,以利于推动杭州“智慧城管”的进一步发展。%As a systematic project and a people-benefit project, “Smart Urban Management” plays an important part in the construction of Smart City. The“Smart Urban Management”construction meets the requirements of building a well-off society in an all-round way, strengthening social management and implementing new urbanization strategy. The strategic positioning of Hangzhou“Smart Urban Management”construction is discussed, and the key element to promote the construction is analyzed, to push forward the further development of Smart Urban Management in Hangzhou.

  20. Opinion Humanity as an end in itself, pharmaceutical companies ...

    Corporate social responsibility and pharmaceutical companies ... HIV and AIDS being a socio-economic problem needs urgent attention of the ... pharmaceuticals on the basis of the impact that their new drugs have on the global disease ...

  1. 99M-technetium labeled macroaggregated human serum albumin pharmaceutical

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer


    A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.

  2. Recommendations on the environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals: Effect characterization.

    Schmitt, H.; Boucard, T.; Garric, J.; Jensen, J.; Parrott, J.; Pery, A.; Rombke, J.; Straub, J.O.; Hutchinson, T.H.; Sanchez-Arguello, P.; Wennmalm, A.; Duis, K.


    The effects testing of pharmaceuticals consists of a tiered investigation of ecotoxicological endpoints. However, effects testing has to be performed only when the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of pharmaceuticals are above certain action limits. To study the appropriateness of these

  3. Capacity to deliver pharmaceutical care by community pharmacies ...

    The capacity of community pharmacies to deliver pharmaceutical care was studied ... Ninety five percent (95%) of the respondents always educated customers on ... of the principles of Millennium Development Goals and pharmaceutical care ...

  4. Deep pharma: psychiatry, anthropology, and pharmaceutical detox.

    Oldani, Michael


    Psychiatric medication, or psychotropics, are increasingly prescribed for people of all ages by both psychiatry and primary care doctors for a multitude of mental health and/or behavioral disorders, creating a sharp rise in polypharmacy (i.e., multiple medications). This paper explores the clinical reality of modern psychotropy at the level of the prescribing doctor and clinical exchanges with patients. Part I, Geographies of High Prescribing, documents the types of factors (pharmaceutical-promotional, historical, cultural, etc.) that can shape specific psychotropic landscapes. Ethnographic attention is focused on high prescribing in Japan in the 1990s and more recently in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, in the US. These examples help to identify factors that have converged over time to produce specific kinds of branded psychotropic profiles in specific locales. Part II, Pharmaceutical Detox, explores a new kind of clinical work being carried out by pharmaceutically conscious doctors, which reduces the number of medications being prescribed to patients while re-diagnosing their mental illnesses. A high-prescribing psychiatrist in southeast Wisconsin is highlighted to illustrate a kind of med-checking taking place at the level of individual patients. These various examples and cases call for a renewed emphasis by anthropology to critically examine the "total efficacies" of modern pharmaceuticals and to continue to disaggregate mental illness categories in the Boasian tradition. This type of detox will require a holistic approach, incorporating emergent fields such as neuroanthropology and other kinds of creative collaborations.

  5. Developing Closer Ties with the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Reid, Gregor; Hoddinott, Susan


    The need for research administrators to understand and appreciate the pharmaceutical industry's research and development environment is discussed, using examples from Canada. The research administrator's role in the technology transfer process and implications for faculty are examined. Ways to build closer school-industry ties are discussed. (MSE)

  6. Drug Information Residency Rotation with Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Cramer, Richard L.


    Program objectives of a drug information rotation at the Upjohn Company include improving communication between the pharmaceutical industry and hospital pharmacy/academia, exposing the resident to the challenges the industry encounters, improving proficiency in drug information practice, and providing insight into the working relationships of…

  7. Developing Closer Ties with the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Reid, Gregor; Hoddinott, Susan


    The need for research administrators to understand and appreciate the pharmaceutical industry's research and development environment is discussed, using examples from Canada. The research administrator's role in the technology transfer process and implications for faculty are examined. Ways to build closer school-industry ties are discussed. (MSE)

  8. Separation of Chiral Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    Chaaban, Joussef Hussein

    is regarded as a first step towards a fully continuous PC process. The current knowledge of the importance of crystallization processes in the pharmaceutical industry and the complex thermodynamic and kinetic phenomena accompanied with the separation of chiral compounds are addressed. The experimental work...

  9. Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins

    Elder, David


    The historical uses of ion-exchanged resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchanged process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange are provided that include drug stabilization, pharmaceutical excipients, taste-masking agents, oral sustained-release products, topical products for local application…

  10. Drug Information Residency Rotation with Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Cramer, Richard L.


    Program objectives of a drug information rotation at the Upjohn Company include improving communication between the pharmaceutical industry and hospital pharmacy/academia, exposing the resident to the challenges the industry encounters, improving proficiency in drug information practice, and providing insight into the working relationships of…

  11. Obstacles and opportunities in Chinese pharmaceutical innovation.

    Ni, Jingyun; Zhao, Junrui; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Hu, Yuanjia; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yitao


    Global healthcare innovation networks nowadays have expanded beyond developed countries with many developing countries joining the force and becoming important players. China, in particular, has seen a significant increase in the number of innovative firms and research organizations stepping up to the global network in recent years. Nevertheless, the intense Research and Development input has not brought about the expectable output. While China is ascending at a great speed to a leading position worldwide in terms of Research and Development investment, scientific publications and patents, the innovation capabilities in the pharmaceutical sector remain weak. This study discusses the challenges and opportunities for pharmaceutical innovation in China. One hand, academic, industrial, institutional and financial constraints were found to be the major and inevitable barriers hindering the development of drug innovation. On the other hand, unique advantages had been observed which included growing pharmaceutical market, Research and Development funding, distinctive source, and international cooperation. The most important thing for China's pharmaceutical sector to leap forward is to break though innovation barriers and integrate own advantages into global value-chain of healthcare product development.

  12. An Innovative Pharmaceutical Care Practical Course

    Bulatova, N. R.; Aburuz, S.; Yousef, A. M.


    The innovative practical course was developed to improve the students' ability to acquire pharmaceutical care skills. The primary components of the course were in-school training using small group discussions and hospital experience including identification, analysis, prevention and resolution of drug-therapy problems, patient counseling on their…

  13. The Pharmaceutical Care Movement: Opportunities for Collaboration.

    Temple, Thomas R.


    Areas in which pharmacy educators and practitioners can collaborate to hasten pharmacy curriculum development are outlined, including: state and regional centers for operationalizing the pharmaceutical care concept; training, formal resource programs for pharmacists; research advisory boards; public education; links with medical community;…

  14. The uncertainty budget in pharmaceutical industry

    Heydorn, Kaj

    of their uncertainty, exactly as described in GUM [2]. Pharmaceutical industry has therefore over the last 5 years shown increasing interest in accreditation according to ISO 17025 [3], and today uncertainty budgets are being developed for all so-called critical measurements. The uncertainty of results obtained...

  15. New pharmaceuticals in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Łodyga, Michał; Eder, Piotr; Bartnik, Witold; Gonciarz, Maciej; Kłopocka, Maria; Linke, Krzysztof; Małecka-Panas, Ewa; Radwan, Piotr; Rydzewska, Grażyna


    This paper complements the previously published Guidelines of the Working Group of the Polish Society of Gastroenterology and former National Consultant in Gastroenterology regarding the management of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Attention was focused on the new pharmaceutical recently registered for inflammatory bowel disease treatment.

  16. Opportunities for pharmaceutical care with critical pathways.

    Koch, K E


    Critical pathways are multidisciplinary tools designed to improve patient care and efficiency. Almost every path requires some type of pharmacotherapeutic intervention, from selection of surgical prophylaxis to management of anticoagulation. Pharmacists should become involved with the critical pathway process because it offers an excellent opportunity to incorporate pharmaceutical care and to meet Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization compliance criteria.

  17. Pharmaceutical technology, biopharmaceutics and drug delivery.

    Youn, Yu Seok; Lee, Beom-Jin


    The 40th annual international conference of the Korean Society of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology on Pharmaceutical Technology, Biopharmaceutics and Drug Delivery was held on 2-3 December 2010 in Jeju Special Self-Governing Providence, Korea, to celebrate its 40th anniversary. A comprehensive review of a wide spectrum of recent topics on pharmaceutical technology, biopharmaceutics and drug delivery was presented. Invited lectures and poster presentations over 2 days were divided into six parallel sessions covering areas such as biotechnology, biopharmaceutics, drug delivery, formulation/manufacture, regulatory science and frontier science. Among these, there were two sessions related to regulatory science and biopharmaceutics that were co-sponsored by the Korea Food and Drug Administration. In fact, this conference provided an opportunity for many investigators to discuss their research, collect new information and to promote the advancement of knowledge in each pharmaceutical area. This conference report summarizes the keynote podium presentations provided by many distinguished speakers, including Gordon L Amidon of the University of Michigan.

  18. Recent advances in pharmaceutical sciences V


    This E-book is the fifth volume of a series that compiles contributions from different areas of the multidisciplinary field of Pharmaceutical Sciences. The E-book consists of 11 chapters that cover the areas of organic chemistry, health and environmental management, plant physiology, food science, toxicology, botany, parasitology, physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, and pharmacology.

  19. Recent Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences VI


    This E-book is the sixth volume of a series that compiles contributions from different areas of the multidisciplinary field of Pharmaceutical Sciences, particularly phisical chemistry, food science, toxicology, botany, biochemistry and molecular biology, preventive medicine and public health, pharmacology, physiology, microbiology, and parasitology.

  20. Systematic review of factors affecting pharmaceutical expenditures.

    Mousnad, Mohamed Awad; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham


    To systematically identify the main factors contributing to the increase in pharmaceutical expenditures. A systematic search of published studies was conducted utilising major widely used electronic databases using the search terms 'factors,' 'financing,' 'pharmaceutical,' and 'expenditures.' To be included, the studies needed to: (1) measure at least one of the following outcomes: total growth in pharmaceutical expenditures, price growth or quantity growth; (2) mention a clear method for analysing the impact of factors affecting the increases in drug expenditures; (3) be written in English. Nonprimary articles that were published only as an abstract, a review, a commentary or a letter were excluded. From a total of 2039 studies, only 25 were included in the full review. The main determinant categories that were identified in the review were factors related to price, utilisation, therapeutic choice, demand and health care system. The major cost drivers were found to be changes in drug quantities and therapies as well as new drugs. It is important for policymakers to understand pharmaceutical spending trends and the factors that influence them in order to formulate effective cost containment strategies and design optimum drug policy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrostatics of Pharmaceutical Aerosols for Pulmonary Delivery.

    Lip Kwok, Philip Chi


    This paper provides a review on key research findings in the rapidly developing area of pharmaceutical aerosol electrostatics. Solids and liquids can become charged without electric fields, the former by contact or friction and the latter by flowing or spraying. Therefore, charged particles and droplets carrying net charges are produced from pharmaceutical inhalers (e.g. dry powder inhalers, metered dose inhalers, and nebulisers) due to the mechanical processes involved in aerosolisation. The charging depends on many physicochemical factors, such as formulation composition, solid state properties, inhaler material and design, and relative humidity. In silico, in vitro, and limited in vivo studies have shown that electrostatic charges may potentially influence particle deposition in the airways. However, the evidence is not yet conclusive. Furthermore, there are currently no regulatory requirements on the characterisation and control of the electrostatic properties of inhaled formulations. Besides the need for further investigations on the relationship between physicochemical factors and charging characteristics of the aerosols, controlled and detailed in vivo studies are also required to confirm whether charges can affect particle deposition in the airways. Since pharmaceutical aerosol electrostatics is a relatively new research area, much remains to be explored. Thus there is certainly potential for development. New findings in the future may contribute to the advancement of pharmaceutical aerosol formulations and respiratory drug delivery.

  2. Modeling the effects of pharmaceutical marketing

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wieringa, J.E.

    Successful innovation of prescription drugs requires a substantial amount of marketing support. There is, however, much concern about the effects of marketing expenditures on the demand of pharmaceutical products (Manchanda et al., Market Lett 16(3/4):293-308, 2005). For example, excessive marketing

  3. Potential Applications of Polymer Microchips in Pharmaceuticals

    James J. Bao


    Some of the most recent development in polymer based microchips have been reviewed. Different methods used in fabricating ploymer microchips are introduced. The inportance and applications of the ploymer microchip in pharmaceutical and other areas are discussed. Finally, the potential problems and development areas in polymer microchip technology are also addressed.

  4. Quality Systems Implementation in the Pharmaceutical Industry


    competition amongst themselves, and to survive, one of the important issues to consider is the ... that pharmaceutical products reaching patients comply with quality standards ... found in the Pharmacy Act 1983 of Mauritius. According to the ... delegations from several countries and have registered its product for safety,.

  5. Pharmaceutical compositions and methods for treating tuberculosis

    van der Geize, Robert; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Ostendorf, Martin; van der Meijden, Peter


    A pharmaceutical composition for the treatment of a disease caused by a bacterium that belongs to the group of nocardioform actinomycetes, said composition comprising an effective amount of a compound selected from compound I, (+)-compound II, (-)- compound II, compound III, or mixtures thereof.

  6. Pharmaceutical knowledge governance: a human rights perspective.

    Lemmens, Trudo


    Industry control over the production and distribution of pharmaceutical safety and efficacy data has become a serious public health and health care funding concern. Various recent scandals, several involving the use of flawed representations of scientific data in the most influential medical journals, highlight the urgency of enhancing pharmaceutical knowledge governance. This paper analyzes why this is a human rights concern and what difference a human rights analysis can make. The paper first identifies the challenges associated with the current knowledge deficit. It then discusses, based on an analysis of case law, how various human rights associated interests can be invoked to support the claim that states have an obligation to actively contribute to independent knowledge governance, for example through ensuring clinical trials transparency. The paper further discusses a conceptual use of human rights, as a methodology which requires a comprehensive analysis of the different interwoven historical, economic, cultural, and social factors that contribute to the problem. Such an analysis reveals that historically grown drug regulations have, in fact, contributed directly to industry control over pharmaceutical knowledge production. This type of finding should inform needed reforms of drug regulation. The paper ends with a recommendation for a comprehensive global response to the problem of pharmaceutical knowledge governance. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  7. Postgraduate Courses in Pharmaceutical Medicine in Italy.

    Criscuolo, Domenico


    Italy has a significant tradition of excellence in the area of clinical trials (CTRs): important achievements in the clinical development of rifampicin and adriamycin, the two most famous drugs discovered in the research laboratories of two Italian pharmaceutical companies, paved the way to the establishment of a culture of clinical development, mainly in the areas of antimicrobials and oncology. Despite the fact that now the Italian market of pharmaceuticals is largely dominated by multinational companies with headquarters outside Italy, the contribution of Italian studies to the clinical development of new drugs is still significant. Indeed, it largely exceeds the percentage of Italian inhabitants versus the ones living in the remaining EU countries, as Italy has about 12% of EU population, but has a 17% share of the EU CTRs. Education in Pharmaceutical Medicine is now a must for all professionals interested to work either in pharma companies or in contract research organizations: several Italian universities are offering high quality courses, and in the last 10 years, more than 1,200 professionals received a postgraduate education in pharmaceutical medicine. This result places Italy on top of countries concerned about the professional education of people involved in drug development and will represent an asset for a larger involvement of Italian clinical sites in the global process of clinical research.

  8. Modeling the effects of pharmaceutical marketing

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wieringa, J.E.


    Successful innovation of prescription drugs requires a substantial amount of marketing support. There is, however, much concern about the effects of marketing expenditures on the demand of pharmaceutical products (Manchanda et al., Market Lett 16(3/4):293-308, 2005). For example, excessive marketing

  9. Bioremediation Kinetics of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent

    M. Šabić


    Full Text Available In recent years, concerns about the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals that could be present in water and wastewater has gained increasing attention. With the public’s enhanced awareness of eco-safety, environmentally benign methods based on microorganisms have become more accepted methods of removing pollutants from aquatic systems. This study investigates bioremediation of pharmaceutical wastewater from pharmaceutical company Pliva Hrvatska d.o.o., using activated sludge and bioaugmented activated sludge with isolated mixed bacterial culture. The experiments were conducted in a batch reactor in submerged conditions, at initial concentration of organic matter in pharmaceutical wastewater, expressed as COD, 5.01 g dm–3 and different initial concentrations of activated sludge, which ranged from 1.16 to 3.54 g dm–3. During the experiments, the COD, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and biomass were monitored. Microscopic analyses were performed to monitor the quality of activated sludge. Before starting with the bioremediation in the batch reactor, toxicity of the pharmaceutical wastewater was determined by toxicity test using bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The obtained results showed that the effective concentration of the pharmaceutical wastewater was EC50 = 17 % and toxicity impact index was TII50 = 5.9, meaning that the untreated pharmaceutical industrial effluent must not be discharged into the environment before treatment. The results of the pharmaceutical wastewater bioremediation process in the batch reactor are presented in Table 1. The ratio γXv ⁄ γX maintained high values throughout all experiments and ranged from 0.90 and 0.95, suggesting that the concentrations of biomass remained unchanged during the experiments. The important kinetic parameters required for performance of the biological removal process, namely μmax, Ks, Ki, Y and kd were calculated from batch experiments (Table 2. Figs. 1 and 2 show the experimental

  10. Modelling of drying processes of pharmaceutical granules. Pharmaceutical Sciences for the Future of Medicines

    Mortier, S.T.F.C.; Vedantam, S.; De Beer, T.;

    Tablets are conventionally produced via consecutive batch process steps. Recent introduction of continuous process equipment is gaining industrial importance in pharmaceutics. Transition to continuous production requires improved understanding of all operations, necessitating the development of m...

  11. Strategic Management of Innovative Development of the Russian Pharmaceutical Complex

    Natalia Klunko


    Conditions of strategic management by a pharmaceutical complex according to strategic priorities of its development and the current tendencies of development of the pharmaceutical market and the pharmaceutical industry are determined. The problems defining a choice of strategic alternatives in development of a pharmaceutical complex are considered. The complex of tool support of strategic management in the specified sphere is developed. This record was migrated from the OpenDepot repository s...

  12. Sulfite-containing Canadian pharmaceutical products available in 1991.

    Miyata, M; Schuster, B.; Schellenberg, R


    OBJECTIVE: To compile an inclusive list of Canadian pharmaceutical products available in 1991 that contained sulfites. DATA SOURCES: Written and oral responses from 94 pharmaceutical companies selected from the 1989 Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties. RESULTS: A list of sulfite-containing pharmaceutical products was compiled from data supplied by the 90 responding companies. Companies whose products contained no sulfites were separately identified. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfites are present...

  13. An overview of pharmaceutical cocrystals as intellectual property.

    Trask, Andrew V


    This review article focuses on the interaction among certain scientific, legal, and regulatory aspects of pharmaceutical crystal forms. The article offers an analysis of pharmaceutical cocrystals as patentable inventions by drawing upon recent scientific developments in the field. Several potential commercial advantages of pharmaceutical cocrystals are highlighted, and a number of recent court decisions involving salient issues are summarized. The article provides an outlook on how the developing field of cocrystallization may impact the pharmaceutical intellectual property landscape.

  14. Effective executive management in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Tran, Hoang; Kleiner, Brian H


    Along with the boom in information technology and vast development in genomic and proteomic discoveries, the pharmaceutical and biotech industries have been provided the means and tools to create a new page in medicinal history. They are now able to alter the classic ways to cure complex diseases thanks to the completion of the human genome project. To be able to compete in this industry, pharmaceutical management has to be effective not only internally but also externally in socially acceptable conduct. The first department that requires focus is marketing and sales. As the main driving force to increase revenues and profits, marketing and sales employees should be highly motivated by compensation. Also, customer relationships should be maintained for long-term gain. As important as marketing, research and development requires the financial support as well as the critical decision making to further expand the product pipeline. Similarly, finance and technologies should be adequately monitored and invested to provide support as well as prepare for future expansion. On top of that, manufacturing processes and operations are operated per quality systems and FDA guidelines to ensure high quality. Human Resources, on the other hand, should carry the managing and motivation from upper management through systematic recruitment, adequate training, and fair compensation. Moreover, effective management in a pharmaceutical would also require the social welfare and charity to help patients who cannot afford the treatment as well as improving the organization's image. Last but not least, the management should also prepare for the globalization of the industry. Inevitably, large pharmaceutical companies are merging with each other or acquiring smaller companies to enhance the competitive advantages as well as expand their product mix. For effectiveness in a pharmaceutical industry, management should focus more than just the daily routine tasks and short-term goals. Rather, they

  15. Informed consent: Enforcing pharmaceutical companies' obligations abroad.

    Lee, Stacey B


    The past several years have seen an evolution in the obligations of pharmaceutical companies conducting clinical trials abroad. Key players, such as international human rights organizations, multinational pharmaceutical companies, the United States government and courts, and the media, have played a significant role in defining these obligations. This article examines how such obligations have developed through the lens of past, present, and future recommendations for informed consent protections. In doing so, this article suggests that, no matter how robust obligations appear, they will continue to fall short of providing meaningful protection until they are accompanied by a substantive enforcement mechanism that holds multinational pharmaceutical companies accountable for their conduct. Issues of national sovereignty, particularly in the United States, will continue to prevent meaningful enforcement by an international tribunal or through one universally adopted code of ethics. This article argues that, rather than continuing to pursue an untenable international approach, the Alien Torts Statute (ATS) offers a viable enforcement mechanism, at least for US-based pharmaceutical companies. Recent federal appellate court precedent interpreting the ATS provides the mechanism for granting victims redress and enforcing accountability of sponsors (usually pharmaceutical companies and research and academic institutions) for informed consent misconduct. Substantive human rights protections are vital in order to ensure that every person can realize the "right to health." This article concludes that by building on the federal appellate court's ATS analysis, which grants foreign trial participants the right to pursue claims of human rights violations in US courts, a mechanism can be created for enforcing not only substantive informed consent, but also human rights protections.

  16. Pharmaceutical care in the Netherlands. History, definition and projects

    van Mil, J.W F


    The evolving concept of Pharmaceutical Care knows different interpretations in a different countries. In the Netherlands community pharmacists already perform several functions which may be part of the Pharmaceutical Care concept. The Dutch concept of Pharmaceutical care is tested in the TOM and OMA

  17. Pharmaceutical crystallography: is there a devil in the details?

    Bond, A. D.


    Modern instruments for small-molecule crystallography continue to become more sophisticated and more automated. This technical progress provides a basis for frontier research in chemical and pharmaceutical crystallography, but it also encourages analytical crystallographers to become more...... are presented for pharmaceutical compounds, and the potential importance of the "details" in pharmaceutical crystallography is discussed....

  18. Pharmaceutical care in the Netherlands. History, definition and projects

    van Mil, J.W F


    The evolving concept of Pharmaceutical Care knows different interpretations in a different countries. In the Netherlands community pharmacists already perform several functions which may be part of the Pharmaceutical Care concept. The Dutch concept of Pharmaceutical care is tested in the TOM and

  19. Pharmaceutical care in the Netherlands. History, definition and projects

    van Mil, J.W F


    The evolving concept of Pharmaceutical Care knows different interpretations in a different countries. In the Netherlands community pharmacists already perform several functions which may be part of the Pharmaceutical Care concept. The Dutch concept of Pharmaceutical care is tested in the TOM and OMA

  20. Pharmaceutical health care and Inuit language communications in Nunavut, Canada

    Sandra J. Romain


    Background. Pharmaceutical communication is an essential component of pharmaceutical health care, optimally ensuring patients understand the proper administration and side effects of their medications. Communication can often be complicated by language and culture, but with pharmaceuticals, misunderstandings can prove particularly harmful. In Nunavut, to ensure the preservation and revitalization of Inuit languages, the Inuit Language Protection Act and Official Languages Act were passed requ...

  1. 杭州地区护理人员的患者安全文化水平调查及分析%Investigation and analysis on level of patient safety culture for nursing staff in Hangzhou

    国秀娣; 高凤; 李益民; 陆骏; 沈小玲


    目的 调查杭州地区护理人员的患者安全文化总体水平.方法 对杭州地区9家医院发放《医院护理人员患者安全文化测评问卷》,计算均值及条目的同意百分率.结果 收回有效调查问卷996份,经统计,护理人员的患者安全文化总体得分(4.00±0.47)分,属中上水平;各维度按得分由高到低排序为:单位安全的氛围,团队氛围,对管理的感受,对工作的满意度,对压力的认知.结论 杭州地区护理人员的患者安全文化整体水平较好,而护理人员的工作压力以及对工作的满意度仍有待加强.%Objective To investigate the general level of patient safety culture for nursing staff in Hangzhou. Method Give out Questionnaire on Patient Safety Culture for Nursing Staff of Hospital in 9 hospitals of Hangzhou. Calculate the average value and agreement percentage of all items. Result 996 valid questionnaires are received. The general score of level of patient safety culture for nursing staff is (4. 00 ±0. 47), which is above medium level. Dimensions ranking from high score to low are safety atmosphere of department, atmosphere of group, management feeling, satisfaction level on work and cognition on pressure. Conclusion Level of patient safety culture for nursing staff in Hangzhou is generally good. However, pressure and satisfaction level on work need to be improved.

  2. Pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs in Belgium.

    Simoens, Steven; De Bruyn, Kristien; Bogaert, Marc; Laekeman, Gert


    Pressure to control pharmaceutical expenditure and price competition among pharmaceutical companies are fuelling the development of generic drug markets in EU countries. However, in Belgium, the market for generic drugs is underdeveloped compared with other countries. To promote the use of generic drugs, the government introduced a reference pricing (RP) scheme in 2001. The aim of this paper is to discuss Belgian pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs and to analyse how the Belgian drug market has evolved following initiation of the RP scheme. The market share held by generic drugs increased following implementation of the RP scheme. Focusing on volume, average market share (by semester) for generic drugs amounted to 2.05% of the total pharmaceutical market from January 1998 to June 2001, compared with 6.11% from July 2001 to December 2003. As new generic drugs are introduced, their market share tends to increase in the first couple of months, after which it levels off. Faced with increasing generic competition, some manufacturers have launched new variants of their original drug, thereby effectively extending the period of patent protection. Strategies consisting of price reductions in return for the abolition of prescribing conditions and the launch of new dosages or formulations appear to have been successful in maintaining the market share of original drugs. Nevertheless, the introduction of the RP scheme was associated with savings amounting to 1.8% of pharmaceutical expenditure by the third-party payer in 2001 and 2.1% in 2002. The findings of this paper indicate that the RP scheme has stimulated the Belgian generic drug market. However, existing policy has largely failed to take into account the role that physicians and pharmacists can play in stimulating generic drug use. Therefore, further development of the Belgian generic drug market seems to hinge on the creation of appropriate incentives for physicians to prescribe, and for pharmacists to

  3. 杭州工会资助农民工上大学的实践与思考%The Practice and Thinking of the Hangzhou Trade Union Subsidizing the Migrant Workers to Go to the College

    徐根清; 沈水文; 俞立峰


    This paper explores the reality, feasibility and long-term significance of the trade union subsidizing migrant workers to raise the educational level and cultural quality around the practical of Hangzhou trade union subsidizing the migrant workers to go to college.%围绕杭州工会资助农民工上大学的实践,探索工会资助农民工提升学历层次和文化素质的现实性、可行性和长远意义.

  4. 机动化浪潮下的杭州市自行车交通空间保障%Protecting Bicycle Right-of-Way under Rapid Motorization Development in Hangzhou

    刘树斌; 杨莹莹


    杭州市是中国公认的自行车发展较为成功的城市,通过交通要素分析和具体案例研究其自行车交通空间保障。首先,界定研究对象包括脚踏自行车和符合国家标准的电动自行车,自行车交通空间包括通行空间和停放空间。指出杭州市自行车交通发展面临小汽车竞争空间使用权以及电动自行车超速、超重等挑战。自行车通行空间层面,详细阐述杭州市在自行车道路体系构建,休闲自行车道建设,公共汽车站附近、占道施工情况下对自行车通行空间的保障,以及通过智能化手段保证效率和安全等方面的实践。自行车停放空间层面,探讨了自行车停车配建、路侧空间停车、大型会展活动、公共自行车停放等方面的具体做法。%Hangzhou is widely recognized as a city with successful development of bicycle transportation in China. This paper investigates how Hangzhou protects bicycle right-of-way through travel analysis and case study. The study focuses on bicycle travel (pedal bikes and the electric bikes that meet the national standards) and bicycle spatial dimension requirement (travel and parking). The study points out that the challenges facing bicycle transportation in Hangzhou are the space competition from automobile, electrical bike speeding/overloading and etc. The paper elaborates in detail the development of bicycle lane system, construction of leisure bicycle lanes, bicycle right-of-way protection where they are adjacent to bus stops and road construction, as well as efficiency and safety enhancement through intelligent transportation sys-tem in Hangzhou. The paper also discusses bicycle parking facilities for buildings, on-street parking, park-ing during large events, and parking for bike sharing.

  5. [Brief history of pharmaceutical standard system in China].

    Zhang, Jianwu; Xiao, Shiying; Dong, Guofeng; Liu, Wei; Di, Feng; Yang, Xujie


    Pharmaceutical standard system which belongs to an important part of national drug policies is an inevitable result of the development of pharmacy. There was a long standing of pharmaceutical standard system in China whose germination could be traced back to Qin and Han dynasties, and it had laid a solid foundation for the establishment and improvement of modern pharmaceutical standard system by continual accumulation from the past dynasties. Since the founding of new China, distinguished achievements had been obtained on pharmaceutical standardization working,and currently it is in a new developing stage. There was a brief description in this paper on the development history of pharmaceutical standard system in China.

  6. A Review on Advanced Treatment of Pharmaceutical Wastewater

    Guo, Y.; Qi, P. S.; Liu, Y. Z.


    The composition of pharmaceutical wastewater is complex, which is high concentration of organic matter, microbial toxicity, high salt, and difficult to biodegrade. After secondary treatment, there are still trace amounts of suspended solids and dissolved organic matter. To improve the quality of pharmaceutical wastewater effluent, advanced treatment is essential. In this paper, the classification of the pharmaceutical technology was introduced, and the characteristics of pharmaceutical wastewater effluent quality were summarized. The methods of advanced treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater were reviewed afterwards, which included coagulation and sedimentation, flotation, activated carbon adsorption, membrane separation, advanced oxidation processes, membrane separation and biological treatment. Meanwhile, the characteristics of each process were described.

  7. Behavior of selected pharmaceuticals in topsoil of Greyic Phaeozem

    Kodesova, Radka; Klement, Ales; Kocarek, Martin; Fer, Miroslav; Golovko, Oksana; Grabic, Roman; Jaksik, Ondrej


    It has been documented in several studies that soil may be contaminated by human or veterinary pharmaceuticals. Some of pharmaceutical ingredient may be retained in soils. The rest can be transported to the surface and groundwater through surface runoff and infiltration. Mobility of contaminants in soils is dependent on many soil and pharmaceutical properties (e.g. pharmaceutical adsorption on soil particles and pharmaceutical degradation). The goals of this study were: (1) to measure adsorption isotherms of selected pharmaceuticals in one soil; (2) to evaluate degradation of selected pharmaceuticals in this soil, and (3) to evaluate impact of applied pharmaceuticals on biological activity in soil, which influences pharmaceutical decomposition. Batch sorption tests were performed for 7 selected pharmaceuticals (beta blockers Atenolol and Metoprolol, anticonvulsant Carbamazepin, and antibiotics Clarithromycin, Clindamycin, Trimetoprim and Sulfamethoxazol) and one soil (topsoil of Greyic Phaeozem from Čáslav). The same concentrations (0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/l) were used for almost all pharmaceuticals except Clarithromycin (0.033, 0.08, 0.165, 0.25, 0.33 mg/l). The Freundlich equations were used to describe adsorption isotherms. Degradation of all 7 pharmaceuticals was also studied. Solutes of different pharmaceuticals (concentration of 8.3 mg/l) were added into the plastic bottles (one pharmaceutical per bottle) with soil. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals remaining in soil 1, 2, 5, 12, 23, 40 and 61 days after the pharmaceutical application were analyzed. Colony forming unites were evaluated to describe microbial activity in time affected by different pharmaceuticals. Adsorption of studied pharmaceuticals on soil particles decreasing as follows: Clarithromycin, Trimetoprim, Metoprolol, Clindamycin, Atenolol, Carbamazepin, Sulfamethoxazol. Degradation rates in some degree reflected adsorption of studied pharmaceuticals on soil particles and increased with

  8. Jordanian pharmaceutical companies: are their marketing efforts paying off?

    Al-Shaikh, Mustafa S; Torres, Ivonne M; Zuniga, Miguel A; Ghunaim, Ayman


    The pharmaceuticals industry is one of the main industries in Jordan. Jordanian pharmaceuticals rank third in the export industry of this country. This study aims to examine the strengths that Jordanian pharmaceutical companies have, which, in turn, form their competitiveness base. In addition, this study aims to identify their weaknesses and the effects of marketing their products in the local market. What is the relationship between Jordanian pharmaceutical product quality, price and value, and the competitiveness of pharmaceutical companies in the local market? Our study aims to answer this and other questions. Our results and practical implications are discussed.

  9. Accessibility of urban green spaces in Hangzhou City%杭州城市休闲绿地可达性分析

    桑丽杰; 舒永钢; 祝炜平; 苏飞


    Urban leisure green space is a typical green open space very important for maintenance of urban ecological security and human health.Accessibility to urban leisure green spaces directly affects the quality of services for city dwellers and reflects the region's urbanization level.Accessibility to urban green spaces can be used as an indicator to assess the effectiveness of providing ecological services to residents of the green areas in current system and long-term future system.With socio-economic development,Chinese people and governments are paying much more attention to urban green spaces,and more and more citizens have the desire of contact with nature,and are willing to live close to urban green spaces.Consequently,governments plan to develop and optimize urban green space allocation to meet these demands.In this paper,a quantitative method based on landscape accessibility of green space in Hangzhou City was employed to improve index systems.Aided by GIS technique,this paper conducts analysis on the accessibility and service ability which considers the population densities of every district,applying the methods of buffer zone,minimum distance and travel.The results indicate that:(1) In Hangzhou City,on average it takes 3.8 minutes from a residential area to a urban leisure green space,and 92.11 percent of urban residents have access to a leisure green space within 10 minutes; the residential areas with poor accessibility are the outskirt areas of the city.(2) As to scenic-spot green spaces,their accessible time is 20.33 minutes.Xihu and Xixi are found to be much more accessible than other scenic spots.(3) The accessibility exhibits a structure of annulations centered around Xihu,the farther the distance is away from Xihu,the poorer the accessibility is.The work of this paper will help improve the key index system for assessing urban green spaces in China,and can provide planners and policymakers with important and valuable information for urban green space

  10. 杭州市售婴幼儿食品营养标签调查%Nutrition labeling of infant and toddler food in Hangzhou city

    刘淼; 任艳军; 余灿清; 吕筠; 李立明; 王胜锋; 陈勇; 洪志恒; 孙点剑一; 杜宇坤; 苏萌; 杨雅平; 刘庆敏


    Objective To investigate the nutrition labeling status of infant and toddler foods sold in Hangzhou city. Methods A survey on nutrition label and the normative judgment of infant and toddler food was carried out in one big supermarket in Hangzhou using a pre-designed questionnaire. Results A total of 253 kinds of infant and toddler food were investigated. The number of food with nutrition labeling for nutrition facts,nutrition claim and nutrition function claim were 250(98. 8% ) ,241 (95. 3% ), and 113 (44. 7% ), respectively. The nutrition element with relative higher claim rate were energy(100%) ,carbonhydrate(65. 2% ),protein(89. 2% ),fat(96. 8% ) .vitamin Bl(84. 8% ) .vitamin A(83. 6%) ,iorn (88. 8% ) ,and zinc(85. 2% ) .respectively,for 250 food lables surveyed. There were 739 nutrition claims and 339 function claims. The normative judgement showed claims with inconsistent words. Conclusion The nutrition labeling rate of infant and toddler food was high,but the normalization was poor. It's necessary to strengthen the normative part for consumers to choose healthy infant and toddler food more conveniently.%目的 了解浙江省杭州市售婴幼儿食品营养标签标示现状并分析存在的问题.方法 采用自行设计的食品标签评价表,抄录杭州市世纪联华超市庆春路店内全部婴幼儿食品营养标签并判断标签标示内容的规范性.结果 共调查婴幼儿食品253种,标示营养成分表、营养声称、营养成分功能声称的分别有250(98.8%)、241(95.3%)、113种(44.7%);标示率较高的营养成分是能量、碳水化合物、蛋白质、脂肪、维生素B1、维生素A、铁、锌,标示率分别为100.0% (250/250)、95.2% (238/250)、89.2%(223/250)、96.8% (242/250)、84.8% (212/250)、83.6% (209/250)、88.8%(222/250)、85.2%(213/250);共出现739条营养声称,出现频数较多的是益生元/菌13.3% (98/739)、花生四烯酸11.5%(85/739)、胆碱9.3% (69/739)

  11. Pharmaceutical Cocrystals: Regulatory and Strategic Aspects, Design and Development

    Gadade, Dipak Dilip; Pekamwar, Sanjay Sudhakar


    Cocrystal is a concept of the supramolecular chemistry which is gaining the extensive interest of researchers from pharmaceutical and chemical sciences and of drug regulatory agencies. The prominent reason of which is its ability to modify physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients. During the development of the pharmaceutical product, formulators have to optimize the physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Pharmaceutical cocrystals can be employed to improve vital physicochemical characteristics of a drug, including solubility, dissolution, bioavailability and stability of pharmaceutical compounds while maintaining its therapeutic activity. It is advantageous being a green synthesis approach for production of pharmaceutical compounds. The formation polymorphic forms, solvates, hydrates and salts of cocrystals during the synthesis reported in the literature which can be a potential issue in the development of pharmaceutical cocrystals. The approaches like hydrogen bonding rules, solubility parameters, screening through the CSD database or thermodynamic characteristics can be utilized for the rational design of cocrystals and selection of coformers for synthesis multi-component cocrystals. Considering the significance of pharmaceutical cocrystals pharmaceutical regulatory authorities in the United States and Europe issued guidance documents which may be helpful for pharmaceutical product registration in these regions. In this article, we deal with the design, synthesis, strategic aspects and characteristics of cocrystals along perspectives on its regulatory and intellectual property considerations.

  12. Patent indicators: a window to pharmaceutical market success.

    Guo, Yang; Hu, Yuanjia; Zheng, Mingli; Wang, Yitao


    Pharmaceutical success in the market is the best reward for pharmaceutical investors undergoing the lengthy, costly and risky process of pharmaceutical Research and Development (R&D). Drugs with high market revenues trigger fierce competition between pharmaceutical enterprises, as is demonstrated by the increasing Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A) cases focusing on seizing the best-selling products. On the other hand, patents, as the best shield for innovative drugs against generic drugs, become a powerful weapon for pharmaceutical enterprises to win the substantial returns generated by market exclusivity. Patents seem to be directly responsible for the commercial success of new medicines. In this context, it is of great significance to find out the empirical associations between pharmaceutical commercial success and patents. By comprehensively analysing 127 drugs marketed in the USA and their 621 American patents, this article identifies the evidence to link various patent indicators with pharmaceutical sales in actual market.

  13. 杭州城市绿地土壤肥力质量评价%Soil Fertility Quality Assessment for Urban Green Space in Hangzhou City



    为给杭州市绿地土壤的管理和改良提供理论依据,促进生态城市的可持续发展,分析了杭州市城市绿地土壤的理化性质,并对绿地土壤质量进行了综合评价.结果表明,道路绿地土壤容重最高为1.46 g/cm3,街头绿地土壤容重最低为1.31 g/cm3;绿地土壤整体呈碱性;速效磷、速效钾、全氮和有机质整体处于偏低水平;综合肥力指数为1.11~1.46,处于中等水平.%Soil physicochemical properties and quality assessment were studied to provide a theoretical reference for management and improvement of urban green space soil in Hangzhou City and promote the sustainable development of ecological city. The results showed that the road green space soil bulk density was the highest of 1. 46 g/cm3. The street greenbelt was the lowest for 1. 31 g/cm3. Urban green space soil was alkaline soil in general. Overall, it was at a low level for the available phosphorus, available potassium,total nitrogen and organic matter; Integrated fertility index was in the middle level between 1.11 - 1.46.

  14. 杭州湾南岸沿海防护林的防护效应%Protective Effect of Coastal Protection Forest along South Shore of Hangzhou Bay

    李文华; 周和锋; 邵学新; 吴明; 梁威; 房聪玲


    To analyze the protective effect of coastal protection forest along south shore of Hangzhou bay,the climatic factors including wind speed,temperature relative humidity were investigated at different observation points inside and outside the coastal protection forest.Result shows that coastal protection forest possesses obvious windbreak effect;the minimum wind speed is in internal woodland;the overall trend of wind speed is a parabolic,firstly wind speed decreases markedly;the farther from the forest,the weaker the role for weakened-wind-power is;wind reduces wind speed variation amplitude decreases due to the role of shelterbelts;the windbreak also can adjust regional microclimate by reducing local air temperature and increasing air relative humidity;it has great meaning on the coastal ecological environment.%为研究杭州湾南岸沿海防护林的防护效应,对沿海防护林林内外的风速、气温和相对湿度进行了布点测量。结果表明,沿海防护林对于风速有明显的减弱作用,风速最小值处于林带中央位置;风速减弱的整体趋势呈抛物线状,在林带作用下先减弱,离林带越远,这种减弱风力的作用越弱;经过防护林的作用,风力减小且风速变化幅度也减小;防护林可以调节区域小气候,防护林林内气温相对降低,相对湿度相对增加,对沿海生态环境有重要意义。

  15. Using hourly measurements to explore the role of secondary inorganic aerosol in PM2.5 during haze and fog in Hangzhou, China

    Jansen, Roeland Cornelis; Shi, Yang; Chen, Jianmin; Hu, YunJie; Xu, Chang; Hong, Shengmao; Li, Jiao; Zhang, Min


    This paper explores the role of the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) species ammonium, NH{4/+}, nitrate, NO{3/-}, and sulfate, SO{4/2-}, during haze and fog events using hourly mass concentrations of PM2.5 measured at a suburban site in Hangzhou, China. A total of 546 samples were collected between 1 April and 8 May 2012. The samples were analyzed and classified as clear, haze or fog depending on visibility and relative humidity (RH). The contribution of SIA species to PM2.5 mass increased to ˜50% during haze and fog. The mass contribution of nitrate to PM2.5 increased from 11% during clear to 20% during haze episodes. Nitrate mass exceeded sulfate mass during haze, while near equal concentrations were observed during fog episodes. The role of RH on the correlation between concentrations of SIA and visibility was examined, with optimal correlation at 60%-70% RH. The total acidity during clear, haze and fog periods was 42.38, 48.38 and 45.51 nmol m-3, respectively, indicating that sulfate, nitrate and chloride were not neutralized by ammonium during any period. The nitrate to sulfate molar ratio, as a function of the ammonium to sulfate molar ratio, indicated that nitrate formation during fog started at a higher ammonium to sulfate molar ratio compared to clear and haze periods. During haze and fog, the nitrate oxidation ratio increased by a factor of 1.6-1.7, while the sulfur oxidation ratio increased by a factor of 1.2-1.5, indicating that both gaseous NO2 and SO2 were involved in the reduced visibility.

  16. Characterization of surface sediments from the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Zaozhuang section), China: assessment of beryllium enrichment, biological effect, and mobility.

    Zhuang, Wen; Chen, Qing; Gao, Xuelu; Zhou, Fengxia; Wang, Mantang; Liu, Yongxia


    The South-to-North Water Diversion Project is one of the world's largest water diversion projects, benefiting seven million people in China. The Zaozhuang section of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal is an important part of this project. This paper investigated the enrichment, biological effect, and mobility of beryllium (Be) in surface sediments of the Zaozhuang section. Results showed that high values were found in Tai'erzhuang District, Zaozhuang city, and the areas near the inlet of the Nansihu Lake, which might have been influenced by local human activities including metallurgy, burning of fossil fuels, and transportation. Four geochemical fractions of Be were obtained: acid-soluble fraction, reducible fraction, oxidizable fraction, and residual fraction. The non-residual fractions (the sum of the first three) accounted for 72.5 ∼ 96.1 % of the total amount of Be. Acid-soluble fraction might be mainly influenced by human activities, with the strongest mobility and bio-availability, accounting for 4.1 ∼ 44.7 % of the total amount, with an average of 20.2 %. Enrichment factor (EF) showed minor to moderate enrichment in some regions; adverse effect index (AEI) also showed that there were high levels of Be in some regions, which might have negative impacts on organisms. Generally, mobility, EF, and AEI of elements are carried out separately. But the results of this study indicated that a comprehensive assessment on the enrichment, mobility, and biological effects of Be caused by human activities is necessary in understanding the environmental risks of Be.


    Otilia-Maria BORDEIANU


    Full Text Available The concept of the learning organization has gone through many changes both theoretically and also as practical implementation. Learning organizations do not appear automatically, they require a strong commitment for developing the skills needed in the workplace, and this commitment should start from the top of the organization. The learning process should be managed at different levels within the organization. Learning, therefore, is made up of several different components and requires a special management. Successful companies are the result of carefully cultivated attitudes, commitments and management processes. This paper investigates the learning organization dimensions analysed in case of pharmaceutical SMEs from Romania. The results obtained in this study allow us to draw relevant conclusions, constituting a practical starting point for businesses. The paper highlights the fact that SMEs pharmaceutical companies have taken important steps toward learning organization model, but reaching different levels from one key dimension to another.

  18. Chitosan Modification and Pharmaceutical/Biomedical Applications

    Jiali Zhang


    Full Text Available Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Our recent efforts focused on the chemical and biological modification of chitosan in order to increase its solubility in aqueous solutions and absorbability in the in vivo system, thus for a better use of chitosan. This review summarizes chitosan modification and its pharmaceutical/biomedical applications based on our achievements as well as the domestic and overseas developments: (1 enzymatic preparation of low molecular weight chitosans/chitooligosaccharides with their hypocholesterolemic and immuno-modulating effects; (2 the effects of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives on blood hemostasis; and (3 synthesis of a non-toxic ion ligand—D-Glucosaminic acid from Oxidation of D-Glucosamine for cancer and diabetes therapy.

  19. New Product Introduction in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus

    is unknown and negotiations with authorities have become harder, making market introduction more difficult. This dissertation treats the new product introduction process in the pharmaceutical industry from an operations perspective. The overarching aim of this dissertation is to improve the planning......Due to the limited time of the monopoly provided by patent protection that is used for recouping the R&D investment, pharmaceutical companies focus on keeping time-to-market for new products as short as possible. This process is however getting more uncertain, as the outcome of clinical trials...... methodology in this critical process. In an empirical study, the process is first analyzed in detail, leading to the identification of several gaps in the industry’s current planning approaches. To support a set of key operational decisions towards market launch, a model is subsequently developed, considering...

  20. Chitosan Modification and Pharmaceutical/Biomedical Applications

    Zhang, Jiali; Xia, Wenshui; Liu, Ping; Cheng, Qinyuan; Tahirou, Talba; Gu, Wenxiu; Li, Bo


    Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Our recent efforts focused on the chemical and biological modification of chitosan in order to increase its solubility in aqueous solutions and absorbability in the in vivo system, thus for a better use of chitosan. This review summarizes chitosan modification and its pharmaceutical/biomedical applications based on our achievements as well as the domestic and overseas developments: (1) enzymatic preparation of low molecular weight chitosans/chitooligosaccharides with their hypocholesterolemic and immuno-modulating effects; (2) the effects of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives on blood hemostasis; and (3) synthesis of a non-toxic ion ligand—D-Glucosaminic acid from Oxidation of D-Glucosamine for cancer and diabetes therapy. PMID:20714418


    Otilia-Maria BORDEIANU


    Full Text Available The concept of the learning organization has gone through many changes both theoretically and also as practical implementation. Learning organizations do not appear automatically, they require a strong commitment for developing the skills needed in the workplace, and this commitment should start from the top of the organization. The learning process should be managed at different levels within the organization. Learning, therefore, is made up of several different components and requires a special management. Successful companies are the result of carefully cultivated attitudes, commitments and management processes. This paper investigates the learning organization dimensions analysed in case of pharmaceutical SMEs from Romania. The results obtained in this study allow us to draw relevant conclusions, constituting a practical starting point for businesses. The paper highlights the fact that SMEs pharmaceutical companies have taken important steps toward learning organization model, but reaching different levels from one key dimension to another.

  2. Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical product design

    Paudel, Amrit; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka


    Almost 100 years after the discovery of the Raman scattering phenomenon, related analytical techniques have emerged as important tools in biomedical sciences. Raman spectroscopy and microscopy are frontier, non-invasive analytical techniques amenable for diverse biomedical areas, ranging from...... molecular-based drug discovery, design of innovative drug delivery systems and quality control of finished products. This review presents concise accounts of various conventional and emerging Raman instrumentations including associated hyphenated tools of pharmaceutical interest. Moreover, relevant...... application cases of Raman spectroscopy in early and late phase pharmaceutical development, process analysis and micro-structural analysis of drug delivery systems are introduced. Finally, potential areas of future advancement and application of Raman spectroscopic techniques are discussed....

  3. Overview of genotoxic impurities in pharmaceutical development.

    Bercu, Joel P; Dobo, Krista L; Gocke, Elmar; McGovern, Timothy J


    This symposium focuses on the management of genotoxic impurities in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals. Recent developments in both Europe and United States require sponsors of new drug applications to develop processes to control the risks of potential genotoxic impurities. Genotoxic impurities represent a special case relative to the International Conference on Harmonisation Q3A/Q3B guidances, because genotoxicity tests used to qualify the drug substance may not be sufficient to demonstrate safety of a potentially genotoxic impurity. The default risk management approach for a genotoxic impurity is the threshold of toxicological concern unless a more specific risk characterization is appropriate. The symposium includes descriptions of industry examples where impurities are introduced and managed in the synthesis of a pharmaceutical. It includes recent regulatory developments such as the "staged threshold of toxicological concern" when administration is of short duration (eg, during clinical trials).

  4. Fate of selected pharmaceuticals in river waters.

    Calza, P; Medana, C; Padovano, E; Giancotti, V; Minero, C


    The aqueous environmental fate of two antibiotics, lincomycin and clarithromycin, and an antiepileptic drug, carbamazepine, was investigated by monitoring drugs decomposition and identifying intermediates in Po river water (North Italy). Initially, control experiments in the dark and under illumination were performed on river water spiked with drugs to simulate all possible transformation processes occurring in the aquatic system. Under illumination, these pharmaceuticals were degraded and transformed into numerous organic intermediate compounds. Several species were formed and characterised by analysing MS and MS(n) spectra and by comparison with parent molecule fragmentation pathways. River water was sampled at three sampling points in an urban area. The selected pharmaceuticals were detected in all samples. Eight transformation products identified in the laboratory simulation were found in natural river water from carbamazepine degradation, three from clarithromycin and two from lincomycin. Their transformation occurring in aquatic system mainly involved mono- and poly-hydroxylation followed by oxidation of the hydroxyl groups.

  5. Combinatorial nanodiamond in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.

    Lim, Dae Gon; Prim, Racelly Ena; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kang, Eunah; Park, Kinam; Jeong, Seong Hoon


    One of the newly emerging carbon materials, nanodiamond (ND), has been exploited for use in traditional electric materials and this has extended into biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Recently, NDs have attained significant interests as a multifunctional and combinational drug delivery system. ND studies have provided insights into granting new potentials with their wide ranging surface chemistry, complex formation with biopolymers, and combination with biomolecules. The studies that have proved ND inertness, biocompatibility, and low toxicity have made NDs much more feasible for use in real in vivo applications. This review gives an understanding of NDs in biomedical engineering and pharmaceuticals, focusing on the classified introduction of ND/drug complexes. In addition, the diverse potential applications that can be obtained with chemical modification are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Aerosol optical depth in urban site of Hangzhou%杭州市大气气溶胶光学厚度研究

    齐冰; 杜荣光; 于之锋; 周斌


    The characteristics of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Angstrom wavelength exponent (α) were analyzed and compared using Cimel sunphotometer data from 2011 to 2012 at national basic meteorological station in Hangzhou city of China. The results showed that the mean value of AOD500nm andα440-870nm were 0.86±0.47and 1.25±0.23, respectively. The averaged AOD over Hangzhou had no obviously seasonal variation characteristics. It was closely related to the weather patterns and internal and external sources influence in this region. The seasonal variation ofαwas not distinct. Due to dust aerosol spreading from north of china, theαmeasured in spring was a little lower compared to other seasons. The diurnal variation of averaged AOD showed a single peak distribution with the peak value and valley value at 15:00 and 06:00 respectively. The significantly increased value of AOD in the afternoon were due to the secondary aerosols generated from photochemical reactions that caused by strongly solar radiations and the aerosols in the surface layer spreading to upper layer influenced by turbulent transfer action. Both the AOD and α showed obvious single peak of frequencies based on the frequency distribution. It was found that the AOD and α can be better characterized by a lognormal distribution. The frequency of α, occurring in the high value range between 1.1and 1.7was 77.8%, which indicated that the average effective radii of aerosol particles were small and the aerosols should be classified as urban-industrial aerosols in Hangzhou. The data also showed high AOD(>1.0) both clustering in the fine mode growth wing and the coarse mode.%利用2011~2012年杭州国家基准气候站内太阳光度计(CE-318)观测资料,分析杭州市气溶胶光学厚度(AOD)和Angstrom波长指数(α)的变化特征.结果表明,2011~2012年杭州市AOD500nm年平均值为0.86±0.47,α440~870nm年平均值为1.25±0.23.AOD季节变化特征不明显,主要与该地区天气形势以及

  7. Bioceramics and pharmaceuticals: A remarkable synergy

    Vallet-Regí, María; Balas, Francisco; Colilla, Montserrat; Manzano, Miguel


    The research on controlled drug delivery systems using bioceramics as host matrices presents two distinct sides; one route aims at embedding pharmaceuticals in biomaterials designed for the reconstruction or regeneration of living tissues, in order to counteract inflammatory responses, infections, bone carcinomas and so forth, while the other route deals with the more traditional drug introduction systems, i.e. oral administration. The incorporation of pharmaceuticals to bioceramic matrices could be very interesting in clinical practice. It is rather common in these days for an orthopedic surgeon working in bone reconstruction to use bioceramics. An added value to the production of these ceramics would be the optional addition of pharmaceuticals such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, anti-carcinogens, etc. In this sense, if we take into account the infections statistics at hip joint prostheses, the incidence varies between 2 and 4%, reaching up to a 45% in bolts used as external fixation. One of the main problems in these situations is the access to the infected area of the bone, in order to deliver the adequate antibiotic. If the pharmaceutical could be included within the implant itself, the added value would be straightforward. And if the bioceramic is bioactive, and therefore precursor of new bone tissue, the capability to introduce peptides, proteins or growth factors at its pores could accelerate the bone regeneration processes. We are facing a fine example of multidisciplinary research, where the so-called transversal supply of knowledge from and between the domains of materials science, biology and medicine will empower the know-how and applications that shall, undoubtedly, give rise to new advances in science and technology.

  8. Introduction of Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research


    Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research (TIPR),founded in 1959,was ever affiliated to the State Food and Drug Administration,P. R. China (SFDA). It has turned to a wholly state-owned hi-tech enterprise since 2000,mainly focusing on research and development of new drugs. Organization and research direction TIPR’s research fields include chemical synthetic medicines,traditional Chinese medicines,pharmacology,

  9. New Medium for Pharmaceutical Grade Arthrospira


    The aim of this study is to produce a pharmaceutical grade single cell product of Arthrospira from a mixed culture. We have designed a medium derived from a combination between George’s and Zarrouk’s media. Our new medium has the ability to inhibit different forms of cyanobacterium and microalgae except the Chlorella. The medium and the cultivation conditions have been investigated to map the points where only Arthrospira could survive. For that, a mixed culture of pure Chlorella and Arthros...

  10. Systems Theory for Pharmaceutical Drug Discovery

    Aswani, Anil Jayanti


    Biological networks are comprised of thousands of interacting components, and these networks have complicated patterns of feedback and feed-forward motifs. It is practically impossible to use intuition to determine whether simultaneously modifying multiple pharmaceutical targets has a good therapeutic response. Even when a drug is discovered which is safe in humans and highly-effective against its target, the medical effect on the disease may be underwhelming. This provides a strong impetu...

  11. An overview of the pharmaceutical industry.

    Stave, G M; Joines, R


    The research-based pharmaceutical industry is a large and diverse worldwide employer. Rapid changes in the health care marketplace have resulted in many changes for the industry, including a need to streamline the drug discovery and development process. To address this challenge, new technologies have been rapidly adapted. Another result of the changing marketplace has been a rapid consolidation with many recent mergers and acquisitions as well as internal reorganizations to better support new and varied customers.

  12. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    Smita Talaviya; Falguni Majumdar


    Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceut...

  13. Electrostatics in pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation.

    Wong, Jennifer; Chan, Hak-Kim; Kwok, Philip Chi Lip


    Electrostatics continues to play an important role in pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation. Despite its ubiquitous nature, the charging process is complex and not well understood. Nonetheless, significant advances in the past few years continue to improve understanding and lead to better control of electrostatics. The purpose of this critical review is to present an overview of the literature, with an emphasis on how electrostatic charge can be useful in improving pulmonary drug delivery.

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of cefaclor in pharmaceutical preparations

    Ivama Viviane M.


    Full Text Available A simple spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of cefaclor. The method involves alkaline hydrolysis of the drug in ammonia buffer solution at pH 10 to yield diketopiperazine-2,5-dione derivative and subsequent measurement at 340 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range 1.8 - 55 mg/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of cefaclor in pharmaceutical formulations.

  15. Recent advances in pharmaceutical sciences IV

    Muñoz-Torrero López-Ibarra, Diego; Manuel Vázquez-Carrera; Estelrich i Latràs, Joan


    Like in the three previous editions, this E-book compiles a series of contributions in the multidisciplinary research arena of Pharmaceutical Sciences. The E-book has been organized in 12 chapters, whose main topics belong to the fields of pharmacology, physical chemistry, plant physiology, microbiology, physiology, preventive medicine and public health, food science, botany, clinical pharmacy and pharmacotherapy, organic chemistry, biochemistry and molecular biology, and pa...

  16. Defining pharmaceutical systems strengthening: concepts to enable measurement.

    Hafner, Tamara; Walkowiak, Helena; Lee, David; Aboagye-Nyame, Francis


    Pharmaceutical products are indispensable for improving health outcomes. An extensive body of work on access to and use of medicines has resulted in an assortment of tools measuring various elements of pharmaceutical systems. Until now however, there has been little attempt to conceptualize a pharmaceutical system as an entity and define its strengthening in a way that allows for measuring systems strengthening. The narrow focus of available tools limits their value in ascertaining which interventions result in stronger, more resilient systems. We sought to address this shortcoming by revisiting the current definitions, frameworks and assessment tools related to pharmaceutical systems. We conducted a comprehensive literature review and consulted with select pharmaceutical experts. On the basis of our review, we propose that a pharmaceutical system consists of all structures, people, resources, processes, and their interactions within the broader health system that aim to ensure equitable and timely access to safe, effective, quality pharmaceutical products and related services that promote their appropriate and cost-effective use to improve health outcomes. We further propose that pharmaceutical systems strengthening is the process of identifying and implementing strategies and actions that achieve coordinated and sustainable improvements in the critical components of a pharmaceutical system to make it more responsive and resilient and to enhance its performance for achieving better health outcomes. Finally, we established that, in addition to system performance and resilience, seven components of the pharmaceutical system are critical for measuring pharmaceutical systems strengthening: pharmaceutical products and related services; policy, laws and governance; regulatory systems; innovation, research and development, manufacturing, and trade; financing; human resources; and information. This work adds clarity to the concept of pharmaceutical systems and their

  17. Corporate social responsibility: A pharmaceutical analysis

    D. J. Theron


    Full Text Available In the modern business environment organisations need to address two important aspects affecting their operations: the quality of management and the impact of their operations on the well-being of the society in which they operate. This dualism often results in economic, political and social dilemmas influencing the viability of organisations in general, and more specifically and recently, local and international pharmaceutical organisations operating in South Africa. This article considers the aspect of corporate social responsibility (CSR in general and attempts to identify the social-related issues impacting on the pharmaceutical industry by means of content analysis - a research technique for making replicable and valid inferences from data. It furthermore describes the re-action of pharmaceutical organisations when confronted with such social demands, and finally analyses the management of CSR against four criteria of CSR. The article confirms the importance of managers to manage CSR towards society in a proactive manner. It furthermore suggests that the "hard" factors of strategic management and financial performance should be balanced with "soft" social/people issues. It also recommends that the industry should consider - and if applicable - endorse the concept of Issues Management as an approach to the proactive management of CSR.

  18. Pharmaceutical applications of supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Kaiser, C S; Römpp, H; Schmidt, P C


    The appearance of a supercritical state was already observed at the beginning of the 19th century. Nevertheless, the industrial extraction of plant and other natural materials started about twenty years ago with the decaffeination of coffee. Today carbon dioxide is the most common gas for supercritical fluid extraction in food and pharmaceutical industry. Since pure supercritical carbon dioxide is a lipophilic solvent, mixtures with organic solvents, especially alcohols, are used to increase the polarity of the extraction fluid; more polar compounds can be extracted in this way. The main fields of interest are the extraction of vegetable oils from plant material in analytical and preparative scale, the preparation of essential oils for food and cosmetic industry and the isolation of substances of pharmaceutical relevance. Progress in research was made by the precise measurement of phase equilibria data by means of different methods. Apart from extraction, supercritical fluid chromatography was introduced in the field of analytics, as well as micro- and nanoparticle formation using supercritical fluids as solvent or antisolvent. This review presents pharmaceutical relevant literature of the last twenty years with special emphasis on extraction of natural materials.

  19. New Medium for Pharmaceutical Grade Arthrospira

    Amro A. Amara


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to produce a pharmaceutical grade single cell product of Arthrospira from a mixed culture. We have designed a medium derived from a combination between George’s and Zarrouk’s media. Our new medium has the ability to inhibit different forms of cyanobacterium and microalgae except the Chlorella. The medium and the cultivation conditions have been investigated to map the points where only Arthrospira could survive. For that, a mixed culture of pure Chlorella and Arthrospira (~90 : 10 has been used to develop the best medium composition that can lead to the enrichment of the Arthrospira growth and the inhibition of the Chlorella growth. To enable better control and to study its growth, an 80 l photobioreactor has been used. We have used high saline (2xA-St medium which has been followed by in fermentor reducing its concentration to 1.5x. The investigation proves that Chlorella has completely disappeared. A method and a new saline medium have been established using a photobioreactor for in fermentor production of single cell Arthrospira. Such method enables the production of pure pharmaceutical grade Arthrospira for medicinal and pharmaceutical applications or as a single cell protein.

  20. Photo-pharmaceutical therapy: features and prospects

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Potapenko, Alexander Y.; Minenkov, Alexander A.


    This article is an attempt to analyze the concept, distinguishing features and possible application of photo- pharmaceutical therapy (PPT). Besides photopheresis, PUVA, and photodynamic therapy, PPT also embraces a broad spectrum of various combinations of light and drugs. PPT techniques can be classified according to the role of light in drug therapy into several groups: 1) Light activation of drugs before, during or after their administration, 2) light activation of cells of biotissue to potentiate the pharmaceutical effect of drugs, 3) light assisted drug delivery, 4) optical sensing of drug action at cellular and subcellular levels, and 5) selective photochemistry of drugs during their manufacturing. PPT seeks to describe the mechanisms of light-drug interaction, to time and sequence light-drug action, and to verify their synergetic effect. This article yields the results of developing new PPT modifications created in collaboration with some Russian scientific institutes and medical centers. The developed modifications are as follows: 1) drug pre-administration photoactivation, 2) antibody-photoconformation photoimmunotherapy, 3) photophonophoresis with a blend of photosensitizers and antibiotics, 4) photoelectrophoresis, 5) drug effect enhancement due to laser-induced blood circulation activation, 6) photoimmunization with alpha- fetoprotein, 7) photo-pharmaceutical dosimetry, and 8) a rapid drug toxicity photoassay.

  1. Defining Patient Centric Pharmaceutical Drug Product Design.

    Stegemann, Sven; Ternik, Robert L; Onder, Graziano; Khan, Mansoor A; van Riet-Nales, Diana A


    The term "patient centered," "patient centric," or "patient centricity" is increasingly used in the scientific literature in a wide variety of contexts. Generally, patient centric medicines are recognized as an essential contributor to healthy aging and the overall patient's quality of life and life expectancy. Besides the selection of the appropriate type of drug substance and strength for a particular indication in a particular patient, due attention must be paid that the pharmaceutical drug product design is also adequately addressing the particular patient's needs, i.e., assuring adequate patient adherence and the anticipate drug safety and effectiveness. Relevant pharmaceutical design aspects may e.g., involve the selection of the route of administration, the tablet size and shape, the ease of opening the package, the ability to read the user instruction, or the ability to follow the recommended (in-use) storage conditions. Currently, a harmonized definition on patient centric drug development/design has not yet been established. To stimulate scientific research and discussions and the consistent interpretation of test results, it is essential that such a definition is established. We have developed a first draft definition through various rounds of discussions within an interdisciplinary AAPS focus group of experts. This publication summarizes the outcomes and is intended to stimulate further discussions with all stakeholders towards a common definition of patient centric pharmaceutical drug product design that is useable across all disciplines involved.

  2. Innovation strategies of Mexican pharmaceutical firms

    José Luis Solleiro


    Full Text Available Mexican pharmaceutical market is the most important in Latin America and a significant number of global firms have different business activities in this country: production, licensing of patents, alliances with Mexican firms, distribution facilities or partnerships, etc. In terms of innovation, global pharmaceutical industry has passed through structural changes mainly of technological and institutional nature. These changes have been influential along the whole value chain and have triggered transformations in firm's organization, market structure and sector's investments. Mexico's industry, in spite of having a very attractive domestic market, has serious limitations for technology development. Very little resources are invested in R&D and lack of articulation between research labs and industry provoke that Mexico has only exceptional innovation achievements and a high technological dependence. At the same time, some Mexican companies have developed new strategies to be competitive in open markets and have shown that a combination of competitive intelligence, rapid adoption of technologies, collaboration with advanced firms and research institutes, permanent training and continuous improvement are key factors for success. This paper deals with the results of a piece of research aimed at developing a model for the effective transfer of technology for Mexican pharmaceutical firms, with a strong component of knowledge and skills to manage the flows of information, people and technologies among firms, research labs, universities and other health organizations.

  3. [Importance of interfacial characteristics in pharmaceutical technology].

    Dredán, Judit; Csóka, Gabriella; Marton, Sylvia; Antal, István


    Since drug release from the dosage forms has priority to absorption from the gastrointestinal system, physico-chemical characterisation of pharmaceutical systems is essential during the development of an optimal formulation with high efficacy and quality. Interfacial parameters of several pharmaceutical excipients were studied regarding their possible modifying effect on drug release from the dosage form. These inactive ingredients may influence the interfacial phenomena of the drug carrier system, which behaviour determines both the efficacy and the quality of the pharmaceutical preparation In this work authors deal mainly with the two introducing steps of the LADME model influenced by interfacial parameters on them, namely with the liberation of drug from the dosage form and with the characteristics influencing the absorption through biological membranes, respectively. The objective of the present work was to study modifying effects of excipients on drug liberation in connection with their physical and chemical characteristics such as interfacial tension of solid and liquid phases, wetting contact angle of solid phase and--a calculated quantity,--adhesion tension of the solid particles.

  4. Counterfeit pharmaceuticals: current status and future projections.

    Wertheimer, Albert I; Chaney, Nicole M; Santella, Thomas


    To examine the problem of counterfeit drugs and its effects around the world, to consider the likely directions the problem will take, and to propose options for controlling or mitigating the problem. Recently published clinical literature identified through review of articles abstracted at MEDLINE. Search terms were counterfeiting, counterfeit drugs, substandard drugs, fake drugs, world counterfeiting, and counterfeit pharmaceuticals. Further information was abstracted from an array of informational sources, including magazines such as Business Week, newspapers such as the International Herald Tribune, National Public Radio news reports, pharmaceutical company press releases, and information from the World Health Organization. Multiple reviewers were used to retrieve relevant and current data. Relevant data were extracted independently by multiple reviewers. Traditionally, the problem of counterfeit pharmaceuticals has been limited to developing nations in Asia and Africa. Now, drug counterfeiting is rapidly becoming a worldwide concern, and counterfeit drugs are reaching the U.S. market. This article defines the problem of counterfeit drugs in its many forms and discusses the extent of the problem, with particular attention to the respective rates of counterfeiting across the globe and the origins of counterfeit drugs. Technologic advances have worsened the counterfeit drug problem. Because drug counterfeiting is a worldwide concern, worldwide action is needed to combat the problem.

  5. Pharmaceutical applications of graphene-based nanosheets.

    Kim, Mi-Gyeong; Park, Joo Y; Shon, Yuna; Shim, Gayong; Oh, Yu-Kyoung


    Graphene-based nanosheets (GNS) are atomic-thickness monolayers of hexagonally arranged, graphite-derived carbon atoms that may be composed of graphene, graphene oxide, or reduced graphene oxide. They have attracted tremendous interest for their potential in pharmaceutical applications, due to their unique physical, chemical, and mechanical properties GNS exhibit highly uniform surface areas and may have hydroxyl (-OH), epoxide (-O-), and carboxyl functional groups at their basal surfaces and plane edges, depending on their oxidized and reduced surface properties. GNS show high-level optical absorption of near infrared (NIR) light and elevate the temperature of nearby environments. Furthermore, they can be loaded with anticancer drugs via hydrophobic interactions, π-π stacking, or electrostatic binding. Given these properties, GNS can be used in chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy, and theranostics. However, although GNS appear to have far-reaching potential in the field of biomedical research, their widespread pharmaceutical application has been limited by issues such as poor stability in physiological buffers, undefined mechanisms of cellular uptake, toxicity problems, and a lack of standard preparation methods. Here, we review the current pharmaceutical applications of GNS, focusing on chemotherapy, phototherapy, combo therapy and theranostic applications with challenging issues.


    Ershova Elena Vladimirovna


    Full Text Available This article reviews the issues associated with development of an integrated quality management system and its implementation into a galenical pharmaceutical company. Recently, the Russian pharmaceutical industry has been developing extensively: pharmaceutical clusters are being formed, new and innovative technologies are being developed. For the enterprises producing galenical pharmaceutical products, which feature low prices and a high level of competition, development and implementation of management systems is a way to prove their competitiveness. The purpose of this article is to review the architecture and the key elements of integrated management systems for pharmaceutical enterprises, develop an integrated management system in terms of the upcoming revision of ISO 9001:2015, as well as to describe the benefits of implementation of such systems. The presented approach is the result of an educational project implemented within the framework of the MBA programme in "Master of Business Administration (MBA" in the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Continuing Professional Education Pastukhov State Academy of Industrial Management.

  7. [The Korean Pharmaceutical Industry and the Expansion of the General Pharmaceuticals Market in the 1950-1960s].

    Sihn, Kyu-Hwan


    After the Liberation, the Korean economy was dependent on relief supplies and aid after the ruin of the colonial regime and war. The pharmaceutical business also searched for their share in the delivery of military supplies and the distribution of relief supplies. The supply-side pharmaceutical policy made the pharmaceutical market a wholesale business. The gravity of the situation led to an increased importation of medical supplies, and wholesalers took the lead in establishing the distribution structure, whereas consumers and pharmaceutical business were relatively intimidated. The aid provided by the International Cooperation Administration (ICA) marked a turning point in the Korean pharmaceutical industry after the middle of the 1950s. ICA supplied raw materials and equipment funds, while the pharmaceutical business imported advanced technology and capital. The government invited the local production of medical substances, whereas pharmaceutical businesses replaced imported medical substances with locally produced antibiotics. After the 1960s, the production of antibiotics reached saturation. Pharmaceutical businesses needed new markets to break through the stalemate, so they turned their attention to vitamins and health tonics as general pharmaceuticals, as these were suitable for mass production and mass consumption. The modernized patent medicine market after the Opening of Korea was transformed into the contemporized general pharmaceuticals market equipped with the up-to-date facilities and technology in 1960s. Pharmaceutical businesses had to advertise these new products extensively and reform the distribution structure to achieve high profits. With the introduction of TV broadcasting, these businesses invested in TV advertising and generated sizable sales figures. They also established retail pharmacy and chain stores to reform the distribution structure. The end result was a dramatic expansion of the general pharmaceuticals market. The market for

  8. Pharmaceutical applications of confocal laser scanning microscopy: the physical characterisation of pharmaceutical systems.

    Pygall, Samuel R; Whetstone, Joanne; Timmins, Peter; Melia, Colin D


    The application of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to the physicochemical characterisation of pharmaceutical systems is not as widespread as its application within the field of cell biology. However, methods have been developed to exploit the imaging capabilities of CLSM to study a wide range of pharmaceutical systems, including phase-separated polymers, colloidal systems, microspheres, pellets, tablets, film coatings, hydrophilic matrices, and chromatographic stationary phases. Additionally, methods to measure diffusion in gels, bioadhesives, and for monitoring microenvironmental pH change within dosage forms have been utilised. CLSM has also been used in the study of the physical interaction of dosage forms with biological barriers such as the eye, skin and intestinal epithelia, and in particular, to determine the effectiveness of a plethora of pharmaceutical systems to deliver drugs through these barriers. In the future, there is continuing scope for wider exploitation of existing techniques, and continuing advancements in instrumentation.

  9. Life cycle analysis within pharmaceutical process optimization and intensification: case study of active pharmaceutical ingredient production.

    Ott, Denise; Kralisch, Dana; Denčić, Ivana; Hessel, Volker; Laribi, Yosra; Perrichon, Philippe D; Berguerand, Charline; Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov; Loeb, Patrick


    As the demand for new drugs is rising, the pharmaceutical industry faces the quest of shortening development time, and thus, reducing the time to market. Environmental aspects typically still play a minor role within the early phase of process development. Nevertheless, it is highly promising to rethink, redesign, and optimize process strategies as early as possible in active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) process development, rather than later at the stage of already established processes. The study presented herein deals with a holistic life-cycle-based process optimization and intensification of a pharmaceutical production process targeting a low-volume, high-value API. Striving for process intensification by transfer from batch to continuous processing, as well as an alternative catalytic system, different process options are evaluated with regard to their environmental impact to identify bottlenecks and improvement potentials for further process development activities.

  10. [History of pharmaceutical packaging in modern Japan. II--Package size of pharmaceuticals].

    Hattori, Akira


    When planning pharmaceutical packaging, the package size for the product is important for determining the basic package concept. Initially, the sales unit for herbal medicines was the weight; however in 1868, around the early part of the Meiji era, Japanese and Western units were being used and the sales unit was confusing. Since the Edo era, the packing size for OTC medicines was adopted using weight, numbers, dosage or treatment period. These were devised in various ways in consideration of convenience for the consumer, but the concept was not simple. In 1887, from the time that the first edition of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia came out, use of the metric system began to spread in Japan. Its use spread gradually for use in the package size of pharmaceutical products. At the time, the number of pharmaceutical units (i.e., tablets), became the sales unit, which is easy to understand by the purchaser.

  11. Ecological risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in the receiving environment of pharmaceutical wastewater in Pakistan.

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Nawaz Khan, Khujasta; Saif Ur Rehman, Muhammad; Mustafa, Ghulam; Faizan Nazar, Muhammad; Sun, Qian; Iqbal, Javed; Mulla, Sikandar I; Yu, Chang-Ping


    The pharmaceutical industry of Pakistan is growing with an annual growth rate of 10%. Besides this growth, this industry is not complying with environmental standards, and discharging its effluent into domestic wastewater network. Only limited information is available about the occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds (PCs) in the environmental matrices of Pakistan that has motivated us to aim at the occurrence and ecological risk assessment of 11 PCs of different therapeutic classes in the wastewater of pharmaceutical industry and in its receiving environmental matrices such as sludge, solid waste and soil samples near the pharmaceutical formulation units along Shiekhupura road, Lahore, Pakistan. Target PCs (paracetamol, naproxen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, amlodipine, rosuvastatin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, sparfloxacin and gemifloxacin) were quantified using in-house developed HPLC-UV. Ibuprofen (1673µg/L, 6046µg/kg, 1229µg/kg and 610µg/kg), diclofenac (836µg/L, 4968µg/kg, 6632µg/kg and 257µg/kg) and naproxen (464µg/L, 7273µg/kg, 4819µg/kg and 199µg/kg) showed the highest concentrations among 11 target PCs in wastewater, sludge, solid waste and soil samples, respectively. Ecological risk assessment, in terms of risk quotient (RQ), was also carried out based on the maximum measured concentration of PCs in wastewater. The maximum RQ values obtained were with paracetamol (64 against daphnia), naproxen (177 against fish), diclofenac (12,600 against Oncorhynchus mykiss), ibuprofen (167,300 against Oryzias latipes), ofloxacin (81,000 against Pseudomonas putida) and ciprofloxacin (440 against Microcystis aeruginosa). These results show a high level of ecological risk due to the discharge of untreated wastewater from pharmaceutical units. This risk may further lead to food web contamination and drug resistance in pathogens. Thus, further studies are needed to detect the PCs in crops as well as the government should strictly enforce environmental

  12. Emergency Disposal to Trucks Loaded with Liqueifed Petroleum Gas Tanks from three Cases in Hangzhou%从杭州三起案例看满载液化石油气罐车的应急处置

    李文炜; 杜清; 何承代; 叶强; 姚吉


    This article provides a comprehensive description and analysis on handling of emergency events relating to trucks loaded with liquefied petroleum gas (“LPG”) tank occurred in Hangzhou in recent years. The leak-prone portions of LPG tank trucks in case of emergent accidents are analyzed according to the structure and mechanism of LPG tank trucks. Based on the handling experiences in Hangzhou, the article put forward the principles on classiifcation of LPG tank truck accidents, as well as appropriate emergency disposal rules. The basic principles on onsite handling of leakage are also provided in this article.%本文对近年来杭州发生的满载液化石油气槽罐车的应急事件处置进行了全面地描述和分析,着重根据LPG槽罐车的机构分析了在突发事件时液化石油气槽车易发生泄漏的部位。根据杭州的处置经验,对液化石油气(LPG)汽车槽罐车事故提出了分类划分的原则和相应的处置原则,总结了在泄漏现场处置的基本原则。

  13. 应建立商品房和保障房互通机制--以杭州市为例%A Discussion on the Mechanism of Establishing Commercial Housing and Affordable Housing--taking Hangzhou as an example



    To further improve social housing system and bulild the connection mechanism between commercial housing and affordable housing, is the critical way to keep the real estate market stable and healthy.The paper analyzes social housing system of Hangzhou city and put forward some suggestions about the connection mechanism between commercial housing and affordable housing in Hangzhou city.%进一步完善住房保障体系,建立商品房和保障房互通机制,是新形势下促进杭州房地产市场平稳健康发展的一项基础性、关键性工作。结合目前杭州市住房保障体系具体情况,借鉴其他城市在商品房和保障房上互通的实践,提出建立杭州市商品房和保障房互通机制的可行性建议。

  14. A Study of Social Media Communication Effect on Hangzhou's International Image%杭州国际形象的社交媒体传播效果研究

    刘曦; 何亦星



  15. A preliminary investigation on the cultivation of common river aquatic plants in Hangzhou%杭州常用河道水生植物的种植要点初探

    黄晓; 应求是; 陆瑛; 王雪芬; 卢毅军


    Through investigating typical green river aquatic plants of five water systems in Hangzhou city,the paper analyzes urban green river aquatic plants planning and maintenance problems. Combining with aquatic plants features and riverway environment,starting from aspects of planning time,planting methods,planting density and various plants planting,it summarizes applicable riverway aquatic plants planting points in Hangzhou,so as to create relative stable aquatic phytocoenosium.%通过对杭州五大水系典型河道绿地水生植物的调查,分析了城市河道绿地水生植物在种植和养护管理中存在的问题,并结合水生植物自身的特点和河道环境,从种植时间、种植方法、种植密度及不同植物混植等方面,总结了杭州河道适用水生植物的种植要点,从而营造相对稳定的水生植物群落。

  16. 杭州地区原料奶中嗜冷菌的分离鉴定%Isolation and identification species of psychrophilic microorganisms from raw milk provided by the pastures in Hangzhou district

    吕元; 叶兴乾


    以杭州地区牧场的原料奶为实验对象,对原料奶受嗜冷菌污染情况进行调研,并对其中的嗜冷菌进行分离鉴定,确定革兰氏阴性嗜冷菌占绝大部分,其中荧光假单胞菌、鲁氏不动杆菌、阪崎肠杆菌为优势嗜冷菌种,为进一步研究出一种快速检测原料奶嗜冷菌的方法奠定理论基础.%This paper focused on isolation and identification species of psychrophilic microorganisms from raw* milk provided by the pastures in Hangzhou district. Most of psychrophilic microorganisms in raw milk of Hangzhou district were Gram-negative psychrophilic microorganisms. Pseudomonas fluorescens^Acinetobacter lwofEi and Enterobacter sakazakii were dominant microorganisms. All of the resalts were the basis of set up a new rapid methods for dairy industry to detect the contamination of psychrophilic microorganisms in raw milk.

  17. The institutionalization of pharmaceutical administration after the korean liberation: focusing on regulating the pharmaceutical affairs law(yaksabeop) in 1953.

    Sihn, Kyu-Hwan


    The pharmaceutical administration under U.S Military Government in Korea and government of the Republic of Korea aimed at cleaning up the vestiges of Japanese imperialism which the pharmaceutical administration attached police administration and preparing with legal and systemic basis after the Korean liberation. The pharmaceutical bureau under U.S Military Government in Korea was reorganized as the independent division. The pharmaceutical bureau focused on preserving order, narcotics control and the distribution of relief drug. U.S Military Government proceeded supply side pharmaceutical policy for the distribution of relief drug without constructing human and material infrastructure. After the Korean War, Korean society asked the construction of system for nation building. Korean national assembly regulated National Medical Law(Gukmin uiryobeop) for promotion of public health in 1951. The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law(Yaksabeop) was regulated in 1953, and it prescribed the job requirement of pharmacist, apothecary, and drug maker and seller, and presented the frame of managing medical supplies. The Pharmaceutical Law originally planned the ideal pharmaceutical administration, but it rather secured the status of traditional apothecary, and drug maker and seller. On the contrary, though the Pharmaceutical Law guaranteed the traditional druggists, it did not materialize reproduction system such as educational and license system. It means that the traditional druggists would be degenerated in the near future. After the armistice agreement in 1953, Korean was in medical difficulties. Korean government was suffered from the deficiency of medical resources. Because of destruction of pharmaceutical facilities, Korean had to depend on United States and international aid. The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law did not cleaned up the vestiges of Japanese imperialism, and compromised with reality lacked human and material infrastructure. As a result, the law became the origin of

  18. Pharmaceutical industry exposure in our hospitals: the final frontier.

    Dean, Jessica; Loh, Erwin; Coleman, Justin J


    Despite recent changes in attitudes, most hospitals continue to experience pharmaceutical industry presence. Pharmaceutical industry presence may be necessary and beneficial in the context of sponsorship of clinical trials with appropriate governance. Doctors continue to hold positive attitudes towards market-oriented activities of the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. Despite evidence to the contrary, doctors believe they are able to effectively manage pharmaceutical sales representative interactions such that their own prescribing is not adversely impacted. Doctors also share a belief that small gifts and benefits are harmless. There may be significant financial burden associated with divestment of such sponsorship by hospitals. Change requires education and effective policies to manage pharmaceutical industry relationships and conflicts of interest. We discuss case studies involving students and public hospital doctors to show that divestment is possible without significant financial detriment. Health services need to be proactive in transitioning financial and cultural reliance on pharmaceutical industry sponsorship to other potentially less harmful sources.

  19. Thick prescriptions: toward an interpretation of pharmaceutical sales practices.

    Oldani, Michael J


    Anthropologists of medicine and science are increasingly studying all aspects of pharmaceutical industry practices--from research and development to the marketing of prescription drugs. This article ethnographically explores one particular stage in the life cycle of pharmaceuticals: sales and marketing. Drawing on a range of sources-investigative journalism, medical ethics, and autoethnography--the author examines the day-to-day activities of pharmaceutical salespersons, or drug reps, during the 1990s. He describes in detail the pharmaceutical gift cycle, a three-way exchange network between doctors, salespersons, and patients and how this process of exchange is currently in a state of involution. This gift economy exists to generate prescriptions (scripts) and can mask and/or perpetuate risks and side effects for patients. With implications of pharmaceutical industry practices impacting everything from the personal-psychological to the global political economy, medical anthropologists can play a lead role in the emerging scholarly discourse concerned with critical pharmaceutical studies.

  20. [The aspects of pricing policy in Azerbaijan pharmaceutical sector].

    Dzhalilova, K I; Alieva, K Ia


    The effect of macro-, middle- and microeconomic factors on price formation in Azerbaijan pharmaceutical market has been studied. Worldwide pharmaceutical leaders have the goals to become leader on the pharmaceutical market of Azerbaijan and maximize their market share. Non-leaders pharmaceutical companies use different strategies of price formation: prime cost plus markup, or price formation on the base of current prices. It was revealed that domestic pharmaceutical market has high demand elasticity. Future market development is related to stimulation of product development, and hard penetration to the market through realization of price formation strategy. Non-state pharmaceutical organizations to achieve the purpose of survive in conditions of high competition should take in to account the factor perceptions of assortment by customers.

  1. Vendor qualification for pharmaceutical excipients--GMP requirements and approach.

    Patel, K T; Chotal, N P


    Excipients are, in the large majority of cases, not made specifically for pharmaceutical use. Most pharmaceutical excipient manufacturers supply less than 10% of the total production of that particular material for pharmaceutical use. Excipient product portfolio consists of hundreds of products differing in chemistry, origin and functionality and they are used in many different applications. The days of treating excipients like commodities and buying them without fully qualifying the source and the entire distribution chain have gone by as GMP regulations demands to ensure quality of other materials used in the manufacturing process. The paradigm that exists in some pharmaceutical companies today where excipients are sourced from distributors without knowing the actual manufacturer, manufacturing site and full distribution lifecycle chain to be changed. The present contribution gives an overview about the current moves on GMP requirements for pharmaceutical excipient and approach for qualification of pharmaceutical excipient manufacturers.

  2. Spectrofluorimetric determination of fluoroquinolones in pharmaceutical preparations

    Ulu, Sevgi Tatar


    Simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method is presented for the determination of four fluoroquinolone (FQ) drugs, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin and moxifloxacin in pharmaceutical preparations. Proposed method is based on the derivatization of FQ with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-Cl) in borate buffer of pH 9.0 to yield a yellow product. The optimum experimental conditions have been studied carefully. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 23.5-500 ng mL -1 for ciprofloxacin, 28.5-700 ng mL -1 for enoxacin, 29.5-800 ng mL -1 for norfloxacin and 33.5-1000 ng mL -1 for moxifloxacin using NBD-Cl reagent, respectively. The detection limits were found to be 7.0 ng mL -1 for ciprofloxacin, 8.5 ng mL -1 for enoxacin, 9.2 ng mL -1 for norfloxacin and 9.98 ng mL -1 for moxifloxacin, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation and relative mean error values at three different concentrations were determined. The low relative standard deviation values indicate good precision and high recovery values indicate accuracy of the proposed methods. The method is highly sensitive and specific. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained by the official and reference method. The results presented in this report show that the applied spectrofluorimetric method is acceptable for the determination of the four FQ in the pharmaceutical preparations. Common excipients used as additives in pharmaceutical preparations do not interfere with the proposed method.

  3. Salt forms of the pharmaceutical amide dihydrocarbamazepine.

    Buist, Amanda R; Kennedy, Alan R


    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is well known as a model active pharmaceutical ingredient used in the study of polymorphism and the generation and comparison of cocrystal forms. The pharmaceutical amide dihydrocarbamazepine (DCBZ) is a less well known material and is largely of interest here as a structural congener of CBZ. Reaction of DCBZ with strong acids results in protonation of the amide functionality at the O atom and gives the salt forms dihydrocarbamazepine hydrochloride {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium chloride, C15H15N2O(+)·Cl(-)}, dihydrocarbamazepine hydrochloride monohydrate {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium chloride monohydrate, C15H15N2O(+)·Cl(-)·H2O} and dihydrocarbamazepine hydrobromide monohydrate {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium bromide monohydrate, C15H15N2O(+)·Br(-)·H2O}. The anhydrous hydrochloride has a structure with two crystallographically independent ion pairs (Z' = 2), wherein both cations adopt syn conformations, whilst the two hydrated species are mutually isostructural and have cations with anti conformations. Compared to neutral dihydrocarbamazepine structures, protonation of the amide group is shown to cause changes to both the molecular (C=O bond lengthening and C-N bond shortening) and the supramolecular structures. The amide-to-amide and dimeric hydrogen-bonding motifs seen for neutral polymorphs and cocrystalline species are replaced here by one-dimensional polymeric constructs with no direct amide-to-amide bonds. The structures are also compared with, and shown to be closely related to, those of the salt forms of the structurally similar pharmaceutical carbamazepine.


    Renata Dobrucka


    Background:  In recent years, pharmaceutical packaging market was one of the fastest growing areas of the packaging industry. At the same time the packaging manufacturers put high demands on quality and safety. Methods: Review of innovations in packaging systems for pharmaceutical products was made including newest information of researches and achievements of recent years. Results and conclusion: Observed in recent years the development of pharmaceutical packaging market expan...

  5. Pharmacy specialists' attitudes toward pharmaceutical service quality at community pharmacies

    Urbonas, Gvidas; Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Savickas, Arūnas


    Objective. The main objective of this study was to analyze pharmacy specialists’ attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at Lithuanian community pharmacies. Material and methods. Between April and June 2009, a total of 471 Lithuanian community pharmacy specialists completed a questionnaire designed to evaluate their attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at community pharmacies. The main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted by principal ...

  6. Analysis of International Mergers and Acquisitions in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Božo Matić; Vlatka Bilas; Vedran Bači


    There are numerous researches which analyze mergers and acquisitions, but most of them do not focus on a certain industry, but their sample considers companies from different industries. This paper focuses on mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical industry. It is assumed that pharmaceutical companies with no experience in mergers and acquisitions achieve better results in relatively small and domestic mergers and acquisitions while pharmaceutical companies with greater exp...

  7. Pharmaceutical product development: A quality by design approach

    Pramod, Kannissery; Tahir, M. Abu; Charoo, Naseem A.; Ansari, Shahid H.; Ali, Javed


    The application of quality by design (QbD) in pharmaceutical product development is now a thrust area for the regulatory authorities and the pharmaceutical industry. International Conference on Harmonization and United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) emphasized the principles and applications of QbD in pharmaceutical development in their guidance for the industry. QbD attributes are addressed in question-based review, developed by USFDA for chemistry, manufacturing, and controls s...

  8. The pharmaceutical sector inquiry: 'Hamlet' in a nutshell.

    den Exter, André


    In July 2009, the European Commission (DG Competition) published a Communication on the pharmaceutical sector. This inquiry was launched because there were some indications that competition in the pharmaceutical market in the European Union might not be working well. The report examines the reasons for the observed delay. This article analyses the outcomes from a critical standpoint, arguing in favour of enhanced 'soft law' accountability mechanisms in the pharmaceutical sector, defending conditional patenting and the introduction of a Community patent.

  9. Evaluating the Cost-effectiveness of Pharmaceuticals in Canada

    Katherine Boothe


    Canada adopted guidelines for the economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals in 1994, and a central process for drug assessment in 2003. The context and the way the issue reached the agenda in the two time periods differed. The guidelines were adopted amidst growing academic interest in methods for economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals in Canada and internationally, and were first promoted by an entrepreneur from the pharmaceutical industry. The Common Drug Review (CDR) was adopted in a context ...

  10. Global Competitiveness of Indian Pharmaceutical Industry: Trends and Strategies

    Pradhan, Jaya Prakash


    What are the trends in the global competitiveness of the Indian pharmaceutical industry? Where does this industry stand when compared to global peers on pharmaceutical value-added, productivity, research and development and trade performance? What are the new strategies that Indian pharmaceutical companies are adopting to become global players? These questions are addressed in this paper. It is found that strategic government policies were the main factors that transformed the status of the I...




    The pharmaceutical sector is one of the state’s largest suppliers of goods and services, one of the biggest taxpayers contributing to the state budget revenue, as well as the state’s largest creditor. Until 2007, inclusively, the development of the pharmaceutical sector was spectacular. Following that year a relative stagnation was registered. This paper focuses on the presentation of the pharmaceutical market’s situation in terms of its three components: production, wholesale and...

  12. High-pressure biotechnology in medicine and pharmaceutical science

    Masson, Patrick; Tonello, Carole; Balny, Claude


    High-pressure (HP) biotechnology is an emerging technique initially applied for food processing and more recently in pharmaceutical and medical sciences. Pressure can stabilize enzymes and modulate both their activity and specificity. HP engineering of proteins may be used for enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and production of modified proteins of medical or pharmaceutical interest. HP inactivation of biological agents is expected to be applicable to sterilizatio...

  13. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    Kohler Jillian C; Garuba Habibat A; Huisman Anna M


    Abstract Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries 1. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (N...

  14. Pharmaceutical product development: A quality by design approach

    Pramod, Kannissery; Tahir, M. Abu; Charoo, Naseem A.; Shahid H. Ansari; Ali, Javed


    The application of quality by design (QbD) in pharmaceutical product development is now a thrust area for the regulatory authorities and the pharmaceutical industry. International Conference on Harmonization and United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) emphasized the principles and applications of QbD in pharmaceutical development in their guidance for the industry. QbD attributes are addressed in question-based review, developed by USFDA for chemistry, manufacturing, and controls s...

  15. [Review of effervescent technique in pharmaceutics research].

    Luo, Xiao-Jian; Xin, Hong-Liang; Rao, Xiao-Yong; Xiao, Zhi-Qiang; Gao, Li-Li; Sun, Ting-Ting; Guo, Qi-Li


    Effervescent technique, which can accelerate drug disintegration and dissolution, is usually applied in quick release preparations. Along with the development of pharmaceutical technique and theory, effervescent technique is used more and more extensively to adjust the behavior of drug release, such as in sustained and controlled release preparations, pulsatile drug delivery systems, and so on. This review demonstrated the new applying of effervescent technique in effervescent tablets, stomach floating forms, osmotic pump tablets and pulsatile drug delivery systems, adding to the critical common technique of effervescent forms in drug research. This will be benefit for the further research and development of effervescent technique.

  16. Redundancy-Allocation in Pharmaceutical Plant

    Deepika Garg


    Full Text Available In present paper three heuristics algorithms to optimize the problem of constrained redundancy allocation in complex system are described and used to allocate redundancy in a manufacturing system namely pharmaceutical plant. Computational procedures of proposed algorithms are outlined. These algorithms are applied to find the best redundancy strategy, combination of components, and levels of redundancy for each subsystem in order to maximize the system reliability under cost constraints .Results of these algorithms are compared to get best possible solution for the proposed problem.

  17. Globalization in the pharmaceutical industry, Part II.

    Casadio Tarabusi, C; Vickery, G


    This is the second of a two-part report on the pharmaceutical industry. Part II begins with a discussion of foreign direct investment and inter-firm networks, which covers international mergers, acquisitions, and minority participation; market shares of foreign-controlled firms; international collaboration agreements (with a special note on agreements in biotechnology); and licensing agreements. The final section of the report covers governmental policies on health and safety regulation, price regulation, industry and technology, trade, foreign investment, protection of intellectual property, and competition.

  18. How the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme began.

    Goddard, Martyn S


    Seventy years ago, the Curtin wartime government introduced legislation for a Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). It was a response to the need to provide access to a wave of antibiotic drugs - sulfonamides, streptomycin, penicillin - to the whole population, not only to the minority able to afford them. The scheme was immediately and successfully opposed by doctors and the conservative opposition, which saw in universal health care an underhand plan to nationalise medicine. There were two High Court challenges, two referendums and a constitutional amendment; but it was not until 1960 that Australians had the comprehensive PBS envisaged by Curtin in 1944.


    O. V. Sokolova


    Full Text Available Pharmacy organizations are an element of regional pharmaceutical market infrastructure formation. They have different character and activity type, organizational and legal forms, types of properties. The revelation of the features of retail pharmaceutical market of Yaroslavl oblast was the purpose of the study. The analysis of the data of regional department of Federal Service on Surveillance in Healthcare and Social Development of Russian Federation  n Yaroslavl oblast in the beginning of 2014 showed that there are 137 acting commercial entities, which have licenses for pharmaceutical activity. The region has 487  pharmacy organizations which implement pharmaceutical activity of state (14.6%, municipal (7.4%, and private (78.0% forms of ownership. Some companies function in Yaroslavl (43.9% and Rybinsk (22.4% municipal district. The analysis of organization and legal forms revealed that 48.9% of pharmacy organizations are registered as ltd, 14.6% are state, and 14.2% are private entrepreneurs, public limited companies amount to 10.9%, the rest pharmacy organizations are included into municipal unitary enterprises and private limited companies – 7.39% and 4.1% correspondingly. The structure of retail market is represented by single pharmacy organizations (51.1% as well as organizations joined into pharmacy chains from two and more PO (48.9%. The share of commercial entities which include one PO amounted to 14.4% of all PO. Share of pharmacy chains (42.3% which include from 2 to 9 PO are 46.8% of all PO. Pharmacy chains, which have more than 9 retails spots amount to 6.6% of the total number of commercial entities. 38.8% of PO function within them. Pharmacy chains prevalence (42.3%, joined into 9 PO; pharmacy chains, which have more than 9 PO, and include state sector PO (14.6% are the features of the regional market.

  20. In silico toxicology for the pharmaceutical sciences.

    Valerio, Luis G


    The applied use of in silico technologies (a.k.a. computational toxicology, in silico toxicology, computer-assisted tox, e-tox, i-drug discovery, predictive ADME, etc.) for predicting preclinical toxicological endpoints, clinical adverse effects, and metabolism of pharmaceutical substances has become of high interest to the scientific community and the public. The increased accessibility of these technologies for scientists and recent regulations permitting their use for chemical risk assessment supports this notion. The scientific community is interested in the appropriate use of such technologies as a tool to enhance product development and safety of pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics, while ensuring the reliability and accuracy of in silico approaches for the toxicological and pharmacological sciences. For pharmaceutical substances, this means active and impurity chemicals in the drug product may be screened using specialized software and databases designed to cover these substances through a chemical structure-based screening process and algorithm specific to a given software program. A major goal for use of these software programs is to enable industry scientists not only to enhance the discovery process but also to ensure the judicious use of in silico tools to support risk assessments of drug-induced toxicities and in safety evaluations. However, a great amount of applied research is still needed, and there are many limitations with these approaches which are described in this review. Currently, there is a wide range of endpoints available from predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship models driven by many different computational software programs and data sources, and this is only expected to grow. For example, there are models based on non-proprietary and/or proprietary information specific to assessing potential rodent carcinogenicity, in silico screens for ICH genetic toxicity assays, reproductive and developmental toxicity, theoretical

  1. Method for microbiological testing of nonsterile pharmaceuticals.

    Bühlmann, X


    A method for testing nonsterile pharmaceutical preparations for their microbial content is described. As far as possible, only solid culture media were used to obtain quantitative results. Aqueous and water-soluble products were tested with membrane-filter techniques. Nonfilterable products were first emulsified or suspended and the homogenate was used for examination. In both procedures, the total number of colonies is determined for aerobic bacteria and fungi. Tests for certain undesirable microbial groups were conducted with selected media. The method described is applicable for finished products, bulk products, raw materials, and active ingredients.

  2. Global gene mining and the pharmaceutical industry

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.


    for the efficiency of a given medicine or predisposition of a given disease are also subject to population studies, e.g., in Iceland, Estonia, Sweden, etc. For hypothesis testing and generation, several bio-banks with samples from patients and healthy persons within the pharmaceutical industry have been established...... may stigmatize patients leading to poor quality of life. This has raised the issue of 'genetic exceptionalism' justifying specific regulation of use of genetic information. Discussions on how to handle sampling and data are ongoing within the industry and the regulatory sphere, the European Agency...

  3. [Pharmaceutical marketers: professional and informative aspects].

    Hevia, A; López-Valpuesta, F J; Vázquez, J A; Castellanos, A


    This study tries to know the opinion of pharmaceutical detailers about their profession, as well as their pharmacological knowledge. 75 questionnaires were distributed to an equal number of detailers. The questionnaires were composed of two parts. In the first one, several questions about their profession were posed. In the second one, the questions were about Pharmacology. The main results were that most of them have got only lower degrees; however, they all have carried out training courses in their companies. With regard to pharmacological questions, percentage of success was 61%.

  4. [Chinese medicine industry 4.0:advancing digital pharmaceutical manufacture toward intelligent pharmaceutical manufacture].

    Cheng, Yi-Yu; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Bo-Li


    A perspective analysis on the technological innovation in pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine unveils a vision on "Future Factory" of Chinese medicine industry in mind. The strategy as well as the technical roadmap of "Chinese medicine industry 4.0" is proposed, with the projection of related core technology system. It is clarified that the technical development path of Chinese medicine industry from digital manufacture to intelligent manufacture. On the basis of precisely defining technical terms such as process control, on-line detection and process quality monitoring for Chinese medicine manufacture, the technical concepts and characteristics of intelligent pharmaceutical manufacture as well as digital pharmaceutical manufacture are elaborated. Promoting wide applications of digital manufacturing technology of Chinese medicine is strongly recommended. Through completely informationized manufacturing processes and multi-discipline cluster innovation, intelligent manufacturing technology of Chinese medicine should be developed, which would provide a new driving force for Chinese medicine industry in technology upgrade, product quality enhancement and efficiency improvement. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. The profile of the pharmaceutical promoter in Brazil

    Jorge Vieira da Silva


    Full Text Available Introduction: The pharmaceutical propagandist is a professional recognized by Brazilian labor law. Objective: The article presents a qualitative survey of eight executives of the pharmaceutical industry on the desired profile for the professional promoter of the pharmaceutical industry. Methods: These executives, all at management level, were from selected companies in different sizes and profiles, in the states of southern Brazil. The interviews took place between January and March 2016. Results and Conclusion: The survey revealed that the promoter is a professional recognized by the Brazilian labor law, has higher education, mastery of a foreign language, personal characteristics compatible with motivational practices of pharmaceutical organizations and real opportunities for career advancement.




    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical sector is one of the state’s largest suppliers of goods and services, one of the biggest taxpayers contributing to the state budget revenue, as well as the state’s largest creditor. Until 2007, inclusively, the development of the pharmaceutical sector was spectacular. Following that year a relative stagnation was registered. This paper focuses on the presentation of the pharmaceutical market’s situation in terms of its three components: production, wholesale and retail trade. The productive segment is characterised by a high degree of concentration; the wholesale trade through a reduced number of actors, while the retail trade through the existence of large pharmaceutical chains.

  7. RFID in the pharmaceutical industry: addressing counterfeits with technology.

    Taylor, Douglas


    The use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in the pharmaceutical industry has grown in recent years. The technology has matured from its specialized tracking and retail uses to a systemic part of supply chain management in international pharmaceutical production and distribution. Counterfeit drugs, however, remain a significant challenge for governments, pharmaceutical companies, clinicians, and patients and the use of RFID to track these compounds represents an opportunity for development. This paper discusses the medical, technological, and economic factors that support widespread adoption of RFID technology in the pharmaceutical industry in an effort to prevent counterfeit medicines from harming patients and brand equity.

  8. Electrochemical treatment of pharmaceutical and industrial wastewater by anodic oxidation

    Menapace, H. M.; Fellerer, M.; Treschnitzer, M.


    In modern medicine pharmaceuticals play a decisive role: because of an increased life expectancy and intensive care medicine an increasing amount of pharmaceuticals is produced. thus these substances are consumed in a mass of tons per year in industrialized countries. Wastewater effluents from sewage treatment plants (STP) are important point sources for residues of pharmaceuticals and complexing agents in the aquatic environment. For this reason a research project, which started in December 2006, was established to eliminate pharmaceutical substances and complexing agents found in wastewater as micropollutants. (Author)

  9. Pharmaceuticals Exposed to the Space Environment: Problems and Prospects

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Myers, Jerry G.


    The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Health Countermeasures Element maintains ongoing efforts to inform detailed risks, gaps, and further questions associated with the use of pharmaceuticals in space. Most recently, the Pharmacology Risk Report, released in 2010, illustrates the problems associated with maintaining pharmaceutical efficacy. Since the report, one key publication includes evaluation of pharmaceutical products stored on the International Space Station (ISS). This study shows that selected pharmaceuticals on ISS have a shorter shelf-life in space than corresponding terrestrial controls. The HRP Human Research Roadmap for planetary exploration identifies the risk of ineffective or toxic medications due to long-term storage during missions to Mars. The roadmap also identifies the need to understand and predict how pharmaceuticals will behave when exposed to radiation for long durations. Terrestrial studies of returned samples offer a start for predictive modeling. This paper shows that pharmaceuticals returned to Earth for post-flight analyses are amenable to a Weibull distribution analysis in order to support probabilistic risk assessment modeling. The paper also considers the prospect of passive payloads of key pharmaceuticals on sample return missions outside of Earth's magnetic field to gather additional statistics. Ongoing work in radiation chemistry suggests possible mitigation strategies where future work could be done at cryogenic temperatures to explore methods for preserving the strength of pharmaceuticals in the space radiation environment, perhaps one day leading to an architecture where pharmaceuticals are cached on the Martian surface and preserved cryogenically.

  10. Measurement uncertainty in pharmaceutical analysis and its application

    Marcus Augusto Lyrio Traple; Alessandro Morais Saviano; Fabiane Lacerda Francisco; Felipe Rebello Lourençon


    The measurement uncertainty provides complete information about an analytical result. This is very important because several decisions of compliance or non-compliance are based on analytical results in pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this work was to evaluate and discuss the estimation of uncertainty in pharmaceutical analysis. The uncertainty is a useful tool in the assessment of compliance or non-compliance of in-process and final pharmaceutical products as well as in the assessment of pharmaceutical equivalence and stability study of drug products.

  11. Implementing an online pharmaceutical service using design science research

    Luis Velez Lapao; Miguel Mira da Silva; Joao Gregorio


    ...) has been proposed as a way to improve health services. However, implementing online pharmaceutical services, including their adoption by pharmacists and patients, is still an open research question...

  12. Assessment of Underline Engineering Settlement of Hangzhou-Ningbo Passenger Railway%杭甬高速铁路线下工程沉降变形评估

    张玉萍; 杨岚


    It is an important technical requirement to analyze,predicate and assess the settlement after construction of ballastless tracks of high speed railway.Up to now,there is no mature experience of this kind of technology in China or abroad.This article introduces some different ways that are commonly used for the assessment and prediction.These methods have been used to predicate the settlement after construction of Hangzhou-Ningbo passenger railway project and to analyze the deformation of the structure.Practical applicability of these methods is also discussed.It is indicated that,relevantly speaking,the curve regression method is firstly most suitable for railway beds,and secondly for bridge,and thirdly for tunnel.Both the exponential curve method and the hyperbolic method are relevantly good ways for predicating the settlement after construction of railway beds,bridges and tunnels.%高速铁路无砟轨道线下工程工后沉降分析、预测及评估是高速铁路建设的一项重要技术要求,国内外尚无成熟的经验。通过对杭甬铁路客专线下工程构筑物进行变形分析,介绍目前常用的几种评估预测方法,并利用不同的预测方法进行工后沉降预测,分析其适用性。结果表明,使用曲线回归法进行不同结构物沉降分析预测,相对而言,路基段曲线拟合通过率较高,桥梁段次之,隧道段最低,指数曲线法及双曲线法相对适应性较好。

  13. Socio-demographic association of multiple modifiable lifestyle risk factors and their clustering in a representative urban population of adults: a cross-sectional study in Hangzhou, China

    Wang Shengfeng


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To plan long-term prevention strategies and develop tailored intervention activities, it is important to understand the socio-demographic characteristics of the subpopulations at high risk of developing chronic diseases. This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with multiple lifestyle risk factors and their clustering. Methods We conducted a simple random sampling survey to assess lifestyle risk factors in three districts of Hangzhou, China between 2008 and 2009. A two-step cluster analysis was used to identify different health-related lifestyle clusters based on tobacco use, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and out-of-home eating. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the association between socio-demographic factors and lifestyle clusters. Results A total of 2016 eligible people (977 men and 1039 women, ages 18-64 years completed the survey. Three distinct clusters were identified from the cluster analysis: an unhealthy (UH group (25.7%, moderately healthy (MH group (31.1%, and healthy (H group (43.1%. UH group was characterised by a high prevalence of current daily smoking, a moderate or low level of PA, low FV consumption with regard to the frequency or servings, and more occurrences of eating out. H group was characterised by no current daily smoking, a moderate level of PA, high FV consumption, and the fewest times of eating out. MH group was characterised by no current daily smoking, a low or high level of PA, and an intermediate level of FV consumption and frequency of eating out. Men were more likely than women to have unhealthy lifestyles. Adults aged 50-64 years were more likely to live healthy lifestyles. Adults aged 40-49 years were more likely to be in the UH group. Adults whose highest level of education was junior high school or below were more likely to be in the UH group. Adults with a high asset index were more likely to be in the MH group

  14. U-Pb, Re-Os and Ar-Ar dating of the Linghou polymetallic deposit, Southeastern China: Implications for metallogenesis of the Qingzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt

    Tang, Yanwen; Xie, Yuling; Liu, Liang; Lan, Tingguan; Yang, Jianling; Sebastien, Meffre; Yin, Rongchao; Liang, Songsong; Zhou, Limin


    The Qingzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt (QHMB) in Southeastern China has gained increasingly attention in recent years. However, due to the lack of reliable ages on intrusions and associated deposits in this belt, the tectonic setting and metallogenesis of the QHMB have not been well understood. The Linghou polymetallic deposit in northwestern Zhejiang Province is one of the typical deposits of the QHMB. According to the field relationships, this deposit consists of the early Cu-Au-Ag and the late Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization stages. Molybdenite samples with a mineral assemblage of molybdenite-chalcopyrite-pyrite ± quartz are collected from the copper mining tunnel near the Cu-Au-Ag ore bodies. Six molybdenite samples give the Re-Os model ages varying from 160.3 to 164.1 Ma and yield a mean age of 162.2 ± 1.4 Ma for the Cu-Au-Ag mineralization. Hydrothermal muscovite gives a well-defined Ar-Ar isochron age of 160.2 ± 1.1 Ma for the Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization. Three phases of granodioritic porphyry have been distinguished in this deposit, and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that they have formed at 158.8 ± 2.4 Ma, 158.3 ± 1.9 Ma and 160.6 ± 2.1 Ma, comparable to the obtained ages of the Cu-Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization. Therefore, these intrusive rocks have a close temporal and spatial relationship with the Cu-Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu ore bodies. The presences of skarn minerals (e.g., garnet) and vein-type ores, together with the previous fluid inclusion and H-O-C-S-Pb isotopic data, clearly indicate that the Cu-Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization are genetically related to these granodiorite porphyries. This conclusion excludes the possibility that this deposit is of ;SEDEX; type and formed in a sag basin of continental rifts setting as previously proposed. Instead, it is proposed that the Linghou polymetallic and other similar deposits in the QHMB, such as the 150-160 Ma Yongping porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo, Dongxiang porphyry? Cu, Shuikoushan/Kangjiawang skarn Pb

  15. 杭州市城乡乔木物种的多样性%Dynamics of Arbor Biodiversity along An Urban-rural Gradient in Hangzhou City

    赵兴征; 朱国营; 王根轩


    沿杭州市区至临安农村取1 km宽75 km长样带调查乔木物种多样性。调查结果表明市区本土树种保存较好,树种数量达到20余种,农村物种丰富度极低,树种数量仅有10种左右。从物种丰富度指数可以看出市区物种最为丰富,丰富度指数最高达4.343,郊区物种丰富度指数最低,为1.303,农村物种丰富度指数较郊区有所上升,但仍显著低于市区,保持在2~3之间。Shannon-Weiner指数趋势与物种丰富度指数一致,最高值出现在市区,其次是农村和郊区。而Pielou均匀度指数和Simpson优势度指数没有明显规律。%Arbor species diversity along an urban-rural gradient was investigated in Hangzhou City,Zhejiang Province.The results showed that the species richness at the rural and the suburban area was very low,which was less than 10 species,while at the urban area,there was much higher biodiversity,the arbor species richness was up to 20 species,which was about 2 times of that at the rural area.Species richness index showed that the urban area had the most rich species,species richness index was up to 4.343,the suburban area had the least richness index of 1.303,while in the rural area it was between 2~3.The tendency of Shannon-Weiner index was the same as species richness index.However,there was no significant order of Pielou index and Simpson index among the urban,suburban and rural areas.

  16. Sequence Analysis of dsRNA Segments from Infected Maize from Hangzhou China%杭州地区玉米病毒病dsRNA序列分析

    赵洪斌; 唐香山; 陈集双


    Natural-infected maize with strip mosaic symptoms were collected from Hangzhou,China. Double stranded RNAs were amplified using SPAT(single primer amplification technique,SPAT) and viral genomie segments were cloned.Sequence analysis revealed that three segments (1801bp 、2193bp and 3164bp,respectively )shared 98% identity, at nucleotide level, with the tenth (AF227205),the seventh (AJ297428) and the fifth (AJ409147) segments of rice blackstreaked dwarf virus (RBSDV),and their similarity were less than 88% with Maize rough dwarf fijivirus (MRDV). They showed higher homology with RBSDV than MRDV at amino acid level, too. Results for sequence homology analysis indicated that the three segments obtained from dsRNA sequencing originated from RBSDV,which is regarded as the main virus infecting maize in this area.%从杭州地区采集花叶症状的玉米,抽提双链RNA(double-stranded RNA,dsRNA).用单引物扩增方法(Single primer amplification technique,SPAT)对dsRNA进行RT-PCR扩增,获得了三条dsRNA片段的cDNA克隆并测定全序列.核苷酸水平上,三条片段(长度分别为1801 bp、2193 bp和3164 bp)分别与水稻黑条矮缩病毒(Rice black-streaked dwarf virus,RBSDV)的第十(AF227205)、第七(AJ297428)和第五(AJ409147)号片段序列存在高达98%的同源性,与玉米粗缩病毒(Maize rough dwarf fijivirus,MRDV)相应片段序列同源性最高为88%.在氨基酸水平上,推测的氨基酸序列也与RBSDV相似性较高,而与MRDV的相似性较低.序列同源性分析结果表明:三条片段来源于RBSDV.因此,该地区发生的玉米病毒病病原是水稻黑条矮缩病毒而不是玉米粗缩病毒.

  17. Seasonal Dynamics of Soil Labile Organic Carbon and Enzyme Activities in Relation to Vegetation Types in Hangzhou Bay Tidal Flat Wetland.

    Shao, Xuexin; Yang, Wenying; Wu, Ming


    Soil labile organic carbon and soil enzymes play important roles in the carbon cycle of coastal wetlands that have high organic carbon accumulation rates. Soils under three vegetations (Phragmites australis, Spartina alterniflora, and Scirpusm mariqueter) as well as bare mudflat in Hangzhou Bay wetland of China were collected seasonally. Seasonal dynamics and correlations of soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that there were significant differences among vegetation types in the contents of soil organic carbon (SOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), excepting for that of microbial biomass carbon (MBC). The P. australis soil was with the highest content of both SOC (7.86 g kg-1) and DOC (306 mg kg-1), while the S. mariqueter soil was with the lowest content of SOC (6.83 g kg-1), and the bare mudflat was with the lowest content of DOC (270 mg kg-1). Soil enzyme activities were significantly different among vegetation types except for urease. The P. australis had the highest annual average activity of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (21.4 mg kg-1 h-1), and the S. alterniflora had the highest annual average activities of β-glycosidase (4.10 mg kg-1 h-1) and invertase (9.81 mg g-1 24h-1); however, the bare mudflat had the lowest activities of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (16.2 mg kg-1 h-1), β-glycosidase (2.87 mg kg-1 h-1), and invertase (8.02 mg g-1 24h-1). Analysis also showed that the soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities had distinct seasonal dynamics. In addition, the soil MBC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease and β-glucosidase. The DOC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, and invertase. The results indicated that vegetation type is an important factor influencing the spatial-temporal variation of soil enzyme activities and labile organic carbon in coastal wetlands.

  18. Access to pharmaceutical products in six European countries – analysis of different pharmaceutical distribution systems

    Evelyn Walter


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to draw a comprehensive picture of the pharmaceutical wholesale sector, outlining its socio-economic importance compared to different distribution systems such as short-line wholesaling, direct sales from manufacturers, Reduced Wholesale Arrangements (RWA and Direct to Pharmacy (DTP arrangements. Its role is considered from an economic, effectiveness and, most importantly, a public health viewpoint with qualitative and quantitative methods, focusing on France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK.METHODS: First, data has been sourced from annual GIRP and IMS-Health statistics; second, a systematic literature research verified the empirical findings; third, an online-questionnaire was directed to pharmacies. Further data have been sourced from a questionnaire, addressing GIRP-full-member associations and wholesale companies (return rate 86%.RESULTS: On a weighted average, pharmaceutical full-line wholesalers in the observed countries alone pre-finance € 10.2 bn over a period of 41 days the entire medicine-market and secure the cash-flow of the social-insurers (Germany: € 2.60 bn for 38 days; Italy: € 2.27 bn for 68 days; the UK: € 1.48 bn for 36 days; France: € 1.28 bn for 22 days; Spain: € 969.76 m for 27 days; the Netherlands: € 399.09 m for 30 days on average. On average, pharmaceutical full-line wholesalers are bundling products of 18.28 manufacturers per delivery. The process costs would increase by € 164,922.43 to € 171,510.06 per year, if there were no pharmaceutical full-line wholesalers. These additional costs would have to be paid by manufacturers, pharmacies and finally by patients. Regarding the satisfaction with different distribution models, the results of the online-questionnaire show that pharmacists in the observed countries are very satisfied with the distribution through their pharmaceutical full-line wholesalers.CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that


    M. M. Bahlol; T. P. Lagutkina


    Purpose. Pharmaceutical industry is transnational and globally important. Many pharmaceutical companies operate their business in multinational and international forms in different countries. Diverse researches from different countries indicated and confirmed marketing promotion importance in pharmaceutical field. Therefore, marketing promotion and its effects are a very important issue that should be globally investigated in real life and evidence context. We oriented our research according ...

  20. Energy saving opportunities in Jordanian pharmaceutical industries

    Areen Al-Ali


    Full Text Available An investigation of energy consumption saving opportunities in Jordanian pharmaceutical industry has been carried out in this paper, current status of energy consumption, possible saving techniques, and recommendations that could be implemented successfully through Energy Saving Program (ESP is explored. All variables that influence energy consumption are considered accordingly using a suitable methodology. This methodology integrates a simulation programs into the analysis process; thereafter an accurate analysis and a reliable assessment for energy consumption is provided. HAP 4.41software has been used to simulate and to calculate energy consumption and costs. One biggest Jordanian pharmaceutical facility that produces Penicillin and Cephalosporin products is considered as an illustrative example, the facility consists of four main energy consumption centers and includes consuming systems namely; HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning system, lighting, compressed air, steam boilers, and miscellaneous equipments like computers, refrigerators, fume hoods, etc. Historical energy consumption quantities are estimated, details of energy data are tabulated accordingly input data files for the computer simulation method using HAP 4.41 are created. Energy saving recommendations has been decided and incorporated into the ESP system. The paper concluded with a good quality room of energy saving opportunities that mirrored positively on the national energy bill with a reduction of 13% of the total annual energy consumption.

  1. Pharmaceuticals and Their Impact on the Environment

    Tomić, S


    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals are a class of emerging environmental contaminants that are extensively and increasingly being used in human and veterinary medicine and are released continuously into the environment. A variety of pharmaceuticals have been detected in many environmental samples worldwide. The establishment of chemical analysis methods able to determine more polar compounds allow the determination and identification of trace quantities of drugs and their metabolites. Most regulatory agencies require that environmental risk assessment is performed as an integral part of their approval procedures for the marketing for medicinal products. Marketing approval for medicinal products in the European Union is regulated by the Directive 2001/83/EC. Based on the Directive, the European Medicines Agency (EMA has published guidelines describing the procedure for the environmental risk assessment for medicinal products marketed in the EU. The requirements for the Environmental risk assessment (ERA in Croatia are regulated by the Medicinal Products Act (Official Gazette No. 71/07 and the Ordinance on the Procedure and Method for Granting Marketing Authorisations for Medicinal Products (Official Gazette No. 113/08.

  2. ASEAN GMP and pharmaceutical industries in Indonesia.

    Soesilo, S; Sitorus, U


    Indonesia was appointed by the ASEAN Technical Cooperation in Pharmaceutical as a focal point and to coordinate the development of practical guidelines for the implementation of GMP. The ASEAN GMP Guidelines were endorsed by the ASEAN Technical Cooperation in Pharmaceutical in 1988, which among others required separation of Beta-Lactam dedicated facilities and three degrees of cleanliness for production areas. As it was realised that drug manufacturers in developing countries need more detailed guidelines to be able to implement the GMP, an Operational Manual for GMP was also prepared for providing examples of SOPs lay-outs, documentation etc. It was agreed by the technical cooperation group to leave the implementation of GMP to each member country. However, the ASEAN Manual for Inspection of GMP was drafted and endorsed by the group and training of ASEAN Drug Inspectors was organized to support the implementation. The ASEAN GMP is being implemented in Indonesia through a five-year, stepwise implementation plan, starting in 1989.

  3. Metaphors and myths in pharmaceutical advertising.

    Delbaere, Marjorie


    It should come as no surprise that the ancient Greek word for drug, pharmakon, meant remedy. But this same word also meant poison as well as magical charm. We speak of heart attacks and of a long road to recovery. These meanings and phrases are reflective of how society conceives of illness and medical therapies. Metaphors and myths of magic, sports and journey are prevalent in medical terminology and they permeate pharmaceutical advertising. This research investigates the conceptual metaphors that are present in advertisements for pharmaceuticals, both those directed to consumers as well as those directed to physicians, for a broad range of drugs and medical conditions. This research employed a content analysis of advertisements appearing in popular consumer magazines as well as in physician journals and an analysis of online consumer drug reviews. The research concludes with a discussion of the similarities and differences among the conceptual metaphors in consumer versus physician ads, across different medical conditions, and the impact of specific metaphors on consumers' understanding of illness and drug therapies.

  4. Patents and licensing in pharmaceutical industry

    Katerina Ancevska Netkovska


    Full Text Available Intellectual property rights (IPR have been defined as ideas, inventions, and creative expressions based on which there is a public willingness to bestow the status of property. IPR provide certain exclusive rights to the inventors or creators of that property, in order to enable them to reap commercial benefits from their creative efforts or reputation. There are several types of intellectual property protection like patent, copyright, trademark, etc. Patent is recognition for an invention, which satisfies the criteria of global novelty, non-obviousness, and industrial application. IPR is prerequisite for better identification, planning, commercialization, rendering, and thereby protection of invention or creativity. Each industry should evolve its own IPR policies, management style, strategies, and so on depending on its area of specialty. Pharmaceutical industry currently has an evolving IPR strategy requiring a better focus and approach in the coming era. The protection of inventions with patents in the pharmaceutical industry have a specific role in the development of society and represent one of the drivers of economic development. The license agreements are considered as one of the most common types of transfer of industrial property rights. The right holders often transfer their rights to patents by concluding licensing agreement. While the patent license may give the license a right to use the technology many license agreements have provisions for the transfer of know-how in addition to the patent.

  5. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula).

    Cavero, R Y; Akerreta, S; Calvo, M I


    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses in Northern Navarra from an area known both for its high biological diversity and its cultural significance, suggesting the survival of uses lost elsewhere. Collect, analyze and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinal plants in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula) with 4243 km(2) and 71,069 inhabitants. We performed semi-structured interviews with 253 informants (mean age 69; 61% women, 39% men) in 120 locations, identified the plant reported and analyzed the results, comparing them with those from other territories. The informants reported data on 174 medicinal plants belonging to 63 botanical families. This work is focused on human medicinal plant uses, which represent 98% of the pharmaceutical uses (1725 use reports). The species with the highest number of cites are Chamaemelum nobile, Sambucus nigra and Verbena officinalis, with a long tradition of use in The Mountain (Navarra). All different plant parts are used; aerial part is exploited more frequently than other plant parts. Most of the listed remedies use a single ingredient, typically soaked in water. Usually, the administration is primarily oral followed by topical applications. The main ailments treated are digestive troubles, wounds and dermatological problems, and respiratory affections. Informants reported 24 new or scarcely cited uses for 23 medicinal plants. For 35% of the species (8) we have not found bibliographical references in the scientific literature and 48% (11) have only one to three references. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Old Yet New--Pharmaceuticals from Plants

    Houghton, Peter J.


    Plants or their crude extracts have been used since prehistory to treat human ailments. Plants are still used in this way in many parts of the world, but Western scientific medicine has tended to isolate active compounds, or make derivatives of them, for use as drugs. Compounds produced by the plant have been important pharmaceuticals since the isolation of morphine almost two hundred years ago and new naturally occurring compounds such as paclitaxel are continually being introduced commercially. Bioactive molecules may also be produced from chemicals found in plants by chemical modification using synthetic chemistry or microorganisms (as in the production of steroids). A third major contribution of plant chemicals to drugs is their utilization as templates for the design of new compounds made by synthesis (e.g. the discovery of aspirin and related compounds from substances in willow bark). New pharmaceuticals from plants are being discovered by examining traditional medicines and by large-scale bioassay screening processes. In addition, the chemical survival systems of plants that exist in hostile environments are receiving increasing attention as leads to discover active compounds. The knowledge of botanical relationships helps find new sources of known compounds of interest and novel compounds with similar structures from related species. Future prospects for the discovery of new compounds from plants are broadened by the new technologies of gene manipulation, tissue culture, and combinatorial chemistry, so it is very likely that natural products from plants will continue to play an important role in the fight against disease.

  7. UPLC: a preeminent technique in pharmaceutical analysis.

    Kumar, Ashok; Saini, Gautam; Nair, Anroop; Sharma, Rishbha


    The pharmaceutical companies today are driven to create novel and more efficient tools to discover, develop, deliver and monitor the drugs. In this contest the development of rapid chromatographic method is crucial for the analytical laboratories. In precedent decade, substantial technological advances have been done in enhancing particle chemistry performance, improving detector design and in optimizing the system, data processors and various controls of chromatographic techniques. When all was blended together, it resulted in the outstanding performance via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), which holds back the principle of HPLC technique. UPLC shows a dramatic enhancement in speed, resolution as well as the sensitivity of analysis by using particle size less than 2 pm and the system is operational at higher pressure, while the mobile phase could be able to run at greater linear velocities as compared to HPLC. This technique is considered as a new focal point in field of liquid chromatographic studies. This review focuses on the basic principle, instrumentation of UPLC and its advantages over HPLC, furthermore, this article emphasizes various pharmaceutical applications of this technique.

  8. Rosmarinic Acid--Pharmaceutical and Clinical Aspects.

    Amoah, Solomon K S; Sandjo, Louis P; Kratz, Jadel M; Biavatti, Maique W


    The biosynthesis and biotechnological production of Rosmarinic acid, a phenolic ester that is widespread in the plant kingdom, has been widely investigated. This compound has shown many remarkable biological and pharmacological activities, which have led to its pharmaceutical and analytical development, as well as clinical studies, which are summarized and analyzed here for the first time. This review compiles data from the Pubmed, Scopus, Scifinder, Web Of Science, and Science Direct databases published between 1990 and 2015, restricting the search to works with the keywords "Rosmarinic acid" in the title. The initial search identified more than 800 articles; after an initial screening and removal of duplicate works, the search was further refined, resulting in approximately 300 articles that were scrutinized and comprise this review. The articles were organized to describe extraction and isolation, analytical methods, pharmaceutical development, and biological and pharmacological activities [divided into nonclinical (in vitro, in vivo) and clinical studies], pharmacokinetic studies, and stability studies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Private versus social incentives for pharmaceutical innovation.

    González, Paula; Macho-Stadler, Inés; Pérez-Castrillo, David


    We provide a theoretical framework to contribute to the current debate regarding the tendency of pharmaceutical companies to direct their R&D toward marketing products that are "follow-on" drugs of already existing drugs, rather than toward the development of breakthrough drugs. We construct a model with a population of patients who can be treated with drugs that are horizontally and vertically differentiated. In addition to a pioneering drug, a new drug can be marketed as the result of an innovative process. We analyze physician prescription choices and the optimal pricing decision of an innovative firm. We also characterize the incentives of the innovative firm to conduct R&D activities, disentangling the quest for breakthrough drugs from the firm effort to develop follow-on drugs. Our results offer theoretical support for the conventional wisdom that pharmaceutical firms devote too many resources to conducting R&D activities that lead to incremental innovations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Future of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Sciences


    The entire pharmaceutical sector is in an urgent need of both innovative technological solutions and fundamental scientific work, enabling the production of highly engineered drug products. Commercial‐scale manufacturing of complex drug delivery systems (DDSs) using the existing technologies is challenging. This review covers important elements of manufacturing sciences, beginning with risk management strategies and design of experiments (DoE) techniques. Experimental techniques should, where possible, be supported by computational approaches. With that regard, state‐of‐art mechanistic process modeling techniques are described in detail. Implementation of materials science tools paves the way to molecular‐based processing of future DDSs. A snapshot of some of the existing tools is presented. Additionally, general engineering principles are discussed covering process measurement and process control solutions. Last part of the review addresses future manufacturing solutions, covering continuous processing and, specifically, hot‐melt processing and printing‐based technologies. Finally, challenges related to implementing these technologies as a part of future health care systems are discussed. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3612–3638, 2015 PMID:26280993

  11. Spring and Summer Fish Community Structure in Northern Hangzhou Bay%春季和夏季杭州湾北部海域鱼类种群结构分析

    王淼; 洪波; 张玉平; 孙振中


    Hangzhou Bay,located in northern Zhejiang Province,is a typical subtropical estuary,supporting the breeding and growth of many fish,shrimp and crab species because of rich food resources.However,coastal indus-trial pollution and overfishing in recent years has seriously damaged the marine environment and fishery resources in the Hangzhou.The fishery resource is tending toward smaller and younger fish and some economic fish are declining or have disappeared,perhaps leading to collapse of the marine ecosystem.Therefore,information on current fish stocks and the condition of the marine environment in Hangzhou Bay is important for ecological remediation efforts. The fish community structure in northern Hangzhou Bay was characterized,based on a field investigation of fish re-sources in August of 2012 and May of 2013.The investigation focused on species composition and seasonal variation of the fish community structure in spring and summer.Study methods included the index of relative importance, cluster analysis,and multivariate statistics and the relationship between the fish community and environmental fac-tors was analyzed.Fish were collected at 12 sampling stations by trawling with a 25 m net with an opening of 10m and net mesh of 20 mm.The trawling was carried out at a speed of 2.5 knots for 15 -30 min at each station and water temperature,salinity and depth were recorded.A total of 22 fish species were collected during spring and summer sampling,including 19 genera,12 families and 8 orders.Perciformes dominated,accounting for 50% of the total fish species,followed by Pleuronectiformes and Clupeiformes,both accounting for 13.6%.The ecological groups included marine,estuarine and anadromous fish,with absolute dominance by marine fish (13 species).Six dominant species were identified:in the spring,Collichthys lucidus,Miichthys miiuy,Coilia mystus;in summer,Col-lichthys lucidus,Pennahia argentata,Harpodon nehereus,Miichthys miiuy and Cynoglossus joyneri

  12. 杭州地区部分人群糖化血红蛋白的调查研究%Study on the level of glycosylated hemoglobin in physical examination population in Hangzhou city

    马小红; 庄爱周; 李萌; 万晓晨


    目的:研究杭州地区部分人群糖化血红蛋白(glycosylated hemoglobin,Hb)水平的分布情况.方法:收集2010年8月- 2011年8月在我院体检的4850例体检人员样本,应用全自动糖化血红蛋白分析仪检测HbA1(%)和HbA1c(%)水平,分别按性别、年龄、HbA1c参考值及2010年糖尿病诊断新标准对样本进行分组,并进行统计分析.结果:结果表明,HbA1(%)和HbA1c(%)在不同性别和年龄的人群中的分布有显著性差异.结论:杭州地区男性Hb总体水平均明显高于女性,且随着年龄的增长Hb水平增高,且根据2010年新指南筛查出疑似糖尿病者增多,为糖尿病的早期发现、早期治疗及减少并发症的发生提供了前提.%Objective:To investigate the distribution of glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb) level in Hangzhou population. Methods:4850 cases of physical examination individuals in our hospital from 2010 August to 2011 August were recruited into this stud-y. HbAl (% ) and HbAlc (% ) level were detected by the automatic glycosylated hemoglobin analyzer, and the results were conducted statistical analysis by sex, age, the reference value of HbAlc and the 2010 new criteria for diagnosis of diabetes melli-tus, separately. Results:The results show that the distribution of HbAl (% ) and HbAlc (% ) levels existed significant difference in different genders and age groups of Hangzhou population. Conclusion:The Hb level of male in Hangzhou were significantly higher than that of female, and the Hb level became higher as the age increased. According to new 2010 guidelines, the suspected diabetes increased, which has provided basis for early detection, early treatment of diabetes and reduce the incidence of diabetes complications.

  13. Lipids in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations

    González Rodríguez, María Luisa


    Full Text Available In this paper, a review of the applications of lipids in the pharmaceutical field has been reported. In a first stage, different lipids used as excipients in cosmetics and medicines have been described. Many vegetable oils are used in this sense: almond oil, apricot oil, avocado oil, borage oil, coffee oil, safflower oil, etc.; from de animal source, fish oil and bird oil can be employed as excipients in cosmetical formulations. Fats and waxes may be also used for this purpose. A broad range of phospholipids are suitable for use in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and diagnosis. These substances are used as vehicle for therapeutic substances, such as liposomes. Finally, a study of lipids, as a function of their biological activity, as active substances for the elaboration of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics or nutritional supplements, was carried out. Carotenoids, retinoids, tocopherols are used for their antioxidant properties, that are important to health and diagnostic medicine.En el presente trabajo se ha llevado a cabo una revisión sobre las aplicaciones de los lípidos en el campo famacéutico. En un primer apartado, se describieron los diferentes lípidos utilizados como excipientes en cosmética y medicina. En este sentido, se utilizan muchos aceites vegetales, como el aceite de almendra, albaricoque, aguacate, borraja, café, cártamo, etc.; a partir de fuente animal, pueden emplearse como excipientes en formulaciones cosméticas los aceites de pescados y de aves. También se utilizan con este propósito las grasas y las ceras. Así mismo se revisan los fosfolípidos empleados en cosmética y en diagnosis, que actúan como vehículos transportadores de sustancias activas, como los liposomas. Finalmente, se llevó a cabo un estudio de los lípidos, en función de su actividad biológica, como sustancias activas que forman parte de la elaboración de formulaciones cosméticas, farmacéuticas o suplementos nutricionales. Los carotenoides, retinoides

  14. Ways of Learning in the Pharmaceutical Sales Industry

    Hunter, Carrie Patricia


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to document the ways pharmaceutical representatives learn for work and report attributes of (in)formality and other characteristics of ways of learning perceived as effective and frequently used. Design/methodology/approach: A total of agents 20 from 11 pharmaceutical manufacturers across Canada participated…

  15. Tendering and decision-making: a case on pharmaceutical products

    S. Dankers; R. Vieira


    In order to contain expenditures for pharmaceuticals, the latest healthcare reforms have focused on decentralising German pharmaceutical market. Health insurance funds are now able to tender the products and subsequently conclude rebate contracts with one or more companies. Considering the enormous

  16. 75 FR 16157 - Pharmaceutical Supply Chain; Public Workshop


    ... upon a series of controls across the entire supply chain from sourcing of incoming starting materials... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pharmaceutical Supply Chain; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled ``2010 PDA/FDA Pharmaceutical Supply Chain Workshop...

  17. Electrospray crystallization for nanosized pharmaceuticals with improved properties

    Radacsi, N.; Ambrus, R.; Szunyogh, T.; Szabó-Révész, P.; Stankiewicz, A.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Horst, J.H. ter


    Many new pharmaceuticals have low water solubility, hampering their pharmaceutical activity upon administering. One approach to increase solution concentrations during drug administration is to increase the surface-to-volume ratio by decreasing the crystal product size. Sub-micrometer-sized niflumic

  18. A perspective on PSE in pharmaceutical process development and innovation

    Gernaey, Krist; Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Woodley, John


    The pharmaceutical industry is under growing pressure to increase efficiency, both in production and in process development. This paper discusses the central role of Process Systems Engineering (PSE) methods and tools in pharmaceutical process development and innovation, and searches for answers ...

  19. The pharmaceutical care in asthma - Polish and global perspective.

    Swieczkowski, Damian; Poniatowski, Patryk; Merks, Piotr; Jaguszewski, Milosz


    The pharmaceutical care is a pharmacist's contribution to the care of individual patients and leads to optimize the use of drugs. The pharmaceutical care may improve adherence, clinical effectiveness of providing therapy and improve the health-related quality of life. The conducted literature review confirmed that pharmaceutical care and advanced pharmaceutical services are clinical effective in asthma. The implementation of pharmaceutical care under Polish conditions is currently insufficient and remains challenging for the future. Herein we should admit, that the polish government has recently put an effort to appoint specially dedicated team establishing a program of reimbursed pharmaceutical care. This move should be considered as a new phase for amendments community pharmacy in Poland. The experience of different health care systems, including for instance United Kingdom, Australia or Canada, might be used in the process of changing Polish perspective. Herein, we have reviewed the literature and highlighted the services creating the program of pharmaceutical care in asthma. This unique work describes the complex nature of optimal pharmaceutical services emphasizing the strong necessity of multidimensional approach in this field.

  20. Electrospray crystallization for nanosized pharmaceuticals with improved properties

    Radacsi, N.; Ambrus, R.; Szunyogh, T.; Szabó-Révész, P.; Stankiewicz, A.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Horst, J.H. ter


    Many new pharmaceuticals have low water solubility, hampering their pharmaceutical activity upon administering. One approach to increase solution concentrations during drug administration is to increase the surface-to-volume ratio by decreasing the crystal product size. Sub-micrometer-sized niflumic

  1. Adsorptive removal of selected pharmaceuticals by mesoporous silica SBA-15

    Bui, Tung Xuan, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Heechul, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)


    The removal of five selected pharmaceuticals, viz., carbamazepine, clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and ketoprofen was examined by batch sorption experiments onto a synthesized mesoporous silica SBA-15. SBA-15 was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption measurement, and point of zero charge (PZC) measurement. Pharmaceutical adsorption kinetics was rapid and occurred on a scale of minutes, following a pseudo-second-order rate expression. Adsorption isotherms were best fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. High removal rates of individual pharmaceuticals were achieved in acidic media (pH 3-5) and reached 85.2% for carbamazepine, 88.3% for diclofenac, 93.0% for ibuprofen, 94.3% for ketoprofen, and 49.0% for clofibric acid at pH 3 but decreased with increase in pH. SBA-15 also showed high efficiency for removal of a mixture of 5 pharmaceuticals. Except for clofibric acid (35.6%), the removal of pharmaceuticals in the mixture ranged from 75.2 to 89.3%. Based on adsorption and desorption results, the mechanism of the selected pharmaceuticals was found to be a hydrophilic interaction, providing valuable information for further studies to design materials for the purpose. The results of this study suggest that mesoporous-silica-based materials are promising adsorbents for removing pharmaceuticals from not only surface water but also wastewater of pharmaceutical industrial manufactures.

  2. Introductory Level Problems Illustrating Concepts in Pharmaceutical Engineering

    McIver, Keith; Whitaker, Kathryn; De Delva, Vladimir; Farrell, Stephanie; Savelski, Mariano J.; Slater, C. Stewart


    Textbook style problems including detailed solutions introducing pharmaceutical topics at the level of an introductory chemical engineering course have been created. The problems illustrate and teach subjects which students would learn if they were to pursue a career in pharmaceutical engineering, including the unique terminology of the field,…

  3. The Pharmaceutical Sector of Kazakhstan's Economy: Trends and Problems

    Nurpeisov, Borankul G.; Nabiev, Erboz N.; Mukashev, Temirbay A.; Daribekov, Serik S.; Raimbekov, Bagdat Kh.; Asanova, Maral K.; Bazarbaeva, Leila M.


    This research is devoted to the investigation of the general trends in the development of the pharmaceutical industry in the current conditions of economical socialization. The determination of the economic specificity of the modern operation of the pharmaceutical industry is the purpose of the research. It was found that pharmacy is a profitable…

  4. Ways of Learning in the Pharmaceutical Sales Industry

    Hunter, Carrie Patricia


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to document the ways pharmaceutical representatives learn for work and report attributes of (in)formality and other characteristics of ways of learning perceived as effective and frequently used. Design/methodology/approach: A total of agents 20 from 11 pharmaceutical manufacturers across Canada participated…

  5. Biotechnology, nanotechnology, and pharmacogenomics and pharmaceutical compounding, Part 1.

    Allen, Loyd V


    The world of pharmaceuticals is changing rapidly as biotechnology continues to grow and nanotechnology appears on the horizon. Biotechnology is gaining in importance in extemporaneous pharmaceutical compounding, and nanotechnology and pharmacogenomics could drastically change the practice of pharmacy. This article discusses biotechnology and the factors to consider when compounding biotechnology drugs.

  6. A Review on quality by design approach (QBD for Pharmaceuticals

    Vemuri Pavan Kumar


    Full Text Available Quality by Design is the modern approach for quality of pharmaceuticals. It describes use of Quality by Design to ensure quality of Pharmaceuticals. In this review, the Quality by Design is described and some of its elements identified. Process parameters and quality attributes are identified for each unit operation. Benefits, opportunities and steps involved in Quality by Design of Pharmaceutical products are described. It is based on the ICH Guidelines Q8 for pharmaceutical development, Q9 for quality risk management, Q10 for pharmaceutical quality systems. It also gives application of Quality by Design in pharmaceutical development and manufacturing of pharmaceuticals. The aim of the pharmaceutical development is to design a quality product and its manufacturing process to consistently deliver the intended performance of the product. Quality cannot be tested into products but quality should be built in by design. It includes the Quality target product profile, critical quality attributes and key aspects of Quality by Design. It also gives comparison between product quality by end product testing and product quality by Quality by Design. The foundation of Quality by Design is ICH Guidelines.

  7. Pharmaceutical Sociology: Issues in Research, Education and Service.

    Svarstad, Bonnie L.


    Discusses need for social scientific research, clinical social scientists in pharmacy, and specialists in pharmaceutical sociology and the other social sciences. To illustrate, patient noncompliance with drug regimens and the use of sociology to analyze the problem are examined. Includes a sample program in pharmaceutical sociology, course…

  8. 76 FR 64945 - Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. and Cephalon, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent...


    ... Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. and Cephalon, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders... Consent Orders (``Consent Agreement'') from Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (``Teva'') and Cephalon... Pharmaceutical, Inc. (``Par'') all of Teva's rights and assets relating to its generic transmucosal fentanyl...

  9. 77 FR 75672 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc.


    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Halo Pharmaceutical... 47114, Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc., 30 North Jefferson Road, Whippany, New Jersey 07981, made application... determined that the registration of Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc., to manufacture the listed basic classes...

  10. 75 FR 33824 - Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition...


    ... COMMISSION Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition of Certain Products to the Pharmaceutical Appendix to the HTS AGENCY: United States International... (Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-520, Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates,...

  11. 78 FR 33441 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Caraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, LTD


    ... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Caraco Pharmaceutical..., 78 FR 12101, Caraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd., 270 Prospect Plains Road, Cranbury, New Jersey... registration of Caraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd., to import the basic class of controlled substance...

  12. Microbial Removal of the Pharmaceutical Compounds Ibuprofen and Diclofenac from Wastewater

    Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Inderfurth, N.S.; Veuskens, T.; Schraa, G.; Blokland, M.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.


    Studies on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals show that the widely used pharmaceuticals ibuprofen and diclofenac are present in relevant concentrations in the environment. A pilot plant treating hospital wastewater with relevant concentrations of these pharmaceuticals was evaluated for its performanc

  13. Microbial Removal of the Pharmaceutical Compounds Ibuprofen and Diclofenac from Wastewater

    Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Inderfurth, N.S.; Veuskens, T.; Schraa, G.; Blokland, M.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.


    Studies on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals show that the widely used pharmaceuticals ibuprofen and diclofenac are present in relevant concentrations in the environment. A pilot plant treating hospital wastewater with relevant concentrations of these pharmaceuticals was evaluated for its performanc

  14. 实践教学技能是健身教练制胜的关键--以杭州市首届健身指导员职业技能竞赛为例%The Study of First Fitness Instructors Skills Competition in Hangzhou--AS The First Social Instror Occupational Skills in Hangzhou For Example



      本文通过对杭州首届健身指导员健身分赛场中,参赛队员的相关比赛数据进行比较和分析,探析比赛的组织安排、项目设置、反馈评价等内容,并对发现的问题给出相应的对策与建议。并采用文献资料法、访谈法、数理统计法对赛事相关数据进行客观分析,表明:(1)本次比赛的参与面比较广,参赛选手和专家都对此次比赛的公正性表示肯定。(2)比赛项目的设置比较合理,能较好的检验参赛选手的综合实力和应变技巧。(3)参赛选手的各项比赛成绩较为理想,但教学技能方面较薄弱。%In this paper, Hangzhou First Fitness Instructor Fitness breakout team members of game data for comparison and analysis, Analysis of the organizational arrangements of the competition, The project settings, Feedback, Evaluation, Etc., And found the problem given the appropriate counter measures recommendations. In this paper, The literature, Interview, mathematical statistics and objective analysis of the event-related data showed that: (1)The tournament participation was fairly wide, The participants and experts are sure that this competition fair, just and open. (2) Events set more reasonable, can better test players strength and strain techniques. (3) Contestants of the competition results are ideal, But relatively weak teaching skills.

  15. Healthcare systems, the State, and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry

    Ignacio José Godinho Delgado

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article discusses the relations between healthcare systems and the pharmaceutical industry, focusing on state support for pharmaceutical innovation. The study highlights the experiences of the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany, developed countries and paradigms of modern health systems (liberal, universal, and corporatist, in addition to Japan, a case of successful catching up. The study also emphasizes the experiences of China, India, and Brazil, large developing countries that have tried different catching up strategies, with diverse histories and profiles in their healthcare systems and pharmaceutical industries. Finally, with a focus on state forms of support for health research, the article addresses the mechanisms for linkage between health systems and the pharmaceutical industry, evaluating the possibilities of Brazil strengthening a virtuous interaction, favoring the expansion and consolidation of the Brazilian health system - universal but segmented ‒ and the affirmation of the innovative national pharmaceutical industry.

  16. Cost-containment as part of pharmaceutical policy

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine M


    In this article the authors provide insight into the basis for price setting of medicines, the increasing pharmaceutical budgets in the past decades, and the measures governments and insures have taken to curb rising pharmaceutical costs. Four reasons are out lined for the fact that medicines......, with public spending about half of this amount. Since 1970, the average share of GDP for pharmaceuticals in most countries has increased 1.5% more per year than GDP growth. Four types of strategies to curb rising Pharmaceuticals costs are described and a taxonomy of strategies provided These are:1)price...... in their proper content of health care. The authors conclude by advocating a balanced approach to policymaking in a environment of rising pharmaceuticals costs....

  17. Artificial neural networks: theoretical background and pharmaceutical applications: a review.

    Wesolowski, Marek; Suchacz, Bogdan


    In recent times, there has been a growing interest in artificial neural networks, which are a rough simulation of the information processing ability of the human brain, as modern and vastly sophisticated computational techniques. This interest has also been reflected in the pharmaceutical sciences. This paper presents a review of articles on the subject of the application of neural networks as effective tools assisting the solution of various problems in science and the pharmaceutical industry, especially those characterized by multivariate and nonlinear dependencies. After a short description of theoretical background and practical basics concerning the computations performed by means of neural networks, the most important pharmaceutical applications of neural networks, with suitable references, are demonstrated. The huge role played by neural networks in pharmaceutical analysis, pharmaceutical technology, and searching for the relationships between the chemical structure and the properties of newly synthesized compounds as candidates for drugs is discussed.

  18. Cleaner production at pharmaceutical industry: first steps assessment

    Edilaine Conceição Rezende


    Full Text Available The Cleaner Production (CP is an environmental management system effective to comply the environmental obligations and promote sustainable development of enterprises. In this study, the implementing possibilities of CP practices were evaluated to pharmaceutical industry, through prior identification procedures for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices. The study was conducted in a scientific and health care institution, which produces pharmaceutical drugs and makes assistance for public health. The production process was evaluated and made a survey of the main points of waste and sewage generations in each stage, in order to diagnose the measures of CP established and propose new actions. Thus, by using this tool, it was possible to demonstrate the reduction of environmental impacts associated with pharmaceutical production. The Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices also contributed to the implementation of measures CP, preserving the final product quality, and generating environmental and economic benefits.

  19. Membrane Bioprocesses for Pharmaceutical Micropollutant Removal from Waters

    Matthias de Cazes


    Full Text Available The purpose of this review work is to give an overview of the research reported on bioprocesses for the treatment of domestic or industrial wastewaters (WW containing pharmaceuticals. Conventional WW treatment technologies are not efficient enough to completely remove all pharmaceuticals from water. Indeed, these compounds are becoming an actual public health problem, because they are more and more present in underground and even in potable waters. Different types of bioprocesses are described in this work: from classical activated sludge systems, which allow the depletion of pharmaceuticals by bio-degradation and adsorption, to enzymatic reactions, which are more focused on the treatment of WW containing a relatively high content of pharmaceuticals and less organic carbon pollution than classical WW. Different aspects concerning the advantages of membrane bioreactors for pharmaceuticals removal are discussed, as well as the more recent studies on enzymatic membrane reactors to the depletion of these recalcitrant compounds.

  20. Scientific Knowledge and Technology, Animal Experimentation, and Pharmaceutical Development.

    Kinter, Lewis B; DeGeorge, Joseph J


    Human discovery of pharmacologically active substances is arguably the oldest of the biomedical sciences with origins >3500 years ago. Since ancient times, four major transformations have dramatically impacted pharmaceutical development, each driven by advances in scientific knowledge, technology, and/or regulation: (1) anesthesia, analgesia, and antisepsis; (2) medicinal chemistry; (3) regulatory toxicology; and (4) targeted drug discovery. Animal experimentation in pharmaceutical development is a modern phenomenon dating from the 20th century and enabling several of the four transformations. While each transformation resulted in more effective and/or safer pharmaceuticals, overall attrition, cycle time, cost, numbers of animals used, and low probability of success for new products remain concerns, and pharmaceutical development remains a very high risk business proposition. In this manuscript we review pharmaceutical development since ancient times, describe its coevolution with animal experimentation, and attempt to predict the characteristics of future transformations.

  1. Moving from batch towards continuous organic‐chemical pharmaceutical production

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili

    thus resulted in many cases in low reaction yields and separation efficiencies. These limitations were however compensated by a relatively fast process implementation. For the pharmaceutical industry this meant that new drug products could be exclusively marketed for a longer time period, resulting....... Furthermore, once a pharmaceutical product was approved, changes to the original production process could only be achieved at the expense of revalidating the whole process in a worldwide market, which typically prevented pharmaceutical companies from optimizing already existing manufacturing processes. Today......, however, the pharmaceutical industry is facing a globalized market where national health institutions increasingly favor the prescription of low‐cost generics, and it is more and more expensive to develop new pharmaceutical ingredients with the potential to become, for a few years, blockbusters. Fierce...

  2. Strategic Development Trends in the World Pharmaceutical Industry

    Dragan Kesič


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to research and evaluate the strategicdevelopment trends in the world pharmaceutical industry in the period1996–2006.We aim to find that mergers and acquisitions prevailas a vital strategic development option in the world pharmaceutical industry.The research examines the exploratory hypothesis that the intensiveglobalization process, increased competitiveness and changedstructure of competitors, strongly influence the consolidation developmenttrends in the world pharmaceutical industry which result in anincreased number of mergers and acquisitions. The intensive consolidationof the world pharmaceutical industry is a market driven processand conditioned by several strategic issues, such as lack of brand newproducts, increased competitiveness, fast globalization process, intensiveglobal marketing and sales activities, changed structure of competitors,fight for global market shares and customers’ loyalty. There isclear evidence that the world pharmaceutical industry and market areboth becoming more oligopolistic and monopolistic.

  3. Membrane Bioprocesses for Pharmaceutical Micropollutant Removal from Waters

    de Cazes, Matthias; Abejón, Ricardo; Belleville, Marie-Pierre; Sanchez-Marcano, José


    The purpose of this review work is to give an overview of the research reported on bioprocesses for the treatment of domestic or industrial wastewaters (WW) containing pharmaceuticals. Conventional WW treatment technologies are not efficient enough to completely remove all pharmaceuticals from water. Indeed, these compounds are becoming an actual public health problem, because they are more and more present in underground and even in potable waters. Different types of bioprocesses are described in this work: from classical activated sludge systems, which allow the depletion of pharmaceuticals by bio-degradation and adsorption, to enzymatic reactions, which are more focused on the treatment of WW containing a relatively high content of pharmaceuticals and less organic carbon pollution than classical WW. Different aspects concerning the advantages of membrane bioreactors for pharmaceuticals removal are discussed, as well as the more recent studies on enzymatic membrane reactors to the depletion of these recalcitrant compounds. PMID:25295629

  4. OTI-010 Osiris Therapeutics/JCR Pharmaceuticals.

    Taupin, Philippe


    Osiris Therapeutics is developing the donor-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy OTI-010, which repopulates the bone marrow stroma and thus supports engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells from the same donor. This stem cell therapy, which has been awarded Orphan Drug status, is currently in development for the potential enhancement of bone marrow transplants in cancer patients, for the prevention of graft versus host disease (GVHD), and for the treatment of Crohn's disease. Japanese licensee JCR Pharmaceuticals is investigating the therapy for the potential treatment of GVHD in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation to treat leukemia. Phase II clinical trials in acute gastrointestinal GVHD and in adult and pediatric patients with treatment-refractory severe GVHD are currently underway.

  5. Pharmaceutical applications of dynamic mechanical thermal analysis.

    Jones, David S; Tian, Yiwei; Abu-Diak, Osama; Andrews, Gavin P


    The successful development of polymeric drug delivery and biomedical devices requires a comprehensive understanding of the viscoleastic properties of polymers as these have been shown to directly affect clinical efficacy. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) is an accessible and versatile analytical technique in which an oscillating stress or strain is applied to a sample as a function of oscillatory frequency and temperature. Through cyclic application of a non-destructive stress or strain, a comprehensive understanding of the viscoelastic properties of polymers may be obtained. In this review, we provide a concise overview of the theory of DMTA and the basic instrumental/operating principles. Moreover, the application of DMTA for the characterization of solid pharmaceutical and biomedical systems has been discussed in detail. In particular we have described the potential of DMTA to measure and understand relaxation transitions and miscibility in binary and higher-order systems and describe the more recent applications of the technique for this purpose.

  6. Application-oriented Crystallization of Pharmaceutical Products

    Bruun Hansen, Thomas


    The purpose of this PhD thesis is to investigate various options for controlling the crystallization process of pharmaceutical products, both with regards to polymorphic control and crystal morphology. During this process, several model compounds were used, depending on the goal of the studies...... crystallizations were performed at fixed cooling rates, but also using Supersaturation control SSC and direct nucleation control DNC, to determine the temperature set point of the reactor. The impacts on crystal size, especially from the DNC experiments were quite impressive and clearly showed the advantages...... bonding behavior of the two compounds, but also to build the foundation for further studies using a compound that would allow for better monitoring using FT-IR. In this study the solubility of INA in several solvents have been determined, furthermore the crystallization of different polymorphs during...

  7. The ethics and economics of pharmaceutical pricing.

    Parker-Lue, Sara; Santoro, Michael; Koski, Greg


    The cost of drugs is a major and rapidly rising component of health-care expenditures. We survey recent literature on the ethics and economics of skyrocketing pharmaceutical prices and find that advances in economic research have increased the sharpness and focus of the ethically based calls to increase access by modifying patent protection and reducing prices. In some cases, research supports ethical arguments for broader access. Other research suggests that efforts to broaden access result in unintended consequences for innovation and the medical needs of patients. Both ethicists and economists need to be more cognizant of the real clinical settings in which physicians practice medicine with real patients. Greater cross-disciplinary interaction among economists, ethicists, and physicians can help reduce the disjunction between innovation and access and improve access and patient care. This dialogue will impact private industry and may spur new multistakeholder paradigms for drug discovery, development, and pricing.

  8. Prospects for Anti-Biofilm Pharmaceuticals

    Philip S. Stewart


    Full Text Available This commentary highlights several avenues currently being pursued in research labs to the development of new anti-biofilm pharmaceuticals. There is a real need for alternative therapeutic modalities for treating the persistent infections that sometimes form on implanted medical devices or compromised niches within the body. Strategies being researched include discovering new antimicrobial agents that kill microorganisms in biofilms more effectively than do existing antibiotics, designing drugs that block microbial adhesion or interfere with intercellular communication, developing chemistries to disperse biofilms, and combining agents with different mechanisms of action. Though the need is great, the pathway to commercialization of new drugs is steep. One possible streamlined approach to navigating the regulatory approval process is to repurpose old drugs, a strategy that a few groups have shown can yield agents with anti-biofilm properties.

  9. Voltammetric assay of Guaifenesin in pharmaceutical formulation.

    Tapsoba, I; Belgaied, J-E; Boujlel, K


    The electrochemical oxidation of Guaifenesin in a pharmaceutical formulation containing Guaifenesin has been carried out in Britton-Robinson buffer (BRB) (0.04 mol L-1) on platinum electrode. Guaifenesin exhibits a well-defined irreversible oxidation peak at 0.924 V/ref. The influence of pH on the oxidation of Guaifenesin was studied in BRB (pH range 2-5). A method for the analysis of Guaifenesin in BRB (0.04 mol L-1, pH 2), which allows quantification over the range 20-60 microg mL-1, was proposed and successfully applied to the determination of Guaifenesin in syrup with mean recovery and relative standard deviation of 103.3% and 1.32%, respectively.

  10. Polymers for Pharmaceutical Packaging and Delivery Systems

    Fristrup, Charlotte Juel

    -bromoisobutyrate initiating sites. Each modification step of PEEK as well as grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) was followed and confirmed by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, water contact angle (WCA) measurements, and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis....... X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy also confirmed the presence of the poly(PEGMA) grafts on the PEEK surface by comparing the C/O ratio and the chemical composition after each modification step. The surface topography was evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Polypropylene (PP) is one of the polymeric...... materials of interest for pharmaceutical packaging and delivery systems. Confocal fluorescence microscopy studies and stability studies with insulin aspart (AspB28 insulin) were conducted to evaluate the impact of modified PP compared to unmodified PP. In contrast to PEEK, PP did not contain any functional...

  11. Applying System Engineering to Pharmaceutical Safety

    Nancy Leveson


    Full Text Available While engineering techniques are used in the development of medical devices and have been applied to individual healthcare processes, such as the use of checklists in surgery and ICUs, the application of system engineering techniques to larger healthcare systems is less common. System safety is the part of system engineering that uses modeling and analysis to identify hazards and to design the system to eliminate or control them. In this paper, we demonstrate how to apply a new, safety engineering static and dynamic modeling and analysis approach to healthcare systems. Pharmaceutical safety is used as the example in the paper, but the same approach is potentially applicable to other complex healthcare systems. System engineering techniques can be used in re-engineering the system as a whole to achieve the system goals, including both enhancing the safety of current drugs while, at the same time, encouraging the development of new drugs.

  12. Pharmaceutical advertising and Medicare Part D.

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Sood, Neeraj; Gu, Qian


    We explore how and to what extent prescription drug insurance expansions affect incentives for pharmaceutical advertising. When insurance expansions make markets more profitable, firms respond by boosting advertising. Theory suggests this effect will be magnified in the least competitive drug classes, where firms internalize a larger share of the benefits from advertising. Empirically, we find that the implementation of Part D coincides with a 14-19% increase in total advertising expenditures. This effect is indeed concentrated in the least competitive drug classes. The additional advertising raised utilization among non-elderly patients outside the Part D program by about 3.6%. This is roughly half of the direct utilization effect of Part D on elderly beneficiaries. The results suggest the presence of considerable spillover effects from publicly subsidized prescription drug insurance on the utilization and welfare of consumers outside the program.

  13. Electroanalytical determination of paroxetine in pharmaceuticals.

    Nouws, Henri P A; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Barros, Aquiles A; Rodrigues, José A


    Electroanalytical methods based on square-wave adsorptive-stripping voltammetry (SWAdSV) and flow-injection analysis with SWAdSV detection (FIA-SWAdSV) were developed for the determination of paroxetine (PRX). The methods were based on the reduction of PRX at a mercury drop electrode at -1.55V versus Ag/AgCl, in a borate buffer of pH 8.8, and the possibility of accumulating the compound at the electrode surface. Because the presence of dissolved oxygen did not interfere significantly with the analysis, it was also possible to determine PRX using FIA-SWAdSV. This method enables analysis of up to 120 samples per hour at reduced costs. Both methods developed were validated and successfully applied to the quantification of PRX in pharmaceutical products.

  14. Nonclinical statistics for pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries


    This book serves as a reference text for regulatory, industry and academic statisticians and also a handy manual for entry level Statisticians. Additionally it aims to stimulate academic interest in the field of Nonclinical Statistics and promote this as an important discipline in its own right. This text brings together for the first time in a single volume a comprehensive survey of methods important to the nonclinical science areas within the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Specifically the Discovery and Translational sciences, the Safety/Toxiology sciences, and the Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls sciences. Drug discovery and development is a long and costly process. Most decisions in the drug development process are made with incomplete information. The data is rife with uncertainties and hence risky by nature. This is therefore the purview of Statistics. As such, this book aims to introduce readers to important statistical thinking and its application in these nonclinical areas. The cha...

  15. Polarographic determination of loratadine in pharmaceutical preparations.

    Squella, J A; Sturm, J C; Diaz, M A; Pessoa, H; Nuñez-Vergara, L J


    Loratadine, a potent antihistamine drug, is not directly electroreducible at a dropping mercury electrode; however, by means of a nitration procedure it is possible to obtain a nitro-loratadine derivative which has been identified as 4-(8-chloro-7-nitro-5,6-dihydro-11 H-benzo-[5,6]-cyclohepta-[l,2-b]-pyridin-l l-ylidene)-1-piperidine carboxylic acid ethyl ester. The electrochemical reduction of this derivative at different pHs and concentrations using polarography and cyclic voltammetry was studied. The derivative exhibits a differential pulse polarographic peak due to the reduction of the nitro group. This peak was used in order to develop an analytical procedure for determining loratadine in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The recovery study shows adequate accuracy and precision for the developed assay and the excipients do not interfere in the determination.

  16. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    Smita Talaviya


    Full Text Available Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceuticals is to utilize eco-friendly, non-hazardous, reproducible and efficient solvents and catalysts in synthesis of drug molecules, drug intermediates and in researches involving synthetic chemistry. Microwave synthesis is also an important tool of green chemistry by being an energy efficient process.

  17. The Future of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Sciences

    Rantanen, Jukka; Khinast, Johannes


    The entire pharmaceutical sector is in an urgent need of both innovative technological solutions and fundamental scientific work, enabling the production of highly engineered drug products. Commercial-scale manufacturing of complex drug delivery systems (DDSs) using the existing technologies...... is challenging. This review covers important elements of manufacturing sciences, beginning with risk management strategies and design of experiments (DoE) techniques. Experimental techniques should, where possible, be supported by computational approaches. With that regard, state-of-art mechanistic process...... control solutions. Last part of the review addresses future manufacturing solutions, covering continuous processing and, specifically, hot-melt processing and printing-based technologies. Finally, challenges related to implementing these technologies as a part of future health care systems are discussed....

  18. A vision of the pharmaceutical industry.

    Muñio, S


    As the financial resources available for looking after the health of an aging population are limited, generic drugs (drugs that are no longer covered by a patent and marketed at a lower price) have come to be used in western countries as a means for meeting growing demand while leaving resources in the health budget for new drugs. In Spain, a law on product patents was introduced in 1992, which is much later than in other countries, and created difficulties in the definition and procedure for gaining approval for generic drugs. Circular 3/97 from the Ministry of Health finally resolved these issues. In this circular, generic pharmaceutical products (GPPs) are clearly defined and identified with a positive commitment towards guaranteeing the ability to interchange original drugs for other cheaper generic products and towards clarifying the Spanish vade mecum. The position of the pharmaceutical industry on generic drugs varies widely and consequently, it is impossible to make a general statement on the view of the industry. However, the commitment of Novartis, given the issues described above and in line with the company's global strategy, is to offer innovation and services to society. This is perfectly compatible with offering health professionals both innovative drugs and generic drugs of a high quality at a lower price, given that registering genetics requires less investment in research and development. In any case, GPPs face an uncertain future in Spain and market forecasts also differ widely, ranging from 15 billion to 80 billion pesetas in the year 2000. It will be necessary to get doctors and pharmacists positively involved, to set up fast structural measures, and to avoid rejection by patients through successful information and marketing.




    Full Text Available Three new, simple, and cost-effective visible spectrophotometric methods are proposed for determination of gatifloxacin (GTF using bromate-bromide mixture, and three dyes, methyl orange, indigocarmine and thymol blue, as reagents.The methods engross the addition of a known excess of bromate-bromide mixture to GTF in hydrochloric acid medium followed by determination of residual bromine by reacting with a fixed amount of either methyl orange andmeasuring the absorbance at 520 nm (method A or indigo carmine and measuring the absorbance at 610 nm (method B or thymol blue and measuring the absorbance at 550 nm (method C. In all the methods, the amount of brominereacted corresponds to the amount of GTF, and the absorbance is found to increase linearly with the concentration of GTF. Under the optimum conditions, GTF could be assayed in the concentration range 0.25-1.5, 0.5-6.0, and 0.5-10μg/mL by method A, method B and method C, respectively. The apparent molar absorptivities are calculated to be 1.6x105, 4.0x104 and 3.2x104 L mol-1 cm-1 for the method A, method B and method C, respectively, and the corresponding Sandell sensitivity values are 0.0025, 0.010 and 0.012 μg/cm2. The intra-day and inter-day precision, and the accuracy of the methods were evaluated as per the current ICH guidelines. The methods were successfully applied to the determination of GTF in pharmaceutical preparations without the interference from any of the pharmaceutical adjuvants.

  20. Technology evaluation: PRO-542, Progenics Pharmaceuticals inc.

    Mukhtar, M; Parveen, Z; Pomerantz, R J


    Progenics's rCD4-IgG2 (PRO-542) is a recombinant fusion protein, which has been developed using the company's Universal Antiviral Binding (UnAB) technology, and is in phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infection [273391]. At the beginning of 1997, Progenics received a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR) grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases (NIAID) to fund the development of PRO-542 [236048]. A further grant of $2.7 million was awarded in August 1998 for the clinical evaluation of PRO-542 and other anti-HIV therapies [294200]. Progenics is collaborating with the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center (ADARC) in New York and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta [178410]. In February 2000, Progenics and Genzyme Transgenics Corp signed an agreement to continue the development of a transgenic source of PRO-542. Genzyme will develop transgenic goats that produce PRO-542 in their milk in exchange for undisclosed fees and milestone payments. Genzyme will supply PRO-542 to Progenics for clinical trials with a possibility for eventual commercial supply [357291]. Following on from this, in October 2000, Progenics received an SBIR grant to fund a two-year project with Genzyme Transgenics into the development of cost-effective methods for the manufacture of PRO-542, by optimization of the production of the drug in the milk of transgenic dairy animals [385982]. In August 2000, Punk, Ziegel & Company predicted that Progenics Pharmaceuticals will become sustainably profitable in 2003 following the launch of PRO-542 and GMK (Progenics Pharmaceuticals) in 2002 [390063].