Sample records for hangzhou china easewaste

  1. Life-cycle assessment of the municipal solid waste management system in Hangzhou, China (EASEWASTE).

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Hong-Tao; Lu, Wen-Jing; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas H


    With the purpose of assessing the environmental impacts and benefits of the current municipal solid waste management system and two modified systems, EASEWASTE, a life-cycle-based model, was used to evaluate the waste system of Hangzhou city in China. An integrated model was established, including waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment, disposal and accompanying external processes. The results showed that CH(4) released from landfilling was the primary pollutant contributing to global warming, and HCl and NH(3) from incineration contributed most to acidification. Material recycling and incineration with energy recovery were important because of the induced savings in material production based on virgin materials and in energy production based on coal combustion. A modified system in which waste is transported to the nearest incinerators would be relatively better than the current system, mainly due to the decrease of pollution from landfilled waste and the increase in energy production from waste avoiding energy production by traditional power plants. A ban on free plastic bags for shopping was shown to reduce most environmental impacts due to saved oil resources and other materials used in producing the plastic bags. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. LCA methodology and a model like EASEWASTE are very suitable for evaluating the overall environmental consequences, and can be used for decision support and strategic planning in developing countries such as China where pollution control has become increasingly important with the rapid increase of waste generation as well as the increasing public awareness of environmental protection.

  2. Life-cycle assessment of the municipal solid waste management system in Hangzhou, China (EASEWASTE)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, H.-T.; Lu, W.-J.


    , mainly due to the decrease of pollution from landfilled waste and the increase in energy production from waste avoiding energy production by traditional power plants. A ban on free plastic bags for shopping was shown to reduce most environmental impacts due to saved oil resources and other materials used...... in producing the plastic bags. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. LCA methodology and a model like EASEWASTE are very suitable for evaluating the overall environmental consequences, and can be used for decision support and strategic planning in developing countries such as China...

  3. 2009 APEC SME Summit Held in Hangzhou,China


    @@ On September 11th 2009,2009 APEC SME Summit,themed by "small enterprises,big dreams" was held in Hangzhou,China.Entrepreneur delegates trom 21 Asian-pacltiC countries and regions gathered in Hangzhou,discussing the issues concerning the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and sorting out the experience for the SME to bottom out of the recession.Zhang Wei,Vice Chairman of CCPIT attended and addressed the summit.

  4. Emergence of KPC-2-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sequence Type 463 Isolates in Hangzhou, China

    Hu, Yan-yan; Gu, Dan-xia; Cai, Jia-chang; Zhou, Hong-wei


    Thirty-nine Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, all exhibiting high-level resistance to carbapenems and other β-lactam antibiotics, were isolated in Hangzhou, China. Molecular epidemiology analysis indicated the presence of two dominant clones, namely, clones A and B, both of which belong to sequence type 463 (ST463). A genetic environment analysis demonstrated that both clones harbor an ISKpn8 transposase, blaKPC-2, and an ISKpn6-like transposase. These findings depict the features of clonal expansion and transmission of KPC-2-producing P. aeruginosa strains in Hangzhou, China. PMID:25691651

  5. China Domestic Travel Fair Finshed in 2004 Hangzhou City Was Awarded the Special Contribution Prize


    <正> China Domestic Travel Fair2004 sponsored by China Nation-al Tourism Administration andZhejiang Provincial Governmentand held by Zhejiang Tourism Ad-ministration and Hangzhou Mu-nicipal Government.finished inHangzhou on June 6 afternoon.The organizing committeeawarded 16 units the best organizing praise, 23 units excellent organizingpraise, 10 units the best exhibition praise, 21 units excellent exhibitionprize, 2 units the best advertisement praise and 5 units excellent advertise-ment praise. The Zhejiang Tourism Administration and Hangzhou People’sGovernment were awarded the special contribution prize.The next domestic travel fair will be held in Gulling City. The flag of do-mestic travel fair was handed over solemnly to Pan Jianmin,the deputymayor of Guiling City, on the June 6 afternoon.

  6. Indicators and impact analysis of sediment from the Changjiang Estuary and East China Sea to the Hangzhou Bay

    WANG Hong; FAN Wei; YUN Caixing


    Based on the historical evolution of the Hangzhou Bay, by making use of the conclusions made by the previous research workers and the integration of concrete data, five distinct impact indicators of the sediment from the Changjiang Estuary and the East China Sea to the Hangzhou Bay are summarized. Numerical calculation and analysis indicate that the scouring and deposition of seabed in the Hangzhou Bay are subject to the direct impact of the evolution of the Changjiang Estuary, and the growth and decline and the direction of the sandy bar at Nanhuizui give traces to the sediment transport between the Changjiang Estuary and the Hangzhou Bay. The transport of sediment from the Changjiang Estuary to the Hangzhou Bay occurs mainly in winter and spring seasons and the increase of the Changjiang River runoff and the decrease of sediment charge have caused scouring in the northern coast of the Hangzhou Bay and the seabed erosion along the frontal margin of the Changjiang River Delta.

  7. Thrips species diversity in urban green spaces of Hangzhou (Zhejiang Province, China

    M. Mirab-balou


    Full Text Available Research was conducted on the fauna of Thysanoptera in the urban green spaces of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, during 2008- 2012. The thrips were collected in different plant communities (mainly in parks in the city. A total of 26 species from 19 genera in three different families were collected, among them Scolothrips latipennis Priesner, which is newly recorded for the fauna of China. New distribution records of seven species in China are reported. Results of the research indicate that the fauna of thrips of green areas of Hangzhou was quite abundant and diversified, and the occurrence of Selenothrips, Scirtothrips, Thrips, Frankliniella and Haplothrips species seems diverse and should be investigated further.

  8. Exploring the consumer habits of the Carrefour buyers in Hangzhou, China

    Clemente Hernández Rodríguez


    Full Text Available This study examines the consumer behavior in the Carrefour Supercenter of Hangzhou, China, in the attempt of finding results that will display the shopping patterns of an evolving clientele. The city of Hangzhou is one of the cities with the highest per capita income, and because of its proximity to Shanghai it has been used as a test city before introducing products to mayor markets. Using observation as the main tool for such an analysis, the research considered a sample of consumers seeking to detect their shopping patterns, furthermor, a number of interviews generating useful information for strategic decisions was performed. The results show information about attitude towards promotional stands, the demographic characteristics of the consumer and the way of choosing products, among other variables. Additionally, it is verified that the Chinese culture impacts every aspect of the average People´s Republic of China (PRC consumer.

  9. Heavy Metals Accumulation Characteristics of Vegetables in Hangzhou City, China

    GU Yan-qing


    Full Text Available A field survey of heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables grown in 30 vegetable farmlands of Hangzhou City were carried out. Through calculating the bioconcentration factor(BCFand transfer factor(TFfor different heavy metals(Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pbin 27 kinds of different vegetables which belong to leafy vegetables, root vegetables or eggplant fruit vegetables, assessing their accumulation characteristics of heavy metals according to the differences of the bio-concentration factor, the reasonable proposals were put forward to optimize the planting structure of vegetables in mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination soils. The experimental results were as follows: In soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination, leafy vegetables, such as crown daisy, cabbage, celery and Chinese long cabbage, had relatively low enrichment ability of heavy metals, so as the root and fruit vegetables like white radish, carrot, tomatoes, hence these vegetables could be planted preferentially. In contrast, some kinds of vegetables, including white amaranth, red amaranth, tatsoi, broccoli, gynura, brassica juncea and lettuce of leafy vegetables, lactuca sativa, taro, red radish and cherry radish of rhizome vegetables and sweet pepper of fruit vegetables, had relatively high accumulation ability of heavy metal, which should be avoided to be planted in soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination.

  10. Tea Time In Hangzhou

    Brandon Taylor


    There's a saying in China:Above is heaven,below is Hangzhou.Having visited this city in east central China,I'm willing to vouch for this ancient adage,one that suggests heaven's beauty has somehow trickled down to Earth.But I would suggest a slight amendment:Above is heaven,below is Hangzhou and people,and people,and people.The lakes,hills and pagodas make Hangzhou China's most visited tourist destination-around 20 million foreign and domestic tourists visit each year.Hangzhou is known for tea,some of the best and most expensive in China.The hills and valleys to the west of Hangzhou that I saw were littered with villages and tea plantations.That's where I needed to be.

  11. Large outbreak of herpangina in children caused by enterovirus in summer of 2015 in Hangzhou, China

    Li, Wei; Gao, Hui-hui; Zhang, Qiong; Liu, Yu-jie; Tao, Ran; Cheng, Yu-ping; Shu, Qiang; Shang, Shi-qiang


    Herpangina, usually caused by coxsackie virus A, is prevalent in children spreading through the fecal-oral transmission and the respiratory droplets dissemination. Also, it is mostly asymptomatic and self-limiting. In our study, we found that large outbreak of herpangina in children occurred in the summer of 2015 in Hangzhou, China. From May 1th to August 31th, a total of 10 210 children were diagnosed with herpangina in Children’s Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. 2 310 throat swabs were collected and tested for enterovirus detection by real-time RT-PCR, while 1 651 cases were positive with the rate of 71.5%. Based on VP1 gene or 5′UTR region sequences, Coxsackievirus A2, A4, A6, A10, B2, B4 and echovirus 30 were detected in these cases. More importantly, Coxsackievirus A2 may be the major subtype of enterovirus resulting in children with herpangina in hangzhou, China. PMID:27752104

  12. Spatiotemporal Co-existence of Female Thyroid and Breast Cancers in Hangzhou, China.

    Fei, Xufeng; Christakos, George; Lou, Zhaohan; Ren, Yanjun; Liu, Qingmin; Wu, Jiaping


    Thyroid and breast cancers (TC, BC) are common female malignant tumors worldwide. Studies suggest that TC patients have a higher BC risk, and vice versa. However, it has not been investigated quantitatively if there is an association between the space-time TC and BC incidence distributions at the population level. This work aims to answer this question. 5358 TC and 8784 BC (female) cases were diagnosed in Hangzhou (China, 2008-2012). Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficients of the TC and BC incidences were high, and their patterns were geographically similar. The spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions was investigated using the integrative disease predictability (IDP) criterion: if TC-BC association is part of the disease mapping knowledge bases, it should yield improved space-time incidence predictions. Improved TC (BC) incidence predictions were generated when integrating both TC and BC data than when using only TC (BC) data. IDP consistently demonstrated the spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions throughout Hangzhou (2008-2012), which means that when the population experiences high incidences of one kind of cancer attention should be paid to the other kind of cancer too. The strength of TC-BC association was measured by the IDP coefficients and incidence prediction accuracy.

  13. Spatiotemporal Co-existence of Female Thyroid and Breast Cancers in Hangzhou, China

    Fei, Xufeng; Christakos, George; Lou, Zhaohan; Ren, Yanjun; Liu, Qingmin; Wu, Jiaping


    Thyroid and breast cancers (TC, BC) are common female malignant tumors worldwide. Studies suggest that TC patients have a higher BC risk, and vice versa. However, it has not been investigated quantitatively if there is an association between the space-time TC and BC incidence distributions at the population level. This work aims to answer this question. 5358 TC and 8784 BC (female) cases were diagnosed in Hangzhou (China, 2008–2012). Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficients of the TC and BC incidences were high, and their patterns were geographically similar. The spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions was investigated using the integrative disease predictability (IDP) criterion: if TC-BC association is part of the disease mapping knowledge bases, it should yield improved space-time incidence predictions. Improved TC (BC) incidence predictions were generated when integrating both TC and BC data than when using only TC (BC) data. IDP consistently demonstrated the spatiotemporal co-existence of TC and BC distributions throughout Hangzhou (2008–2012), which means that when the population experiences high incidences of one kind of cancer attention should be paid to the other kind of cancer too. The strength of TC-BC association was measured by the IDP coefficients and incidence prediction accuracy.

  14. [Ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China].

    Li, Rui; Rong, Liang


    In this paper, an integrated estimation on the ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China was made from the aspects of ecological carrying capacity, spatial carrying capacity, facility carrying capacity, management carrying capacity, and psychological carrying capacity. The results indicated that the tourism carrying capacity of the Park was 4 145 - 6 450 persons per day. The rational distance between man and bird was first adopted to determine the ecotourism carrying capacity of wetland, which provided an effective solution both to fully ensure bird safety and to appropriately develop wetland tourism. The estimation of psychological carrying capacity based on tourist satisfaction degree reflected more objectively the extent the tourist demands satisfied at the planning, construction and management of tour places. Such an integrated estimation method based on the distance between man and bird and the tourist satisfaction degree could be of practical and instructive significances in the planning and management of wetland parks.

  15. Observations on a Xiphinema insigne Population with Several Males from Hangzhou, China.

    Robbins, R T; Zheng, J W; Brown, D J


    A population of Xiphinema insigne with several males was found on the campus of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, in November 1998 in the rhizosphere of Yulan Magnolia. Morphometrics of nine males and 25 females of this population are given herein. No sperm were found in the genital tracts of 118 females that were examined. This agrees with all other observations reported for this species except for the synonym of X. insigne, X. neodimorphicaudatum, in which males are as common as females and the females genital tracts contain numerous sperm. In the males of this study population, sperm were observed only in the seminal vesicles at the distal end of the testes before their juncture with the vas deferens. The population did not fit within either of the two forms of the species. This and other populations have filled in the gaps between the two forms, making the morphometrics for all reported populations a continuum.

  16. PAHs pollution from traffic sources in air of Hangzhou, China: Trend and influencing factors

    ZHU Li-zhong; WANG Jing


    PAHs pollution in air of arterial roads was investigated from October 1998 to October 2001 in Hangzhou, China. The results showed that ∑10 PAHs was 13-36 μg/m3 , among which, BaP, a strong carcinogenic kind ranged from 0.034 μg/m3 to 0. 12 μg/m3 . PAHs pollutions in four seasons were winter > autumn > spring-summer. The annual averages of ∑PAHs concentration were 25 μg/m3 for 1999, 28μg/m3 for 2000, and 29 μg/m3 for 2001, respectively. Leaded gasoline was banned in December 1998 in Hangzhou, thus comparative measurements with PAHs in leaded and lead-free gasoline powered motor exhausts made it certain that the use of lead-free gasoline leaded to a heavier PAHs pollution in roadside air from December, 1998, in China, and ∑PAHs in air samples after the lead-banning were more than twice of that in samples before the action. For the large contribution of vehicle discharge to air pollution in roadside, further research was performed to suggest the factors influencing PAHs distribution in vehicle exhaust in order to control air pollution effectively.Compared to gasoline engines, emissions from diesel engines were less toxic, although they might produce more PAHs. Of the same vehicular and oil type, automobiles of longer mileages produced more toxic PAHs. PAHs distributions in the vehicular exhausts were related to the oil type. Large difference was found in the abundance of 3-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs between exhausts from gasoline and diesel oil engines. Diesel oil engines produced relative lighter PAHs such as NAPH, ACEN, FLUOR, while gasoline engines emitted heavier kinds such as BkF, IN and BP. The automobile produced more PAHs with the increase of mileage especially FLUR, PY, BaP, BP. Some significant ratios for traffic source in Hangzhou such as PHEN/AN, FLUR/PY, IN/BP were 0.50-4.3, 0.58-7.4, 0.51-1.5,respectively. A source fingerprint for vehicle exhausts of a mixture of vehicle and oil types in the city district for light-duty vehicle was the

  17. Optimum selection on bridge erection with floating crane in East China Sea Bridge and Hangzhou Bay Bridge

    Shunquan Qin; Pu Zhou; Youheng Hua


    @@ Introduction With the rapid development of China′s economy, many bridges will be built over the Chinese coastal waters of Pacific Ocean. Among them, construction of East China Sea Bridge has been commenced in June 2001, and will be completed at the end of 2005, Hangzhou Bay Bridge was also started to construct in June 2003(Fig. 1). These two ultralong bridges are designed as twin expressway bridges standing side by side each carries a 3-lane one-way carriageway. The total width is 31.5m and 33.0m respectively. East China Sea Bridge starts from Nanhui District, Shanghai and extends to the Yangshan Deep Water Port Area, which is located at one of the Qiqu Islands. The total length of the bridge is about 31.0 km, in which 25 km are on the sea, and 22 km is in the unnavigable region. Hangzhou Bay Bridge across the mouth of Qiantang River.

  18. [Breeding ecology of Chinese Bulbul in the urban environment of Hangzhou, China].

    Lan, Si-Si; Zhang, Qin; Huang, Qin; Chen, Shui-Hua


    The Chinese Bulbul, Pycnonotus sinensis, is one of the most abundant and widely distributed birds of south China, settling even in dense urban areas. From March-July 2012, we surveyed the Chinese Bulbul in the urban environment of Hangzhou, China, to gain a clearer perspective on their breeding ecology. Totally, 117 nests were found, mainly on the trees of Osmanthus fragrans (84.6%, n=117) in residential areas,street tree strips, and green belt. Our results include several noteworthy observations: nest height from the ground was 3.16±0.91 m (n=117); egg-laying begins in early April with peak times from April 11-25; and the nesting period was 11.85±1.12 days (n=47). In terms of fertility and reproduction, we also observed that the average incubation period was 11.34±1.12 days (n=32); average clutch size was 3.37±0.48 eggs (n=103); hatching success 68.3%, fledging rate 52.1%, and the total breeding success 35.58% (n=117). The main causes of breeding failure included egg and fledgling predation, as well as human disturbance.

  19. Characterization and energy potential of food waste from catering service in Hangzhou, China.

    Guo, Xiao-Hui; Sun, Fa-Qian; Sun, Ying-Jun; Lu, Hao-Hao; Wu, Wei-Xiang


    Safe disposal of food waste is becoming an impending issue in China with the rapid increase of its production and the promotion of environmental awareness. Food waste from catering services in Hangzhou, China, was surveyed and characterized in this study. A questionnaire survey involving 632 units across the urban districts showed that 83.5% of the food waste was not properly treated. Daily food waste production from catering units was estimated to be 1184.5 tonnes. The ratio of volatile solid to total solid, easily biodegradable matter (including crude fat, crude protein and total starch) content in total solid and the ratio of total organic carbon to nitrogen varied in ranges of 90.1%-93.9%, 60.9%-72.1%, and 11.9-19.9, respectively. Based on the methane yield of 350 mL g VS(-1) in anaerobic batch tests, annual biogas energy of 1.0 × 10(9) MJ was estimated to be recovered from the food waste. Food waste from catering services was suggested to be an attractive clean energy source by anaerobic digestion. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Environmental assessment of heavy metal transport and transformation in the Hangzhou Bay, China.

    Fang, Hongwei; Huang, Lei; Wang, Jingyu; He, Guojian; Reible, Danny


    The environmental impact of heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, (90)Sr and (137)Cs) transport and transformation in the Hangzhou Bay (China) was assessed through a comprehensive model that integrates hydrodynamics, sediment and heavy metal transport. A mechanistic surface complexation model was used to estimate the adsorption and desorption of heavy metal by suspended sediment under different aqueous chemistry conditions. The dynamics of metal exchange to and from the seabed was also assessed. The primary processes regulating heavy metal distribution, i.e., convection-diffusion, adsorption-desorption, sedimentation-resuspension, as well as other physical and chemical processes related to mass exchange between adjacent sediment layers, were considered in detail. The accidental discharge of (137)Cs was simulated as an example and results showed that (137)Cs transported along the coast driven by tidal flow. Most (137)Cs distributed near the outfall and accumulated in the seabed sediment. The proposed model can be a useful tool for predicting heavy metal transport and fate and provide a theoretical basis to guide field sampling, assessment of risks and the design of remediation strategies.

  1. Phosphorus sorption and buffering mechanisms in suspended sediments from the Yangtze Estuary and Hangzhou Bay, China

    M. Li


    Full Text Available The adsorption isotherm and the mechanism of the buffering effect are important controls on phosphorus (P behaviors in estuaries and are important for estimating phosphate concentrations in aquatic environments. In this paper, we derive phosphate adsorption isotherms in order to investigate sediment adsorption and buffering capacity for phosphorus discharged from sewage outfalls in the Yangtze Estuary and Hangzhou Bay near Shanghai, China. Experiments were also carried out at different temperatures in order to explore the buffering effects for phosphate. The results show that P sorption in sediments with low fine particle fractions was best described using exponential equations. Some P interactions between water and sediment may be caused by the precipitation of CaHPO4 from Ca2+ and HPO42− when the phosphate concentration in the liquid phase is high. Results from the buffering experiments suggest that the Zero Equilibrium Phosphate Concentrations (EPC0 vary from 0.014 mg L−1 to 0.061 mg L−1, which are consistent with measured phosphate concentrations in water samples collected at the same time as sediment sampling. Values of EPC0 and linear sorption coefficients (K in sediments with high fine particle and organic matter contents are relatively high, which implies that they have high buffering capacity. Both EPC0 and K increase with increasing temperature, indicating a higher P buffering capacity at high temperatures.

  2. Characterization of tropospheric ozone based on lidar measurement in Hangzhou, East China during the G20 Leaders' Summit

    Su, Wenjing; Liu, Cheng; Fan, Guangqiang; Hu, Qihou; Huang, Xin; Dong, Yunsheng; Zhang, Tianshu; Liu, Jianguo


    Owing to the G20 (Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors) Leaders' Summit (Sep.5th-6th, 2016), a series of strict air quality control measures were implemented in Hangzhou and its surrounding regions from Aug.26th to Sep.6th. A differential absorption lidar was employed to monitor tropospheric ozone in urban Hangzhou during a campaign from Aug. 24th to Sep. 10th, and the satellite-based NO2 VCDs and HCHO VCDs in the troposphere were also retrieved using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). During our campaign, six O3 pollution events, which were determined according to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of China (GB-3095-2012), and two stages with rapid reduction of O3 concentration on Aug. 26th and Sep.4-6th were observed. The temporal variation tendency of O3 concentrations was well reproduced by the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). Typical cases with the abrupt rise and decline of O3 concentrations were analyzed using Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) back trajectory, satellite NO2 and HCHO product and the prediction by WRF-Chem model. The transport from northern cities have an important impact on pollutants observed in Hangzhou, and the chemical sensitivity of O3 production, which were approximately evaluated using the ratio of HCHO VCDs to NO2 VCDs in the troposphere, was turned from a mixed VOC-NOx-limited regime into a NOX-limited regime in Hangzhou due to the strict emission control measures.

  3. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli sequence type 131 in Hangzhou, China

    Lou Zhengqing; Qi Yan; Qian Xiang; Yang Wei; Wei Zeqing


    Background Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Escherichia (E.) coil has been reported in China since 2008.However,there is no information about the molecular epidemiology of KPC-producing E.coil in China.In this study,we aimed to investigate the sequence type (ST) and characteristics of KPC-producing E.coil isolates in China.Methods Three carbapenem-resistant isolates of E.coil (E1,E2,and E3) from one teaching hospital in Hangzhou covering a one year period were analyzed.Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by Etest.Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used for epidemiological analysis.The genetic structure around blaKPC,the major plasmid incompatibility typing,and the identification of 3-lactamase gene types were performed by PCR and the positive products were subsequently sequenced.Plasmids were analyzed by transformation,restriction,and Southern blotting.Results PFGE demonstrated that patterns of isolates E1 and E2 were clonally-related and designated as patterns A1 and A2; pattern of isolate E3 was different and designated as pattern B.MLST analysis showed that the three isolates displayed one common sequence type ST131.The identification of bla gene types by PCR and sequencing showed that blaKPC-2,blaCTX-M-14,and blaTEM-1 were detected in all three isolates.All three isolates carried a KPC-2-encoding plasmid of the IncN replicon.Plasmid analysis and hybridization experiments showed that the isolates were found simultaneously to carry two or four plasmids.The blaKPc-2 gene in E1 and E2 was located in a plasmid with size of ca.50 kb.However,the blaKPC-2 gene in E3 was located in a plasmid with size of ca.130 kb.Conclusions E.coil ST131 with KPC-2 β-1actamase has emerged in China,which enlarges the geographical area where the ST131 KPC-oroducing E.coil strains have diffused.

  4. Hangzhou Institute of Petroleum Geology

    Qian Yizhong


    @@ Hangzhou Institute of Petroleum Geology (HIPG) is not only the center of petroleum geological research & information, but also the technical supporter of the Exploration Department for frontier areas in South China, subordinate to CNPC.

  5. Formaldehyde concentration and its influencing factors in residential homes after decoration at Hangzhou, China

    Min Guo; Xiaoqiang Pei; Feifei Mo; Jianlei Liu; Xueyou Shen


    Air pollution surveys of formaldehyde (HCHO) were conducted in 2324 rooms decorated within one year in 2007-2009 in Hangzhou,China.The mean HCHO concentration (CHCHO) was 0.107 + 0.095 mg/m3,and 38.9% of samples exceeded the Chinese National Standard GB 50325-2010.Over the past 3 years,the CHCHO decreased with time (p < 0.05).Relationships of potential factors to indoor CHCHO were also evaluated.CHCHO was related to temperature (T),relative humidity (RH),time duration of the windows and doors being closed before sampling (DC),time duration from the end of decoration to sampling (DR) and source characteristics (d).A model to relate indoor CHCHO to these five factors (T,RH,DC,DR,d) was established based on 298 samples (R2 =0.87).Various factors contributed to Cacao in the following order:T,43.7%; d,31.0%; DC,10.2%; DR,8.0%; RH,7.0%; specifically,meteorological conditions (i.e.,RH plus T) accounted for 50.7%.The coefficient of T and RH,RTH,was proposed to describe their combined influence on HCHO emission,which also had a linear relationship (R2 =0.9387) with HCHO release in a simulation chamber test.In addition,experiments confirm that it is a synergistic action as T and RH accelerate the release of HCHO,and that is a significant factor influencing indoor HCHO pollution.These achievements could lead to reference values of measures for the efficient reduction of indoor HCHO pollution.

  6. Magmatism and polymetallic mineralization in southwestern Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt, South China

    Huang, Xudong; Lu, Jianjun; Wang, Rucheng; Ma, Dongsheng


    As Neoproterozoic suture zone between the Yangtze Block and Cathaysia Block, Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt is one of the 21 key metallogenic belts in China. Intensive multiple-aged felsic magmatism and related polymetallic mineralization take place in this belt. Although Neoproterozoic, Paleozoic, Triassic granites and associated deposits have been found in southwestern Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt, Middle-Late Jurassic (150-165 Ma) magmatism and related mineralization is of the most importance. Three major kinds of Middle-Late Jurassic granitoids have been distinguished. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids are slightly differentiated, calc-alkaline and metaluminous dioritic to granodioritic rocks. Sn-(W)-bearing granites contain dark microgranular enclaves and have high contents of REE and HFSE, suggesting affinities of aluminous A-type (A2) granites. W-bearing granites are highly differentiated and peraluminous rocks. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids have ɛNd(t) values of -11 ˜ -4 and ɛHf(t) values of -12 ˜ -7, corresponding to TDMC(Nd) from 1.4 to 1.8 Ga and TDMC(Hf) from 1.6 to 2.0 Ga, respectively. The ɛNd(t) values of W-bearing granites vary from -11 to -8 with TDMC(Nd) of 1.6 ˜ 1.9 Ga and ɛHf(t) values change from -16 to -7 with TDMC(Hf) of 1.5 ˜ 2.0 Ga. Compared with (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids and W-bearing granites, the Sn-(W)-bearing granites have higher ɛNd(t) (-8 ˜ -2) and ɛHf(t) (-8 ˜ -2) values and younger TDMC(Nd) (1.1 ˜ 1.6 Ga) and TDMC(Hf) (1.2 ˜ 1.8 Ga) values, showing a more juvenile isotopic character. Sn-(W)-bearing granites originate from partial melting of granulitized lower crust involved with some mantle-derived materials. W-bearing granites are derived from partial melting of crust. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids are also derived from crust but may be influenced by more mantle-derived materials. For (Cu)-Pb-Zn deposits, skarn and carbonate replacement are the most important mineralization types. Cu ore bodies mainly

  7. A Case Study Report for Urban Forestry Policy Project Co-funded by EC:Analysis of Urban Forestry Policy in Hangzhou,China

    Stephan; Pauleit


    Hangzhou is a typical city on the establishment of urban forest in China, so it was identified as a case study site in Urban Forestry Policy Project Co-funded by EC. The name of the project is "Developing Policy Formulation and Implementation Tools for Providing Support for Ecological Forest Management in China’s Urban and Peri-Urban Areas". Experts from the project team have conducted a field survey on urban forestry policy in Hangzhou for one week. Through the field survey and the workshop, the experts un...

  8. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 266 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage in Hangzhou, China

    Yun-zhen HU; Jian-wen WANG; Ben-yan LUO


    Ethnicity and socioeconomic factors can influence disease susceptibility,clinical presentation,and outcome.We investigated the clinical characteristics (age,sex,seasonal variation,lesion site,symptoms,complications,prognosis,and sequelae) and risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in 266 cases treated at our hospital in Hangzhou City,China,from January 2011 to December 2011.Risk of ICH increased dramatically with age; only 4.3%of cases were <30 years old,while 44.4% were >60 years of age.Men outnumbered women by 2:1 (67.3% vs.32.7%).Single hemorrhage was most often located in the cerebral lobes (37.2% of cases),basal ganglia (34.2%),thalamus (8.3%),cerebellum (6.8%),ventricle (1.5%),and brainstem (1.1%),while 10.9% of cases exhibited hemorrhages at multiple sites.Hypertension was also a major risk factor for ICH,as 47% of all patients were hypertensive and the percentage increased with age.In hypertensive patients,the most common hemorrhage site was the basal ganglia and ICH was often associated with thrombopenia.In patients with leukemia (all forms),most hemorrhages were lobar.Warfarin-and encephalic operation-associated ICHs were all lobar.Headache was the major symptom of occipital,temporal,and frontal lobe hemorrhage.Dizziness,nausea,and vomiting were the major symptoms of cerebellum hemorrhage.Limb dysfunction was the major symptom of thalamic and basal ganglia hemorrhage.Disturbed level of consciousness was the major symptom in multisite,ventricular,parietal lobe,and brainstem hemorrhage.Hyperspasmia occurred most often in lobar hemorrhage and blurred vision in occipital lobe hemorrhage.Hospital mortality was 24.4% (n=65) with a mean delay from presentation to death of (10.5±18.5) d.The majority of fatalities were cerebral hernia cases (58.5%) and these patients also had the shortest time to death [(2.9±3.5) d].Mortality was 100%in brainstem ICH and hemorrhagic conversion of cerebral infarct

  9. Assessing the willingness of the public to pay to conserve urban green space: the Hangzhou City, China, case.

    Chen, Bo; Bao, Zhiyi; Zhu, Zhujun


    The authors assessed the willingness of residents to pay for urban green-space conservation in Hangzhou, China, using the contingent-valuation method. The aim of the study was to provide policy makers with information that would be useful for making informed decisions in urban-development planning. The findings of the study are as follows: 1) The willingness of residents to pay for urban green-space conservation was positively correlated with their perceptions of the benefits of green spaces and negatively correlated with perceptions of the annoyances. 2) The willingness to pay a higher premium for green-space conservation is directly related to gender, income level, and residential-ownership status. Age and education level are not significantly correlated with willingness to pay. 3) A majority of respondents view the conservation of urban green spaces as a very important function of the city, and most of them are willing to pay additional taxes for this conservation. 4) The total value per year to the public of the conservation program in Hangzhou is about $15.4 million. These qualitative and quantitative findings can be used in the policy-making process for urban-development plans.

  10. Pollution level, phase distribution and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air at public places of Hangzhou, China

    Lu Hao [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail:; Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail:; Chen Shuguang [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail:


    PAHs pollution survey in air of public places was conducted in Hangzhou, China. The most serious PAHs pollution was observed in indoor air of shopping centers and the slightest was in train stations. The molecular weight of chrysene (MW 228) appeared to be the dividing line for the PAHs with a larger or smaller distribution in the vapor or particulate phase. Concentrations of 15 PAHs on PM{sub 2.5} accounted for 71.3% of total particulate PAHs, and followed by PM{sub 2.5-10} fraction (17.6%) and >PM{sub 10} fraction (11.1%). In shopping centers and supermarkets, emission of 2-4 rings PAHs occurred from indoor sources, whereas 5-6 rings PAHs predominantly originated from transport of outdoor air. In temples, PAHs in indoor air mainly originated from incense burning. Health risks associated with the inhalation of PAHs were assessed, and naphthalene made the greatest contribution (62.4%) to the total health risks. - Concentrations of PAHs in the air of selected public places in Hangzhou correspond to 10{sup -3} life-time lung cancer risk.

  11. An analysis on spatial variation of urban human thermal comfort in Hangzhou,China

    WANG Wei-wu; ZHU Li-zhong; WANG Ren-chao


    Urban human thermal comfort (UHTC) is affected for interacting of weather condition and underlyingsurface framework of urban area. Urban underlying surface temperature value and Normalized Difference VegetationIndex(NDVI) were calculated using image interpreting and supervised classification technique by ERDAS IMAGEsoftware using 1991 and 1999 Landsat TM images data. Reference to the relational standard of assessing humanthermal comfort and other meteorology data of Hangzhou City in summer, air temperature and relative humidityvariation of different land types of underlying surface were inversed. By choosing discomfort index as an indictor, thespatial distribution characteristic and the spatial variation degree of UHTC were estimated and mapped on a middlescale, that is, in six districts of Hangzhou. The main characteristics of UHTC spatial variation from 1991 to 1999 wererevealed using a GIS-based calculation model. The variation mechanism were analyzed and discussed from theviewpoint of city planning, construction and environmental protection.

  12. Wetland ecosystem health assessment through integrating remote sensing and inventory data with an assessment model for the Hangzhou Bay, China.

    Sun, Tengteng; Lin, Wenpeng; Chen, Guangsheng; Guo, Pupu; Zeng, Ying


    Due to rapid urbanization, industrialization and population growth, wetland area in China has shrunk rapidly and many wetland ecosystems have been reported to degrade during recent decades. Wetland health assessment could raise the public awareness of the wetland condition and guide policy makers to make reasonable and sustainable policies or strategies to protect and restore wetland ecosystems. This study assessed the health levels of wetland ecosystem at the Hangzhou Bay, China using the pressure-state-response (PSR) model through synthesizing remote sensing and statistical data. Ten ecological and social-economic indicators were selected to build the wetland health assessment system. Weights of these indicators and PSR model components as well as the normalized wetland health score were assigned and calculated based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. We analyzed the spatio-temporal changes in wetland ecosystem health status during the past 20years (1990-2010) from the perspectives of ecosystem pressure, state and response. The results showed that the overall wetland health score was in a fair health level, but displayed large spatial variability in 2010. The wetland health score declined from good health level to fair health level from 1990 to 2000, then restored slightly from 2000 to 2010. Overall, wetland health levels showed a decline from 1990 to 2010 for most administrative units. The temporal change patterns in wetland ecosystem health varied significantly among administrative units. Our results could help to clarify the administrative responsibilities and obligations and provide scientific guides not only for wetland protection but also for restoration and city development planning at the Hangzhou Bay area.

  13. Hedonic price analysis of urban housing:An empirical research on Hangzhou, China

    WEN Hai-zhen; JIA Sheng-hua; GUO Xiao-yu


    The hedonic price model is widely applied to study the urban housing market because of the heterogeneity of housing products. Literature indicated that the hedonic price theory mainly includes two parts: Lancaster's partiality theory and Rosen's characteristic market equilibrium analysis. This paper chose 18 characteristics as independent variables and set up a linear hedonic price model for Hangzhou City. The model was tested with 2473 housing samples and field survey data of 290 housing communities. This research found that 14 out of 18 characteristics had significant influence on housing price. They were classified into 5groups according to their impact degree.

  14. Concentrations and compositions of organochlorine contaminants in sediments, soils, crustaceans, fishes and birds collected from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay and Shanghai city region, China

    Nakata, Haruhiko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Hirakawa, Yuko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kawazoe, Masahiro [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555, (Japan); Nakabo, Tetsuji [Kyoto University Museum, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Arizono, Koji [Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Kumamoto Prefectural University, 3-1-100 Tsukide, Kumamoto 862-8502 (Japan); Abe, Shin-Ichi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kitano, Takeshi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Shimada, Hideaki [Faculty of Education, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Watanabe, Izumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchuu-city, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Li Weihua [Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xie Tu road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Ding Xucheng [Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xie Tu road, Shanghai 200032 (China)


    Contamination by persistent organochlorines (OCs), such as DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were examined in sediments, soils, fishes, crustaceans, birds, and aquaculture feed from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay, and in the vicinity of Shanghai city in China during 2000 and 2001. OCs were detected in all samples analyzed, and DDT and its metabolites were the predominant contaminants in most sediments, soils and biota. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT and ratio of p,p'-DDT to {sigma}DDTs were significantly higher in marine fishes than those in freshwater fishes. While the use of DDTs has been officially banned in China since 1983, these results indicate a recent input of technical DDTs into the marine environment around Hangzhou Bay. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in fishes collected from Lake Tai and Hangzhou Bay suggests the presence of local sources of HCHs, chlordanes and PCBs at Lake Tai. Higher proportions of penta- and hexa-PCB congeners in fishes at Lake Tai may suggest the use of highly chlorinated PCB product, such as PCB{sub 5}, around this lake. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive study to examine the present status of organochlorine contamination in various environmental media, such as sediments, soils and wildlife, in China. - Elevated concentrations of DDTs were detected in sediments, soils, and wildlife collected from China.

  15. PAHs in aquatic sediment in Hangzhou, China: analytical methods, pollution pattern, risk assessment and sources.

    Zhu, Li-zhong; Cai, Xue-fen; Wang, Jing


    Eleven surface sediment samples, from Hangzhou section of Qiantang River and Jinghang Canal, west Lake the inland river were collected to investigate 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in aquatic sediments of Hangzhou. Accelerated solvent extraction(ASE) was used to extract PAHs from sediments with satisfactory recoveries. It was found that the total PAHs in the sediments ranged from 308.4 to 3037 ng/g dw, and PAHs pollution in sediments from Jinghang Canal were the heaviest. Lowest effect level (LEL) and severe effect level (SEL) sediment quality guidelines were introduced to perform risk assessment for PAHs pollution in aquatic sediments. Only one sample in Jinghang Canal had adverse impact on benthic organism. 2-3 ring PAHs had a noticeable contribution to total PAHs, especially NA, PHEN. A quantity method was used to determine the major source, the results showed petroleum origin was the chief source to PAHs pollution in all sediments with the exception of sediments from Jinghang Canal where combustion sources had a larger contribution.

  16. PAHs in aquatic sediment in Hangzhou, China: Analytical methods, pollution pattern, risk assessment and sources

    ZHU Li-zhong; CAI Xue-fen; WANG Jing


    Eleven surface sediment samples, from Hangzhou section of Qiantang River and Jinghang Canal, west Lake the inland river were collected to investigate 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) pollution in aquatic sediments of Hangzhou. Accelerated solvent extraction(ASE) was used to extract PAHs from sediments with satisfactory recoveries. It was found that the total PAHs in the sediments ranged from 308.4 to 3037 ng/g dw, and PAHs pollution in sediments from Jinghang Canal were the heaviest. Lowest effect level(LEL)and severe effect level (SEL) sediment quality guidelines were introduced to perform risk assessment for PAHs pollution in aquatic sediments. Only one sample in Jinghang Canal had adverse impact on benthic organism. 2-3 ring PAHs had a noticeable contribution to total PAHs, especially NA, PHEN. A quantity method was used to determine the major source, the results showed petroleum origin was the chief source to PAHs pollution in all sediments with the exception of sediments from Jinghang Canal where combustion sources had a larger contribution.

  17. Applicability of Synthetic Aperture Radar Wind Retrievals on Offshore Wind Resources Assessment in Hangzhou Bay, China

    Chang, Rui; Zhu, Rong; Badger, Merete


    In view of the high cost and sparse spatial resolution of offshore meteorological observations, ocean winds retrieved from satellites are valuable in offshore wind resource assessment as a supplement to in situ measurements. This study examines satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images from...... ENVISAT advanced SAR (ASAR) for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 181 collected pairs of wind data from SAR wind maps and from 13 meteorological stations in Hangzhou Bay are compared. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based wind speed show a standard...... density functions are compared at one meteorological station. The SAR-based results appear not to estimate the mean wind speed, Weibull scale and shape parameters and wind power density from the full in situ data set so well due to the lower number of satellite samples. Distributions calculated from...

  18. Pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in communication air of Hangzhou, China


    Nine PAHs were surveyed in communication air of Hangzhou. The results indicated that the PAHs pollution is very serious and the total sum of 9 PAHs, on the average are 3.39- 13.82 μg/m3. The PAHs signatures for all streets are similar to each other. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to investigate source apportionment for PAHs. A factor analysis/multiple regression model was successfully applied to the study. The most important three PAHs sources in communication air are diesel emission, gasoline engine emission, coal-burning accounting for 61. 1 ± 6.4%, 19.9± 8.3%, 10.8 ± 10.8% of total PAHs, respectively. The relationship for three source tracers and total PAHsis: [PAHs] =1.471(±0.155)[Phen] + 2.538 (±2.522)[1-Mepy] +2.254 (±0.943)[Chry] + 1.022 (± 1.767).

  19. The routine utilization of dental care during pregnancy in eastern China and the key underlying factors: a Hangzhou City study.

    Wei Sun

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Oral diseases are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The routine utilization of dental care (RUDC during pregnancy is an effective way to improve pregnant women's oral health, and thus safeguard the health of their babies. As China has one fifth of the world's population, it is especially meaningful to encourage RUDC there. However, the status of RUDC in China and the key underlying factors are largely unknown. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey investigated the current status of RUDC during pregnancy and the key underlying factors in Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, eastern China. We collected participants' demographics, individual oral-hygiene behaviors, individual lifestyle, oral-health conditions and attitudes, and also their RUDC during pregnancy. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis was used to analyze the key underlying factors. RESULTS: Only 16.70% of the participants reported RUDC during pregnancy. The percentage of RUDC was significantly lower among pregnant women with the following characteristics: aged 30 or less, an annual household income under $8,000, brushing once a day or less, never flossing or rinsing the mouth, paying no attention to pregnancy-related oral-health knowledge, and being dissatisfied with one's individual dental hygiene behavior. CONCLUSIONS: RUDC during pregnancy is very low in eastern China and is greatly influenced not only by a woman's age, annual income, individual hygiene behavior, but also by her attention and attitudes to oral health. To improve this population's access to and use of dental care during pregnancy, appropriate programs and policies are urgently needed.

  20. Applicability of Synthetic Aperture Radar Wind Retrievals on Offshore Wind Resources Assessment in Hangzhou Bay, China

    Rui Chang


    Full Text Available In view of the high cost and sparse spatial resolution of offshore meteorological observations, ocean winds retrieved from satellites are valuable in offshore wind resource assessment as a supplement to in situ measurements. This study examines satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR images from ENVISAT advanced SAR (ASAR for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 181 collected pairs of wind data from SAR wind maps and from 13 meteorological stations in Hangzhou Bay are compared. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based wind speed show a standard deviation (SD of 1.99 m/s and correlation coefficient of R = 0.67. The model wind directions, which are used as input for the SAR wind speed retrieval, show a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.89 but a large standard deviation (SD = 42.3° compared to in situ observations. The Weibull probability density functions are compared at one meteorological station. The SAR-based results appear not to estimate the mean wind speed, Weibull scale and shape parameters and wind power density from the full in situ data set so well due to the lower number of satellite samples. Distributions calculated from the concurrent 81 SAR and in situ samples agree well.

  1. Pollution characteristics of the recent sediments in the Hangzhou section of the Grand Canal, China

    CHEN Ying-xu; LIU He; ZHU Guang-wei; CHEN Hua-lin; TIAN Guang-min


    Spatial distribution of heavy metals, arsenic and organic matter in recent sediments in the Hangzhou section of the Grand Canal and their relationships were analyzed. The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals and organic matters varied widely along the canal, and the average geological accumulation factors decreased in the following orders: organic carbon(2.6), zinc(2.1 ), cadmium (2.0), copper(1.5), 1ead(1.1), nitrogen(0.9), mercury (0.8), phosphorus(0.4), arsenic(0.2) and chromium(0). Content of heavy metals and organic carbon in the top t0 cm layer were lower than that of lower layers, except for mercury and organic carbon in the S9section. Contents of organic carbon in the top 50 cm layer of the mud sediments are significantly higher than those undemeath. In the bottom mud layer, there is a concentration peak of the pollutants. In the mud sediments of the canal, cadmium mainly occurred in the Fe and Mn oxide fraction, copper in the organic fraction, lead in the Fe and Mn oxide fraction, and zinc in the carbonate and the Fe and Mn oxide fraction.

  2. Concentrations and chemical forms of potentially toxic metals in road-deposited sediments from different zones of Hangzhou, China

    ZHANG Mingkui; WANG Hao


    The 25 road-deposited sediments were collected from five different land-use zones (industrial, residential, commercial, park, and countryside) in Hangzhou, China. The concentrations of metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in these samples were determined using the ICP-AES after digestion with the mixture of HNO3-HF-HCl (aqua regia), and chemically fractionated using the modified BCR (the European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure. The highest metal concentration level was detected in the sample from industrial zone and commercial zone having heavy traffic. While the lowest metal level was noted in the street dust sample from residential zone, park, and countryside zone. The mobility sequence based on the sum of the BCR sequential extraction stages was: Zn (80.28%), Pb (78.68%), Cd (77.66%) > Cu (73.34%) > Mn (67.92%) > Co (41.66%) > Ni (30.36%) > Cr (21.56%), Fe (20.86%). Correlation analysis and principal component analysis were applied to the data matrix to evaluate the analytical results and to identify the possible pollution sources of metals. Factor analysis showed that these areas were mainly contaminated by three sources, namely lithology, traffic, and industry.

  3. An Alternative Model to Determine the Financing Structure of PPP-Based Young Graduate Apartments in China: A Case Study of Hangzhou

    Yelin Xu


    Full Text Available Public-private partnerships (PPP can be employed to provide public rental housing for young graduates, which has been urgent to achieve social sustainability in China. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate the financing structure of PPPs, particularly the ratio of private investment, which is important in initiating a PPP project. This study develops a robust model to determine the financing structure through considering the uncertainties in operation. A case study in Hangzhou demonstrates the process of the model. The relevant findings provide private investors and the local government with effective references for negotiating the financing structure of a PPP project.

  4. [Composition and Environmental Effects of LFOM and HFOM in "Incense-Ash" Sediments of West Lake, Hangzhou, China].

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Guang-wei; Zhu, Meng-yuan; Gong, Zhi-jun; Xu, Hai; Yang, Gui-jun


    To understand the organic matter pollution characteristic and its relationship with nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients in sediments of high organic matter type of urban shallow lakes, the organic matter content, light fraction organic matter (LFOM), heavy fraction organic matter (HFOM), and nitrogen and phosphorus contents were investigated in eight different regions of West Lake, Hangzhou. The results showed that, the organic matter content of the west lake sediment was 28-251 g x kg(-1), belonging to typical high organic matter sediment. The difference of organic matter content in different lake sediments was very big. The sediments located at the input site of water diversion engineering had significantly lower organic content than the rest regions. The LFOM content of West Lake sediment ranged 0.57-9.17 g x kg(-1), which averagely occupied 2.83% of the total organic matter, and the HFOM content ranged 5.35-347.41 g x kg(-1), which occupied more than 90% of the total organic matter. Compared to other shallow lakes located in China, sediments of West Lake had significantly high percentage of HFOM/LFOM ratio. But the HFOM content was obviously on the high side, reflecting the west lake as an urban lake with a long history, as well as high organic matter pollution load and sediment humification degree. Both the content and the ratio of LFOM/HFOM in sediment were related to nitrogen and phosphorus contents in sediment. This suggested that the composition of organic matter in West Lake sediments had potential control ability for the internal loading of N and P of the lake.

  5. Celebrated Scriptwriter as Art Adviser to Hangzhou

    Xu Zhongyou


    @@ Hangzhou,the capital of eastern China's coastal Zhejiang Province,has engaged a team of art and literary celebrities as cultural and art advisors.These celebrities include novelists,actors,directors and painters.On June 8th,2010,the city held a forum in Hangzhou for these advisers to brainstorm for ideas that can boost the progress of the city's cultural and art undertakings in the next decade.

  6. Innovation in an Uncertain Institutional Environment: Private Software Entrepreneurs in Hangzhou, China

    M.J. Greeven (Mark)


    textabstractThe thesis deals with innovation and entrepreneurship in China. Despite an institutional environment characterized by high levels of uncertainty, innovation thrives even in the technology-based sectors. The research asks for explanations how innovative capabilities are developed in such

  7. Seasonal variations and sources of mass and chemical composition for PM10 aerosol in Hangzhou,China

    Junji Cao; Zhenxing Shen; Judith C.Chow; Guowei Qi; John G.Watsonc


    Aerosol observation was conducted for four seasons from September 2001 to August 2002 at five sampling sites in Hangzhou, South China, on PM10 mass, 22 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Cd, Ba, and Pb), 5 major ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, and NH4+), and organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), showing that PM10 mass ranged from 46.7 to 270.8 μg/m3, with an annual average of 119.2 μg/m3. Na, AI, Si, S. K, Ca, and Fe were the most abundant elements in PM10, most ors being in the form of SO42-. SO42-, NO4-, and NH4+ were the major ions, which contributed to about 20%; of the PM10 mass. The mean seasonal concentrations for SO42- , averaged over all sites, were found to be 18.0, 18.5, 24.Z and 21.4 μg/m3. for spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively, while the corresponding Ioadings for NO3- were 72, 4.7, 7.1, and 11.2μg/m3. and for NH4+ were 6.0, 5.9, 8.2. and 9.3 μg/m3, in the form mostly of NH4NO3 in spring, autumn, and winter, and mostly of (NH4)2SO4 in summer. The low NO3-/SO42- ratio found indicates coal combustion as the major source throughout the year. The mean annual concentrations of OC and EC in PM10 were found to be 21A, and 4.1 μg/m3, respectively. Material balance calculation indicated that fugitive dust, the secondary aerosol, and carbonaceous matter were the most abundant species in PM10 for the four seasons, as is characteristic for cities in South China.

  8. The Development of Creative Tourism in China: The Case Studies of Hangzhou, Xiamen and Qingdao

    Zeng, Jingyao


    In recent years, the application of creativity has referred to each field including tourism industry. Based on the idea of creativity, creative industry has showed its importance for economic growth. Western countries paid earlier attention to the potential of creativity and creative industry, while developing countries such as China also found out the possibility of usage of creativity. On the other hand, as an extension of cultural tourism, creative tourism adopts creativity into the touris...

  9. Using GOCI Retrieval Data to Initialize and Validate a Sediment Transport Model for Monitoring Diurnal Variation of SSC in Hangzhou Bay, China

    Xuefei Yang


    Full Text Available The diurnal variation of the suspended sediment concentration (SSC in Hangzhou Bay, China has been investigated using remotely-sensed SSC derived from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI in combination with a coupled hydrodynamic-ecological model for regional and shelf seas (COHERENS. The SSC maps were inferred through a UV-AC atmospheric correction algorithm and an empirical inversion algorithm from the GOCI Level-1B data. The sediment transport model was initialized from maps of the GOCI-derived SSC and the model results were validated through a comparison with remotely-sensed data. The comparison demonstrated that the model results agreed well with the observations. The relationship between SSC distribution and hydrodynamic conditions was analyzed to investigate the sediment transport dynamics. The model’s results indicate that the action of tidal currents dominate the sediment deposition and re-suspension in the coastal waters of the East China Sea. This is especially the case in Hangzhou Bay where the tidal currents are strongest. The satellite-derived sediment data product can not only dramatically improve the specification of the initial conditions for the sediment model, but can also provide valuable information for the model validation, thereby improving the model’s overall performance.

  10. Environmental assessment of solid waste systems and technologies: EASEWASTE

    Kirkeby, Janus Torsten; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Hansen, Trine Lund


    to optimize current waste management systems with respect to environmental achievements and by authorities to Set Guidelines and regulations and to evaluate different strategies for handling of waste. The waste hierarchy has for decades been governing waste management but the ranking of handling approaches......A new model has been developed for evaluating the overall resource consumption and environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems by the use of life cycle assessment. The model is named EASEWASTE (Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technologies) and is able...... to compare different waste management strategies, waste treatment methods and waste process technologies. The potential environmental impacts can be traced back to the most important processes and waste fractions that contribute to the relevant impacts. A model like EASEWASTE can be used by waste planners...

  11. Main Features of the SHP Sector in China——Hangzhou Regional Centre (Asia-Pacific) for Small Hydro Power (HRC), Hangzhou, China.


    1 An important sector in the hydropower industry Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, and particularly since the reform and opening up period, rural hydropower has witnessed swift development. Rural hydropower exploitation has been included in the plans for rural electrification development, and has become an important part of the water resources sector. A new SHP industryhas formed, combining social, economic and environmental benefits.

  12. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Proteus mirabilis in Hangzhou, China

    SHENG Zi-ke; LI Jun-jie; SHENG Guo-ping; SHENG Ji-fang; LI Lan-juan


    Background Carbapenems are used to treat severe infections caused by multi-drug-resistant organisms, however, the emergence of carbapenem-resistant bacterial isolates is becoming an increasing therapeutic challenge. Since the first Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae was reported in 2001, KPC-producing isolates have been found increasingly, specially in Enterobacteriaceae. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanisms of a carbapenem-resistant Proteus (P.) mirabilis.Methods A carbapenem-resistant P. mirabilis isolate was recovered from pleural drainage fluid of a patient admitted to surgical intensive care unit. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolate was performed by disk diffusion according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines, and subsequent minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined with the E-test. Amplification of the blaKPc gene generated a positive band and the PCR products were sequenced subsequently. The plasmid of the isolate was extracted and was successfully transformed into Escherichia (E.) coli DH5α.Results The P. mirabilis isolate was resistant to all detected antimicrobial agents except tigecycline. KPC-2 was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. The transformant E. coli was resistant to carbapenems. Further study demonstrated that upstream and downstream regions of blaKPC-2 were identical to that observed in K. pneumoniae submitted to GenBank from China in 2007.Conclusion Carbapenem resistance in the P. mirabilis isolate in this study is mainly due to production of KPC-2.

  13. Characterization and source apportionment of aerosol light extinction with a coupled model of CMB-IMPROVE in Hangzhou, Yangtze River Delta of China

    Wang, Jiao; Zhang, Yu-fen; Feng, Yin-chang; Zheng, Xian-jue; Jiao, Li; Hong, Sheng-mao; Shen, Jian-dong; Zhu, Tan; Ding, Jing; Zhang, Qi


    To investigate the characteristics and sources of aerosol light extinction in the Yangtze River Delta of China, a campaign was carried out in Hangzhou from December 2013 to November 2014. Hourly data for air pollutants including PM2.5, SO2, NO2, O3 and CO, and aerosol optical properties including aerosol scattering coefficient and aerosol absorbing coefficient was obtained in the environmental air quality automatic monitoring station. Meteorological parameters were measured synchronously in the automated meteorology monitoring station. Additionally, around seven sets of ambient PM2.5 samples per month were collected and analyzed during the campaign. The annual mean aerosol scattering coefficient, aerosol absorbing coefficient and aerosol single scattering albedo measured in this study was 514 ± 284 Mm- 1, 35 ± 20 Mm- 1 and 94% respectively. The aerosol extinction coefficient reconstructed using the modified IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environment) formula was compared to the measured extinction coefficient. Better correlations could be found between the measured and reconstructed extinction coefficient when RH was under 90%. A coupled model of CMB (chemical mass balance) and modified IMPROVE was used to apportion the sources of aerosol light extinction in Hangzhou. Vehicle exhaust, secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate were identified as the most significant sources for aerosol light extinction, accounted for 30.2%, 24.1% and 15.8% respectively.

  14. Chlorophenols in marine organisms from the southern coast of Hangzhou Bay, China, and an assessment of risks posed to human health

    Zheng, Dan; Jiao, Haifeng; Zhong, Huiying; Qiu, Jishi; Yan, Xiaojun; Duan, Qingyuan; Chai, Liyue


    The composition of chlorophenols in marine organisms from the southern coast of Hangzhou Bay, China, was analyzed and the health risks posed to humans assessed. A total of 19 chlorophenols from 16 types of marine organism were analyzed across nine survey sections in Hangzhou Bay. The chlorophenols were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a DB-5MS quartz capillary column. The concentrations of monochlorophenol, dichlorophenol, trichlorophenol, tetrachlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol ranged from below the detection limit (ND) to 132 μg/kg, ND-51.0 μg/kg, ND-42.5 μg/kg, ND-69.0 μg/kg, and ND-9.06 μg/kg, respectively. Additionally, concentration differences between each type of chlorophenol were not signifi cant (P>0.05). However, signifi cant differences were found between monochlorophenol (F=8.13, Prisk indices were risk was posed by 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol to humans consuming marine organisms from the study area. Furthermore, the carcinogenic risks posed by 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol were lower than limits set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the US Environmental Protection Agency. However, the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks posed by chlorophenols in marine organisms from four of the survey sections (Sizaopu, Niluoshan, Longshan Town and Xinhong zha) were higher than the other survey sections.

  15. Internal Structure of the Incised Valley Fill in the Hangzhou Bay,Eastern China and Its Geological Implications

    LIN Chunming; LI Guangyue; WANG Baichang; GU Lianxing; ZHUO Hongchun


    This paper presents the sedimentary facies and formation of the Qiantangjiang and Taihu incised valleys, and the characteristics of shallow gas reservoir distribution, based on a large number of data of drilling, static sounding and chemical analysis obtained from the present Hangzhou Bay coastal plain. The incised valleys were formed during the last glacial maximum and were subsequently filled with fluvial facies during the post-glacial period. All commercial gases are stored in the flood plain sand lenses of the incised valleys.

  16. Application of neural network and MODIS 250 m imagery for estimating suspended sediments concentration in Hangzhou Bay, China

    Wang, Fan; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Jianming; Song, Lishong; Wang, Xin


    Suspended sediments concentration (SSC) in surface water derived from bottom sediment resuspension or discharge of sediment-laden rivers is an important indication of coastal water quality and changes rapidly in high-energy coastal area. Since artificial neural networks (ANN) had been proven successful in modeling a variety of geophysical transfer functions, an ANN model to simulate the relationship between surface water SSC and satellite-received radiances was employed. In situ SSC measurements from the Hangzhou Bay and the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250 m daily products were adopted in this study. Significant correlations were observed between in situ measurements and band 1-2 reflectance values of MODIS images, respectively. Results indicated that application of ANN model with one hidden layer appeared to yield superior simulation performance ( r 2 = 0.98; n = 25) compared with regression analysis method. The RMSE for the ANN model was less than 10%, whereas the RMSE for the regression analysis was more than 25%. Results also showed that different tidal situations affect the model simulation results to some extent. The SSC of surface water in Hangzhou Bay is high and changes rapidly due to tidal flood and ebb during a tidal cycle. The combined utilization of Terra and Aqua MODIS data can capture the tidal cycle induced dynamic of surface water SSC. This study demonstrated that MODIS 250 m daily products and ANN model are useful for monitoring surface SSC dynamic within high-energy coastal water environments.

  17. 民国时期杭州素食研究%Research into Hangzhou Vegetarian Food in Republic of China



    During the period of the Republic of China( 1912 - 1949) , the vegetarian food of Hangzhou was really a unique kind. It' s indeed the case that monks, nuns and Taoists in hundreds of temples formed a crowd in Hangzhou, and for some economic reasons, their food had always been vegetarian until now. At the same time, the habit of eating vegetarian between the religious believers and yogis in the folk had become a kind of conscious behavior. The Vegetarian- only restaurants began to appear in this city. The food there was delicate, popular and also secular.%民国时期,杭州素食极富特色。因经济原因,下层市民多以素食为主;僧尼和道士形成的庞大人群,也延续着上千年来的素食习惯;民间的宗教信仰者和修行者的素食已经成为一种自觉。因此,杭州出现了一些专门供应素食的餐馆,这里的素食精致、繁盛,更为世俗化。

  18. Hangzhou:EAST CITY,WEST LAKE


    @@ View over West Lake,Hangzhou is in Zhejiang Province,eastern coast area of China.It is one of the most important tourism cities here,famous for its natural beauty and historical and cultural heritages,and the political,economic and cultural center of Zhejiang province as well.

  19. The distribution and composition characteristics of siliceous rocks from Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, South China: constraint on the tectonic evolution of plates in South China.

    Li, Hongzhong; Zhai, Mingguo; Zhang, Lianchang; Zhou, Yongzhang; Yang, Zhijun; He, Junguo; Liang, Jin; Zhou, Liuyu


    The Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt is a significant tectonic zone between the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates, where plentiful hydrothermal siliceous rocks are generated. Here, the authors studied the distribution of the siliceous rocks in the whole tectonic zone, which indicated that the tensional setting was facilitating the development of siliceous rocks of hydrothermal genesis. According to the geochemical characteristics, the Neopalaeozoic siliceous rocks in the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt denoted its limited width. In comparison, the Neopalaeozoic Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt was diverse for its ocean basin in the different segments and possibly had subduction only in the south segment. The ocean basin of the north and middle segments was limited in its width without subduction and possibly existed as a rift trough that was unable to resist the terrigenous input. In the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, the strata of hydrothermal siliceous rocks in Dongxiang copper-polymetallic ore deposit exhibited alternative cycles with the marine volcanic rocks, volcanic tuff, and metal sulphide. These sedimentary systems were formed in different circumstances, whose alternative cycles indicated the release of internal energy in several cycles gradually from strong to weak.

  20. The Distribution and Composition Characteristics of Siliceous Rocks from Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay Joint Belt, South China: Constraint on the Tectonic Evolution of Plates in South China

    Hongzhong Li


    Full Text Available The Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt is a significant tectonic zone between the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates, where plentiful hydrothermal siliceous rocks are generated. Here, the authors studied the distribution of the siliceous rocks in the whole tectonic zone, which indicated that the tensional setting was facilitating the development of siliceous rocks of hydrothermal genesis. According to the geochemical characteristics, the Neopalaeozoic siliceous rocks in the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt denoted its limited width. In comparison, the Neopalaeozoic Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt was diverse for its ocean basin in the different segments and possibly had subduction only in the south segment. The ocean basin of the north and middle segments was limited in its width without subduction and possibly existed as a rift trough that was unable to resist the terrigenous input. In the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, the strata of hydrothermal siliceous rocks in Dongxiang copper-polymetallic ore deposit exhibited alternative cycles with the marine volcanic rocks, volcanic tuff, and metal sulphide. These sedimentary systems were formed in different circumstances, whose alternative cycles indicated the release of internal energy in several cycles gradually from strong to weak.

  1. EASEWASTE-life cycle modeling capabilities for waste management technologies

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky


    Background, Aims and Scope The management of municipal solid waste and the associated environmental impacts are subject of growing attention in industrialized countries. EU has recently strongly emphasized the role of LCA in its waste and resource strategies. The development of sustainable solid...... waste management systems applying a life-cycle perspective requires readily understandable tools for modelling the life cycle impacts of waste management systems. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the structure, functionalities and LCA modelling capabilities of the PC-based life cycle oriented...... waste management model EASEWASTE, developed at the Technical University of Denmark specifically to meet the needs of the waste system developer with the objective to evaluate the environmental performance of the various elements of existing or proposed solid waste management systems. Materials...

  2. A Survey of 42 Semi-Volatile Organic Contaminants in Groundwater along the Grand Canal from Hangzhou to Beijing, East China

    Xiaojie Li


    Full Text Available The status of organic pollution in groundwater in eastern China along the Grand Canal from Hangzhou to Beijing was evaluated. Forty-two semi-volatile organic contaminants were analyzed, including 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 12 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs and seven organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs. Among the detected contaminants, PAHs were the most widespread compounds. One PCB and six OCPs were detected in the groundwater samples, but none of the target OPPs was detected. The total concentration of the 16 PAHs ranged from 0.21 to 1006 ng/L, among which phenanthrene (271 ng/L and fluoranthene (233 ng/L were present at very high concentrations and naphthalene (32 positive detections in 50 samples and fluorene (28 detections in 50 samples were the most frequently detected. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalents indicated a high environmental risk related to PAHs in a few groundwater samples. To identify the possible sources of PAHs, three concentration ratios, low molecular weight PAHs/high molecular weight PAHs, anthracene/(anthracene + phenanthrene and fluoranthene/(fluoranthene + pyrene, were determined, that indicated that the PAHs mainly originated from mixed sources: pyrolytic and petrogenic sources with different ratios at different sites.

  3. Relationship of public preferences and behavior in residential outdoor spaces using analytic hierarchy process and principal component analysis——a case study of Hangzhou City, China

    SHI Jian-ren; ZHAO Xiu-min; GE Jian; HOKAO Kazunori; WANG Zhu


    This study examined public attitudes concerning the value of outdoor spaces which people use daily. Two successive analyses were performed based on data from common residents and college students in the city of Hangzhou, China. First, citizens registered various items constituting desirable values of residential outdoor spaces through a preliminary questionnaire. The result proposed three general attributes (functional, aesthetic and ecological) and ten specific qualities of residential outdoor spaces. An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to an interview survey in order to clarify the weights among these attributes and qualities. Second, principal factors were extracted from the ten specific qualities with principal component analysis (PCA) for both the common case and the campus case. In addition, the variations of respondents' groups were classified with cluster analysis (CA)using the results of the PCA. The results of the AHP application found that the public prefers the functional attribute, rather than the aesthetic attribute. The latter is always viewed as the core value of open spaces in the eyes of architects and designers. Furthermore, comparisons of ten specific qualities showed that the public prefers the open spaces that can be utilized conveniently and easily for group activities, because such spaces keep an active lifestyle of neighborhood communication, which is also seen to protect human-regarding residential environments. Moreover, different groups of respondents diverge largely in terms of gender,age, behavior and preference.

  4. Occurrence and risk assessment of four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics in raw and treated sewage and in receiving waters in Hangzhou, China.

    Tong, Changlun; Zhuo, Xiajun; Guo, Yun


    A sensitive liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method, combined with one-step solid-phase extraction, was established for detecting the residual levels of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics (ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin) in influent, effluent, and surface waters from Hangzhou, China. For the various environmental water matrices, the overall recoveries were from 76.8 to 122%, and no obvious interferences of matrix effect were observed. The limit of quantitation of this method was estimated to be 17 ng/L for ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, 20 ng/L for ofloxacin, and 27 ng/L for enrofloxacin. All of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics were found in the wastewaters and surface waters. The residual contents of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics in influent, effluent, and surface water samples are 108-1405, 54-429, and 7.0-51.6 ng/L, respectively. The removal rates of the selected fluoroquinolone antibiotics were 69.5 (ofloxacin), 61.3 (norfloxacin), and 50% (enrofloxacin), indicating that activated sludge treatment is effective except for ciprofloxacin and necessary to remove these fluoroquinolone antibiotics in municipal sewage. The risk to the aquatic environment was estimated by a ratio of measured environmental concentration and predicted no-effect concentration. At the concentrations, these fluoroquinolone antibiotics were found in influent, effluent, and surface waters, and they should not pose a risk for the aquatic environment.

  5. Analysis of economic impacts of the Hangzhou-Ningbo expressway



    This paper presents an analysis of the effects of the Hangzhou-Ningbo Expressway (in Zhejiang Province of the People's Republic of China) on the region's economic development. An econometric model shows the estimated contributions attributable to the expressway have increased year by year. And statistical data indicate that the Hangzhou-Ningbo Expressway has promoted to some extent the region's economic development in various aspects.

  6. Coupling hydrodynamic models with GIS for storm surge simulation: application to the Yangtze Estuary and the Hangzhou Bay, China

    Liang WANG; Xiaodong ZHAO; Yongming SHEN


    Storm surge is one of the most serious oceanic disasters.Accurate and timely numerical prediction is one of the primary measures for disaster control.Traditional storm surge models lack of accuracy and time effects.To overcome the disadvantages,in this paper,an analytical cyclone model was first added into the Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) consisting of high resolution,flooding and drying capabilities for 3D storm surge modeling.Then,we integrated MarineTools Pro into a geographic information system (GIS) to supplement the storm surge model.This provided end users with a friendly modeling platform and easy access to geographically referenced data that was required for the model input and output.A temporal GIS tracking analysis module was developed to create a visual path from storm surge numerical results.It was able to track the movement of a storm in space and time.Marine Tools Pro' capabilities could assist the comprehensive understanding of complex storm events in data visualization,spatial query,and analysis of simulative results in an objective and accurate manner.The tools developed in this study further supported the idea that the coupled system could enhance productivity by providing an efficient operating environment for accurate inversion or storm surge prediction.Finally,this coupled system was used to reconstruct the storm surge generated by Typhoon Agnes (No.8114) and simulated typhoon induced-wind field and water elevations of Yangtze Estuary and Hangzhou Bay.The simulated results show good correlation with actual surveyed data.The simple operating interface of the coupled system is very convenient for users,who want to learn the usage of the storm surge model,especially for first-time users,which can save their modeling time greatly.

  7. Using hourly measurements to explore the role of secondary inorganic aerosol in PM2.5 during haze and fog in Hangzhou, China

    Jansen, Roeland Cornelis; Shi, Yang; Chen, Jianmin; Hu, YunJie; Xu, Chang; Hong, Shengmao; Li, Jiao; Zhang, Min


    This paper explores the role of the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) species ammonium, NH{4/+}, nitrate, NO{3/-}, and sulfate, SO{4/2-}, during haze and fog events using hourly mass concentrations of PM2.5 measured at a suburban site in Hangzhou, China. A total of 546 samples were collected between 1 April and 8 May 2012. The samples were analyzed and classified as clear, haze or fog depending on visibility and relative humidity (RH). The contribution of SIA species to PM2.5 mass increased to ˜50% during haze and fog. The mass contribution of nitrate to PM2.5 increased from 11% during clear to 20% during haze episodes. Nitrate mass exceeded sulfate mass during haze, while near equal concentrations were observed during fog episodes. The role of RH on the correlation between concentrations of SIA and visibility was examined, with optimal correlation at 60%-70% RH. The total acidity during clear, haze and fog periods was 42.38, 48.38 and 45.51 nmol m-3, respectively, indicating that sulfate, nitrate and chloride were not neutralized by ammonium during any period. The nitrate to sulfate molar ratio, as a function of the ammonium to sulfate molar ratio, indicated that nitrate formation during fog started at a higher ammonium to sulfate molar ratio compared to clear and haze periods. During haze and fog, the nitrate oxidation ratio increased by a factor of 1.6-1.7, while the sulfur oxidation ratio increased by a factor of 1.2-1.5, indicating that both gaseous NO2 and SO2 were involved in the reduced visibility.

  8. Characterization of surface sediments from the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Zaozhuang section), China: assessment of beryllium enrichment, biological effect, and mobility.

    Zhuang, Wen; Chen, Qing; Gao, Xuelu; Zhou, Fengxia; Wang, Mantang; Liu, Yongxia


    The South-to-North Water Diversion Project is one of the world's largest water diversion projects, benefiting seven million people in China. The Zaozhuang section of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal is an important part of this project. This paper investigated the enrichment, biological effect, and mobility of beryllium (Be) in surface sediments of the Zaozhuang section. Results showed that high values were found in Tai'erzhuang District, Zaozhuang city, and the areas near the inlet of the Nansihu Lake, which might have been influenced by local human activities including metallurgy, burning of fossil fuels, and transportation. Four geochemical fractions of Be were obtained: acid-soluble fraction, reducible fraction, oxidizable fraction, and residual fraction. The non-residual fractions (the sum of the first three) accounted for 72.5 ∼ 96.1 % of the total amount of Be. Acid-soluble fraction might be mainly influenced by human activities, with the strongest mobility and bio-availability, accounting for 4.1 ∼ 44.7 % of the total amount, with an average of 20.2 %. Enrichment factor (EF) showed minor to moderate enrichment in some regions; adverse effect index (AEI) also showed that there were high levels of Be in some regions, which might have negative impacts on organisms. Generally, mobility, EF, and AEI of elements are carried out separately. But the results of this study indicated that a comprehensive assessment on the enrichment, mobility, and biological effects of Be caused by human activities is necessary in understanding the environmental risks of Be.

  9. Application of the capture-recapture method in estimating the size of the active homosexual male population in Hangzhou city of China.

    Zhou, Weihua; Huang, Manli; Wei, Ning; Hu, Shaohua; Wei, Erqing; Xu, Yi


    The homosexual population is particularly susceptible to sexually transmitted disease because of various high-risk sexual behaviors among them. The authors explored the application of capture-recapture methods in estimating the size of the sexually active homosexual male population in Hangzhou. Homosexual men at 9 activity sites were investigated in Hangzhou, Zhejiang. The total active homosexual male population of Hangzhou estimated by the capture-recapture method and multiplier method was 2014 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1899-2129) and 2012.5 (95% CI 1925 to 2101), respectively. This study shows that the capture-recapture method can be used to enumerate and provide accurate and reliable estimates of the active homosexual population in any area, provided that certain conditions are controlled.

  10. The routine utilization of dental care during pregnancy in Eastern China and the key underlying factors: a Hangzhou City study

    Sun, W.; Guo, J.; Li, X.; Zhao, Y.; Chen, H.; Wu, G.


    Objectives Oral diseases are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The routine utilization of dental care (RUDC) during pregnancy is an effective way to improve pregnant women’s oral health, and thus safeguard the health of their babies. As China has one fifth of the world’s population, it is

  11. Socio-demographic association of multiple modifiable lifestyle risk factors and their clustering in a representative urban population of adults: a cross-sectional study in Hangzhou, China

    Wang Shengfeng


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To plan long-term prevention strategies and develop tailored intervention activities, it is important to understand the socio-demographic characteristics of the subpopulations at high risk of developing chronic diseases. This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with multiple lifestyle risk factors and their clustering. Methods We conducted a simple random sampling survey to assess lifestyle risk factors in three districts of Hangzhou, China between 2008 and 2009. A two-step cluster analysis was used to identify different health-related lifestyle clusters based on tobacco use, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and out-of-home eating. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the association between socio-demographic factors and lifestyle clusters. Results A total of 2016 eligible people (977 men and 1039 women, ages 18-64 years completed the survey. Three distinct clusters were identified from the cluster analysis: an unhealthy (UH group (25.7%, moderately healthy (MH group (31.1%, and healthy (H group (43.1%. UH group was characterised by a high prevalence of current daily smoking, a moderate or low level of PA, low FV consumption with regard to the frequency or servings, and more occurrences of eating out. H group was characterised by no current daily smoking, a moderate level of PA, high FV consumption, and the fewest times of eating out. MH group was characterised by no current daily smoking, a low or high level of PA, and an intermediate level of FV consumption and frequency of eating out. Men were more likely than women to have unhealthy lifestyles. Adults aged 50-64 years were more likely to live healthy lifestyles. Adults aged 40-49 years were more likely to be in the UH group. Adults whose highest level of education was junior high school or below were more likely to be in the UH group. Adults with a high asset index were more likely to be in the MH group

  12. U-Pb, Re-Os and Ar-Ar dating of the Linghou polymetallic deposit, Southeastern China: Implications for metallogenesis of the Qingzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt

    Tang, Yanwen; Xie, Yuling; Liu, Liang; Lan, Tingguan; Yang, Jianling; Sebastien, Meffre; Yin, Rongchao; Liang, Songsong; Zhou, Limin


    The Qingzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt (QHMB) in Southeastern China has gained increasingly attention in recent years. However, due to the lack of reliable ages on intrusions and associated deposits in this belt, the tectonic setting and metallogenesis of the QHMB have not been well understood. The Linghou polymetallic deposit in northwestern Zhejiang Province is one of the typical deposits of the QHMB. According to the field relationships, this deposit consists of the early Cu-Au-Ag and the late Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization stages. Molybdenite samples with a mineral assemblage of molybdenite-chalcopyrite-pyrite ± quartz are collected from the copper mining tunnel near the Cu-Au-Ag ore bodies. Six molybdenite samples give the Re-Os model ages varying from 160.3 to 164.1 Ma and yield a mean age of 162.2 ± 1.4 Ma for the Cu-Au-Ag mineralization. Hydrothermal muscovite gives a well-defined Ar-Ar isochron age of 160.2 ± 1.1 Ma for the Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization. Three phases of granodioritic porphyry have been distinguished in this deposit, and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that they have formed at 158.8 ± 2.4 Ma, 158.3 ± 1.9 Ma and 160.6 ± 2.1 Ma, comparable to the obtained ages of the Cu-Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization. Therefore, these intrusive rocks have a close temporal and spatial relationship with the Cu-Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu ore bodies. The presences of skarn minerals (e.g., garnet) and vein-type ores, together with the previous fluid inclusion and H-O-C-S-Pb isotopic data, clearly indicate that the Cu-Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization are genetically related to these granodiorite porphyries. This conclusion excludes the possibility that this deposit is of ;SEDEX; type and formed in a sag basin of continental rifts setting as previously proposed. Instead, it is proposed that the Linghou polymetallic and other similar deposits in the QHMB, such as the 150-160 Ma Yongping porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo, Dongxiang porphyry? Cu, Shuikoushan/Kangjiawang skarn Pb

  13. Sequence Analysis of dsRNA Segments from Infected Maize from Hangzhou China%杭州地区玉米病毒病dsRNA序列分析

    赵洪斌; 唐香山; 陈集双


    Natural-infected maize with strip mosaic symptoms were collected from Hangzhou,China. Double stranded RNAs were amplified using SPAT(single primer amplification technique,SPAT) and viral genomie segments were cloned.Sequence analysis revealed that three segments (1801bp 、2193bp and 3164bp,respectively )shared 98% identity, at nucleotide level, with the tenth (AF227205),the seventh (AJ297428) and the fifth (AJ409147) segments of rice blackstreaked dwarf virus (RBSDV),and their similarity were less than 88% with Maize rough dwarf fijivirus (MRDV). They showed higher homology with RBSDV than MRDV at amino acid level, too. Results for sequence homology analysis indicated that the three segments obtained from dsRNA sequencing originated from RBSDV,which is regarded as the main virus infecting maize in this area.%从杭州地区采集花叶症状的玉米,抽提双链RNA(double-stranded RNA,dsRNA).用单引物扩增方法(Single primer amplification technique,SPAT)对dsRNA进行RT-PCR扩增,获得了三条dsRNA片段的cDNA克隆并测定全序列.核苷酸水平上,三条片段(长度分别为1801 bp、2193 bp和3164 bp)分别与水稻黑条矮缩病毒(Rice black-streaked dwarf virus,RBSDV)的第十(AF227205)、第七(AJ297428)和第五(AJ409147)号片段序列存在高达98%的同源性,与玉米粗缩病毒(Maize rough dwarf fijivirus,MRDV)相应片段序列同源性最高为88%.在氨基酸水平上,推测的氨基酸序列也与RBSDV相似性较高,而与MRDV的相似性较低.序列同源性分析结果表明:三条片段来源于RBSDV.因此,该地区发生的玉米病毒病病原是水稻黑条矮缩病毒而不是玉米粗缩病毒.

  14. 杭州城市环境中白头鹎的繁殖生态%Breeding ecology of Chinese Bulbul in the urban environment of Hangzhou, China

    兰思思; 张琴; 黄秦; 陈水华


    The Chinese Bulbul,Pycnonotus sinensis,is one of the most abundant and widely distributed birds of south China,settling even in dense urban areas.From March-July 2012,we surveyed the Chinese Bulbul in the urban environment of Hangzhou,China,to gain a clearer perspective on their breeding ecology.Totally,117 nests were found,mainly on the trees of Osmanthus fragrans (84.6%,n=117) in residential areas,street tree strips,and green belt.Our results include several noteworthy observations:nest height from the ground was 3.16±0.91 m (n=117); egg-laying begins in early April with peak times from April 11-25; and the nesting period was 11.85± 1.12 days (n=47).In terms of fertility and reproduction,we also observed that the average incubation period was 11.34±1.12 days (n=32); average clutch size was 3.37±0.48 eggs (n=103); hatching success 68.3%,fledging rate 52.1%,and the total breeding success 35.58% (n=117).The main causes of breeding failure included egg and fledgling predation,as well as human disturbance.%白头鹎(Pycnonotus sinensis)是一种中国南方城市分布广泛、种群数量丰富的鸟类.其对环境变化和人类活动的适应能力已引起关注.2012年3-7月,在杭州城市环境下,对白头鹎的繁殖生态进行了系统调查,共记录到白头鹎繁殖鸟巢117巢.结果显示,在杭州市区,白头鹎主要在居民小区、行道树和绿化带的树冠层筑巢,主要营巢植物为桂树(Osmanthus fragrans),占总数的84.6% (n=117).所有繁殖巢距地面均高(3.16±0.91)m (n=117).3月底开始筑巢产卵,产卵高峰集中在4月11-25日.窝卵数为(3.37±0.48)枚(n=103),孵化期为(11.34±1.12)d (n=32),育雏期为(11.85±1.12)d (n=47).孵化率为68.3% (n=111),离巢率为52.1% (n=117),总繁殖成功率为34.7% (n=111).繁殖失败原因主要包括卵及雏鸟被捕食、人为干扰等.

  15. Air quality real-time forecast before and during the G-20 Summit 2016 in Hangzhou with the WRF-CMAQ and WRF/Chem systems: Evaluation and Emission Reduction Effects

    The 2016 G-20 Hangzhou summit, the eleventh annual meeting of the G-20 heads of government, will be held during September 3-5, 2016 in Hangzhou, China. For a successful summit, it is important to ensure good air quality. To achieve this goal, governments of Hangzhou and its surr...

  16. Modelling of environmental impacts from biological treatment of organic municipal waste in EASEWASTE

    Boldrin, Alessio; Neidel, Trine Lund; Damgaard, Anders


    The waste-LCA model EASEWASTE quantifies potential environmental effects from biological treatment of organic waste, based on mass and energy flows, emissions to air, water, soil and groundwater as well as effects from upstream and downstream processes. Default technologies for composting......, anaerobic digestion and combinations hereof are available in the model, but the user can change all key parameters in the biological treatment module so that specific local plants and processes can be modelled. EASEWASTE is one of the newest waste LCA models and the biological treatment module was built...... partly on features of earlier waste-LCA models, but offers additional facilities, more flexibility, transparency and user-friendliness. The paper presents the main features of the module and provides some examples illustrating the capability of the model in environmentally assessing and discriminating...

  17. Modelling of environmental impacts from biological treatment of organic municipal waste in EASEWASTE.

    Boldrin, Alessio; Neidel, Trine Lund; Damgaard, Anders; Bhander, Gurbakhash S; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H


    The waste-LCA model EASEWASTE quantifies potential environmental effects from biological treatment of organic waste, based on mass and energy flows, emissions to air, water, soil and groundwater as well as effects from upstream and downstream processes. Default technologies for composting, anaerobic digestion and combinations hereof are available in the model, but the user can change all key parameters in the biological treatment module so that specific local plants and processes can be modelled. EASEWASTE is one of the newest waste LCA models and the biological treatment module was built partly on features of earlier waste-LCA models, but offers additional facilities, more flexibility, transparency and user-friendliness. The paper presents the main features of the module and provides some examples illustrating the capability of the model in environmentally assessing and discriminating the environmental performance of alternative biological treatment technologies in relation to their mass flows, energy consumption, gaseous emissions, biogas recovery and compost/digestate utilization.

  18. The Bicycle Rental Market In Hangzhou


    On May 1, 2008, Hangzhou, capital of east China’s Zhejiang Province, included bicycle rentals in the public transportation system. Now, bicycles have become the most convenient form of transport for Hangzhou residents. Data from the Hangzhou Bureau of Transportation show that on average each bicycle gets rented five times a day.

  19. Environmental assessment of waste incineration in a life-cycle-perspective (EASEWASTE)

    Riber, Christian; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    A model for life-cycle assessment of waste incinerators is described and applied to a case study for illustrative purposes. As life-cycle thinking becomes more integrated into waste management, quantitative tools for assessing waste management technologies are needed. The presented model...... is a module in the life-cycle assessment model EASEWASTE. The module accounts for all uses of materials and energy and credits the incinerator for electricity and heat recovered. The energy recovered is defined by the user as a percentage of the energy produced, calculated on the lower heating value...

  20. Evaluation of environmental impacts from municipal solid waste management in the municipality of Aarhus, Denmark (EASEWASTE).

    Kirkeby, Janus T; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Hansen, Trine Lund; Christensen, Thomas H; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael


    A new computer based life cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) was used to evaluate a municipal solid waste system with the purpose of identifying environmental benefits and disadvantages by anaerobic digestion of source-separated household waste and incineration. The most important processes that were included in the study are optical sorting and pre-treatment, anaerobic digestion with heat and power recovery, incineration with heat and power recovery, use of digested biomass on arable soils and finally, an estimated surplus consumption of plastic in order to achieve a higher quality and quantity of organic waste to the biogas plant. Results showed that there were no significant differences in most of the assessed environmental impacts for the two scenarios. However, the use of digested biomass may cause a potential toxicity impact on human health due to the heavy metal content of the organic waste. A sensitivity analysis showed that the results are sensitive to the energy recovery efficiencies, to the extra plastic consumption for waste bags and to the content of heavy metals in the waste. A model such as EASEWASTE is very suitable for evaluating the overall environmental consequences of different waste management strategies and technologies, and can be used for most waste material fractions existing in household waste.

  1. Environmental assessment of Ammassuo Landfill (Finland) by means of LCA-modelling (EASEWASTE)

    Niskanen, A.; Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    The Old Ammassuo Landfill (Espoo, Finland) covers an area of 52 hectares and contains about 10 million tonnes of waste that was landfilled between 1987 and 2007. The majority of this waste was mixed, of which about 57% originated from households. This paper aims at describing the management...... of the Old Ammassuo Landfill throughout its operational lifetime (1987-2007), and at developing an environmental evaluation based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE-model. The assessment criteria evaluate specific categories of impact, including standard impact categories, toxicity......) and ecotoxicity in water chronic (ETwc). The largest impact potential was found for SGR and amounted to 57.6 person equivalent (PE) per tonne of landfilled waste. However, the SGR impact may not be viewed as a significant issue in Finland as the drinking water is mostly supplied from surface water bodies. Overall...

  2. Prevalence of condomless anal intercourse and recent HIV testing and their associated factors among men who have sex with men in Hangzhou, China: A respondent-driven sampling survey

    Pan, Xiaohong; Ma, Qiaoqin; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Xin; Jiang, Tingting; He, Lin; Chen, Junfang; Zhang, Xingliang; Luo, Yan; Xi, Shengjun; Lv, Xin; Xia, Shichang


    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a large high-risk population for HIV infection in recent years in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hangzhou, China, to determine rates of condomless anal intercourse (CAI), recent HIV testing (in the recent year) and associated factors using respondent-driven sampling. Questionnaires using face-to-face interviews were employed to collect data on sexual risk behaviors and HIV testing. Five hundred eleven MSM were recruited, of which 459 (89.8%) had anal intercourse in the past 6 months. Of these 459 participants, 457 (99.6%) answered whether they had taken an HIV test in the recent year, so only their data were analyzed. Weighted data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The CAI rate with male partners in the past 6 months was 43.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 34.0–51.5%), while the rate of condomless vaginal intercourse (CVI) was 21.6% (95% CI, 15.6–32.3%). The prevalence of recent HIV testing was 56.8% (95% CI, 48.7–66.5%), while the prevalence of HIV and syphilis were 8.8% and 6.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that CAI was associated with earlier homosexual debut, suicidal inclinations, childhood sexual abuse, HIV testing in the recent year, and lower estimate of HIV prevalence. Recent HIV testing was associated with homosexual debut age, engaging in CAI with male partners in the past 6 months, having oral sex in the past 6 months, self-perceived higher likelihood of HIV infection, knowing about antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS, receiving AIDS/sexually transmitted infection (STI) interventions in the past year, and syphilis infection. Given high prevalence of HIV and syphilis, high levels of CAI and CVI, and low HIV testing rate, the results indicated high risk of HIV infection and transmission among MSM. HIV prevention interventions should target MSM with early homosexual debut and psychosocial health problems, while HIV/AIDS education among

  3. China Has Successfully Promote the Sustainable Development as the Core Issues of the G20 Summit in Hangzhou for the First Time%中国成功推动可持续发展首次作为G20领导人杭州峰会核心议题

    周世骐; 周世镕; 刘洋


    二十国集团( G20)领导人第十一次峰会即杭州峰会于2016年9月5日闭幕,会议取得圆满成功,取得了一系列重要成果。中国作为二十国集团( G20)领导人杭州峰会轮值主席国发挥其卓越领导力,成功将可持续发展引入二十国集团( G20)领导人峰会议程,并推动其首次成为二十国集团( G20)杭州峰会核心议题,制定了《二十国集团落实2030年可持续发展议程行动计划》。中国已经全面启动落实2030年可持续发展议程工作,分享中国发展理念和经验,以切实行动充分发挥对全球落实可持续发展议程的重要引领作用。%The G20 Summit in Hangzhou successfully concluded on September 5, 2016, and a series of important results were obtained� China as the president the G20 Summit in Hangzhou, has played its outstanding leadership, has successfully introduced the sustainable development into the G20 Summit in Hangzhou agenda, and promoted it first to become core issues of the G20 Summit� The G20 Summit in Hangzhou at last formalized the G20 Action Plan on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development� China has started to carry out the sustainable development agenda in 2030, shared the development idea and experience, and played the important leading role to implement global sustainable development agenda with concrete actions.

  4. Humor styles and loneliness: a study among Hong Kong and Hangzhou undergraduates.

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Wong, Ashley Yuen Man; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan


    This study examined the relationship between humor styles and loneliness among a sample of Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese. A total of 159 Hong Kong undergraduates and 178 Hangzhou undergraduates were recruited to complete a survey composed of the Humor Styles Questionnaire and the Emotional and Social Loneliness Scales. Multiple regression analyses showed that self-defeating humor explained significant variance in both social and emotional loneliness for Hong Kong students, but only in social loneliness for Hangzhou students. Hong Kong students scored significantly higher on aggressive humor and self-defeating humor, and scored significantly lower on affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor than did their counterparts in Hangzhou. This could be attributed to the greater influence of Confucianism in Mainland China than in Hong Kong.

  5. 城市出租汽车客运服务质量感知差距分析——以杭州市为例%Taxi Service Quality Perception Gaps in Urban Areas: A Case of Hangzhou, China

    姚志刚; 袁球明


    将Parasuranman、Zeithaml和Berry(PZB)服务质量差距模型扩展后用于分析出租汽车客运企业管理人员、驾驶员和乘客之间的服务质量感知差距,以杭州市为例进行出租汽车客运服务质量调查,发现驾驶员的服务感知值最高、企业管理人员次之、乘客最低.驾驶员与乘客的感知差距超过企业管理人员与驾驶员的感知差距,且两个差距均与总体服务质量评价显著负相关;企业管理人员与乘客间的感知差距部分显著,且感知差距与总体服务质量评价结果的负相关性不显著.结果表明,出租汽车客运服务人员的服务质量评价过于乐观,改善出租汽车客运服务质量要缩小驾驶员与乘客的服务感知差距.%Three gaps of taxi service quality are added to the Gaps model proposed by Parasuranman, Zeithaml and Berry. The perception gaps of taxi service quality among management staff, driver and passenger are analyzed based on a survey in Hangzhou, China. The most perception scales of drivers are higher than those of management staff and passenger indicate that the service provider always overestimates the service quality. The gaps between drivers and passengers are larger than that between drivers and management staff, and two kinds of gaps have significantly negative impacts on the overall taxi service quality. The gaps between management staff and passengers have partly significant difference and its negative impacts on the overall taxi service quality are not significant. The result indicates that the service provider always overestimates the service quality and gaps between drivers and passengers should be eliminated to improve taxi service quality.

  6. Environmental assessment of Ammässuo Landfill (Finland) by means of LCA-modelling (EASEWASTE).

    Niskanen, Antti; Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas H; Anderson, Reetta


    The Old Ammässuo Landfill (Espoo, Finland) covers an area of 52 hectares and contains about 10 million tonnes of waste that was landfilled between 1987 and 2007. The majority of this waste was mixed, of which about 57% originated from households. This paper aims at describing the management of the Old Ammässuo Landfill throughout its operational lifetime (1987-2007), and at developing an environmental evaluation based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE-model. The assessment criteria evaluate specific categories of impact, including standard impact categories, toxicity-related impact categories and an impact categorized as spoiled groundwater resources (SGR). With respect to standard and toxicity-related impact categories, the LCA results show that substantial impact potentials are estimated for global warming (GW), ozone depletion (OD), human toxicity via soil (HTs) and ecotoxicity in water chronic (ETwc). The largest impact potential was found for SGR and amounted to 57.6 person equivalent (PE) per tonne of landfilled waste. However, the SGR impact may not be viewed as a significant issue in Finland as the drinking water is mostly supplied from surface water bodies. Overall, the results demonstrate that gas management has great importance to the environmental performance of the Old Ammässuo Landfill. However, several chemicals related to gas composition (especially trace compounds) and specific emissions from on-site operations were not available or were not measured and were therefore taken from the literature. Measurement campaigns and field investigations should be undertaken in order to obtain a more robust and comprehensive dataset that can be used in the LCA-modelling, before major improvements regarding landfill management are finalized.

  7. Hangzhou Kelida Fabric Products Co.,Ltd


    @@ Hangzhou Kelida Fabric Products Co.,Ltd is Iocated in Yuhang RenHe,a cradle of Liangzhu Culture.Developed from Hangzhou Kelida Textile Mill Co.,Ltd ,and as the National Fabric developing base,Kelida has imported more than 70 SMITG6300S360 jacquard looms from Italy,and STAWBLI2688 looms from France.All above facilities make KELIDA a succesful weaving mill who has the production capacity of six million meters of fabric and three million sets of finished goods per year.

  8. Hangzhou People and Bamboo Shoots Dish



    SOON we’ll celebrate the new year. According to Hangzhou tradition, every family will cook a hot dish for this feast which will include shredded winter bamboo shoots, hotbed chives, shredded meat and smoked bean curd. In addition, some families will also cook a dish of "braised

  9. Study on characteristics of domestic waste in China and its comprehensive treatment technol-ogies:Taking Hangzhou City as an example%我国城市生活垃圾特点及其处理技术浅析——以杭州市为例

    董越勇; 邹道安; 刘银秀; 叶波


    Based on literatures and case study of Hangzhou, the characteristics of domestic waste in China and corre-sponding comprehensive treatment technologies were discussed. It was shown that compared with developed coun-tries, kitchen garbage constituted the majority of domestic waste in China, and the proportions of recyclable materials were relatively high. Thus, it was necessary to carry out garbage sorting and recycling. As more than 50% of domes-tic waste in China were kitchen garbage, the focus of domestic waste treatment should fall upon kitchen garbage. Up to now, the main treatment technologies regarding kitchen garbage included transformation into feed, fermentation to produce biogas, composting and anaerobic fermentation. But, these technologies need to be greatly improved for large-scale application. Finally, suggestions were proposed based on the situation of Hangzhou, such as advancing garbage sorting and recycling, developing more feasible waste treatment technologies and making proper policies to promote the comprehensive utilization of domestic waste.%通过文献整理,并结合杭州市实际,对我国城市生活垃圾的特点及其综合处理技术进行探讨.结果显示,与发达国家相比,我国城市生活垃圾中厨余垃圾占比过高,可回收物含量高.因此,十分有必要从源头开展垃圾分类,针对不同垃圾的特性,分类处理.同时,由于我国城市生活垃圾中厨余垃圾占比超过50%,因而在城市生活垃圾的综合处理中,应重点关注厨余垃圾的处理.目前,主要的厨余垃圾处理方式有饲料化、填埋沼气利用、生物堆肥及厌氧发酵处理等,但总体来看,这些技术还不够成熟,仍有待进一步研究.最后,结合杭州市实际,针对城市生活垃圾的综合处理,提出加快推进垃圾分类、强化垃圾处理技术攻关、加强政策保障的建议.

  10. Environmental impact assessment of leachate recirculation in landfill of municipal solid waste by comparing with evaporation and discharge (EASEWASTE)

    Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing; Zhao, Yan


    in leachate and the depositional ammonia from biogas. Moreover, the direct discharge of leachate may also result in ecotoxicity and human toxicity via water contaminated by heavy metals in leachate, with 3.96 PE and 11.64 PE respectively. The results also show that landfill gas is the main contributor...... of contaminants derived from waste can be stored in the landfill for long periods, with 11.69 person equivalent (PE) for stored ecotoxicity in water and 29.62 PE for stored ecotoxicity in soil, considered as potential risks of releasing to the environment someday. Meanwhile, impacts to ecotoxicity and human...... scenarios were modeled using EASEWASTE, comparing the strategies of leachate recirculation (with or without gas management), evaporation and discharge. In the current situation (Scenario A), a total of 280t of waste was generated and then transported to a conventional landfill for disposal. A number...

  11. Strategic Planning Approaches for Creating Resilient Cities: A Case Study on Hangzhou City

    Liu; Dan; Hua; Chen


    In the twenty-first century, the population in China will be increasingly urbanized – focusing the sustainability challenge on cities and raising new challenges to address the urban resilience capacity. During the past two decades, China’s urban policies are state institution-directed, growth-oriented, and land-based, imposing unprecedented challenges on sustainability. Strengthening the capacity of cities to manage resilience appears to be a key factor for cities to effectively pursue sustainable development. The aim of this paper is to explore strategic planning approaches for creating resilient cities in China through a study on Hangzhou City in an integrated framework. Firstly, the paper gives a systematic insight into the structure of Hangzhou City. Secondly, the development trajectory of the urban system is analyzed to understand how the past has shaped the present and to get a broader perspective on its evolution. Thirdly, scenario planning is conducted to explore the adaptive capacity of Hangzhou City under different future conditions. At last, having analyzed the past, present, and future of the urban system, the paper discusses the strategies for resilient planning, which helps to identify factors and trends that might enhance or inhabit the adaptability.

  12. Assessing the Impacts of Chinese Sustainable Ground Transportation on the Dynamics of Urban Growth: A Case Study of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge

    Qing Zheng


    Full Text Available Although China has promoted the construction of Chinese Sustainable Ground Transportation (CSGT to guide sustainable development, it may create substantial challenges, such as rapid urban growth and land limitations. This research assessed the effects of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge on impervious surface growth in Cixi County, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. Changes in impervious surfaces were mapped based on Landsat images from 1995, 2002, and 2009 using a combination of multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA and landscape metrics. The results indicated that the area and density of impervious surfaces increased significantly during construction of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge (2002–2009. Additionally, the bridge and connected road networks promoted urban development along major roads, resulting in compact growth patterns of impervious surfaces in urbanized regions. Moreover, the Hangzhou Bay Bridge promoted the expansion and densification of impervious surfaces in Hangzhou Bay District, which surrounds the bridge. The bridge also accelerated socioeconomic growth in the area, promoting rapid urban growth in Cixi County between 2002 and 2009. Overall, the Hangzhou Bay Bridge is an important driver of urban growth in Cixi County, and policy suggestions for sustainable urban growth should be adopted in the future.

  13. Managing Soil Erosion Potential by Integrating Digital Elevation Models with the Southern China's Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation——A Case Study for the West Lake Scenic Spots Area of Hangzhou, China


    In China, many scenic and tourism areas are suffering from the urbanization that results from physical development of tourism projects, leading to the removal of the vegetative cover, the creation of areas impermeable to water, in-stream modifications,and other problems. In this paper, the risk of soil erosion and its ecological risks in the West Lake Scenic Spots (WLSS) area were quantitatively evaluated by integrating the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) with a digital elevation model (DEM) and geographical information system (GIS)software. The standard RUSLE factors were modified to account for local climatic and topographic characteristics reflected in the DEM maps, and for the soil types and vegetation cover types. An interface was created between the Arcinfo software and RUSLE so that the level of soil erosion and its ecological risk in the WLSS area could be mapped immediately once the model factors were defined for the area. The results from an analysis using the Arcinfo-RUSLE interface showed that the risk value in 93 % of the expanding western part of the WLSS area was moderate or more severe and the soil erosion risk in this area was thus large compared with that in the rest of the area. This paper mainly aimed to increase the awareness of the soil erosion risk in urbanizing areas and suggest that the local governments should consider the probable ecological risk resulting from soil erosion when enlarging and developing tourism areas.

  14. Potential Sources and Formations of the PM2.5 Pollution in Urban Hangzhou

    Jian Wu


    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of meteorological parameters, gaseous pollutants, particulate matters, and the major chemical species in PM2.5 were conducted in urban Hangzhou from 1 September to 30 November 2013 to study the potential sources and formations of PM2.5 pollution. The average PM2.5 concentration was 69 µg·m−3, ~97% higher than the annual concentration limit in the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS of China. Relative humidity (RH and wind speed (WS were two important factors responsible for the increase of PM2.5 concentration, with the highest value observed under RH of 70%–90%. PM2.5 was in good correlation with both NO2 and CO, but not with SO2, and the potential source contribution function (PSCF results displayed that local emissions were important potential sources contributing to the elevated PM2.5 and NO2 in Hangzhou. Thus, local vehicle emission was suggested as a major contribution to the PM2.5 pollution. Concentrations of NO2 and CO significantly increased in pollution episodes, while the SO2 concentration even decreased, implying local emission rather than region transport was the major source contributing to the formation of pollution episodes. The sum of SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ accounted for ~50% of PM2.5 in mass in pollution episodes and the NO3−/EC ratios were significantly elevated, revealing that the formation of secondary inorganic species, particularly NO3−, was an important contributor to the PM2.5 pollution in Hangzhou. This study highlights that controlling local pollution emissions was essential to reduce the PM2.5 pollution in Hangzhou, and the control of vehicle emission in particular should be further promoted in the future.

  15. Human respiratory syncytial virus in children with lower respiratory tract infections or influenza-like illness and its co-infection characteristics with viruses and atypical bacteria in Hangzhou, China.

    Yu, Xinfen; Kou, Yu; Xia, Daozong; Li, Jun; Yang, Xuhui; Zhou, Yinyan; He, Xiaoyan


    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral pathogen in children. However, its epidemic patterns and co-infection characteristics are not fully understood. We attempted to determine the level of genetic variation of RSV, and describe the prevalence and co-infection characteristics of RSV in Hangzhou during two epidemic seasons. Single respiratory samples from 1820 pediatric patients were screened for RSV and genotyped by RT-PCR and sequencing. In all RSV positive specimens, we screened for viruses and atypical bacteria. Demographic and clinical information was recorded and analyzed. A total of 34.5% and 3.8% of samples from acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) were positive for RSV, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 61.1% of the selected 167 RSV strains were NA1, 31.1% were BA, 3.6% were ON1, 2.4% were CB1, and 1.8% were NA3. A new genotype, BA11 was identified, which comprised 98.1% of BA strains in this study, while the rest were BA10. A total of 36.4% and 9.1% of RSV-positive children with ALRI and ILI respectively were found to be co-infected. Rhinovirus was the most common additional respiratory virus, followed by human metapneumovirus. Except for fever, no significant differences in other clinical presentation between the RSV mono-infection and co-infection groups were observed. The circulating RSV strains had high genetic variability with RSV-B showing a more local pattern. In ALRI cases, co-infection of RSV with other viruses or atypical bacteria has no significant effect on the clinical presentation except fever. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Potential of bioenergy production from garden wastes in West Lake scenic spots of Hangzhou, China%杭州西湖风景名胜区园林废弃物生产生物能源潜力

    史琰; 郑楠; 唐宇力; 范丽琨; 郭克俭; 范星; 葛滢; 常杰


    在当前我国景区节能减排目标难以达到的情况下,发展生物能源将为此提供一个途径.本文以杭州西湖风景名胜区为案例,分析园林管理所获得的可用生物量及其生产生物能源的潜力.通过实地测定和问卷调查,研究表明:单位绿地面积园林废弃生物量为(4.60±3.12)t·hm-2·a-1;道路区域绿地的单位面积废弃物产量最高,干重平均值为5.96t·hm-2·a-1;产生绿化废弃物的主要植物种类有香樟(Cinnamomum camphora)、桂(Osmanthus fragrans)、杜鹃(Rhododendron simsii)等;园林废弃物总量干重为3402 t·a-1,可产生能量6.3×1010 kJ·a-1,理论上可以抵消景区40%的电能消耗;园林废弃物转化为生物能源适宜采用固体成型生物燃料技术;利用园林废弃物生产生物能源替代化石燃料每年可减排CO2 4177 t.开发利用景区园林废弃物生产生物能源,可实现减轻环境压力和增加生物能源供应的双赢.%The development of bioenergy may provide a solution to achieve the reduction targets for scenic spot emissions. This paper provides a synthesis of questionnaire survey and experimental data to assess the potential of garden waste biomass for renewable energy production in West Lake of Hangzhou. Our results showed that the waste dry biomass from greenspace reaches 4. 60 ±3.12 t · hm-2 · a-1. The garden waste dry biomass from greenspace in the road area was 5. 96 t · hm-2 · a-1 which was higher than the other area. The main species of the garden wastes were Cinnamomum camphora, Osmanthus fragrans and Rhododendron simsii. The total amount of dry biomass from scenic wastes was estimated at 3402 t · a-1. The total potential biofuel produced as scenic waste biomass was estimated at 6. 3×1010 kJ · a-1 , which accounts for 40% of the energy consumption for the West Lake. The wood pellets production bioenergy system was the best way for the garden waste biofinery. The emission reduction of using garden

  17. Retreaded Tire of Hangzhou Zhongce Company Regarded as Resources Comprehensive Utilization Product

    Shu Wen


    Recently, Hangzhou Economic and Information Commission issued an announcement that the retreaded tire produced by Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Cycle Technology Co., Ltd. was certified to be the resources comprehensive utilization product.

  18. Sources and distribution of sedimentary organic matter along the Andong salt marsh, Hangzhou Bay

    Yuan, Hong-Wei; Chen, Jian-Fang; Ye, Ying; Lou, Zhang-Hua; Jin, Ai-Min; Chen, Xue-Gang; Jiang, Zong-Pei; Lin, Yu-Shih; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Loh, Pei Sun


    Lignin oxidation products, δ13C values, C/N ratios and particle size were used to investigate the sources, distribution and chemical stability of sedimentary organic matter (OM) along the Andong salt marsh located in the southwestern end of Hangzhou Bay, China. Terrestrial OM was highest at the upper marshes and decreased closer to the sea, and the distribution of sedimentary total organic carbon (TOC) was influenced mostly by particle size. Terrestrial OM with a C3 signature was the predominant source of sedimentary OM in the Spartina alterniflora-dominated salt marsh system. This means that aside from contributions from the local marsh plants, the Andong salt marsh received input mostly from the Qiantang River and the Changjiang Estuary. Transect C, which was situated nearer to the Qiantang River mouth, was most likely influenced by input from the Qiantang River. Likewise, a nearby creek could be transporting materials from Hangzhou Bay into Transect A (farther east than Transect C), as Transect A showed a signal resembling that of the Changjiang Estuary. The predominance of terrestrial OM in the Andong salt marsh despite overall reductions in sedimentary and terrestrial OM input from the rivers is most likely due to increased contributions of sedimentary and terrestrial OM from erosion. This study shows that lower salt marsh accretion due to the presence of reservoirs upstream may be counterbalanced by increased erosion from the surrounding coastal areas.

  19. Environmental impact assessment of leachate recirculation in landfill of municipal solid waste by comparing with evaporation and discharge (EASEWASTE).

    Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xu; Deng, Wenjing; Christensen, Thomas H


    In some arid regions where landfill produces minimal amount of leachate, leachate recirculation is suggested as a cost-effective option. However, its long-term impacts to environment remain disputed. For the purpose of revealing the environmental impacts of leachate recirculation in landfill, four scenarios were modeled using EASEWASTE, comparing the strategies of leachate recirculation (with or without gas management), evaporation and discharge. In the current situation (Scenario A), a total of 280 t of waste was generated and then transported to a conventional landfill for disposal. A number of contaminants derived from waste can be stored in the landfill for long periods, with 11.69 person equivalent (PE) for stored ecotoxicity in water and 29.62 PE for stored ecotoxicity in soil, considered as potential risks of releasing to the environment someday. Meanwhile, impacts to ecotoxicity and human toxicity in surface water, and those to groundwater, present relatively low levels. In Scenario B, leachate evaporation in a collecting pool has minimal impacts on surface water. However, this strategy significantly impacts groundwater (1055.16 PE) because of the potential infiltration of leachate, with major contaminants of As, ammonia, and Cd. A number of ions, such as Cl(-), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+), may also contaminate groundwater. In Scenario C, the direct discharge of leachate to surface water may result in acidification (2.71 PE) and nutrient enrichment (2.88 PE), primarily attributed to soluble ammonia in leachate and the depositional ammonia from biogas. Moreover, the direct discharge of leachate may also result in ecotoxicity and human toxicity via water contaminated by heavy metals in leachate, with 3.96 PE and 11.64 PE respectively. The results also show that landfill gas is the main contributor to global warming and photochemical ozone formation due to methane emission. In Scenario D, landfill gas flaring was thus be modeled and proven to be efficient for reducing

  20. The analysis on the extreme water shortage event in Hangzhou in 1247 AD and its natural and social backgrounds

    Liu, Haolong


    Yangtze River Delta locating in the north subtropics of China, is famous for numerous rivers and lakes. Because of East Asian monsoon rainfall, flood is always the most primary disaster in this area during the past 2000 years. However, there were also several extreme water shortage events in the history. Example in Hangzhou in 1247 AD was such a typical year in the area. In the paper, the severity of this extreme event and the closely tied spatiotemporal variation of drought in Yangtze River Delta was quantitatively analyzed on the basis of documentary records during Southern Song Dynasty. Furtherly, its natural and social backgrounds was discussed. The result s are summarized as follows: 1) Wells, canals and West Lake of Hangzhou dried up in 1247 AD. The water level of canals was about 1.32-2.64 m lower than that in the normal year. The reduction of storage capacity in West Lake was 21 million stere or so. 2) The droughts in Yangtze River Delta was moderate on the whole, but that in the west of Zhejiang Province was severe. The drought in Hangzhou lasted from the 2nd lunar month to the end of this year. 3) The water shortage event was closely related to the quick going north and farther northern location of summer rain belt. The descending sea-level weakening the tide in Qiantang River, can also reduce the supply of water resources. 4) The quick growth of urban population, excessive aquaculture, and ineffective government supervision played an important social role in the process of this event. In the all, this extreme water shortage event was the result of both natural and social factors. This research is very helpful for the futuristic water resource forecast in Yangtze River Delta, and it also affords us lessons on the risk management and heritage conservation that merit attention. Key Words: Hangzhou, 1247 AD, water shortage, canal, West Lake, natural factors, social factors

  1. An Insight into the Growth of Department Stores in Hangzhou

    XIE Yuan-yuan


    This assignment will critically examine the competitive strategies of four selected department stores in Hangzhou and the reasons why the choice of them depends on different customer values. It will also highlight the capabilities that companies used to realize their strategies.

  2. Relationship between serum uric acid and selected cardiovascular risk factors in Hangzhou populations

    Jiajin Zhu


    Full Text Available Uric acid is the final metabolite of purine. Increased serum uric acid level is associated with incidence of gout and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum uric acid and parameters of biochemistry and haematology in Hangzhou populations, China. In this crosssectional study, 186 male (56±14 y and 85 female (55±11 y free-living subjects were recruited from Hangzhou, China. The physiological parameters were measured. Each subject gave fasting blood, urine and faeces samples, from which serum uric acid and other parameters of biochemistry and haematology were measured with standard methods. Serum uric concentration was significantly higher in males than in females, 329±69 µmol/L for male and 237±53 µmol/L for female (P<0.0001. Compared with female subjects, male had significantly higher BMI (P = 0.0215, serum TAG (P = 0.0012 and creatinine (P<0.0001, significantly lower TC (P = 0.0013 and HDL-C (P<0.0001. Bivariate analysis results showed that serum uric acid was significantly positively correlated with age (r = 0.171, P = 0.0076, BMI (r = 0.343, P<0.0001, systolic blood pressure (r = 0.234, P = 0.0002, diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.204, P = 0.0014, blood urea nitrogen (r = 0.251, P<0.0001, serum concentrations of total cholesterol (r = 0.192, P = 0.0026 and triacylglycerol (r = 0.306, P<0.0001, and significantly negatively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r = -0.381, P<0.0001. In the bivariate analysis for separate gender, serum uric acid concentration was significantly positively correlated with TC (r = 0.255, P = 0.001, LDL-C (r = 0.329, P<0.0001 and HDL-C (r = -0.185, P = 0.0181 for males, but not for females. Serum uric acid concentration was significantly positively correlated with age for females (r = 0.289, P = 0.0081, but not for males. The results from the present study indicated that increased serum uric acid concentration was associated with a cluster of the



    Urban heat environmental quality (UHEQ) is affected by the interacting of weather condition and underlying surface framework of urban area. In the last two decades, many researchers from domestic and overseas have studied many problems at the aspect of urban heat environment such as urban heat islands, urban air temperature and their relation with urban land cover, city population, air pollution etc. In the recent years, Hangzhou, acting as a center city of Zhejiang Province in China, its urbanization quantum and quantity have both changed greatly, in particular, representing as business affairs building, resident real property and all kinds of specialty market having arisen in built-up zone. Based on Landsat TM images data in 1991 and 1999, urban underlying surface temperature value and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were calculated using image interpreting and supervised classification technique by remote sensing software ERDAS image 8.4. The relation model between urban underlying surface temperature (UUST) and urban air temperature was setup according to the certain correlation pattern. Reference to the relational standard of assessing human comfort and other meteorology data of Hangzhou City in summer, the spatial distribution characteristic and the spatial variation degree of human comfort of heat environmental quality are estimated and mapped on a middle scale, that is, in six districts of Hangzhou City . Then the paper reveals the main characteristic of spatial variation from 1991 to 1999. Lastly, the change mechanism is analyzed and discussed from the viewpoint of city planning, construction and environmental protection.

  4. Orthogonal factor analysis of metabolic syndrome components in children and adolescents in the Xiaoshan District of Hangzhou, China%杭州市萧山区儿童青少年代谢综合征组分的正交因子分析

    汪笛; 王春林


    Objective To study the relationship between various metabolic syndrome (MS) components in children and adolescents and to explore its potential pathophysiological mechanism. Methods A total of 1 550 children and adolescents aged 7-14 years from the Xiaoshan District of Hangzhou, China were enrolled in March 2010. The anthropometric parameters such as height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference, as well as blood pressure, were measured;after adjustment for age and sex, body mass index z score (BMI-z), waist circumference z score (WC-z), waist-to-hip ratio (WHp), and waist-to-height ratio (WHt) were calculated. Fasting blood samples were collected for determination of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (CHOL), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Principal component analysis was used for extraction of factors. Results Principal component analysis revealed 5 uncorrelated factors that cumulatively explained 77.76%of the observed variance. Adiposity factor, which accounted for 23.56%of the variance, was the primary factor;it consisted of 3 variables, i.e., WC-z, WHt, and BMI-z, in which WC-z had the highest loading. The remaining factors identiifed were blood lipid factor 1 (TG, CHOL, and LDL), blood pressure factor, blood lipid factor 2 (TG and HDL), and blood glucose and WHp factor (FPG and WHp). Conclusions More than one pathophysiological mechanism could account for the development of MS in children and adolescents. Obesity, especially central obesity, is the most important factor in the development of MS. Dyslipidemia may not fully explain insulin resistance;they may work together in MS.%目的:了解儿童青少年代谢综合征(MS)各组分的相互关系,探索其潜在病理生理机制。方法对2010年3月杭州市萧山区的1550名7~14岁儿童青少年的体格检查及空腹血脂血糖数据进行回顾性分析,对其体重指数z值(BMI-z)、腰围z值

  5. The Sexuality Education and Attitudes of College Students in China

    Song, Yu


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the type and quality of sexuality education received by college students in Hangzhou, China. Their attitudes towards sex and sexuality were also explored. To set the broader context the regulations and laws governing the provision of sexuality education in China have also been examined.…

  6. The Sexuality Education and Attitudes of College Students in China

    Song, Yu


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the type and quality of sexuality education received by college students in Hangzhou, China. Their attitudes towards sex and sexuality were also explored. To set the broader context the regulations and laws governing the provision of sexuality education in China have also been examined.…

  7. Probability Model of Hangzhou Bay Bridge Vehicle Loads Using Weigh-in-Motion Data

    Dezhang Sun


    Full Text Available To study the vehicle load characteristics of bay bridges in China, especially truck loads, we performed a statistical analysis of the vehicle loads on Hangzhou Bay Bridge using more than 3 months of weigh-in-motion data from the site. The results showed that when all the vehicle samples were included in the statistical analysis, the histogram of the vehicles exhibited a multimodal distribution, which could not be fitted successfully by a familiar single probability distribution model. When the truck samples were analyzed, a characteristic multiple-peaked distribution with a main peak was obtained. The probability distribution of all vehicles was fitted using a weighting function with five normal distributions and the truck loads were modeled by a single normal distribution. The results demonstrated the good fits with the histogram. The histograms of different time periods were also analyzed. The results showed that the traffic mainly comprised two-axle small vehicles during the rush hours in the morning and the evening, and the histogram could be fitted approximately using three normal distribution functions. And the maximum value distributions of vehicles during the design life of the bay bridge were predicted by maximum value theory.

  8. Spatial distribution of urban heat island in Hangzhou and its mitigation countermeasures

    Wang, W.-W.; Li, G.-L.; Xue, J.


    Taking Hangzhou City in summer as a case, the thermal infrared remote sensing image (Landsat 5 TM) was used to extract and inverse the surface land cover types and surface temperature of Hangzhou City. The spatial distribution characteristics of urban heat island was analyzed in the city......-scale through the thermal field analysis and profile analysis method. The corresponding relationship between the spatial distribution characteristics of Hangzhou urban heat island and landuse types were revealed. Then, the generative mechanisms of Hangzhou urban heat island were analyzed in the aspects...... of the evolution of urban landuse types, the changes of urban spatial pattern, the rationality of the urban land layout, and the emission of anthropogenic heat. Finally, in the perspective of urban planning, some mitigation countermeasures including the reasonable control of the expansion of urban landuse...

  9. Development of Bird-watching Ecological Tourism in Hangzhou Bay National Wetland Park%杭州湾国家湿地公园观鸟生态旅游开发及对策研究



    Abstract A review was presented on bird watching tourism development in China and abroad. The conditions for developing bird watching tourism and existing problems in Hangzhou Bay Wetland Park were analyzed.Suggestions were proposed to develop bird-watching ecotourism in Hangzhou bay wetland.%对观鸟旅游在国内外的发展进行概要梳理之后,分析了杭州湾湿地公园发展观鸟旅游的条件及存在问题,最后提出了杭州湾湿地公园发展观鸟生态旅游的建议与对策.

  10. [Distribution of atmospheric ultrafine particles during haze weather in Hangzhou].

    Chen, Qiu-Fang; Sun, Zai; Xie, Xiao-Fang


    Atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFPs) were monitored with fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS) in continuous haze weather and the haze fading process during December 6 to 11, 2013 in Hangzhou. Particle concentration and size distribution were studied associated with meteorological factors. The results showed that number concentrations were the highest at night and began to reduce in the morning. There was a small peak at 8 o'clock in the morning and 18 o'clock in the afternoon. It showed an obvious peak traffic source, which indicated that traffic emissions played a great role in the atmospheric pollution. During haze weather, the highest number concentration of UFPs reached 8 x 10(4) cm(-3). Particle size spectrum distribution was bimodal, the peak particle sizes were 15 nm and 100 nm respectively. Majority of UFPs were Aitken mode and Accumulation mode and the size of most particles concentrated near 100 nm. Average CMD(count medium diameter) was 85.89 nm. During haze fading process, number concentration and particles with size around 100 nm began to reduce and peak size shifted to small size. Nuclear modal particles increased and were more than accumulation mode. Average CMD was 58.64 nm. Meteorological factors such as the visibility and wind were negatively correlated with the particle number concentration. Correlation coefficient R were -0.225 and - 0.229. The humidity was correlated with number concentration. Correlation coefficient R was 0.271. The atmosphere was stable in winter and the level temperature had small correlation with number concentration. Therefore, study on distribution of atmospheric ultrafine particles during haze weather had the significance on the formation mechanism and control of haze weather.


    Yi-pingWang; Xue-xinChen; Jun-huaHe


    The genus Shelfordia is discovered in China for the first time, and one new species of this genus ( S. chinensis sp. nov. ) is fully described and illustrated in the present paper. The type specimen is deposited in the Parasitic Hymenoptera Collection, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

  12. Panel Meeting for A3 Foresight Program 2008 held in Hangzhou


    @@ Jointly organized by the Bureau of International Cooperation,Department of Engineering & Material Sciences and Department of Mathematical & Physical Sciences of NSFC,the panel evaluation meeting for A3 Foresight Program for the year 2008 was held in Hangzhou from May 28 to 30,2008.


    Graham N Thompson


    @@ I had joined a Chinese group for a tour of the famous resort of Hangzhou, some 175km from the bustle of Shanghai. First impressions, leaving the railway station after my two and a half hour s' journey, were not good-a modern city with traffic as manic as the one I had just left. But then I saw the West Lake.

  14. Characteristics of Water and Sediment Exchange Between Yangtze Estuary and Hangzhou Bay

    KONG Jun; SONG Zhi-yao; XIA Yun-feng; ZHANG Wei-sheng


    Based on the 2-D flow and sediment numerical model of the Yangtze Estuary and the Hangzhou Bay, the characteristics of water and sediment exchange in their joint waters is studied through quantitative calculation and analysis of the characteristics of water flow and sediment transportation. The results show that there is periodical water and sediment exchange in this joint waters, that the net water exchange appears mainly between 0~6 m depth (theoretical datum plane, the same below) offshore and the maximum is near the depth of 2 m, and that the net sediment exchange mainly appears between 0~5 m depth and the maximum is near the depth of 3 m, indicating that the range of water flow passage is different from that of sediment transport from the Yangtze Estuary to the Hangzhou Bay. Combined with the results of numerical simulation, this paper also analyzes the hydrodynamical mechanism influencing water and sediment exchange between the Yangtze Estuary and the Hangzhou Bay, including tidal fluctuation, tidal current kinetic energy, tide-induced residual current and the trace of water particles. Finally, the sediment transportation passage on the Nanhui tidal flat is discussed, and the results show that sediment is transported into the Hangzhou Bay from the south side of Shipilei, while sediment is brought back to the South Channel of the Yangtze Estuary from the north side.

  15. Electric-bicycle-related injury: a rising traffic injury burden in China.

    Feng, Zhiying; Raghuwanshi, Rakesh P; Xu, Zigang; Huang, Dayong; Zhang, Chong; Jin, Tao


    To examine the rising casualty rate related to electric bicycle usage. Analysis of the Hangzhou Police Bureau's data on electric-bicycle-related injuries and deaths. Hangzhou, China, 2004-2008. PATIENTS OR SUBJECTS: Electric-bicycle riders. Electric-bicycle-related casualty rates in Hangzhou from 2004 to 2008. There was a significant average annual increase in electric-bicycle-related casualty rates of 2.7 per 100,000 population (95% CI 1.5 to 3.9, p=0.005). At the same time, overall road traffic and manual-bicycle-related deaths and injuries decreased. As it is difficult to ban the use of electric bicycles in China, laws, rules and regulations need to be reinforced and strengthened. New regulations should be created for the safety of electric bicycle riders and others on the road, and mandatory helmet use should be considered.

  16. 杭州大剧院舞台监督系统%Stage supervisor system in Hangzhou Grand Theater



    This paper mainly introduces the stage supervisor system in Hangzhou Grand Theater. The stage master console, internal comunication technique, digital calling system, video camera matrix in this system are discussed in detail.

  17. Investigation of Helicobacter pylori infection among symptomatic children in Hangzhou from 2007 to 2014: a retrospective study with 12,796 cases

    Shu, Xiaoli; Ping, Mingfang; Yin, Guofeng


    Background and Aim The infection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is acquired in childhood and the prevalence vary greatly in different countries and regions. The study aimed to investigate the characteristics of H. pylori infection among children with gastrointestinal symptoms in Hangzhou, a representative city of eastern China. Methods A systematic surveillance of H. pylori infection according to the 13C-urea breath test was conducted from January 2007 to December 2014 in the Children’s hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine. The demographic information and main symptoms of every subject were recorded. Results A total of 12,796 subjects were recruited and 18.6% children evaluated as H. pylori positive. The annual positive rates decreased from 2007 to 2014 (χ2 = 20.461, p pylori infection. Age, gender, gastrointestinal symptoms and history of H. pylori infected family member were all significantly associated with H. pylori infection (all p pylori infection rates in children with gastrointestinal symptoms were lower than most of those reported in mainland China. Further studies are required to determine the prevalence in the general population. Comprehensively understanding of the characteristics and the possible risk factors of H. pylori infection will be helpful to its management strategies in children in China. PMID:28168109

  18. Performance assessment, social accountability and sustainability governance in Hangzhou: Leveraging the implementation gap?

    Delman, Jørgen

    This is an explorative case study that examines how ideas and concepts relating to sustainable development are factored into new approaches to urban governance in Hangzhou. The proposition is that traditional performance assessment procedures combined with innovative surveys of the city government......’s social accountability and with various forms of social participation have created a new framework for urban governance, both conceptually and as a series of practical measures. More specifically, the study examines a dramatic redesign of the performance assessment system in Hangzhou aimed at developing...... transparency of government and new forms of public accountability. This could pave the way for further progress with regard to development of sustainable city governance due to the strategic green turn pursued by Hangzhou’s leadership for some years now....

  19. [Ecological environmental quality assessment of Hangzhou urban area based on RS and GIS].

    Xu, Pengwei; Zhao, Duo


    In allusion to the shortage of traditional ecological environmental quality assessment, this paper studied the spatial distribution of assessing factors at a mid-small scale, and the conversion of integer character to girding assessing cells. The main assessing factors including natural environmental condition, environmental quality, natural landscape and urbanization pressure, which were classified into four types with about eleven assessing factors, were selected from RS images and GIS-spatial analyzing environmental quality vector graph. Based on GIS, a comprehensive assessment model for the ecological environmental quality in Hangzhou urban area was established. In comparison with observed urban heat island effects, the assessment results were in good agreement with the ecological environmental quality in the urban area of Hangzhou.

  20. 2015 4th China Academic Conference on Printing and Packaging

    Xu, Min; Yang, Li; Ouyang, Yujie


    This book includes a selection of reviewed papers presented at the 2015, 4th China Academic Conference on Printing and Packaging, which was held on October 22-24, 2015 in Hangzhou, China. The conference was jointly organized by the China Academy of Printing Technology, Beijing Institute of Graphic Communication, and Hangzhou Dianzi University. With 3 keynote talks and 200 presented papers on graphic communications, packaging technologies and materials, the conference attracted more than 400 scientists.  These proceedings cover the recent research outcomes on color science and technology, image-processing technology, digital-media technology, printing-engineering technology, packaging-engineering technology etc. They will be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in graphic communications, packaging, color science, image science, materials science, computer science, digital media and network technology fields.

  1. The use of a brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay to assess the water quality in Hangzhou section of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal.

    Lu, Yin; Xu, Xiaolu; Li, Tian; Xu, Yifei; Wu, Xu


    As physical and chemical tests alone are not sufficient enough for the assessment of potential effects on aquatic organisms, bioassays are required for the integrated evaluation of water pollution. In this study, invertebrate crustacean Artemia salina (brine shrimp) was applied as an indicator to assess the water quality of Hangzhou Section of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal. The percentage mortality of brine shrimp was recorded after 24-h exposure to the Canal water. The water samples were collected from five typical sites during October 2008 and April 2009. It exhibited 11% ± 8.3%, 26.7% ± 17%, 31.7% ± 8.5%, 28.0% ± 11.7%, and 4% ± 4.3% percentage mortality for the sample from Tangxi Bridge, Yi Bridge, Gongchen Bridge, Maiyu Bridge, and Gujia Bridge in 2008, respectively. And it exhibited 5.7% ± 4.2%, 10.3% ± 8.2%, 24.3% ± 12.3%, 16.0% ± 12.3%, and 0%, percentage mortality in 2009, respectively. According to the results, a relative improvement in water quality was observed, although the results were not significantly different at the p < 0.05 level. It suggested that 24-h A. salina exposure trials represent an acceptable bioassay for water toxicity when alternative bioassays were unavailable.

  2. Conservation and utilization of rice genetic resources in China


    @@Rice genetic resources presents variably in China. There are land races and wild species. cultivated lowland rice and upland rice, indica (Hsien) and japonica (Keng) riee. early, middle, and late rice as well as glutinous and non-glutinous rice. Up to February 2000, a total of 76, 646 rice accessions were catalogued,and 67. 444 base accessions were stored in the National Crop Gene Bank in the Institute of Crop Genetic Resources (ICGR) of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China (Table 1). About 35,000 rice duplicates were stored in China National Rice Research Institute(CNRRI), Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. China.

  3. 节水技术在超高层建筑设计中的应用--以杭州平安金融中心为例%Application of Water Saving Technology in Ultra High Rise Buildings Design:Case of Hangzhou Ping An Financial Center



    杭州平安金融中心项目地处杭州市钱江新城核心区域,是180 m高的超高层建筑,也是杭州市节水利用重点工程之一。为了较好地完成节水技术在超高层建筑中的应用,我们在设计中采用了雨水、冷凝水收集-处理-利用系统,非传统水源利用率得到较大提高。%The project of Hangzhou Ping An Financial Center locates in the core area of Hangzhou Qianjiang New City, the ultra high-rise building is 180 meters high, which is also one of the key water-saving projects in Hangzhou. In order to achieve the application of water-saving technology in high-rise buildings, we adopted the collection - processing - utilization system for the rainwater and the condensate in the design to elevate obviously the non-traditional water utilization. Meanwhile, the rainwater infiltration and landscape irrigation are utilized; the water-saving sanitary ware and valve pipe with high quality are selected. The ultra high-rise building has achieved LEED gold-CS level certification and China green su-per-tall building two-star certification.

  4. 机动化浪潮下的杭州市自行车交通空间保障%Protecting Bicycle Right-of-Way under Rapid Motorization Development in Hangzhou

    刘树斌; 杨莹莹


    杭州市是中国公认的自行车发展较为成功的城市,通过交通要素分析和具体案例研究其自行车交通空间保障。首先,界定研究对象包括脚踏自行车和符合国家标准的电动自行车,自行车交通空间包括通行空间和停放空间。指出杭州市自行车交通发展面临小汽车竞争空间使用权以及电动自行车超速、超重等挑战。自行车通行空间层面,详细阐述杭州市在自行车道路体系构建,休闲自行车道建设,公共汽车站附近、占道施工情况下对自行车通行空间的保障,以及通过智能化手段保证效率和安全等方面的实践。自行车停放空间层面,探讨了自行车停车配建、路侧空间停车、大型会展活动、公共自行车停放等方面的具体做法。%Hangzhou is widely recognized as a city with successful development of bicycle transportation in China. This paper investigates how Hangzhou protects bicycle right-of-way through travel analysis and case study. The study focuses on bicycle travel (pedal bikes and the electric bikes that meet the national standards) and bicycle spatial dimension requirement (travel and parking). The study points out that the challenges facing bicycle transportation in Hangzhou are the space competition from automobile, electrical bike speeding/overloading and etc. The paper elaborates in detail the development of bicycle lane system, construction of leisure bicycle lanes, bicycle right-of-way protection where they are adjacent to bus stops and road construction, as well as efficiency and safety enhancement through intelligent transportation sys-tem in Hangzhou. The paper also discusses bicycle parking facilities for buildings, on-street parking, park-ing during large events, and parking for bike sharing.

  5. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.


    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000

  6. Effect of the Urbanization of Wetlands on Microclimate: A Case Study of Xixi Wetland, Hangzhou, China

    Wei Zhang


    Full Text Available Urbanization affects the microclimate and forms a unique urban climate environment. To deepen the understanding on the microclimate regulation function of an urban wetland, this study analyzed the influence of a suburb wetland’s urbanization process on the local climate through contrast observations of the protected wetland area and the former wetland area in Xixi wetland. Results show that the urbanization of suburb wetlands has an impact on the local microclimate and decreases human comfort, and that wetlands can effectively regulate the microclimate. The fragmentation of urban wetlands caused by urban sprawl decreases their microclimate regulation function, a decrease that is particularly evident in summer. Additionally, wetlands stabilize the microclimate in all seasons. For every land cover type in wetlands, vegetation has a better stabilizing effect on temperature, whereas a water body has a better stabilizing effect on wind speed and humidity. Meteorological conditions also affect the microclimate regulation function of wetlands. Temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and wind speed influence the cooling function of urban wetlands, while solar radiation modifies the humidifying function of urban wetlands.

  7. A Modified DRASTIC Approach to Shallow Groundwater Vulnerability in the West Lake Watershed in Hangzhou, China


    The quality of shallow groundwater in the West Lake watershed was investigated from March to July 2000. Integrating with Blackland GRASS GIS system, the DRASTIC model was used to compile the groundwater vulnerability map. A land use factor was added to the DRASTIC model and the modified model (LDRASTIC) increased the accuracy of prediction from 26.9% to 51.3%. The vulnerability map showed that the lowly, moderately and highly susceptible area predicted occupied about 11.6%, 70.9% and 17.5% of the whole watershed, respectively. Compared with the observed values of nitrate and electric conductivity, the LDRASTIC index improved the Pearson correlation coefficients from -0.010 to 0.237 and 0.380 to 0.503;both the improved coefficients were significant at the 0.01 level. The modified DRASTIC analysis showed a great potential as a screening tool for policy decision-making in groundwater management.``

  8. 杭长客专杭州南站站房工程施工过渡方案研究%Interim Scheme for the Construction of Hangzhou South Station on Hangzhou-Changsha Passenger Railway



    结合杭州枢纽相关项目的建设条件,从枢纽整体建设运营的角度对杭州南站站房建设期间的施工过渡方案进行了研究。提出了杭州东站过渡、杭州南站过渡、杭州南站和杭州东站共同过渡等三个方案,分析了不同方案对枢纽运输和客专施工建设的影响,推荐杭州南站和杭州东站共同过渡方案。%Based on the conditions of relevant project of Hangzhou pivot,from the perspective of overall construction and operation of the pivot,study is carried out on the interim scheme of the construction of the Hangzhou South Station.Three interim schemes Hangzhou East Station as interim station,Hangzhou South Station as interim station,and South Station and East Station together as interim station is proposed and their impact on the pivot transportation and the construction of passenger railway is analyzed.

  9. Examining Urban Impervious Surface Distribution and Its Dynamic Change in Hangzhou Metropolis

    Longwei Li


    Full Text Available Analysis of urban distribution and its expansion using remote sensing data has received increasing attention in the past three decades, but little research has examined spatial patterns of urban distribution and expansion with buffer zones in different directions. This research selected Hangzhou metropolis as a case study to analyze spatial patterns and dynamic changes based on time-series urban impervious surface area (ISA datasets. ISA was developed from Landsat imagery between 1991 and 2014 using a hybrid approach consisting of linear spectral mixture analysis, decision tree classifiers, and post-processing. The spatial patterns of ISA distribution and its dynamic changes in eight directions—east, southeast, south, southwest, west, northwest, north, and northeast—at the temporal scale were analyzed with a buffer zone-based approach. This research indicated that ISA can be extracted from Landsat imagery with both producer and user accuracies of over 90%. ISA in Hangzhou metropolis increased from 146 km2 in 1991 to 868 km2 in 2014. Annual ISA growth rates were between 15.6 km2 and 48.8 km2 with the lowest growth rate in 1994–2000 and the highest growth rate in 2005–2010. Urban ISA increase before 2000 was mainly due to infilling within the urban landscape, and, after 2005, due to urban expansion in the urban-rural interfaces. Urban expansion in this study area has different characteristics in various directions that are influenced by topographic factors and urban development policies.

  10. 7Be content and its seasonal variation in the ground air around Hangzhou area


    Twice investigations around Hangzhou area show that 7Be content average in the ground air is 5.9 mBq.m-3.The content of 7Be is the highest in autumn-winter period reaching about 7.7 mBq.m-3;the next is in spring about 6.2 mBq.m-3;then is in the early summer about 5.7 mBq.m-3,close to the annual average level; and the lowest in a year is in summer-autumn period with a value about 3.8 mBq.m-3. Exhibited is a decreasing trend from autumn-winter period to summer-autumn of the next year,which is negatively correlated with the variation of the seasonal rainfall in Hangzhou area. But this trend is different from that reported by UNSCEAR: it is the highest in spring and the lowest in the late autumn, which is based only on 7Be falling down from the stratosphere. However, the present investigation shows that the seasonal rainfall is the main factor influencing the variation trend of 7Be content in the air.

  11. Formation of City-Lake Integrated Urban Morphology in Hangzhou: A Study on the Related History Starting from the New Market Plan of the Lakefront District in Early Modern Times

    Fu; Shulan; Yukio; Nishimura; Qian; Fang


    In the early modern times in China, local planners have made several construction plans for Hangzhou’s old city center and the West Lake, resulting in the gradual formation of a city-lake integrated urban form, which is valued nowadays for its uniqueness and characteristically Chinese cityscape aesthetics. The key plan that spurred this process of linking the old city with the West Lake was a plan titled "Building a New Market"(1914). By elucidating the time, process, and contents of the plan, this paper analyzes the spatial transformation of the lakefront districts based on old maps, and then interprets how it led the forming process of the "city-lake integrated" urban form in Hangzhou.

  12. Hangzhou Jinjiang Group Shanxi Fusheng Aluminum Phase I 800,000 t/a Aluminum Oxide Project Started Operation


    <正>On October 19,the Shanxi Province Pinglu County Phase I 800,000t/a Aluminum Oxide Project of Shanxi Fusheng Aluminum Co.,Ltd,a subordinate of Hangzhou Jinjiang Group,started operation.This is the fourth Aluminum oxide project constructed and operated by Jinjiang Group.

  13. Improving China’s Environmental Performance through Adaptive Implementation—A Comparative Case Study of Cleaner Production in Hangzhou and Guiyang

    Ting Guan


    Full Text Available This paper examines local policy implementation of Cleaner Production (CP in China. As the major policy implementer, China’s local government plays a crucial role in promoting CP. A better understanding of the factors affecting local government’s incentives regarding CP and different strategies available to the local government can help policy makers and implementers improve CP practices and other environmental policy outcomes. This paper uses the cases of Hangzhou and Guiyang to demonstrate that local conditions of policy implementation have a direct impact on the success of CP promotion. Based on 35 in-depth interviews, statistical data and internal government reports, we find that the location-based incentives of local government strongly influence their implementation strategies; and that the choices of different strategies can bring out various policy results. From this study, the identified location-based incentives are affected by energy resource endowment, economic development stage and technological competence. The successful implementation strategies involve using different policy instruments synthetically, regulating CP service organizations by controlling their qualifications, differentiating CP subsidizations, and improving transparency of project progress and outcomes.


    XUZhi-hong; WANGHui-mei


    The paper presents two new species of Cheiloneurini, Encyrtidae, collected from Liaoning and Jian-gsu, China. i.e. Ectroma loui Xu, sp. nov. , Platencyrtus aclerus Xu, sp. n. , which are described in detail.These two genara Ectroma Westwood and Platencyrtus Ferriere are first recorded from China, and are all parasi-toids of scale insects. All specimens are deposited in Institute of Applied Entomology, Agriculture & Biotechnology College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou.

  15. [Study on number concentration distribution of atmospheric ultrafine particles in Hangzhou].

    Xie, Xiao-Fang; Sun, Zai; Fu, Zhi-Min; Yang, Wen-Jun; Lin, Jian-Zhong


    Atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFPs) were measured with fast mobility particle sizer(FMPS) in Hangzhou, during March 2011 to February 2012. The number concentration and size distribution of UFPs associated with meteorology were studied. The results showed that the number concentration of UFPs was logarithmic bi-modal distribution, and the seasonal levels presented winter > summer > spring> autumn. The highest monthly average concentration was 3.56 x 10(4) cm-3 in December and the lowest was 2.51 x 10(4) cm-3 in October. The seasonal values of count medium diameter(CMD) were spring > winter > autumn > summer. The highest monthly average CMD was 53. 51 nm in April and the lowest was 16.68 nm in June. Meteorological factors had effects on concentration of UFPs.

  16. Landscape pattern evolution of the north of Hangzhou bay coastal area in Shanghai

    LIANG Shuai


    Full Text Available Since the 1980s in Shanghai,fast economic development,rapid urbanization,population explosion,all of these phenomena are driving radical changes in landscape pattern of coastal area.The landscape pattern evolution at the coastal regions of the north of the Hangzhou bay is analysed based on the landscape ecology theory and method by using Fragstats 3.3 software.3S technology is utilized to interpretate the sensing images at three phase in 1994,2003,2007,and selected two landscape index of the landscape level to study six town from time and space on the contrast analysis.The results show that farmland landscape is the dominant landscape in research area,landscape diversity is high and shows ascendant trend;For 13 years,six towns’(street fragmentation degree increase,the Luchaogang town has the highest degree of fragmentation.

  17. New-generation Migrant Workers’ Urban Adaptation: A Case Study of Jianggan District in Hangzhou City

    Fei; SU; Bo; LI; Jianyi; HUANG; Zhimei; LI; Jiamiao; ZENG


    New-generation migrant workers are the " elite" among migrant workers,and whether they can really adapt to the city is one of the real problems to be urgently solved during China’s new urbanization,related to the success of new urbanization construction. From the perspective of livelihood capital,this paper uses the measuring indicators in line with the new-generation migrant workers’ livelihood characteristics,to analyze the typical characteristics and causes of new-generation migrant workers’ urban adaptation in Jianggan District of Hangzhou City based on field survey data. In the study,it is found that the new-generation migrant workers’ urban adaptation characteristics are focused on life adaptation,work adaptation and cultural adaptation,but the adaptation in the three areas is not good and there is a big room for improvement.

  18. Factors Influencing Urban Residents’ Tea Consumption Habits: An Empirical Study of Hangzhou City

    CHEN Fu-qiao; JIANG Ai-qin


    Based on the survey data concerning residents in Hangzhou City, we analyze the main factors influencing consumers’ spending decisions, using Probit model. The results show that gender, age, and personal income have a significant positive effect on whether to drink tea; the degree of understanding of the tea, and the number of acquaintances drinking water also have a significant positive effect on whether to drink tea; but individual career, unit characteristics, and educational level have no significant positive effect on whether to drink tea. This research conclusion can provide microscopic evidence for the tea industry’s healthy development and formulation of marketing strategies; at the same time, provide a reference for marketing of the other hobby products.

  19. Effect of urbanization on the urban meteorology and air pollution in Hangzhou

    Liu, Hongnian; Ma, Wanli; Qian, Junlong; Cai, Juzhen; Ye, Xianman; Li, Jiahui; Wang, Xueyuan


    Urbanization has a substantial effect on urban meteorology. It can alter the atmospheric diffusion capability in urban areas and therefore affect pollutant concentrations. To study the effects of Hangzhou's urban development in most recent decade on its urban meteorological characteristics and pollutant diffusion, 90 weather cases were simulated, covering 9 weather types, with the Nanjing University City Air Quality Prediction System and high-resolution surface-type data and urban construction data for 2000 and 2010. The results show that the most recent decade of urban development in Hangzhou substantially affected its urban meteorology. Specifically, the average urban wind speed decreased by 1.1 m s -1; the average intensity of the heat island increased by 0.5°C; and the average urban relative humidity decreased by 9.7%. Based on one case for each of the nine weather types, the impact of urbanization on air pollution diffusion was investigated, revealing that the changes in the meteorological environment decreased the urban atmosphere's diffusion capability, and therefore increased urban pollutant concentrations. For instance, the urban nitrogen oxides concentration increased by 2.1 μg m -3 on average; the fine particulate matter (diameter of 2.5 μm or less; PM2.5) pollution concentration increased by 2.3 μg m -3 on average; in highly urbanized areas, the PM2.5 concentration increased by 30 μg m -3 and average visibility decreased by 0.2 km, with a maximum decrease of 1 km; the average number of daily hours of haze increased by 0.46 h; and the haze height lifted by 100-300 m. The "self-cleaning time" of pollutants increased by an average of 1.5 h.

  20. [Relationships between distribution of soil-born bryophytes in urban area of Hangzhou and related ecological factors].

    Liu, Yan; Cao, Tong; Wang, Jian; Cao, Yang


    At the 21 sampling sites in urban area of Hangzhou, 47 species of soil-born bryophytes belonging to 31 genera and 22 families were recorded. Based on the ecological importance value of these species and the data of ecological factors at the sampling sites, the relationships between the distribution of the bryophytes species in urban area of Hangzhou and related ecological factors were studied by canonical correspondence analysis. The results showed that human disturbance and soil pH were the most important factors determining the distribution of the bryophytes. In urban parks and green lands where human disturbance was greater, soil pH was alkali, and the species were mainly belonging to the genera of Haplocladium and Bryum and the family of Pottiaceae. In hilly area where human disturbance was lesser, soil pH turned to acidic, and the bryophytes were more, with pleurocarpous mosses and liverworts being relatively rich. The niche width of the 47 bryophytes was calculated, which revealed that most of them had very narrow niche width (<0.1). The Pseudotaxiphyllum pohliaecarpum widely distributed in the hilly area of southwest Xihu Lake had the widest niche width (0.3510), followed by Trichostomum planifolium (0.2239) and Haplocladium microphyllum (0.2185), the commonest species in the parks and greenlands in urban area of Hangzhou.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Pollutant Transport and Accumulation Areas in the Hangzhou Bay

    LI Ning; MAO Zhihua; ZHANG Qinghe


    Based on the COHERENS model (a coupled hydrodynamic ecological model for regional and shelf seas), a numerical hydrodynamic model of the Hangzhou Bay, influenced by tide, regional winds and freshwater from the Yangtze River and the Qiantangjiang River was established. The Lagrangian particle tracking was simulated to provide tracer trajectories. For convenience, the modeling area was divided into 8 subdomains and the modeling focused on March (dry season) and July (wet season). Numerical simulation and analysis indicate that the tracer trajectories originated in different subdomains are quite different. Most particles released in the mouth of the bay move outside the bay quickly and reach the farthest place at 122.5°E; while particles released in the inner part of the bay mostly remain in the same subdomain, with only minor migrations in two opposite directions along the shore. The tracer experiments also indicate that the northwest region of the bay is an area where pollutant can easily accumulate in both wet and dry seasons, and that the southeast region of the bay is another area for pollutant to accumulate in dry season because it is the main path for the contaminant.

  2. The impact of physical processes on pollutant transport in Hangzhou Bay

    LI Ning; MAO Zhihua; ZHANG Qinghe


    A Lagrangian tracer model is set up for Hangzhou Bay based on Coupled Hydrodynamical Ecological model for Regional Shelf Sea (COHERENS). The study area is divided into eight subdomains to identify the dominant physical processes, and the studied periods are March (the dry season) and July (the wet season). The model performance has been first verified by sea-surface elevation and tidal current observations at several stations. Eight tracer experiments are designed and Lagrangian particle tracking is simulated to examine the impact of physical processes (tide, wind and river runoff) on the transport of passive tracer released within the surface layer. Numerical simulations and analysis indicate that: (1) wind does not change the tracer distribution after 30 days except for those released from the south area of then bay during the wet season; (2) the tide and the Qiantang River runoff are important for particle transport in the head area of the bay; (3) the Changjiang River runoff affects the tracer transport at the mouth of the bay, and its impact is smaller in the dry season than in the wet season.

  3. High frequencies of HGV and TTV infections in blood donors in Hangzhou

    Jie Yan; Li-Li Chen; Yi-Hui LUO; Ya-Fei Mao; Meng He


    ALM To determine the frequencies of HGV and TTVinfections in blood donors in Hangzhou.METHODS RT-nested PCR for HGV RNA detection and semi-nested PCR for TTV DNA detection in the sera from 203 blood donors, and nucleotide sequence analysis were performed.``RESULTS Thirty-two ( 15.8%) and 30 (14.8%) of the 203serum samples were positive for HGV RNA and TTV DNA,respectively. And 5 (2.5%) of the 203 serum samples were detectable for both HGV RNA and TTV DNA.Homology of the nucleotide sequences of HGV RT-nested PCR products and TTV semi-nested PCR products from 3serum samples compared with the reported HGV and TTV sequences was 89.36%. 87.94%, 88.65% and 63.51%.65.77% and 67.12%. respectively.``CONCLUSION The infection rates of HGV and/or TTV inblood donors are relatively high. and to establish HGV and TTV examinations to screen blood donors is needed for transfusion security. The genomic heterogeneity of TTV or HGV is present in the isolates from different areas.``

  4. Survey of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in arterial street air of Hangzhou


    The presence of particulate and vapor PAHs, SO2 and Nox and other interrelated conditions (temperature, traffic intensity and wind velocity) were investigated in the arterial street air of Hangzhou. The concentration of the nine PAHs in the air was mean to 11.7 μg/m3, and the content of benzo(a)pyrene was up to 0.108 μg/m3. The contents of PAHs in the sampling sites were in good relation to the traffic intensity, and would be also affected by the terrain and meteorological conditions. The occurrences of PAHs in ambient air were mainly affected by their physical, chemical characters and temperature. The three- and four-ring PAHs (MW>228) mainly existed in the vapor phase and the five-ring PAHs (MW>228) existed predominately in the particulate phase. The fraction of vapor PAHs in the total nine PAHs was 84.2% in the air of the sampling sites. In the morning and evening, the concentrations of PAHs in the arterial street air were higher than that on the noon and the diurnal variation of PAHs was similar to that of the traffic gas NOx. A conclusion would be drawn that the major source of PAHs in the arterial street air was the traffic. And the results indicated that 75% of BaP would come from traffic source and remaining 25% of BaP would come from non-traffic source.

  5. Aerosol optical depth in urban site of Hangzhou%杭州市大气气溶胶光学厚度研究

    齐冰; 杜荣光; 于之锋; 周斌


    The characteristics of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Angstrom wavelength exponent (α) were analyzed and compared using Cimel sunphotometer data from 2011 to 2012 at national basic meteorological station in Hangzhou city of China. The results showed that the mean value of AOD500nm andα440-870nm were 0.86±0.47and 1.25±0.23, respectively. The averaged AOD over Hangzhou had no obviously seasonal variation characteristics. It was closely related to the weather patterns and internal and external sources influence in this region. The seasonal variation ofαwas not distinct. Due to dust aerosol spreading from north of china, theαmeasured in spring was a little lower compared to other seasons. The diurnal variation of averaged AOD showed a single peak distribution with the peak value and valley value at 15:00 and 06:00 respectively. The significantly increased value of AOD in the afternoon were due to the secondary aerosols generated from photochemical reactions that caused by strongly solar radiations and the aerosols in the surface layer spreading to upper layer influenced by turbulent transfer action. Both the AOD and α showed obvious single peak of frequencies based on the frequency distribution. It was found that the AOD and α can be better characterized by a lognormal distribution. The frequency of α, occurring in the high value range between 1.1and 1.7was 77.8%, which indicated that the average effective radii of aerosol particles were small and the aerosols should be classified as urban-industrial aerosols in Hangzhou. The data also showed high AOD(>1.0) both clustering in the fine mode growth wing and the coarse mode.%利用2011~2012年杭州国家基准气候站内太阳光度计(CE-318)观测资料,分析杭州市气溶胶光学厚度(AOD)和Angstrom波长指数(α)的变化特征.结果表明,2011~2012年杭州市AOD500nm年平均值为0.86±0.47,α440~870nm年平均值为1.25±0.23.AOD季节变化特征不明显,主要与该地区天气形势以及

  6. Accessibility of urban green spaces in Hangzhou City%杭州城市休闲绿地可达性分析

    桑丽杰; 舒永钢; 祝炜平; 苏飞


    Urban leisure green space is a typical green open space very important for maintenance of urban ecological security and human health.Accessibility to urban leisure green spaces directly affects the quality of services for city dwellers and reflects the region's urbanization level.Accessibility to urban green spaces can be used as an indicator to assess the effectiveness of providing ecological services to residents of the green areas in current system and long-term future system.With socio-economic development,Chinese people and governments are paying much more attention to urban green spaces,and more and more citizens have the desire of contact with nature,and are willing to live close to urban green spaces.Consequently,governments plan to develop and optimize urban green space allocation to meet these demands.In this paper,a quantitative method based on landscape accessibility of green space in Hangzhou City was employed to improve index systems.Aided by GIS technique,this paper conducts analysis on the accessibility and service ability which considers the population densities of every district,applying the methods of buffer zone,minimum distance and travel.The results indicate that:(1) In Hangzhou City,on average it takes 3.8 minutes from a residential area to a urban leisure green space,and 92.11 percent of urban residents have access to a leisure green space within 10 minutes; the residential areas with poor accessibility are the outskirt areas of the city.(2) As to scenic-spot green spaces,their accessible time is 20.33 minutes.Xihu and Xixi are found to be much more accessible than other scenic spots.(3) The accessibility exhibits a structure of annulations centered around Xihu,the farther the distance is away from Xihu,the poorer the accessibility is.The work of this paper will help improve the key index system for assessing urban green spaces in China,and can provide planners and policymakers with important and valuable information for urban green space

  7. Food Waste Management in Hangzhou%杭州市餐厨垃圾管理探析

    张永芳; 吴宏杰; 张媛


    结合杭州市餐厨垃圾管理现状,分析了餐厨垃圾管理本质,并提出加强源头强制管理,加快收运市场化推进,加强资源化产品监管等对策.%Combining with management status of food waste in Hangzhou, the nature of food waste management was analyzed. And some countermeasures were put forward, such as enhancing force administration at source, accelerating to promote marketization of waste collection, transportation and disposal, and enhancing supervision of resource products.

  8. Design of Qibao Vehicle Depot Control Mode on Hangzhou Metro Line 1%杭州地铁1号线七堡车辆基地调度横式设计

    王孔明; 李芾


    阐述了城市轨道交通车辆基地调度的组成及功能,以车辆基地典型调度作业流程为基础分析了各调度间的作业关系,并简述了国内车辆基地调度模式.介绍了杭州地铁1号线七堡车辆基地调度模式的设计方案及实施情况.%The constitution and functions of urban rail transit vehicle depot are generally introduced. Based on the representative working flow in vehicle depot control, the connection among different schedule controls of the vehicle depot is analyzed. The control mode of urban transit vehicle depots in China is also simply introduced, and a suitable technical design project of Qibao Vehicle Depot control mode on Hangzhou metro Line 1 is put forward the implementation of this design is described.

  9. [Soil organic carbon content and its distribution pattern in Hangzhou Bay coastal wetlands].

    Shao, Xue-xin; Yang, Wen-ying; Wu, Ming; Jiang, Ke-yi


    In this paper, the soil organic carbon (SOC) content and its distribution pattern in the natural intertidal zones and reclaimed wetlands of Hangzhou Bay were studied, aimed to explore the effects of vegetation succession, exotic species invasion, and reclamation on the SOC in costal wetlands of the Bay. In intertidal zones, the surface SOC content ranged from 4.41 to 8.58 g x kg(-1), with an average of 6.45 g x kg(-1), and differed significantly under different vegetations, with a tendency of under Phragmites australis (8.56 +/- 0.04 g x kg(-1)) > Spartina alterniflora (7.31 +/- 0.08 g x kg(-1)) > Scirpus mariqueter (5.48 +/- 0.29 g x kg(-1)) > mudflats (4.47 +/- 0.09 g x kg(-1)); in reclaimed wetlands, the surface SOC content was 7.46 +/- 0.25 g x kg(-1) in the 1960s, 1.96 +/- 0.46 g x kg(-1) in the 1980s, and 5.12 +/- 0.16 g x kg(-1) in 2003, showing a trend of increased after an initial decrease with increasing reclamation year. The SOC in the profiles all showed a decreasing trend from the surface to the bottom. The SOC in intertidal zones and reclaimed wetlands was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH, and positively correlated with soil total nitrogen (TN), suggesting a large reserve of organic nitrogen in TN. The correlation between SOC and soil C/N ratio was not obvious in intertidal zones, but significantly positive in reclaimed wetlands, indicating that reclamation affected soil C/N ratio to a certain extent. This study showed that in the intertidal zones, soil carbon sequestration capacity increased gradually with plant community succession. However, the invasion of exotic species Spartina alternflora might decrease the capacity of carbon sequestration in intertidal zones. It was also found that the changes of soil moisture content, particle composition, vegetation coverage, and reclamation history were the main factors affecting the SOC distribution in reclaimed wetlands.

  10. Assessment of Underline Engineering Settlement of Hangzhou-Ningbo Passenger Railway%杭甬高速铁路线下工程沉降变形评估

    张玉萍; 杨岚


    It is an important technical requirement to analyze,predicate and assess the settlement after construction of ballastless tracks of high speed railway.Up to now,there is no mature experience of this kind of technology in China or abroad.This article introduces some different ways that are commonly used for the assessment and prediction.These methods have been used to predicate the settlement after construction of Hangzhou-Ningbo passenger railway project and to analyze the deformation of the structure.Practical applicability of these methods is also discussed.It is indicated that,relevantly speaking,the curve regression method is firstly most suitable for railway beds,and secondly for bridge,and thirdly for tunnel.Both the exponential curve method and the hyperbolic method are relevantly good ways for predicating the settlement after construction of railway beds,bridges and tunnels.%高速铁路无砟轨道线下工程工后沉降分析、预测及评估是高速铁路建设的一项重要技术要求,国内外尚无成熟的经验。通过对杭甬铁路客专线下工程构筑物进行变形分析,介绍目前常用的几种评估预测方法,并利用不同的预测方法进行工后沉降预测,分析其适用性。结果表明,使用曲线回归法进行不同结构物沉降分析预测,相对而言,路基段曲线拟合通过率较高,桥梁段次之,隧道段最低,指数曲线法及双曲线法相对适应性较好。

  11. Seasonal Dynamics of Soil Labile Organic Carbon and Enzyme Activities in Relation to Vegetation Types in Hangzhou Bay Tidal Flat Wetland.

    Shao, Xuexin; Yang, Wenying; Wu, Ming


    Soil labile organic carbon and soil enzymes play important roles in the carbon cycle of coastal wetlands that have high organic carbon accumulation rates. Soils under three vegetations (Phragmites australis, Spartina alterniflora, and Scirpusm mariqueter) as well as bare mudflat in Hangzhou Bay wetland of China were collected seasonally. Seasonal dynamics and correlations of soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that there were significant differences among vegetation types in the contents of soil organic carbon (SOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), excepting for that of microbial biomass carbon (MBC). The P. australis soil was with the highest content of both SOC (7.86 g kg-1) and DOC (306 mg kg-1), while the S. mariqueter soil was with the lowest content of SOC (6.83 g kg-1), and the bare mudflat was with the lowest content of DOC (270 mg kg-1). Soil enzyme activities were significantly different among vegetation types except for urease. The P. australis had the highest annual average activity of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (21.4 mg kg-1 h-1), and the S. alterniflora had the highest annual average activities of β-glycosidase (4.10 mg kg-1 h-1) and invertase (9.81 mg g-1 24h-1); however, the bare mudflat had the lowest activities of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (16.2 mg kg-1 h-1), β-glycosidase (2.87 mg kg-1 h-1), and invertase (8.02 mg g-1 24h-1). Analysis also showed that the soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities had distinct seasonal dynamics. In addition, the soil MBC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease and β-glucosidase. The DOC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, and invertase. The results indicated that vegetation type is an important factor influencing the spatial-temporal variation of soil enzyme activities and labile organic carbon in coastal wetlands.

  12. Assessment of suspended sediment concentration at the Hangzhou Bay using HJ CCD imagery%杭州湾HJ CCD影像悬浮泥沙遥感定量反演

    刘王兵; 于之锋; 周斌; 蒋锦刚; 潘玉良; 凌在盈


    This research explored the potential of the use of the CCD image of the HJ satellite to derive Suspended Sediment Concentrations (SSC) of dynamic water bodies at Hangzhou Bay,which is a typical turbid water body in China.Through the analysis on the correlation between Remote Sensing Reflectance (RTS) and SSC,two apparent reflectance peaks at approximately 690 and 830 nm have been found in the third and fourth bands,respectively.The result also shows that a good correlation exists between Rrs and SSC when the wavelength is more than 700 nm.Based on the measured correlation between SSC and Rrs,the retrieval model is established using the ratio of band4 and band3 as remote sensing factor,and the model determination coefficient of 0.90 is reached.Through the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data,which are calculated from the Near Infrared-Short Wave Infrared (NIR-SWIR) atmospheric correction,the atmospheric correction of HJ CCD imagery is realized.The correction-relative errors of the third and fourth bands are 5.54% and 6.97%,respectively.The result demonstrates that the relative error of SSC derived from HJ CCD imagery is 7.12%,and SSC at Hangzhou Bay,which also has significant internal diversity,is much higher than that in the entrance of the Yangtze River.This research demonstrated that HJ CCD imagery can be used to evaluate SSC at Hangzhou Bay,if the appropriate atmospheric correction method and retrieval algorithm are used.%利用环境小卫星CCD(HJ CCD)影像对杭州湾悬浮泥沙浓度(SSC)进行了反演研究.通过对杭州湾水体遥感反射率(Rrs)与SSC进行相关性分析发现,在690nm和830nm左右出现显著的反射峰,分别位于HJCCD影像的第3和第4波段范围内;大于700nm波长处的Rrs与SSC相关性较好.基于实测Rrs和SSC之间的相关关系,利用第4和第3波段比值作为遥感因子建立SSC反演模型,模型决定系数达到0.90.借鉴近红外-短

  13. Complete genome sequence of a sapovirus from a child in Zhejiang, China.

    Zhou, Xiaohong; Sun, Yi; Shang, Xiaochun; Gao, Jian; Zhao, Xueqin; Shuai, Huiqun; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Yanjun


    Although Sapovirus (Caliciviridae) has been accepted as one of the causes of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, little is known about the genetic characteristics of the whole genome of sapoviruses in China, especially those that infect humans. Here we report the complete genome sequence of a sapovirus strain, Human/Zhejiang1/2015/China, obtained from a child with acute gastroenteritis in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China. Samples were collected and delivered to the CDC laboratories and were detected by RT-PCR. Sanger sequencing was used to obtain the full genome and molecular characterization of the genome was determined. A phylogenetic analysis of the genome was also performed. The results indicated that Human/Zhejiang1/2015/China belongs to Genogroup I. No recombination events were detected. This is the first complete sequence from a child to be reported in China. The sequence information is important for surveillance of this emerging gastrointestinal infection.

  14. Effects of advanced treatment systems on the removal of antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment plants from Hangzhou, China.

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Mingmei


    This study aimed at quantifying the concentration and removal of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) employing different advanced treatment systems [biological aerated filter, constructed wetland, and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection]. The concentrations of tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetW, sulI, sulII, intI1, and 16S rDNA genes were examined in wastewater and biosolid samples. In municipal WWTPs, ARG reductions of 1-3 orders of magnitude were observed, and no difference was found among the three municipal WWTPs with different treatment processes (p > 0.05). In advanced treatment systems, 1-3 orders of magnitude of reductions in ARGs were observed in constructed wetlands, 0.6-1.2 orders of magnitude of reductions in ARGs were observed in the biological aerated filter, but no apparent decrease by UV disinfection was observed. A significant difference was found between constructed wetlands and biological filter (p constructed wetlands and UV disinfection (p constructed wetlands, significant correlations were observed in the removal of ARGs and 16S rDNA genes (R(2) = 0.391-0.866; p Constructed wetlands not only have the comparable ARG removal values with WWTP (p > 0.05) but also have the advantage in ARG relative abundance removal, and it should be given priority to be an advanced treatment system for further ARG attenuation from WWTP.

  15. Dispersion modeling and health risk assessment of dioxin emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator in Hangzhou, China

    Xiao-jun MA; Xu-guang JIANG; Yu-qi JIN; Hong-mei LIU; Xiao-dong LI; Tong CHEN; Jian-hua YAN


    The emission of dioxins from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) has become a widespread concern.The effect of meteorological parameters (wind speed,atmospheric stability and mixing height) on the hourly ground level concentration (GLC) of dioxins was estimated using air dispersion models.Moreover,the health risks of dioxin exposure were evaluated for children and adults using the Nouwen equation.The total environmental exposure via air inhalation and food mgestion was calculated,based on linear fit equations.The results indicate that potentially severe pollution from dioxins occurs at a wind speed of 1.5 m/s with atmospheric stability class F.In addition,local residents in the study area are exposed to severe weather conditions most of the time,and the risk exposures for children are far higher than those for adults.The total exposure for children far exceeds the tolerable daily intake of dioxin recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 1-4 pg TEQ/(kg·d) under severe weather conditions.Results from modeling calculations of health risk assessment were consistent with dioxin levels obtained during actual monitoring of emissions.

  16. Epidemic and virulence characteristic of Shigella spp. with extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in Xiaoshan District, Hangzhou, China.

    Zhang, Chuan-Ling; Liu, Qing-Zhong; Wang, Juan; Chu, Xu; Shen, Li-Meng; Guo, Yuan-Yu


    Shigellae have become increasingly resistant to the extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC) worldwide and pose a great challenge to anti-infection treatment options. The purpose of this study was to determine the resistance, cephalosporin resistance mechanisms, virulence characteristic and genotype of ESC-resistant Shigella. From 2008 to 2012, Shigella isolates collected from diarrhea patients were detected for antibiotics sensitivity by disk diffusion, cephalosporin resistance determinants and virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping through enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR). A total of 356 Shigella isolates were gathered, and 198 (55.6%, 58 S. flexneri and 140 S. sonnei) were resistant to ESC. All ESC-resistant isolates were susceptible to imipenem, and only 0.5% isolate was resistant to piperacillin/tazobactam. ESC-resistant S. flexneri showed high degrees of resistance to ampicillin (100%), ampicillin/sulbactam (96.6%), piperacillin (100%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (74.1%), ciprofloxacin (74.1%), levofloxacin (53.4%), ceftazidime (58.6%) and cefepime (58.6%). ESC-resistant S. sonnei exhibited high resistance rates to ampicillin (100%), piperacillin (100%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (96.4%). Cephalosporin resistance genes were confirmed in 184 ESC-resistant isolates. bla(CTX-M) types (91.8%, mainly bla(CTX-M-14), bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(CTX-M-57)) were most prevalent, followed by bla(OXA-30) (26.3%). Over 99.0% ESC-resistant isolates harbored virulence genes ial, ipaH, virA and sen. However, set1 were more prevalent in ESC-resistant S. flexneri isolates than in S. sonnei isolates. ERIC-PCR results showed that 2 and 3 main genotypes were detected in ESC-resistant S. flexneri and S. sonnei, respectively. Our findings indicated that a high prevalence of ESC-resistant Shigella mediated mainly by bla(CTX-M) with stronger resistance and virulence, and the existence of specific clones responsible for these Shigella infection in the region studied.

  17. In Silico Analysis of Crop Science: Report on the First China-UK Workshop on Chips, Computers and Crops

    Ming Chen; Andrew Harrison


    A workshop on "Chips, Computers and Crops" was held in Hangzhou, China during September 26-27, 2008. The main objective of the workshop was to bring together China and UK scientists from mathematics, bioinformatics and plant molecular biology communities to exchange ideas, enhance awareness of each others' fields,explore synergisms and make recommendations on fruitful future directions in crop science. Here we describe the contributions to the workshop, and examine some conceptual issues that lie at the foundations and future of crop systems biology.

  18. 杭州市生活垃圾处理资源化评价初探%Resource Evaluation of Domestic Waste Treatment in Hangzhou

    章嫣; 张束空


    依据垃圾资源化的4种途径,并根据杭州多年来积累的基础数据设想了1个4层级的垃圾资源化评价模型,并初步设定了各层级间的换算系数(即权重的经验值),该模型在杭州的应用与事实基本吻合.%According to four ways of waste resources and the basic data over the years in Hangzhou,a evaluation model of waste resources with four level was designed.The conversion factors (empirical value of weight) among the levels were set preliminarily.The applying results of this model in Hangzhou were agreeable with the facts.

  19. The Study of Quality of Life of Community People in Hangzhou City%杭州市社区人群生活质量研究

    蒋琼萍; 陈树林; 张伟文


    Objective:Evaluating quality of life of comm unity people in Hangzhou city. Methods:492 community peopl e were sampled from community and tested by Generic Quality of L if e Inventory-74.Results:(1) Generic quality of life of comm unity people was well, and their body and mind were in good health; (2) Effects of mental health、physic health and social function on quality life were over ef fect of material life conditions;(3) Qualities of life of elders、workers、non-p rofession people were worse than qualities of young、profession people and cadre (P<0.01).Conclusion:Quality of life of community peop le of Hangzhou was in good condition, but attentions should be paid to qualities of life of elders and workers.

  20. Study on Hangzhou Style Women's Dress Enterprises Visual Merchandising Innovation Ability%杭派女装企业视觉营销创新能力研究



    Through the analysis of Hangzhou style women's dress enterprise visual merchandising innovation ability, the paper proposed the solution of improving display management ability and data analysis ability, strengthening the innovation of visual merchandising technology and improving visual merchandising innovation environment to finally realize the improvement of Hangzhou style women's dress enterprise's visual merchandising innovation ability.%本文通过对杭派女装企业视觉营销创新能力现状的分析,提出增强陈列管理能力、提高数据分析能力、加强视觉营销的陈列技术创新、完善视觉营销创新环境等对策,最终实现杭派女装企业视觉营销创新能力的提高.

  1. 旅华外国团队旅游流地理分布和网络结构特征研究%The Geographical Distribution and Network Structure of Inbound Foreign Group Package Tourist Flows of China

    杨新菊; 吴晋峰; 王金莹; 唐澜


    采用访谈法和问卷调查法,在北京、上海和西安等城市采集入境游客信息;运用地图法和社会网络分析法对旅华外国团队旅游流的地理分布和网络结构进行研究,主要结论为:①外国团队旅游流以北京和上海为主要出入境口岸,流动地区集中在中国人口线东南部;②外国团队旅游流的有向流动符合“二八定律”,即80%的有向流动产生在20%的城市对之间;③外国团队旅游流网络为核心-边缘网络,核心区包括北京、西安、上海等13个节点;④旅行社设计的线路对外国团客出入境口岸选择、团队旅游流的地理分布和流动均具有决定性影响.最后,根据研究结论提出了优化网络结构、拓展中国入境旅游外国市场的建议.%From 2004 to 2010, group package tourists account for up to 61.5% of the foreign tourists new to China on average. Through questionnaires in several cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Xi'an, together with social network analysis, this paper explores geographical distribution and network structure of inbound foreign group package tourist flows of China. We found that Beijing and Shanghai are the two most important gateways for foreign group package tourist flows of China, the flows distribute in the southeast of China, mainly among Beijing, Shanghai, Xi'an, Guilin, Hangzhou and Suzhou. The foreign group package tourists move frequently in Yangtze River delta and Pearl River delta, especially in the former. The largest tourist flow produced in Beijing and Xi'an, mainly from Beijing to Xi'an. The tourist flows spread to many destinations from Xi'an, such as to Guilin, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Wuhan and Chengdu. The typical directions of tourism flows in Yangtze River delta are from Shanghai to Suzhou, from Suzhou to Hangzhou, and from Hangzhou to Shanghai, while the typical directions are from Beijing to Shanghai between Beijing and Shanghai, and from Guilin to Shanghai

  2. A survey of the development of nursing care job market in Hangzhou%杭州市护工市场现状的调查与分析

    顾成靖; 孟凡莉


    目的:了解当前杭州市护工市场人员的基本情况、护工管理状况等,为规范护工市场、提高护工服务水平的策略制定提供依据。方法问卷调查结合访谈对杭州市14家医院的250名护工进行调查。结果113名护工为50~59岁(48.9%),长期护工工资水平为每月2240~2850元;目前护工行业无明确的准入标准,多数不具备专业技能,仅参与患者的生活护理。结论杭州市护工薪资相差大,专业技能匮乏,医院的护工缺乏规范化管理。%Objective To understand the status quo of the nursing care job market in Hangzhou and to provide scientific knowledgeformanagingtheworkofnursingcareandimprovingtheserviceinquestion.Method 250careworkersfrom 14 hospitals in Hangzhou were interviewed and asked to answer a questionnaire to collect the data for the study .Findings The survey indicated that 113 of the 250 care workers were in the age range from 50 and 59 years old (48.9%), and that care workers'monthly salary was between 2240 and 2850 Yuan; At present, no standard job requirements or criteria are available in the care industry in Hangzhou .Few care workers have the specialized skills .They just care for the day to day living of the patients .Conclusion There is a big difference in salary between the care workers in Hangzhou .There is no standard management of the market in question .

  3. 杭州湾湾口水体含沙量的时空分布%Spaciai-temporai distribution of suspended sediment concentration in Hangzhou Bay

    吴明阳; 许家帅; 冯玉林


    利用卫星遥感资料,结合现场实测数据,研究杭州湾湾口水体含沙量的时空分布,综合分析得出:杭州湾水体含沙量具有冬大夏小、高浓度悬沙广泛分布的特性,岛屿效应引起的局部高含沙是杭州湾岛屿群的共性.%Based on the information from the satelite remote sensing image and the measured SSC data from the field stations, this paper studies the spacial-temporal distribution of the sediment concentration in the Hangzhou Bay. The SSC of the Hangzhou Bay is high in winter and low in summer and the high SSC distributes extensively in the bay. It is common in the Hangzhou Bay that the locally high sediment concentration is caused by the archipelago effect.

  4. 杭州古代陶制泥人探寻%An Investigation into Ancient Clay Figures in Hangzhou

    田宇原; 郭艺


    杭州古代陶制泥人,在形制上具有独特的个性特征,大部分是独立头像的形式,个体尺寸在几公分至十几公分不等,人物表情丰富,采用整团陶土模压成型,无相同形态,烧成温度约8000C左右,这些陶制泥人存在于杭州古代民间生活中。陶制泥人在杭州民间的发现,说明其制作与需求已形成相当的规模。杭州陶制泥人与同时期的陶俑在造型上差异颇大,呈现出丰富生动的市井生活情态。这些古代陶制泥人有鲜明的独创性和普及性,其蕴含的文化内涵和所具有的艺术特征,有着与那个时代密不可分的文化信息。通过研究杭州古代陶瓷泥人的手工艺体系以及古代陶瓷泥人的功能用途,探寻杭州古代民间手工艺与经济文化的关系,从而剖析杭州古代社会与民俗的状态。%Ancient clay figures in Hangzhou are unique in shape, most of which have independent heads and expressive faces with individual sizes varying from one to tens of centimeters. They were molded through compression from a chtrnp of pot clay at 800~C firing temperature and produces different forms. These clay figures come from the daily life of ancient people in Hangzhou, the discovery of which indi- cates that the production and needs had been operated on a scale. Different considerably from contempo- raneous pottery figurines in modeling, these figures demonstrate a rich and vivid picture of common life at the time. With distinct originality and universality of artistic characteristics and embedded cultural conno- tations, the figures have delivered cultural information inseparable with those days. By studying the sys-tern of workmanship and functions of the figures, this paper intends to investigate into the relationship be- tween ancient folk handcrafts and economy and culture in Hangzhou, and analyze the state of ancient so- ciety and folk customs.

  5. Basic Research on Environmental Education Legislation in Hangzhou City%杭州市环境教育立法的基础研究


    The legislation of environmental education is the needs of regulating the environmental education and improving the people's awareness of environmental protection, but also the requirement of promoting the solution of environmental problems and achieving the ecological civilization.Laws and policies provide a basis for the environmental education legislation in Hangzhou . Legislative experience of domestic and abroad provides a reference for the legislation of Hangzhou , Hangzhou's own practical expe-rience lays a very good foundation for legislation.On the basis of investigation and research, this paper explores the legal terms, expounds the key problems of the legislation, puts forward the basic framework of the regulations of the promotion of environmental education in Hangzhou.Some theoretical support and practical reference for the next step of the legislation work in Hangzhou were provided.%环境教育立法是规范环境教育工作、提高全民环保意识的需要,也是推动解决环境问题、实现生态文明的要求。法律政策为杭州环境教育立法提供了依据,国内外立法经验为杭州市立法提供了参考,杭州市自身的实践经验为立法奠定了很好的基础。在调查研究的基础上,探讨了杭州市环境教育立法法律的名称,阐述了立法要重点解决的问题,初步形成了杭州市环境教育促进条例的基本框架,为杭州市下一步立法工作提供了一定的理论支撑和实践参考。

  6. Development of the science of mass casualty incident management:reflection on the medical response to the Wenchuan earthquake and Hangzhou bus fire%大规模伤亡事件应对研究范式的发展:基于汶川地震和杭州公交车起火事件紧急医疗救援的反思

    Wei-feng SHEN; Li-bing JIANG; Guan-yu JIANG; Mao ZHANG; Yue-feng MA; Xiao-jun HE‡


    Objective: In this paper, we review the previous classic research paradigms of a mass casualty incident (MCI) systematicaly and reflect the medical response to the Wenchuan earthquake and Hangzhou bus fire, in order to outline and develop an improved research paradigm for MCI management. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, China Wanfang, and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases for relevant studies. The folowing key words and medical subject headings were used: ‘mass casualty incident’, ‘MCI’, ‘research method’, ‘Wenchuan’, ‘earthquake’, ‘research paradigm’, ‘science of surge’, ‘surge’, ‘surge capacity’, and ‘vulnerability’. Searches were performed without year or language restriction. After searching the four literature databases using the above listed key words and medical subject headings, related articles containing research paradigms of MCI, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, July 5 bus fire, and science of surge and vulnerability were independently included by two authors. Results: The current progresses on MCI management include new golden hour, damage control philosophy, chain of survival, and three links theory. In addition, there are three evaluation methods (medical severity index (MSI), potential injury creating event (PICE) classification, and disaster severity scale (DSS)), which can dynamically assess the MCI situations and decisions for MCI responses and can be made based on the results of such evaluations. However, the three methods only offer a retrospective evaluation of MCI and thus fail to develop a real-time assessment of MCI responses. Therefore, they cannot be used as practical guidance for decision-making during MCI. Although the theory of surge science has made great improvements, we found that a very important factor has been ignored—vulnerability, based on reflecting on the MCI response to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and July 5 bus fire in Hangzhou. Conclusions: This new paradigm breaks through the

  7. Epidemiological Investigation of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in Hangzhou Area


    To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Hangzhou area. Methods Male subjects (n=375) aged 18-70 years,attending the STD clinic were recruited. Urethral swabs were assessed for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)with the consensus primers MY09/11. HPV genotypes of positive PCR products were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms and direct sequence analysis. Results Of the 375 swabs collected, 305 (81.3%) yielded sufficient DNA for the subsequent HPV analysis. Among the 305 subjects, the prevalence of HPV was 13.8%. Nononcogenic HPV types were found in 8.5% (26/305) of subjects, oncogenic types in 4.3% (13/305), and multiple types in 1.0% (3/305). The prevalence of HPV infection was higher in subjects from urban area than in those from rural area (P<0.05). The prevalence was also higher in those who received fewer years of education (P<0.05) and those who had more sex partners (P<0.05). Conclusions HPV infection among men at high risk is not uncommon. The detection rate of HPV DNA is significantly related to some sociodemographic factors, such as residence, educational level and the number of sex partners.

  8. Excavation collapse of Hangzhou subway station in soft clay and numerical investigation based on orthogonal experiment method

    Xiao-nan GONG; Xue-chan ZHANG


    This paper studies the excavation collapse at the Xianghu subway station on Hangzhou metro line I.The objective is to present an overview of this case study and discuss the cause of the failure.Through field investigation and preliminary analysis,the reasons for the excavation collapse were the misuse of the soil parameters,over excavation,incorrect installation of steel struts,invalid monitoring data,and inadequate ground improvement.Finally,a small strain constitutive model was used for further analysis.In order to estimate damage efficiently,the orthogonal array (OA) was introduced for screening the key factor in the numerical experiments.Six estimated indexes including deformations and internal forces of the excavation were taken,and the effectiveness of four factors which may cause the collapse was evaluated.Through numerical experiments and interaction analysis,it is found that the deformation and internal force can be well controlled by jet grouting of the subsoil under the final cutting surface,but increasing the improvement ratio of the jet grouting cannot help optimize the excavation behavior efficiently,and without jet grouting and the fourth level struts,the deformation and internal force of the excavation in this case will far surpass the allowable value.

  9. [Ecological benefits of greening and related controlling factors in urban residential areas of Hangzhou: a quantitative analysis].

    Sun, Yong-guang; Li, Xiu-zhen; Guo, Wen-yong; He, Yan-long; Jia, Yue


    Based on the 1 m x 1 m high resolution aerial images in 2007 and the 30 m x 30 m Landsat 5 TM images in summer 2007, and with the help of GIS and remote sensing image interpretation, this paper calculated the normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI) representing the overall ecological benefits of greening as well as the six controlling factors, i.e., multilayer structure height, area ratio of softness to hardness, greening rate, floor area ratio, greening area, and building density, in 30 typical urban residential quarters of west Hangzhou. The contributions of the controlling factors to the ecological benefits of greening as well as the quantitative relationships between the overall ecological benefits and the six controlling factors were analyzed by multiple linear regression and correspondence analysis, and some advises were given for the improvement of the ecological benefits. The contribution rate of the six factors was in the order of multilayer structure height > area ratio of softness to hardness > greening rate > floor area ratio > greening area > building density, and the contribution of multilayer structure height was far greater than that of the others whereas building density had the weakest effect on the ecological benefits. Correspondence analysis was effective in simplifying a complex data table into an intuitive two-dimensional chart, and thus, a potential powerful tool in decision-making for the improvement of ecological benefits of greening in urban residential quarters.

  10. Drug resistance and molecular epidemiological analysis of KPC-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated in Hangzhou%杭州地区产 KPC 酶大肠埃希菌耐药性及流行性分析

    王育瑛; 齐艳; 杨雪静; 王燕飞; 蒋琰; 楼正青; 俞云松


    Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae car-bapenemase(KPC)-producing Escherichia coli(E. coli)strains isolated in Hangzhou,China. Methods A total of 25 KPC-producing Escherichia coli strains were collected from four hospitals in Hangzhou from July 2012 to January 2014. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates to 22 common antimicrobial agents was deter-mined by using Kirby-Bauer(K-B)disk diffusion method. PCR analysis and gene sequencing were used for bla KPC gene screening. The modified Hodge test was performed to detect the production of carbapenemase. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis(PFGE)and multi-locus sequence typing(MLST)were used for homology analysis. Results All of the 25 clinical isolates were confirmed to be KPC-producing E. coli strains,harbo-ring the blaKPC-2 gene. These KPC-producing isolates showed high drug resistance rates and were resistant to almost all β-lactam antibiotics. PFGE typing classified the 25 isolates into three main homologous clone groups,including clone group A(4 isolates),clone group B(5 isolates)and clone group C(2 isolates), and some single clones(14 isolates). MLST typing classified the isolates into eight ST types,including ST131(14 isolates),ST167(3 isolates),ST2003(3 isolates),ST410(1 isolate),ST457(1 isolate), ST1463(1 isolate),STnew1(1 isolate)and STnew2(1 isolate). The typing results of PFGE and MLST were consistent with each other. Conclusion The prevalent KPC-producing E. coli strains in Hangzhou, China were ST131 type,which were resistant to multiple antibiotics and had been detected in several hospi-tals. The epidemic of KPC-producing E. coli strain often occurred at some special wards,such as Intensive Care Unit(ICU)and emergency ICU.%目的:了解产肺炎克雷伯菌碳青霉烯酶(KPC)大肠埃希菌的流行情况,加强医院感染控制及防止多重耐药菌大范围播散。方法收集2012年7月至2014年1月杭州市中医院、浙

  11. 南宋杭州的开封宫观——宗教文化转移之实例研究%Kaifeng Daoist temples in the Southern Song Dynasty Hangzhou: Research in actual examples of religious cultural changes



    The central government of the empire moved south from Kaifeng to Hangzhou after the collapse of the Northern Song Dynasty, resulting in some of the Daoist temples that were originally in Kaifeng to be re-established in Hangzhou.These reestablished temples were, for the most part, intimately related to the imperial politics. They were a manifestation of the continuation and legitimacy of the imperial regime and were a psychological confirmation of the safety of the regime and the imperial household. From this we can see, in the midst of religious cultural changes, how the basic cultural factors were interrelated with particular believers.

  12. 论在杭州设立国家级茶叶拍卖交易中心的必要性和可行性%The necessity and feasibility auction center to establish a national tea in Hangzhou

    孙传成; 张玉富; 郑斌


    Auction is a mainstream in the international tea trade. As a leading power of tea production, it is urgent for China to establish the institution of tea auction to deal with problems that endangered its industry development caused by the lagged behind of tea transaction mode, .such as the lost of pricing power, mismatching between export price and tea value, emerging tea safety problems, increasing risk of tea enterprises management. As a big province of tea production, Zhejiang should make some breakthrough in the model transformation of tea trade. The tea industry of Zhejiang has a strong industrial base as well as a solid market foundation, and has remarkable location superiority. It has researched on the tea auction market for many years, and the tea auction trade has already started. It will have comparative advantages and priority effects in the new economic tide. Besides, the government of Zhejiang attaches great importance to tea auction market, and relevant departments give substantial support to it. Still, Hangzhou city is the national center of tea science and education. This paper deemed Hangzhou as the best choice to set up the national tea auction trading center.%拍卖是国际主流的茶叶交易方式。作为产茶大国的中国,急需建立茶叶拍卖交易制度来应对由于交易方式落后带来的定价权丢失、出口价与茶叶价值、茶叶安全问题层出、茶叶企业经营风险加大等行业发展问题。作为产茶大省的浙江理应在转变茶叶交易方式上有突破性的作为。本文从浙江茶叶产业基础雄厚、浙江茶叶专业市场基础坚实且区位优势显著、对茶叶拍卖市场研究多年,茶叶拍卖交易已经起步、浙江在新经济浪潮中具有比较优势和先发效应、浙江政府高度重视,各有关部门大力支持、浙江杭州是全国茶叶科教经济文化中心_的角度论证,认为浙江杭州是设立国家级茶叶拍卖交易中心的首选地。、

  13. On Species Diversity of Epiphytic Bryophytes in Hangzhou%杭州市树附生苔藓植物多样性

    官飞荣; 茹雅璐; 胡忠健; 陈尊委; 吴玉环


    通过野外调查和标本鉴定,对杭州市树附生苔藓植物的多样性进行研究。结果发现,杭州市区共有树附生苔藓植物21科38属48种,包含多于4个种的树附生苔藓植物优势科为灰藓科、丛藓科、碎米藓科和牛舌藓科。α多样性分析结果显示不同样地树附生苔藓植物多样性有比较明显的差别。杭州植物园、浙江大学玉泉校区、龙井等几个样地多样性明显较高,而虎跑和浙江大学紫金港校区最低。%The species diversity of epiphytic bryophytes in Hangzhou is researched by field investigations and lab specimen identifications .48 species of epiphytic bryophytes belonging to 38 genera and 21 families are found in Hangzhou city .Dominant families with more than four species are Hypnaceae , Pottiaceae , Fabroniaceae and Anomodontaceae .αdiversity analysis shows that there are obvious differences of epiphytic bryophyte diversity among different sample sites .The epiphytic bryophyte diversities are relatively high in Hangzhou Botanical Garden ,Yuquan Campus of Zhejiang University and Longjing ,while low in Hupao and Zijingang Campus of Zhejiang University .

  14. Survey on skin aging status and related influential factors in Southeast China

    Yi-na WANG; Hong FANG; Wei-fang ZHU


    Objective: To investigate cutaneous aging patterns of residents in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, and their contributing 2004. Results: Facial wrinkling first occurred at 21 years of age and skin elasticity began to lose at 22 years of age. In middle-aged and old people, facial wrinkling and looseness escalated with the increase of ultraviolet (UV)-exposure time, indicating the ac-celerating effect of a higher accumulative dose of UV radiation on skin aging. Only Fitzpatrick types Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ were found in the skin phototypes of residents in Hangzhou area, and Fitzpatrick type Ⅱ seemed to be much more subject to severe wrinkling, elasticity destruction and skin tumors than types Ⅲ and Ⅳ. The oily skin was more protected against wrinkling and facial looseness than dry skin. However, as to concomitant cutaneous diseases, no difference was found among different skin types. Conclusion: Age, solar-exposure time, Fitzpatrick type and skin type are the associated forces in promoting skin aging, and emotional factor seems to be another independent risk factor. The age of 49 years and 2 h/d of solar-exposure time seem to be the turning points responsible for dramatic changes of cutaneous appearance in the process of skin aging in Southeast China.

  15. Econometric modelling of risk adverse behaviours of entrepreneurs in the provision of house fittings in China

    Rita Yi Man Li


    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs have always born the risk of running their business. They reap a profit in return for their risk taking and work. Housing developers are no different. In many countries, such as Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States, they interpret the tastes of the buyers and provide the dwellings they develop with basic fittings such as floor and wall coverings, bathroom fittings and kitchen cupboards. In mainland China, however, in most of the developments, units or houses are sold without floor or wall coverings, kitchen  or bathroom fittings. What is the motive behind this choice? This paper analyses the factors affecting housing developers’ decisions to provide fittings based on 1701 housing developments in Hangzhou, Chongqing and Hangzhou using a Probit model. The results show that developers build a higher proportion of bare units in mainland China when: 1 there is shortage of housing; 2 land costs are high so that the comparative costs of providing fittings become relatively low.

  16. Study on Control Strategy of Vehicle Emission Pollution in Hangzhou%杭州市机动车尾气污染控制策略研究

    相晨; 李伟东


    杭州市机动车数量已逾250万辆,其保有量仍在不断增长。机动车已成为城市能源消费、大气灰霾形成和温室气体排放的主要来源之一。基于杭州机动车尾气治理现状和特点,从排放控制、燃料优化、用车管理、淘汰老旧车型、加强路网建设、改革交通管理方式及发展公共交通等方面提出基于低碳理念的机动车防治对策与建议。%There are more than 2.5 million vehicles in Hangzhou and the number is expecting to increase.Vehicles have become one of the most energy consumers as well as the major source of greenhouse gases causing haze weath-er.A control strategy of vehicle emission pollution based on the low-carbon theory was put forward to alleviate the air pollution in Hangzhou.The strategies covered emission control,improvement of gas quality,management of ve-hicle usage,obsoleting old vehicles,strengthening the construction of highway network,reforming traffic manage-ment,developing public transportation and so on.

  17. Organic Chemicals from Bioprocesses in China

    Huang, Jin; Huang, Lei; Lin, Jianping; Xu, Zhinan; Cen, Peilin

    Over the last 20 years, China has successfully established a modern biotechnology industry from almost nothing. Presently, China is a major producer of a vast array of products involving bioprocesses, for some China is even the world's top producer. The ever-increasing list of products includes organic acids, amino acids, antibiotics, solvents, chiral chemicals, biopesticides, and biopolymers. Herein, the research and development of bioprocesses in China will be reviewed briefly. We will concentrate on three categories of products: small molecules produced via fermentation, biopolymers produced via fermentation and small chemicals produced by enzyme-catalyzed reactions. In comparison with the traditional chemical process, in which, nonrenewable mineral resources are generally used, products in the first and second categories noted above can use renewable bioresources as raw materials. The bioprocesses are generally energy saving and environmentally benign. For products developed via the third category, although the raw materials still need to be obtained from mineral resources, the biocatalysts are more effective with higher selectivity and productivity, and the bioprocesses occur under ambient temperature and pressure, therefore, these are "green processes." Most of the products such as citric acid, xanthan and acrylamide etc., discussed in this paper have been in large-scale commercial production in China. Also introduced herein are three scientists, Prof. Shen Yinchu, Prof. Ouyang Pingkai and Prof. Chen Guoqiang, and six enterprises, Anhui Fengyuan Biochemical Co. Ltd., Shandong Hiland Biotechnology Co. Ltd., Shandong Fufeng Fermentation Co. Ltd., Shandong Bausch & Lomb-Freda Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Zhejiang Hangzhou Xinfu Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., and Changzhou Changmao Biochemical Engineering Co. Ltd.; they have all contributed a great deal to research and development in the commercialization of bioprocesses.

  18. Discuss on social insurance rights in the practice of labor dispatch ----Take a hospital in Hangzhou as an example%论劳务派遣中劳动者社会保险权利的保障-以杭州某医院为例



    With the rapid development of labor dispatch in China ,much attention should be paid to the issue of employees’ social insurance rights. Through analyzing the practice of labor dispatch in a hospital of Hangzhou. It showed that there were fairness of social insurance rights in labor dispatch staffs. Therefore, government should implement the policy into the effect when they make the labor dispatch licensing system. Regulate the employment practices of labor-using companies. Constantly improve social insurance system and effectively solve the problem of social insurance of labor dispatch stafsf.%随着劳务派遣用工模式在我国的迅猛发展,其中所出现的社会保险权利保护问题也应予以关注。通过分析杭州某医院劳务派遣用工实践,发现劳务派遣人员的社会保险权利还存在不公平等问题。因此,政府在制定劳务派遣许可制度的同时,应尽快实施并落实到实处,规范要派机构对劳务派遣工的使用行为,不断完善社会保险制度,切实解决劳务派遣人员的社会保险问题。

  19. Exploration the Path of Public Services of Hangzhou Public Library Based on Micro-Blog Event%从“微博”事件探寻杭州图书馆公共服务之路



    多年来,杭州图书馆一直在探索并切实践行"平等、免费、无障碍"的公共服务,以保障每个人能平等地享用图书馆服务。杭州图书馆努力建设"平等、免费、无障碍"的杭州地区图书馆联盟,"关注弱势、个性化服务"的杭州盲文图书馆,"平民图书馆、市民大书房"的杭州图书馆新馆,"无处不在、触手可及"的杭州数字图书馆及开展"贴近民众、贴近生活"的读者活动,这些无不体现了公共图书馆的包容精神。%For years,Hangzhou Public Library is exploring and effectively practicing public services with the principle of being "equally accessible,free of charge,and barrier-free" to provide everyone universal and equitable services.Hangzhou Public Library has made efforts in followings: constructing Hangzhou library consortia according to"equally accessible,free of charge,and barrier-free",the Braille Branch Library according to "focusing on impaired people,provide individual service",the new Hangzhou Public Library according to "library for the common people,and study room for citizens",the Hangzhou digital library according to "information access facilities,easy to touch",and holding the readers' activities according to "close to people,close to life".It all embodies the spirit of inclusiveness of public libraries.

  20. 杭州湾海域水污染演变及污染源分析%Evolution of Water Pollution and Analysis of Pollutant Source in Hangzhou Bay



    以杭州湾海域水环境调查的相关数据为依据,研究杭州湾海域水污染演变及污染源情况。杭州湾海域常年以劣四类海水为主,水质状况极差,部分指标仍有恶化趋势。其主要超标污染物为无机氮和活性磷酸盐,化学需氧量浓度波动较大,但不是杭州湾水污染的主要威胁。从海域污染源来看,从富春江电站上游区域汇入的污染物占比最多;其次是杭州湾沿岸支流河道汇入的污染物;再次是从排海污水处理厂纳入的污染物。%Based on the related data from the survey on Hangzhou Bay water environment,the paper analyzed the process and the degree of the water deterioration and pollution in Hangzhou Bay.All year round, the water in Hangzhou bay contains mainly of four categories of poor sea water,some indexes of which are turn-ing worse.The main non-compliance pollutants are Inorganic nitrogen and Active phosphate in Hangzhou Bay. Although the concentration of chemical oxygen has fluctuations,it is not the main threat for the water pollution. With regard to the pollution source of the sea,the upstream region of Fuchun Rive power plant produced the largest proportion of pollutants;second,the pollutant coming from the tributaries along the coast of the Hang-zhou Bay;last,the pollutants from the wastewater treatment plant.

  1. Chemical characteristics of atmospheric dustfall and PM10 in Hangzhou%杭州市大气降尘与PM10化学组成特征的研究

    徐虹; 林丰妹; 毕晓辉; 焦荔; 冯银厂; 洪盛茂; 刘文高


    2006年6~2008年5月,在杭州市采集了大气降尘和PM10样品以及3类PM10源样品,对样品中12种无机元素进行了分析.结果表明,杭州市大气降尘量与PM10浓度相对于国内其他城市均属于较低水平,二者的季节变化存在明显差异;降尘量和PM10浓度的空间分布特征存在相似性,均与人类活动的强度密切相关.空间分布显示除PM10在朝晖和玉泉两采样点的成分谱相似,各采样点降尘和PM10成分谱间的相似性均不高.PM10与各源类成分谱的相似性高于降尘与各源类成分谱的相似性,二者来源的差异可能是造成降尘和PM10化学组分特征不同的因为,其中PM10与城市扬尘的化学成分相似性最高.%Samples of dustfall and PM10 as well as source samples of PM10 were collected from June 2006 to May 2008 at four monitoring stations of Hangzhou City. Twelve metals were quantified: chromium, manganese, nickel, lead, zinc,cobalt, aluminum, iron, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium. The deposited dust amount and concentration of PM10 was lower than most of the other cities in China. The dustfall and PM10 had different seasonal changing-mode. The similarity of spatial distribution implicated that both the amount of dustfall and concentration of PM10 were influenced by human activities. The chemical components of PM10 between Zhaohui and Yuquan were similar, whereas there was no high similarity between PM10 and dustfall in those sampling stations. Combined with the profiles of three PM10 sources,the similarity between PM10 and its sources was higher than that between dustfall and PM10 sources. It indicated that the dustfall and PM10 might come from different sources and it may cause the differences between the chemical characteristics of the dustfall and that of PM10.

  2. 用地驱动发展模式与城市交通共性问题--以杭州市为例%Land-Use Driven Development and Common Problems on Urban Transportation:A Case Study in Hangzhou

    谭永朝; 过文魁


    Many cities in China currently experience similar transportation problems even though those cit-ies have a very different characteristic, which critically reveals the common deficiencies of urban land use development. To address the problem, this paper reviews the evolution of land use development in urban ar-ea since 1990s through a case study of Hangzhou. The paper points out that while the widely adopted land-use driven development in Chinese cities has laid an economic foundation for urban development, it is also responsible for unregulated expansion of urban space and related problems. To effectively alleviate these urban transportation problems, the paper urges to change the land-use driven development mode, empha-size TOD and particularly public transit-oriented development, and optimize the investment in transporta-tion infrastructure.%现阶段,基本情况差异较大的许多城市集中显现交通共性问题,反映出当前中国城市用地发展模式可能存在非常关键的共性不足。针对上述问题,以杭州市为研究案例,探讨自20世纪90年代以来市区用地空间发展的演变。指出中国城市正广泛采用的用地驱动发展模式,既是城市发展的经济基础,同时也是导致城市空间形态无规则扩张,进而产生相关问题的根源。最后指出,只有转变以土地开发为导向的发展模式,坚持以交通尤其是以公共交通为导向的空间发展,并优化交通基础设施的投资结构,才能有效缓解城市交通共性问题。

  3. Pathogenic reaction of some introduced rice cultivars (lines) to seven pathotypes of bacterial blight in Hangzhou

    SHENYing; ZHUPeiliang; YUANXiaoping


    Bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae (Xoo) is a major rice disease in China. 138 introduced cultivars (lines) were tested on pathogenicity with seven pathotypes of BB at CNRRI Experiment Station during Apt-Oct,1991.

  4. 杭州植物园野生鸟类多样性调查%Wild Bird Diversity of Hangzhou Botanic Garden

    于炜; 吕敏; 刘锦


    2009年7月~2010年8月,采用样线法和定点观测法对杭州植物园所辖范围内的野生鸟类进行调查观测,共记录到鸟类9目26科94种,占浙江省鸟类种数的22.71%。其中,国家Ⅱ级保护物种1种。从留居类型看,留鸟49种,夏候鸟16种,冬候鸟24种,旅鸟5种。属古北界的有37种,占39.36%,东洋界54种,占57.45%,两界广布种3种,占3.19%,鸟类组成具有由东洋界向古北界过渡的特征。该区鸟类多样性水平较高,从调查研究的4种生境看,多样性指数(Shannon-Wiener指数)从高到低分别是疏林、灌丛、山林、水域。对比分析发现疏林和山林之间的物种相似性指数最高,水域和疏林之间的相似性指数最低。%We completed line - transect surveys and point - counts at Hangzhou Botanic Garden to quantify wild bird diversity between July 2009 and August 2010.We recorded 94 bird species of 26 families and 9 orders,accounting for 23%of the bird species reported for Zhejiang Province.Among our records,1 recorded species is nationally protected at category 2,49 species are resident in Hangzhou,16 species are summer visitors,24 species are winter visitors,and 5 species are typically recorded only on migration.Recorded species are palaearctic(37 species or 39%),oriental(54 species or 57%) and globally widespread species(3 species or 3%).The avifauna of the Hangzhou region represents a transition from the Palaearctic to the Oriental. The wild bird diversity of this region was high and the bird diversity indices of various habitats ranked from high to low as:open forest,shrub,mountain forest,and water body.Similarity was highest between open forest and mountain forest,and lowest between water body and open forest.

  5. Chinas Ingenieure

    VonChristophHein; Schanghai


    Drei Schlagworte praegen derzeit das Bild von China im Ausland: China wird zur Fabrik der Welt. China wird zum groeBten Markt der Welt. Und China ist ein Hochrisikoland. Bald diirfte sich ein viertes dazugesellen: China wird zum wichtigen Standort fiir Forschung und Entwicklung.

  6. Discussion on Website System Construction in Hangzhou Electric Power Bureau%杭州市电力局网站系统建设的探讨

    沙力; 冯雪


      根据杭州市电力局网站系统的构建目标,从网站系统子站数目、安全性和快速恢复3个方面提出网站系统的设计要求,消除了之前网站存在的多个信息孤岛,实现了信息的有效共享,增强了系统的安全性。%According to the general aim of website system construction in Hangzhou Municipal Electric Power Bureau and takes account of number of website system subsystems, safety and fast recovery. This poper for-wards the design require of website system. Information isolated islands in former website construction are e-liminated, which enables effective information sharing and enhances security of the system.

  7. 迄今被人们所忽视的英语西湖风景诗%The Little Known English Poems on the West Lake in Hangzhou



    The cultural heritage of the West Lake in Hangzhou does not only confine to the long history of its well-known scenic spots and the beautiful natural landscape, but should also include the large amount of poems written on the West Lake by the literati of different historical periods. For instance, those classical poems written Bai Juyi of the Tang Dynasty, and by Su Shi and Lin Sheng of the Song Dynasty, are generally considered to be the masterpieces and the fact that they are so popular actually contributs a lot to the fame of those scenic spots on the West Lake. Since the 13th century, Marco Polo and many other Western people have visited Hangzhou, and they left behind quite a few poems on the West Lake. Unfor- tunately, those poe~as written in Western languages have not drawn enough attention so far. The present paper aims to introduce ten English poems on the West Lake, written respectively by an American woman poet, Winona Montgomery Gilliland, as well as by a newly-wed American couple, Benjamin Franklin March, Jr. and Dorothy Rowe in early 20th century. Considering the fact that the West Lake has success- fully become a world cultural heritage site, and that Hangzhou municipal government is trying hard to in- troduce it to the outside world, we have reason to assert that these English poems written by foreigners are part of the West Lake's cultural heritage, and they should become one of.the best media for introducing Hangzhou and the West Lake to the external world.%杭州西湖的人文底蕴不仅在于风景名胜的历史悠久,也包括各个历史时期文人骚客们写景状物、叙事咏史和抒情寓怀的大量诗歌作品。例如白居易的《钱塘湖春行》、苏东坡的《饮湖上初晴后雨》和林升的《题临安邸》等经典的诗歌作品脍炙人口,千古传唱,对于西湖的名胜古迹起到了锦上添花的作用。自从十三世纪的马可波罗以来,也曾有过众多外国人来

  8. 杭州市归因于吸烟的疾病负担研究%An analysis on the disease burden of smoking in Hangzhou City

    陈臖芳; 马海燕; 汤静; 李金涛; 马先富; 李莉


    Objective To analyze the disease burden of Hangzhou City in 2013 due to smoking.Methods Using attributable risk of smoking from literatures,the demographic data,mortality surveillance,medical insurance information system of smoking related diseases expense,the direct economic burden and indirect economic burden due to smoking in Hangzhou were measured.Main indicators including disability adjusted life year (DALY),direct medical economic burden,production years of losses,early death of indirect economic loss and smoking cause cost and cost of passive smoking were calculated.Results In 2013,The DALY of Hangzhou 6 city area attributed to smoking was 8.11 years over one thousand people.That was less than other domestic cities.There were 1.118 174 1 billion Yuan due to the direct medical economic burden .And the production loss of smoking was 834.41 years.The early death of indirect economic loss of smoking was 57.659 4 million Yuan,and the cost of pathogenic of smoking was 56.936 2 million Yuan,and the cost of pathogenic of passive smoking was 50.915 1 million Yuan.Conclusion The total economic burden of Hangzhou due to smoking was still at a higher level,which could lead to more serious consequences for the health of people and social economic development.Measures should be conducted to strengthen the control of tobacco.%目的:分析杭州市归因于吸烟的疾病负担,为制定控烟策略提供依据。方法利用文献报道的吸烟相关疾病危险度指标及杭州市2013年人口学数据、死因监测数据、医疗保险信息系统吸烟相关疾病费用等资料,计算归因于吸烟的直接医疗经济负担和间接经济负担。主要指标包括伤残调整寿命年(DALY)、直接医疗经济负担、生产年损失、早死间接经济损失、吸烟致病成本和被动吸烟成本等。结果2013年杭州市6个主城区归因于吸烟的每千人 DALY 为8.11人年,归因于吸烟的直接医疗经济负担为111817.41万元

  9. The Disposition of Aquatic Plants in Hangzhou West Lake Scenic Area%杭州西湖风景区水生植物配置



    通过实地调查,杭州西湖风景区内应用的水生植物有74种。在现状调查的基础上,本文探讨了西湖风景区不同水体形式下水生植物的配置模式,并就存在的问题进行了讨论,同时提出对策。%According to the field investigation, there are 74 species of aquatic plants applied in Hangzhou West Lake Scenic Area. Based on the status survey, this paper discusses the dispositions of aquatic plants in different Water forms, and analyses the existing prob-lems,then offers solutions.

  10. Experience Marketing Strategies of Hangzhou World Leisure Expo Garden%杭州世界休闲博览园的体验营销策略研究



    体验营销是以顾客为中心,并提供有价值体验过程的营销活动。杭州世界休闲博览园将休闲与体验两者紧密结合,通过丰富的感官营销、情感营销、思考营销、行动营销、关联营销策略的完善,发展成为一个国际性的游乐世界、休闲王国、购物天堂。%Experience marketing is one of marketing activities of customer orientation and offers value experience process.Hangzhou World Leisure Expo Garden combines leisure and experience together,and grows intoa global play world,leisure kingdom and shopping paradise through the development of sense,feeling,thinking,action and related marketing strategies.

  11. 杭州西湖生态系统服务价值评估%Evaluation on ecosystem service value of West Lake in Hangzhou

    徐洪; 赵鹏大; 武俊梅; 李新宁; 吴振斌


    Value of material production,water conservation,water quality purification,leisure tourism,culture/research/education,energy absorbed by transpiration,and habitat,as well as existing value,option value,and heritage value of West Lake in Hangzhou were evaluated by monetization.This analysis was based on market price method,shadow engineering method,cost of pollution prevention and control method,travel cost method,results reference method,benefits substitution method,contingent valuation method,The results shown that the total ecosystem services value of West Lake in Hangzhou was 73 576.247 million yuan/a,which was equal to 10.5% of gross national product in Hangzhou.The value of leisure tourism (73 157.602 million yuan/a) was the largest of the 10 evaluation indicators,accounting for 99.431% of the total ecosystem services value,followed by the value of absorbed by transpiration (138.642 million yuan/a),accounting for 0.188%.Ecosystem services function of West Lake in Hangzhou is mostly leisure tourism.The accounting of its economic value is beneficial to construct economic account of urban ecological,and can provide scientific reference for the sustainable development of the city.%基于市场价格法、影子工程法、污染防治成本法、旅行费用法、成果参照法、等效益替代法和条件价值法等方法,对杭州西湖物质生产、涵养水源、水质净化、休闲旅游、文化科研教育、蒸腾吸热、栖息地、存在价值、选择价值和遗产价值等进行货币化评估.计算得杭州西湖生态系统服务总价值为7 357 624.7万元/a,是杭州市国民生产总值的10.5%.其中休闲旅游价值量最大(7 315 760.2万元/a),占生态系统服务总价值的99.431%,其次是蒸腾吸热价值(13 864.2万元/a),占0.188%.杭州西湖的生态系统服务功能主要是休闲旅游,其经济价值的核算有利于城市生态经济账户的构建,为城市的可持续发展提供科学参考.

  12. 杭州市2009年科技成果统计评价分析%Statistical Evaluation of the Scientific and Technological Achievementsin Hangzhou,2009

    钱种明; 沈悦林


    In this article,we reviewed the registrations of the scientific and technological achievements in Hangzhou in the year of 2009,and analyzed characteristics of these achievements.By examining the existing problems,proposals for improvement were made on aspects including system construction, models of management, communication platform, and results applications etc.%回顾了杭州市科技成果登记工作,分析了2009年科技成果特点,对存在问题进行了思考,并从制度建设、管理模式、交流平台、成果应用等方面提出了建议.

  13. Characterization of chemical compositions in size-segregated atmospheric particles during severe haze episodes in three mega-cities of China

    Wang, Jiao; Zhang, Jin-sheng; Liu, Ze-jun; Wu, Jian-hui; Zhang, Yu-fen; Han, Su-qin; Zheng, Xian-jue; Zhou, Lai-dong; Feng, Yin-chang; Zhu, Tan


    To investigate the characterization of chemical compositions in size-segregated particles during severe haze pollution episodes in different regions of China, a campaign was conducted in Tianjin, Hangzhou and Chengdu. Size-segregated particles were collected with eight-stage Anderson cascade impactor in these cities in winter respectively. Ten major compositions of particles including (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2 +, Ca2 +, Cl-, NO3-, SO42 -, OC and EC) were analyzed. A similar bimodal distribution of particles was found between northern and southern cities peaked at 0.7-2.1 and 9.0-10.0 μm. OC, EC, SO42 -, NO3-, Cl- and NH4+ were the major chemical compositions of fine-mode particles, whereas OC, EC, SO42 -, NO3- and Ca2 + were the major compositions of coarse-mode particles. In the three cities, Cl-, SO42 -, NO3-, NH4+ and K+ of all compositions were unimodal distributions peaked at 0.7-2.1 μm. Different sources to particles in the three cities were inferred based on the size distribution characteristics of chemical compositions. For Tianjin, the influence of sea salt was greater to Hangzhou and Chengdu based on the concentrations and distributions of Na+ and the Cl-. Fine-mode Cl- and SO42 - were highest in Tianjin, meaning the greater contribution of coal burning to particles during severe pollution. For Hangzhou, the NO3- concentration was higher than Tianjin and Chengdu. Contribution of nitrate to PM was higher than that of sulfate. For Chengdu, carbonaceous species contributed mostly to fine particles. However, sulfate and nitrate contributed mostly to fine particles in Tianjin and Hangzhou. The contributions of EC and Ca2 + to coarse-mode particles was much higher than that in other cities, implying the greater influence of soil particles, construction dust or falling dust to PM in Chengdu. In addition, there were greater emission source of NH4+ in Chengdu. Northwest, west and southeast were the major transport pathways of air masses for Tianjin, Hangzhou and

  14. 杭州市伏、秋旱灾害风险区划%Risk Divisions of Summer and Autumn Drought Disaster in Hangzhou City

    陈鑫; 缪启龙; 俞布; 沈伟风; 宋健


    Based on the 1959-2010 pr ecipitation data combined with the natural environment and the society economic factors of Hangzhou city, a regional drought risk disaster assessment model including disaster environment factor, disaster prevention and mitigation disaster capacity, was built up to analyze disaster prevention ability. By using the ArcGIS spatial analysis technology, combined with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, the autumn drought disaster risk zoning based on the 100 m ×100 m evaluation grid as the basic unit of Hangzhou city was established. The results show that, in the northwest of Chun'an, central and southern Jiande, central Tonglu, southern Fuyang, eastern Lin'an and Yuhang and the main urban areas, summer and autumn drought disaster presented higher risk.%根据杭州市1959-2010年降水资料、自然环境以及社会经济要素,综合致灾因子、孕灾环境、承灾环境及防灾减灾能力,构建区域干旱灾害风险评价模型。通过ArcGIS空间分析技术结合模糊综合评价法,编制以100 m×100 m栅格为基本评价单元的杭州市伏、秋旱灾害风险区划图。区划结果表明,淳安西北部、建德中南部、桐庐中部、富阳南部、临安东部以及余杭、主城区,伏旱、秋旱灾害风险均较高。

  15. Urban Infrastructure Financing and Delivery in India and China

    Darshini Mahadevia


    This comparison is not restricted to Mumbai and Shanghai but also to Bangalore and Hangzhou, Delhi and Beijing and so on. The Chinese and Indian economies are expected to be the growth engines of the global economy. In this process cities are expected to play an important role, through their transformation into "World Class" cities, a term now doing rounds in the policy circles in Mumbai, to be achieved through massive infrastructure investments made in them. In China, this has been possible because of the decentralized administrative and fiscal system in China. In contrast, in India, the system of urban infrastructure is currently evolving and making a transition from a centralized to a decentralized system. This paper: (i) compares the Chinese and Indian financial systems to explain differences in the quantum of funds available in cities in both countries; (ii) looks at urban responsibility allocations in terms of institutions; and (iii) compares capital investments made by one city each in the two countries, in Beijing (China) and in Mumbai (India).

  16. 基于DEA方法的杭州城市旅游用地效率评价研究∗%Research on Efficiency of Urban Tourism Land of Hangzhou Based on the Data Envelopment Analysis



    In this paper,the effectiveness of the input-output efficiency of Hangzhou city tourism land from 2005 to 2012 is evalu-ated with the DAE method.The economic efficiency of its tourism land is highest,followed by eco-efficiency and social efficiency, the overall characteristics tend effectiveness.For the non-validity of its urban tourism land,it mostly relies on the input redundan-cy,which has a direct relationship with the preliminary stage in Hangzhou of new tourism development plan.By evaluating the ef-ficiency of urban tourism land of Hangzhou Tourism(2005-2012),the corresponding suggestions about the urban tourism develop-ment and the investment of tourism land are provided to promote the sustainable utilization of urban tourism land in Hangzhou.%以 DEA 为方法,对杭州2005-2012年城市旅游用地效率投入产出有效性进行评价,其旅游用地经济效率最高,其次为生态效率、社会效率,总体特征趋于有效性。针对旅游用地非有效性,分析影响有效性的主要原因为投入冗余,这与杭州市处于旅游发展新规划初级阶段有着直接的关系。通过对杭州2005-2012年城市旅游用地效率评价,为杭州城市旅游发展及旅游用地的投入提供了一定的建议,以期促进杭州城市旅游用地的可持续发展。

  17. Diversity of bird communities in southern Hangzhou Bay and the Qiantang River estuary and their responses to reclamation of intertidal mudflats

    Keyi Jiang


    Full Text Available Bird communities were surveyed in southern Hangzhou Bay and the Qiantang River estuary from November 2008 to September 2011. A total of 220 bird species belonging to 16 orders and 52 families were recorded, of which, 173 (78.6% were migrants and 24 were listed as state key protected wildlife grade I or II. The composition and diversity of bird communities in eight habitat types were compared using the G-F index and the Jaccard index. Ninety-five species (43.2% were observed in the ponds located in Cixi Wetland Centre with common reed (Phragmites australis marshes, 93 species (42.3% in the coastal woodland, and 78 species (35.5% in intertidal mudflats and coastal reservoirs. About 82.5% of the Charadriiformes species were recorded in intertidal mudflats; 69.2% of the Anatidae species in coastal reservoirs, and 73.4% of the Passeriformes species in the coastal woodland which provides the breeding habitat for the Ardeidae birds. Compared with intertidal mudflats, the highest value of the Jaccard index was obtained for bird communities in the newly reclaimed but undeveloped areas (0.56, followed by coastal reservoirs (0.34 and ponds located in Cixi Wetland Centre with common reed marshes (0.30. For the whole bird community, the highest value of G-F index was obtained in coastal reservoirs and coastal woodland, whereas the lowest value was recorded in the intertidal mudflats. However, newly reclaimed but undeveloped sites had the highest value of G-F index for the waterbird community, followed by coastal reservoirs and intertidal mudflats. Our results indicate that suitable habitat availability and human disturbance are the main factors influencing the spatial distribution of bird communities in the Hangzhou Bay and the Qiantang River estuary. The most serious human disturbance in this region was found to be coastal reclamation. Thus, diversity of local avian communities in the Hangzhou Bay and the Qiantang River estuary could increase if moderate

  18. Study of the Tourism Ecological Security Assessment for Hangzhou%杭州市旅游生态安全评价研究



    Tourism ecological security is the important premise of tourism activities, which has a certain practical significance to tourist ecological security evaluation. According to the ecological footprint model and tourism contribution factor, it transforms regional ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity into tourism ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity, so as to get travel ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity per capita. Comparing their ratio and difference, it determines tourism ecological surplus situation and ecological safety. Taking Hangzhou an empirical case, in 2013, its tourism ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity per capita were 0.058627809hm2/person and 0.007362505hm2/person. Ecological deficit was 0.051265304hm2/person. Travel safety is in the deterioration of which the TVC is greater than 1. Hangzhou tourism ecological security problems are worthy of attention.%旅游地生态安全是开展旅游活动的重要前提,对旅游地生态安全评价具有一定的现实意义。根据生态足迹模型,凭借旅游贡献率因子,将区域生态足迹和生态承载力转换为旅游生态足迹和旅游生态承载力,从而获得人均旅游生态足迹和人均旅游生态承载力,对比两者差值和比值,确定旅游生态盈余情况和旅游生态安全度。以杭州市为实证研究,2013年杭州市人均旅游生态足迹和人均旅游生态承载力分别为0.058627809hm2/人和0.007362505hm2/人,生态赤字0.051265304hm2/人,旅游安全度处于安全值大于1的恶化状态,杭州市旅游生态安全问题值得重视。

  19. [Relations between attitude and practice of smoking and the training program regarding tobacco control among community medical staff members in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province].

    Liu, Qing-Min; Ren, Yan-Jun; Cao, Cheng-Jian; Liu, Bing; Lv, Jun; Li, Li-Ming


    To investigate the relations between training and both the attitude and practice on smoking control among community medical staff members in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province. Three representative districts including Xiacheng, Gongshu and Westlake were chosen from Hangzhou city. Questionnaire survey was applied to collect information from the related community medical staff members. The survey mainly contained three aspects: knowledge, attitude and practice regarding smoking control involved in the community medical activities. Availability and application of the resources on smoking cessation were also studied. Logistic regression analysis was applied to explore the factors associated with the smoking control training programs. Differences of rates between groups were assessed with chi-square statistics. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to study the relationships among knowledge, attitude and practice related to smoking control programs, targeted to the community medical staff members. Eight hundred forty-six community medical workers were involved. Sixty-five percent of the community medical staff members had learned related knowledge on smoking control. Proportion of the community medical staff who had taken lessons on smoking control with 3-10 working years was 1.77 times more than the ones with experience less than two years (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.25-2.51). Eighty-eight point seven percent of the medical staff who had received smoking control training programs were identified with the consciousness that they should advise the patients to quit smoking, comparing to the proportion 81.60% (Z=-2.87, P=0.00) in the control group. In terms of the practice regarding smoking control, data showed that 21.62% of the medical staff who had received smoking control training programs would provide 'how to quit smoking' to more than 90% of the smoking patients, while the proportion in the control group was 10.65% (Z = -5.68, P = 0.00). The use of drugs, traditional Chinese medicine

  20. Urban Traffic Congestion Distribution Characteristics of Hangzhou%杭州市交通拥堵路网分布特征研究

    侯树展; 李燕; 毛燕武


    通过对杭州市近3年交通拥堵路段分布数据的统计分析,提出以交通拥堵概率作为衡量路段交通拥堵发生频率的指标。按照工作日、节假日、周六日等3类日期分别对杭州交通拥堵路段的分布情况进行了定量描述;以10等阶拥堵概率统计结果为基础,对不同拥堵概率路段占路网的比例及分布位置进行了探讨。提出当前杭州市的交通拥堵特征主要表现为晚比早堵、南比北堵,以时间上的偶发性拥堵和地点上的点拥堵为主,并提出了拥堵概率相对较大的路段、交叉口等的分布范围,可以为后续重点突破、全面疏导地治理杭州市交通拥堵提供决策支持。%Traffic congestion road data from 2012 to 2015 of Hangzhou was used for statistical analysis.The traffic congestion probability was proposed to indicate the frequency of traffic congestion on the urban streets in the data period.All days of the data were grouped into three categories ,such as Workday ,Holiday and Weekend.Based on the classifi-cation of days ,the traffic congestion distribution was analyzed in a quantitative manner.And traffic congestion probability was divided every 10 percent.The rule of correspondence was studied between congestion probability and congestion road sections'length proportion to the highway network length.The main congested road sections were listed by morning peak , evening peak for Workday ,Holiday and Weekend.On Hangzhou urban streets ,the evening traffic congestion is worse than morning ,southern part worse than northern part of the city.And the main congestion always happened occasionally and probably at intersections and other area of population aggregation.

  1. 高职院校城镇规划专业学科发展及其教学模式研究——以杭州科技职业技术学院为例进行探讨%The Research on Subject-specific Development and Educational Model of Urban Planning on Higher Vocational College: The Discussion Based on HangZhou Polytechnic



    To take Hangzhou Polytechnic for instance. the subject-specific development and educational model of urban planning on higher vocational college in China were researched. Corresponding teaching reform program was proposed after that the localization of subject and taking the distinctive development way had been defined. Besides. the educational model which was suitable for the development of future urban planning major in higher vocational college was proposed based on teaching practices of author own.%该文以杭州科技职业技术学院为例对我国高等职业技术院校城镇规划专业的发展方向和教学模式进行了研究探讨,在明确专业定位、走特色化发展道路基础上提出了相应的教学改革方案,并通过自身教学实践提出了一套适宜未来高职院校城镇规划专业发展的教学模式.

  2. JPRS Report China


    Hangzhou, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen, this writer was able to talk with taxi drivers, hairdressers, waitresses , managers, and schoolteachers to gauge...which were crowded with simple wooden one-storey houses before the flooding. Fourty-three apartment buildings, with total floor space of 76,000...square meters have been constructed in the new city area. The total floor space of new buildings is now 3.57 million square meters, four times that




  4. Expanding China



    CHINA-Enabling A New Era of Changes paints a comprehensive and extremely up-to-date look at the current growth trends in China and examines ways to maintain this fast-paced growth for future generations.

  5. Community response to construction noise in three central cities of Zhejiang province, China.

    Liu, Yong; Xia, Bo; Cui, Caiyun; Skitmore, Martin


    As a common source of environmental noise in China and many developing countries worldwide, construction work provokes many complaints and deterioration in acoustic climate quality. This paper describes research to obtain an improved understanding of people's community response to, and evaluation of, construction noise in three central cities of Zhejiang province, China. This involved carrying out a social survey using standard questionnaires developed by the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN). A dose-response relationship model is established using a quadratic polynomial regression analysis based on construction noise exposure measurements from 40 construction sites in Hangzhou, Ningbo and Wenzhou. The results of the study indicate that the majority of people have a negative attitude to construction noise; the noise ranges between 60 dB and 80 dB (compared with 50 dB-70 dB traffic noise in Tianjin), with the percentage of highly annoyed people affected increasing from 15%-20% to 30%-40% over the range. There also different levels of annoyance depending on the time of day, and the location and activities of those affected. Other cultural differences are also apparent both between Ningbo/Wenzhou and the more urbane citizens of Hangzhou, and the Chinese people and their more noise-tolerant EU and Vietnam counterparts. The findings of this study provide a new perspective for the study of construction noise that can help local governments have an improved understanding of how residents react to construction noise for the purpose of selecting construction noise-mitigation projects and introducing construction noise-control regulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    谢旭; 俞存根; 周青松; 李德伟; 叶深; 郑基; 余求妹


    Based on the data of demersal fishes that collected by bottom trawl in the Hangzhou Bay,east China in May and October 2012,we used the catch rates as the index of fish resource and spatial distribution,and analyzed fish species composition,fauna characters,and quantitative distribution in the survey area.The results show:(1) 31 fish species were found and identified in spring and autumn,which belonged to 9 orders and 15 families.More species belonged to Sciaenidae and Gobiidae,and each has 5 species,accounting for 16.7%; followed by Engraulidae,who had 4 species,taking 13.3% of all the species.The dominant species in the bay were Lophiohobius ocellicauda,Harpodon nehereus,Coilia ectenes,and Collichthys lucidus.(2) In thermal adaptation,fishes in this area could be divided into three types,including warm-water species,warm-temperate,and cold-temperate species.The fishes were caught mainly belonged to warmtemperate species,followed by warm-water species,and only one species belonged to cold-temperate species.(3) In ecology habits,the fish species could be separated into three types,estuary species,coastal species,and offshore species.(4) Distribution of the catch rates showed that more fishes were caught at the top of the bay,i.e.mid-west of the survey sea area in spring,and fewer fishes were caught at the mouth of the bay.The opposite was happened in autumn.%采用底层拖网法,用渔获率作为鱼类资源数量分布的指标,进行了杭州湾调查海域2012年5月(春季)、10月(秋季)2个季节的鱼类种类组成、区系特点、数量分布等研究.结果表明:(1)杭州湾海域春、秋两季共获得并鉴定出的鱼类有31种,隶属于9目15科,其中以石首鱼科和(鰕)虎鱼科的种类为最多,各有5种,分别占总种数的16.7%;鳀科鱼类次之,有4种,占总种数的13.3%,优势种有睛尾蝌蚪(鰕)虎鱼、龙头鱼、刀鲚、棘头梅童鱼;(2)根据鱼类适温性可将该海域的鱼类分为暖

  7. 杭州市公立医院集团化发展现状分析与对策研究%Situation Analysis and Countermeasures of Public Hospitals Collectivize Development in Hangzhou

    陈卫强; 王菊红; 方健国; 薛亮


    Public hospitals' collectivize development in China has achieved certain progress, but for the tracking study of development of regional public hospitals collectivize. For example, Hangzhou is introduced by building cooperation group up, such as transverse joint and public hospital longitudinal. The basic situation of public hospital group development achievement and the existing problems are analyzed. Finally, some countermeasures and suggestions are put forward from two planes, which are the government and the hospital. It is suggested that the government functions of planning,input and super vision should be strengthened, such as clarifying government duty, exploring to establish muniapal hospital management council, and establishing performance and evaluation system innovative, etc. It is also proposed that the innovation of public hospitals should be taken into effect to quicken public hospitals' collectivize development, such as perfecting the management of group formulation, deepening the operation mechanism of public hospitals, and building special service brand, etc. Public hospitals' collectivize development is an important way of complying medical and health care reform, and developing by using market factors, etc.%我国公立医院集团化发展已取得了一定进展,但对区域性公立医院集团化发展缺乏阶段性的实证跟踪研究.以杭州市为例介绍了公立医院通过横向联合、纵向合作等方式组建集团的基本情况,对公立医院集团发展取得的成效和存在的问题进行了分析,最后从政府和医院两个层面提出对策建议.强化政府规划,投入监管职能,规范公立医院集团化发展.如明确政府职责探索建立市级医院管理委员会,创新建立债效评价体系等.发挥公立医院自主创新作用.加快公立医院集团化发展,如完善管理集团组建方式,深化集团医院运行机制改革,塑造独特服务品牌等.公立医院实施


    盛海燕; 韩轶才; 虞左明; 刘明亮; 何剑波; 张银龙


    In order to understand the water environment of reservoirs,an investigation was conducted on the water quality in 17 large and medium-scale reservoirs of Hangzhou City,China.The results showed that the water quality of those reservoirs were not optimistic.According to a single factor index,the water qualities of three reservoirs met Grade Ⅱ water standards,two reservoirs met Grade Ⅲ,two reservoirs met Grade Ⅳ,three reservoirs met Grade Ⅴ and seven reservoirs were worse than Grade Ⅴ.The specific index determining the classes was total nitrogen in all cases.According to trophic state index,in the wet season two reservoirs were oligotrophic,thirteen reservoirs were in mesotrophication and two reservoirs were light eutrophication; in the dry season sixteen reservoirs were in mesotrophication and one reservoirs was in moderate eutrophication.Total nitrogen and total phosphorus were the main factors affecting eutrophication.The results of cluster analysis showed that the seventeen reservoirs were divided into three categories.Qinshan and Fuchunjiang reservoirs were identified as a class for the bad water quality; Tongshan,Xiayuan,Fengshuling and Yanjia reservoirs located in the upstream region of Xinan River and Xinanjiang reservoir were identified as the second class for the good water quality; the remaining ten reservoirs were identified as the third class.The reservoirs located in mountainous region had the best water quality,reservoirs near the town followed and reservoirs located near the city and downstream city had bad water quality.Different regions and different types of reservoirs had different pollution reasons.For different reasons we should implement corresponding countermeasures to prevent and control reservoir pollution.%在2008年和2009年对杭州地区17个大中型水库进行了调查.结果表明:杭州地区大中型水库水质不容乐观,按照单因子指标评价法,只有3个水库符合Ⅱ类水体标准,2个

  9. Hangzhou Hosts Third National Collegiate Student Art Festival%全国第三届大学生艺术展演活动在杭州开幕



    Hangzhou, the capital city of Zhejiang Province, hosted the 3rd National Collegiate Student Art Festival from February 7 through 13,2012. Thirty-one delegations representing provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions across the country spent the 6 days showing 172 programs in vocal art, musical instrument, dance, and theater. Also held during the 6-day gala were such events as an art exhibition and art education forum. This picture shows a performance staged by college students from Hebei Province at the opening ceremony of the art festival. (Text and photograph by Ju Huanzong)%2012年2月7日,以“青春·使命”为主题的全国第三届大学生艺术展演活动在杭州开幕。来自全国各省、市、自治区的31个代表团在6天的时间里参加声乐、器乐、舞蹈和戏剧4个项目共172个节目的现场展演。活动期间还举办了艺术作品展览、高校艺术教育论文报告会等,图为河北省代表团的大学生在开幕式上表演。

  10. Studies on Material Cycling in Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest Ecosystem in Hangzhou:Ⅱ.Dynamics and Decomposition Characteristics of Litter


    Through the long-term plot study on the litter and its decomposition in the evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem in Hangzhou for more than two years,it was resulted that the annual litter production was 5.85 t ha-1,most of which was the fallen leave (79.5 percent) and the withered branches and fruits were far less (7.1 and 13.4 percents respectively).The dynamics of the fallen litter was shown as a curve of two-peak pattern which appeared in April and September each year.The half-life of the litter was 1.59 years.The decay rate of the litter attenuted as an exponential function.The annual amount of the nutrient returned to the ground through the litter was as large as 223.69kg ha-1.The total current amount of the litter on the ground was 7.47t ha-1.The decay rate in the first half of a year was 45.18 percent.This ecosystem remained in the stage of litter increasing with time.

  11. On Quoting Allusions Made by Sushi in His Poem Writing in Hangzhou%苏轼初次仕杭词用典分析



    Sushi quoted allusions many times in his 36 poems which are written in Hangzhou .As far as the content of allusions are concerned , it indicated that Sushi cared about the life of common people .And his writing style has changed from the imperial court style to the folk one .As for the writing skills Sushi used , they embodied his ability to control the allusions .%苏轼初次外放到杭州所作的36首词,多处使用典故,且典故遍布经、史、子、集。从典故的内容来看,可以看出苏轼外表洒脱而心系百姓,并且已经开始由朝廷走向民间;从用典技巧来看,词中灵活地运用了多种用典手法,这无疑体现了苏轼娴熟的典故驾驭能力。

  12. Studies on Material Cycling in Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest Ecosystem in Hangzhou:Ⅳ.Uptake,Storage and Return of S by Vegetation


    The work was carried out to study the uptake,storage and return of S in the evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem of Hangzhou in Zhejiang Province,based on the annuam increments of plants and Scontents per unit weight plant organs as well as the measured data about the biological return and decomposition.Results showed that the vegetation layer had an annual S uptake of 55.02kg ha-1,which accounted for 15.8% of the total S storage in the vegetation layer,The S uptake was the highest in the arbor layer but the lowest in the shrub layer,the biological return of S was 50% higher than the biological uptake,indicating the relatively high cycling effciency of S.Nevertheless,S had a relatively low rate opf biological release,so that S trended to accumulate in the litter layer,S taken up by plants each year came mostly from precipitation and the reserve of soil.

  13. The Application of MPLS VPN in Hangzhou-Ningbo Railway%MPLS VPN在杭甬客专铁路中的应用



    With the development of the data networks of high speed railway,MPLS(Multiprotocol Label Switch)technology has been adopted to implement the plan of VPN.It provides QOS(Quality of Service) and Grade of Service(GOS) for various services carried by railway data networks.Based on Hangzhou-Ningbo Passenger Dedicated Line,applications of MPLSVPN technology in high-speed railway communication projects will be involved in this paper.%随着高速铁路数据网的发展,近年来提出的采用MPLS(Multiprotocol Label Switch,多协议标记交换)技术实现VPN的方案,为铁路数据网承载的各类业务提供服务质量保证和服务等级,并具有安全性高,扩展性强的特点。结合杭甬客专工程实例,对MPLS VPN技术在高速铁路通信工程中的应用加以探讨。

  14. Research on construction of smart urban management in Hangzhou%杭州“智慧城管”建设探究

    李圣权; 齐韬; 河江


    “智慧城管”是一项系统工程、惠民工程,是智慧城市建设的重要组成部分。建设“智慧城管”是全面建设小康社会、加强社会管理、实施新型城市化战略的要求。文章探讨了杭州“智慧城管”建设的战略定位,分析了杭州推进“智慧城管”建设的核心要素,以利于推动杭州“智慧城管”的进一步发展。%As a systematic project and a people-benefit project, “Smart Urban Management” plays an important part in the construction of Smart City. The“Smart Urban Management”construction meets the requirements of building a well-off society in an all-round way, strengthening social management and implementing new urbanization strategy. The strategic positioning of Hangzhou“Smart Urban Management”construction is discussed, and the key element to promote the construction is analyzed, to push forward the further development of Smart Urban Management in Hangzhou.

  15. Identifying Potential Norovirus Epidemics in China via Internet Surveillance

    Chen, Bin; Jiang, Tao; Cai, Gaofeng; Jiang, Zhenggang; Chen, Yongdi; Wang, Zhengting; Gu, Hua; Chai, Chengliang


    Background Norovirus is a common virus that causes acute gastroenteritis worldwide, but a monitoring system for norovirus is unavailable in China. Objective We aimed to identify norovirus epidemics through Internet surveillance and construct an appropriate model to predict potential norovirus infections. Methods The norovirus-related data of a selected outbreak in Jiaxing Municipality, Zhejiang Province of China, in 2014 were collected from immediate epidemiological investigation, and the Internet search volume, as indicated by the Baidu Index, was acquired from the Baidu search engine. All correlated search keywords in relation to norovirus were captured, screened, and composited to establish the composite Baidu Index at different time lags by Spearman rank correlation. The optimal model was chosen and possibly predicted maps in Zhejiang Province were presented by ArcGIS software. Results The combination of two vital keywords at a time lag of 1 day was ultimately identified as optimal (ρ=.924, Ptimes during the outbreak. In addition to Jiaxing Municipality, Hangzhou Municipality might have had some potential epidemics in the study time from the predicted model. Conclusions Although there are limitations with early warning and unavoidable biases, Internet surveillance may be still useful for the monitoring of norovirus epidemics when a monitoring system is unavailable. PMID:28790023



    <正>20141243Chen Ge(Hangzhou Research Institute of Petroleum Geology,PetroChina,Hangzhou 310023,China);Si Chunsong Study on Sedimentary Numerical Simulation Method of Fan Delta Sand Body(Journal of Geology,

  17. Systems Biology Brings Life Sciences Closer--Report on the China-UK Systems Biology Workshop 2005

    Ming Chen


    @@ The China-UK Systems Biology Workshop 2005 was held during June 20-21 in the National Science Park of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. It was organized by the Institute of Bioinformatics, Zhejiang University, and was initiated by Prof. Dr. Jun Zhu (Zhejiang University) and Prof. Dr. John Findlay (University of Leeds, UK). The workshop was part of the program called UK-China Partners in Science, a one-year campaign that was initiated by the British government to explore more collaborations between UK and China on science and technology. It was attended also by a representative of this program, Mr.Frank Yuan, senior science & innovation officer. The idea of the workshop was to bring together experts with specialists in systems biology in order to promote the "natural partnership" between scientists from the two countries. The most important items of systems biology considered at the workshop were: (1) New technologies and advances in systems biology; (2) Research developments in genomics and proteomics; (3) New methodologies and software in computational biology; (4) Research collaboration on systems biology between China and UK.

  18. 杭州地区护理人员的患者安全文化水平调查及分析%Investigation and analysis on level of patient safety culture for nursing staff in Hangzhou

    国秀娣; 高凤; 李益民; 陆骏; 沈小玲


    目的 调查杭州地区护理人员的患者安全文化总体水平.方法 对杭州地区9家医院发放《医院护理人员患者安全文化测评问卷》,计算均值及条目的同意百分率.结果 收回有效调查问卷996份,经统计,护理人员的患者安全文化总体得分(4.00±0.47)分,属中上水平;各维度按得分由高到低排序为:单位安全的氛围,团队氛围,对管理的感受,对工作的满意度,对压力的认知.结论 杭州地区护理人员的患者安全文化整体水平较好,而护理人员的工作压力以及对工作的满意度仍有待加强.%Objective To investigate the general level of patient safety culture for nursing staff in Hangzhou. Method Give out Questionnaire on Patient Safety Culture for Nursing Staff of Hospital in 9 hospitals of Hangzhou. Calculate the average value and agreement percentage of all items. Result 996 valid questionnaires are received. The general score of level of patient safety culture for nursing staff is (4. 00 ±0. 47), which is above medium level. Dimensions ranking from high score to low are safety atmosphere of department, atmosphere of group, management feeling, satisfaction level on work and cognition on pressure. Conclusion Level of patient safety culture for nursing staff in Hangzhou is generally good. However, pressure and satisfaction level on work need to be improved.

  19. 杭州工会资助农民工上大学的实践与思考%The Practice and Thinking of the Hangzhou Trade Union Subsidizing the Migrant Workers to Go to the College

    徐根清; 沈水文; 俞立峰


    This paper explores the reality, feasibility and long-term significance of the trade union subsidizing migrant workers to raise the educational level and cultural quality around the practical of Hangzhou trade union subsidizing the migrant workers to go to college.%围绕杭州工会资助农民工上大学的实践,探索工会资助农民工提升学历层次和文化素质的现实性、可行性和长远意义.

  20. Design of supports for asymmetric extra-deep foundation pit of financial block project in Qianjiang CBD of Hangzhou%杭州钱江新城金融地块不对称超深基坑支护设计研究

    杨学林; 曹国强; 周平槐


    工程地处浙江省杭州市钱江新城内,与钱塘江相距不足百米,属高水位强渗透性地基。地上由4幢独立的高层塔楼及其裙房组成,分属4家银行金融单位,地面以下为整体地下室,其中华融和工行大楼下部为3层地下室,金融大厦和浙商银行大楼下部分别为4层和5层地下室。深基坑支护工程按整体基坑考虑,开挖深度17.0~24.0 m不等,核心筒部位最大挖深约28.5 m。详细介绍了基坑工程概况和特点、围护措施和设计方案、不同步施工条件下的开挖流程和拆撑与换撑措施、不对称开挖条件下的内力变形补充计算、深层地下承压水处理、基坑施工与现场监测等内容,可供类似工程设计参考。%The deep foundation pit is located in Qianjiang CBD of Hangzhou City and is less than 100 m away from the Qiantang River. It's well known as the high water level and strong permeability foundation. There are four dependent high-rise towers on the ground which belong to 4 bank finacial units respectively, and a large integral basement consists of three parts, three-story basement under the towers of Huarong and ICBC (Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Limited), four-story basement under the commercial tower and five-story basement under the tower of China Zhejiang Bank Co., Ltd. The excavation depth is in the range of 17.0~24.0 m, and the maximum depth is approximately 28.5m in the core tube. In addition, the overview and features, retaining schemes, excavation process under the conditions of asynchronic construction, measures of dismantling and replacing support, analysis of the internal force and deformation caused by asymmetric excavation, treatment of deep confined water and monitoring results are introduced.

  1. 杭州市售婴幼儿食品营养标签调查%Nutrition labeling of infant and toddler food in Hangzhou city

    刘淼; 任艳军; 余灿清; 吕筠; 李立明; 王胜锋; 陈勇; 洪志恒; 孙点剑一; 杜宇坤; 苏萌; 杨雅平; 刘庆敏


    Objective To investigate the nutrition labeling status of infant and toddler foods sold in Hangzhou city. Methods A survey on nutrition label and the normative judgment of infant and toddler food was carried out in one big supermarket in Hangzhou using a pre-designed questionnaire. Results A total of 253 kinds of infant and toddler food were investigated. The number of food with nutrition labeling for nutrition facts,nutrition claim and nutrition function claim were 250(98. 8% ) ,241 (95. 3% ), and 113 (44. 7% ), respectively. The nutrition element with relative higher claim rate were energy(100%) ,carbonhydrate(65. 2% ),protein(89. 2% ),fat(96. 8% ) .vitamin Bl(84. 8% ) .vitamin A(83. 6%) ,iorn (88. 8% ) ,and zinc(85. 2% ) .respectively,for 250 food lables surveyed. There were 739 nutrition claims and 339 function claims. The normative judgement showed claims with inconsistent words. Conclusion The nutrition labeling rate of infant and toddler food was high,but the normalization was poor. It's necessary to strengthen the normative part for consumers to choose healthy infant and toddler food more conveniently.%目的 了解浙江省杭州市售婴幼儿食品营养标签标示现状并分析存在的问题.方法 采用自行设计的食品标签评价表,抄录杭州市世纪联华超市庆春路店内全部婴幼儿食品营养标签并判断标签标示内容的规范性.结果 共调查婴幼儿食品253种,标示营养成分表、营养声称、营养成分功能声称的分别有250(98.8%)、241(95.3%)、113种(44.7%);标示率较高的营养成分是能量、碳水化合物、蛋白质、脂肪、维生素B1、维生素A、铁、锌,标示率分别为100.0% (250/250)、95.2% (238/250)、89.2%(223/250)、96.8% (242/250)、84.8% (212/250)、83.6% (209/250)、88.8%(222/250)、85.2%(213/250);共出现739条营养声称,出现频数较多的是益生元/菌13.3% (98/739)、花生四烯酸11.5%(85/739)、胆碱9.3% (69/739)

  2. 杭州城市绿地土壤肥力质量评价%Soil Fertility Quality Assessment for Urban Green Space in Hangzhou City



    为给杭州市绿地土壤的管理和改良提供理论依据,促进生态城市的可持续发展,分析了杭州市城市绿地土壤的理化性质,并对绿地土壤质量进行了综合评价.结果表明,道路绿地土壤容重最高为1.46 g/cm3,街头绿地土壤容重最低为1.31 g/cm3;绿地土壤整体呈碱性;速效磷、速效钾、全氮和有机质整体处于偏低水平;综合肥力指数为1.11~1.46,处于中等水平.%Soil physicochemical properties and quality assessment were studied to provide a theoretical reference for management and improvement of urban green space soil in Hangzhou City and promote the sustainable development of ecological city. The results showed that the road green space soil bulk density was the highest of 1. 46 g/cm3. The street greenbelt was the lowest for 1. 31 g/cm3. Urban green space soil was alkaline soil in general. Overall, it was at a low level for the available phosphorus, available potassium,total nitrogen and organic matter; Integrated fertility index was in the middle level between 1.11 - 1.46.

  3. 杭州湾南岸沿海防护林的防护效应%Protective Effect of Coastal Protection Forest along South Shore of Hangzhou Bay

    李文华; 周和锋; 邵学新; 吴明; 梁威; 房聪玲


    To analyze the protective effect of coastal protection forest along south shore of Hangzhou bay,the climatic factors including wind speed,temperature relative humidity were investigated at different observation points inside and outside the coastal protection forest.Result shows that coastal protection forest possesses obvious windbreak effect;the minimum wind speed is in internal woodland;the overall trend of wind speed is a parabolic,firstly wind speed decreases markedly;the farther from the forest,the weaker the role for weakened-wind-power is;wind reduces wind speed variation amplitude decreases due to the role of shelterbelts;the windbreak also can adjust regional microclimate by reducing local air temperature and increasing air relative humidity;it has great meaning on the coastal ecological environment.%为研究杭州湾南岸沿海防护林的防护效应,对沿海防护林林内外的风速、气温和相对湿度进行了布点测量。结果表明,沿海防护林对于风速有明显的减弱作用,风速最小值处于林带中央位置;风速减弱的整体趋势呈抛物线状,在林带作用下先减弱,离林带越远,这种减弱风力的作用越弱;经过防护林的作用,风力减小且风速变化幅度也减小;防护林可以调节区域小气候,防护林林内气温相对降低,相对湿度相对增加,对沿海生态环境有重要意义。

  4. China Emerging


    has largely masked latent social ills, internal problems, and tenuous governance behind its supersonic growth. The prospects of a failed China are...In 1992, China enacted an internal law on territorial sea and contiguous zone, which claims Chinese sovereignty over all islands that fell within an even stronger future. Economic growth has fueled huge modernization efforts across Chinese industry as well as its military. As China

  5. LUO Yangyang1, HUANG Qi2, FENG Xiaohong2. 1 The First Clinical College, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou(310000), China; 2 Department of Endocrinology, Zhejiang Chinese Medical Hospital, Hangzhou(310000), China%人参皂苷对波动性高血糖模型大鼠动脉HO-1、γ-GCS表达的影响

    骆阳阳; 黄琦; 冯小红


    目的:观察人参皂苷对波动性高血糖模型大鼠动脉血红素氧合酶-1(HO-1)、γ-谷氨酰半胱氨酸合成酶(γ-GCS)表达的影响。方法将48只雄性SD大鼠随机分成正常对照组(n=8)和糖尿病模型组(n=40)。高脂饲料喂养糖尿病模型组大鼠2周后用小剂量链脲佐菌素(STZ)诱导建立糖尿病大鼠模型,之后随机分为稳定性高糖组(n=8)和波动性高糖组(n=32),波动性高糖组错时注射葡萄糖、胰岛素制备血糖波动大鼠模型。2周后,将波动性高糖组大鼠随机分为人参皂苷低剂量组[14mg/(kg·d)]、人参皂苷中剂量组[28mg/(kg·d)]、人参皂苷高剂量组[56mg/(kg·d)]及波动性高糖空白组,每组8只,予人参皂苷低、中、高剂量干预相对应的模型组8周。实验结束后取大鼠动脉组织,采用Rt-PCR、Western blot测定HO-1、γ-GCS mRNA及蛋白表达。结果与正常对照组比较,糖尿病模型组HO-1、γ-GCS mRNA及蛋白表达明显增加(均P<0.05);与稳定性高糖组比较,波动性高糖空白组、人参皂苷给药组(低、中、高)HO-1、γ-GCS mRNA表达均明显增加[(19.66±1.20,15.53±0.87),(21.72±2.27,18.85±1.93),(23.82±0.50,21.65±2.17),(25.90±1.13,26.30±1.68)比(17.30±0.56,12.50±0.97),均P<0.05],蛋白表达量均明显增加[(64.78±0.25,67.21±0.68),(77.34±0.29,83.48±0.43),(82.65±0.29,94.39±0.22),(92.71±0.20,107.73±1.28)比(63.28±0.29,59.20±0.66),均P<0.05];与波动性高糖空白组比较,人参皂苷给药组(低、中、高)HO-1、γ-GCS mRNA表达均明显增加[(21.72±2.27,18.85±1.93),(23.82±0.50,21.65±2.17),(25.90±1.13,26.30±1.68)比(19.66±1.20,15.53±0.87,均P<0.05],蛋白表达量均明显增加[(77.34±0.29,83.48±0.43),(82.65±0.29,94.39±0.22),(92.71±0.20,107.73±1.28)比(64.78±0.25,67.21±0.68),均P<0.05];与人参皂苷低剂量组比较,人参皂苷中、高剂量组HO-1、γ-GCS mRNA表达明显增加[(23.82±0.50,21.65±2.17),(25.90±1.13,26.30±1.68)比(21.72±2.27,18.85±1.93),均 P<0.05],蛋白表达量明显增加[(82.65±0.29,94.39±0.22),(92.71±0.20,107.73±1.28)比(77.34±0.29,83.48±0.43),P<0.05];与人参皂苷中剂量组比较,人参皂苷高剂量组HO-1、γ-GCS mRNA表达明显增加[(25.90±1.13,26.30±1.68)比(23.82±0.50,21.65±2.17),均 P<0.05],蛋白表达明显增加[(92.71±0.20,107.73±1.28)比(82.65±0.29,94.39±0.22),均P<0.05]。结论人参皂苷可增加波动性高血糖模型大鼠HO-1、γ-GCS mRNA及蛋白表达水平,减轻血管内皮损伤,可能降低波动性高血糖大鼠机体的氧化应激水平,提高抗氧化能力,对波动性高血糖所导致的动脉病变有一定保护作用。%Objective To investigate the effects of ginsenoside on arterial hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and γ-glu-tamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) expression of rats with fluctuating hyperglycaemia. Methods Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into healthy group (n=8) and diabetic model group (n=40). The diabetic rat model was established by injection of a small dose of streptozotoein after feeding them with high-fat diet for 2 weeks, then they were randomly divided into sustained high glucose group (n=8) and fluctuating high glucose group (n=32). The model rats with high glucose fluctuation were developed by alternative intraperitoneal injection of insulin and glucose, then after 2 weeks were randomly divided into 4 groups: low [14mg/(kg·d)], mid-dle [28mg/(kg·d)], high [56mg/(kg·d)] dosage of ginsenoside treatment group and control group, with 8 rats in each group. After 8 weeks, the expression of HO-1 and γ-GCS mRNA and protein were measured and compared. Results Compared with healthy group, the levels of HO-1 and γ-GCS in diabetic model group were significantly increased (P<0.05); compared with sustained high glucose group, the levels of HO-1 and γ-GCS mRNA in fluc-tuating high glucose group and ginsenoside treatment groups (low, middle, high) were significantly increased [(19.66±1.20, 15.53±0.87), (21.72±2.27, 18.85±1.93), (23.82±0.50, 21.65±2.17), (25.90±1.13, 26.30±1.68)vs (17.30±0.56, 12.50±0.97); all P<0.05];the same increase was observed in protein levels [(64.78±0.25, 67.21±0.68), (77.34±0.29, 83.48±0.43), (82.65±0.29, 94.39±0.22), (92.71±0.20, 107.73±1.28) vs (63.28±0.29, 59.20±0.66); all P<0.05]. Compared with fluctuating high glucose group, the levels of HO-1 and γ-GCS mRNA in ginsenoside treatment groups (low, middle, high) were significantly increased [(21.72±2.27, 18.85±1.93), (23.82±0.50, 21.65± 2.17), (25.90 ±1.13, 26.30 ±1.68)vs (19.66 ±1.20, 15.53 ±0.87); all P<0.05], as well as the expression of protein [(77.34±0.29, 83.48±0.43), (82.65±0.29, 94.39±0.22), (92.71±0.20, 107.73±1.28)vs(64.78±0.2, 67.21±0.68); all P<0.05]. Compared with low-dose ginsenoside group, middle-dose and high-dose ginsenoside groups had higher levels of HO-1 and γ-GCS mRNA [(23.82±0.50, 21.65±2.17), (25.90±1.13, 26.30±1.68)vs(21.72±2.27, 18.85±1.93); all P<0.05] and protein [(82.65±0.29, 94.39±0.22), (92.71±0.20, 107.73±1.28)vs(77.34±0.29, 83.48±0.43); all P<0.05]. Compared with middle-dose ginsenoside group, high-dose ginsenoside group had increased levels of HO-1 and γ-GCS mRNA [(25.90±1.13, 26.30±1.68)vs (23.82±0.50, 21.65±2.17); P<0.05] and protein [(92.71±0.20, 107.73± 1.28) vs (82.65±0.29, 94.39±0.22); P<0.05]. Conclusion Ginsenoside can increase the level of HO-1 and γ-GCS both in mRNA and protein and reduce vascular endothelial damage. Therefore ginsenoside may reduce the ox-idative stress level of rats wiht high blood-glucose fluctuation, improve the antioxidant capacity, which could play a critical role in treating vascular disease caused by high blood-glucose fluctuation.

  6. Emergency Disposal to Trucks Loaded with Liqueifed Petroleum Gas Tanks from three Cases in Hangzhou%从杭州三起案例看满载液化石油气罐车的应急处置

    李文炜; 杜清; 何承代; 叶强; 姚吉


    This article provides a comprehensive description and analysis on handling of emergency events relating to trucks loaded with liquefied petroleum gas (“LPG”) tank occurred in Hangzhou in recent years. The leak-prone portions of LPG tank trucks in case of emergent accidents are analyzed according to the structure and mechanism of LPG tank trucks. Based on the handling experiences in Hangzhou, the article put forward the principles on classiifcation of LPG tank truck accidents, as well as appropriate emergency disposal rules. The basic principles on onsite handling of leakage are also provided in this article.%本文对近年来杭州发生的满载液化石油气槽罐车的应急事件处置进行了全面地描述和分析,着重根据LPG槽罐车的机构分析了在突发事件时液化石油气槽车易发生泄漏的部位。根据杭州的处置经验,对液化石油气(LPG)汽车槽罐车事故提出了分类划分的原则和相应的处置原则,总结了在泄漏现场处置的基本原则。

  7. 应建立商品房和保障房互通机制--以杭州市为例%A Discussion on the Mechanism of Establishing Commercial Housing and Affordable Housing--taking Hangzhou as an example



    To further improve social housing system and bulild the connection mechanism between commercial housing and affordable housing, is the critical way to keep the real estate market stable and healthy.The paper analyzes social housing system of Hangzhou city and put forward some suggestions about the connection mechanism between commercial housing and affordable housing in Hangzhou city.%进一步完善住房保障体系,建立商品房和保障房互通机制,是新形势下促进杭州房地产市场平稳健康发展的一项基础性、关键性工作。结合目前杭州市住房保障体系具体情况,借鉴其他城市在商品房和保障房上互通的实践,提出建立杭州市商品房和保障房互通机制的可行性建议。

  8. A Study of Social Media Communication Effect on Hangzhou's International Image%杭州国际形象的社交媒体传播效果研究

    刘曦; 何亦星



  9. A preliminary investigation on the cultivation of common river aquatic plants in Hangzhou%杭州常用河道水生植物的种植要点初探

    黄晓; 应求是; 陆瑛; 王雪芬; 卢毅军


    Through investigating typical green river aquatic plants of five water systems in Hangzhou city,the paper analyzes urban green river aquatic plants planning and maintenance problems. Combining with aquatic plants features and riverway environment,starting from aspects of planning time,planting methods,planting density and various plants planting,it summarizes applicable riverway aquatic plants planting points in Hangzhou,so as to create relative stable aquatic phytocoenosium.%通过对杭州五大水系典型河道绿地水生植物的调查,分析了城市河道绿地水生植物在种植和养护管理中存在的问题,并结合水生植物自身的特点和河道环境,从种植时间、种植方法、种植密度及不同植物混植等方面,总结了杭州河道适用水生植物的种植要点,从而营造相对稳定的水生植物群落。

  10. 杭州地区原料奶中嗜冷菌的分离鉴定%Isolation and identification species of psychrophilic microorganisms from raw milk provided by the pastures in Hangzhou district

    吕元; 叶兴乾


    以杭州地区牧场的原料奶为实验对象,对原料奶受嗜冷菌污染情况进行调研,并对其中的嗜冷菌进行分离鉴定,确定革兰氏阴性嗜冷菌占绝大部分,其中荧光假单胞菌、鲁氏不动杆菌、阪崎肠杆菌为优势嗜冷菌种,为进一步研究出一种快速检测原料奶嗜冷菌的方法奠定理论基础.%This paper focused on isolation and identification species of psychrophilic microorganisms from raw* milk provided by the pastures in Hangzhou district. Most of psychrophilic microorganisms in raw milk of Hangzhou district were Gram-negative psychrophilic microorganisms. Pseudomonas fluorescens^Acinetobacter lwofEi and Enterobacter sakazakii were dominant microorganisms. All of the resalts were the basis of set up a new rapid methods for dairy industry to detect the contamination of psychrophilic microorganisms in raw milk.

  11. China's Actions


    @@ China's National Development and Reform Commission publicized the country's policies and actions for addressing climate change in a report released on November 26,2009.The report highlighted China's efforts in cutting greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 by: (1)Rigorously checking the blind expansion of its energy-and pollution-intensive industries.

  12. China Intersections

    Barbara Harbin Cobb


    <正>I’m a few years older than the People’s Re- public of China, but hardly an infant compared to China’s vast history and culture. China and I have intersected at many points, and I want to tell you about a few of them.

  13. Feeding China


    China is expected to reap a bumper harvest this autumn, but grain security remains a long-term concern Despite sweeping natural disasters China is on track to achieve a bounti ful harvest for this autumn’s grain yield,which usually accounts fo three fourths of the annual output,said Minister of Agriculture Han Changfu.

  14. Effectiveness of SO2 emission control policy on power plants in the Yangtze River Delta, China-post-assessment of the 11th Five-Year Plan.

    Tan, Jiani; Fu, Joshua S; Huang, Kan; Yang, Cheng-En; Zhuang, Guoshun; Sun, Jian


    Facing the air pollution problems in China, emission control strategies have been implemented within the framework of national Five-Year Plan (FYP). According to the lack of post-assessment studies in the literature, this study assessed the effectiveness of the SO2 emission control policies on power plants after the 11th FYP (2006-2010) by modeling emission control scenarios. The idealized emission control policy (the PS90 scenario with assumption of 90% SO2 emission reduction from power plants) could reduce the SO2 and SO4(2-) concentrations by about 51 and 14%, respectively, over the Yangtze River Delta region. While the actual emission control condition (the P2010 scenario based on the actual emissions from power plants in 2010) demonstrated that the actual reduction benefits were 30% of SO2 and 9% of SO4(2-). On the city scale, the P2010 scenario imposed positive benefits on Shanghai, Nanjing, Nantong, and Hangzhou with SO2 reductions of about 55, 12, 30, and 21%, respectively, while an 11% increase of SO2 concentration was found in Ningbo. The number of days exceeding China's National Ambient Air Quality Standard of Class I daily SO2 concentration was estimated to be 75, 52, 7, 77, and 40 days for Shanghai, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, and Hangzhou under the real SO2 control condition (P2010). The numbers could be decreased by 16, 11, 2, 21, and 11% if the control effect reaches the level of the PS90 scenario. This study serves as a scientific basis to design capable enforcement of emission control strategies in China in the future national plans.

  15. Strategic Measures and Incentive Policies of SHP in China——Hangzhou Regional Center(Asia-Pacific) for Small Hydro Power


    At the primary stage of SHP development (1960s—1970s), wooden or iron-wooden turbines manufactured by agricultural machinery works were mainly adopted in China. Before 1949, SHP equipment was generally imported due to lack of domestic manufacturing capability. In 1952, the first turbine-generator unit of 800kW capacity was successfully made in China,

  16. 杭州市城乡乔木物种的多样性%Dynamics of Arbor Biodiversity along An Urban-rural Gradient in Hangzhou City

    赵兴征; 朱国营; 王根轩


    沿杭州市区至临安农村取1 km宽75 km长样带调查乔木物种多样性。调查结果表明市区本土树种保存较好,树种数量达到20余种,农村物种丰富度极低,树种数量仅有10种左右。从物种丰富度指数可以看出市区物种最为丰富,丰富度指数最高达4.343,郊区物种丰富度指数最低,为1.303,农村物种丰富度指数较郊区有所上升,但仍显著低于市区,保持在2~3之间。Shannon-Weiner指数趋势与物种丰富度指数一致,最高值出现在市区,其次是农村和郊区。而Pielou均匀度指数和Simpson优势度指数没有明显规律。%Arbor species diversity along an urban-rural gradient was investigated in Hangzhou City,Zhejiang Province.The results showed that the species richness at the rural and the suburban area was very low,which was less than 10 species,while at the urban area,there was much higher biodiversity,the arbor species richness was up to 20 species,which was about 2 times of that at the rural area.Species richness index showed that the urban area had the most rich species,species richness index was up to 4.343,the suburban area had the least richness index of 1.303,while in the rural area it was between 2~3.The tendency of Shannon-Weiner index was the same as species richness index.However,there was no significant order of Pielou index and Simpson index among the urban,suburban and rural areas.

  17. Spring and Summer Fish Community Structure in Northern Hangzhou Bay%春季和夏季杭州湾北部海域鱼类种群结构分析

    王淼; 洪波; 张玉平; 孙振中


    Hangzhou Bay,located in northern Zhejiang Province,is a typical subtropical estuary,supporting the breeding and growth of many fish,shrimp and crab species because of rich food resources.However,coastal indus-trial pollution and overfishing in recent years has seriously damaged the marine environment and fishery resources in the Hangzhou.The fishery resource is tending toward smaller and younger fish and some economic fish are declining or have disappeared,perhaps leading to collapse of the marine ecosystem.Therefore,information on current fish stocks and the condition of the marine environment in Hangzhou Bay is important for ecological remediation efforts. The fish community structure in northern Hangzhou Bay was characterized,based on a field investigation of fish re-sources in August of 2012 and May of 2013.The investigation focused on species composition and seasonal variation of the fish community structure in spring and summer.Study methods included the index of relative importance, cluster analysis,and multivariate statistics and the relationship between the fish community and environmental fac-tors was analyzed.Fish were collected at 12 sampling stations by trawling with a 25 m net with an opening of 10m and net mesh of 20 mm.The trawling was carried out at a speed of 2.5 knots for 15 -30 min at each station and water temperature,salinity and depth were recorded.A total of 22 fish species were collected during spring and summer sampling,including 19 genera,12 families and 8 orders.Perciformes dominated,accounting for 50% of the total fish species,followed by Pleuronectiformes and Clupeiformes,both accounting for 13.6%.The ecological groups included marine,estuarine and anadromous fish,with absolute dominance by marine fish (13 species).Six dominant species were identified:in the spring,Collichthys lucidus,Miichthys miiuy,Coilia mystus;in summer,Col-lichthys lucidus,Pennahia argentata,Harpodon nehereus,Miichthys miiuy and Cynoglossus joyneri

  18. Research on the University Campus Development Problems based College Students'travel-activity behavior---Taking Hangzhou Xiasha University Park as an example%基于大学生移动-活动行为的大学园区发展问题研究--以杭州下沙高教园区为例

    王纯彬; 陈舒帆


    我国大学园区建设在实践过程中出现了诸多问题。本文以浙江省杭州下沙高教园区内大学生的生活动路径与行为偏好为研究视角,全面审视和探讨大学园区发展过程中出现的与规划预期的偏差。研究表明:(1)园区内大学生日常学习活动空间依然呈现高度集中性,园区内高校间各类资源共享并未出现实质变化;(2)园区内大学生课余活动空间具有显著时空集聚性,园区内的各类配套设施建设与实际需要存在较大差距;(3)园区内大学生移动时耗大和出行意愿偏弱,园区的交通可达性还需提高;(4)园区内大学生社会实践的活动空间有限,大学园区需要加速“产城融合”进程。%China's university campus after more than ten years of development,has made great pro-gress,at the same time many problems appeared in the process of construction.This paper takes Han-gzhou Xiasha Higher Education Park students'activity path and behavior preference as the research an-gle of view,a comprehensive review and deviations from expected in the process of development plan-ning study of University park.Research shows that:(1 )the Park College Students'daily activity space still show a high degree of concentration,did not appear substantial change of all kinds of re-sources sharing among colleges and universities in the park;(2)the Park students extracurricular ac-tivities have significant spatial and temporal spatial agglomeration,the park's various facilities con-struction exists difference;(3)mobile college park when consumption and travel will is weak,accessi-bility of the park still need to be improved;(4)the park college students social practice activity space is limited,the University Park needs to accelerate production city fusion process.

  19. 杭州市城乡区域一体化统筹模式中的宅基地集约利用问题--以临安市为例%Efifcient Allocation of Rural Residential Land Under The“Regional Urban-Rural Integration”Development of Hangzhou, Taking Lin’an As an Example



    宅基地的集约利用是杭州市城乡区域一体化发展战略的关键环节。主要的实施途径是围绕“三个集中”和“三个置换”,进行土地综合整治,开展城乡建设用地增减挂钩的土地置换改革。实施特点是依据地域实际、遵循现有法规,稳妥地推进新农村建设。虽然在土地制度上没有突破,但是客观上却有利于保护农户现有的土地产权,局限性是实现城乡区域一体化发展的进程相对缓慢。对于国内其他地区来说,既有可供借鉴的经验——因地制宜、因势利导,空间集中为辅、增加收入为主;又因地域条件的特殊性而不具有普遍意义。对于中央政府来说,建议继续鼓励地方政府根据本地实际进行制度创新,在比较和竞争中找到较优的发展道路。%Efifcient allocation of rural residential land is a crucial link of Hangzhou’s development towards“regional urban-rural integration” which was planned to be implemented by comprehensive land consolidation and urban-rural construction land synchronization, named“three agglomerations”and“three replacement”. In fact, the planned measure is replaced by relatively conservative“new countryside construction”without any breakthrough in terms of legislations, which on one hand may be helpful to protect the rights of rural households to use land, but on the other hand results in somewhat slowdown of the process to urban-rural integration. To other regions or provinces of China, the experiences of Hangzhou can be used for reference either positively or negatively. For central government, it may be a better choice to continue to encourage local governments to implement institutional innovations and compete with each other.

  20. Translating China


    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.



    Across China in 2007,39.93 million hectares of farmland was affected by drought,of which nearly 9 percent became unfertile. Millions of people had difficulty accessing drinking water"Spring rain is as precious as oil."This ancient proverb invented by farmers in north China captures both the im- portance and rarity of springtime rain in the region.Areas south of China’s great Yangtze River receive high levels of rainfall during the country’s mon-

  2. 杭州地区部分人群糖化血红蛋白的调查研究%Study on the level of glycosylated hemoglobin in physical examination population in Hangzhou city

    马小红; 庄爱周; 李萌; 万晓晨


    目的:研究杭州地区部分人群糖化血红蛋白(glycosylated hemoglobin,Hb)水平的分布情况.方法:收集2010年8月- 2011年8月在我院体检的4850例体检人员样本,应用全自动糖化血红蛋白分析仪检测HbA1(%)和HbA1c(%)水平,分别按性别、年龄、HbA1c参考值及2010年糖尿病诊断新标准对样本进行分组,并进行统计分析.结果:结果表明,HbA1(%)和HbA1c(%)在不同性别和年龄的人群中的分布有显著性差异.结论:杭州地区男性Hb总体水平均明显高于女性,且随着年龄的增长Hb水平增高,且根据2010年新指南筛查出疑似糖尿病者增多,为糖尿病的早期发现、早期治疗及减少并发症的发生提供了前提.%Objective:To investigate the distribution of glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb) level in Hangzhou population. Methods:4850 cases of physical examination individuals in our hospital from 2010 August to 2011 August were recruited into this stud-y. HbAl (% ) and HbAlc (% ) level were detected by the automatic glycosylated hemoglobin analyzer, and the results were conducted statistical analysis by sex, age, the reference value of HbAlc and the 2010 new criteria for diagnosis of diabetes melli-tus, separately. Results:The results show that the distribution of HbAl (% ) and HbAlc (% ) levels existed significant difference in different genders and age groups of Hangzhou population. Conclusion:The Hb level of male in Hangzhou were significantly higher than that of female, and the Hb level became higher as the age increased. According to new 2010 guidelines, the suspected diabetes increased, which has provided basis for early detection, early treatment of diabetes and reduce the incidence of diabetes complications.

  3. Inpatient treatment of diabetic patients in Asia: evidence from India, China, Thailand and Malaysia.

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, J D; Li, H; Ratanawijitrasin, S; Vidyasagar, S; Wang, X Y; Aljunid, S; Shah, N; Wang, Z; Hirunrassamee, S; Bairy, K L; Wang, J; Saperi, S; Nur, A M; Eggleston, K


    The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has grown rapidly, but little is known about the drivers of inpatient spending in low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to compare the clinical presentation and expenditure on hospital admission for inpatients with a primary diagnosis of Type 2 DM in India, China, Thailand and Malaysia. We analysed data on adult, Type 2 DM patients admitted between 2005 and 2008 to five tertiary hospitals in the four countries, reporting expenditures relative to income per capita in 2007. Hospital admission spending for diabetic inpatients with no complications ranged from 11 to 75% of per-capita income. Spending for patients with complications ranged from 6% to over 300% more than spending for patients without complications treated at the same hospital. Glycated haemoglobin was significantly higher for the uninsured patients, compared with insured patients, in India (8.6 vs. 8.1%), Hangzhou, China (9.0 vs. 8.1%), and Shandong, China (10.9 vs. 9.9%). When the hospital admission expenditures of the insured and uninsured patients were statistically different in India and China, the uninsured always spent less than the insured patients. With the rising prevalence of DM, households and health systems in these countries will face greater economic burdens. The returns to investment in preventing diabetic complications appear substantial. Countries with large out-of-pocket financing burdens such as India and China are associated with the widest gaps in resource use between insured and uninsured patients. This probably reflects both overuse by the insured and underuse by the uninsured.

  4. Ocean color products retrieval and validation around China coast with MODIS

    SUN Ling; GUO Maohua; WANG Xiaomei


    Waters along China coast are very turbid with high concentrations of suspended sediment nearly all the time, especially at the Hangzhou Bay, the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Estuary and the shoal along Jiangsu Province. In these turbid and optically complex waters, the standard MODIS ocean color products tend to have invalid values. Because the water-leaving radiances in the near-infrared (NIR) are significant resulting from the strong scattering of suspended particles, the standardMODIS atmospheric correction algorithm often gets no results or produces significant errors. And because of the complex water optical properties, the OC3 model used in the standard MODIS data processing tends to get extremely high chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations. In this paper, we present an atmospheric correction approach using MODIS short wave infrared (SWIR) bands based on the fact that water-leaving radiances are negligible in the SWlR region because of the extreme strong absorption of water even in turbid waters. A regional Chl-a concentration estimation model is also constructed for MODIS from in situ data. These algorithms are applied to MODIS Aqua data processing in the China coastal regions. In situ data collected in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea in spring and autumn, 2003 are used to validate the performance. Reasonably good results have been obtained. It is noted that water-leaving reflectance in the NIR bands are significant in waters along the China coast with high sediment loadings. The satellite derived and in-situ reflectance spectra can match in the turbid waters along China coast, and there is relatively good linear relationship between satellite derived and in-situ reflectance. The RMSE value of Rrs(λ)is 0.0031 sr-1 for all the nine ocean color bands (412 to 869 nm). The satellite-derived Chl-a value is in the reasonable range and the root mean square percentage difference is 46.1%.

  5. 实践教学技能是健身教练制胜的关键--以杭州市首届健身指导员职业技能竞赛为例%The Study of First Fitness Instructors Skills Competition in Hangzhou--AS The First Social Instror Occupational Skills in Hangzhou For Example



      本文通过对杭州首届健身指导员健身分赛场中,参赛队员的相关比赛数据进行比较和分析,探析比赛的组织安排、项目设置、反馈评价等内容,并对发现的问题给出相应的对策与建议。并采用文献资料法、访谈法、数理统计法对赛事相关数据进行客观分析,表明:(1)本次比赛的参与面比较广,参赛选手和专家都对此次比赛的公正性表示肯定。(2)比赛项目的设置比较合理,能较好的检验参赛选手的综合实力和应变技巧。(3)参赛选手的各项比赛成绩较为理想,但教学技能方面较薄弱。%In this paper, Hangzhou First Fitness Instructor Fitness breakout team members of game data for comparison and analysis, Analysis of the organizational arrangements of the competition, The project settings, Feedback, Evaluation, Etc., And found the problem given the appropriate counter measures recommendations. In this paper, The literature, Interview, mathematical statistics and objective analysis of the event-related data showed that: (1)The tournament participation was fairly wide, The participants and experts are sure that this competition fair, just and open. (2) Events set more reasonable, can better test players strength and strain techniques. (3) Contestants of the competition results are ideal, But relatively weak teaching skills.

  6. Risk Division and Assessment of Typhoon Rainstorm Flooding Disasters in Hangzhou City%杭州市台风暴雨洪涝灾害风险区划与评价

    俞布; 缪启龙; 潘文卓; 宋健; 张玮玮; 段春锋


    Based on the typhoon precipitation data from seven stations in Hangzhou City during the period from 1960 to 2009 and combined with the society economic and natural geographic factors,this study builds a set of typhoon rainstorm flooding disaster assessment model including hazard factors,hazard inducing environment,hazard-affected body and disaster prevention ability.And a map of Hangzhou's typhoon rainstorm flooding disaster risk division was drawn using 100 m X 100 m raster as basic assessment unit, by means of GIS spatial analysis technique for rasterizing evaluation indices and fuzzy comprehensive assessment methods.Finally,the five risk zones of Hangzhou,i.e.higher risk,sub-high risk,medium risk,inferior risk and lower risk,were mapped.Results show that the typhoon rainstorm flooding disaster risk in Hangzhou has an increasing tendency from southwest to northeast.The coastal plain,involved with Xiaoshan District,Yuhang City,main urban area of Hangzhou,and so on,has relative high risk,while the mid-west mountain and hilly area,involved with Jiande City,Chun'an County,and so on,has slightly lower risk.%根据1960—2009年杭州市7个县市区的台风降水资料,结合杭州市的社会经济与自然地理要素,构建一个集致灾因子、孕灾环境、承灾体及防灾能力为一体的区域台风暴雨洪涝灾害风险评价模型。通过GIS空间分析技术实现各评价指标的栅格化,并利用模糊综合评价方法。编制以100 m×100 m栅格为基本评价单元的杭州市台风暴雨洪涝灾害风险区划图。将杭州市域划分为高、次高、中等、次低和低的5级风险。区划结果表明:杭州市台风暴雨洪涝灾害风险从西南至东北呈递增趋势。萧山区、余杭市及杭州主城区等沿海平原区,风险等级相对较高;而建德市、淳安县等中西部山地丘陵区,风险等级略低。

  7. Analysis of Applied Results of Quasi-Geoid Determining in Hangzhou%杭州市区域似大地水准面精化成果应用分析

    杨彬; 王宇东; 李凉


    介绍了杭州市区域似大地水准面精化成果的应用分析、评价以及应用GPS静态和以CORS系统的网络RTK的两种作业方法,对两种方法所得成果进行了精度分析,并论述了两种方法的适用范围。%This paper demonstrates the analysis and appraisement of Quasi-Geoid determining in hangzhou,and introduces two kinds of methods to check up the precision of Quasi-Geoid determining,static GPS and RTK surveying with HZCORS.

  8. 基于模糊综合分析法的杭州市物流系统绿色度评价%Evaluation of the Green Logistics System of Hangzhou Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Analysis



    在借鉴已有的研究成果基础上,提出城市物流系统绿色度的评价指标体系.以杭州市为例,运用模糊综合分析法对其进行综合评价,并根据评价结果提出相应发展建议.%Drawing on existing researches, the paper formulates the index system for the evalaution of the urban green logistics system and applies it in a case study on the green logistics system of Hangzhou which is evaluated comprehensively via fuzzy comprehensive analysis. At the end, suggestions for development are given on the basis of the findings.

  9. Analysis and study on underground commercial and parking demand of Hangzhou new world%杭州新天地地下商业与停车需求的分析研究

    张竹; 施孝增


    Taking Hangzhou new world project for example, this paper made analysis and study on underground commercial and underground parking demand using the index prediction method and traffic forecast method, determined the the scale of underground parking garage, and put forward the development and design seheme of underground space, could provide guidance to staff who paid attention to underground space development staff.%以杭州新天地项目为例,采用指标预测法与交通预测法对地下商业与地下停车设施需求进行了分析研究,确定了地下停车库的规模,并提出了地下空间开发设计方案,可为广大关注地下空间开发的人员提供指导。

  10. Integrating Medical Services, Rehabilitation and Nursing Care to Figure Out Practical ;Solutions for the Challenge of Population Aging in Hangzhou%杭州市医养护一体化服务破解老龄化难题

    谢道溥; 费敏浩; 徐林山; 洪晓静


    杭州市以医疗康复护理进家庭为基础,拓展日托养老与机构养老健康服务内涵。本文通过介绍杭州市医养护一体化签约服务模式的设计架构、主要做法和医保配套措施,探索破解全国老龄化社会难题。%By home-based medical treatment, rehabilitation, and nursing care, the services contents of day-care and the institutional care for the older people have be expanded in Hangzhou. In this paper, we introduce the frame structure of the signed service model of integrated medical service, rehabilitation and nursing care, the main practices, and the health insurance policy, to explore practical solutions for the social problems of population aging.

  11. Analysis of the Utilization of Antipsychotic Drugs in 26 Hospitals from Hangzhou Area during 2009-2011%杭州市26家医院2009-2011年抗精神病药利用分析

    张霞; 徐领城; 黄堃


    OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the clinical application of antipsychotic drugs in Hangzhou area.METHODS:Using DDD and consumption sum sorting method recommended by WHO,the utilization of antipsychotic drugs in 26 hospitals from Hangzhou area during 2009-2011 were evaluated and analyzed in terms of consumption sum and its rank(B),DDDs and its rank (A),DDC and the ratio of B/A.RESULTS:The consumption sum and DDDs of antipsychotic drugs increased year by year,and consumption sum and DDDs of antipsychotic drugs in 2011 were 1.8 times of 2009.Atypical antipsychotic drugs were effective with low side effects; the consumption sum of them was 98.92% in total,and their DDDs was 70.26% of total.Risperidone,olanzapine and aripiprazole were used more frequently in Hangzhou area,and their B/A value was 1 or close to 1.These drugs had a good performance-to-price ratio.CONCLUSIONS:The atypical antipsychotics drugs occupy a leading place in consumption sum and clinical use in Hangzhou area.%目的:评价杭州市医院抗精神病药的利用情况.方法:采用世界卫生组织(WHO)推荐的限定日剂量和销售金额排序法,通过统计销售金额及排序(B)、用药频度(DDDs)及排序(A)、日均费用(DDC)和排序比(B/A),对杭州市26家医院2009-2011年抗精神病药的利用数据进行评价与分析.结果:该市医院抗精神病药的销售金额、DDDs呈逐年增长趋势,2011年的销售金额是2009年的1.8倍;非经典类抗精神病药由于不良反应少、疗效好,其年均销售金额占精神病药总销售金额的98.92%,年均DDDs占总DDDs的70.26%.利培酮、奥氮平和阿立哌唑是目前杭州地区医院应用较多的药物,其B/A值为1或逐年接近1,显示了良好的性价比.结论:该市医院非经典抗精神病药占据销售金额与临床应用的主导地位.

  12. All seasons tea party in Hangzhou--Ⅱ. Summer tea party on the Dragon Boat Festival%杭州的四季茶会——Ⅱ.夏天的端午茶会

    步畅; 韩晶; 岳任; 萸茗


    本文主要从缘起两个社团的“诞生日”、历次端午茶会的回顾和端午茶会的特色等三部分简要介绍了杭州四季茶会中之“夏天的端午茶会”%Summer tea party on the Dragon Boat Festival, one activity of the all seasons tea party in Hangzhou was discussed in this paper,including the origin of the activity that thanks to the establishment day of two societies, the parties held in the past years in retrospect and the characteristics of the tea party.

  13. 杭州市建设工程造价备案管理系统开发与利用%On development and application of cost on file management system in construction projects of Hangzhou



    Aiming at the necessity for the development of the cost on file management system in the construction projects of Hangzhou, the paper undertakes the functional analysis of the system, points out its structure and the procedure design methods, and illustrates the urgent problems in its development and application process.%针对杭州市建设工程造价备案管理系统开发的必要性,对该系统进行功能分析,并提出其结构及流程设计方案,最后对其开发与应用过程中急需解决的问题予以阐述。

  14. 翻译社会学视角下杭州话本小说英文译介%English Translation of Ancient Hangzhou Novelettes from the Social Perspective



    Based on a social perspective——Bourdieu's Field Theory and its key notions of field, habitus and capital, this paper analyzes the English translation of ancient Hangzhou novelettes, taking Lin Yutang's Jade Goddess and Jealousy for example, covering the process of the translator's selection of the original works, the production of the translated version, and the communication and acceptance of translated version.%文章基于翻译社会学视角——布厄迪场域理论及其重要概念场域、惯习和资本,以林语堂英译杭州话本小说《碾玉观音》和《西山一窟鬼》为例,探讨杭州话本小说的英文译介过程,包括翻译文本选择、译本产生、传播和接受.

  15. 生计资本对杭州市农民工生活满意度的影响%The impact of livelihood capital on the life satisfaction of urban migrant workers in Hang-zhou

    苏飞; 庞凌峰; 马莉莎


    The lack of various livelihood capitals has become one of the biggest obstacles to migrant workers 'urban lives.Therefore improving the livelihood capital of migrant workers has become the foundation and key to eliminating poverty of migrant workers and to improve their life satisfaction .This paper established a dual logistic regression model and analyzed the impact of livelihood capital on the life satisfaction of urban migrant workers in Hangzhou City . The results showed that:①the livelihood capitals of migrant workers in Hangzhou has spatial differences , the value of livelihood capitals of suburb areas is the highest , followed by the central area , then the outer suburbs;② migrant workers have lower conversion capacity of all kinds of livelihood capitals , with the consideration of the lack of human capital, weak physical capital , insufficient financial capital , and limited social capital;③social capital and human capital are the most important factors to affect the life satisfaction of migrant workers in Hangzhou City .At last, some suggestions are proposed in the hope of providing some references to achieve the sustainable livelihoods of urban mi -grant workers in Hangzhou City .%农民工是城市产业工人的主体,对城市建设与发展做出了重要贡献。由于各种生计资本的匮乏影响到城市农民工的生活质量,提高生计资本存量和多样化成为消除农民工贫困、提高其生活满意度的基础与关键。文章对杭州市农民工的生计资本特征进行了深入分析,并通过二元logistic模型评估了生计资本对农民工生活满意度的影响。结果表明:①在杭农民工生计资本存在明显的区域差异,近郊区农民工的生计资本总值最高,中心城区次之,远郊区最低;②在杭农民工各类生计资本转化能力普遍不高,突出表现为物质资本薄弱、人力资本不足、金融资本虚化、社会资本匮乏;③人力资本和社

  16. On the Translation of Hangzhou Real Estate Advertising Brochures from the Perspective of Skopos Theory%从功能目的论看杭州楼书的翻译



      如今杭州的楼书基本都以中英双语来进行宣传,其中英文译文存在不少问题,大致可分为语言性、功能性以及文化性的翻译失误现象。德国功能学派的目的论为翻译研究开拓了全新的视角,在翻译史上有着重要的意义,特别是在商业文本及政治文本的翻译中取得了较大的成功。文章以翻译目的论的原理为理论框架,从翻译的目的性出发,通过对杭州楼书的译文分析,指出其中的问题所在,并试图给出相应的翻译策略。%  Nowadays, there is such a trend that advertising brochures of real estate in Hangzhou appear in both Chinese and Eng -lish.However, a careful reading reveals many problems in the English version , which can be categorized into linguistic , func-tional and cultural translation errors .Skopos theory, put forward by German Functionalist School , offers a new perspective for translation studies.It is especially applicable to the translation of business and political texts .Based on Skopos theory and from the perspective of intentionality of translation , this paper, through the analysis of the translation of Hangzhou real estate advertis-ing brochures, points out the problems in the translation and tends to give appropriate translation strategies .

  17. Multi-brand strategy and communication model innovation of Hangzhou female clothing%杭州女装的多品牌战略与传播模式创新

    刘丽娴; 王靖文


    基于对杭州女装的品牌发展与市场现状分析,以及品牌传播学的基础知识,用案例调查的方法对杭州女装品牌进行了分析和研究,发现当代杭州女装品牌的传播手段变得越来越多样化、差异化,多品牌、国际化的发展趋势成为主流,而传播模式的创新也是品牌快速发展的助力之一.以江南布衣(JNBY)为例,分析并说明了品牌的成功一方面依赖于独特的品牌文化和产品理念,也依赖于不断的品牌形象塑造和品牌价值的准确传递.%Based on the analysis of brand development and market situation, brand communication studies and case survey, this study analyzed Hangzhou female clothing. The results indicated that the communication mode of Hangzhou female clothing became more and more diversified and differential, multi-brand and internationalization have become the mainstream, and innovation of communication mode has become the power of the rapid development. Take the brand JNBY for instance. The brand's success depends on not only the special brand culture and product idea, but also the uninterrupted brand image promotion and accurate deliver of the brand value.

  18. Current status of neck collar use in pre-hospital emergency in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province%杭州地区院外急救颈托使用现状调查与分析



    Objective To investigate the current status of neck collar use in pre-hospital emergency in Hangzhou. Methods The clinical data of 1855 prehospital high energy trauma patients in Hangzhou were analyzed so as to survey the neck collar use rate. Results Only 337 patients (19.1%) were given neck collar with a neck collar use rate of 19.1%. Conclusion Most of the high energy trauma patients failed to get neck collar, an effective tool to protect their cervical spinal cord during prehospital emergency treatment. Reasonable use of neck collar during pre-hospital emergency treatment should be promoted.%目的 调查分析杭州地区院外急救颈托使用的现状,为在院外急救中合理规范的使用颈托提供参考依据.方法 对符合标准的1752例高能量创伤患者进行调查,分析颈托不合理使用的现状、原因并提出合理使用的对策.结果 仅19.1%的患者使用了颈托,院外急救中颈托的不合理使用情况较严重.结论 应加强对急救医生创伤知识的培训,提高对高能量创伤的认识,积极推进颈托的合理使用.

  19. Comparison of municipal solid waste treatment technologies from a life cycle perspective in China.

    Dong, Jun; Chi, Yong; Zou, Daoan; Fu, Chao; Huang, Qunxing; Ni, Mingjiang


    China has endured the increasing generation of municipal solid waste; hence, environmental analysis of current waste management systems is of crucial importance. This article presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment of three waste treatment technologies practiced in Hangzhou, China: landfill with and without energy recovery, and incineration with waste-to-energy. Adopting region-specific data, the study covers various environmental impacts, such as global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, photochemical ozone formation, human toxicity and ecotoxicity. The results show that energy recovery poses a positive effect in environmental savings. Environmental impacts decrease significantly in landfill with the utilization of biogas owing to combined effects by emission reduction and electricity generation. Incineration is preferable to landfill, but toxicity-related impacts also need to be improved. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis shows that the benefit of carbon sequestration will noticeably decrease global warming potential of both landfill scenarios. Gas collection efficiency is also a key parameter influencing the performance of landfill. Based on the results, improvement methods are proposed. Energy recovery is recommended both in landfill and incineration. For landfill, gas collection systems should be upgraded effectively; for incineration, great efforts should be made to reduce heavy metals and dioxin emissions.

  20. Biodiversity of Trichoderma Community in the Tidal Flats and Wetland of Southeastern China.

    Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; Yu, Chuanjin; Dou, Kai; Wang, Meng; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie


    To investigate the biodiversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae) and their relation to sediment physical and chemical properties, we collected a total of 491 sediment samples from coastal wetlands (tidal flat and wetland) in Southeast China. Further, we applied two types of molecular approaches such as culture dependent and independent methods for identification of Trichoderma spp. A total of 254 isolates were obtained and identified to 13 species such as T. aureoviride, T. asperellum, T. harzianum, T. atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. longibrachiatum, T. koningii. T. tawa, T. viridescens, T. virens, T. hamatum, T. viride, and T. velutinum by the culture-dependent (CD) method of these, T. tawa was newly described in China. Subsequently, the culture indepented method of 454 pyrosequencing analysis revealed a total of six species such as T. citrinoviride, T. virens, T. polysporum, T. harzianum/Hypocrea lixii and two unknown species. Notably, T. citrinoviride and T. polysporum were not found by the CD method. Therefore, this work revealed that the combination of these two methods could show the higher biodiversity of Trichoderma spp., than either of this method alone. Among the sampling sites, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, exhibited rich biodiversity and low in Fengxian. Correlation and Redundancy discriminant analysis (RDA) revealed that sediment properties of temperature, redox potential (Eh) and pH significantly influenced the biodiversity of Trichoderma spp.

  1. Investigation of the relationship between aircraft noise and community annoyance in China

    Di Guoqing


    Full Text Available A survey of community annoyance induced by aircraft noise exposure was carried out around Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport. To investigate the relationship curves between aircraft noise and the percentage of "highly annoyed" persons in China and also to get annoyance threshold of aircraft noise in China. Noise annoyance induced by aircraft noise exposure was assessed by 764 local residents around the airport using the International Commission on Biological Effect of Noise (ICBEN scale. The status quo of aircraft noise pollution was measured by setting up 39 monitoring points. The interpolation was used to estimate the weighted effective continuous perceived noise levels (LWECPN in different areas around the airport, and the graph of equal noise level contour was drawn. The membership function was used to calculate the annoyance threshold of aircraft noise. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and Origin 8.0. The results showed that if LWECPN was 64.3 dB (Ldn was 51.4 dB, then 15% respondents were highly annoyed. If LWECPN was 68.1 dB (Ldn was 55.0 dB, then 25% respondents were highly annoyed. The annoyance threshold of aircraft noise (LWECPN was 73.7 dB, while the annoyance threshold of a single flight incident instantaneous noise level (LAmax was 72.9 dB. People around the airport had felt annoyed before the aircraft noise LWECPN reached the standard limit.

  2. Two years of MAXDOAS measurements of NO2, HONO, SO2 and HCHO at SORPES station in Nanjing, China

    Hao, Nan; Ding, Aijun; Van Roozendael, Michel; Hendrick, Francois; Shen, Yicheng; Valks, Pieter


    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region includes the mega-city Shanghai and the well-industrialized and urbanized areas of Zhejiang Province and Jiangsu Province, with over ten large cities, such as Hangzhou, Suzhou and Nanjing. Covering only 2% land area, this region produces over 20% of China's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) which makes it the most densely populated region and one of the most polluted regions in China. In the YRD region, knowledge gaps still exist in the understanding of the source and transport of air pollutants because only few measurement studies have been conducted. This work presents two years measurements of air pollutants including NO2, HONO, SO2, HCHO and CHOCHO at a regional back-ground site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. A retrieval algorithm, based on an on-line implementation of the radiative transfer code LIDORT and the optimal estimation technique, has been used to provide information on trace gases vertical profiles and vertical column densities (VCDs). The seasonal and diurnal cycles of trace gases have been studies and compared with in situ measurements. The retrieved tropospheric NO2, HCHO and SO2 VCDs were compared to satellite measurements, while the NO2 and SO2 near surface concentrations (0-200 m layer) were compared to measurements from in situ instruments at SORPES.

  3. 杭州西溪湿地苔藓植物种类与群落调查%Investigation on Species and Communities of Bryophytes in Xixi Wetlands, Hangzhou

    季梦成; 缪丽华; 蒋跃平; 郑钢


    在野外调查、采集和标本检视基础上,记录杭州市西溪湿地苔藓植物33科48属58种1亚种1变种.其中,树生赤藓(Syntrichia laevipila)为浙江省分布新记录.该湿地苔藓植物种类丰富度及特有性较低,含5种的科只有齿萼苔科(Lophocoleaceae)和丛藓科(Pottiaceae),占总科数的6.1%;仅1种的科共18科,如缩叶藓科(Ptychomitriaceae)、牛毛藓科(Ditrichaceae)、珠藓科(Bartramiaceae)、木灵藓科(Orthotrichaceae)、疣冠苔科(Aytoniaceae)等,占总科数的54.5%.在苔藓群落中,土生苔藓群落占优势,而且土生苔藓群落的物种多样性也最丰富,其他依次为石生群落、木生群落、水生群落.生活型统计显示,交织型与丛集型占绝对优势,合计53种,占总种数的83.33%;漂浮型和悬垂型都只有2种,分别占总种数1.67%,基本不代表该区苔藓植物生活型特征.%Based on the field investigation and specimen examination,a total of 60 bryophytes species (including subspecies and varieties),belonging to 48 genera and 33 families were reported in Xixi wetlands of Hangzhou City.Syntrichia laevipila was considered as a new distribution record for Zhejiang Province.Diversity and endemic element of bryophytes was low in the study area.Lophocoleaceae and Pottiaceae both consisted of 5 species and accounted for 6.1% of all families.The 18 families (54.5% in total) including Ptychomitriaceae,Ditrichaceae,Bartramiaceae,Orthotrichaceae,Aytoniaceae etc.,only 1 genus was reported respectively in Xixi Wetlands.These bryophyte communities were grouped into 5 types:Bryo-Hydrophytia,Bryo-Geophytia,Bryo-Petrophytia and Bryo-Epixylophytia,among which Bryo-Geophytia was the dominant type.Statistical results indicated that wefts and turfs were most common bryophyte life forms.The 53 species belonged to the above two life forms,accounting for 83.33% of total species number;float ages and pendants had both 2 species which respectively contributed to 1.67

  4. Destination China


    China’s foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows dropped by about 20 percent year on year in the first quarter,raising questions about the country’s attractiveness to foreign investors. Edgar G. Hotard,Chairman of the Monitor Group (China),sat down with Beijing Review reporter Hu Yue on the sidelines of the Boao Forum for Asia on April 17-19,to discuss this issue. The Monitor Group is a global provider of strategy consulting services,headquartered in the United States and with offices in China.

  5. China White

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Lash, Scott


    This article reflects on some themes in Harrison White’s work in the context of China, where the social and cultural construction of markets is quite literal. We explore how we get markets where previously there were no markets and draw on White’s central themes of ‘uncertainty’, ‘value’ and ‘order...

  6. China's Confidence

    Shang Lin'aiyi


    @@ With the spread of the global financial turmoil.China is Under growing tension from its large population,limited resource,environment Problems,and losing its competitive edge in the world as exports are being driven down by shrinking demand abroad as well as higher costs.

  7. China Reflections.

    Duval, Concetta


    A math and science high school director, who spent a month studying and traveling in China, comments on cultural differences observed during a visit to a day care center and during shopping trips and relates his experiences jogging during the early morning hours. (RM)

  8. Ephemeral China/Handmade China

    Xing Ruan


    Full Text Available A China that is in a frenzied state of economic boom and potential social instability, which is most vividly represented in its architectural and urban developments, is, I hope I will convince you, ephemeral. A quite different China, perhaps is not so visible as its new buildings and cities, is metaphorically ‘handmade’. I should like to extend the meanings of the handmade to the more stable and long lasting attitudes towards social life, and even mortality. My sources for the second China are partially from literature (not from architecture. With the construction boom since the mid-1990s, mainstream Western architectural journals and galleries have been racing to expose new architecture in China; celebrity Western architects have been winning major commissions in China: the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is a case in point. The sheer quantity and speed of China’s development, as evidenced in architecture and urbanisation, causes an ‘unbearable lightness of being’ (to paraphrase Milan Kundera. Does all this then suggest that China, as solidified in its buildings and cities, is no longer ‘handmade’ in the sense that memory and a sense of history are redundant (particularly for a country that has a recorded history of more than 5000 years, which have been so lovingly recorded in handmade artefacts? The true meaning of the handmade, which absorbs labour — an ‘honourable labour’ as Joseph Conrad lovingly put it in his Mirror of the Sea, as well as memory, like that of a home, is a static artefact, which harbours our changing emotion, the frailties of human life, and indeed, the growing awareness that comes with time of our mortality: the handmade offers the necessary enshrinement of life’s vulnerability. Let me assure you, the seemingly fast-changing China, as represented in its new architecture and city forms, as well in its frenzied urbanisation and booming economy, is but a smoke screen. It is, in other words, ephemeral. The

  9. 亢州西湖旅游演艺产品开发现状调查研究——以《印象西湖》为例%Hangzhou Tourism Product Development Survey of the Performing Arts --Take "Impression West Lake" as an Example



    本文以大型山水实景演出《印象西湖》为切入点,围绕杭州西湖周边的旅游演艺产品展开调研.通过时杭州西湖旅游演艺产品类型及其典型个案《印象西湖》运营、服务的系统分析,归纳其特色与创新,并深入发掘杭州西湖旅游演艺产品存在的问题,从而提出深挖地域资源,塑造品牌形象,宣传营销承载文化等对策与建议,旨在拓展旅游演艺创意产品类型、推广途径,满足旅游者多元文化需求,推动杭州西湖旅游演艺产业的可持续发展。%This paperbased on large scale landscape photographs "West Lake impression" as the breakthrough point, starting research around periphery of Hangzhou West Lake Tourism Performing products, through to the Hangzhou West Lake Tourism Performing products types and typical case "West Lake impression" operation, service system analysis, summarizes its characteristics and innovation, exploring the problems of Hangzhou West Lake Tourism Performing products, thus put forward the deep regional resources, brand image, marketing culture and countermeasures and suggestions, aiming at developing tourism performing creative product type,promotion way, satisfy tourists multicultural demands, make the Hangzhou West Lake Tourism Performing Art Industry Sustainable development.



    A holiday train special for migrant workers in Hangzhou, east China’s Zhejiang Province, takes to the track before the kick-off of the 2007 Spring Festival travel peak, carrying more than 1,000 passengers back to their homes in Guizhou Province. China’s railways and highways are reportedly ready to transport a record 156 million and 2 billion passengers between February 3 and March 14, up 4.3 and 5 percent year on year, respectively, said government sources. Chinese traditionally travel home for family reunions on the Spring Festival, which falls on February 18 this year. In addition to a freeze on transport fares to benefit the public, transportation authorities have also taken measures to keep vehicle flows fluid during the rush period. A total of 318 pairs of temporary passenger trains will be added to ease the traffic pressure.

  11. An analysis on loss coefficient of A class vaccine in Hangzhou,2013%2013年杭州市一类疫苗损耗系数分析

    顾雯雯; 许二萍; 刘仕俊; 刘艳; 杜渐; 张小平; 王骏; 车鑫仁; 许玉洋


    目的:通过分析2013年杭州市第一类疫苗损耗系数,了解第一类疫苗损耗程度,以便科学制定疫苗使用计划,规范疫苗管理。方法:运用浙江省免疫规划信息管理系统,对2013年杭州市一类疫苗损耗系数进行分析。结果:2013年杭州市使用的一类疫苗共11种,损耗系数最高的为卡介苗2.12,其次为白破疫苗1.55,A群流脑疫苗1.44,脊髓灰质炎减毒活疫苗糖丸1.24,甲肝减毒活疫苗和麻腮风疫苗的损耗系数均为1.01,麻风疫苗、无细胞百白破疫苗、A+C群流脑疫苗、乙脑减毒活疫苗与10ug乙肝疫苗的损耗系数均为1.0。将损耗系数在不同地区作比较,脊髓灰质炎减毒活疫苗糖丸的损耗系数在老城区、新城区和郊县市分别为1.23、1.23和1.28,卡介苗的损耗系数分别为2.09、2.16和2.08,白破疫苗的损耗系数分别为1.36、1.62、1.70,A群流脑疫苗的损耗系数分别为1.39、1.42和1.56,其余一类疫苗在3个地区的损耗系数均为1.0。不同地区之间的一类疫苗损耗系数均未显示存在统计学差异。结论:2013年杭州市一类疫苗损耗系数较低,一类疫苗损耗程度较小。%Objective ] The loss coefficient and extent of A class vaccine in Hangzhou in 2013 were analyzed to make plan for vaccine usage scientifically and standardize management . [Method ] The loss coefficient in Hangzhou in 2013 was analyzed with Zhejiang Children’s Immunization Information Administration System .[Result] In 2013 ,there were 11 kinds of vaccines in Hangzhou .The highest loss coefficient was 2 .12 for BCG ,and the next ,in sequences ,were 1 .55 for DT ,1 .44 for MenA , 1 .24 for OPV ,1 .01 for both HepA and MMR .The loss coefficient for MR ,DPT ,MenA+C ,JEV and 10ug HepB were all 1 .0 .Comparing the loss coefficient in different areas in Hangzhou ,in old district ,new district and county ,the loss coefficients for OPV were 1 .23 ,1 .23 and 1 .28



    Extreme weather conditions have blighted much of China over the past year and a pattern of increasing drought has emerged. The problem is both economic and human. Swathes of farmland have been hit by drought leading to production losses and millions of people have had difficulty accessing fresh water. While the government is attempting to tackle the issue,increasingly dry weather is something that could prove a long-term problem for the countryA rare longdrought has had severe consequences across China and brought up difficult auestions about the thecause"Guilin tops the world in landscape"is a well-accepted saying for Chinese people. Guilin is a city and tourist resort in south China’s Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and attracts many people because of its charming beauty,

  13. China DBSAT Inaugurated


    @@ China Direct Broadcast Satellite Co Ltd(China DBSAT),the only satellite operator on the mainland,was inaugurated on December 25,2007 in Beijing,marking the completion of the satellite operation industry integration in mainland China.

  14. Capitalizing China

    Joseph Fan; Randall Morck; Bernard Yeung


    Despite a vast accumulation of private capital, China is not embracing capitalism. Deceptively familiar capitalist features disguise the profoundly unfamiliar foundations of "market socialism with Chinese characteristics." The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), by controlling the career advancement of all senior personnel in all regulatory agencies, all state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and virtually all major financial institutions state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and senior Party positions in all ...

  15. Is China different?

    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson; Ljungwall, Christer


    We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  16. Is China Different?

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson


    We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  17. Influence of abiotic factors on spatiotemporal patterns of larval fish assemblages in the surf zones of the Yangtze River estuary and Hangzhou Bay%长江口和杭州湾碎波带仔稚鱼群聚时空分布特征及相关环境因子分析

    陈渊戈; 毛成责; 林楠; 钟俊生; 徐兆礼


    the surf zone as a nursery ground for various fish species. In last decade, concerns have arisen in China about this habitat, particularly around the Yangtze River estuary. Species composition, habitat selection, and biodiversity have been previously investigated. This study analyzed the characteristics of the larval fish assemblage in the surf zones of the Yangtze River estuary and Hangzhou Bay and determined the relative influences of various abiotic factors. Fish larvae were collected monthly using a small trawl net (1 m×4 m, 1-mm mesh size) at 12 stations during each spring tide from August 2009 to August 2010. Temperature, salinity, distance from the outermost site (km), land-form, and substratum were simultaneously recorded at each sampling site. All collected specimens were fixed in 5%formalin, after which they were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic division and measured (length, mm). In total, 14 907 individuals were caught by 462 hauls. The dominant species were Coilia nasus (47.84% of the total fish abun-dance), Amoya pflaumii (11.58%), Hemiculter spp. (9.12%), Pseudolaubuca spp. (6.29%), and Eleutheronema rhadi-num (5.62%). Hierarchical clustering grouped the 13 months of sampling into 4 significant clusters(December–April, May, June–September, and October–November), showing clear species replacement among groups. The twelve stations were grouped into 2 groups: the Yangtze River estuary group (ST1–ST7) and the Hangzhou Bay group (ST8–ST12). SIMPER analysis indicated that the species contributing most to dissimilarity among groups were C. nasus and A. pflaumi (>10%), indicating differentiation in habitat selection. Canonical correspondence analysis was performed on the same dissimilarity matrices. Salinity and temperature were significantly related to the distribution of larval and juvenile fishes, but did not significantly explain the total distribution, suggesting latent factors are influencing the assemblage. Generalized additive

  18. 钱塘江(杭州段)粪大肠菌群污染现状研究%Analysis of pollution of fecal coliform in Qiantang river ( Hangzhou section)



    Objective: In the view of hygiene, through the continuous dynamic monitoring of fecal coliform in surface water of Qiantang River (Hangzhou section) in different seasons, different sections and different tidal conditions, to explore the factors of fecal coliform pollution, in order to provide a scientific basis to strengthen the control of Qiantang River water pollution. Methods: According to "Water and Wastewater Monitoring and Analysis Methods" (4th edition) of National Environmental Protection Administration, fecal coliform in surface water of Qiantang River( Hangzhou section) was monitored. Results-. According to the surface water M level standard for the fecal coliform, the average attainment rate is 61.0%. From 2006 to 2009, the attainment rates of fecal coliform in four years were 54.2% , 56.9% , 59.4% and 74.0% , showing a gradual uptrend. The attainment rate of fecal coliform in upstream river water is higher than that of downstream, and the attainment rates in four seasons reduced accordingly in the order of winter, spring, autumn and summer. Conclusion: The pollution of fecal coliform in Qiantang River ( Hangzhou section) is still serious, increasing year by year. The condition of pollution was increasingly improved, but the new pollution continue to breed. Strengthening the regulation of pollution sources and dynamic monitoring of water are still the focus of our work.%目的:从卫生学角度出发,通过对钱塘江(杭州段)流域地表水不同季节、不同河段、不同潮汐等条件粪大肠菌群连续动态监测,探究其粪大肠菌群污染的诸多因素,为加强钱塘江水体污染监管提供科学的依据.方法:按照国家环保局《水和废水监测分析方法》第四版要求,进行粪大肠菌群的监测.结果:以粪大肠菌群Ⅲ级地表水标准,平均达标率为61.0%,2006年- 2009年粪大肠菌群四年达标率依次为54.2%、56.9%、59.4%、74.0%,呈逐渐上升趋势.河段上游水体粪大肠菌

  19. 杭州地区腹泻患儿轮状病毒感染流行病学特征分析%Epidemiological characteristics of rotavirus infection among diarrhea children in Hangzhou

    李伟; 楼金吐; 尚世强; 李华美; 周明明


    [ Objective ] To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of the children infected with rotavirus in Hangzhou , and to provide evidence to prevent and cure the children with acute diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection. [Method] The antigen assay of rotavirus in stool from the outpatient and inpatient children with acute diarrhea was em-ployed in 2007 - 2011, and the positive patient information was statistically analyzed. [Results] The rotavirus-positive rate of the children of Hangzhou was 29. 25% in 2007 -2011,the annual rotavirus-positive rate decreased from 39. 42% in 2007 to 19. 61% in 2011. The epidemic period of children rotavirus was mainly in November and December of every year,and the children aged 6~18 months had the high infection rate. The rotavirus-positive rate was 32. 28% in outpatient children with diarrhea,and the positive rate was 20. 70% in hospitalized children. [Conclusion] The children rotavirus infection rate was lower than the national average level in Hangzhou,the safe and effective rotavirus vaccine development may eradicate the hazards of children rotavirus in the prevention and treatment of children rotavirus.%[目的]探讨杭州地区腹泻儿童感染A组轮状病毒的流行病学特征,指导临床防治. [方法]对2007-2011年门诊和住院的急性腹泻儿童的大便进行轮状病毒抗原检测,并采用统计方法分析流行病学特征. [结果]杭州地区2007-2011年腹泻儿童A组轮状病毒平均阳性率为29.25%.阳性率从2007年的39.42%下降到2011年的19.61%,其中每年11-12月份为儿童轮状病毒感染高峰期;且以6~18月的患儿感染率最高.腹泻儿童中门诊轮状病毒阳性率为32.28%,住院儿童的阳性率为20.70%. [结论]杭州地区儿童A组轮状病毒感染率低于全国平均水平,而且有逐年下降趋势.在今后应加快安全高效的轮状病毒疫苗的开发,从根本上解决儿童轮状病毒的危害.

  20. Mycotoxin rapid detection and safety evaluation for cereal and oil products in Hangzhou markets%杭州市粮油类农产品真菌毒素快速检测与安全性评估

    张巧艳; 王钫; 陈健文; 王伟; 钟钱英; 周育


    Based on conventional assays of mycotoxins, we have established a new rapid detection method for four kinds of mycotoxins using immune purification step and fluorescence ( or HPLC ) inspection technology. The new method was applied to agricultural products(cereals and oils) in the markets of Hangzhou for mycotoxins inspection and safety evaluation. There were 28 samples for total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B investigation, and the aflatoxin detection rate was about 25. 0%; 48 samples were determined for ochratoxin A and the detection rate was 22.9%; 49 samples were determined for zearalenone and the detection rate was 42. 9%; 39 samples were determined for deoxynivalenol and the detection rate was 15. 4%. The average detection rate of the four kinds of mycotoxin was about 30%. Mycotoxin safety evaluation showed that the MRL( Maximum Residue Limit) exceeding ratio of aflatoxin and zearalenone were higher than the other two mycotoxins, and the safety level of deoxynivalenol was higher than the other three mycotoxins in Hangzhou agricultural product markets. Overall, there were widespread contaminations of cereal and oil agricultural products by mycotoxins in Hangzhou and some types of mycotoxins exceeded far beyond the MRL. Much effort should be placed to the regulation of mycotoxins safety of the cereal and oil products.%在真菌毒素传统检测方法基础上,建立并完善4类真菌毒素免疫亲和净化与荧光法(或HPLC)快速检测技术.应用真菌毒素快速检测技术对杭州市粮油类农产品进行抽样检测并作安全性评估.黄曲霉毒素总量和黄曲霉毒素B1的检测样本数为28个,检出率为25%;赭曲霉毒素A的检测样本数为48个,检出率为22.9%;玉米赤霉烯酮的检测样本数为49个,检出率为42.9%;呕吐毒素的检测样本数为39个,检出率为15.4%.4类真菌毒素的平均检出率约为30%左右.4类真菌毒素安全性评估结果为:黄曲霉毒素和玉米赤霉烯酮超标率最高,呕

  1. 杭南长客运专线速度目标值选择分析%Analysis on Speed Target Value of Hangzhou-Nanchang-Changsha Railway Passenger Dedicated Line

    张鹏飞; 雷晓燕; 高亮; 吴浩存


    Taking the Hangzhou-Nanchang-Changsha Railway passenger dedicated line as an example, and according to the selection principle of speed target value of high-speed railway, this paper analyzed the different speed target values which have influence on relevant aspects, including technical standard, engineering quantity and static investment, travel time, EMU's purchase cost and investment efficiency. The research results show that: ( a ) The higher the speed target value is, the higher the technical standards for this line will be, and the engineering quantity and static investment will also increase, but the increase will not be large. ( b ) Within Hangzhou-Changsha section, as the targeted speed value increases , the quantity of the EMU needed by the turnover of passenger traffic will decrease;there will be the lowest EMU's purchase cost when the speed target value is 250 km/h; and there will be little difference on EMU's purchase costs between the 300 km/h and 350 km/h speed target values. ( c) The 350 km/h speed target value has significant advantages in two aspects of saving travel time and boosting investment efficiency. Finally, after comprehensively consideration on all influence factors, the paper proposed that the 350 km/h speed target value should be used for the Hangzhou-Nanchang-Changsha Railway passenger dedicated line.%以杭南长客运专线为例,在遵循高速铁路速度目标值选择原则的基础上,分析不同速度目标值对技术标准、工程数量和静态投资、旅行时间、动车组购置费以及投资效益的影响。研究结果表明:速度目标值越高,线路所选择的技术标准越高,工程数量和静态投资也随之增大,但增幅不大;杭州—长沙区段内,随着速度目标值的提高,满足旅客周转的动车组数量减少;250 km/h方案的动车购置费最低,300 km/h和350 km/h两种方案的动车购置费相差不大;350 km/h方案在节约旅行时间和投资效益两个方面占有

  2. Analysis of HIV infection and sexual behavior among MSM in Hangzhou%杭州市男男性接触人群艾滋病病毒感染现状及感染者特征分析

    金丹丹; 陈树昶; 罗艳; 苑航; 罗文杰; 许珂


    目的 了解杭州市男男性接触者(MSM)艾滋病病毒感染情况,并对感染者的社会行为特征进行分析,为艾滋病健康教育及高危行为干预计划的改进和完善提供依据.方法 对2009-2011年杭州市614名MSM人群进行问卷调查,收集社会人口学和危险行为资料,采集外周静脉血进行HIV抗体检测.结果 本组在614名MSM人群中共检出HIV感染者65例,HIV抗体阳性率为10.59%; HIV感染者以未婚、低龄化,高学历为主,艾滋病知识总知晓率为84.13%.65例HIV感染者均在最近半年与男性发生过肛交性行为,与男性最近一次性行为安全套使用率为62.17%:最近半年与异性发生性行为者20人,与异性发生性行为最近一次安全套使用率为33.25%.结论 杭州市MSM人群HIV感染率较高,HIV感染者存在认知与行为分离、无保护男男性行为现象,应加强对MSM人群及其感染者的健康教育和行为干预.%Objective The study was conducted to investigate the HIV infection among MSM in Hangzhou as well as the sexual behavior of HIV-positive MSM in order to provide the basis for the improvement of AIDS health education and intervention. Methods A total of 614 MSM were surveyed from 2009 to 2011 in Hangzhou city. They were all asked to finish the questionnaire. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors were collected and analyzed. Also blood samples were collected for HIV antibody detection. Results Out of 614 MSM, 65 turned out to be antibody positive with the positive rate of 10. 59%. The majority of HIV-infected MSM were young-aged, unmarried and well-educated with the overall AIDS awareness rate of 84. 13%. They all had anal sex with men and 20 also had sex with women in the past six months and only 62. 17% and 33. 25% used condoms during the most recent sexual intercourse. Conclusions The positive rate of HIV antibody is relatively high among MSM in Hangzhou. The unprotected sexual behavior of HIV

  3. 杭州市中小学生营养相关健康问题流行现状及防控对策%Prevalence of nutrition-related health problems among primary and middle school students in Hangzhou

    朱晓霞; 罗军; 李青卿; 施文英; 刘辉


    目的 了解杭州市中小学生营养相关健康问题流行现状和特征,为制定针对性的防控措施提供科学依据.方法 本研究按照2010年全国学生体质健康调研要求进行抽样,现场检测学生共3 743名,筛查学生生长迟滞、消瘦、超重、肥胖和贫血情况.用Excel和SPSS 15.0统计软件作统计学处理,P<0.05为差异有统计学意义.结果 杭州市城乡学生营养不良检出率为5.64%,低于2005年全国同类地区水平(P<0.05);农村学生超重和肥胖检出率分别为12.25%和8.09%,高于2005年全国沿海富裕农村水平(P<0.01);城乡学生贫血平均检出率为18.89%,边缘性贫血占87.35%,边缘性贫血构成比高于2005年全国学生体质调研同类地区水平.结论 相对于营养不良,杭州学生的营养过剩和营养不均衡情况更为明显,尤其是乡村学生.应采取加强营养教育,同时突出铁营养教育,科学合理调整膳食的综合干预措施.%Objective To evaluate the current status of nutrition-related health problems among primary and middle school students in Hangzhou. Methods 3 743 students were surveyed and examined according to the method of Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance of Chinese School Students (2010) for the screening of growth retardation, thinness, overweight, obesity and anemia. Results The survey revealed that the overall malnutrition rate was 5. 51% , which was lower compared to that of students from other similar area surveyed in 2005. However, there were 10. 74% overweight students and 7. 84% of obesity among those from rural area of Hangzhou, both were higher than that of counterparts from other similar region surveyed in 2005. Also there was as high as 18. 89% students suffering from anemia, with marginal anemia accounting for 87. 35% which was also higher. Conclusions The prevalence of overnutrition and imbalanced nutrition were more outstanding among students in Hangzhou, especially those from

  4. 杭州地区成人食物不耐受情况的调查分析%Study on specific IgG antibody to food intolerance in adult in Hangzhou

    孙博; 王昊; 卓广超; 汪燕; 陈锂; 丁晓霞


    目的:调查杭州地区成人7种食物不耐受的情况.方法:用酶联免疫法(ELISA)检测杭州地区433例成人血清7种食物特异性IgG抗体浓度.结果:7种食物特异性IgG抗体总的阳性比例为牛奶15.9%(69例),鸡蛋37.4%( 162例),大豆9.24%(40例),鱼6.93%(30例),花生4.39%(19例),牛肉0.46%(2例),虾6.93%(30例);男性总体阳性率低于女性.7种食物中,成人患者对鸡蛋、牛奶最为敏感,且对7种食物均以轻度不耐受为主.不同年龄段成人患者对鸡蛋、虾的不耐受比例差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:本地区成人食物不耐受阳性率较高.成人对于虾和鱼不耐受比例高于儿童.%Objective: To investigate food intolerance of seven kinds of food in adult in Hangzhou. Methods: Serum specific IgG level was detected by Enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay in 433 adults for 7 kinds of food. Results: The positive rates of specific IgG level were as follows : 15. 9% for milk, 37/4% for egg, 9. 24% for soybean, 6. 93% for fish, 4. 39% for peanut, . 0.46% for beef and 6.93% for shrimp. Famales showed higher positive rates than males in all kinds of food. Among 7 kinds of foods, the positive rate of food allergen - specific IgG was the highest for egg, and milk came the second. All the 7 kinds of food induced a mild allergy. Significant diffenences of positive rates were also found in diffenent age groups (P <0. 05) with hypersen-sitivity to egg and shrimp. Conclusion; There existed high positive rates of food intolerance in adults in Hangzhou. Adults showed greater intolerance than children to the fish and shrimp.

  5. The Strategy Study of Large Hangzhou Marine Sports Tourism Circle Building%大杭州海洋体育旅游圈的构建与发展策略研究



    The rich marine tourism resources and the strong economic foundation of Zhejiang Province provide the firm guarantee and support for the development of marine sports tourism. Hangzhou, the core city of marine sports tourism circle, not only has the well-known tourism resources at home and abroad, but also promotes the development of surrounding inland and costal cities’ tourism industry and the notability of travel destinations in politics, economy, culture, transportation, etc. With the strategies of land and sea linkage, government guidance, sound management, brands creating, structural optimization, marketing strengthening, etc., the large Hangzhou marine sports tourism circle constructs a“one core, two wings and three districts”layout which will contribute to the development of Zhejiang sports tourism industry and enhance the international competitiveness of marine leisure sports tourism in Zhejiang.%浙江省有着丰富的海洋旅游资源和雄厚的经济基础,为海洋体育旅游产业的发展提供了有力保证和支撑。以杭州做为海洋体育旅游圈的核心城市,既有国内外知名的旅游资源,又在政治、经济、文化、交通等方面带动周边内陆和沿海城市旅游产业的发展和旅游目的地知名度的提升。实施海陆联动、政府引导、健全管理、创建品牌、优化结构、加强营销等策略,从而实现构建“一核两翼三区”的大杭州海洋体育旅游圈的布局,能够促进浙江省体育旅游产业的发展,提升浙江省海洋体育休闲旅游的国际竞争力。

  6. Maize Dwarf Mosaic Disease Occurred in Hangzhou Isolate Caused by Sugarcane Mosaic Virus%杭州地区发生的玉米花叶病由甘蔗花叶病毒引起

    程晔; 陈炯; 郑滔; 杨建平; 陈剑平


    从杭州地区呈现玉米矮花叶典型症状的玉米病组织中提纯得到大量线状病毒粒子,大多数长度为750?nm。病组织中含有大量风轮状内含体和板状集结体。病毒外壳蛋白为33.6?kD。病毒RNA1 3’端序列(1.8?kb)与甘蔗花叶病毒(SCMV)同源性最高,达71.5%~99.1%,与高梁花叶病毒(SrMV)同源性次之,为67.8%~68.5%,与玉米矮花叶病毒(MDMV)同源性最低,仅为38.4%~48.4%,从而初步认为此病害由SCMV引起。根据已发表的SCMV外壳蛋白氨基酸序列作亲缘性分析,表明SCMV可分为美国、南非、澳大利亚;德国和中国三大类。%Recently maize dwarf mosaic disease was occurred on maize crop seriously in large scale in Hangzhou district. Purified preparations from the infected maize leaves contained numerous filamentous virus particles of c.750 nm in length. Cells of infected plants contained typical pinwheels and laminated aggregates. The coat protein of the virus was 33.6 kD. A 1.8 kb fragment of 3'-terminus of the viral RNA was amplified by RT-PCR, cloned and its sequence was determined. Sequence comparisons showed that it shared 71.5%~99.1% homology with isolates of sugarcane mosaic virus, 67.8%~68.5% with sorghum mosaic virus and 38.4%~48.4% with maize dwarf mosaic virus, indicating that the pathogen of this disease on maize in Hangzhou was sugarcane mosaic virus. In addition, the relationships of sugarcane mosaic virus isolates from different origins all over world were discussed based on coat protein sequences.

  7. 杭州湾滨海生态绿地小气候效应研究%Research on Micro-climate Effects of Hangzhou Bay Coastal Ecological Greenland

    周和锋; 邵学新; 房聪玲; 吴明; 孙海菁


    通过对杭州湾滨海生态绿地小气候效应的实地调查和定位观测,结果表明:生态绿地植物生长季节可提高空气湿度,空气相对湿度(平均为85.25%)明显高于无林荒地(平均为80.32%);滨海生态绿地的冠层截留效应明显,林冠层全年截留降水量为226.2 mm,占全年降水量的16.92%;滨海绿地全年月平均大气压的变化呈S形,树木在生长季节内有降低大气压的作用,树木停止生长后林木有增加大气压的作用;滨海生态绿地具有降低风速的作用,绿地内可降低风速约75.94%,防风能力较强,降低风速的效率为67.42%;滨海绿地对改变风向也有较大的作用。%The micro-climate effects of Hangzhou Bay coastal ecological greenland were researched. The results indicated that ecological greenland has a role in regulating the temperature and humidity. Compared to non-forest land, the forests in the summer can adjust to reduce the temperature, and play an opposite role in the winter. The ecological greenland can increase the air humidity during the growing season of plants and have a significantly higher air relative humidity (average 85.25%) than non-forest land (an average of 80.32%). The retention effect of canopy is significant in ecological greenland, which can trap precipitation of 226.2 mm throughout the year, accounting for 16.92% of the annual precipitation. The Annual monthly average atmospheric pressure changes with S-shaped trend. The trees can lower atmospheric pressure in the growing season and increase atmospheric pressure when stop growing. The ecological greenland can lower 75.94% of the wind speed with the reduce efficiency of about 67.42%. It also plays a role in change the wind direction. Overall, the micro-climate effects of Hangzhou Bay coastal ecological greenland are significant.

  8. 杭州城市旅游品牌的演化机理及优化%Research on evolutionary mechanism and optimization of tourism brand of Hangzhou City

    陆林; 朱申莲; 刘曼曼


    基于来杭游客的旅游博客分析,探究杭州旅游品牌塑造现状,分析杭州城市旅游品牌演化过程及各阶段特征,认为1983年前,杭州城市旅游品牌处于自然生成阶段(“人间天堂时代”),1983-2000年处于引导生成阶段(“天堂城市时代”),2001年起,进入培育塑造阶段(“品质休闲时代”);旅游资源开发、市场需求变化、政策规划引导、旅游设施与交通建设、旅游产业结构升级等是杭州城市旅游品牌演化的动力要素.探讨了各动力要素的运行关系,提出了强化“休闲之都”形象建设、加强旅游品牌整合和系统建设、树立“顾客满意”理念,提升旅游品牌忠诚度等优化措施.%Based on the analysis of the blogs by tourists from Hangzhou, this paper made a thorough inquiry into the current situation of the current situation of tourist brand building in Hangzhou , its evolution process as well as its features during times. Before 1980, it was in the period of natural development (the Earthly paradise period). From then to 2000, it was in the period under the guidance of the administration (the urban paradise period). Since 2001, it has entered a stage when receiving special cultivation (the high quality recreation period). Such driving forces as tourism resources development, changes in market demand, policy planning guide, tourist facilities and transportation construction, tourism industrial structure upgrading motivates the evolution of its tourist brand building. The paper elaborates the operation relations coupled with current situation of its ban building, proposing optimal measures like strengthening brand supporting facilities building and planning guide, unified image, enhancing the building of Leisure City, setting up a sense of system,strengthening tourism brand integration and system construction, building the concept of customer satisfaction and focusing on raising loyalty to tourism brand building.

  9. China Eximbank Promotes China-Tunisia Cooperation


    @@ The Export and Import Bank of China(China Eximbank) and Tunisia Embassy, on March 28,jointly held "China-Tunisia Cooperation Forum" in Beijing. Wei Jianguo, Vice Minister of the Ministry of Commerce,Li Ruogu, President of China Eximbank and Mohamed Nouri Jouini, Minister of the Tunisia Development and International Cooperation Department attended the forum. Government officials and entrepreneurs from both sides had deep communications on the topics of the investment environment, economic and trade cooperation, etc..

  10. HFC-134a Emissions in China: An Inventory for 1995-2030

    Su, Shenshen; Fang, Xuekun; Wu, Jing; Li, Li; Hu, Jianxin; Han, Jiarui


    HFC-134a is the most important substitute of CFC-12 used in the mobile air-conditioner in China since 1995. The bottom-up method was used to estimate HFC-134a emissions in China, from 1995 to 2030, basing on updated automobile industry data and latest emission characters. From 1995, total HFC-134a emission has kept a high growth rate of nearly 60% per year, and reached 16,414.3 Mg (11,959.4-20,834.5 Mg) in 2010, which was equivalent to 23.5 Mt CO2-eq emissions. Furthermore, the emissions in China accounted for nearly half of total emissions of Non-AnnexI countries in 2008. As for provincial emissions in 2010, provinces with emission greater than 1,000 Mg are Guangdong, Shandong, Jiangsu and Beijing. Quantitative relationship between provincial HFC-134a emissions and GRP of the Tertiary Industry was used to estimate HFC-134a emissions at county level, and Hangzhou municipal district held the maximum emission intensity (4,605 Mg/10,000 km2). For HFC-134a, emissions calculated from the observations within 46 cities through Euler box model are in good agreement with the corresponding emissions estimated from the bottom-up method, verifying that the emission inventory at county level adequately describes the emission spatial pattern. For the future emissions of HFC-134a, projected emissions will reach 89,370.4 Mg (65,959.7- 114,068.2 Mg) in 2030 under the Business-as-usual (BAU) Scenario, but under the Alternative Scenario, a emission reduction potential of 88.6% of the projected BAU emissions would be obtained.

  11. Seroprevalence of Bartonella in Eastern China and analysis of risk factors

    Lu Liang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bartonella infections are emerging in the Zhejiang Province of China. However, there has been no effort to date to explore the epidemiology of these infections in this region, nor to identify risk factors associated with exposure to Bartonella. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Bartonella in both patients bitten by dogs and blood donors (for control in Eastern China, and to identify risk factors associated with exposure to Bartonella. As no previous data for this region have been published, this study will provide baseline data useful for Bartonella infection surveillance, control, and prevention. Methods Blood samples were collected from industrial rabies clinic attendees and blood donors living in eight areas of the Zhejiang Province of China, between December 2005 and November 2006. An indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to determine the presence of Bartonella in these samples. Risk factors associated with Bartonella exposure were explored using Chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis of epidemiological data relating to the study's participants. Results Bartonella antibodies were detected in 19.60% (109/556 of blood samples. Seroprevalence varied among the eight areas surveys, ranging from over 32% in Hangzhou to only 2% in Jiangshan (X2 = 28.22, P Bartonella antibodies in people who had been bitten by dogs than in blood donors (X2 = 13.86, P Bartonella was similar among males (18.61%, n = 317 and females (20.92%, n = 239. Conclusions Bartonella antibodies were encountered in people living across Zhejiang Province and the seropositivity rate among those exposed to dog bites was significantly higher than that among blood donors, indicating that dog bites may be a risk factor for Bartonella infection.

  12. Factors associated with the attitudes of oncology nurses toward hospice care in China

    Yang F


    Full Text Available Fei-Min Yang,1 Zhi-Hong Ye,2 Lei-Wen Tang,3 Wei-Lan Xiang,3 Lin-Juan Yan,4 Min-Li Xiang5 1Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Nursing, 3Department of Nursing Education, 4Department of Surgical Oncology, 5Department of Medical Oncology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China Objective: To examine factors that are associated with the apprehension levels of oncology nurses toward hospice care. Factors examined in this study included demographics, nursing experience, education levels, title and post, personal experiences, and attitudes toward end-of-life care. Methods: Questionnaires were provided to nurses (n=201 from three first-tier hospitals in China. A quantitative scale, Professional End-of-life Care Attitude Scale (PEAS, was used to assess personal and professional apprehension levels toward hospice care. The PEAS was translated to Chinese with terms adapted to the cultural environment in China. Statistical analyses were performed to examine the relationships between the apprehension levels and various factors. Results: The total PEAS scores exhibited internal consistency and reliability, with a Cronbach α=0.897 and Pearson’s r=0.9030. Of the 201 nurses, 184 provided a valid response (91.5%. Education level was significantly correlated with personal (P<0.01 and professional apprehension levels (P<0.05. Higher apprehension level was found in nurses with less education. Conclusion: The PEAS quantitative survey is useful for evaluating apprehension levels of nurses toward hospice care. Nurses with more education experienced less anxiety when providing care for terminally ill patients. The findings suggested that education programs on hospice care could be strengthened to help nurses cope with negative attitudes toward end-of-life care. Keywords: end of life, nurses’ perspective, communication, palliative care, cancer patients, terminally ill




    记述贵州省扇山(虫,忽)属2新种,模式标本保存在浙江自然博物馆昆虫标本室.褐带扇山(虫,忽)Rhipidolestes fascia sp.nov图1-7.正模♂,贵州省赤水沙椤自然保护区.18-Ⅴ-2000;配模♀,副模10♂,8♀,采地与采期同正模.李氏扇山(虫,忽)Rhipidolestes lii sp.nov图1-7正模♂,贵州省习水国家级自然保护区,8-Ⅵ-2000;副模2♂,采地与采期同正模.%Rhipidolestes fascia sp. nov (holotype ♂, Ghishui, Guizhou, 18- Ⅴ -2000) and specimens are deposited in the Zhejiang Museum of History, Ha Hangzhou,China.Rhipidolestes is a small genus, extending from Burma,through southern China and Taiawan to Japan, 16 known species, 11 of which are known from China. (Wilson, 2000). Two new species from west-south China are described in this paper.

  14. Newsroom


    Hangzhou to organize International Silk Forum 2007 in Oct State National Cocoon and Silk Coordination Office,China Silk Association,and Hangzhou Government have planned to organize an"International Silk Forum"during October 2007,in Hangzhou City,Zhejiang Province.

  15. China Pop

    Steen, Andreas


    Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence in this cultu......Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence...... in this cultural sector while promoting a policy of dialogue, integration and exclusion. Cooperation with the state is attractive because it is rewarded with unlimited access to official media, audiences and commercial success. The article focuses on recent trends in China’s most important genres of popular music......: Mandopop, (red) mainstream music and rock music. It argues that the Chinese state’s success in raising the popularity of the mainstream is based on its constant promotion, patriotic education, a general pride in China’s strength, nationalism and – equally important – adaptation and the commercial...

  16. China Energy Primer

    Ni, Chun Chun


    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  17. Distribution and chemical speciation of dissolved inorganic arsenic in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    WU Bin; SONG Jinming; LI Xuegang


    Distribution and chemical speciation of dissolved inorganic arsenic were examined in Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Results demonstrated that: (1) both As(III) and As(V) were detected, with As(V) dominated at 40% stations of surface water and 51% stations of bottom water; (2) influenced by the exchange of fresh and sea water, the type of surface sediment and the transport of various water masses, large values in surface water were observed along the coastal region and in the same latitude of Changjiang River Estuary and Hangzhou Bay, and in bottom water found in the southern area where the Taiwan Warm Current and Kuroshio Current influenced; (3) As(III) behaved non-conservatively in Changjiang River Estuary. Man-derived inputs cause substantial positive deviation from the theoretical dilution. The negative correlation of As(V) to salinity in surface water suggested that it behaved conservatively during the transportation along Changjiang River Estuary. While, the occurrence of As(V) up to the linear fit in bottom water indicated the eventual transfer from dissolved phase to particulate phase, which was impossible to be determined without the knowledge of arsenic level and speciation in suspended particulate matter. Further study is needed on the arsenic source/sink relationships based on the distribution profiles.

  18. Abundance and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in livestock farms: a comprehensive investigation in eastern China.

    Cheng, Weixiao; Chen, Hong; Su, Chao; Yan, Shuhai


    Increases of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment may pose a threat to public health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the abundance and diversity of tetracycline (tet) and sulfonamide (sul) resistance genes in eight livestock farms in Hangzhou, eastern China. Ten tet genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetG, tetL, tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetW, and tetX), two sul genes (sulI and sulII), and one genetic element associated with mobile antibiotic resistance genes [class 1 integron (intI1)] were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. No significant difference was found in the abundance of the tet and sul genes in various scales of pig, chicken, and duck farms (P>0.05). The average abundance of ribosomal protection protein genes (tetQ, tetM, tetW, and tetO) in the manure and wastewater samples was higher than most of the efflux pump genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetL) and enzymatic modification gene (tetX) (Pknowledge for managing antibiotic resistance emanating from agricultural activities. © 2013.

  19. Fractal Determination of Coastal Types Based on GIS--A Case Study of China

    Zhu Xiaohua; Wu Xiuqin; Wang Jian


    The probability of fractal determination of coastal types based on GIS is preliminarily discussed with China as an example. Finally, some significant conclusions are drawn: (1) The fractal dimension of coastline of the bedrock coast is larger than that of the plain coast on the same scale map; (2) As far as the bedrock coast is concerned, the larger fractal dimension of coastline of the bedrock coast on the same scale map indicates that the bedrock coast is probably not typical; (3) As far as the plain coast is concerned, the smaller fractal dimension of coastline of the plain coast on the same scale map indicates that it is probably the silt plain coast; (4) The different substantial compositions affect the fractal dimensions of coastlines of different coastal types. In general, the coast which lies in the north of the Hangzhou Bay consists of sand mainly, its surface is flat, and it is connected with the coastal plain, its landform is broad shoal, its total change is comparatively homogenous in the tidal dynamic process, and thus, the relatively smaller fractal dimension of coastline results from this. For the bedrock coast, there is more bedrock, the coastline is comparatively smooth and straight, being affected by the faults and ocean dynamic process, which result in the larger fractal dimension.

  20. 城镇化背景下的城市品牌战略和生活品质研究:以杭州市为例%A Study of the City Brand Strategy and the Quality of Life in the Urbanization---A Case Study of Hangzhou City



    In the last decade of the 20th century,urbanization was accelerated in China.Many cities set up their strategies of development with particular aims,and this generates the debate about city brands.With city entering into management stage,the strategy of city brand no longer only focuses on product marketing and image of publicity but overall function optimization of city economics and social factor.Take Hangzhou city as an example,the city brand is constructed between different stakeholders.Its strategy not only has emphasized the importance of city brand,industry brand and enterprise brand,but also paid attention to the local government innovation.The strategy aims to improve the embodied cognition of the public through the public participation encouraged by “Democracy and Promoted people's livelihood”and “Social Composite Subject”.The brand construction strategy integrates the city brand and the ultimate goal of city development,which has answered the key question in the city development.%在我国城镇化速度不断加快的背景下,城市品牌作为地方政府推进区域发展和城市竞争的重要工具和手段成为讨论的热点话题。随着城市进入经营阶段,城市品牌战略正从单一的产品营销和城市形象宣传,走向以城市经济和社会等整体功能优化为特征的城市品牌化进程。基于杭州市的地方实践,城市品牌化的进程构建于不同利益相关者的关系之中,其品牌化的进程不仅强调城市品牌、行业品牌和企业品牌不同层次品牌在优化城市品质方面的作用,也强化地方政府创新,致力于通过“民主促民生”方式以及“社会复合主体”平台鼓励社会各阶层的民主参与,以提高民众对城市品牌的体验性认知。其城市品牌化战略将城市品牌建设进程与城市发展最终目标的有机统一,回答了城市发展的关键问题。

  1. The Revival of Imperial Street:Integrated Conservation on South Zhongshan Road of Hangzhou%"御街"的新生——杭州市"中山南路综合保护工程"设计

    廖源; 徐雷; 曹震宇


    South Zhongshan Road is a typical case of the residential historical district in Hangzhou. Based on the practice of integroted conservation on South Zhongshan Road the circumstance, background and the significance had been onlyzed, And then a series of methods and strategies had been extracted, including to be original, and to be harmonious while remaining distinction. Finally a Post Occupancy Evaiuation has been made on this district.%中山南路是杭州颇具典型意义的居住性历史街区.基于"中山南路综合保护工程"设计实践的体会,论文分析了中山南路的背景、现状和历史价值,并依据相关理论提炼出"原汁原味、和而不同"的综合保护策略,最后对该工程的使用后评价进行了初步研究.

  2. The Survival Status and Literary Aspiration of the Men of Letters in Hangzhou in the Early Qing Dynasty%清初杭州文士的生存境域与文学诉求



    Men of letters in Hangzhou lived in a complicated environment. Experiencing the whole process of the invasion of the army of Qing tribe, the rectification of social order, and the integration of the whole nation, they either indulged themselves in learning and craved for official careers, or involving in counseling for high ranking officials. Their survival status exerted a direct impact on the literary movements and the trend of the literary thoughts in the early Qing Dynasty. Their literary aspiration reflects the mentality of the men of letters in the early Qing Dynasty.%清初杭州社会环境复杂,文士们亲历清军南下、整饬秩序、走向大统的整个过程。他们或隐逸逃禅,或乐学重仕,或游幕干谒。杭州文士的生存境域,直接影响了清初的文学活动以及文学思潮的走向;其文学诉求,反映了清初杭州文士独特的心路历程。

  3. 杭州地区伤寒及甲型副伤寒沙门菌流行菌株分子特征的研究%Molecular characteristics of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A isolates in Hangzhou area

    汪皓秋; 潘劲草; 葛玉梅; 俞骅; 郑伟; 张蔚; 孟冬梅; 严杰


    Objective To determine the molecular characteristics of predominant Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A strains prevalent in Hangzhou area from 2002 to 2008.Methods Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE),multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) were applied for typing as well as analysis of the molecular characteristics of 31 S.typhi isolates and 404 S.paratyphi A isolates from Hangzhou area during 2002 to 2008.Results The 404 S.paratyphi A isolates could be divided into six PFGE types (P1-P6).99.0% of the S.paratyphi A isolates (400/404) belonged to the same one clone family (P1 and P2 types),in which P1 strains occupied 93.3% (373/400) of the isolates.The 31 S.typhi isolates displayed a high diversity,which could be classified into 14 PFGE types,28 MLVA types with 90.3% resolving power and 3 MLST types.The S.typhi strains prevalent in Hangzhou area were similar to those in Southeast Asia but different from those in Europe.The variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sites with high polymorphism,TR1,TR2 and Sal02,could be used to the markers for diagnosis of S.typhi isolates in the area.The MLST types of 31 S.typhi isolates included all the three types currently found in the world but the ST2 type of S.typhi strains was predominant (23/31,74.2%).Conclusion The paratyphoid A prevalence in Hangzhou area in the recent years is caused by infection of the same clone family of S.paratyphi A whereas the S.typhi strains prevalent in the area display a high diversity.%目的 了解并确定2002-2008年杭州地区伤寒沙门菌、甲型副伤寒沙门菌优势菌株的分子特征.方法 采用脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)、多位点串联重复序列分析(MLVA)或多位点序列分型(MLST)对2002-2008年杭州地区分离的31株伤寒沙门菌、404株甲型副伤寒沙门菌进行分型并分析.结果 404株甲型副伤寒沙门菌可分为6个PFGE型,P1型和P2型属于同一个克隆系,99.0

  4. 杭州中信大厦折面空间巨型结构设计%Structural design on folding plate spatial mega structure of CITIC Bank Hangzhou

    张耀康; 周健; 许静


    The new building of CITIC Bank Hangzhou is an irregular complicated structure. Three design factors of architecture, including unique geometry, open entrance with intense visual effect, and internal courtyard, increase many difficulties of structural and ultra limits design. The structural form and design characteristics were introduced. Specific seismic measures were used to strengthen the weak members. Key issues were solved by overall and detailed analysis to satisfy the architectural requirements. The structure and architecture process is closely intergrated.%杭州中信大厦为不规则的复杂结构,独特的几何构型、视觉效果强烈的开放式人口、通高的内部中庭是该建筑的三大设计要素,由此带来较多的结构难点和超限内容。介绍了该项目结构形式和结构设计的特点,有针对性地采取抗震加强措施,并通过整体和细部分析解决关键问题,满足了建筑要求,实现建筑和结构的紧密结合。

  5. 杭州市20~59岁妇女贫血现况调查%An Investigation of Anemia Status of Women Aged 20-59 in Hangzhou

    黄利明; 张艺; 滕建江; 朱晓霞; 刘辉; 王玲莉


    目的 了解杭州市妇女贫血现状,为营养改善提供科学依据.方法 分层随机抽样方法调查杭州市20~59岁妇女,对调查对象进行血红蛋白含量测定.结果 808名20~59岁妇女,血红蛋白均值为129.50 g/L,贫血164人,贫血率20.30%.结论 要加强对妇女营养健康教育,改善其膳食营养结构,积极开展妇女铁干预,改善杭州市妇女贫血现状.%Objective To understand the anemia status of women in Hangzhou, providing a scientific basis for improvement of their nutrition status. Methods Women aged 20 -59 were randomly stratified and sampled, then hemoglobin was tested for each respondents.Results The mean hemoglobin value of 808 women was 129. 50 g/L, and 20. 30% ( 164 women) were found anemic. Conclusion It is necessary to strengthen the nutritional health education improving the dietary structure and implement iron intervention among women in order to reduce anemia.

  6. 中国杭州骨质疏松性髋部骨折的流行病学研究%Epidemiological studies of Osteoporotic Hip Fracture in Hangzhou

    王伟; 李春雯; 史晓林


    Objective:To investigate the incidence and epidemiological features of osteoporotic hip fracture in persons over 50 years old in Hangzhou area(8700400 people in 2010) from 2000 to 2005 and from 2006 to 2010,and to analyze the difference of incidence in different gender and age.Methods:Excluding the cases of non-osteoporotic hip fractures and not in Hangzhou city,the cases of osteoporotic hip fractures randomly collected from 8 grade Ⅲ-A hospitals in Hangzhou were compared to analyze the incidence in patients over 50 years old.Results:The incidence of osteoporotic hip fracture was 119.1/100000 during 2000 and 2005 while 137.73/100000 during 2006 and 2010.The total incidence of hip fracture in patients over 50 years old was 58.7/100000,and the international standardized incidence was 61.7/100000.The international standardized incidence of osteoporotic hip fracture was 80.62/100000 in female and 45.4/100000 in male,and the difference was significant between male and female (P<0.05).Conclusion:Compared among patients over 50 years old,the incidence of osteoporotic hip fracture in female was higher than that in male during 2000 and 2010 in Hangzhou.There was gender difference in osteoporotic hip fracture type during the 10 years(P<0.005).The patients underwent surgery were more than those underwent conservative therapy (P<0.005).There was age-related difference between two types of osteoporotic hip fracture in male (P<0.005).Autumn and winter were the seasons with higher incidence rate of osteoporotic hip fracture.%目的:调查分析杭州市50岁以上人群(2010年杭州人口870.04万人)2000年~2005年间和2006年~2010年间的骨质疏松性髋部骨折发病率及其流行病学特点,分析比较不同阶段、不同性别发病率的差异.方法:随机选取杭州市8所三级甲等医院的病案室收集的骨质疏松性髋部骨折的(主要包括股骨颈骨折和股骨粗隆部骨折)病例记录,排除了非骨质疏松性髋部骨折及

  7. 浅谈杭州国际机场大厦双层幕墙设计%Discuss the Double Curtain Wall Design of International Airport Building in Hangzhou



    双层幕墙是玻璃幕墙技术在建筑节能环保方面新发展的产物。本文根据笔者长期双层玻璃幕墙工程经验,以杭州国际机场大厦双层玻璃幕墙工程为案例,介绍了双层玻璃幕墙特点、双层玻璃幕墙工程设计方案、幕墙工程构造及其幕墙的热工性能。%Double curtain wal is the new development prod-uct with glass curtain wal technology in the aspect of building energy conservation and environmental protection. In this arti-cle, the author bases on the double deck glass curtain wal en-gineering experience for a long time, takes the double deck gl-ass curtain wal engineering of Hangzhou international airport building as an example, and introduces the characteristics of double glass curtain wal , the design scheme of double deck gl-ass curtain wal engineering, the structure and thermal perfor-mance of the curtain wal curtain wal project.

  8. Landscape Plant Spacing A Case Study of Green Space in Hangzhou West Lake%园林植物空间营造研究 以杭州西湖绿地为例

    李伟强; 包志毅


    园林植物空间营造是园林设计的核心内容,其重要性在现代园林中日益表现出来。通过对杭州西湖园林绿地植物空间营造案例的实测和量化分析,从视角与空间感受、高度与立面层次、盖度与围合感、形状系数与空间层次四方面探讨园林植物空间营造的一般规律和数量关系,以更好地指导园林植物种植设计。%Landscape plant spacing is a key part of landscape design,and it has become increasingly important in modern landscape architecture.With a case study of the green space in Hangzhou West Lake,this article analyzed the rules and quantitative relationship of the landscape plant spacing in terms of the perspective and space perception,height and elevation,coverage and sense of enclosure,shape factor and space sequence.The conclusions would provide some guidelines for the landscape plant design.

  9. 杭州东站10 MWp并网BIPV项目计算及校验%Calculation and Verification of 10 MWp Grid-connected BIPV Project in Hangzhou East Railway Station

    熊江; 李树庭; 陈勇


    The grid-connected BIPV system is adopted for 10 MWp PV power generation demonstration project in Hangzhou East Railway Station to integrate the grid-connected PV power generation and the rail transportation buildings. In the paper, the calculation& verification and key issues in the design are discussed, including the estimate of generating capacity of PV power generation system, calculation of DC line voltage drop and system short circuit current, selection of cable cross-section and relay protection setting.%杭州东站10 MWp光伏发电示范项目采用并网BIPV系统,实现光伏并网发电和轨道交通建筑房屋一体化。对其设计中若干计算校验及重点问题进行讨论,包括光伏发电系统发电量估算、直流线路压降计算及电缆截面选择、系统短路电流计算及继电保护整定等。

  10. 杭州市清泰水厂膜处理自控系统方案比选%Scheme comparison on the automatic control system of the Qingtai Water Treatment Plant membrane treatment system in Hangzhou City



    结合杭州市清泰水厂净水技术改造工程,介绍了膜处理自控系统的特点和要求,就三个膜处理自控系统方案进行了分析和总结.通过对比,选用了方案三,该方案实现了每一膜组的冗余热备控制,较好地达到了设计要求,可靠性高.%Based on the technology reconstruction project for the Qingtai Water Treatment Plant drinking water processing system in Hangzhou City, this paper introduced the requirements and characteristics of the automatic control system for the membrane process, analyzed the three automatic control systems for the membrane process, and made the conclusion. Through comparision, the third project was employed. This project could realize the redundant hot standby control for each membrane process unit and relatively satisfyingly meet the design requirements with high stability.

  11. A Survey on the Job Satisfaction of Kindergarten Teachers in Hangzhou City%杭州市幼儿园教师工作满意度现状研究



    研究表明,目前杭州市幼儿园教师的工作满意程度中等偏上。工作满意各维度的满意程度从高到低依次为人际关系、工作环境、工作本身、领导管理、进修升迁、薪资福利。教师的工作满意度随着学历的提高反而下降。随着年龄的增长、工作年限的增加和职称的提高呈上升趋势。合同制教师的满意度明显低于在编教师。%The conclusion is:at the present stage,kindergarten teachers' job satisfaction in Hangzhou is upper-middle.The job satisfaction rates of different dimensions from high to low are interpersonal relationship,working environment,work itself,management,promotion opportunity,salary and welfare.We will find that the higher education they have,the less satisfied the teachers feel.Their job satisfaction is raised with the growth of age.There is an obvious difference in job satisfaction between teachers on the permanent staff and contracted teachers.The job satisfaction of the latter is obviously lower than the former.

  12. South China Sea Challenge


    China's attempts to solve disputes with ASEAN over the South China Sea help regional peace China's marine economy and security are currently faced with new challenges, requiring careful handling, especially in disputes with ASEAN countries and in promoting common development of the South China Sea. The outcome of how this is dealt with could undoubtedly pave the way for solutions to other oceanic disputes. The South China Sea is located south of

  13. SIAL CHINA 2004


    The 5th edition of SIAL CHINA, organized by China Development Chamber of Commerce and Exposium, will take place from March 30th to April 1 st 2004 in Shanghai New International Expo Centre of Pudong. It has been 5 years since SIAL CHINA firstly held in Beijing in 2000. Now, it has been a typical show in China food industry and became the largest international food show in China.

  14. China opens the door

    Starke, K.


    The door to China`s vast market for power generation was opened a bit further for foreign firms in November. That is when power ministry head Shi Dazhen said the country would rely on overseas investors for 20 percent of the funding needed to boost output--double the amount foreigners were previously allowed to contribute. Through 1995, foreigners invested $12.2 billion in China`s electricity industry, accounting for 10 percent of total investment. According to Shi, foreign investors will be asked to provide about $17 billion of the $84 billion China plans to invest in the sector over the next five years. Under China`s Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000), the government aims to boost the country`s power generation capacity at the rate of 15,000 MW to 20,000 MW annually by the year 2000. Since China`s public external debt balance already exceeds $80 billion, however, the government would seem to have little choice but to allow foreigners a greater role. Shi also said that foreigners would be allowed 100 percent ownership of PRC power projects. This is discouraged under China`s current industry guidelines. It is, however, expected to be permitted under China`s first build-operate-transfer (BOT) law, which was anticipated by the end of 1996, says Susan Urkevich, director of project finance at HSBC Investment Bank Asia in Hong Kong. Indeed, China`s first BOT is already happening.

  15. River discharge contribution to sea-level rise in the Yangtze River Estuary, China

    Kuang, Cuiping; Chen, Wei; Gu, Jie; Su, Tsung-Chow; Song, Hongling; Ma, Yue; Dong, Zhichao


    Sea level changes in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) as a result of river discharge are investigated based on the monthly averaged river discharge from 1950 to 2011 at the Datong station. Quantification of the sea level contribution is made by model computed results and the sea level rates reported by the China Sea Level Bulletin (CSLB). The coastal modeling tool, MIKE21, is used to establish a depth-averaged hydrodynamic model covering the YRE and Hangzhou Bay. The model is validated with the measured data. Multi-year monthly river discharges are statistically calculated based on the monthly river discharges at Datong station from 1950 to 2011. The four characteristic discharges (frequency of 75%, 50% and 25%, and multi-year monthly) and month-averaged river discharge from 1950 to 2011 are used to study the seasonal and long-term changes of sea level. The computed sea level at the Dajishan and Lvsi stations are used to study the multi-time scale structure of periodic variation in different time scale of river discharge series. The results reveal that (1) the sea level rises as the river discharge increases, and its amplification decreases from upstream to the offshore. (2) The sea level amplification on the south coast is greater than that on the north coast. When river discharge increases by 20,000 m3/s, the sea level will increase by 0.005-0.010 m in most of Hangzhou Bay. (3) The sea level at the Dajishan station, influenced by river discharge, increased 0.178 mm/y from 1980 to 2011. Correspondingly, the sea level rose at a rate of 2.6-3.0 mm/y during the same period. These values were provided by the CSLB. The increase in sea level (1980-2011) at the Dajishan station caused by river discharge is 6.8-8.9% of the total increase in sea level. (4) The 19-20 year dominant nodal cycle of sea level at the Dajishan and Lvsi stations is in accord with 18.6 year nodal cycle of main tidal constituents on Chinese coasts. It implies that the sea-level change period on the

  16. PM2.5 in the Yangtze River Delta, China: Chemical compositions, seasonal variations, and regional pollution events.

    Ming, Lili; Jin, Ling; Li, Jun; Fu, Pingqing; Yang, Wenyi; Liu, Di; Zhang, Gan; Wang, Zifa; Li, Xiangdong


    Fine particle (PM2.5) samples were collected simultaneously at three urban sites (Shanghai, Nanjing, and Hangzhou) and one rural site near Ningbo in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, China, on a weekly basis from September 2013 to August 2014. In addition, high-frequency daily sampling was conducted in Shanghai and Nanjing for one month during each season. Severe regional PM2.5 pollution episodes were frequently observed in the YRD, with annual mean concentrations of 94.6 ± 55.9, 97.8 ± 40.5, 134 ± 54.3, and 94.0 ± 57.6 μg m(-3) in Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, and Ningbo, respectively. The concentrations of PM2.5 and ambient trace metals at the four sites showed clear seasonal trends, with higher concentrations in winter and lower concentrations in summer. In Shanghai, similar seasonal patterns were found for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and water-soluble inorganic ions (K(+), NH4(+), Cl(-), NO3(-), and SO4(2-)). Air mass backward trajectory and potential source contribution function (PSCF) analyses implied that areas of central and northern China contributed significantly to the concentration and chemical compositions of PM2.5 in Shanghai during winter. Three heavy pollution events in Shanghai were observed during autumn and winter. The modelling results of the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) showed the sources and transport of PM2.5 in the YRD during the three pollution processes. The contribution of secondary species (SOC, NH4(+), NO3(-), and SO4(2-)) in pollution event (PE) periods was much higher than in BPE (before pollution event) and APE (after pollution event) periods, suggesting the importance of secondary aerosol formation during the three pollution events. Furthermore, the bioavailability of Cu, and Zn in the wintertime PM2.5 samples from Shanghai was much higher during the pollution days than during the non-pollution days.

  17. Cyber policy in China

    Austin, Greg


    Few doubt that China wants to be a major economic and military power on the world stage. To achieve this ambitious goal, however, the PRC leadership knows that China must first become an advanced information-based society. But does China have what it takes to get there? Are its leaders prepared to make the tough choices required to secure China's cyber future? Or is there a fundamental mismatch between China's cyber ambitions and the policies pursued by the CCP until now? This book offers the first comprehensive analysis of China's information society. It explores the key practic

  18. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS


    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  19. Environmental assessment of solid waste landfilling in a life cycle perspective (LCA model EASEWASTE)

    Manfredi, Simone

    Flere alternativer er på nuværende tidspunkt til rådighed for håndteringen af blandet affald; ikke desto mindre repræsenterer deponering den mest almindelig anvendte løsningsmodel i en stor del af verden. Affaldsdeponering medvirker til en række forskellige miljøpåvirkninger og, frem for alt, er ...

  20. Content Analysis and Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Sediments of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Yangzhou Section )%京杭大运河扬州段表层沉积物中多环芳烃的分布及风险评价

    郑曦; 温洪宇; 韩宝平; 葛冬梅


    采用HPLC定量检出京杭大运河扬州段表层沉积物中16种优控PAHs的总量范围在505 ~4532.2ng/g(干重)之间,平均值为2359.4ng/g,属中等污染水平,沉积物中的多环芳烃主要来源于煤炭、木材及石油的不完全燃烧;利用沉积物质量基准法(SQGs)对京杭大运河扬州段沉积物中多环芳烃的风险评价表明,严重的多环芳烃生态风险在京杭大运河扬州段沉积物中不存在,负面生物毒性效应会偶尔发生,风险主要来源于低环的多环芳烃.%In the present study, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments from Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal ( Yangzhou Section) were quantitatively determined by HPLC. The concentration of PAHs varied from 505 to 4532. 2ng/g dry weight, with average 2359. 4ng/g, which was in moderate level compared with other lakes. The indexes of source identification indicated the main source of PAHs in the samples was combustion source, which included coal, oil and wood inadequate combustion. The ecological risk of surface sediment in Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal ( Yangzhou section) was assessed with the methods of sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) , The result shows that the concentrations level of PAHs in the study area have not caused the marked negative influence on organism, but the adverse biological toxicity effect might occasionally happen in Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Yangzhou section).

  1. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs.


    children" have been advocated. The introduc- tion, development and production of contraceptive pills and devices have begun, and there are free supplies...of contraceptive pills and devices to married couples pending their fertility-age period. Some work in the development of ideology and the... pills and devices closed in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, on 6 November. The 8-day conference discussed ways to popularize the use of contraceptives pills and

  2. Changes of protozoao community diversity in the swampy water area in Hangzhou,China%杭州沼泽性水域原生动物群落变化规律

    陈红; 施心路; 谭晓丽; 刘桂杰; 崔木子


    2005年4月-2006年3月调查了杭州市郊下沙区一个沼泽性水域原生动物群落的变化规律.共观察到各类原生动物265种,其中鞭毛虫114种,占原生动物总数的43%,其中植物性鞭毛虫占91%,动物性鞭毛虫仅占9%;肉足虫34种,占原生动物总数的13%,纤毛虫117种,占原生动物总数的44%.原生动物在此水域1个周年内的分布特征表现为植物性鞭毛虫种类多于动物性鞭毛虫,纤毛虫种类多于肉足虫种类.原生动物群落的结构参数(种类组成、个体丰度和多样性指数)因水质的变化而变化.此水域原生动物的优势种为梨形扁裸藻(Phacus pyrum)、旋转囊裸藻(Trachelomonas volvocina)、绿色裸藻(Euglena viridis)和刺鱼状裸藻(Euglena gasterosteus),常年居留种为裸藻(Euglena sp.)、奇形扁裸藻(Phacus anomalus)、钟形虫(Vorticella sp.)、尾草履虫(Paramecium caudatum)和多态喇叭虫(Stentor polymorphrus).全年3个采样站的Margalef生物多样性指数为1.056~6.054.

  3. Molecular Characterization of a Soybean Mosaic Virus Isolate from Hangzhou, China%大豆花叶病毒杭州分离物基因组全序列测定及其结构分析

    黎昊雁; 陈炯; 陈剑平


    测定了大豆花叶病毒杭州分离物(SMV-HZ)的基因组全序列 .该病毒基因组全长9588 个核苷酸,3'末端具poly(A)尾,包含单一开读框,编码一个350.07kD的多聚蛋白.基因组全序列与美国SMV G2、G7、N株系及我国黄淮5号株系(Y5)的核苷酸同一性分别为93%、93%、 94%和96%.多聚蛋白酶解后产生马铃薯Y病毒属典型的10个成熟蛋白.SMV-HZ与G2、G7、N的不同成熟蛋白间的氨基酸同一性为89%~100%;SMV-HZ与Y5的不同成熟蛋白间氨基酸同一性则较高,达97%~100%.多重分析显示了SMV-HZ与G2、G7、N、Y5之间的序列差异,G2、G7的P1 蛋白氨基酸序列明显不同于其他株系.对SMV-HZ与我国其他分离物也进行了序列比较,对CP蛋白氨基酸序列的系统进化树分析表明SMV-HZ与BJ分离物的亲缘性最高.

  4. Discussion on the Low Carbon Buildings of China Hangzhou Low Carbon Science and Technology Museum Green Energy-saving%浅谈中国杭州低碳科技馆绿色节能之低碳建筑



      “绿色节能”已成为全世界共同关注的话题,同时也成为节约成本、提高能效的一个重要途径,建筑节能的根本就是低碳。本文以某项目的节能技术应用为例,通过材料、构造、新能源利用等应用情况进行分析,综述低碳建筑发展的必要性。%“Green energy” has become a topic of common concern in the world, but also become an important way to save cost, improve efficiency, the fundamental of building en-ergy efficiency is low carbon. This paper taking the application of energy saving technology in a project as an example, thro-ugh the analysis of materials, construction, new energy in the application, sums the necessity of development of low carbon building.

  5. Investigation and Research on Junior High School Chin -up in Hangzhou City---Take Xiasha Middle School as an Example%杭州市初中生引体向上项目的调查与研究--以杭州市下沙中学为例



    This article uses the literature material,questionnaire survey and expert interviews and other research methods,and takes Hangzhou city junior high school boys’chin -up level as the research object.With "national student physical health standard"test and the city of Hangzhou senior high school entrance examination sports as the research basis,through the investigation and study of Hangzhou Xiasha school junior middle school three grade boys’analysis,the results show that:Hangzhou Xiasha school boys’chin -up ability is poor,three grades of the overall failure rate is 80%,and the first grade boys’performance is the worst,failure rate is 89.7%.Main factors affecting the boys pull -up level of students are:lack of interest,lack of understanding of this sport,students have less time to do exercise,while at the same time in the classroom teaching,the degree of teachersawareness of sportis not enough,cannot provide the scientific and effective practice methods.%本文采用文献资料、问卷调查及专家访谈等研究方法,以杭州市初中男生的引体向上水平为研究对象,以《国家学生体质健康测试标准》和杭州市中考体育项目为研究依据,通过对杭州市下沙中学的初中三个年级的男生的调查研究分析,结果表明:杭州市下沙中学男生的引体向上成绩很差,三个年级的总体不合格率达到80%,其中初一年级男生的测试成绩为最差,不合格率为89.7%。影响男生引体向上水平的主要因素为:学生不喜欢,对其认识不足,自身主动锻炼的时间很少,同时课堂教学中,教师的重视程度也不够,不能提供科学有效的练习方法。

  6. 杭州市女性人类乳头瘤病毒疫苗认知度及接受度的调查研究%An investigation of the cognition and reception towards HPV vaccine among women living in Hangzhou



    Objective To investigate the cognition and reception towards HPV vaccine among women living in Hangzhou and to provide the basis for the generalization of HPV vaccine. Methods 500 cases of Hangzhou women were investigated through questionnaire related to their knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV vaccine. Results 500 cases of Hangzhou women had been investigated through questionnaire. 28. 83% of the cases had a good knowledge of HPV, while 71.17% didn't know about HPV at all.HPV cognition rate was associated with age and educational level. Acquaintance with HPV increased with the improving educational level (P<0.05).47.8% of the eases would like to take the HPV vaccine. Conclusion The HPV vaccine cognition rate in women in Hangzhou was comparatively low and so was the reception rate of HPV vaccine. Accordingly it is necessary to improve public health education in order to increase the awareness of preventing from being affected by HPV and receiving HPV vaccine.%目的调查杭州市女性对人类乳头瘤病毒(human papillomavirus,HPV)疫苗的认知度以及接受度,为HPV疫苗的推广提供一定的基础.方法:以问卷的形式对500名在杭女性进行HPV疫苗认知度以及接受度的调查,将数据结果统计分析.结果:500名调查对象中只有28.83%知道HPV疫苗相关知识,在杭女性HPV疫苗的认知度与年龄和教育程度有关,不同年龄女性认知度间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),不同学历女性认知度间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)且认知度随着受教育程度的提高而增加.受调查者中,有47.85%的女性愿意接受HPV疫苗.结论:在杭女性对HPV疫苗的认知度和接受度均不高,因此应加强这方面的教育,有利于促进宫颈癌综合防治工作.

  7. China Disabled Persons' Federation


    China Disabled Persons' Federation (CDPF), founded in Beijing in 1988, is a national organization of/for all persons with disabilities (PWDs) of different categories in China. Mr. Deng Pufang is currently the Chairman.

  8. China's Recoverable Satellites

    Tang Boehang


    @@ By the end of 2006, China had launched 24 recoverable satellites (FSW) in total. Among them, 23 were launched successfully, of which all but one were successfully recovered. Recoverable satellites launched by China are listed in Table 1.

  9. Have Fun in China

    Wen Xingqi


    @@ As a most important part of service industry in China,tourism attracts much attention.Tourism has been developing quickly for a loilg term since China's opening-up and reform and has become Pillar industry in many Places.

  10. Aerosol and Cloud Radiative Forcing in China: Preliminary Results from the EAST-AIRE

    Li, Z.; Cribb, M.; Xia, X.; Chen, H.; Wang, P.


    East Asia, and China in particular, is a region that can provide crucial and unique information concerning natural and anthropogenic aerosols and their impact on fundamental climate issues. Until very recently, few observational studies were conducted in this region of heavy aerosol loading and unique properties. The East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) is an attempt to more fully characterize the physical, optical and chemical properties of these aerosols in different parts of China. Currently, three ground observation stations have been established under the aegis of this experiment. They include Xianghe (70 km southeast of Beijing), Liaozhong (50 km west of Shenyang), and Tai Lake (central to three mega-cities Shanghai, Hangzhou and Nanjing). Measurements have been taken continuously over different periods of time. The measurements include radiative quantities (for example, longwave and shortwave broadband and narrowband irradiances, etc.), the sky condition from a total sky imager, and aerosol quantities such as optical depth and single-scattering albedo. A preliminary analysis of the data with regards to the aerosol radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface will be presented. Critical to this analysis is the identification of clear skies, which is problematic in this region due to the ubiquitous presence of aerosol in the atmosphere. Another challenge is the discrimination between haze and cloud. The synergy of multiple data sources from the ground and from satellite is shown to help in identifying sky condition so that aerosol and cloud forcing can be determined.

  11. Self-reported disease burden of acute gastroenteritis in Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou area in Zhejiang%浙江省杭嘉湖地区自报性急性胃肠炎负担研究

    章荣华; 陈江; 张荷香; 顾昉; 丁钢强


    Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of acute gastroenteritis in Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou area in Zhejiang province. Methods The household interview about the incidence, symptoms and treatment of acute gastroenteritis was conducted among the people selected by multi stage sampling in the area during July-September 2010. Results Totally 2399 people were surveyed. The average monthly prevalence of acute gastroenteritis was 7.0% (95% C/:5. 9% -8.0% ) and the incidence was 0.23 time/person. The weighted average monthly prevalence was 8. 7% (95% CI: 6% -9. 8% ) and the weighted incidence was 0.29 time/person. It is estimated that 4. 601 million cases of acute gastroenteritis occurred during this period. Among the cases in survey, 55. 7% sought medical care, and 28.0% of these cases sent stool samples for detection. 52. 0% of the cases took antibiotics and 11.4% reported work/ school absence due to the illness. The monthly prevalence in children less than 5 years old was 14. 8%. Conclusion The disease burden of acute gastroenteritis was heavy in Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou area during July-September 2010. The children aged < 5 years are high risk population. The incidence of acute gastroenteritis can be reduced by targeted prevention and control measures.%目的 了解浙江省杭嘉湖地区急性胃肠炎的分布和负担.方法 采用多阶段抽样方法抽取调查对象,2010年7-9月每月入户调查其4周内急性胃肠炎发生情况、临床表现、就诊情况等.结果 7-9月共调查2399人,人群急性胃肠炎月患病率为7.0%(95% CI:5.9% ~ 8.0%),发病率为0.23次/人(7-9月).加权患病率为8.7%(95% CI:7.6%~9.8%),加权发病率为0.29次/人(7-9月),由此推算杭嘉湖地区7-9月有460.1万人次感染急性胃肠炎.55.7%的病例去医院就诊,就诊病例中28.0%的人送检粪便样本;52.0%的病例服用抗生素.11.4%的病例报告因病误工或误学.不满5岁儿童月患病率为14

  12. Bioaccumulation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Qiantang River Basin (Hangzhou Section)%钱塘江流域(杭州段)水环境中多氯联苯的生物富集效应

    吕鲜臻; 王志超; 陈星迪; 李翡翡; 史天麟; 杨华云


    Because of the nondegradation ,trend in bioaccumulation and adverse effects on humans and other animals , polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have received wide attention on the bioaccumulation potentials and ecological risks in recent years .The spatial characteristics and concentration content of PCBs (dry weight) in sediments and organisms are identified and quantified by GC‐MS /MS in Qiantang River basin (Hangzhou section) .The accumulation of PCBs in the area is also analyzed and evaluated using the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) method .The results show that the contents of PCBs vary from 6 .93~10 .14 ng/g ,14 .83~20 .43 ng/g ,19 .66~25 .93 ng/g and 19 .25~ 21 .34 ng/g in sediment ,screw , crucian and chub ,respectively ,with an average of 8 .85 ng/g ,15 .95ng/g ,21 .62 ng/g and 20 .27 ng/g ,respectively .The value of BAF shows that PCBs has high bioaccumulation in Qiantang River basin (Hangzhou section) which has the potential environmental risk .%因为具有不易降解、易生物蓄积、会对生物及人体产生毒害效应等特征,近年来,多氯联苯(PCBs)在生物体内的富集及其生态风险已引起人们的广泛关注.本文利用GC/M S检测钱塘江流域(杭州段)沉积物、底栖生物及鱼体中PCBs的浓度含量(干重)及分布特征,进一步运用生物富集系数评价了钱塘江流域(杭州段) PCBs的富集状况.结果表明,沉积物中PCBs含量为6.93~10.14 ng/g ,平均含量为8.85 ng/g ;底栖生物(螺丝)中PCBs含量为14.83~20.43 ng/g ,平均含量为15.95ng/g ;鲫鱼体内中PCBs含量为19.66~25.93 ng/g ,平均含量为21.62ng/g ;鲢鱼体内PCBs含量为19.25~21.34 ng/g ,平均含量为20.27ng/g .富集系数进一步表明,钱塘江流域(杭州段)生物对PCBs有较强的生物富集性,有一定潜在的环境风险.

  13. Daytime functioning and its relationship with sleep quality of preschool children in Hangzhou%杭州市学龄前儿童的日间功能及其与睡眠质量的相关性研究

    胡莉菲; 何婷婷; 邵洁; 朱冰泉


    Objective To investigate the daytime functioning, sleep quality of preschool children in Hangzhou City and their relationship. Methods Total y 930 children of 3~6 age from 5 kindergartens in Hangzhou were selected by stratified cluster sampling. The general home background questionnaire, Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire(CSHQ), and the toddler's daytime functioning questionnaire were used to col ect data for analysis. The sleep quality was compared between different age and gen-der groups. The daytime functioning was compared between groups with or without good sleep quality. Results The data of 914 children were available for analysis. 42%(384/914) of the children had poor sleep quality. The percentage of children in age group 3~0.05). The total scores of daytime functioning were gradual y decreased with the ages (P0.05). The daytime functioning scores of total and the sub items were lower in children without good sleep quality than those with good sleep quality (P<0.05). Conclusion The daytime functioning of children with poor sleep quality is less desirable than that of children with good sleep quality, mainly in difficulty to accomplish tasks in daytime.%目的:了解杭州市学龄前儿童的日间功能、睡眠质量及其相关性。方法采取整群抽样的方法抽取杭州市5所幼儿园儿童共930例,采用一般情况问卷、儿童睡眠习惯问卷(CSHQ)及幼儿日间功能问卷收集资料,分析不同年龄、性别儿童的睡眠质量,及不同睡眠质量的儿童的日间功能表现。结果共914例3~6岁儿童纳入分析。42.0%(384/914)儿童存在睡眠质量不良,其中3~岁组儿童睡眠不良发生率明显高于其他年龄组(P<0.05),无性别差异(P>0.05)。日间功能总得分随年龄增长逐渐下降,不同年龄组之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。白天倦怠、难以完成工作情况在不同年龄组之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),负性情绪及

  14. China Meets G7



    Parties held by the wealthy, seldom welcome poor guests. But last week China made it through the doors into a gathering of the world's richest countries. Jin Renqing, China's finance minister, and Zhou Xiaochuan, governor of the People's Bank of China, joined a meeting of the Group of Seven'on October. It is the first time that China has had direct talks with the club.

  15. Construction Management and Consideration of BOT Model in Hangzhou Qingchun Road River-cross Tunnel%杭州庆春路过江隧道BOT项目建设管理与思考

    沈越; 李宗梁; 吴世明


    The build-opearte-transfer (BOT) model, which has been widely applied all over the world, is emerging as a very innovative and important investment style for construction of a nation's infrastructure. Hangzhou Qingchu Road River-cross Tunnel, of which the investment, quality, safety and construction schedule are well controlled, is a typical project with successful application of B-O-T model. This paper gives a comprehensive introduction to the management of B-O-T model for this project and discusses several important issues encountered during construction, such as treatment for significant changes, delimitation of construction area, coordination to the construction of the subway station in the close vicinity, and introduction of agent construction system. This paper serves to accelerate the application of B-O-T model for construction of urban infrastructure.%BOT建设模式是国际上广泛采用的一种比较新颖的基础设施项目投资方式,杭州庆春路过江隧道项目采用BOT模式建设取得成功,项目的建设投资、质量、安全、工期都得到了很好的控制.文章全面介绍了该项目BOT模式的建设管理,对建设中重大变更处理、建设范围划分、地铁车站交叉建设协调、代建在建设中的引入等问题进行了探讨,对BOT模式在城市基础设施建设中的推广具有示范意义.

  16. Official WeChat running in Hangzhou municipal public hospitals%杭州市级公立医院官方微信运行现状调查



    了解当前医院微信公众号的运行情况,分析了杭州11家市级公立医院官方微信开通率、信息更新、菜单栏目设置等情况发现,这11家市级公立医院全都开通了官方微信,36.36%的医院开通了服务号,63.64%的医院开通了订阅号;各微信号信息更新频度不一,在线服务功能还需深化,并就医院微信运行提出了信息推送常态化、在线服务深入化、医患沟通多元化和宣传推广力度化等建议。%The opening rate, information update and menu of official WeChat in 11 Hangzhou municipal public hospitals were analyzed in order to understand their running, which showed that of the 11 public hospitals that opened their official WeChat,36. 36% opened their service account and 63. 64% opened their subscription ac-count. The information update frequency of WeChat varied and the online service function needed to be further deepened. Suggestions were put forward for the WeChat running in hospitals, such as normalizing its information push, deepening its online service, diversifying its communication between physicians and patients, and intensifying its popularization.

  17. 杭州半山发电有限公司水处理系统调研及分析%Water Treatment System Investigation and Analysis of Hangzhou Banshan Power Co., Ltd.



    This paper analyzes the water treatment system of Hangzhou Banshan Power Co., Ltd., expounds the problems and risks of this system, and proposes the corresponding countermeasures:1.The carbon dioxide generated in high temperature from carbohydrazide, which aims at removing oxygen for recharging water, could corrode steel and iron. It is suggested that we should monitor the pH of the boiler water, and add neutralizing amine when required. 2. Condensation water may be polluted due to the leakage of the condenser, so we suggest adding desalination polishing system if possible; or open the channel connecting the backup condensation water and the water treatment system, to make it available in desalination polishing when encountering slight leakage of the condenser.%本文通过对杭州半山发电有限公司锅炉水处理系统的分析,阐述了该水处理系统存在的问题及风险,并提出了相应的对策措施:1.补给水为了除氧所加的碳酰肼在高温下产生的二氧化碳对钢铁会产生腐蚀,建议随时监控锅水的 pH 值,必要时添加中和胺。2.凝结水可能由于凝汽器的泄漏而导致被污染,建议凝结水系统在条件许可时加装除盐精处理系统;或者开通备用的凝结水至补给水处理系统的通道,以用于在凝汽器轻微泄漏情况下的除盐精处理。

  18. 从文化话语视角论杭州的城市文化传播%Criticism on the Urban Cultural Communication by Cultural Discourse Studies Paradigm:Taking Hangzhou as the Case



    Culture and communication are inseparable .Driven by globalization ,the internationalization of Chinese mass media is increasing its might . In the process of urban development ,media discourses play an important role in the construction and communication of urban culture .Actually ,we need the support of discourse strategies to generate the vigor growing force of urban culture and turn it into the real soft power .Grounded on Chinese Discourse Studies Paradigm , this paper researches the representative discourses on“food ,shelter ,transportation ,travel ,shopping and entertainment”publicized by Hangzhou mass media in these two years .It analyzes the urban cultural features these discourses embody and reveals the influence they bring on the urban development .In consideration of the era background and require-ments ,the paper explores the discourse strategies on the communication of urban culture at the end .%在城市发展的进程中,媒体宣传话语对城市文化气质的建构与传播发挥着重要作用,要让一座城市的文化具备内在生长力,并转化为真正的软实力,需要话语策略的支持。本文以文化话语研究范式为基础,以近两年杭州媒体对于城市吃、住、行、游、购、娱六个方面具有代表性的宣传文本为研究对象,分析这些话语的特征及其所体现的城市文化气质,并结合文化背景与时代要求,探索城市文化传播与发展的话语策略。

  19. Analysis of Combined Plants Landscape Space of Santaishan Scenic Area in Hangzhou West Lake%杭州西湖三台山景区植物景观组合空间分析

    章四庆; 宋李玲; 赖齐贤


    Plants landscape space of Santaishan Scenic Area in Hangzhou West Lake was used as the research subject. Combined with garden design elements, such as terrain, buildings, water, park roads, and so on, 42 plots were set up to investigate the spatial structures of plants landscape. The results showed that there were 4 types of combination spaces, including open space, semi-open space, covering space and vertical space. Meanwhile, based on the combinations of plants landscape space, the ornamental features of plants and enclosure degree, and the structural characteristics of 4 typical plant combination spaces were analyzed. According to these, the characteristics of secluded plant landscape spaces of Santaishan Scenic Area were summarized.%以杭州西湖三台山景区植物景观为研究对象,结合地形、建筑、水体、园路等园林设计要素,设置了42个样方,对植物景观空间进行实地调查.统计出了4种类型的植物景观组合空间,包括开敞式空间、半开敞式空间、覆盖空间和垂直空间.同时,根据植物景观空间的构成方式、植物的观赏特性和围合程度等因素,分析4种典型植物组合空间的构成特点,总结三台山景区营造幽静的植物景观空间的特征.

  20. 杭州河坊街历史街区商业网点业态结构及规划启示%Study on Commercial Networks Structure and Development Enlightenment of Hefang Historic Street in Hangzhou

    潘丽丽; 罗宇红


    选取位于杭州清河坊历史街区内的河坊街步行街作为研究对象,采用参与观察法和内容分析法,对河坊街上商业网点的业态结构进行分析。结果表明,河坊街历史街区商业业态以旅游功能为主,网点同类型空间集聚,并与周边商圈有机结合。同时也存在地方表现度不足,商品同质性高,结构相对单一等问题,需要完善业态结构,把控商品质量,挖掘本地文化,以加强自身特色,并为类似景区提供借鉴经验。%This paper studies the structure of commercial networks of Hefang Street which is located in the historic district of Qinghefang in Hangzhou by participant observation and content analysis.The results show that commercial activities of the his-torical block of Hefang Street are mainly oriented to tourism function.The same type of commercial networks show the tendency of spatial agglomeration,organic integrating with the surrounding business circle.There are also some problems about commer-cial activities in Hefang Street,such as the lack of local features,commodities with high homogeneity and the relatively simple structure.Historic streets need to improve the industrial structure,to control the product quality,to explore the local culture,to strengthen their own characteristics,and to provide reference for similar scenic spots.

  1. Investigation of the Present Situation of the Basketball Coach of Teenagers in Hangzhou City%杭州市青少年篮球教练员现状调查



    采用文献资料法、问卷调查法、数理统计法等研究方法,对杭州市青少年篮球教练员的现状进行调查。结果发现:杭州市青少年篮球教练员的年龄结构现状较合理,但部分教练员还存着职称、学历偏低,科研能力欠缺,训练经验不足等问题。建议:采取多种措施激励教练员进行科学研究和科学训练,促进教练员专业理论知识与运动训练水平不断提高,为打造一支综合素质高、科研能力强、训练手段先进、教授方法科学的优秀篮球教练员队伍奠定基础。%Using the method of literature, questionnaire survey, mathematical statistics, this paper inves-tigates the status quo of the basketball coach of adolescents in Hangzhou .The results show that the age structure of basketball coaches is reasonable , but there are problems existing in the coaches , such as the low title and educational level, lack of training scientific research ability, lack of experience and so on. Recommendations are put forward, such as taking various measures to encourage coaches to conduct sci -entific research and scientific training , promoting the coaches'professional theoretical knowledge and the level of practice, to lay the foundation for creating an outstanding basketball team with comprehensive high quality, scientific research ability, advanced training methods and teaching methods .

  2. 杭州市江干区实施分级诊疗的做法及体会%Measures and experiences of the implementation of tiered diagnosis and treatment in Jianggan District, Hangzhou

    俞亚光; 章炜颖; 吴继炎; 金汉宏; 扈峻峰; 钱芳; 范敏华


    Jianggan district of Hangzhou has set up a regional tiered diagnosis and treatment system. It has formed a medical service consortium with many municipal and provincial hospitals. A health management platform and a three tiered diagnosis and treatment system featuring “general practitioner- chief doctor of united diagnosis and treatment center-medical expert from higher hospitals”. Each level of medical institutions will coordinate with each other on a work division basis to form a medical structure which features grassroots diagnosis ifrst, tiered diagnosis and treatment and dual referral treatment. During the establishment of tiered diagnosis and treatment system, we have experienced the following points:it is our fundamental to pay attention to resident’s needs;our base to get ifscal support;out guarantee to strengthen team building and out key focus to integrate and combine resources.%杭州市江干区创建了区域分级诊疗体系。与多所省市级医院合作建立医疗服务联合体,建成“全科医师—联合诊疗中心首席医师—上级医院专家”三级诊疗和健康管理平台。各级医疗机构分工协作,形成基层首诊、分级诊疗、双向转诊的就医格局。在分级诊疗体系创建过程中体会到:贴近居民需求是根本;争取财政支持是基础;强化队伍建设是保障;整合及融合资源是关键。

  3. Difference of Phytic Acid Content and its Relation to Four Protein Composition Contents in Grains of Twenty-nine japonica Rice Varieties from Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces, China

    WU Wei; CHENG Fang-min; LIU Zheng-hui; WEI Ke-su


    Twenty-nine japonica rice varieties collected from Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces, China were planted in Hangzhou,China, to investigate the phytic acid content in brown rice and its frequency distribution as well as the correlation among the contents of phytic acid, total protein and four protein compositions in brown rice. The phytic acid content in brown rice ranged from 0.699% to 1.034%, with a mean of 0.868% for the 29 tested rice varieties. Xiushui series rice varieties generally exhibited lower phytic acid level than Wuyujing and Huai series rice varieties. A rough normal distribution, with a mean of 8.722%, was observed for the total protein contents in the tested varieties. Of the four protein compositions, the glutelin, globulin and albumin contents had larger coefficient of variation than the prolamin content, although the difference in prolamin content was genotype-dependent. No significant correlation was found between the phytic acid and four protein composition contents, whereas the total protein content was significantly and positively related to the glutelin content in brown rice.

  4. Life cycle and economic assessment of source-separated MSW collection with regard to greenhouse gas emissions: a case study in China.

    Dong, Jun; Ni, Mingjiang; Chi, Yong; Zou, Daoan; Fu, Chao


    In China, the continuously increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has resulted in an urgent need for changing the current municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system based on mixed collection. A pilot program focusing on source-separated MSW collection was thus launched (2010) in Hangzhou, China, to lessen the related environmental loads. And greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Kyoto Protocol) are singled out in particular. This paper uses life cycle assessment modeling to evaluate the potential environmental improvement with regard to GHG emissions. The pre-existing MSWM system is assessed as baseline, while the source separation scenario is compared internally. Results show that 23 % GHG emissions can be decreased by source-separated collection compared with the base scenario. In addition, the use of composting and anaerobic digestion (AD) is suggested for further optimizing the management of food waste. 260.79, 82.21, and -86.21 thousand tonnes of GHG emissions are emitted from food waste landfill, composting, and AD, respectively, proving the emission reduction potential brought by advanced food waste treatment technologies. Realizing the fact, a modified MSWM system is proposed by taking AD as food waste substitution option, with additional 44 % GHG emissions saved than current source separation scenario. Moreover, a preliminary economic assessment is implemented. It is demonstrated that both source separation scenarios have a good cost reduction potential than mixed collection, with the proposed new system the most cost-effective one.

  5. Pharmacokinetic drug interaction profile of omeprazole with adverse consequences and clinical risk management


    Wei Li,1 Su Zeng,2 Lu-Shan Yu,2 Quan Zhou31Division of Medical Affairs, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Drug Metabolism, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmacy, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaBac...

  6. Molecular characteristics and antibiotic resistances of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates in Hangzhou in 2009%2009年杭州市01群霍乱弧菌的分子特征及耐药性

    郑伟; 俞骅; 汪皓秋; 张蔚; 潘劲草


    目的 研究2009年杭州市O1群霍乱弧菌分离株的分子特征及菌株耐药情况。方法 选取2009年分离自杭州市7个区县的30株O1群霍乱弧菌分离株,用PCR检测其肠毒素A基因(ctxA)和毒素共调菌毛A基因(tcpA),以脉冲场凝胶电泳(pulsed-field gel electrophoresis,PFGE)进行分子分型并作相似度分析,用改良K-B纸片法检测菌株的耐药谱。结果 30株O1群霍乱弧菌分离株中,ctxA -并tcpA+基因型菌株有24株,占80.00%;ctxA -并tcpA -基因型菌株有4株,占13.33%;ctxA+并tcpA+基因型菌株有2株,占6.67%。27株菌(3株因降解未分型)分为11种PFGE型别(P1~P11);23株ctxA -并tcpA+基因型菌株(1株因降解未分型)分为P1~P7等7种型别,相似度≥91.4%,其中P1型占56.52% (13/23)。7株从同一起暴发事件中分离的ctxA -并tcpA+菌株的PFGE型别分别为P1(6株)和P2(1株),相似度为97.6%。24株ctxA -并tcpA+菌株对氨苄西林、妥布霉素和阿米卡星的耐药率分别为20.83%( 5/24)、4.17% (1/24)和4.17% (1/24)。结论2009年杭州市O1群霍乱弧菌流行株的基因型是ctxA -并tcpA+型;ctxA -并tcpA+型O1群霍乱弧菌菌株的耐药情况尚不严重。%Objective To study the molecular characteristics and antibiotic resistances of Vihrio cholerae( V. cholerae) O1 isolates in Hangzhou in 2009. Methods The virulence genes ctxA and tcpA of the thirty V. cholerae O1 isolates from 7 counties and districts of Hangzhou were detected by PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed for molecular typing and similarity analysis. Antibiotic resistances of these isolates were measured by the Kirby-Bauer method. Results Virulence gene analysis showed that 80. 00% (24/30) of the genotype in V/. cholerae isolates was ctx, A - and tcpA +, 13. 33% (4/30) was ctxA - and tcpA - ,and 6. 67% (2/30) was ctxA + and tcpA +. Twenty-seven isolates tested were typed into 11

  7. The Evolution of Urban Expansion Morphology in Hangzhou Based on Principle of Convex Hull%基于凸壳原理的杭州城市扩展形态演化分析

    陆张维; 徐丽华; 吴次芳; 岳文泽; 吴亚琪


    在城市化快速推进的背景下,探索凸壳原理在城市扩展形态识别中的应用价值,并借此分析杭州市主城区1985~2010年间城市扩展形态演化规律及其机理,以期为控制城市扩展形态,指导未来城市土地开发活动提供借鉴.研究发现,凸壳原理在城市扩展形态识别上简单而明确,通过确定已有城市建设用地的凸壳,将城市所有可开发用地明确区分为凸壳内用地和凸壳外用地2类,为采取差别化的空间管理政策提供依据.构建了基于凸壳原理的城市扩展形态计算机识别方法,有利于在城市扩展模拟中实现城市扩展形态影响因素的定量化表达.1996年之前,杭州市建设用地和凸壳面积增长缓慢,城市形态相对紧凑;1996年之后,建设用地快速增长,城市不均衡扩展加剧,凸壳面积陡增,城市形态紧凑程度下降.总体来看杭州市城市扩展类型属于外延型,随着凸壳面积的增加,城市填充潜力随之增强,为促进杭州市城市紧凑化发展,应该严格控制凸壳外的城市土地开发.沿主干道的城市开发是城市形态外延式发展的主要因素,已有建设用地周边以及城市内部次要道路沿线的城市开发,以及城市中心的集聚作用和规划对城市开发的控制是城市形态填充式发展的主要因素,而郊区化发展和"东扩西进"等城市空间发展政策促使特定时期城市外延式发展.%In the background of rapid development of urbanization, this article explored the application value of principle of convex hull used in the recognization of urban expansion morphology, and analysed the evolution and mechanism of urban expansion morphology of main city zone in Hangzhou between 1985 and 2010, with the aim of providing reference for controlling the urban expansion morphology, and guiding the activity of ur-ban development in future. The result shows that, the urban expansion morphology is recognized simply and clearly

  8. Epidemic characters of injuries among school aged children of migrant workers in Hangzhou%杭州市民工子弟学校学龄儿童伤害流行特征分析

    朱晓霞; 刘庆敏; 方顺源; 施文英; 项海青; 陈坤


    目的 了解杭州市民工子弟学校儿童不同于本地儿童的伤害流行特征,为开展防制工作提供依据.方法 分层整群抽取杭州市4所民工子弟学校、4所本地学校学生进行问卷调查.率的比较采用X2检验,均数比较用t检验.结果 杭州市民工子弟小学生的伤害发生率为43.64%,中学生的伤害发生率为44.38%,与本地户籍中小学生伤害发生率差异无统计学意义.但民工子弟初中女生的伤害发生率明显高于本地户籍初中女生,民工子弟学校学生多发性伤害的发生率及伤害年均发生数均高于本地户籍学生.伤害的首位因为均为跌落,民工子弟小学生的触电发生率、初中男生的溺水发生率及初中女生的烫伤、刀割伤、碰掩伤和触电的发生率均明显高于本地户籍同类学生.民工子弟学校学生因伤害造成的家庭负担更重.结论 民工子弟有不同于本地户籍学生的伤害流行特征,伤害造成的家庭负担较本地学生更重,有必要开展针对性的防制工作.%Objective To explore the epidemic character of injuries among school aged children of migrant workers which was different from the native-born children in Hangzhou, and to provide evidence for the prevention and control. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 3 582 students enrolled covered 4 schools of migrant workers' children and 4 schools of native-born children through stratified cluster random sampling in Hangzhou was conducted to collect information by questionnaire. Distributional characteristics of qualitative variables between migrant workers' children and native-born children were analyzed byχ2 tests or t tests. Results The incidence rate of injuries among primary and middle school students of migrant workers was 43.64% and 44.38% respectively, and there was no statistical difference from that of the native-born children. But the incidence rate of the girls of migrant workers in middle school was higher than

  9. 杭州市社区工作者主观幸福感及其影响因素%The influence factors of subjective well-being in social workers of Hangzhou

    齐若兵; 朱婉儿; 余震; 夏泳


    目的 探讨社区工作人员主观幸福感的现状及其影响因素.方法 按类分层、分段、随机、整群的抽样方法,采用纽芬兰纪念大学幸福度量表(MUNSH)、社会支持量表(SSRS)、特质应对方式问卷(TCSQ),对234名杭州市社区工作者进行了调查.结果 杭州市社区工作者主观幸福感正性因子总分明显高于负性因子总分,分别为(11.79±6.88)分和(7.74±5.90)分;男性负性情感和负性体验明显高于女性( t =3.807,P <0.01;t =2.610,P <0.01);正性情感与文化程度呈负相关( r =-0.220,P <0.01);社会支持各纬度与积极应对均与主观幸福感呈显著正相关( P <0.01);影响总幸福度的因素依次为消极应对、积极应对、主观支持和支持利用度(-5.766,P <0.01;4.050,P <0.01;2.616,P <0.05;2.286,P <0.05).结论 杭州市社区工作者总体自觉幸福和满意;社区工作者主观幸福感与性别、文化程度、社会支持和应对方式具有密切关系.对于学历较高、男性社区工作者应予以更多的关注;加强社会支持、调整应对方式,可能对提高社区工作者主观幸福感具有积极的作用.%Objective To explore the present situation of the community workers' subjective well-being and the influence factors of them. Method 234 Hangzhou Urban community workers who were given by stratified by category,sub-paragraph, randomized, cluster sampling method were evaluated with the use of Memorial University of Newfoundland happy Scale (MUNSH), Social Support Scale (SSRS), characteristics of coping style questionnaire (TCSQ). Results On terms of Subjective well-being of community workers in Hangzhou,positive scores were higher than those of negative(11.79±6.88 and 7.74±5.90). The negative feelings and experiences of men were significant higher than those of women, ( t =3.807, P <0.01;t =2.610,P <0.01); positive feelings was negatively correlative with education level( r =-0.220,P <0.01); social support was significant

  10. China resource book

    Trouwborst, K.O.; Eijndthoven, van P.J.


    The China Resource Book explains the organisation of the agricultural production in China and relates it to China's efforts to eradicate poverty and achieve self-sufficiency in food. It also highlights the variety of environmental problems, which haverisen since the rapid industrial development in t

  11. Doing Business with China.

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. Industry and Trade Administration.

    This publication provides background and practical information for those interested in doing business with China. The United States officially recognized the People's Republic of China (PRC) on January 1, 1979. Chinese leaders view international trade as an important factor in transforming China into a modern industrial state as well as an…

  12. On China dream



    What is china dream? Different people may have different opinions. But there is no doubt everyone to the understanding of the Chinese dream is good. every Chinese yearning for a better life with this kind of good , and hope for a wealthy and prosperous China is saddled with everyone, this dream is a dream that every Chinese people, and is also the China dream.

  13. China-EU Relationship

    Feng Zhongping; Zhang Yimeng


    @@ The China-EU relationship attracted global interest in 2006. On the one hand, cooperation between China and the EU was making good progress, but on the other, there were challenges facing both, leading some international policy analysts to conclude that the honeymoon period between China and the EU was over.

  14. Ballet Flourishing in China


    Du Xiaoqing, Executive Editor in Chief of Dance magazine, the leading professional dance periodical in China sponsored by the Dancers Association of China, sat down with Beijing Review reporter Zan Jifang recently to share her understanding of the development of ballet in China

  15. Ballet Flourishing in China


    @@ Du Xiaoqing,Executive Editor in Chief of Dance magazine,the leading professional dance periodical in China sponsored by the Dancers Association of China,sat down with Belling Review reporter Zan Jifang recently to share her understanding of the development of ballet in China

  16. CHINA PRINT 2009


    Introduction CHINA PRINT 2009, the Seventh Beijing International Printing Technology Exhibition, will be held at New China International Exhibition Center from May 12 to 16, 2009.CHINA PRINT, known as the Olympics of China’s print-ing and printing related business, has been organized onceevery four years since 1984 by PEIAC and CIEC. It has be-come one of the

  17. BGCI China office opens


    @@ The official opening ceremony of the China Office of Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) was held in the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province, on 26 February. The event brought together more than 100 high-caliber scholars and officials, including Secretary General of BGCI Mme.

  18. Debating China's assertiveness

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun


    Engaging the recent debate on China's assertive foreign policy, we suggest that it is normal for China – a rising power – to change its policy to a confident or even assertive direction because of its transformed national interests. We argue also that it is better to understand future US–China...... relations as a bargaining process. Whereas China negotiates for a new status in the system with redefined interests, the United States and other countries need to adjust their old political practices. China's ‘core interest’ diplomacy launched in 2009 is the first step in revealing ‘private information...

  19. Prevalence, genetic diversity, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Zhejiang Province, China

    Jian-ping LI; Hai-jian ZHOU; Lin YUAN; Ting HE; Song-hua HU


    This study was conducted to determine genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcusaureus recovered from bovine mastitis in Zhejiang Province, China. Out of 3178 quarter milk samples from 846 lactating cows, among which 459 cows (54.3%) were found HMT positive, 890 quarters (28%) were found having subclinical mastitis. From 75 representative S. aureus isolates, 16 distinct types were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Four major PFGE types (A, B, C, and D) accounted for 82.7% of all isolates, and type A (41.3%) was observed in multiple herds across the studied areas. Each region was found to have a predominant type: Hangzhou type A (64.1%), Ningbo type C (34.5%) and type B (23.1%), Jinhua type D (53.3%), and Taizhou type C (62.5%). Results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that 90.7% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Resistance to penicillin and ampicillin (77.3%), tetracycline (60.0%), or erythromycin (48.0%) was observed. The bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin were commonly found. The information obtained from this study is useful for designing specific control programs for bovine S. aureus mastiffs in this region.

  20. Assessment of arsenic in colostrum and cord serum and risk exposure to neonates from an island population in China.

    Xu, Chenye; Tang, Mengling; Zhu, Siyu; Naranmandura, Hua; Liu, Weiping


    Arsenic (As) has been proven to be highly toxic to humans, but limited attention has focused on exposure levels and potential risks to mother-neonate pairs of coastal populations. This study was conducted by examining the As concentration in colostrum and umbilical cord serum collected from 106 mother-neonate pairs living on Shengsi Island, facing the Yangtze River estuary and Hangzhou Bay in China. Average concentrations of total As in colostrum and cord serum were 18.51 ± 7.00 and 19.83 ± 10.50 μg L(-1). One-way ANOVA analysis showed delivered ages and source of drinking water played significant roles in influencing the maternal exposure patterns. Correlation analysis indicated a significantly positive association between As concentrations in colostrum and cord serum. Multivariable linear regression models adjusted for other confounders clarified the dose-response relationship with a coefficient value of 0.23 and a 95 % confidence interval of (0.006, 0.492); p colostrum As, especially the most toxic species, inorganic arsenic (iAs), would pose a risk to neonates.

  1. Concentrations and patterns of polychlorinated naphthalenes in surface sediment samples from Wuxi, Suzhou, and Nantong, in East China.

    Zhang, Linli; Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Liang; Huang, Yeru; Li, Xiaoxiu


    The concentrations and patterns of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were determined in surface sediment samples from Wuxi, Suzhou, and Nantong, in the Yangtze River Delta (East China), which has become urbanized rapidly. The total PCN (tri- to octachlorinated naphthalenes) concentrations in the samples from Wuxi, Suzhou, and Nantong were 0.89-40, 2.8-4600, and 0.60-34 ng/gdry weight, respectively. Unexpectedly high PCN concentrations were found in four of the sediment samples. The PCN concentrations were much higher in the samples from the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal than in the samples from the Yangtze River. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations (determined from the concentrations of the "dioxin-like" PCNs) ranged from 1.45×10(-7) to 2.16 ng TEQ/g, and the congeners CN-66/67 and CN-73 were the predominant contributors to the TEQs. Independent samples t-tests were performed, and no significant differences were found between the PCN concentrations in the samples from the metropolitan area and the development zone when the four development-zone samples that contained very high PCN concentrations were excluded. The PCN profiles were dominated by the hexa- to octachlorinated naphthalene homologs. The CN-66/67 to CN-71/72 and CN-66 to CN-67 concentration ratios were used to identify specific PCN sources. Emissions from chemical and other industrial plants were found to have strongly influenced the PCN concentrations in sediment in the study area.

  2. Why Do Mothers of Young Infants Choose to Formula Feed in China? Perceptions of Mothers and Hospital Staff

    Ke Zhang


    Full Text Available In China the exclusive breastfeeding rate remains low and infant formula is widely used. This study aimed to elicit and compare mothers’ and hospital staff perceptions of the reasons that shaped mothers’ decision to formula feed. In-depth interviews with 50 mothers, and four focus group discussions with 33 hospital staff, were conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen in November 2014. Responses given by the mothers and hospital staff showed a number of commonalities. The perception of “insufficient breast milk” was cited by the majority of women (n = 37, 74% as the reason for formula feeding. Mothers’ confidence in breastfeeding appears to be further reduced by maternal mothers or mothers-in-law’s and “confinement ladies” misconceptions about infant feeding. Inadequate breastfeeding facilities and limited flexibility at their workplace was another common reason given for switching to formula feeding. A substantial proportion of mothers (n = 27, 54% lacked an understanding of the health benefits of breastfeeding. Antenatal education on breastfeeding benefits for expectant mothers and their families is recommended. Moreover, mothers should be provided with breastfeeding support while in hospital and be encouraged to seek professional assistance to deal with breastfeeding problems after discharge. Employers should also make work environments more breastfeeding-friendly.

  3. Characterization of on-road CO, HC and NO emissions for petrol vehicle fleet in China city

    GUO Hui; ZHANG Qing-yu; SHI Yao; WANG Da-hui; DING Shu-ying; YAN Sha-sha


    Vehicle emissions are a major source of air pollution in urban areas. The impact on urban air quality could be reduced if the trends of vehicle emissions are well understood. In the present study, the real-world emissions of vehicles were measured using a remote sensing system at five sites in Hangzhou, China from February 2004 to August 2005. More than 48000 valid gasoline powered vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were measured. The results show that petrol vehicle fleet in Nangzhou has considerably high CO emissions, with the average emission concentration of 2.71%±0.02% , while HC and NO emissions are relatively lower, with the average emission concentration of (153.72± 1.16)× 10-6 and (233.53±1.80)× 10-6, respectively. Quintile analysis of both average emission concentration and total amount emissions by model year suggests that in-use emission differences between well maintained and badly maintained vehicles are larger than the age-dependent deterioration of emissions. In addition, relatively new high polluting vehicles are the greatest contributors to fleet emissions with, for example, 46.55% of carbon monoxide fleet emissions being produced by the top quintile high emitting vehicles from model years 2000~2004. Therefore, fleet emissions could be significantly reduced if new highly polluting vehicles were subject to effective emissions testing followed by appropriate remedial action.

  4. China's Energy Strategy and China-Russia Energy Cooperation

    Xia Yishan


    @@ Energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation are based on the estimation of China's energy supply and demand.Therefore, before we get to the main point, we need to analyze the development of energy in China first,and then discuss the issue of China's energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation.

  5. 杭州湾南岸滨海平原土地利用变化对土壤发生层次质量演化的影响%The impact of land use change on quality evolution of soil genetic layers on the coastal plain of south Hangzhou Bay

    李加林; 李伟方; 杨晓平; 张殿发; 童亿勤


    Land use change plays an important part in the studies of global environmental change and regional sustainable development. The change of soil quality can particularly reflect the impacts of human socio-economic activities on environment. Taking the coastal plain of south Hangzhou Bay as a study case, we analyzed the effects of land use changes on organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), available phosphorus (AP),available potassium (AK), total salinity (TS), pH value in soil genetic layers, and assessed soil quality change related to different land use types from 1982 to 2003. The results show that: (1)The general change tendency of soil quality in the coastal plain of south Hangzhou Bay declined obviously in A layer and slightly rise in B (or P) layer and C (or W) layer. The contents of TP decreased generally in all soil genetic layers, but the variety difference of other soil quality indices was relatively great. (2) The change of soil quality in the areas where land use changed is far more remarkable than that with land use unchanged. The value of quality variety is A layer B (or P) layer C (or W) layer. (3) The changes of soil tillage, cultivation, fertilization, irrigation and drainage activities related to land use may make some soil-forming processes disappeared and bring in other new processes which will affect the soil quality and soil genetic layers directly.


    谢婷婷; 何征


    以胡庆余堂国药号作为杭州老字号品牌视觉形象设计的考察对象,从标志的传承与演变、产品的包装设计、页面设计三个方面论述了胡庆余堂官方商城的视觉设计,进而分析了视觉形象设计对杭州老字号网络营销的重要性。在此基础上,提出了老字号在不同的时代,要重新定位自己、改良自己的品牌视觉形象。%This paper takes Huqingyutang pharmacy as the object of the study of Hangzhou time-honored brands' image design, The visual design of Huqingyutang official store is discussed from three aspects: the inheritance and evolution of the logo, the packaging design, and the web design. And then the article makes analysis on the importance of visual image design of Hangzhou time-honored brands' network marketing. On this basis, this paper puts forward such a request: that time-honored brand has to re-orient them and improve their own brand visual image.

  7. Nationwide prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and viral genotype distribution in 37 cities in China.

    Wang, Rong; Guo, Xiao-Lei; Wisman, G Bea A; Schuuring, Ed; Wang, Wen-Feng; Zeng, Zheng-Yu; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Shang-Wei


    Type-specific high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection is related to cervical carcinogenesis. The prevalence of hrHPV infection varies geographically, which might reflect the epidemiological characteristics of cervical cancer among different populations. To establish a foundation for HPV-based screening and vaccination programs in China, we investigated the most recent HPV prevalence and genotypic distributions in different female age groups and geographical regions in China. In 2012, a total of 120,772 liquid-based cytological samples from women enrolled for population- or employee-based cervical screening in 37 Chinese cities were obtained by the Laboratory of Molecular Infectious Diseases of Guangzhou KingMed. A total of 111,131 samples were tested by Hybrid Capture II and the other 9,641 were genotyped using the Tellgenplex™ HPV DNA Assay. The total positive rate for hrHPV was 21.07 %, which ranged from 18.42 % (Nanchang) to 31.94 % (Haikou) and varied by region. The regions of Nanchang, Changsha, Hangzhou, Chengdu, Fuzhou, Guangdong, and Guiyang could be considered the low prevalence regions. Age-specific prevalence showed a "two-peak" pattern, with the youngest age group (15-19 years) presenting the highest hrHPV infection rate (30.55 %), followed by a second peak for the 50-60-year-old group. Overall, the most prevalent genotypes were HPV16 (4.82 %) and HPV52 (4.52 %), followed by HPV58 (2.74 %). Two genotypes HPV6 (4.01 %) and HPV11 (2.29 %) were predominant in the low-risk HPV (lrHPV) type, while the mixed genotypes HPV16 + 52 and HPV52 + 58 were most common in women with multiple infections. This study shows that HPV infection in China has increased to the level of an "HPV-heavy-burden" zone in certain regions, with prevalence varying significantly among different ages and regions. Data from this study represent the most current survey of the nationwide prevalence of HPV infection in China, and can serve as valuable reference to guide nationwide cervical cancer

  8. Innovation in China

    MacDonald, Greg; Yow, Yit-Seng; Li, Xing

    China's economy is growing quickly, and is innovation-led.  Europe can relate to China through joint R&D, programmes which offer an alternative vehicle of engagement to the traditional political and economic approaches. Innovation in China: The Dawning of the Asian Century promotes an awareness...... of the dynamics of innovation in China. It examines Chinese and European approaches to science and technology and contends that the ‘rules for survival' in R&D and education are changing in favour of China, in terms of base R&D parameters such as research expenditure, scientists trained, papers published...... and patents awarded. The authors recommend options for Europe and China to connect through longitudinal R&D  projects and ‘carrousel-training exchanges' in environmental and health related fields....

  9. Coal fires in China

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)


    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  10. Understanding China's Transformations

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping...... the world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  11. Investigation of TORCH infection in women of chi1d-bearing age in Hangzhou%杭州地区育龄妇女TORCH感染调查分析



    Objective To investigate the prevalence of TORCH infection in Hangzhou area. Methods 4798 women of chi1d-bearing age were tested for antibodies with ELISA. Results TOX-IgM、RV-IgM、CMV-IgM、HSV-I-IgM and HSV-II–IgM positive rates were 0.69%、1.06%、0.54%、0.6% and 0.23% respectively;TOX-IgG、RV-IgG、HSV-Ⅰ- IgG and HSV-Ⅱ-IgG positive rates were 2.38%、73.9%、10.3% and 6.29% .TOX infection was more likely happened in winter, with positive rate of 1.26%;CMV,HSV-I, HSV-II infection had no obvious seasonal difference.Age played no influence on Torch infection,too. Conclusion Season and age had no significant effect on TORCH infection, but it is important to prevent TOX infection in winter. TORCH infection in women of childbearing age should be detected and prevented to improve reproductive quality.%  目的了解杭州地区育龄妇女TORCH感染情况及其流行特点.方法应用ELISA技术检测4798例育龄妇女血清中TORCH特异性抗体.结果 TOX-IgM、RV-IgM、CMV-IgM、HSV-Ⅰ-IgM及HSV-Ⅱ-IgM的阳性率分别为0.69%、1.06%、0.54%、0.6%及0.23%;TOX-IgG、RV-IgG、HSV-Ⅰ- IgG及HSV-Ⅱ- IgG的阳性率分别为2.38%、73.9%、10.3%及6.29%.TORCH感染者中,TOX冬季高发,阳性率为1.26%;CMV,HSV-Ⅰ,HSV-Ⅱ感染率没有明显季节差异.TORCH感染率没有年龄段差异.结论季节和年龄对TORCH感染影响不明显,但是冬季对于预防TOX感染有重要意义.育龄妇女应进行TORCH感染的检测和预防,以提高生育质量.

  12. 杭州湖滨国际名品街塔楼改造工程结构设计%Structural retrofit of the main towers of Hangzhou Hubin International Boutique Compound

    程健; 张群力


    The retrofit project of Hangzhou Hubin International Boutique Compound involved major transformation of the original structural system, which brought extreme difficulty to structural design. The major retrofit work includes: 1 ) two bottom floors of the east tower were demolished for the construction of a new floor;2) three bottom floors of the west tower were demolished for the construction of two new floors ; 3 ) the new floors of the two towers are connected by new built three- floor podium, and the original standard floors of the two towers are also connected by a series of sky-bridges. The two isolated towers are transformed into a connected structure with split levels,which makes the structural system has a great change. The structural design procedure is summarized for this project. The optimization of the overall structural system is presented, the strengthening of structural members are discussed as well as the design of key structural joints, and their characteristics are compared.%杭州湖滨国际名品街塔楼工程改造范围非常广,结构设计难度非常大。主要的改造内容有:1)东塔的底部拆除两层楼板,新加一层楼板;2)西塔的底部拆除三层楼板,新加两层楼板;3)两塔通过新增的三层裙房和标准层连廊连为一体,形成了带错层的连体结构,结构的体型发生了重大变化。从整体结构出发,讨论结构体系的选择。通过调整结构布置来优化各项抗震指标,进而深化局部构件的加固和关键构件的节点设计,并分析了这些构件的优缺点。

  13. Research on Formation and Expansion Mechanism of Distinctive Commercial Steets of Hangzhou%杭州特色商业街形成与扩张机理研究

    唐代剑; 王琼英


    特色商业街具有同类商品集聚、丰富的文化内涵、多元化的休闲旅游功能等核心特征.研究表明:特色的形成、规模的扩张、空间的扩散是特色商业街形成扩张的三个层次.特色的形成是特色商业街赖以生存发展的源动力,受到产业集聚、文化积淀、休闲旅游三个因素的共同刺激与推动,形成了商贸型、文化型、休闲型三种特色类型;规模扩张是市场要素与市场配置的结果,受到居民和旅游者共同创造的需求总量和购买力影响;空间扩散主要受政府因素、消费因素、城市扩张的共同影响,与城市发展战略和城市化拓展方向一致.研究开创了特色商业街独立于商业街之外的理论研究,对特色商业街的理论研究和实践操作具有较强的指导意义.%High degree of industrial agglomeration,multiple leisure functions and multiple cultural expression forms are characteristics of distinctive commercial streets.And formation and expansion of distinctive commercial streets are great performance of their space development.Research Indicates:Commercial street formation and expansion mechanism include three levels:special types of formation,scale expansion,space expansion.Among them,special types formation is the fundamental source of power of distinctive commercial streets,which are mainly stimulated and promoted by industrial agglomeration,culture and leisure tourism.The benefits of distinctive commercial streets scale expansion are mainly confined by demand and purchasing power; Spatial expansion of distinctive commercial streets are mainly affected by city economy,city population,city traffic,and the direction of expansion is in accordance with city development strategy and city urbanization direction.The conclusion of this paper clarifies the development dynamic system of distinctive commercial street of Hangzhou,enriches the theoretical study and provides guiding significance for distinctive

  14. 杭州市家庭室内空气中PBDEs的污染现状与特征%Pollution status and characteristics of PBDEs in indoor air in Hangzhou

    孙鑫; 陈颖; 王云华; 裴小强; 金漫彤; 沈学优


    分析评价了杭州市家庭室内空气中多溴联苯醚(PBDEs)的污染现状及特征.结果显示:杭州家庭客厅空气中气相和颗粒相PBDEs的总浓度平均值分别为52.57 pg·m-3,范围为21.37~83.47 pg·m-3、卧室浓度为43.78 pg·m-3,范围为28.72~58.75 pg·m-3,BDE-47和BDE-99是家庭室内空气中最重要的两种单体,占总浓度的62.75%.室内空气中气相PBDEs浓度是颗粒相的1.49倍.高层建筑中的PBDEs浓度与低层建筑差别不大,均处于较低水平.PBDEs的理化性质、环境条件是影响其气固分配的重要因素.%Concentrations and characteristics of gas-phase and particle-phase PBDEs in indoor air of homes in Hangzhou were investigated. The concentrations of total PBDEs in living rooms and bedrooms were in the range of 21. 37 ~ 83. 47 pg·m -3 ( with a mean value of 52. 57 pg· m -3) and 28.72 ~58.75 pg·m-3(with a mean value of 43.78 pg·m-3) , respectively. BDE-47 and BDE-99 were the major pollutants among the congeners of PBDEs, which accounted for 62. 75% of total PBDEs. Gas-phase concentration of PBDEs was 1.49 times that of PBDEs in particle phase. Concentrations of PBDEs in indoor air were low. There was no significant difference in the concentrations of the congeners of PBDEs in indoor air between high-rise and low-rise buildings. Physicochemical properties and environmental conditions were important factors to affect the concentration distribution of PBDEs in gas and particle phases.

  15. Research of Hangzhou City Ditch Construction during Tang-Song Dynasties and Minguo Period%唐宋及民国时期杭州城市沟渠建设研究

    胡勇军; 李霄


    The construction of canals in Hangzhou City has a long history. Their preliminary development is closely related with“well-canals”. During Tang and Song Dynasties, Li Mi and Su Dongpo built Liu Jing as diversion channel which drew water from the West Lake. During this period, the change of canals is mainly manifested in two aspects. One is the change of the materials of culvert pipes:from bamboo tubes, to tile tubes, o stone tubes. The second is the sewage facilities set up at the entrance of the ditches. In Minguo Period, People were aware of the importance of ditch construction in urban development. In order to solve the problems of ur-ban drainage, the government carried out a detailed investigation on the ditch equipment and drainage of streets in city, and then for-mulated and implemented the urban sewer construction plan.%杭州城内的沟渠建设由来已久,其最初发展和“井渠”密切相关。唐宋年间,李泌和苏东坡等人在城内开凿六井,将西湖水引入城内。这一时期沟渠的发展主要表现在两个方面:一是涵管的材质经历了竹筒—瓦筒—石筒的变化,二是在沟渠口设置了排污设施。民国时期,人们越来越意识到沟渠建设对城市发展的重要意义。为了解决城市排水问题,杭州市政府对城内街道的沟渠设备以及排泄情况做了详细调查,并统筹规划,制定和实施了城区下水道建设计划。

  16. 杭州湾淤泥质海岸岸线变化及其动态模拟%Shoreline Change and Its Dynamic Simulation in the Muddy Coast Area of the Hangzhou Bay

    施伟勇; 戴志军; 谢华亮; 张小玲


    The measured data from a muddy coast segment located from the Nanzhu Harbor to Longquan in the northern coast area of the Hangzhou bay were analyzed statistically. The shoreline change and its influencing factors as well as associated dynamic simulation in the muddy coast segment were discussed. The results show that the beach of the muddy coast segment has been being in an erosion state in recent 10 years due to the decreasing in the incoming sediments from the Yangtze River and the moving of erosion/ accretion waves from east to west. This will cause the whole shoreline in the area studied to retreat. Moreover, due to the action of seasonal wave climate, the beach of the muddy coast segment is in a silting state in winter half year and an eroding state in summer half year. As a result, the shoreline is pushed seaward in winter half year and retreated landward in summer half year. However, some parts of the shoreline may be retreated landward in winter half year and advanced seaward in summer half year because of the impacts of local engineering actions. As to the prediction of shoreline changes, it is possible to use the BF neural network mode with input vectors of - 3 m and -8m isobaths.%通过对杭州湾北岸南竹港 龙泉岸段实测岸滩断面资料的统计分析,进而对淤泥质海岸岸线变化、影响因素及其动态模拟预报进行探讨.结果表明:因长江来沙减少以及侵蚀/淤积波自东向西移动,导致近10 a来该岸段岸滩处于侵蚀状态,其中岸线整体后退;因季节性的波侯作用,岸滩具有冬淤夏冲的特征,岸线则表现为冬涨夏退,因局部工程作用影响的岸线则具有冬退夏涨的特征.此外,基于-3m和-8m等深线构建的径向基函数神经网络模型预报岸线的变化是可行的.

  17. 浅析杭州市余杭区粮食安全问题及对策%Analysis of the problems and countermeasures of the Food safety of the Yuhang District of Hangzhou City



    粮食安全问题是国家的头等大事,在社会发展和经济发展中具有重要的现实意义。中国人口多、耕地少,粮食一直是国家不可或缺的战略资源,具有重要的政治地位;粮食也是农业发展和物价稳定的标志,具有重要的经济地位。杭州市余杭区受耕地少、人口多、农业技术落后、农业收入低和储备制度不够完善等多方面制约因素的影响,用粮缺口比较大。只有从执行耕地保护措施、提高农业科技含量、实施富农服务政策、完善粮食储备制度几个方面入手,才能保障全区人民的用粮需求,稳定本地区的粮食安全形势。%The problem of food security is the top priority,has the important practical significance in the development of society and economy developing. Chinese population,less arable land,food has been the national strategic resources indispensable,have important political status;food and agriculture development and price stability,and has important economic status. Hangzhou city Yuhang district by population,less arable land,agricultural technology,agricultural income is low and reserve system is not perfect in many aspects such as the restriction factors,food gap is relatively large. Only from the implementation of measures to protect arable land, increase the content of science and technology,agricultural implement the service policy,perfecting the grain reserve system in several aspects,in order to safeguard the people's demand for food,the food security situation in the region.

  18. 在杭高校大学生休闲需求偏好及引导教育研究%Study on the Leisure Need Preferences of College Students in Hangzhou and Suggestions for Leisure Education

    蒋艳; 黄莺; 孟柳


    This article uses the leisure motivation theory and SPSS software to analyze the college students' leisure need preferences and puts forward suggestions for leisure education. The college students in Hangzhou have strong and active leisure needs, especially in the needs of relaxation, pleasure and broadening horizons. There are many differences among the students' leisure preferences. Gender is the most im- portant factor, grade is the secondary one, and specialty and living expenses are the less important ones. There are neither differences between the leisure needs of the students from cities and the countryside, nor between undergraduate students and specialty students. From the aspect of management, based on the leis- ure preferences of the college students, active leisure values should be advocated to lead more college students to pursue serious leisure activities, leisure education should be involved into the school management with good interactions between students and teachers, and gender and specialty factors should be considered when leisure activities, facilities and places are provided.%运用休闲动机理论,通过问卷调查和实地访谈,分析大学生休闲需求偏好。结果显示:在杭高校大学生有较强烈的、积极的休闲需求,尤其对放松身心、寻求快乐和开拓眼界需求有较强的偏好。大学生的休闲需求存在很多内部差异,性别是影响休闲需求的首要因素,其次是年级,再次是专业和生活费,但不存在城乡区别,本科和专科生之间也不存在明显区别。在充分了解学生休闲偏好的基础上,学校要倡导积极的休闲价值观,引导高校大学生更多从事深度休闲活动;将休闲教育纳入学校管理范围,与学生良好互动;提供休闲活动和设施场所时充分考虑性别和专业差异。

  19. 杭州市社区老年护理院建设与发展的研究%Study on the establishing and developing of community nursing institution for the aged in Hangzhou

    陈雪萍; 倪荣; 杨佳琦; 徐钦芳; 章冬瑛


    Objective To learn the current situation of community nursing for the aged in hangzhou, investigate the pattern of construction and development of community nursing for the aged, provide reference for decision-making departments of government. Methods Surveied community health service center, patient, community nurses and clinical nurses by interview, letter and questionnaire. Results Smaller quantity, lower professional title and inferior educational background were the characteristics of community nurses. Accordingly, they didn't produce a marked effect in community Health Services for the Aged. Family nursing wasn't carried on very well. Community health service center has certain beds, its function was similar to elderly nursing home. Conclusions Hardware construction of elderly nursing homes should be based on community health service center, Simultaneously, we should establish nursing assessment system, strengthen cultivation of talents in elderly nursing, impel the development of elderly nursing home actively and stably, in response to the rapid increasing nursing needs of elderly.%目的 了解杭州市社区老年护理现状,探索社区老年护理院建设和发展模式,为政府决策部门提供参考依据.方法 以走访、信函调查、问卷调查相结合的方式,调查社区卫生服务中心及患者、社区护士、临床护士.结果 社区护士数量少、学历低、职称低,在社区为老服务工作中没有发挥较好作用;家庭护理没有很好开展;社区卫生服务中心有一定住院床位,其功能已类似于老年护理院的功能.结论 应以社区卫生服务中心为依托,开展社区老年护理院硬件建设,同时建立老年护理评估体系、加强老年护理人才培养,积极稳妥推进老年护理院的发展,以应对老年人快速增长的护理需求.

  20. 现代图书馆管理理念之解读——以杭州图书馆为例%An Interpretation of Modern Library Management Concepts——With Hangzhou Library as an Example

    任杏莉; 贾炳会


    Modern library concepts embodied in "Free admission to Hangzhou Library" are modern concepts such as equal service,free knowledge,justice culture,democratic politics and social tolerance.The concept of equal service deliminates the difference of identity,shows solicitude to the disadvantaged group.The concept of free knowledge makes everybody obtain the knowledge freely to change the fate.The concept of justice culture solves the contradiction of unfair culture information in society,and realizes the publicity and sharing of culture information resources.The concept of demoncratic politics is the final aim of demoncratic education of library.The concept of society tolerance encourages the demoncraction and harmony of society,as reduces or avoids the social repulsion.Analysis on magement concepts of modern library has got practical significance to improve social responsibility of modern library.%"杭州图书馆面向所有读者免费开放"很好地体现了现代图书馆服务均等、知识自由、文化公平、政治民主、社会包容等现代理念。服务均等消除了身份差异,对弱势群体给予了关爱。知识自由使所有人都能自由地获取知识,改变命运;文化公平解决了现实社会文化信息不公平的矛盾,实现了文化信息资源公共、公开、共享;政治民主是图书馆进行民主教育的最终目标;社会包容促进社会民主与社会和谐,减少或避免社会排斥。解读现代图书馆五大理念,对提升现代图书馆的社会责任具有现实意义。

  1. An investigation of medical students'usage of internet learning resources in Hangzhou Normal University%医学生网络学习资源运用现状与需求调查

    裘巧燕; 许鸣; 骆湘香; 许亮文


    目的:了解医学生与非医学生网络学习资源的运用情况和特点,为提高网络学习资源运用提供理论依据.方法:以班级为单位,分层整群抽取杭州师范大学465名医学院学生与280名非医学院学生,对两者的网络学习资源获取能力、应用能力、使用效果和期待四方面进行匿名问卷调查,分析网络学习资源运用情况.结果:医学生对万方数据库的知晓率,通过图书馆获取网络学习资源的比例显著高于非医学生(P<0.05),两者在网络学习资源的访问频率、检索方式、学习效率上的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:应结合医学生的特点,通过学校、教师配合指导以及学生的积极参与,提高医学生网络学习资源的运用水平.%Objective:To investigate the Internet learning resources use of the college students to find out the traits of students'usage of Internet learning resources,and to provide suggestions and measures to improve network resources utilization. Methods:By stratified cluster sampling method,465 students from medical college and 280 students from other colleges were chosen with class as unit from Hangzhou normal university. The four aspects of the use of Internet learning resources( access,application,effect,expectation)were investigated by questionnaire. Results:The awareness of Wanfang database and the rate of accessing Internet learning resources through library among students from medical college were significantly higher than other students(P<0. 05). There were significant differences in the network resources access frequency,retrieval way and learning efficiency among medical and other college students(P<0. 05). Conclusion:The traits of medical student's usage of Internet learning resources should be concentrated,teachers and students should carried out measures to improve students'rational use of network resources.

  2. Social Inclusion and Integration of New Citizens into Local Society:A Case Study in Hangzhou%社会融合与新市民的城市融入:杭州个案分析



    从社会融合视角研究城市新市民的融入不仅能从宏观上反映社会基础的变化,也可从微观上评估这一群体的生活境况,从而为探讨采取什么政策手段来缓解社会矛盾提供理论支持。文章对杭州新市民的生活状况展开调研,走访了部分企业负责人和政府官员。这些调研和访谈反映出新市民群体在户籍入户、住房保障、子女教育和社会参与等方面遇到了困难。结合社会融合的视角并从公民权利、就业市场准入、福利服务和社会网络等维度对新市民的城市融入进行分析,这些因素既与政府社会政策实践密切相关,也是衡量社会融合维度的重要方面。%Research on the perspective of social inclusion of new citizens can not only reflect the change of social foundation but also make the judgment of life conditions of this group on individual levels, so as to provide theoretical assistance for the explora-tions of social policy evaluation.Our research team investigated the living conditions of the new citizens in Hangzhou, and visited some enterprises and government officials.It reveals that there are problems on household registration, housing security, children education and limited social participation for the new citizen group.Combined with the theoretical perspective of social inclusion, the paper further analyzes the civil rights, job market access, welfare services and social networks of the new citizens.These fac-tors are closely related to the government's social policy and are the most important aspects of social inclusion measurement.

  3. China Infected with Work Ennui


    Results of an Investigation into China's Work Ennui Index completed by the China Human Resources Development Web show that the universal problem of work ennui (or “occupational exhaustion”) has finally hit China.

  4. China Satcom Merged Into CASC

    Wei Tong


    @@ China Satellite Communications Corporation (China Satcom) merged with China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) recently on the request under regrouping and structure readjustment by the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council (SASAC).

  5. IBF Launched in China

    Guo Yan


    @@ The India Business Forum(IBF)organized by the Confederation of Indian Industry(CII)and the Indian Embassy to China was officially launched in Beijing,on April 16,2009.With the theme of"Impact of Global Economic Crisis:Challenges and Opportunities for India and China",IBF(China)was launched to provide a lobby to promote bilateral trade and economic cooperation between the two countries.

  6. JPRS Report China


    caused by peanut mild mottle virus (PMMV) was predominant throughout all areas. Peanut yellow mosaic and common mosaic caused by cucumber mosaic virus ...Fujian 42 Types and Distribution of Peanut Virus Diseases in China and Detection of the Viruses by Serology 42 TAIWAN Yao Chia-wen on Taiwan’s Legal...Distribution of Peanut Virus Diseases in China and Detection of the Viruses by Serology 40110003 Wuhan ZHONGGUO YOULIAO [OIL CROPS OF CHINA] in


    Chu Haihong


    @@ According to JPMorgan's review 2003 of China's gas market,China's household gas price was one of the lowest in the world, 20% below the global average. Despite the increase in recent years, China's domestic gas price is still relatively low in the global context. It is safe to say that the low gas price is one of the keys attracting keen investments currently from overseas and domestic private capitals.

  8. China-Russia Bond

    Ji Zhiye; Ma Zongshi


    @@ Thanks to China's successful launching of the Year of Russia, 2006 will surely go down as a milestone in the history of the China-Russia bond. Furthermore, a still-warmer climate will continue to prevail in 2007 when Moscow, in its turn, hosts the Year of China, trying to outshine its next-door neighbor in this regard, as Russian President Vladimir Putin promised in the exchange of new year greetings with his Chinese counterpart, President Hu Jintao.

  9. Industrial robots in China

    Johansen, Joachim Storm; Tjemsland, Hans Kristian


    This thesis investigates the future development of industrial robots in China. It will focus on growth in robot sales toward China and try to identify which companies that are most capable of benefiting from the potential growth. A triangulation approach is applied, where both qualitative and quantitative methods is utilized. SWOT, discrete data and panel data analysis supports our conclusion about a strong growth in China. Porter`s Five Forces and financial analysis have pointed out interest...

  10. Understanding the Real China



    @@ Chinese officials underlined the need for the EU to gain a more balanced view of China-by looking not only at its progress but also at its challenges-at the recent China-EU strategic dialogue. Chinese State Councilor Dai Bingguo and EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Catherine Ashton co-chaired the September 1 meeting in Guiyang, capital of southwest China's Guizhou Province.

  11. Think London, Think china

    Yang Wei


    @@ The China-UK relationship has a long history and is one of the most important contemporary China-European ties.The UK was the first western country to recognize the People's Republic of China after it was founded in 1949.Later,the two sides reached an agreement to exchange Charges d'Affairs in 1954,and signed the Joint Communiqué for the Agreement on the Exchange of Ambassadors in 1972.



    <正>AMemoir of More Than 80 Years in China by Israel Epstein was translated into Chinese and published by the New World Press in April this year to celebrate the author’s 89th birthday. The 415-page book tells about his love for China, his profound friendly sentiments towards the Chinese people, his great expectation for the construction of new China and his confidence in the bright prospects for its future.

  13. China's Foreign Trade Strategy

    Li Zuoyan


    @@ Profile of route map In 1949,right after the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC),overall economic blockage and embargo imposed by other countries,except the Soviet Union and eastern European countries,separated China from the global economic and trade community.In such a context,China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) was born in May 1952 to facilitate non-governmental trade with other countries,Japan in particular.

  14. Surfing China's National Defense

    Ji Guilin


    @@ Following the start of its first test run on August 20, 2009, the website of the Ministry of National Defense (MOD) of the People's Republic of China has logged more than 2 billion hits,from many countries and regions including China, the United States,the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia and Singapore. China National Defense News reporters recently interviewed Ji Guilin, the website's Editor in Chief, on its performance and the feedback of netizens.

  15. China Builds Its NASDAQ


    Equity market expansion has brought significant investment opportunities to the SME board, which is expected to become China's NASDAQ China CAMC Engineering Co. Ltd., the first company to go public in China since the stock market resumed its financing function, was listed on Shenzhen's small and medium enterprises (SME) board on June 19, with its price rising 332 percent on its debut When Microsoft was listed on NASDAQ 20 years ago, it barely reached the low

  16. Patriotic Education in China

    WangLin; GaoYu


    From last year on, a few news media in Japan have reported that China has began anti-Japanese education among the young people since the middle of 1990s. This biased view does not reflect the fact, for China has never conducted the so-called“anti-Japanese education” The education conducted in China now is to promote patriotism rather than instigate anti-Japanese sentiment. During my contacts with Japanese friends I have found that lots of Japanese are not familiar with what China's patriotic education is about. I hope this article can present readers with an objective picture.

  17. The Rise of China

    Yang Shouming; Cheng Youzhong


    Shared ideas wield a decisive influence on a country's external behavior. How China's rise will impact the world is determined by ideas shared by the international community. The identity and role of an emerging China is shaped not merely by its own material factors and subjective efforts. It is also constructed through China's interaction with other countries. The idea of a harmonious culture may eliminate international concerns about China's rise at the root, but this culture needs to be constructed by all the countries in the world.

  18. Food-borne disease related behavior analysis of family food providers in the floating population of Hangzhou city%流动人口食源性疾病相关行为调查

    黄利明; 刘辉; 陈树昶; 王妮; 沈利明; 盛金芳; 朱晓霞


    Objective To study food-borne disease related behavior of the floating population in Hangzhou city. Methods A questionnaire on food-borne disease related behaviors was formulated based on Delphi method. A family-based retrospective investigation was conducted by unified trained investigators to analyze the frequency of food-borne disease related behaviors of family food providers during the past month in several floating-population centers of Hangzhou city. The investigation was conducted among 150 adults of every survey spot quarterly during a one-year period. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results According to all 1 781 valid recovery questionnaires, 82.42%subjects had a family income less than 50 000 yuan per year and 87.42%of them had junior-middle-school or lower levels of education. The proportions of subjects who always cleaned kitchen tools, covered the garbage can and kept house out of flies, roaches and mice were 42.50%, 55.87% and 61.09%, respectively. The proportions of subjects who always purchased intact packaged food and food under warranty were 39.70%and 52.33%, respectively. The proportions of subjects who always used tapped water, cleaned hands before food processing, cooked eggsand other foods till well-done were 66.03%, 51.94%, 53.62%, 35.99% and 32.62%, respectively. The proportions of subjects who always stored food in containers with cover and for no more than 3 days in freezer were 20.89%and 30.88%, respectively. The frequencies of food-borne disease related behaviors mentioned above were significantly higher among migrants who originated from urban areas, received education above junior-middle-school and had a family income no less than 50 000 yuan/y than the others (P<0.05). Conclusion In order to correct the risky behaviors during food consuming, processing and storage, targeted intervention is necessary among family food providers of floating population families.%目的:了解流动人口食源性疾病相关行为。

  19. 杭州地区体检人群乙型肝炎病毒标志物阴性结果分析%Analysis of negative results of hepatitis B virus markers in healthy population in Hangzhou district

    钟毓红; 戴宇; 张松照


    目的:分析2014年杭州地区体检人群乙型肝炎病毒血清学五项标志物(HBV‐M )全阴模式的分布特征,为预防和控制HBV‐M阴性人群感染乙型肝炎病毒(HBV )提供对策。方法采用 ELISA 对体检人群的血液标本进行 HBV‐M (HBsAg、HBsAb、HBeAg、HBeAb和HBcAb)检测。对保存的300例 HBV‐M阴性标本,分别使用化学发光免疫分析法检测 HBsAg、HB‐sAb和PROCLEIX ULTRIO棆 Assay检测HBV‐DNA ,对 HBV‐DNA反应性标本进行病毒载量测定。结果在检测的9143例体检者的标本中,2213例标本为 HBV‐M阴性,阴性率为24.20%;男女 HBV‐M 阴性率比值为1∶1.21。使用化学发光免疫分析法和PROCLEIX ULTRIO棆 Assay分别检测出1例低浓度的HBsAg标本(HBsAb及 HBV DNA均无反应性),4例低浓度的HBsAb标本(HBsAg及 HBV DNA均无反应性),2例 HBV‐DNA反应性标本(HBV‐M 阴性)。其中1例 HBV‐DNA反应性标本定量检测为560 IU/mL。结论杭州地区ELISA HBV‐M 阴性的体检人群中,少数人可检出低浓度的 HBsAg或 HBsAb或HBV DNA。针对ELISA HBV‐M阴性人群,建议接种乙肝疫苗前进行HBV‐M和HBV‐DNA定量检测,以确定是否需要接种乙肝疫苗及接种乙肝疫苗的方案。%Objective To analyse the distribution characteristics of negative pattern of hepatitis B virus Markers (HBV‐M ) in healthy population in Hangzhou district in 2014 ,and provide strategy for the prevention and control of HBV infection in HBV‐M negative population .Methods The HBV‐M (HBsAg ,HBsAb ,HBeAg ,HBeAb and HBcAb) in blood specimens of health examina‐tion population were tested by using ELISA .For 300 cases preserved HBV‐M negative specimens ,HBsAg and HBsAb were detec‐ted by using chemiluminescence immunoassay and HBV‐DNA was detected by using PROCLEIX ULTRIO® Assay .The viral load of HBV‐DNA reactive sample was quantitatively determined .Results Among 9 143

  20. A cross -sectional study on self -reported acute gastroenteritis in Hangzhou -Jiaxing -Huzhou area%杭嘉湖地区居民自报急性胃肠炎现况研究

    陈江; 齐小娟; 吕鹏; 王绩凯; 陈莉莉; 章荣华


    目的:了解浙江省杭嘉湖地区居民自报急性胃肠炎的患病状况及人群分布。方法采用多阶段抽样方法按人囗容量比抽取调查户,于2010年7月—2011年6月每月入户按生日确定调查其中1名家庭成员在近四周内急性胃肠炎发生情况及其就诊等情况。结果共调查居民9548人,急性胃肠炎四周患病率为2.95%,发病率为0.39次/人年。推算杭嘉湖地区全年有587.56万人次感染急性胃肠炎。多因素 Logistic 回归分析显示,女性四周患病率高于男性;7月和8月患病率较高;未到入学年龄人群急性胃肠炎四周患病率最高;农村患病率高于城市;家庭居住户人口数≥3人的月患病率高于居住人口数为1~2人户。56.38%的病例患病时曾去医院就诊,54.67%的病例服用抗菌药物;13.48%的病例因病误工,另有2.13%的病例因病误学。结论杭嘉湖地区人群自我报告急性胃肠炎患病率2.95%,自我报告患病率与性别、文化程度、月份(季节)、城乡居住地和家庭户人口数有关。%Objective To understand epidemiological characteristics of self -reported acute gastroenteritis in Hangzhou -Jiaxing -Huzhou area in Zhejiang Province.Methods According to the population capacity,the household interview was conducted among families selected by multi stage sampling method from July 2010 to June 2011,and one person who was approaching birthday in every family was selected for investigation, including symptoms and treatment of acute gastroenteritis.Results Totally 9 548 people were investigated.The monthly prevalence of acute gastroenteritis among the surveyed population was 2.95% and the incidence was 0.39 per person year.It was estimated that there would be 5.875 6 million cases of acute gastroenteritis occurred during this year in the area.Logistic regression analysis showed that monthly prevalence in female was higher than in male

  1. Fruit and vegetable consumption and related influencing factors among urban junior students in Hangzhou%杭州市城区初中生蔬菜水果摄入情况及影响因素分析

    任艳军; 刘庆敏; 曹承建; 吕筠; 李立明


    目的 了解杭州市城区初中生蔬菜水果摄入情况及影响因素.方法 在杭州市3个城区初中生中开展横断面自填问卷调查,了解学生每周蔬菜水果的摄入频率、摄入量及相关社会人口学特征,采用logistic多因素回归法分析影响每周吃蔬菜≥21份和水果≥14份的因素.结果 纳入分析的3724名初中生每周每日食蔬菜水果为54.7%,每周进食蔬菜≥21份和水果≥14份(相当于每日食蔬菜≥3份和水果≥2份)为23.6%.女生、母亲文化程度较高、家庭社会经济水平较高的初中生每周蔬菜水果摄入频率和摄入量均较高(P<0.05).控制了5种社会人口学因素后,每日体力活动≥60 min(OR=1.667,95%CI:1.216 ~ 2.203)、家人每日鼓励多进食蔬菜水果(OR=1.881,95%CI:1.498 ~ 2.363)、每日表扬食蔬菜水果(OR=1.275,95%CI:1.025 ~ 1.586)、每周3 ~6 d(OR=1.691,95%CI:1.310~2.183)和每日(OR=2.944,95%CI:2.348~ 3.690)准备好蔬菜水果、每周3 ~6 d(OR=1.392,95%CI:1.056 ~ 1.835)和每日(OR=2.817,95%CI:2.217~3.580)一起进食蔬菜水果、早餐通常自家做(OR=1.364,95%CI:1.158~1.607)、蔬菜水果健康益处的课程教育(OR=1.238,95% CI:1.035 ~ 1.480)和认知(OR=3.150,95%CI:1.121 ~ 8.856)与初中生每周食蔬菜≥21份和水果≥14份均有正性关联.结论 杭州市城区初中生蔬菜水果的摄入水平与社会人口学特征、体力活动、家庭饮食环境、蔬菜水果健康益处的教育和认知程度有关.%Objective To explore the fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and related influencing factors among urban junior students in Hangzhou.Methods In a cross-sectional study,a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the frequency and amount of FV consumption as well as related socio-demographic characteristics.Logistic regression method was applied to study other factors related to the amount of vegetables consumption ≥ 21 servings and fruit

  2. PBDEs Levels in House Dust and Human Exposure to PBDEs via Dust Ingestion in Hangzhou%杭州城区室内灰尘中多溴联苯醚的含量及人体暴露水平

    金漫彤; 滕丹丹; 郑艳霞; 胡张璇; 沈学优; 金赞芳


    为了评估杭州城区室内灰尘中多溴联苯醚(PBDEs)污染程度,2013年3~8月,在杭州城区随机采集19个办公室、家庭和学生宿舍的室内灰尘样品.用 GC-ECD 定量分析了样品中14种 PBDEs 同系物的含量水平、同系物分布和可能的影响因素,并估算了成年人和儿童通过灰尘摄入对 PBDEs 的暴露水平.结果表明,办公室∑14 PBDEs 的平均值9.28×102 ng•g -1,中值为1.03×103 ng•g -1;家庭∑14 PBDEs 的平均值7.83×102 ng•g -1,中值为9.11×102 ng•g -1;学生宿舍∑14 PBDEs 的平均值4.07×102 ng•g -1,中值为4.03×102 ng•g -1,办公室的污染水平高于居住环境. BDE-209是贡献值最大的单体,其贡献值为75.48%,其次分别是 BDE-190、 BDE-154和 BDE-71.成年人和儿童通过灰尘摄入的 PBDEs 暴露水平分别为13.12~32.63 ng•d -1和32.40~54.54 ng•d -1,灰尘中儿童的 PBDEs 人体暴露量高于成人的人体暴露量,主要是因为儿童灰尘摄入量要高于成人.分析得出,从室内灰尘摄入的 PBDEs 存在健康隐患,儿童潜在危害最大.%In order to evaluate the pollution degree of the dust in Hangzhou City, the indoor dust samples of 19 offices, families and students’ dormitories were collected from August to March in 2013 at Hangzhou for evaluating the pollution level of polybrominated diphenyl ethers ( PBDEs), to analyze concentrations of 14 PBDEs congeners and congener distribution as well as the possible influencing factors, and to estimate the PBDEs exposure levels of adults and children through the dust intake. The results showed that the average ∑14 PBDEs of office was 9. 28 × 102 ng•g - 1 , and the median was 1. 03 × 103 ng•g - 1; the average ∑14 PBDEs of family was 7. 83 × 102 ng•g - 1 , and the median was 9. 11 × 102 ng•g - 1; the average ∑14 PBDEs of student dormitory was 4. 07 × 102 ng•g - 1 , and the median was 4. 03 × 102 ng•g - 1 . The pollution level of the office was higher

  3. 杭州湾庵东浅滩现代沉积物中的生物遗迹%Biogenic traces in modern shoal deposits of Andong area,Hangzhou Bay

    宋慧波; 于会新; 王海邻; 范代读; 胡斌; 王芳


    杭州湾庵东浅滩沉积物中发现有多种造迹生物,主要有蝼蛄、泥甲虫、宁波泥蟹、珠带拟蟹守螺、泥螺、弹涂鱼、蚂蚁和鸟类等,营造的生物遗迹主要为觅食迹、居住迹和爬行迹(爬迹、拖迹和鸟足迹)等。分析表明,浅滩不同亚环境的造迹生物及其遗迹的主要类型和分布特征具有明显的差异性:(1)在潮上带植被茂密的草滩环境中,以层面上的生物觅食迹、居住迹和鸟足迹为主,造迹生物主要有蝼蛄、泥甲虫、蚂蚁和鸟类等,其中以蝼蛄的潜穴最为丰富。(2)在高潮滩的积水泥沼环境中,有大量近海喜盐植物,生物遗迹主要有宁波泥蟹的“J”形、“W”形和“Y”形潜穴、弹涂鱼的羽状爬迹、珠带拟蟹守螺在层面上营造的弧形、圆圈状的觅食迹和“C”形的条带状生殖迹。(3)在中、低潮间带的粉砂质环境中,以层面上珠带拟蟹守螺不规则的觅食迹为主。生物遗迹的分布与浅滩沉积底质沉积物粒度与含水量等特征密切相关。本研究不仅丰富了杭州湾浅滩沉积的新遗迹学研究,而且对古代潮汐沉积及其环境研究有重要的借鉴意义。%Various trace-makers have been found in the shoal deposits of Andong area, Hangzhou Bay,including mole crickets (Gryllotalpa unispina),mud beetles (Coleptera),mud crabs (Ilyplax ningboensis), Cerithideopsilla cingalata, mud snails (Bullacta ), mudskippers or amphibious fishes (Periophthalmua cantonensis),ants and birds.The most abundant traces can be ascribed to Fodinichnia, Domichnia,Repichnia and Pascichnia.Analysis shows that significant variations in type and diversity of traces and their makers are present over the different shoal zonations.(1 ) The highly-vegetated supratidal flat is featured by the abundance of bird tracks,and feeding and dwelling traces of mole crickets,mud beetles and ants,in which the feeding burrows of mole

  4. Modern muddy deposit along the Zhejiang coast in the East China Sea: Response to large-scale human projects

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Jian; Liu, Shengfa; Wang, Zhongbo; Hu, Gang; Kong, Xianghuai


    Grain size and clay minerals in the surface sediment off Zhejiang Province, China, of the East China Sea were analyzed to study changes in grain size, muddy deposit boundary, and major riverine and other derived matters transport paths in the Zhejiang coastal muddy deposit since the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam and after other large-scale human projects. The results show that the sediment types are mainly silt and mud in the muddy deposit, divided based on the 10% isoline of the sand-sized component. The sources of sediment in the muddy deposit are mainly the Yangtze River and simultaneously supplies from the Qiantang Jiang, Ou Jiang, relict fine-grain matter, and hydrolyzed volcanic rocks around the Zhoushan Islands. The transport and dispersal of sediments in the study area are largely controlled by the Zhejiang-Fujian coastal current and the Taiwan Warm Current and appear seasonally. The contributions from the Ou Jiang, relict matter, local hydrolyzed matter, and the Qiantang Jiang are enlarged owing to the decline of Yangtze suspended matter and the constructions of major human projects in the Hangzhou Bay, respectively. In addition, the sediment grain size exhibits a fining trend because of the influence of the Three Gorges Dam. The boundary of the muddy deposit is relatively stable after the Three Gorges Dam impoundment north of the city of Zhoushan. In contrast, south of the city of Zhoushan the boundary of the muddy deposit lies toward the east because the sediment supply from the relict fine-grained matters resuspended by the Taiwan Warm Current east of the study area. The changes in the grain size and contributions from smaller rivers and other derived matter as well as the boundary of the muddy deposit there will probably become more pronounced in the future.

  5. An Analysis of Changes and Influence Factors of Capi t al Return Rat e of Hangzhou---Based on the Perspective of Human Capital%杭州市资本回报率的变动及其影响因素分析--基于人力资本的视角

    杨君; 吕品


    使用1990-2012年杭州市规模以上工业企业的数据,对杭州规模以上工业企业的资本回报率进行了测度,然后使用修正后的模型,从人力资本的视角,对资本回报率的变动机制进行了分析,并使用杭州数据进行了实证检验。结果表明:杭州规模以上工业企业的资本回报整体上呈先降后升状况;人力资本在长短期均促进了资本回报率的提升,人力资本的溢出效应和无技术水平工人有着相反的影响;短期来看,资本存量降低了资本回报率,长期则有着促进作用,但程度较轻。%Using the data of industrial enterprises above the designated size from 1990 to 2012 ,the pa-per calculates the capital return rate of industrial enterprises above the designated size of Hangzhou ,then adopts the modified model to analyze the change mechanism of capital return rate basing on the perspective of human capital .Besides ,this paper makes an empirical test by use of the data of Hangzhou .T he results show that :the capital return of industrial enterprises above the designated size of Hangzhou reduces at first and then increases ;human capital promotes the rise in capital return rate in a short term and long term ,while spillover effect of human capital and unskilled workers have a negative effect ;capital stock has a negative impact on capital return rate in the short term ,but has a positive role in the long term .

  6. A prospective cohort study on positive seroconversion of HIV and Treponema pallidum antibodies among men who have sex with men in Hangzhou%杭州市男男性行为人群HIV和梅毒螺旋体血清抗体阳转情况队列研究

    李西婷; 罗艳; 武海滨; 金洁; 许珂


    Objective To understand the positive seroconversion of human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) and Treponema pallidum antibodies among men who have sex with men ( MSM) in Hangzhou. Methods MSM were recruited from HIV voluntary counsel and test (VCT) clinics in 5 districts in Hangzhou, and follow up for 3 and 6 months was made among them to learn about their high risk behaviors. Blood samples were taken from them to detect the antibodies to HIV and Treponema pallidum. Results Among 80 HIV negative MSM recruited, 3. 75% (3/80) were Treponema pallidum positive, 92. 5% (74/80) completed the 6 month follow up. The positive seroconversion rates of HIV and Treponema pallidum antibodies were 10.7/100 person-years and 13.9/100 person-years respectively. Conclusion The positive seroconversion of HIV and Treponema pallidum in this MSM cohort was very serious. More effective measures should be taken to reduce the prevalence of HIV infection and syphilis in MSM in Hangzhou.%目的 了解杭州市男男性行为人群(MSM)的艾滋病病毒(HIV)和梅毒螺旋体血清抗体阳转情况.方法 于2011年6月在杭州市上城区、下城区、江干区、拱墅区和西湖区5个主要城区的自愿咨询检测门诊招募80名MSM组建队列.在基线、3个月和6个月调查其高危行为情况,并采集血样检测HIV和梅毒螺旋体血清抗体.结果 基线调查纳入80名HIV抗体阴性的调查对象,梅毒螺旋体阳性率为3.75% (3/80).队列随访6个月,MSM队列保持率为92.5% (74/80),HIV血清抗体阳转率为10.7/100人年,梅毒阳转率为13.9/100人年.结论 杭州市MSM人群HIV和梅毒血清阳转情况十分严重.应加大该人群的艾滋病宣传干预力度,探索开展更为有效的干预措施.

  7. 基于模糊分析法的科技场馆游客满意度研究--以杭州为例%Analysis of tourist satisfaction of science and technology venues based on a fuzzy evaluation---A case study of Hangzhou



    文章基于模糊分析法,以杭州科技场馆作为研究对象,构建游客满意度评价指标体系,分析景区设施、景区服务管理、产品项目、景区形象及景区交通各影响因子与杭州科技场馆类旅游产品游客满意度之间的关系及规律。研究结果表明:科技场馆的设计和推广有赖于针对性的产品塑造和营销;科技场馆游客体验质量受各方面因素影响,科技场馆各服务产品之间应相辅相成,平衡发展;科技场馆参观体验作为个性化的专项活动,在开发与经营过程中,要不断追寻游客的需求变化,即时进行产品创新。文章为提高杭州科技场馆类旅游产品游客满意度提供了理论和方法指导。%Taking science and technology venue in Hangzhou as an example,based on the fuzzy evaluation,the paper con-structs tourist satisfaction evaluation index system and analyzes the relationship between scenic facilities,service management,pro-ject product,image,traffic and the satisfaction of science and technology venues in Hangzhou.The results show that the design and promotion of venues depends on the specific product;products should complement each other,balanced development;in the devel-opment and management process,we should seek the demand changes of tourists.The paper providse theoretical and methodologi-cal guidance to improve the tourist satisfaction for science and technology venues in Hangzhou.

  8. Developmental Idealism in China.

    Thornton, Arland; Xie, Yu


    This paper examines the intersection of developmental idealism with China. It discusses how developmental idealism has been widely disseminated within China and has had enormous effects on public policy and programs, on social institutions, and on the lives of individuals and their families. This dissemination of developmental idealism to China began in the 19(th) century, when China met with several military defeats that led many in the country to question the place of China in the world. By the beginning of the 20(th) century, substantial numbers of Chinese had reacted to the country's defeats by exploring developmental idealism as a route to independence, international respect, and prosperity. Then, with important but brief aberrations, the country began to implement many of the elements of developmental idealism, a movement that became especially important following the assumption of power by the Communist Party of China in 1949. This movement has played a substantial role in politics, in the economy, and in family life. The beliefs and values of developmental idealism have also been directly disseminated to the grassroots in China, where substantial majorities of Chinese citizens have assimilated them. These ideas are both known and endorsed by very large numbers in China today.

  9. Heat roadmap China

    Xiong, Weiming; Wang, Yu; Mathiesen, Brian Vad


    District heating is regarded as a key element of energy saving actions in the Chinese national energy strategy, while space heating in China is currently still dominated by coal boilers. However, there is no existing quantitative study to analyse the future heat strategy for China. Therefore...

  10. Action Learning in China

    Marquardt, Michael J.


    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  11. China's Innovation Paradox

    Chan, Jeremy


    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  12. Trilogy of China's Banking


    @@ Banks of China will face declining profit rate and slightly increasing non-performing loans ratio in a short term during 2009, but government policies will reduce the negative impact of financial crisis, and China's financial environment is still relatively safe in a global comparison.

  13. Cotton Trip in China


    From September 6th to 12th,a National Cotton CouncilCotton Council International 2010 China leadership team,led by Charles Parker,Vice Chairman of NCC,visited China to see its cotton industrial development and continue building a good relationship with U.S.raw cotton’s largest consumer.

  14. Food irradiation in China

    Wedekind, L.


    The paper concerns food irradiation in The People's Republic of China. Its use is envisaged to prolong storage times and to improve the quality of specific foodstuffs. Commercialisation in China, demonstration plants, seasonal shortages and losses, Shanghai irradiation centre, health and safety approval, prospects for wider applications and worldwide use of food irradiation, are all discussed.

  15. Educational Technology in China

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang


    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  16. Cotton Trip in China

    Wang Ting


    @@ During their trip in Beijing,the leadership delegation members,Charles Parker,Harrison Ashley(Vice President of NCC Ginner Services),along with Karin Malmstrom(China Director of CCI)shared a time to accept the interview,giving a general introduction about their China trip and the cotton industry in USA.

  17. China's Innovation Paradox

    Chan, Jeremy


    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  18. Call From China West

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin


    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  19. NANNING China's Green Capital


    @@ Nanning,the capital city of Guangxi province,is not only the political,economic and cultural center of the province,but also plays an important role in the economic development of southwest China.Nanning's advantageous location makes the city a commercial and communication center,opening China to Southeast Asia.

  20. Ethnic Indentification in China



    The ethnic identification has significant theoretical, policy-related and scientific aspects, and it has a direct bearing on the basic work of carrying out the Communist Party of China's (CPC) policy of equality for all ethnic groups. For more than thirty years, Chinese government departments at all levels concerned with ethnic affairs, starting from the actual conditions of all of China's ethnic groups,

  1. Liquidating a China Business



    With the global economic crisis hitting some businesses in China very hard as export sales dry up, now is a timely occasion to remind executives of affected businesses of their responsibilities when having to liquidate a business. China-based subsidiaries may

  2. Outsourcing to China.

    Liu, Jacqueline


    To enhance competitive advantage in the face of increasing globalisation, companies need to consider moving certain operations to China, if they have not done so already. This article describes the evolving nature of outsourcing to China and what companies need to consider to be successful in this business model.

  3. Financial Derivatives in China


    Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.

  4. China Salutes Chopin


    Frederic Franciszek Chopin never visited China during his short yet productive life. He may never have imagined his work would now be played so often and loudly 200 years after his birth in the faraway nation in the East. Interesting ties between China

  5. Invigorating West China


    The once-poor west China is growing at a faster rate than the east. The trend is set to continue over the next few years. This is good news for China as the country gears up to shrink the economic divide between eastern and western regions.

  6. China's Food Quality Report


    @@ Editorial Note: This report on China's food security situation aims to put at ease the hearts of consumers at home and abroad.It will convey that China is a responsible country with an effective system for safeguarding every link in the food export chain.Hence,a few bad incidents should not be regarded as representative of all Chinese food exports.

  7. Probing China's Lysine Market


    @@ The lysine sector in China developed further in 2006. Both the capacity and the output hit new highs and China had a major impact on the global lysine market. The import amount of lysine satisfied only a very small portion of the domestic market's demand.

  8. Luxury Loves China

    Yan Manman


    @@ With luxury sales in the rest of the world either shrinking or growing more slowly,it showcased a completely different scene in China. Although not immune to the global economic crisis, the country has suffered far less than others,and the continued health of China's luxury market makes it an oasis of hope and possibility in a recession-battered world.



    The China International Publishing Group (CIPG) specializes in international communications. Its operationsencompass reporting, editing, translation, publishing, printing, distribution, and the Internet. It incorporates sevenpublishing companies, five magazines and 19 periodicals, published in over 20 languages. The ChinaInternational Book Trading Corporation, another group facet, distributes all of these to over 180 countries and

  10. China Salutes Chopin



    @@ Frederic Franciszek Chopin never visited China during his short yet productive life. He may never have imagined his work would now be played so often and loudly 200 years after his birth in the faraway nation in the East. Interesting ties between China and the composer who is the pride of Poland will be on show this year.

  11. Action Learning in China

    Marquardt, Michael J.


    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  12. Petaflop supercomputers of China

    Guoliang CHEN


    @@ After ten years of development, high performance computing (HPC) in China has made remarkable progress. In November, 2010, the NUDT Tianhe-1A and the Dawning Nebulae respectively claimed the 1st and 3rd places in the Top500 Supercomputers List; this recognizes internationally the level that China has achieved in high performance computer manufacturing.

  13. China's 'recycling economy'

    Mehlsen, Camilla


    Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin.......Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin....

  14. Is China Different?

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    We examine whether China has benefited more than other countries from financial sector development by performing a meta-analysis of the relevant literature covering a large number of countries at different stages of development. Although the results for China are inconclusive, they indicate...

  15. China Connections Reference Book.

    Kalat, Marie B.; Hoermann, Elizabeth F.

    This reference book focuses on six aspects of the geography of the People's Republic of China. They are: territory, governing units, population and land use, waterways, land forms, and climates. Designed as a primary reference, the book explains how the Chinese people and their lifestyles are affected by China's geography. Special components…

  16. Building Bridges to China.

    Wasta, Stephanie; Scott, Margaret


    Describes a theme cycle called "Building Bridges to China" developed for third grade students that focuses on the similarities between the lives of children and families in China and the United States. Explains that the theme cycle addresses the National Geography Standards and three of the National Council for the Social Studies standards. (CMK)

  17. China: Background Notes Series.

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  18. China Sports Museum


    THE China Sports Museum,inside the National Olympic Sports Center on 3A Anding Road,Andingmenwai, Beijing, is China's First museum dedicated to the nation's sporting history.Its exterior is in the shape of an octagonal spiral, with white

  19. A ten years (2000–2009 surveillance of resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Zhejiang Province, China

    Rong Zhang


    Full Text Available Objective: In Zhejiang Province, there are several highly developed cities near the coast and several relatively under-developed mountain areas. Analysis of the composition of bacteria isolated from patients as well as their antibiotic resistance profile from various areas of this province, and tracing of such data year-by-year, will help to delineate the bacterial resistance profile of these areas and to understand how the stage of socio-economical development impacts on the composition of clinical micro-flora and their resistance profile. Methods: In order to investigate variation in resistance rates and isolation rates of Enterobacteriaceae, from 2000 to 2009 in Zhejiang Province, China, Enterobacteriaceae isolated from 15 hospitals located in different regions of the province were surveyed. Results: The total numbers of the Enterobacteriaceae isolated increased more than 20-fold from 2000 to 2009. Among the Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the dominant isolates. The percentage of E. coli and K. pneumoniae that produced detectable extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs increased from 2000 to 2007, and then declined slightly in 2008 and 2009. The percentages of K. pneumoniae and E. coli that were resistant to ceftazidime increased sharply from 2000 to 2009. There were remarkable increases in the carbapenem resistant rates during the decade, but they were much higher for the isolates from the developed cities than from the rural areas. In 2002, carbapenem-resistant E. coli was first found in Hangzhou, one of the highly developed cities in Zhejiang Province. By 2009, carbapenem-resistant bacteria were found for all species of Enterobacteriaceae surveyed in almost all areas of the province, although they were more frequently identified in developed areas than in rural areas. Conclusion: Much restrictive actions have to be taken in terms of rational use of antibiotics and nosocomial control to prevent the further

  20. Adsorption-desorption characteristics of mercury in paddy soils of China.

    Jing, Y D; He, Z L; Yang, X E


    Mercury (Hg) has received considerable attention because of its association with various human health problems. Adsorption-desorption behavior of Hg at contaminated levels in two paddy soils was investigated. The two representative soils for rice production in China, locally referred to as a yellowish red soil (YRS) and silty loam soil (SLS) and classified as Gleyi-Stagnic Anthrosols in FAO/UNESCO nomenclature, were respectively collected from Jiaxin County and Xiasha District of Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province. The YRS adsorbed more Hg(2+) than the SLS. The characteristics of Hg adsorption could be described by the simple Langmuir adsorption equation (r2 = 0.999 and 0.999, P adsorption values (Xm) that were obtained from the simple Langmuir model were 111 and 213 mg Hg(2+) kg(-1) soil, respectively, for the SLS and YRS. Adsorption of Hg(2+) decreased soil pH by 0.75 unit for the SLS soil and 0.91 unit for the YRS soil at the highest loading. The distribution coefficient (kd) of Hg in the soil decreased exponentially with increasing Hg(2+) loading. After five successive desorptions with 0.01 mol L(-1) KCl solution (pH 5.4), 0 to 24.4% of the total adsorbed Hg(2+) in the SLS soil was desorbed and the corresponding value of the YRS soil was 0 to 14.4%, indicating that the SLS soil had a lower affinity for Hg(2+) than the YRS soil at the same Hg(2+) loading. Different mechanisms are likely involved in Hg(2+) adsorption-desorption at different levels of Hg(2+) loading and between the two soils.

  1. Urban Expansion and Agricultural Land Loss in China: A Multiscale Perspective

    Kaifang Shi


    Full Text Available China’s rapid urbanization has contributed to a massive agricultural land loss that could threaten its food security. Timely and accurate mapping of urban expansion and urbanization-related agricultural land loss can provide viable measures to be taken for urban planning and agricultural land protection. In this study, urban expansion in China from 2001 to 2013 was mapped using the nighttime stable light (NSL, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, and water body data. Urbanization-related agricultural land loss during this time period was then evaluated at national, regional, and metropolitan scales by integrating multiple sources of geographic data. The results revealed that China’s total urban area increased from 31,076 km2 in 2001 to 80,887 km2 in 2013, with an average annual growth rate of 13.36%. This widespread urban expansion consumed 33,080 km2 of agricultural land during this period. At a regional scale, the eastern region lost 18,542 km2 or 1.2% of its total agricultural land area. At a metropolitan scale, the Shanghai–Nanjing–Hangzhou (SNH and Pearl River Delta (PRD areas underwent high levels of agricultural land loss with a decrease of 6.12% (4728 km2 and 6.05% (2702 km2 of their total agricultural land areas, respectively. Special attention should be paid to the PRD, with a decline of 13.30% (1843 km2 of its cropland. Effective policies and strategies should be implemented to mitigate urbanization-related agricultural land loss in the context of China’s rapid urbanization.

  2. The effect of migration on social capital and depression among older adults in China.

    Li, Qiuju; Zhou, Xudong; Ma, Sha; Jiang, Minmin; Li, Lu


    An estimated 9 million elderly people accompanied their adult children to urban areas in China, raising concerns about their social capital and mental health following re-location. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of migration on social capital and depression among this population. Multistage stratified cluster sampling was applied to recruit the migrant and urban elderly in Hangzhou from May to August, 2013. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews by trained college students using a standardized questionnaire. Social capital measurements included cognitive (generalized trust and reciprocity) and structure (support from individual and social contact) aspects. Depression was measured by Geriatric Depression Scale-30 (GDS-30). Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression models were used for analysis. A total of 1248 migrant elderly and 1322 urban elderly were eligible for analysis. After adjusting for a range of confounder factors, binary logistic regression models revealed that migrant elderly reported significantly lower levels of generalized trust [OR = 1.34, 95% CI (1.10-1.64)], reciprocity [OR = 1.55, 95% CI (1.29-1.87)], support from individual [OR = 1.96, 95% CI (1.61-2.38)] and social contact [OR = 3.27, 95% CI (2.70-3.97)]. In the full adjusted model, migrant elderly were more likely to be mentally unhealthy [OR = 1.85, 95% CI (1.44-2.36)] compared with urban elderly. Migrant elderly suffered from a lower mental health status and social capital than their urban counterparts in the emigrating city. Attention should focus on improving the social capital and mental health of this growing population.

  3. China and Coexistence

    Odgaard, Liselotte

    “Peaceful coexistence,” long a key phrase in China’s strategic thinking, is a constructive doctrine that offers China a path for influencing the international system. So argues Liselotte Odgaard in this timely analysis of China's national security strategy in the context of its foreign policy...... practice. China’s program of peaceful coexistence emphasizes absolute sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of other states. Odgaard suggests that China’s policy of working within the international community and with non-state actors such as the UN aims to win for China greater power...... and influence without requiring widespread exercise of military or economic pressure. Odgaard examines the origins of peaceful coexistence in early Soviet doctrine, its midcentury development by China and India, and its ongoing appeal to developing countries. She reveals what this foreign policy offers China...

  4. Venezuela and China

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia


    draws on this context of 'interdependent hegemony' to explore the existing relationship between Venezuela, as a swing state, and China, as one of the Big Three global powers. Particularly, I focus on Venezuelan efforts to develop, at the domestic and regional level, a counterhegemonic political project...... against the US and how China is considered a valuable ally to acquire more independence. However, this situation of interdependence can paradoxically lead to a new kind of dependence, in this case on China. To analyze these relations, I propose a conceptual framework consisting of three dimensions: 1...... of a political and economic model which can inspire or be followed by other countries. Although China's influence and increasing power in Venezuela is unquestionable in economic terms, the Venezuelan government uses its agreements with China strategically to legitimate its policies, in the name of a South...

  5. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    Ma Jiang [National Research Center for Science and Technology for Development, Beijing (China)


    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  6. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing


    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250kg of coal......-separated and landfilled, the incineration of rest-waste presents better results on global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, and even ecotoxicity in soil. This process is considered a promising solution for MSW management in Shuozhou City. Weighted normalized environmental impacts were assessed based on Chinese...... per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO2 and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits...

  7. Environmental impact assessment of solid waste management in Beijing City, China

    Zhao, Yan; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Lu, Wenjing


    The environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management in Beijing City were evaluated using a life-cycle-based model, EASEWASTE, to take into account waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment/disposal technologies, and savings obtained by energy and material recovery....... The current system, mainly involving the use of landfills, has manifested significant adverse environmental impacts caused by methane emissions from landfills and many other emissions from transfer stations. A short-term future scenario, where some of the landfills (which soon will reach their capacity...... analysis emphasized the importance of efficient source separation of food waste, as well as the electricity recovery in incinerators, in order to obtain an environmentally friendly waste management system in Beijing City....

  8. China from a regional perspective

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper explains the political economic background for China's insertion to the world system. It furthermore expands on a critical perspective on China's soft power strategy. It goes on to discuss China's foreign policy strategy towards Southeast Asia and China's rivalry with the US in the region....

  9. Committed to a Digitized China


    Guo Wei, President and CEO of Digital China, answers questions about the company's operating strategies and prospects for China's IT service sector in a written interview with Beijing Review. Beijing Review: Digital China has detailed its strategies as "IT Serves China" and "IT Service on Demand." What is the operating objective for 2006?



    China is seeking to diversify channels for energy cooperation as it faces mounting challenges from surging energy demand, geopolitical risks and price volatility. The endowment and distribution of China's resources does not match the current situation of China's economic development. Those are the opinions aired by officials and experts at an international expo recently held in West China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

  11. Social Compound Subjects and Cultural Cohesion-A Study from the Perspective of Entrepreneurship and Life in Hangzhou%社会复合主体与文化凝聚力*--基于杭州创业与生活文化视角的考察



    杭州市培育和构建社会复合主体的实践,不仅是社会组织结构、经济社会运行方式、创业创新机制、政府管理方式、社会治理方式、社会参与方式等方面的重大创新,而且也是“总体性社会”瓦解、“后单位时代”来临背景下,意义共识与文化认同、文化凝聚力重构的一种重要尝试。社会复合主体的文化凝聚力是以“做事”为目标的扁平式、网络型组织的文化凝聚力,是多个社会复合主体成员在共享的知觉、期待、主意、价值观、态度、行为模式和意义系统基础上形成的文化凝聚力。从微观上看,杭州社会复合主体的文化凝聚力源于其内部以任务和目标为导向的文化凝聚力;从宏观上看,社会复合主体的文化凝聚力也来自于21世纪以来杭州城市发展理念的突破和创新,来自于杭州市多年来精心培育的特有的城市创业文化和生活文化。%The practice of cultivating and constructing social compound subjects by the Hangzhou govern-ment is not only a great innovation of social organizational structure ,operation mode of economy and soci-ety ,entrepreneurship and ingenuity mechanism ,government administration manners ,social governance and social participation ways ,but also an important attempt to reconstruct cultural recognition and cohe-sion in the context of a collapsed “overall community” and forthcoming “post work -unit times” .The cultural cohesion of social compound subjects is a cohesive force of flat and network organizations that aims at“actions” and forms on the basis of shared perceptions ,expectations ,ideas ,values ,attitudes , behavior patterns and meaning systems .Microscopically ,the cultural cohesion of social compound sub-jects in Hangzhou originates from a task and targets -oriented force ;macroscopically ,it stems from the breakthrough and innovation of Hangzhou ’ s philosophy of urban development since

  12. Exploitable wave energy assessment based on ERA-Interim reanalysis data-A case study in the East China Sea and the South China Sea

    WAN Yong; ZHANG Jie; MENG Junmin; WANG Jing


    exploitable wave energy are primarily located in the north-central part of the South China Sea, the Luzon Strait, east of Taiwan, China and north of Ryukyu Islands;annual average exploitable wave power density values in these areas are approximately 10–15 kW/m;the exploitable coefficient of variation (COV) and seasonal variation (SV) values in these areas are less than 1.2 and 1, respectively. Some coastal areas of the Beibu Gulf, the Changjiang Estuary, the Hangzhou Bay and the Zhujiang Estuary are the poor areas of the wave energy. The areas of the high wave energy exploitable ratio is primarily in nearshore waters. The influence of the high sea state for the wave energy in nearshore waters is less than that in offshore waters. In the areas of the abundant wave energy, the influence of the high sea state for the wave energy is prominent and the utilization of wave energy is relatively difficult. The developed evaluation method may give some references for an exploitable wave energy assessment and is valuable for practical applications.

  13. Risk factors for avian influenza virus contamination of live poultry markets in Zhejiang, China during the 2015–2016 human influenza season

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Qimei; Cheng, Wei; Yu, Zhao; Ling, Feng; Mao, Haiyan; Chen, Enfu


    Live bird markets (LBMs), being a potential source of avian influenza virus, require effective environmental surveillance management. In our study, a total of 2865 environmental samples were collected from 292 LBMs during the 2015–2016 human influenza season from 10 cities in Zhejiang province, China. The samples were tested by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Field investigations were carried out to investigate probable risk factors. Of the environmental samples, 1519 (53.0%) were contaminated by A subtype. The highest prevalence of the H9 subtype was 30.2%, and the frequencies of the H5 and H7 subtype were 9.3% and 17.3%, respectively. Hangzhou and Jinhua cities were contaminated more seriously than the others. The prevalence of H5/H7/H9 in drinking water samples was highest, at 50.9%, and chopping board swabs ranked second, at 49.3%. Duration of sales per day, types of live poultry, LBM location and the number of live poultry were the main risk factors for environmental contamination, according to logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, LBMs in Zhejiang were contaminated by avian influenza. Our study has provided clues for avian influenza prevention and control during the human influenza season, especially in areas where LBMs are not closed. PMID:28256584

  14. Risk factors for avian influenza virus contamination of live poultry markets in Zhejiang, China during the 2015-2016 human influenza season.

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Qimei; Cheng, Wei; Yu, Zhao; Ling, Feng; Mao, Haiyan; Chen, Enfu


    Live bird markets (LBMs), being a potential source of avian influenza virus, require effective environmental surveillance management. In our study, a total of 2865 environmental samples were collected from 292 LBMs during the 2015-2016 human influenza season from 10 cities in Zhejiang province, China. The samples were tested by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Field investigations were carried out to investigate probable risk factors. Of the environmental samples, 1519 (53.0%) were contaminated by A subtype. The highest prevalence of the H9 subtype was 30.2%, and the frequencies of the H5 and H7 subtype were 9.3% and 17.3%, respectively. Hangzhou and Jinhua cities were contaminated more seriously than the others. The prevalence of H5/H7/H9 in drinking water samples was highest, at 50.9%, and chopping board swabs ranked second, at 49.3%. Duration of sales per day, types of live poultry, LBM location and the number of live poultry were the main risk factors for environmental contamination, according to logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, LBMs in Zhejiang were contaminated by avian influenza. Our study has provided clues for avian influenza prevention and control during the human influenza season, especially in areas where LBMs are not closed.

  15. Soundscape of the West Lake Scenic Area with profound cultural background—a case study of Evening Bell Ringing in Jingci Temple, China

    Jian GE; Min GUO; Miao YUE


    From the case study of Evening Bell Ringing at Nanping Hill,one of the West Lake Cultural Landscapes in Hangzhou,China,we investigated the soundscape of a scenic area with a profound cultural background.First,we conducted the soundscape physical index of the area in both winter and spring seasons to analyze its objective graphical expression.Second,we focused on people,s reactions to the soundscape in order to obtain a subjective evaluation of each component in the soundscape and integrated environment.Then,the relationship between the objective data and the subjective evaluation was analyzed.Finally,the impacts of the natural environment,history,and cultural factors on the evaluation of the Jingci Temple soundscape were studied.It was found that natural sounds,cultural sounds,and historic sounds were widely acclaimed in people,s subjective feelings,which indicated the close relationships among historical and cultural background,soundscape,and natural environment.Thus,the conclusion was made that soundscape should be consistent with the local natural environment and the historical and cultural background.

  16. Perceptions on the risk communication strategy during the 2013 avian influenza A/H7N9 outbreak in humans in China: a focus group study.

    Li, Richun; Xie, Ruiqian; Yang, Chong; Frost, Melinda


    To identify the general public's perceptions of the overall risk communication strategy carried out by Chinese public health agencies during the first wave of avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in humans in 2013. Participants were recruited from communities in Beijing, Lanzhou and Hangzhou, China in May and June 2013 by convenience sampling. Demographics and other relevant information were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Focus group interviews were conducted using a set of nine pre-developed questions and a tested moderator guide. The interviews were audio recorded and were transcribed verbatim. The constant comparative method was used to identify trends and themes. A total of nine focus group interviews, with 94 participants recruited from nine communities, were conducted. Most participants received H7N9 information via television and the Internet. Most the participants appreciated the transparency and timeliness of the information released by the government. They expressed a sense of trust in the recommended public health advice and followed most of them. The participants suggested that the government release more information about clinical treatment outcomes, have more specific health recommendations that are practical to their settings and expand the use of new media channels for risk communication. The public perceived the overall risk communication strategy by the Chinese public health agencies as effective, though the moderator had a governmental agency title that might have biased the results. There is a need to expand the use of social media for risk communication in the future.

  17. Occurrence and distribution of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic environments: a comparative study of regions in China with different urbanization levels.

    Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Saichang


    We analyzed and compared the distributions of 13 target pharmaceuticals in different water samples from the Hangzhou metropolitan area and Linan County, Southeast China. Sampling was conducted in five hospitals, two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and Qiantang River. Samples were concentrated by solid-phase extraction and PPCP concentrations were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. Trimethoprim, erythromycin A dihydrate, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, diclofenac sodium, and atenolol were the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in hospital effluents. Most of the pharmaceutical concentrations in hospital effluents were higher than those in the WWTP influents. Although both WWTPs adopt the anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic treatment process, the removal rates for pharmaceuticals, such as trimethoprim and diclofenac sodium, were completely different. Meanwhile, erythromycin A dihydrate, ofloxacin, penicillin-G, cephalexin, cefazolin, ibuprofen, and diclofenac sodium were detected in Qiantang River. These results indicate that hospitals are more concentrated sources of pharmaceuticals than WWTPs, and the WWTPs are not the only route of entry of pharmaceuticals into aquatic environments in these two regions.

  18. Concentration and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalic acid esters in the surface water of the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Lifei Zhang; Liang Dong; Lijun Ren; Shuangxin Shi; Li Zhou; Ting Zhang; Yeru Huang


    The pollution from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in the surface water of the rapidly urbanized Yangtze River Delta region was investigated.Fourteen surface water samples were collected in June 2010.Water samples were liquid-liquid extracted using methylene chloride and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.Concentrations of PAHs and PAEs ranged 12.9-638.1 ng/L and 61-28550 ng/L,respectively.Fluoranthene,naphthalene,pyrene,phenanthrene,di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate,and di-n-butyl phthalate were the most abundant compounds in the samples.The water samples were moderately Polluted with benzo[a]pyrene according to China's environmental quality standard for surface water.The two highest concentrations of PAHs and PAEs occurred in samples from Taihu Lake,Wuxi City and the western section of Yangchenghu Lake.Potential sources of Pollution at S7 were petroleum combustion and the plastics industry,and at Yangchenghu Lake were petroleum combustion and domestic waste.Pollution in samples from the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal originated from diesel engines.There were no obvious sources of pollution for the other water samples.These results can be used as reference levels for future monitoring programs of pollution from PAHs and PAEs.

  19. Review - China's Environmental Challenges

    Bill Bleisch


    Full Text Available Review of: Judith Shapiro. 2012. China's Environmental Challenges. Cambridge: UK and Malden, MA: Polity Press. Judith Shapiro's latest ambitious work picks up the story of modern China's checkered relationship with the environment at approximately the point where her previous study, Mao's War Against Nature (2001, left off. This latest book sets out to address questions of grave importance to China and to the world. The litany of challenges – poisonous water and toxic air, scarcity of water and other resources, deforestation, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity – seem nearly insurmountable, despite evidence of considerable attention from the Chinese government and from China's public, and despite the rocket-like rise of China's economic power and political influence in the world. Shapiro adds to this list the growing problems with lapses in environmental justice, both within China and passed on to its neighbours and to the countries with which it trades. Not only do growing environmental problems affect China's ability to achieve the government's stated goals of a 'harmonious society' with 'moderate prosperity for all,' but these problems, and the ways that ...

  20. Helplessness and Tradeoffs of Transliteration:A Case Study of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal Museum%音译的无奈和取舍--以京杭大运河博物馆展厅翻译为例



    This paper investigates the Chinese phonetic phenomenon in English translation in the Beijing -Hangzhou Grand Canal Museum.It found that transliteration is the method of helplessness that turns impossibility to possibility due to time and space constraints, unclearly targeted audiences , and concentration of proper nouns .Translation shall follow the principles of using transliteration for key words , combining transliteration and paraphrase translation for rich cultural heritage names , and avoiding transliteration for nouns related to time , so as to achieve a balance between information transfer and readers'acceptance .The suc-cess in granting Grand Canal in the World Heritage List is an important milestone but not the end , and how to use the “world lan-guage” to narrate“Hangzhou's Story” is a long-term research project .%考察京杭大运河博物馆展厅英译的拼音化现象,发现由于时空限制、目标读者不明确和专有名词集中等原因,音译是化不可能为可能的无奈之举。翻译需遵循关键词汇用音译、富含文化底蕴的地名音译与意译相结合和时间名词避免音译等原则,尽可能保持信息传递与读者接受度的平衡。大运河申遗成功是重要的里程碑却不是终点,如何用“世界语言”讲述“杭州故事”是一项长期的研究课题。

  1. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks


    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent (H.K.) Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical work

  2. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks


    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent(H.K.)Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical work

  3. 钱江新城二号港水处理工程泥沙沉降分析%Sedimentation Analysis of Hangzhou CBD Secondary Port Water Treatment Project

    蔡宏伟; 王斌; 包中进; 刘云


    钱江新城二号港水处理工程是将钱塘江原水进行净化处理后引入市区河网,以改善城市水环境质量.由于钱塘江原水受河口水文泥沙条件影响,含沙量较大且颗粒级配不均,对水处理工程的规模设计及工艺选择等带来较大的困难.为此,对引水口的水文泥沙特性进行了统计分析,并对水处理工程设计中的预沉池沉沙效果进行了数值模拟.结果表明:引水口水体的含沙量具有明显的年际、月际及日间变化特点,丰水年的含沙量高于平、枯水年,夏、秋季节高于春、冬季节,涨潮时段高于落潮时段;引水口水体多年平均含沙量约为0.078 kg/m3,进入内河的多年平均泥沙总量约为8 000 t,其中,若仅在落潮时段配水,进入内河的泥沙总量将降低30%以上;经模拟计算,设计预沉池中的含沙量沿程降幅约为28%,预沉后进入排灌站的水体含沙量约为0.073 kg/m3.%The Hangzhou CBD Secondary Port water treatment project is a purification effort of the Qiantang River water before it flows into the urban river system. Affected by the complex hydro-sedimentary conditions in the estuary, the sediment concentration in water is large and the particle size is uneven, which caused difficulty in determining the scale and selecting the technology for the project. Statistical a-nalysis of hydro-sedimentary characteristics and numerical simulation of sedimentation effect were conducted. The results of the sediment concentration showed obvious annual, monthly and daily trends. The sediment concentration in high water period was higher than in normal water and low water periods, the sediment concentration in summer and autumn was higher than in spring and winter, and the sediment concentration at high tide was higher than at low tide. The average annual sediment was 0. 078 kg/m3, the total sediment in the inland river was 8 000 t. If water was taken at low tide, the total sediment concentration would be

  4. Countermeasures and Analysis of Hangzhou Wildlife Park Operation Status in the Last Five Years%杭州野生动物世界近五年经营状况分析与对策

    王宇; 马敬华; 王雪


    随着社会经济的快速发展,人们生活水平的提高,野生动物园作为特殊的旅游单位受到越来越多游客的青睐,在这种情况下,全国各地纷纷兴建野生动物园,至今已达40多家,市场竞争尤为激烈。由于缺乏科学的规划和市场调查,导致一些野生动物园在经过短暂的辉煌后,快速地进入到惨淡经营的状况。因此野生动物园的可持续发展和良好的经营,一方面要坚持野生动物园作为野生动物迁地保护、科学研究、科普教育宣传、休闲娱乐场所的基本社会职能,另一方面离不开野生动物园自身合理的规划与应对市场变化的灵活机制。通过对杭州野生动物世界2010—2014年经营状况相关数据进行统计,分析出经营的状况与问题,针对动物园经营中出现的问题,提出合理的经营改善建议。%With the rapid development of social economy, people's living standards improve, as a special tourism unit, the wildlife park is favored by more and more tourists, in this case, the construction of the wildlife park throughout the country, has reached more than 40, the market is particularly fierce competition. Due to the lack of scientific planning and market investigation, adding to some wildlife park after a brief moment of glory, and quickly moved into the dismally status. So the sustainable development and good management of the wildlife park need to, on the one hand adhere to the basic social functions of wildlife park:the conservation of wildlife, scientific research, popular science education propaganda, leisure entertainment. On the other hand, cannot leave the zoo themselves rational planning and the flexible mechanism of response to market changes. Counted Hangzhou wildlife park operating related data from 2010 to 2014, analysis of management situation and problems, for zoo management problems, put forward reasonable management recommendations for improvement.

  5. 杭州市三级医院临床护理人员留职意愿的现状调查%Investigation on the intention to stay of clinical nurses in Hangzhou third-level hospital

    张伟; 李俊花; 冯国和; 曹梅娟; 张邢炜


    目的:调查杭州市三级医院临床护士留职意愿的现状,为政府部门制订相关政策提供依据。方法分层抽样选取杭州市5所三级医院临床护士458名,采用护士留职意愿问卷和工作满意度量表进行调查。结果临床护士留职意愿的得分为(3.37±0.8)分;60.5%的护士表示如果有其他合适岗位,会考虑脱离临床护理岗位;不同工作年限的护士留职意愿比较,差异有统计学意义( F=5.147,P<0.05)。护士总体工作满意度得分为(3.11±0.91)分;护士对工作量与工作负荷、护理工作认可度、工资及福利方面表示不满意。结论临床护理工作量大、工作负荷重、护理工作不被认可、工资及福利待遇低是当前临床护理工作存在的主要问题。政策决策者应重视解决护理队伍稳定问题,同时制定相关扶持政策,减轻护士工作量和负荷,提高护士工资及福利待遇等问题,进一步激发护士的工作积极性。%Objective To investigate the present status of clinical nurses′intention to stay in Hangzhou third-level hospital and provide the reference for government to draw up relevant policies.Methods A total of 458 clinical nurses had been chosen by stratified sampling method from 5 third-level hospitals, and were surveyed by intention to stay questionnaire.Results The score of intention to stay for clinical nurses was (3.37 ± 0.8), and 60.5%of nurses presented that if they had any other appropriate job opportunities, they would like to break away from nurses job.The stay intention among nurses with different work experience had statistical significance (F=5.147;P<0.05).The total score of nurse job satisfaction was (3.11 ±0.91), in which the unpleasant part of nursing job included workload, the recognition of work by society, salary and benefits. Conclusions The main issues in the clinical were over workload, disapprobation of nursing work

  6. Exposure to tobacco advertising and its influencing factors among middle school students in Hangzhou%杭州中学生烟草广告暴露现状及其影响因素分析

    俞锋; 肖琳; 李金涛; 曹承建; 李晓芳


    目的 了解杭州市中学生烟草广告的暴露现状及其影响因素,为减少烟草广告暴露提供依据.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,抽取杭州市初、高中各5所,职业中学2所,对3 593名在校学生进行问卷调查.结果 90.7%的调查对象报告在过去30 d内见过烟草广告和烟草赞助活动,28.9%报告见过烟草促销活动.销售卷烟的商店是烟草广告最常见到的地方(79.6%),其次是电视(57.9%)、户外广告牌(49.6%)和互联网(41.4%).烟草广告接受程度的危险因素有吸烟状态(OR=4.588)、家人吸烟状况(OR=1.222)、同伴吸烟状况(OR=1.500)、父母对孩子吸烟的态度(OR=1.897)、朋友对自己吸烟的态度(OR=2.400)、烟草广告和赞助暴露强度(OR=2.287)、烟草促销的暴露强度(OR=2.949).结论 青少年受到烟草广告、赞助和促销的暴露严重,应从家庭、学校和社会等层面营造无烟氛围,使青少年远离烟草危害.%Objective To explore the tobacco advertising exposure status and its influencing factors among Hangzhou middle school students, and to provide evidence for reducing exposure of tobacco advertisements. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 3 593 students of secondary school, high school and vocational and technical schools were chosen by the stratified cluster sampling method. A self-administered questionnaire survey was used. Totally, 3 593 valid questionnaires were obtained. Results During the previous 30 days, 90.7% of respondents noticed tobacco advertisement, and 28. 9% of respondents noticed tobacco promotion. The most common place for adolescents to notice tobacco advertisement was the store where cigarettes being sold(79.6% ) , followed by billboard (57.9% ) , television (49.6% ) and Internet(41. 4% ). Tobacco advertising acceptability risk factors were smoking status( OR = 4.588) , family smoking status ( OR = 1. 222) , peer smoking status( OR = 1. 500) , if smoking attitudes of parents

  7. 重大事件对城市住宅价格的影响——来自杭州市的证据%Impacts of Social Events on Urban Housing Prices: Evidence from Hangzhou City

    阮连法; 包洪洁; 温海珍


    研究目的:研究金融危机、宏观调控政策等重大事件对城市住宅价格的影响,为政策制定提供依据。研究方法:BP多断点检测和集成经验模态分解。研究结果:(1)重大事件导致房价序列产生结构性断点;(2)2008年金融危机使得杭州市商品住宅均价下跌4912.5元/m2,一年后反弹3759.0元/m2;(3)2007年货币调控政策刚开始的市场反应与预期相符,13周后相反,最终使得均价上升2072.3元/m2;(4)2010年"国11条"和"新国10条"两大调控政策对房价的综合影响程度为-2998.6元/m2,选择了恰当的实施时机。研究结论:重大事件对房价波动的影响模式是"台阶式"的;建议在市场对宏观调控做出充分反应后再制定下一次调控政策。%The purpose of this paper is to study the impacts of social events on urban housing prices,aiming to provide reference for policy makers.Research methods include BP multi-structure change tests and ensemble empirical mode decomposition(EEMD).The results indicate that structural changes in housing prices series were caused by social events.The 2008 financial crisis sent down housing prices in Hangzhou 4912.5 yuan/m2 averagely,and then it rebound upward 3759.0 yuan/m2 later.Control policies dominated by monetary finance in 2007 did not curb the rising momentum,but raised the prices of 5512 contrarily."The 11 regulations" and "new 10 rules" in 2010 brought a decrease of 2998.6 yuan/m2 on the housing prices comprehensively,and the appropriate time points were chosen to implement.It is concluded that housing prices response mode of social events can be described as"setback type".Suggestions,such as market reactions to the last adjustment should be taken into account timely before making policies,were offered in the conclusion part.

  8. Study on the Dust Retention Capacity of the Street Trees in Hangzhou District%杭州地区常见行道树滞尘效益研究

    江胜利; 金荷仙; 周金富; 许小连


    Street trees have a important role in city, in order to select street trees which have the strongest dust retention capacity, by surveying and experiment in the selected street trees in Hangzhou, the results showed that: the order of the dust retention capacity of selected plants in the winner was: Liquidambar formosana> Koelreuteria integrtfoliola> Liriodendron chinense> Cinnamomum camphora> Sapindus mulorossf>Platanus. Acerifolia>Elaeocarpus sylvestris> Ginkgo biloba>Sapium aebiferunr, In the spring, that was Elaeocaipus sylvestris> Cinnamomum camphors; In summer, that was: Cinnamomum camphora>Elaeocarpus sylveatris> Liquidambar formosana> Sapindus mulorossi> Koelreuteria integrifoliola>Liriodendron chinense>P. Acerifolia> Ginkgo biloba> Sapium sebiferum, In autumn, that was: Koelreuteria integrifoliola> Sapindus mulorossi> Cinnamomum camphora>Elaeocarpus sylvestris>Liquidambar formosana> Ginkgo biloba> Sapium sebiferum> Liriodendron chinense>P. Acerifolia. The order of the average dust retention capacity in the seasons was: Elaeocarpus sylvestris> Koebeuteria integrifoliola>Liquidambar formosana>Sapindus mulorossi> Cinnamomum camphora> Liriodendron chinense>P.acerifolia>Ginkgo biloba> Sapium sebiferum; The order dust retention capacity in the four seasons of Liquidambar formosana, Koelreuteria integrifoliola, Liriodendron chinense, Sapindus mulorossi, Platanus.acerifolia, and Ginkgo biloba was: spring> autumn>summer>winner; that of Elaeocarpus sylvestris was: spring>autumn>winner>summer; that of Cinnamomum camphora was: winner>autumn>summer>spring; that of Sapium sebiferum was: autumn> winner> summer.%行道树的滞尘效益在城市绿化中有着重要的作用,为了筛选出滞尘能力强的行道树,对杭州地区实地调查及试验测定,结果表明:所选9种行道树中,冬季滞尘能力的顺序为:枫香>黄山栾树>鹅掌楸>香樟>无惠子>悬铃木>杜英>银杏>乌桕;春季滞尘能力的顺序为:杜英>香樟;夏

  9. Analysis of the demands of pregnant women for oral health knowledge in Hangzhou%杭州市妊娠期妇女对口腔保健知识的需求分析

    孙威; 陈晖; 赵永旗


    目的:了解杭州市妊娠期妇女对口腔保健知识的需求情况。方法对2010年12月-2011年5月间接受孕期教育的妊娠期妇女进行横断面调查研究,分析其对口腔保健知识的需求情况。采用卡方检验进行统计分析。结果发放问卷2500份,回收2263份,89.8%的受调查者觉得有必要在怀孕期间介绍有关孕产妇口腔护理的知识,92.4%的受调查者觉得有必要在怀孕期间介绍有关新生儿口腔护理的知识。调查发现,对新生儿和孕产妇的口腔护理知识的需求与年龄、学历、家庭年收入有相关性(P<0.05),而孕妇是否愿意参加口腔保健的知识培训班与年龄、学历、家庭年收入无明显相关性(P >0.05)。调查结果显示绝大多数妊娠期妇女希望能得到口腔专业人员的教育和指导。孕产妇学校及宣传手册是比较容易被孕妇接受的教育方式。结论应设立一些有针对性的教育项目对孕龄及妊娠期妇女进行教育,指导她们关于自身及孩子的口腔保健及疾病预防的知识。%Objective To elucidate the demand of pregnant women for the knowledge of oral health and dental care.Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in three main women′s hospitals in Hangzhou,viz.,1 )Women′s Hospital,Medical College,Zhe-jiang University;2)Center for Disease Prevention and Control &Women and Children′s Healthcare of Gongshu District;3)Center for Women and Children′s Healthcare of Jiang′an District from December 2010 to May 2011.The chi-square test was used to analyze the results.Results Within the six months,we distributed 2 500 questionnaires and received 2 263.89.8% of the respondents thought it necessary to introduce the knowledge of prenatal oral care during pregnancy,and 92.4% of the respondents felt the necessity of introdu-cing the knowledge of infant oral care during pregnancy.The demand for the knowledge related to the newborn and

  10. A Trip to China

    Daniel; Martin


    <正>Editor’s Note:The Vermont School of Colombia is one of the few middle schools in the country that teaches Chinese as the second foreign language.In early June 2013,a 77-member student delegation came to China to attend a summer camp jointly hosted by the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(CPAFFC)and the North China University of Technology(NCUT).The following is an essay written in Chinese by a Colombian student recording his tour in China.

  11. The Spiders of China


    @@ Sevaral books about Chinese spider systematics and biology have been published,mostly since the later 1970s and the majority of then are designed as classification guides to the spider fauna of a particular area of China,or focused on a particular group ,for example Fauna of Zhejiang Province ,Araneida and Salticids of China. The newly published book "The Spiders of China",in English,differs from all others by including all 2361 described Chinese spider species and by reviewing literature of over 200 years of work on Chinese spider classification.

  12. Analytic of China Cyberattack

    Robert Lai


    Full Text Available China cyberattack has become aggressive, disruptive, stealthy, and sophisticated. Apparently, China’s advantage is more on the cognitive domain than technical domain since information systems security is art and science—in some case, it is more art than science. Knowledge is the best weapon for cyber warfare since one of the Sun Tze’s Art of War principles is “know your enemy”. Therefore, an analytic of China cyberattack must scrutinize the national interest, goals and philosophies, culture, worldview, and behavioral phenomena of China.

  13. Analytic of China Cyberattack

    Robert Lai and Syed (Shawon Rahman


    Full Text Available China cyberattack has become aggressive, disruptive, stealthy, and sophisticated. Apparently, China’s advantage is more on the cognitive domain than technical domain since information systems security is art and science—in some case, it is more art than science. Knowledge is the best weapon for cyber warfare since one of the Sun Tze’s Art of War principles is “know your enemy”. Therefore, an analytic of China cyberattack must scrutinize the national interest, goals and philosophies, culture, worldview, and behavioral phenomena of China.

  14. Underground laboratory in China

    Chen, Heshengc


    The underground laboratories and underground experiments of particle physics in China are reviewed. The Jinping underground laboratory in the Jinping mountain of Sichuan, China is the deepest underground laboratory with horizontal access in the world. The rock overburden in the laboratory is more than 2400 m. The measured cosmic-ray flux and radioactivities of the local rock samples are very low. The high-purity germanium experiments are taking data for the direct dark-matter search. The liquid-xenon experiment is under construction. The proposal of the China National Deep Underground Laboratory with large volume at Jinping for multiple discipline research is discussed.

  15. Is China Different?

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson


    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R......&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China....

  16. Is China Different?

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R......&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China....

  17. 1976 Tangshan, China Images

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeastern China. Damage: $5,600 million. The death toll (240,000) was one of largest in recorded history from an earthquake. In addition, around 800,000 were...

  18. South China Flooded


    Vehicles traverse a flooded street in Liuzhou, guangxi zhuang Autonomous Region, on May 19.heavy rainstorms repeatedly struck China this month, triggering floods, mudflows and landslides. hunan, guangdong and Jiangxi provinces and Chongqing Municipality were the worst hit.

  19. One Health in China

    Wu, Jianyong; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Guoling; Lu, Jiahai


    As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accurately predict. Therefore, it is critical to investigate potential threats in the context of the human-animal-environment interface to protect human and animal health. The “One Health” concept recognizes that human health is connected to animal and environmental health. This review primarily discusses specific health problems in China, particularly zoonoses, and explains the origin and development of the One Health approach, as well as the importance of a holistic approach in China. PMID:27906124

  20. Service innovation in China

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Jin, Jun


    the study. 2 Originality/value – The paper addresses the topic of service innovation in China, which has so far received a limited attention in the management literature. By presenting an in-depth case study, the paper highlights main factors and dilemmas underpinning how Chinese companies are seeking......Purpose – The aim of this paper is to advance our understanding of service innovation in China and to identify the major drivers and impediments for manufacturing companies pushing into services in China. Design/methodology/approach – By employing an in-depth longitudinal case of a Chinese company...... Chinese cities. Both internal and external factors played a significant role in influencing the development and implementation of service innovation in the case. The paper details and discusses the factors that affect service innovation in China. Research Limitations – The study is exposed...

  1. China's Military Diplomacy

    He Qisong; Li Baowen


    Since the end of the Cold War, China's military diplomacy has displayed an omni-directional and multi-level form, and with an increasing transparency which has increased trust and reduced doubt. China has enhanced its conventional military functions and strengthened its military soft power. This has helped China develop into a responsible state on the world stage. Through military exchanges with other countries, the Chinese military has gradually strengthened its ability to undertake a variety of tasks. The Chinese military has to make greater efforts to counter the perception of a "China threat." There is also a need to establish a system of military spokesmen and to develop a theory of military diplomacy with Chinese characteristics.

  2. One Health in China

    Jianyong Wu


    Full Text Available As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accurately predict. Therefore, it is critical to investigate potential threats in the context of the human-animal-environment interface to protect human and animal health. The “One Health” concept recognizes that human health is connected to animal and environmental health. This review primarily discusses specific health problems in China, particularly zoonoses, and explains the origin and development of the One Health approach, as well as the importance of a holistic approach in China.

  3. China Fairs & Expos


    Construction, City ptanning, Decorations The llth China Beijing International Construction Machinery, Construction Materials machinery & Mining Machinery Exhibition and Technology Seminar Venue: Beijing Jiuhua International Exhibition Center Duration: October 18-October 21,

  4. China Welcomes Global Investment


    China is making an effort to building a fair market to attract overseas investment,China’s vice-premier told the gathering of CEOs in Beijing, adding that the meeting with its influence,will promote global business cooperation.

  5. China vs. AIDS



    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  6. China in My Eyes

    Reno Calleja


    <正>How I became a fan of China Between 1958 and 1964 the Maltese Labour Movement, led by Dom Mintoff, kept Britain under constant pressure to close its military bases and give Malta true independence. After all Malta

  7. The Dancing China



    @@ China has cemented its position as one of the central pillars of global trade by exporting staggering quantities of manufacturer goods,and is arguably nowsecond to none as the economic hub of Asia.

  8. China's New Deal



    @@ The RMB4-trillion stimulus package is a bold move, but the economy still needs attention China unveiled a massive spending package in November to bolster investment and consumption as exports falter amid the global economic slowdown.

  9. China's first WLAN chips


    @@ The wireless local area network (WLAN) chips independently developed by CAS researchers were in the limelight of the recent Electronic Manufacture Exposition held in Suzhou, east China's Jiangsu Province.

  10. China Fairs & Expos


    @@ Agriculture,Fishery,Animal Husbandry2010 China Husbandry and New Technology,New Product, New Equipment Promotion and Trade Fair Date: April 16-April 18, 2010 Frequency: Yearly Venue: Fujian Economic and Trade Exhibition

  11. Inclusive Education in China



    This paper is concerned about inclusive education in China,which is exemplified bythe following aspects:creating inclusive culture,producing inclusive policies and evolving inclusivepractice.Also,problems related to the inclusion are identified in this paper.

  12. Japan's China Strategy

    TAKAHASHI, Sugio


    Structural change in the international order will have the greatest effect in East Asia with the ascendancy of China as a world economic power. A two-pillar post- Cold War policy of “shaping†China into a model country while “hedging†against its potential as a strategic rival has had to give way under the reality that China is not only an actor “to be shaped†but also an actor “to shape†the region. A new China strategy of “integration, balancing, and deterrence†has been...

  13. Winter Storms Paralyze China


    Severe snowstorms over broad swaths of eastern and central China have wreaked havoc on traffic throughout the country, creating gigantic passenger backups, spawning acci- dents and leaving at least 24 people dead, according to

  14. China, Sudan Expand Cooperation


    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) signed an agreement with the Ministry of Energy and Mining, the Public of Sudan on jointly conducting petroleum exploration and development with huge investment for block 1,2,4 in Sudan in March 1997.

  15. Spatial distribution of China׳s renewable energy industry

    Dong, Liang; Liang, Hanwei; Gao, Zhiqiu


    China applies no efforts to promote the development of renewable energy (REE) so as to enhance China׳s energy security and address climate change. National top-down support scheme and the local renewable energy industry (REEI) development are the two important and intervened countermeasures...... for promoting REEI development in China. Considering China׳s vast regional disparity, the review on the spatial distribution of REEI in provincial level is critical and enlightening for future appropriate policy-making, while to date, there has been few related studies. With this circumstance, this paper made...

  16. China Food Trade Promotes the Development of SIAL China

    Audrey Guo


    @@ According to SIAL CHINA, the 13th China International Food and Beverages Exhibition (SIAL China 2012) will be held in Shanghai New International Expo Center On May 9, 2012.It is hosted together by COMEXPOSIUM and China Business Development Center.Since it was introduced in China for the first time in 2000, SIAL CHINA has maintained a developed speed.Especially in recent years, relying on both foreign and domestic markets, it expanded the influences quickly and became one of the most important food trade exhibitions in Asia, despite of the financial crisis.

  17. China Report, Economic Affairs


    During this visit to China, Lee Kuan Yew repeatedly emphasized "the existence of broad cooperation between China and Singapore." In the past new economic cooperation and trade partners. Lee Kuan Yew himself also thinks that Singapore’s economy is in depression and "it must seek new...that there is great potential for cooperation between the two countries. Accompanying Lee Kuan Yew in this visit were a number of ministers and high

  18. JPRS Report, China.


    Comparing China with South Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, the ratio was 1 to 6. Compar- ing China with Thailand , India, and Pakistan the ratio was 1 to...Xinjiang, 3,500 tons of tomatoes worth more than 500,000 yuan, were dumped into the Gobi desert and ditches of Manasi County, with bright red juice ... beverages , instant noodles, and other things, the difference between the wages of a janitor, assistant editor, and copy editor will become

  19. One Health in China


    As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accu...

  20. China's Regional Autonomy

    Wu Shimin


    @@ China is a vast country with a long history and splendid culture. One reason for this is that the Chinese nation consists of many ethnic groups. They have lived, procreated, struggled and made creative achievements on this land for several thousand years. China is a big family consisting of 56 ethnic groups. While the Han ethnic group has the largest population, the population of the other 55 ethnic groups is relatively small, so they are customarily referred to as "ethnic minorities."