Sample records for hanging wall rocks

  1. Genetic model of hanging wall syncline and central dome in extensional fault

    刘德来; 丁贵明; 鲁兵


    Hanging wall syncline and central dome are special extension structures, developing over the hanging wall in an extensional ramp-flat fault. Under the condition that the flat is sub-horizontal, the hanging wall syncline is separated from the half graben by the central dome. And on the dome forms an erosional surface. Both sediments in the half graben and erosional surface on the top of the central dome extended over the dome and entered into the hanging wall syncline with extension going on. Meanwhile, those having entered were overlapped by new sedimentary layers in the hanging wall syncline, so that there is a together-threaded, diachronic unconformity to form in the same epoch stratum. The layers in the hanging wall syncline also have an attribute of migrating laterally and getting tilted with extension. There is no sedimentation on the central dome. But sediments, which came from the half graben, got thicker over the dome in extension.

  2. 75 FR 73074 - Duke Energy Hanging Rock II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Duke Energy Hanging Rock II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Duke Energy Hanging Rock II, LLC's application...

  3. Geometric effects resulting from the asym-metry of dipping fault: Hanging wall/foot-wall effects

    WANG Dong; XIE Li-li; HU Jin-jun


    Root-mean-square distance Drms with characteristic of weighted-average is introduced in this article firstly. Drms can be used to capture the general proximity of a site to a dipping fault plane comparing with the rupture distance Drup and the seismogenic distance Dseis. Then, using Drup Dseis and Drms, the hanging wall/footwall effects on the peak ground acceleration (PGA) during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake are evaluated by regression analysis. The logarithm residual shows that the PGA on hanging wall is much greater than that on footwall at the same Drup or Dseis when the Drup or Dseis is used as site-to-source distance measure. In contrast, there is no significant difference between the PGA on hanging wall and that on footwall at the same Drms when Drms is used. This result confirms that the hanging wall/footwall effect is mainly a geometric effect caused by the asymmetry of dipping fault. Therefore, the hanging wall/footwall effect on the near-fault ground motions can be ignored in the future attenuation analysis if the root-mean-square distance Drms is used as the site-to-source distance measure.

  4. Displacements and identities in the australian gothic: the case of Picnic at Hanging Rock

    Luciana Wrege Rassier


    The mysteries of the novel Picnic at Hanging Rock, by Joan Lindsay (1967, and its film adaptation of same name, directed by Peter Weir (1975, have been intriguing readers and audiences for more than four decades. Set in the Australian countryside in 1900, both narratives illustrate the Australian Gothic genre by revolving around the mystery of the disappearance of three schoolgirls and a teacher from a repressive boarding school during a picnic at the mountain. Basing our approach on the reflections by Linda Hutcheon (2011 on adaptations we analyze to which extent literary and cinematographic works relate to each other, while the works presented by Susan Bassnett (2006 and Kristi Siegl (2004 on women’s travel writing will allow us to approach themes such as female sexuality and travel as a metaphor of transformation.

  5. Effects of hanging wall and forward directivity in the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake on inelastic displacement response of structures

    Li Shuang; Xie Lili


    The characteristics of the inelastic response of structures affected by hanging wall and forward directivity in the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake are investigated. Inelastic displacement ratios (IDRs) for ground motions impacted by these nearfield effects are evaluated and comprehensively compared to far-field ground motions. In addition, the inelastic displacement responses to hanging wall and footwall ground motions are compared. It is concluded that the inelastic displacement response is significantly affected in the short period range by hanging wall and in the long period range by footwall. Although high peak ground acceleration was observed at hanging wall stations, the IDRs for structures on hanging wall sites are only larger than footwall sites in the very long period range. Forward directivity effects result in larger IDRs for periods longer than about 0.5s. Adopting statistical relationships for IDRs established using far-field ground motions may lead to either overestimation or underestimation in the seismic evaluation of existing structures located in near-field regions, depending on their fundamental vibration periods.

  6. Flat-ramp vs. convex-concave thrust geometries in a deformable hanging wall: new insights from analogue modeling experiments

    Almeida, Pedro; Tomas, Ricardo; Rosas, Filipe; Duarte, Joao; Terrinha, Pedro


    Different modes of strain accommodation affecting a deformable hanging-wall in a flat-ramp-flat thrust system were previously addressed through several (sandbox) analog modeling studies, focusing on the influence of different variables, such as: a) thrust ramp dip angle and friction (Bonini et al, 2000); b) prescribed thickness of the hanging-wall (Koy and Maillot, 2007); and c) sin-thrust erosion (compensating for topographic thrust edification, e.g. Persson and Sokoutis, 2002). In the present work we reproduce the same experimental procedure to investigate the influence of two different parameters on hanging-wall deformation: 1) the geometry of the thrusting surface; and 2) the absence of a velocity discontinuity (VD) that is always present in previous similar analogue modeling studies. Considering the first variable we use two end member ramp geometries, flat-ramp-flat and convex-concave, to understand the control exerted by the abrupt ramp edges in the hanging-wall stress-strain distribution, comparing the obtain results with the situation in which such edge singularities are absent (convex-concave thrust ramp). Considering the second investigated parameter, our motivation was the recognition that the VD found in the different analogue modeling settings simply does not exist in nature, despite the fact that it has a major influence on strain accommodation in the deformable hanging-wall. We thus eliminate such apparatus artifact from our models and compare the obtained results with the previous ones. Our preliminary results suggest that both investigated variables play a non-negligible role on the structural style characterizing the hanging-wall deformation of convergent tectonic settings were such thrust-ramp systems were recognized. Acknowledgments This work was sponsored by the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) through project MODELINK EXPL/GEO-GEO/0714/2013. Pedro Almeida wants to thank to FCT for the Ph.D. grant (SFRH/BD/52556/2014) under the

  7. Estimating the unconfined yield strength of coal in the case of longwall coal mining with hanging wall top caving

    Hann, Damjan


    This study presents an innovative approach for determining the unconfined yield strength σc during the excavation of coal from the earth's crust by using an equipment that was developed for measuring the mechanical properties of bulk materials stored in silos. Highly productive excavation of coal with a hanging wall top caving leads to intensive deformations in the hanging wall and the broken coal can be considered as bulk material. In this research, the shear tester Johanson Hang-Up Indicizer was used to measure the unconfined yield strength of the tested samples, even though such a tester cannot produce stress-strain conditions similar to those occurring during the excavation. An attempt was made to estimate the real unconfined yield strength of broken coal deep under the surface through a combination of measured data and extrapolation.

  8. Effects of the hanging wall and footwall on peak acceleration during the Jiji (Chi-Chi), Taiwan Province, earthquake


    The M=7.6 Jiji (Chi-Chi) earthquake, Taiwan Province, on September 21, 1999 (local time) is a thrust fault style earthquake. The empirical attenuation relations of the horizontal and vertical peak ground accelerations (PGA) for the Jiji (Chi-Chi) earthquake are developed by regression method. By examining the residuals from the Jiji (Chi-Chi) earthquake-specific peak acceleration attenuation relations, it is found that there are systematic differences between PGA on the hanging-wall and footwall. The recorded peak accelerations are higher on the hanging-wall and lower on the footwall. The clear asymmetry of PGA distribution to the surface rupture trace can also be seen from the PGA contour map. These evidences indicate that the PGA attenuates faster on the hanging-wall than on the footwall. In the study of near-source strong motion, seismic hazard assessment, scenario earthquake and seis-mic disaster prediction, the style-of-faulting must be considered in order that the attenuation model can reflect the characteristic of ground motion in various seismic environmental regions.

  9. Kimberlite Wall Rock Fragmentation: Venetia K08 Pipe Development

    Barnett, W.; Kurszlaukis, S.; Tait, M.; Dirks, P.


    Volcanic systems impose powerful disrupting forces on the country rock into which they intrude. The nature of the induced brittle deformation or fragmentation can be characteristic of the volcanic processes ongoing within the volcanic system, but are most typically partially removed or obscured by repeated, overprinting volcanic activity in mature pipes. Incompletely evolved pipes may therefore provide important evidence for the types and stages of wall rock fragmentation, and mechanical processes responsible for the fragmentation. Evidence for preserved stages of fragmentation is presented from a detailed study of the K08 pipe within the Cambrian Venetia kimberlite cluster, South Africa. This paper investigates the growth history of the K08 pipe and the mechanics of pipe development based on observations in the pit, drill core and thin sections, from geochemical analyses, particle size distribution analyses, and 3D modeling. Present open pit exposures of the K08 pipe comprise greater than 90% mega-breccia of country rock clasts (gneiss and schist) with fractal statistics on particle size distributions (PSD) is used to quantify sheared and non- sheared breccia zones. The calculated energy required to form the non-sheared breccia PSD implies an explosive early stage of fragmentation that pre-conditions the rock mass. The pre-conditioning would have been caused by explosions that are either phreatic or phreatomagmatic in nature. The explosions are likely to have been centered on a dyke, or pulses of preceding volatile-fluid phases, which have encountered a local hydrologically active fault. The explosions were inadequate in mechanical energy release (72% of a mine production blast) to eject material from the pipe, and the pipe may not have breached surface. The next stage of fragmentation is interpreted to have been an upward-moving collapse of the pre-conditioned hanging wall of a subterranean volcanic excavation. This would explain the mega-scale layering across

  10. A ‘painted chamber’ in Beverwijk by Jacobus Luberti Augustini: novel insights into the working methods and painting practices in a painted wall-hanging factory

    Verslype, I.; Verhave, J.; Smelt, S.; Keune, K.; Sigmond, H.; van Eikema Hommes, M.; Evans, H.; Muir, K.


    The restoration of the ‘painted chamber’ in Beverwijk by Jacobus Luberti Augustini instigated an in-depth technical study of the room and its painted canvas wall hangings. Through close observation with the naked eye, ultraviolet light, infrared reflectography and the study of paint samples in combi

  11. A ‘painted chamber’ in Beverwijk by Jacobus Luberti Augustini: novel insights into the working methods and painting practices in a painted wall-hanging factory

    Verslype, I.; Verhave, J.; Smelt, S.; Keune, K.; Sigmond, H.; van Eikema Hommes, M.; Evans, H.; Muir, K.


    The restoration of the ‘painted chamber’ in Beverwijk by Jacobus Luberti Augustini instigated an in-depth technical study of the room and its painted canvas wall hangings. Through close observation with the naked eye, ultraviolet light, infrared reflectography and the study of paint samples in

  12. Stability of numerical simulation and security monitoring of filling method to mining the hanging wall ore on high-steep slope%高陡边坡下充填法开采挂帮矿稳定性数值模拟与安全监测

    吴姗; 宋卫东; 杜建华; 张兴才; 周家祥


    Exploitation of hanging wall ore with filling method can not only recycle ore, but also avoid decline of the slope and control deformation of surrounding rock effectively. Based on the hanging wall ore mining by filling method of Daye Iron Mine, Cavity Monitoring System (CMS) is used in this paper to detect the original goaf of hanging wall ore. Then stress, displacement and plastic deformation of surrounding rock and open-pit slope in the processing of mining the hanging wall ore are analyzed by CMS and 3D mine-FLAC3D coupled method. The calculation results show that the surrounding rock and open-pit slope deformation can be controlled by filling the goaf effectively, so that the hanging wall ore can be mined safely. In the process of mining the hanging wall ore, monitoring network containing stress, fractures convergence and total station is established to monitor real-timely the displacement and stress changes of the surrounding rock, the pillar and the slope. The monitoring results aregenerally in agreement with the numerical simulation.%充填法开采挂帮矿不但可以充分回采矿石,而且可以有效地防止边坡下滑和控制采场围岩变形。以武钢大冶铁矿尖山挂帮矿体采用充填法开采为工程背景,运用 CMS 三维空区探测系统对原有空区进行探测,通过CMS及3D mine-FLAC3D耦合的方法对开采充填过程中采场围岩及露天边坡的应力、位移和塑性变形进行了数值模拟计算分析,提高了数值模拟的可靠程度。计算结果表明,采空区的充填可有效地控制围岩及露天边坡的变形,实现安全开采。在挂帮矿体开采过程中,建立应力、断面收敛及全站仪联合监测网,对采场围岩、矿柱及边坡的位移、应力变化进行实时监测,监测结果与数值模拟计算结果基本一致。

  13. Distributed snow and rock temperature modelling in steep rock walls using Alpine3D

    Haberkorn, Anna; Wever, Nander; Hoelzle, Martin; Phillips, Marcia; Kenner, Robert; Bavay, Mathias; Lehning, Michael


    In this study we modelled the influence of the spatially and temporally heterogeneous snow cover on the surface energy balance and thus on rock temperatures in two rugged, steep rock walls on the Gemsstock ridge in the central Swiss Alps. The heterogeneous snow depth distribution in the rock walls was introduced to the distributed, process-based energy balance model Alpine3D with a precipitation scaling method based on snow depth data measured by terrestrial laser scanning. The influence of the snow cover on rock temperatures was investigated by comparing a snow-covered model scenario (precipitation input provided by precipitation scaling) with a snow-free (zero precipitation input) one. Model uncertainties are discussed and evaluated at both the point and spatial scales against 22 near-surface rock temperature measurements and high-resolution snow depth data from winter terrestrial laser scans.In the rough rock walls, the heterogeneously distributed snow cover was moderately well reproduced by Alpine3D with mean absolute errors ranging between 0.31 and 0.81 m. However, snow cover duration was reproduced well and, consequently, near-surface rock temperatures were modelled convincingly. Uncertainties in rock temperature modelling were found to be around 1.6 °C. Errors in snow cover modelling and hence in rock temperature simulations are explained by inadequate snow settlement due to linear precipitation scaling, missing lateral heat fluxes in the rock, and by errors caused by interpolation of shortwave radiation, wind and air temperature into the rock walls.Mean annual near-surface rock temperature increases were both measured and modelled in the steep rock walls as a consequence of a thick, long-lasting snow cover. Rock temperatures were 1.3-2.5 °C higher in the shaded and sunny rock walls, while comparing snow-covered to snow-free simulations. This helps to assess the potential error made in ground temperature modelling when neglecting snow in steep bedrock.

  14. Pre-feasibility investigation of infrared thermography for the identification of loose hanging wall and impending falls of ground.

    Kononov, VA


    Full Text Available This report presents the results of a pre-feasibility study of Infrared (IR) Thermography/Radiometry for detection of loose rock in hard rock mines. The method is based on the temperature difference (gradient) between solid rock and the tip of loose...

  15. Hang Gliders


    Francis M. Rogallo and his wife Gertrude researched flexible controllable fabric airfoils with a delta, V-shaped, configuration for use on inexpensive private aircraft. They were issued a flex-wing patent and refined their designs. Development of Rogallo wings, used by U.S. Moyes, Inc. substantially broadened the flexible airfoil technology base which originated from NASA's reentry parachute. The Rogallo technology, particularly the airfoil frame was incorporated in the design of a kite by John Dickenson. The Dickenson kite served as prototype for the Australian Moyes line of hang gliders. Company no longer exists.

  16. Fragmentation of wall rock garnets during deep crustal earthquakes

    Austrheim, Håkon; Dunkel, Kristina G.; Plümper, Oliver; Ildefonse, Benoit; Liu, Yang; Jamtveit, Bjørn


    Fractures and faults riddle the Earth’s crust on all scales, and the deformation associated with them is presumed to have had significant effects on its petrological and structural evolution. However, despite the abundance of directly observable earthquake activity, unequivocal evidence for seismic slip rates along ancient faults is rare and usually related to frictional melting and the formation of pseudotachylites. We report novel microstructures from garnet crystals in the immediate vicinity of seismic slip planes that transected lower crustal granulites during intermediate-depth earthquakes in the Bergen Arcs area, western Norway, some 420 million years ago. Seismic loading caused massive dislocation formations and fragmentation of wall rock garnets. Microfracturing and the injection of sulfide melts occurred during an early stage of loading. Subsequent dilation caused pervasive transport of fluids into the garnets along a network of microfractures, dislocations, and subgrain and grain boundaries, leading to the growth of abundant mineral inclusions inside the fragmented garnets. Recrystallization by grain boundary migration closed most of the pores and fractures generated by the seismic event. This wall rock alteration represents the initial stages of an earthquake-triggered metamorphic transformation process that ultimately led to reworking of the lower crust on a regional scale.

  17. Recovering data from noisy fringe patterns from a portable digital speckle pattern interferometer for in-situ inspection of painting hanging on the wall

    Memmolo, P.; Arena, G.; Paturzo, M.; Fatigati, G.; Grilli, M.; Pezzati, L.; Ferraro, Pietro


    We report on a method for recovering data from a simple portable Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometer intended for utilization outside of laboratory conditions, without anti-vibration devices. We used the system for monitoring the structural behavior of a painting on wood, hanging on a wall. In such a situation, fringes, produced by the object displacements, were affected by random distortions caused by environment noise. However a satisfactory number of undistorted, or barely distorted, fringe patterns were found and utilized for processing. We performed fast continuous acquisitions of consecutive interferograms, picking usable fringe patterns out of a large amount of recorded frames. This is the crucial task in the measurement procedure. For this purpose we developed a software routine, based on jointly analysis of both spectral content and fringe image sharpne ss, as selection rule. From the selected frames, by using a simple approach based on Hilbert Transform and Phase Unwrapping, via MAx-flow (PUMA) algorithm, we were able to evaluate the painting whole structure deformations, caused by environmental thermo-hygrometric fluctuations.

  18. Field and Laboratory Data From an Earthquake History Study of Scarps in the Hanging Wall of the Tacoma Fault, Mason and Pierce Counties, Washington

    Nelson, Alan R.; Personius, Stephen F.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Buck, Jason; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Henley, Gary; Liberty, Lee M.; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Witter, Robert C.; Koehler, R.D.; Schermer, Elizabeth R.; Nemser, Eliza S.; Cladouhos, Trenton T.


    As part of the effort to assess seismic hazard in the Puget Sound region, we map fault scarps on Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM, an application of LiDAR) imagery (with 2.5-m elevation contours on 1:4,000-scale maps) and show field and laboratory data from backhoe trenches across the scarps that are being used to develop a latest Pleistocene and Holocene history of large earthquakes on the Tacoma fault. We supplement previous Tacoma fault paleoseismic studies with data from five trenches on the hanging wall of the fault. In a new trench across the Catfish Lake scarp, broad folding of more tightly folded glacial sediment does not predate 4.3 ka because detrital charcoal of this age was found in stream-channel sand in the trench beneath the crest of the scarp. A post-4.3-ka age for scarp folding is consistent with previously identified uplift across the fault during AD 770-1160. In the trench across the younger of the two Stansberry Lake scarps, six maximum 14C ages on detrital charcoal in pre-faulting B and C soil horizons and three minimum ages on a tree root in post-faulting colluvium, limit a single oblique-slip (right-lateral) surface faulting event to AD 410-990. Stratigraphy and sedimentary structures in the trench across the older scarp at the same site show eroded glacial sediments, probably cut by a meltwater channel, with no evidence of post-glacial deformation. At the northeast end of the Sunset Beach scarps, charcoal ages in two trenches across graben-forming scarps give a close maximum age of 1.3 ka for graben formation. The ages that best limit the time of faulting and folding in each of the trenches are consistent with the time of the large regional earthquake in southern Puget Sound about AD 900-930.

  19. Geology, glacier retreat and permafrost degradation as controlling factors of slope instabilities in a high-mountain rock wall: the Monte Rosa east face

    L. Fischer


    Full Text Available The Monte Rosa east face, Italian Alps, is one of the highest flanks in the Alps (2200–4500 m a.s.l.. Steep hanging glaciers and permafrost cover large parts of the wall. Since the end of the Little Ice Age (about 1850, the hanging glaciers and firn fields have retreated continuously. During recent decades, the ice cover of the Monte Rosa east face experienced an accelerated and drastic loss in extent. Some glaciers have completely disappeared. New slope instabilities and detachment zones of gravitational mass movements developed and enhanced rock fall and debris flow activity was observed. This study is based on multidisciplinary investigations and shows that most of the detachment zones of rock fall and debris flows are located in areas, where the surface ice disappeared only recently. Furthermore, most of these detachment zones are located in permafrost zones, for the most part close to the modelled and estimated lower boundary of the regional permafrost distribution. In the view of ongoing or even enhanced atmospheric warming and associated changes it is therefore very likely that the slope instabilities in the Monte Rosa east face will continue to represent a critical hazard source.

  20. Why is there no Universal Law for Rock Wall Retreat?

    Krautblatter, Michael; Moore, Jeffrey


    Comparing studies of rock slope erosion and soil slope erosion, we find no governing equation similar to the universal soil loss equation for rock slopes. Rock masses in contact with the atmosphere are affected by a suite of physical, chemical and biological processes which degrade intact rock, creating new fractures and extending existing flaws. Complex feedbacks must be explored between changing slope boundary conditions, stress redistribution and fracturing, and weathering by external mechanisms. Rock slope systems are distinguished from soil slope systems by the fundamental nonlinear properties of rock masses. Rock masses represent discontinuous, inhomogeneous, anisotropic, and nonlinearly elastic materials, and contain a record of millions of years of thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes. The origin and evolution of rock mass strength over time can significantly affect bedrock erodibility and engineering performance, the study of which represents a major chance and challenge for the geoscience community. The imprint of THMC processes on rock properties begins with the geological genesis of rocks; however, a significant degree of material behaviour evolves coincidently with the exhumation and evolution of topography. Thus, fracture generation has been investigated as the result of the environmental stress history in geology and geomorphology, partly modulated by incision and topographic stress evolution. Resultant fracture patterns control the degree of discontinuity heterogeneity, anisotropy, and nonlinear mechanical behaviour over millions of years. Here we discuss important novel conceptual approaches to temporally and spatially decipher nonlinear effects on rock slope erosion including incision-related topographic stresses, rock fatigue, paraglacial and paracratering effects etc. and how they could contribute to a more uniform understanding of rockwall retreat.

  1. Technology of 3D Visual Design for Hanging- Wall Ore Mining under Complex Geological Condition%复杂地质条件挂帮矿开采三维可视化设计技术

    王其虎; 叶义成; 刘艳章; 汪益群


    露天境界挂帮矿赋存条件复杂多变,存在着大量不规则台阶、滑坡和断层等复杂地质地形,以MICROMINE软件为平台,通过引入特殊地形约束线,构建约束性DTM模型,解决了一般DTM模型无法精确模拟复杂地质体的问题;运用线框构模法,直观地揭露矿体、露天边坡以及滑坡之间的空间位置关系,以此来指导挂帮矿开采的开拓采准设计,实现地下开采设计的三维可视化,以及开拓采准设计的优化。大冶铁矿挂帮矿开采的应用实践表明,挂帮矿赋存地质条件得到了精确模拟,设计效率及合理性大为提高,为类似露天矿挂帮矿开采提供了参考。%The occurrence condition of hanging - wall ore on open pit boundary is always complicated and variable, which is accompanied with complex geology and landform including irregular benches, landslides and faults and so on. In order to solve the problem that general digital terrain model (DTM) can't simulate complex geological mass accurately, by introducing special constrained topographical lines based on the platform of MICROMINE, a constrained DTM of open pit was built. With the method of wire frame modeling, the spatial relationship among ore, open pit slope and landslide was expressed visually. Those models can be used to guide the design of development and mining preparation for hangingwall ore mining,the 3D visualization of underground mining design and the optimization of the development and mining preparation design. This technology was applied to the hanging -wall ore mining in Daye iron min, as a result, the occurrence condition of hanging - wall ore was simulated accurately, and the efficiency and rationality of the hanging - wall ore mining design were advanced greatly. It provided a reference for hangingwall ore mining in similar open pit mines.

  2. P and S wave velocity measurements on sediments from the hanging-wall of megasplay fault, NantroSEIZE Stage 1

    Hashimoto, Y.; Tobin, H. J.; Knuth, M. W.


    The evolution of elastic moduli in an accretionary prism setting provides insight into diagenetic and strengthening processes related to mechanical porosity decrease, cementation, strain history, and fluid release. Variability within the accretionary complex and along the decollement may have implications for wedge geometry, fluid migration, and seismogenesis. In this study, we describe the results of laboratory measurements of P-wave and S-wave velocities through sediments obtained from Sites C0001, C0002 and C0004. All sites are located in the hanging wall of the Mega-splay fault in the Nankai accretionary prism. We also made textural observations to examine the relationship between acoustic properties and textures, both within core samples and in the context of core-log-seismic integration. Our measurement procedure is as follows: Pore fluid pressure of 500kPa was applied and confining pressure was changed to control the effective pressure. The maximum effective pressure was estimated for each sample from the accumulation of the bulk density of sediments and hydrostatic pore fluid pressure at the depth of recovery. 1MHz Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) shear wave transducers are used in a source-receiver pair to measure wavespeed. PZT in a shear orientation generates a weak compressional mode in addition to its primary shear mode. This allowed us to identify P and S-wave arrivals in each test. The error can be as large as ~2 µs (about 5% error). Porosities are corrected to remove smectite effects from the on-board measured porosity. Porosity ranges ~0.6 - ~0.45, ~0.37 - ~0.27, and ~0.47 - ~0.39 for Site C0001, C0002, and C0004, respectively. P-wave velocity covered ~1630 km/s - 1990 km/s, ~2010 km/s - ~2370 km/s, and ~1700 km/s - ~2200 km/s for Site C0001, C0002 and Site C0004, respectively. S-wave velocity ranges from ~720 - ~950 m/s for Site C0002 samples and from ~650 - ~940 m/s for Site C0004. The Vp/Vs ratio ranged from ~2.4 - ~2.7 for Site C0002 and from ~2

  3. Mineralogical Zonation of Wall-Rock Alteration in Jiaodong Gold Province, North China


    Mineralogical zonation of wall-rock alterations in Mesozoic granitoids is summarized from 18 gold deposits in Jiaodong gold province on the Asian mobile continental margin of the west circum-Pacific rim. This paper deals with wall-rock alterations developed around gold mineralizations of the quartz-vein type in granitoids and the wall-rock alteration type in granitoid-basement contacts alongMesozoic fault zones trending mostly NNE-SSW and NE-SW. Five alteration zones are distinguished from host rock to ore zone, namely the chloritization and sericitization zone, the hematitization-rutilization and microclinization zone, the quartz-sericitization zone, the pyrite-quartz-sericitization zone and the pyrite-silicification zone. The former two are outer zones marked by incomplete alteration of first mafic and then felsic minerals of the granitoids, while the later three are inner zones marked by complete alteration of both mafic and felsic minerals of the granitoids leading to retrogressive sericitization and progressive silicification with participation of ore elements. The whole process proceeds under dynamometamorphism with high fugacity of volatiles. Wall-rock alteration is the intermediate link between unaltered host rock and ore mineralization both in time and space. Development of the alteration zonation and its mineral composition controls genetic type of mineralization, size and grade of the deposit and location of the ore zones.

  4. An acoustic sensor for prediction of the structural stability of rock

    Brink, S


    Full Text Available m. The failure of hanging walls has been an area of extensive research in rock mechanics,1 as it is the cause of many rock fall-related injuries and deaths. This workplace risk to miners is addressed by various standard mining practices, one of which...

  5. Design for solar-tracking dual-axis water heater of wall hanging type%一种基于墙体安装的双轴跟踪太阳能热水器设计

    沈金荣; 熊志刚


    针对普通太阳能热水器一般只能安装屋顶、新型平板太阳能热水器固定安装有效采光面积的余弦效应导致太阳能利用效率偏低等问题,提出了一种基于墙体壁挂式安装、全自动跟踪太阳能热水器的设计方案,以适应各种楼层用户的使用,且能在较小的面积获得较大的太阳能能量.对基于安装方式的跟踪原理、系统的整体设计、安全性设计做了全面详细的介绍.在实验论证的基础上,得出该设计方案有效地提高了太阳能的利用效率的结论.%It proposes a new design of wall hanging automatic solar-tracking water heater since ordinary solar water heater could only be installed on the roof and the efficiency of utilizing solar energy for new flat-panel solar water heater is low because of cosine effect of light area caused by fixed installation and so on.While the new designed heater to be hanged on wall can receive more solar energy in a smaller area, that is suitable for households at all floors.The tracking principles ,system design,and design for safety has been expounded based on mounting means.The design based on testing experiment has been approved to enhance the utilizing efficiency of solar energy effectively.

  6. Innovations in rocking wall-frame systems-theory and development

    Grigorian, Mark; Tavousi, Shayan


    The need to improve the seismic performance of buildings has brought about innovative systems such as rocking wall-moment frame (RWMF) combinations. The behavior of RWMFs can best be visualized by the moment-frame (MF) restraining the wall in place, and the rigid rocking wall (RRW) providing additional damping and imposing uniform drift along the height of the frame. A novel method of analysis followed by the development of a new lateral resisting system is introduced. The proposed concepts lead to an efficient structural configuration with provisions for self-centering, reparability, performance control, damage tolerance and collapse prevention. Exact, unique, closed form formulae have been provided to assess the collapse prevention and self-centering capabilities of the system. The objective is to provide an informative account of RWMF behavior for preliminary design as well as educational purposes. All formulae have been verified by independent computer analysis. Parametric examples have been provided to verify the validity of the proposed solutions.

  7. Acoustic and optical borehole-wall imaging for fractured-rock aquifer studies

    Williams, J.H.; Johnson, C.D.


    Imaging with acoustic and optical televiewers results in continuous and oriented 360?? views of the borehole wall from which the character, relation, and orientation of lithologic and structural planar features can be defined for studies of fractured-rock aquifers. Fractures are more clearly defined under a wider range of conditions on acoustic images than on optical images including dark-colored rocks, cloudy borehole water, and coated borehole walls. However, optical images allow for the direct viewing of the character of and relation between lithology, fractures, foliation, and bedding. The most powerful approach is the combined application of acoustic and optical imaging with integrated interpretation. Imaging of the borehole wall provides information useful for the collection and interpretation of flowmeter and other geophysical logs, core samples, and hydraulic and water-quality data from packer testing and monitoring. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 蒙库铁矿井下矿挂帮矿主溜井及硐室施工技术探讨%Discussion on Construction Technology of Main Chute and Chamber of Hanging Wall Ore Underground Mine in Mengku Iron Mine



    蒙库铁矿井下矿一期工程建设任务紧,地质围岩条件复杂。盲溜井及大硐室是矿建的重要单体工程,工程建设过程中施工工期长、工艺复杂、危险性高。文章介绍了为保证安全高效的施工,挂帮矿体主溜井及溜井下部硐室采用反井钻机打导孔、吊罐钻爆法刷大井筒等技术,取得了较好的施工效果。%Because the phase I project of underground mine in Mengku iron mine is urgent, the condition of surrounding rock is complicated, and blind chute&chamber are important single projects in mine construction which are featured of long duration, complex technology and high risk. The article introduces how to effectively and safely build the main chute of hanging wall ore and chute lower chamber by perforation with raise boring machine and brushing well bore with drilling and exploding method ,that have obtained good results.

  9. Fragments of deeper parts of the hanging wall mantle preserved as orogenic peridotites in the central belt of the Seve Nappe Complex, Sweden

    Clos, F.; Gilio, M.; van Roermund, H.L.M.


    Formation conditions of olivine microstructures are investigated in the Kittelfjäll spinel peridotite (KSP), a fragment of lithospheric mantle which occurs as an isolated body within high grade metamorphic crustal rocks of the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC), southern Västerbotten, central Sweden. The KSP

  10. Development of a rocking R/C shear wall system implementing repairable structural fuses

    Parsafar, Saeed; Moghadam, Abdolreza S.


    In the last decades, the concept of earthquake resilient structural systems is becoming popular in which the rocking structure is considered as a viable option for buildings in regions of high seismicity. To this end, a novel wall-base connection based on the " repairable structure" approach is proposed and evaluated. The proposed system is made of several steel plates and high strength bolts act as a friction connection. To achieve the desired rocking motion in the proposed system, short-slotted holes are used in vertical directions for connecting the steel plates to the shear wall (SW). The experimental and numerical studies were performed using a series of displacement control quasi-static cyclic tests on a reference model and four different configurations of the proposed connection installed at the wall corners. The seismic response of the proposed system is compared to the conventional SW in terms of energy dissipation and damage accumulation. In terms of energy dissipation, the proposed system depicted better performance with 95% more energy dissipation capability compared to conventional SW. In terms of damage accumulation, the proposed SW system is nearly undamaged compared to the conventional wall system, which was severely damaged at the wall-base region. Overall, the introduced concept presents a feasible solution for R/C structures when a low-damage design is targeted, which can improve the seismic performance of the structural system significantly.

  11. Hang Gliders for Sport


    Hang gliding is growing rapidly. Free Flight produces 1,000 gliders a month and other companies are entering the field. Wing is simple to control, pulling back on control bar allows you to pick up speed and at the same time lowers your altitude. Pushing forward slows your speed and levels you off. Birdmen can choose from prone, upright or swing seat harnesses in either kits or ready-to-fly gliders.

  12. Model experimental research on deformation and subsidence characteristics of ground and wall rock due to mining under thick overlying terrane

    Weizhong Ren; Chengmai Guo; Ziqiang Peng; Yonggang Wang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan (China). Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics


    Based on the prototype of a mine, a physical simulation test is conducted. The characteristics of the deformation and failure of the ground surface and the wall rock around a goaf, as well as the creep behavior of the wall rock deformation and the failure mechanism, are analyzed. The simulation test has greatly improved our understanding on the wall rock's deformation and failure characteristics. For the first time, digital close-range photogrammetry was used to measure the displacements in a sectional model test. The measurements by this technique agreed very well with those obtained by other methods, such as using dial gauges.

  13. Decay patterns of brick wall in atmospheric environment: a possible analogue to rock weathering?

    Prikryl, Richard; Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přikrylová, Jiřina; Jablonský, Jakub


    This study is focused on the decay of bricks exposed in enclosing wall of the Regional maternal hospital in Prague city centre (Czech Republic). The hospital, listed as a Czech architectural monument, has been constructed from locally produced bricks in neo-Gothic style in the period of 1867-1875. The bricks of the enclosing wall show sequence of decay patterns that resemble weathering forms observable on monuments built of natural stone. This study aims to study the observed decay patterns by means of in situ mapping and by analyses of decayed material (optical microscopy, SEM/EDS, X-ray diffraction, Hg-porosimetry, water soluble salts analysis) and to interpret them based on the phase composition and other properties of bricks. Finally, the decay patterns of studied brick wall are compared to known weathering sequences on porous rocks (both on natural outcrops and on artistic monuments).

  14. Application Technology of Dry Hanging Vitrolite Curtain Wall with Back-hitch Anchoring in Engineering%瓷板背栓干挂技术在工程中的应用



    绿色、节能、低碳是人类寻求可持续发展的主题之一,而瓷板是一种可持续发展的新型建筑装饰材料。仁恒·森兰雅苑利用瓷板可以进行任意切割加工的特点,通过背栓干挂安装技术将瓷板作为建筑外墙的装饰材料,满足了建筑立面线条多变的外观要求,达到整体如一、美观的效果。%Green,energy saving and low carbon is one of the themes of human to seek sustainable development. Vitrolite is a kind of sustainable development of new building decoration materials.Yanlord·sen LAN YaYuan takes advantage of the characteristics of vitrolite that can be arbitrary cutting processing,by dry hanging back bolt installation technology of vitrolite as building exterior wall decoration materials,solved the building facade lines,changeful cosmetic requirements,to achieve the effect of overall consistent and beautiful.

  15. New Ideas about the Modeling Design of Contemporary Indoor Wall Hangings%当代室内墙饰艺术品的装饰造型设计新理念

    朱胜甲; 朱小龙


    Currently,some new design ideas emerged in the modeling design of indoor wall hangings featuring new pursuits in subject matter and modeling form and so on,which are shown in the following aspects: 1.Requirements for physical and mental health and education function should be reflected in subject matters;2.Affinitive decorative beauty should be demonstrated in molding forms;3.Personalized features should be emphasized in visual effects;4.Materials should be natural,green and environmental-friendly.%当前室内墙饰艺术品的装饰造型设计中,出现了新的设计理念。主题内容和造型形态等方面都出现了新的追求。墙饰艺术品在装饰造型设计上的新理念和新追求,表现在几个方面:题材内容上反映身心健康和教化功能的要求、造型形态上表现亲和的装饰美感、视觉效果上追求个性化特征、材料使用上主张自然、绿色、环保。

  16. De Nápoles a Madrid. La colgadura de los animales del duque de Medina de las Torres = From Naples to Madrid: the animals wall hanging of the Duke of Medina de las Torres

    Juan María Cruz Yábar


    Full Text Available El príncipe de Stigliano donó al convento de Santa Teresa de Madrid una colgadura de gran valor, que ha sido objeto de estudio por diversos autores desde 1900 hasta la actualidad. Aportamos noticias sobre su datación y su origen extraídos de diferentes fuentes, profundizando en cuestiones como los componentes del conjunto, su estimación, la propiedad, vicisitudes sufridas a lo largo del tiempo, consideraciones estilísticas en relación con otras obras similares y sobre su iconografía humanista.The Prince of Stigliano donated to the convent of Santa Teresa in Madrid a very valuable wall hanging, which has been an object of study by several authors from 1900 until nowadays. We are contributing news about its dating and origin, extracted from different sources, going into matters like the components of the collection, its respect, the property, vicissitudes that happened in the course of time, stylistic considerations in relation to other similar works and about its humanist iconography.

  17. The Physics of Hang Gliding

    Hewett, Lionel D.


    Dr. Hewett has received both national and international awards from the hang gliding community for his contributions to the safety of towing hang gliders. These contributions were a consequence of his applying his knowledge of physics to the sport of hang gliding. This lecture illustrates how these and other applications of the fundamental principles of physics have influenced the historical evolutions of hang gliding and paragliding from the earliest flights of Otto Lilienthal in 1891 through the more recent record breaking flights of more than 430 miles from Zapata Texas.

  18. The automation of the "making safe" process in South African hard-rock underground mine

    Teleka, SR


    Full Text Available In South African hard-rock mines, best practice dictates that the hanging-walls be inspected after blasting. This process is known as ‘making safe’ and although intended to save lives, it is laborious and subjective. Pressure is placed on the barrer...

  19. A custom acoustic emission monitoring system for harsh environments: application to freezing-induced damage in alpine rock-walls

    L. Girard


    Full Text Available We present a custom acoustic emission (AE monitoring system designed to perform long-term measurements on high-alpine rock-walls. AE monitoring is a common technique for characterizing damage evolution in solid materials. The system is based on a two-channel AE sensor node (AE-node integrated into a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN customized for operation in harsh environments. This wireless architecture offers flexibility in the deployment of AE-nodes at any position of the rock-wall that needs to be monitored, within a range of a few hundred meters from a core station connected to the internet. The system achieves near real-time data delivery and allows the user to remotely control the AE detection threshold. In order to protect AE sensors and capture acoustic signals from specific depths of the rock-wall, a special casing was developed. The monitoring system is completed by two probes that measure rock temperature and liquid water content, both probes being also integrated into the WSN. We report a first deployment of the monitoring system on a rock-wall at Jungfraujoch, 3500 m a.s.l., Switzerland. While this first deployment of the monitoring system aims to support fundamental research on processes that damage rock under cold climate, the system could serve a number of other applications, including rock-fall hazard surveillance or structural monitoring of concrete structures.

  20. A custom acoustic emission monitoring system for harsh environments: application to freezing-induced damage in alpine rock walls

    L. Girard


    Full Text Available We present a custom acoustic emission (AE monitoring system designed to perform long-term measurements on high-alpine rock walls. AE monitoring is a common technique for characterizing damage evolution in solid materials. The system is based on a two-channel AE sensor node (AE-node integrated into a wireless sensor network (WSN customized for operation in harsh environments. This wireless architecture offers flexibility in the deployment of AE-nodes at any position of the rock wall that needs to be monitored, within a range of a few hundred meters from a core station connected to the internet. The system achieves near real-time data delivery and allows the user to remotely control the AE detection threshold. In order to protect AE sensors and capture acoustic signals from specific depths of the rock wall, a special casing was developed. The monitoring system is completed by two probes that measure rock temperature and liquid water content, both probes being also integrated into the WSN. We report a first deployment of the monitoring system on a rock wall at Jungfraujoch, 3500 m a.s.l., Switzerland. While this first deployment of the monitoring system aims to support fundamental research on processes that damage rock under cold climate, the system could serve a number of other applications, including rock fall hazard surveillance or structural monitoring of concrete structures.

  1. Hang-It-Up Artists

    Szekely, George


    The best lesson ideas often derive from childhood recollections. When brought to class, play memories and art mementos from the teacher's childhood paint a powerful homage to children's art. A survey of a child's room in the dark, or with lights on, discloses interesting hanging sites, means of attachment and unusual items drafted for hanging, all…

  2. Homicidal hanging masquerading as suicide

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Charles, Annie Vesterby


    Homicidal hanging is rare and presents special problems for the forensic pathologist. We report a case of homicide by hanging masquerading as suicide, in which the forensic evidence was of crucial importance. The victim was a 61 years old man, who was found in his house suspended by a rope around...

  3. Homicidal hanging masquerading as suicide

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Charles, Annie Vesterby


    Homicidal hanging is rare and presents special problems for the forensic pathologist. We report a case of homicide by hanging masquerading as suicide, in which the forensic evidence was of crucial importance. The victim was a 61 years old man, who was found in his house suspended by a rope around...

  4. Verifying the Hanging Chain Model

    Karls, Michael A.


    The wave equation with variable tension is a classic partial differential equation that can be used to describe the horizontal displacements of a vertical hanging chain with one end fixed and the other end free to move. Using a web camera and TRACKER software to record displacement data from a vibrating hanging chain, we verify a modified version…

  5. Non-Darcian flow experiments of shear-thinning fluids through rough-walled rock fractures

    Rodríguez de Castro, Antonio; Radilla, Giovanni


    Understanding non-Darcian flow of shear-thinning fluids through rough-walled rock fractures is of vital importance in a number of industrial applications such as hydrogeology or petroleum engineering. Different laws are available to express the deviations from linear Darcy law due to inertial pressure losses. In particular, Darcy's law is often extended through addition of quadratic and cubic terms weighted by two inertial coefficients depending on the strength of the inertia regime. The relations between the effective shear viscosity of the fluid and the apparent viscosity in porous media when inertial deviations are negligible were extensively studied in the past. However, only recent numerical works have investigated the superposition of both inertial and shear-thinning effects, finding that the same inertial coefficients obtained for non-Darcian Newtonian flow applied in the case of shear-thinning fluids. The objective of this work is to experimentally validate these results, extending their applicability to the case of rough-walled rock fractures. To do so, flow experiments with aqueous polymer solutions have been conducted using replicas of natural fractures, and the effects of polymer concentration, which determine the shear rheology of the injected fluid, have been evaluated. Our findings show that the experimental pressure loss-flow rate data for inertial flow of shear-thinning fluids can be successfully predicted from the empirical parameters obtained during non-Darcian Newtonian flow and Darcian shear-thinning flow in a given porous medium.

  6. Sulphide mineralization and wall-rock alteration in ophiolites and modern oceanic spreading centres

    Koski, R.A.


    Massive and stockwork Fe-Cu-Zn (Cyprus type) sulphide deposits in the upper parts of ophiolite complexes represent hydrothermal mineralization at ancient accretionary plate boundaries. These deposits are probable metallogenic analogues of the polymetallic sulphide deposits recently discovered along modern oceanic spreading centres. Genetic models for these deposits suggest that mineralization results from large-scale circulation of sea-water through basaltic basement along the tectonically active axis of spreading, a zone of high heat flow. The high geothermal gradient above 1 to 2 km deep magma chambers emplaced below the ridge axis drives the convective circulation cell. Cold oxidizing sea-water penetrating the crust on the ridge flanks becomes heated and evolves into a highly reduced somewhat acidic hydrothermal solvent during interaction with basaltic wall-rock. Depending on the temperature and water/rock ratio, this fluid is capable of leaching and transporting iron, manganese, and base metals; dissolved sea-water sulphate is reduced to sulphide. At the ridge axis, the buoyant hydrothermal fluid rises through permeable wall-rocks, and fluid flow may be focussed along deep-seated fractures related to extensional tectonic processes. Metal sulphides are precipitated along channelways as the ascending fluid undergoes adiabatic expansion and then further cooling during mixing with ambient sub-sea-floor water. Vigorous fluid flow results in venting of reduced fluid at the sea-floor/sea-water interface and deposition of massive sulphide. A comparison of sulphide mineralization and wall-rock alteration in ancient and modern spreading centre environments supports this genetic concept. Massive sulphide deposits in ophiolites generally occur in clusters of closely spaced (floor underlying numerous deposits in Guaymas Basin consists of diatomaceous ooze and terrigenous clastic sediment that is intruded by diabase sills. Mound-like massive sulphide deposits, as much as 30

  7. Simulation and field monitoring of moisture in alpine rock walls during freeze-thaw events

    Rode, Matthias; Sass, Oliver


    (high number of freeze-thaw cycles and 90% pore saturation) are achieved predominantly in spring and autumn and in north-facing rock walls. The time spent within the effective "frost cracking window" (-3 - -8°C) is also higher for north-facing sites.

  8. Beijing Opera Facial Masks As Wall Hangings


    In Beijing opera. and many other traditional operas, the jing roles. or warriors, usually have their faces painted in colorful designs to represent various elements of their character. Each color has its own meaning. Red stands for loyalty and bravery: black for courage and honesty. and white is the color of deceitfulness.

  9. Late Quaternary Normal Faulting and Hanging Wall Basin Evolution of the Southwestern Rift Margin From Gravity and Geology, B.C.S., MX and Exploring the Influence of Text-Figure Format on Introductory Geology Learning

    Busch, Melanie M. D.


    An array of north-striking, left-stepping, active normal faults is situated along the southwestern margin of the Gulf of California. This normal fault system is the marginal fault system of the oblique-divergent plate boundary within the Gulf of California. To better understand the role of upper-crustal processes during development of an obliquely rifted plate margin, gravity surveys were conducted across the normal-fault-bounded basins within the gulf-margin array and, along with optically stimulated luminescence dating of offset surfaces, fault-slip rates were estimated and fault patterns across basins were assessed, providing insight into sedimentary basin evolution. Additionally, detailed geologic and geomorphic maps were constructed along two faults within the system, leading to a more complete understanding of the role of individual normal faults within a larger array. These faults slip at a low rate (0.1--1 mm/yr) and have relatively shallow hanging wall basins (˜500--3000 m). Overall, the gulf-margin faults accommodate protracted, distributed deformation at a low rate and provide a minor contribution to overall rifting. Integrating figures with text can lead to greater science learning than when either medium is presented alone. Textbooks, composed of text and graphics, are a primary source of content in most geology classes. It is essential to understand how students approach learning from text and figures in textbook-style learning materials and how the arrangement of the text and figures influences their learning approach. Introductory geology students were eye tracked while learning from textbook-style materials composed of text and graphics. Eye fixation data showed that students spent less time examining the figure than the text, but the students who more frequently examined the figure tended to improve more from the pretest to the posttest. In general, students tended to examine the figure at natural breaks in the reading. Textbook-style materials

  10. 分体承压阳台壁挂式太阳热水器的热性能分析%Thermal performance of solar water heater hanged on balcony wall with separate pressure bearing

    丁祥; 高文峰; 刘滔; 林文贤


    In this paper, an analysis has been conducted on an indirect forced circulation solar water heater which is hanged on the balcony wall with separate pressure bearing, a mathematical model was established for this heater, and experiments and calculations have been carried out to obtain the useful heat, daily average thermal efficiency, transient thermal efficiency, heat loss coefficient of the heater, etc., under clear day conditions in winter in Kunming, China. The results show that the thermal performance of such a solar heater is superior, it meets the requirements of the national standards and the residential water usage, and is suitable for utilization integrated with buildings; Solar radiation is the most profound parameter to dictate the thermal performance of the heater; The insulation performance of the storage tank with separate pressure bearing is superior. Nevertheless, the results also demonstrate that further studies are needed to explore in-depth the temperature stratification in the heat storage tank.%通过对在昆明地区搭建的一种间接式强制循环分体承压阳台壁挂式平板型太阳热水器的分析,建立了热水器系统的数学模型,并对冬季晴天天气情况下的得热量、平均日效率、瞬时效率、贮热水箱热损系数、系统平均热损因数等热水器热性能参数进行了多天测试和分析.结果表明,这种太阳热水器的热性能良好,符合家庭生活用水的要求,适合与建筑进行一体化设计;太阳辐照量是影响太阳热水器热性能最显著的因素;分体承压立式贮热水箱的保温性能良好,但还需继续对这种贮热水箱的温度分层情况作进一步研究.

  11. Distribution of the August 24, 2016 Amatrice (Central Italy) earthquake-induced slope movements pointing out the existence of hanging wall/footwall effects in near-fault regions

    Lekkas, Efthymios; Mavroulis, Spyridon; Taflampas, Ioannis; Carydis, Panayotis


    On August 24, 2016 an Mw 6.0 earthquake struck Central Italy resulting in 299 fatalities, 388 injuries and about 3000 homeless and many earthquake environmental effects. Based on mapping of the 2016 Amatrice earthquake-induced slope movements, it is clearly shown that their distribution in the hanging wall (HW) and the footwall (FW) of the seismic fault are quite different resulting in an asymmetric distribution around the causative fault and the observed coseismic surface ruptures and accompanied structures. These differences refer to the observed number, concentration and scale of recorded slope movements in the HW and FW of Mt. Vettore and Laga Mts. faults. Slope movements in the FW were observed in seven localities within the Pretare and Arcuata del Tronto areas and in a site east of Amatrice town. Slope movements north of Pretare affected Lias to Miocene pelagic deposits and Upper Tortonian-Lower Messinian turbidite deposits, while those in Arcuata del Tronto area and east of Amatrice affected only Upper Tortonian-Lower Messinian turbidite deposits. Their distance from the aforementioned faults was short, ranging from 1.5 to 3 km. They were of low concentration and of small scale resulting in negligible to slight damage to road network. In contrast, slope movements in the HW were much more (98 localities) than those in the FW. They affected Lias to Miocene pelagic deposits and Upper Tortonian-Lower Messinian turbidite deposits along slopes in the road leading from Pescara del Tronto village to Norcia town and Upper Tortonian-Lower Messinian turbidite deposits within the Amatrice basin and more specifically in Amatrice and Accumoli areas. Their distance from the aforementioned faults was larger, ranging from 0 to 15 km. They were comparatively of higher concentration and of larger scale causing severe damage to buildings and infrastructures and increasing human fatalities in Amatrice, Accumoli and Pescara del Tronto villages founded on top of flat hills. In

  12. Study on fault induced rock bursts

    LI Zhi-hua; DOU Lin-ming; LU Cai-ping; MU Zong-long; CAO An-ye


    In order to study the rules of rock bursts caused by faults by means of mechanical analysis of a roof rock-mass balanced structure and numerical simulation about fault slip destabilization, the effect of coal mining operation on fault plane stresses and slip displacement were studied. The results indicate that the slip displacement sharply increases due to the decrease of normal stress and the increase of shear stress at the fault plane when the working face advances from the footwall to the fault itself, which may induce a fault rock burst. However, this slip displacement will be very small due to the increase of normal stress and the decrease of shear stress when the working face advances from the hanging wall to the fault itself, which results in a very small risk of a fault rock burst.

  13. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Eric Costello


    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  14. Shallow subsurface temperature and moisture monitoring at rock walls during freeze thaw cycles in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Rode, Matthias; Sass, Oliver


    The process of frost weathering as well as the contribution of further weathering processes (e.g. hydration, thermal fatigue) is poorly understood. For this purpose, different measuring systems were set up in two study areas (Dachstein massif - permafrost area (2700m asl, 47° 28' 32″ N, 13° 36' 23″ E) and Gesäuse mountains - non permafrost area (900m asl, 47° 35' 19″ N, 14° 39' 32″ E) located in Styria, Austria within the framework of the research project ROCKING ALPS (FWF-P2444). A key to understand frost weathering is to observe the rock temperature with several high resolution temperature sensors from the rock surface down to -20cm depth. The temperatures are measured hourly at north and south exposed rock walls since 2012 in the headwalls of the Dachstein glacier at the Koppenkarstein (built up of limestone) in about 2600m asl. Since 2013 the same measurement setup is installed in the lower Johnsbachtal (Gesäuse mountains, prevailing rock type is dolomite) in about 800m asl. To know the temperature is crucial to understand internal heat flow and transport and latent heat effects during freezing and thawing caused by night frost (lasting some hours), cold fronts (lasting some days) or winter frost of several weeks or months. At these study points we also have installed small-scale 2D-geoelectric survey lines, supplemented by moisture sensors. Moisture is determined by means of resistivity measurements which are difficult to calibrate, but provide good time series. Additional novel moisture sensors were developed which use the heat capacity of the surrounding rock as a proxy of water content. These sensors give point readings from a defined depth and are independent from soluble salt contents. First results from the Dachstein show that short term latent heat effects during the phase change have crucial influence on the moisture content. The moisture distribution and movements during temperature changes inside the rock are discussed upon the two main

  15. Mount St. Augustine volcano fumarole wall rock alteration: Mineralogy, zoning, composition and numerical models of its formation process

    Getahun, A.; Reed, M.H.; Symonds, R.


    Intensely altered wall rock was collected from high-temperature (640??C) and low-temperature (375??C) vents at Augustine volcano in July 1989. The high-temperature altered rock exhibits distinct mineral zoning differentiated by color bands. In order of decreasing temperature, the color bands and their mineral assemblages are: (a) white to grey (tridymite-anhydrite); (b) pink to red (tridymite-hematite-Fe hydroxide-molysite (FeCl3) with minor amounts of anhydrite and halite); and (c) dark green to green (anhydrite-halite-sylvite-tridymite with minor amounts of molysite, soda and potash alum, and other sodium and potassium sulfates). The alteration products around the low-temperature vents are dominantly cristobalite and amorphous silica with minor potash and soda alum, aphthitalite, alunogen and anhydrite. Compared to fresh 1986 Augustine lava, the altered rocks exhibit enrichments in silica, base metals, halogens and sulfur and show very strong depletions in Al in all alteration zones and in iron, alkali and alkaline earth elements in some of the alteration zones. To help understand the origins of the mineral assemblages in altered Augustine rocks, we applied the thermochemical modeling program, GASWORKS, in calculations of: (a) reaction of the 1987 and 1989 gases with wall rock at 640 and 375??C; (b) cooling of the 1987 gas from 870 to 100??C with and without mineral fractionation; (c) cooling of the 1989 gas from 757 to 100??C with and without mineral fractionation; and (d) mixing of the 1987 and 1989 gases with air. The 640??C gas-rock reaction produces an assemblage consisting of silicates (tridymite, albite, diopside, sanidine and andalusite), oxides (magnetite and hercynite) and sulfides (bornite, chalcocite, molybdenite and sphalerite). The 375??C gas-rock reaction produces dominantly silicates (quartz, albite, andalusite, microcline, cordierite, anorthite and tremolite) and subordinate amounts of sulfides (pyrite, chalcocite and wurtzite), oxides (magnetite

  16. Building the 3D Geological Model of Wall Rock of Salt Caverns Based on Integration Method of Multi-source data

    Yongzhi, WANG; hui, WANG; Lixia, LIAO; Dongsen, LI


    In order to analyse the geological characteristics of salt rock and stability of salt caverns, rough three-dimensional (3D) models of salt rock stratum and the 3D models of salt caverns on study areas are built by 3D GIS spatial modeling technique. During implementing, multi-source data, such as basic geographic data, DEM, geological plane map, geological section map, engineering geological data, and sonar data are used. In this study, the 3D spatial analyzing and calculation methods, such as 3D GIS intersection detection method in three-dimensional space, Boolean operations between three-dimensional space entities, three-dimensional space grid discretization, are used to build 3D models on wall rock of salt caverns. Our methods can provide effective calculation models for numerical simulation and analysis of the creep characteristics of wall rock in salt caverns.

  17. Medico-legal examination of hanging

    Mehmet Beşir Yıldırım


    Full Text Available Hanging is usually fatal and it is one of the most preferred method of suicide due to can be applied easily at any environment. In hanging particularly serious injuries is seen on the neck structures. Vascular injuries, cervical spine injury, laryngeal, tracheal injury can be seen or cerebral edema, intracranial hemorrhage can be occurred secondary to neck injury. In survivors of hanging, epilepsy, pulmonary complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary edema, and bronchopneumonia are frequently observed. Hanging is a serious health problem that requires urgent intervention and post-professional care. Hanging has a high mortality despite early and accurate intervention. However the relief of neck structures and the treatment of accompanying complications can increase survival. In this study, we aimed that once again attract attention one of the most preferred way of suicide hanging cases, raise awareness of community on this issue and emphasize the importance of the early interventions in patients with near hanging. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (4: 400-405

  18. Hang cleans and hang snatches produce similar improvements in female collegiate athletes.

    Ayers, J L; DeBeliso, M; Sevene, T G; Adams, K J


    Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches), on power (vertical jump height), strength (1RM back squat), and speed (40-yard sprint) in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01). However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46). Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  19. Precarious rock and overturned transformer evidence for ground shaking in the Ms 7.7 Kern County earthquake: An analog for disastrous shaking from a major thrust fault in the Los Angeles basin

    Brune, J.N.; Anooshehpoor, A.; Shi, B.; Zheng, Yen


    Precariously balanced rocks and overturned transformers in the vicinity of the White Wolf fault provide constraints on ground motion during the 1952 Ms 7.7 Kern County earthquake, a possible analog for an anticipated large earthquake in the Los Angeles basin (Shaw et al., 2002; Dolan et al., 2003). On the northeast part of the fault preliminary estimates of ground motion on the footwall give peak accelerations considerably lower than predicted by standard regression curves. On the other hand, on the hanging-wall, there is evidence of intense ground shattering and lack of precarious rocks, consistent with the intense hanging-wall accelerations suggested by foam-rubber modeling, numerical modeling, and observations from previous thrust fault earthquakes. There is clear evidence of the effects of rupture directivity in ground motions on the hanging-wall side of the fault (from both precarious rocks and numerical simulations). On the southwest part of the fault, which is covered by sediments, the thrust fault did not reach the surface ("blind" thrust). Overturned and damaged transformers indicate significant transfer of energy from the hanging wall to the footwall, an effect that may not be as effective when the rupture reaches the surface (is not "blind"). Transformers near the up-dip projection of the fault tip have been damaged or overturned on both the hanging-wall and footwall sides of the fault. The transfer of energy is confirmed in a numerical lattice model and could play an important role in a similar situation in Los Angeles. We suggest that the results of this study can provide important information for estimating the effects of a large thrust fault rupture in the Los Angeles basin, specially given the fact that there is so little instrumental data from large thrust fault earthquakes.

  20. Ganges Chasma Landing Site: Access to Sand Sheets, Wall Rock and Layered Mesa Material

    Rice, James W., Jr.


    The floor of Ganges Chasma offers an ideal landing site for the MSP 2001 lander. This site is exquisite both in terms of engineering constraints and science objectives. The floor of Ganges Chasma is mantled with an extensive sand sheet. Sand sheets develop in conditions which are unfavorable for dune formation. These may include a high water table, periodic flooding, surface cementation, and coarse grained sands. The most extensive sand sheets on Earth are located in the eastern Sahara. These sheets have a relief of less than 1 m over wide areas and total thickness ranges from a few cm to 10 m. The surfaces of sand sheets are composed of granule to pebbly lag deposits. Sand sheets provide an extremely safe landing site and have very low relief. The safety concerns regarding slopes, rocks, and dust would be alleviated by the sand sheet. Furthermore, this vast sand sheet would allow the Marie Curie Rover to cover great distances. Rover navigability would be very easily compared to the tedious rock avoidance maneuvers that Sojourner had to accomplish. This exercise would be an important precursor test for the more capable Athena Rover which will execute longer traverses. Moreover, the Rover has already been "field tested" on sand at the JPL Mars sandbox. Dust should not be a problem: Thermal inertia is 7.7 to 8.9 cgs units. This site satisfies all engineering constraints.

  1. Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the early Mesozoic Xitian granitic pluton in the middle Qin-Hang Belt, South China: Constraints from zircon U-Pb ages and bulk-rock trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions

    Wu, Qianhong; Cao, Jingya; Kong, Hua; Shao, Yongjun; Li, Huan; Xi, Xiaoshuang; Deng, Xuantong


    The Xitian pluton in southeast Hunan province is one of the early Mesozoic (Indosinian) granitic plutons in the South China Block. It is composed of biotite adamellite with K-feldspar megacrysts, biotite adamellite, and biotite granite that have U-Pb zircon ages of 229.9 ± 1.4 Ma, 223.6 ± 1.3 Ma, and 224.0 ± 1.4 Ma, respectively. The Indosinian granitoids in the Xitian pluton belong to S-type granites, with highly radiogenic initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.71397-0.71910), negative εNd(t) values ranging from -10.1 to -9.4, and old Nd model ages (1858-1764 Ma). They are enriched in radiogenic Pb isotopes, with (206Pb/204Pb)t ranging from 18.130 to 18.903, (207Pb/204Pb)t from 15.652 to 15.722, and (208Pb/204Pb)t from 38.436 to 39.037, respectively. These features indicate that the granitoidswithin the Xitian pluton were formed from magmas generated by remelting of metapelite and metapsammite of the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic basement at temperatures of ca. 800 °C, with low oxygen fugacity. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of the rocks from Xitian pluton indicate that the granitic magmas were mixed with less than 10% mantle-derived magmas. We suggest that the Xitian pluton was emplaced in an extensional tectonic setting related to release of compressional stresses within the thickened crust during the early Mesozoic.

  2. [Sensory illusions in hang-gliding].

    Bousquet, F; Bizeau, A; Resche-Rigon, P; Taillemite, J P; De Rotalier


    Sensory illusions in hang-gliding and para-gliding. Hang-gliding and para-gliding are at the moment booming sports. Sensory illusions are physiological phenomena sharing the wrong perception of the pilote's real position in space. These phenomena are very familiar to aeroplane pilotes, they can also be noticed on certain conditions with hang-gliding pilotes. There are many and various sensory illusions, but only illusions of vestibular origin will be dealt with in this article. Vestibular physiology is reminded with the working principle of a semicircular canal. Physiology and laws of physics explain several sensory illusions, especially when the pilote loses his visual landmarks: flying through a cloud, coriolis effect. Also some specific stages of hang-gliding foster those phenomena: spiraling downwards, self-rotation, following an asymetric closing of the parachute, spin on oneself. Therefore a previous briefing for the pilotes seems necessary.

  3. Musings: Childhood buddy hangs up

    Ajai R. Singh


    Full Text Available 'R' really was special. Shouldered the responsibility of a business family at a tender age. Worked over inefficient estate management by elders, saw to it younger siblings were settled, sacrificed youth to bring up business and family. Enjoyed friends, drinks, driving. We were childhood buddies from the same town. I had met him a couple of months before the incident. It was after nearly a decade. At a chemist's shop. He was buying medicines. Antidepressants. I asked him what happened. He had tears in his eyes. There was no flicker of the customary light on his face I had known so well. The smile that usually sparkled in his eye as he met an old childhood buddy had vanished. I could read the distress. I shook hands and told him to meet me in the clinic and we would sort it out. Depression is perfectly treatable, I said. Did you undergo psychotherapy? No, he said. Only drugs, but felt better. Some thoughts bothering you, I asked. Yes. Why not talk to your psychiatrist, I said. He thought for a moment, a long moment. I had never known 'R' to take that long to decide. Finally he said he would come and meet me in my clinic. Suddenly 'R' was dead. Died by hanging. I wondered what went wrong. Would I have saved him if I had got over my professional reserve and insisted he come for treatment? Was he really taking treatment with someone, or just self-medicating himself? I know he listened to me. If I had phoned him up, or his parents, and told them: nothing doing, I want to see 'R' well. Let him come to my clinic. Would that not have given him a chance to survive? Or even if he did commit the act, it would not be for want of trying. Some days later. As I neared his house while I was going to a neighbour's, I looked up at the forlorn structure. A grim board outside said, "Trespassers will be prosecuted". What about the late owner, who prosecuted me since I could not trespass a professional limitation: don't solicit patients.

  4. An Analytical Method for Determining the Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient Between Flowing Fluid and Rock Fracture Walls

    Bai, Bing; He, Yuanyuan; Hu, Shaobin; Li, Xiaochun


    The convective heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is a useful indicator that characterizes the convective heat transfer properties between flowing fluid and hot dry rock. An analytical method is developed to explore a more realistic formula for the HTC. First, a heat transfer model is described that can be used to determine the general expression of the HTC. As one of the novel elements, the new model can consider an arbitrary function of temperature distribution on the fracture wall along the direction of the rock radius. The resulting Dirichlet problem of the Laplace equation on a semi-disk is successfully solved with the Green's function method. Four specific formulas for the HTC are derived and compared by assuming the temperature distributions along the radius of the fracture wall to be zeroth-, first-, second-, and third-order polynomials. Comparative verification of the four specific formulas based on the test data shows that the formula A corresponding to the zeroth-order polynomial always predicts stable HTC values. At low flow rates, the four formulas predict similar values of HTC, but at higher flow rates, formulas B and D, respectively, corresponding to the first- and third-order polynomials, predict either too large or too small values of the HTC, while formula C, corresponding to the second-order polynomial, predicts relatively acceptable HTC values. However, we cannot tell which one is the more rational formula between formulas A and C due to the limited information measured. One of the clear advantages of formula C is that it can avoid the drawbacks of the discontinuity of temperature and the singular integral of HTC at the points (± R, 0). Further experimental work to measure the actual temperature distribution of water in the fracture will be of great value. It is also found that the absorbed heat of the fluid, Q, has a significant impact on the prediction results of the HTC. The temperatures at the inlet and the outlet used for Q should be

  5. Near hanging: Early intervention can save lives

    Ritika Gandhi


    Full Text Available Hanging is a common method of suicide/homicide in the Indian scenario. We report three successive cases of attempted suicidal hangings seen over a period of 4 months in our intensive care wards. All of them presented gasping with poor clinical status and required immediate intubation, resuscitation, assisted ventilation and intensive care treatment. None had cervical spine injury, but one patient developed aspiration pneumonia. All the three patients received standard supportive intensive care and made full clinical recovery without any neurological deficit. We conclude that the cases of near hanging should be aggressively resuscitated and treated irrespective of dismal initial presentation. This is well supported by the excellent outcomes in our cases despite their poor initial condition.

  6. 煤巷围岩稳定性分类指标确定研究%Research on Coal Roadway Wall Rock Stability Classification Index Determination



    Based on the engineering geological conditions and production technology conditions of Huozhou coal electricity group limited liability company, this paper makes a deep analysis on the factors that impact the wall rock stability of the coal seam roadway, in this basis, by using analytic hierarchy process established the AHP model to determine the index of the coal seam roadway wall rock stability classification and extracted nine key index. Has very important significance to the study of the roadway wall rock stability classification.%以霍州煤电集团有限责任公司煤层巷道的具体工程地质条件和生产技术条件为背景,深入分析了影响煤层巷道围岩稳定性的诸多因素,在此基础上,运用层次分析法的基本原理,建立了煤层巷道围岩稳定分类指标确定的AHP分析模型,提取了9个关键指标.对于研究煤层巷道围岩稳定性分类具有十分重要的意义.

  7. Research of Core Wall Rock-fill Dam Anti-seepage Core Wall Materials in Lianghekou Hydropower Station%两河口水电站心墙堆石坝防渗心墙料的研究







    Full Text Available Survival after nylon rope suicidal hanging is a rare occurance . We describe here a patient who attempted suicide by nylon rope hanging and developed post obstructive pulmonary edema was managed successfully . Patient recovered completely with ventilatory support in next 60 hours without any neurological deficit.This case highlights an unusual complication of hanging and its recovery.

  9. wall

    Irshad Kashif


    Full Text Available Maintaining indoor climatic conditions of buildings compatible with the occupant comfort by consuming minimum energy, especially in a tropical climate becomes a challenging problem for researchers. This paper aims to investigate this problem by evaluating the effect of different kind of Photovoltaic Trombe wall system (PV-TW on thermal comfort, energy consumption and CO2 emission. A detailed simulation model of a single room building integrated with PV-TW was modelled using TRNSYS software. Results show that 14-35% PMV index and 26-38% PPD index reduces as system shifted from SPV-TW to DGPV-TW as compared to normal buildings. Thermal comfort indexes (PMV and PPD lie in the recommended range of ASHARE for both DPV-TW and DGPV-TW except for the few months when RH%, solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature were high. Moreover PVTW system significantly reduces energy consumption and CO2 emission of the building and also 2-4.8 °C of temperature differences between indoor and outdoor climate of building was examined.

  10. Analysis of a Large Rock Slope Failure on the East Wall of the LAB Chrysotile Mine in Canada: LiDAR Monitoring and Displacement Analyses

    Caudal, Philippe; Grenon, Martin; Turmel, Dominique; Locat, Jacques


    A major mining slope failure occurred in July 2012 on the East wall of the LAB Chrysotile mine in Canada. The major consequence of this failure was the loss of the local highway (Road 112), the main economic link between the region and the Northeast USA. This paper is part of a proposed integrated remote sensing-numerical modelling methodology to analyze mining rock slope stability. This paper presents the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) monitoring of this slope failure. The main focus is the investigation of that rock slide using both terrestrial (TLS) and airborne (ALS) LiDAR scanning. Since 2010, four ALS and 14 TLS were performed to characterize and monitor the slide. First, laser scanning was used to investigate the geometry of the slide. The failure zone was 1100 m by 250 m in size with a mobilized volume of 25 hm3. Laser scanning was then used to investigate the rock slide's 3D displacement, thereby enabling a better understanding of the sliding kinematics. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of the proposed approach to monitor and quantify large-scale rock mass failure. The slope was monitored for a period of 5 years, and the total displacement was measured at every survey. The maximum cumulative total displacement reached was 145 m. This paper clearly shows the ability of LiDAR scanning to provide valuable quantitative information on large rock mass failures involving very large displacements.

  11. Xinji Wall Hanging,a Flower of Chinese Folk Art



  12. Pascal's wager and the hanging of crepe.

    Siegler, M


    Hanging of crepe refers to one type of strategy employed by physicians in communicating prognoses to families of critically ill patients. This approach offers the bleakest, most pessimistic prediction of the patient's outcome, presumably in an effort to lessen the family's suffering if the patient dies of his illness. Certain similarities exist between this technic and that used by Pascal, the 17th-century philosopher, in formulating his wager on the belief in God, in that both attempt to develop "no-lose" strategies, in which chances for "winning" are maximized. A detailed analysis of these strategies indicates that neither is truly "no-lose," and that both contain inherent disadvantages. Prognostication, an alternative approach to physician-family communication, appears to be strategically and morally superior to the hanging-of-crepe strategy.

  13. Wireless Orbiter Hang-Angle Inclinometer System

    Lucena, Angel; Perotti, Jose; Green, Eric; Byon, Jonathan; Burns, Bradley; Mata, Carlos; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman


    A document describes a system to reliably gather the hang-angle inclination of the orbiter. The system comprises a wireless handheld master station (which contains the main station software) and a wireless remote station (which contains the inclinometer sensors, the RF transceivers, and the remote station software). The remote station is designed to provide redundancy to the system. It includes two RF transceivers, two power-management boards, and four inclinometer sensors.

  14. Chemical evidence of kerogen formation in source rocks and oil shales via selective preservation of thin resistant outer walls of microalgae: Origin of ultralaminae

    Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Casadevall, E.; Berkaloff, C.; Rousseau, B.


    New structures, termed ultralaminae, were recently observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy, usually in high amounts, in a number of kerogens from oil shales and source rocks. Morphological similarities were noted between ultralaminae and the thin (ca. 15 nm) resistant outer walls, composed of non-hydrolyzable macromolecules (algaenans), commonly occurring in extant Chlorophyceae, especially in the cosmopolitan genus Scenedesmus. Identification of the pyrolysis products of S. quadricauda algaenan showed (i) a highly aliphatic structure based on a macromolecular network of long (up to C 32) polymethylenic chains probably cross-linked by ether bridges, and (ii) a close correlation based on the formation of n- alkylnitriles, between this algaenan and two ultralaminar kerogens, the Rundle Oil Shale (mainly composed of ultralamina accumulations) and the Green River Shale (ultralaminae dispersed within an amorphous matrix). These fossil ultralaminae, therefore, likely originated from the selective preservation of the thin, algaenan-containing, outer walls of Scenedesmus and/or of other Chlorophyceae containing outer walls of a similar morphology and composition. Relative distributions of n- alkylnitriles and of n- alkanoic acids, in the pyrolysates of S. quadricauda algaenan and of the Rundle Oil Shale, indicated that nitriles are not derived from secondary reactions of carboxylic acids but originate from preexisting nitrogen functions, likely amides. Previous evidence of kerogen formation via selective preservation of algaenans was restricted to rather uncommon kerogens; the present results, added to ultralamina common occurrence and abundance, point to a wide involvement and to a large contribution of the selective preservation of algaenan-containing thin outer walls of Chlorophyceae in the formation of kerogens in a number of lacustrine source rocks and oil shales. All the available information suggest that the three-way correlation (selective preservation of

  15. Accidental hanging: a novel mobile suspension apparatus partially hidden inside the clothes.

    Kodikara, Sarathchandra


    Accidental hanging is uncommon. An immobile/fixed and exposed suspension apparatus is seen in almost all cases of hanging. A 50-year-old man, who was drunk, was trying to steal an iron rod by hiding it under his clothing. To secure hiding, he attached it to his body by a loose ligature around the neck, the waist belt of the sarong, and another band around the waist and by his underwear. Sometime later, because of ethanol intoxication, he fell asleep in the sitting position. While he was sitting on the floor, the iron rod was lifted up accidentally, and its upper end was wedged against the wall behind the victim, and the lower end was fixed against the floor. When he fell asleep, the weight of the tilted head acted as the constricting force compressing the neck by the ligature that was used to attach the iron rod to the neck. The cause of death was concluded as hanging in a man with ethanol intoxication. This case highlights a novel mobile suspension apparatus partially hidden inside the clothes, in a case of accidental hanging. A similar case has not been reported in the forensic literature.

  16. Snow control on active layer and permafrost in steep alpine rock walls (Aiguille du Midi, 3842 m a.s.l, Mont Blanc massif)

    Magnin, Florence; Westermann, Sebastian; Pogliotti, Paolo; Ravanel, Ludovic; Deline, Philip


    Permafrost degradation through the thickening of the active layer and the rising temperature at depth is a crucial process of rock wall stability. The ongoing increase in rock falls observed during hot periods in mid-latitude mountain ranges is regarded as a result of permafrost degradation. However, the short-term thermal dynamics of alpine rock walls are misunderstood since they result of complex processes related to the interaction of local climate variables, heterogeneous snow cover and heat transfers. As a consequence steady-state and long-term changes that can be approached with simpler process mainly related to air temperature, solar radiations and heat conduction were the most common dynamics to be studied so far. The effect of snow on the bedrock surface temperature is increasingly investigated and has already been demonstrated to be an essential factor of permafrost distribution. Nevertheless, its effect on the year-to-year changes of the active layer thickness and of the permafrost temperature in steep alpine bedrock has not been investigated yet, partly due to the lack of appropriate data. We explore the role of snow accumulations on the active layer and permafrost thermal regime of steep rock walls of a high-elevated site, the Aiguille du Midi (AdM, 3842 m a.s.l, Mont Blanc massif, Western European Alps) by mean of a multi-methods approach. We first analyse six years of temperature records in three 10-m-deep boreholes. Then we describe the snow accumulation patterns on two rock faces by means of automatically processed camera records. Finally, sensitivity analyses of the active layer thickness and permafrost temperature towards timing and magnitude of snow accumulations are performed using the numerical permafrost model CryoGrid 3. The energy balance module is forced with local meteorological measurements on the AdM S face and validated with surface temperature measurements at the weather station location. The heat conduction scheme is calibrated with

  17. Modelling rock wall permafrost degradation in the Mont Blanc massif from the LIA to the end of the 21st century

    Magnin, Florence; Josnin, Jean-Yves; Ravanel, Ludovic; Pergaud, Julien; Pohl, Benjamin; Deline, Philip


    High alpine rock wall permafrost is extremely sensitive to climate change. Its degradation has a strong impact on landscape evolution and can trigger rockfalls constituting an increasing threat to socio-economical activities of highly frequented areas; quantitative understanding of permafrost evolution is crucial for such communities. This study investigates the long-term evolution of permafrost in three vertical cross sections of rock wall sites between 3160 and 4300 m above sea level in the Mont Blanc massif, from the Little Ice Age (LIA) steady-state conditions to 2100. Simulations are forced with air temperature time series, including two contrasted air temperature scenarios for the 21st century representing possible lower and upper boundaries of future climate change according to the most recent models and climate change scenarios. The 2-D finite element model accounts for heat conduction and latent heat transfers, and the outputs for the current period (2010-2015) are evaluated against borehole temperature measurements and an electrical resistivity transect: permafrost conditions are remarkably well represented. Over the past two decades, permafrost has disappeared on faces with a southerly aspect up to 3300 m a.s.l. and possibly higher. Warm permafrost (i.e. > - 2 °C) has extended up to 3300 and 3850 m a.s.l. in N and S-exposed faces respectively. During the 21st century, warm permafrost is likely to extend at least up to 4300 m a.s.l. on S-exposed rock walls and up to 3850 m a.s.l. depth on the N-exposed faces. In the most pessimistic case, permafrost will disappear on the S-exposed rock walls at a depth of up to 4300 m a.s.l., whereas warm permafrost will extend at a depth of the N faces up to 3850 m a.s.l., but possibly disappearing at such elevation under the influence of a close S face. The results are site specific and extrapolation to other sites is limited by the imbrication of local topographical and transient effects.

  18. Residence time of water discharging from the Hanging Gardens of Zion Park

    Kimball, B.A.; Christensen, P.K.


    The Hanging Gardens are a unique feature of Zion National Park. Knowledge of the source and residence time of water discharging from the Hanging Gardens is necessary to help preserve these features. Ground-water chemical and isotopic data distinguish the discharge from seeps and springs into two groups, one of low and one of high conductivity. Water with low conductivity likely originates as recharge near the steps and springs, and it only interacts with the Navajo Sandstone. High conductivity water, on the other hand, originates as recharge on the tops of plateaus to the east, where it interacts with marine rocks of the Carmel Formation. Carbon dating of these ground waters indicates that the low conductivity water is essentially modern recharge, while the high conductivity water was recharged 1,000 to 4,000 years ago.The Hanging Gardens are a unique feature of Zion National Park. Knowledge of the source and residence time of water discharging from the Hanging Gardens is necessary to help preserve these features. Ground-water chemical and isotopic data distinguish the discharge from seeps and springs into two groups, one of low and one of high conductivity. Water with low conductivity likely originates as recharge near the seeps and springs, and it only interacts with the Navajo Sandstone. High conductivity water, on the other hand, originates as recharge on the tops of plateaus to the cast, where it interacts with marine rocks of the Carmel Formation. Carbon dating of these ground waters indicates that the low conductivity water is essentially modern recharge, while the high conductivity water was recharged 1,000 to 4,000 years ago.

  19. Exterior wall rock wool insulation construction technology of ceramic tile facing%外墙岩棉保温磁砖饰面施工技术



    the rock is basalt and other natural mineral as the main raw materials by high temperature melting into the fiber,adding proper amount of binder, good insulation, sound insulation,fire prevention effect. Rock wool construction and installation convenience,remarkable energy saving effect,has a very high price. In the construction process,we explored and summed up the wall rock wool insulation construction technology of ceramic tile facing,through the engineering practice,and achieved good economic and social benefits, and has broad application prospects.%岩棉是以玄武岩及其它天然矿石为主要原料经高温熔融成纤,加入适量粘接剂而成,具有良好的绝热、隔音、防火效果。岩棉施工及安装便利、节能效果显著,具有很高的性价比。在施工过程中,我们探索和总结出了外墙岩棉保温磁砖饰面施工技术,通过工程实践,取得了良好的经济效益和社会效益,具有广阔的应用前景。

  20. Thermal characteristics of permafrost in the steep alpine rock walls of the Aiguille du Midi (Mont Blanc Massif, 3842 m a.s.l)

    Magnin, F.; Deline, P.; Ravanel, L.; Noetzli, J.; Pogliotti, P.


    Permafrost and related thermo-hydro-mechanical processes are thought to influence high alpine rock wall stability, but a lack of field measurements means that the characteristics and processes of rock wall permafrost are poorly understood. To help remedy this situation, in 2005 work began to install a monitoring system at the Aiguille du Midi (3842 m a.s.l). This paper presents temperature records from nine surface sensors (eight years of records) and three 10 m deep boreholes (4 years of records), installed at locations with different surface and bedrock characteristics. In line with previous studies, our temperature data analyses showed that: micro-meteorology controls the surface temperature, active layer thicknesses are directly related to aspect and ranged from thermo-insulation effects as reported for gentle mountain areas. Thick snow warms shaded areas, and may reduce active layer refreezing in winter and delay its thawing in summer. However, thick snow thermo-insulation has little effect compared to the high albedo of snow which leads to cooler conditions at the rock surface in areas exposed to the sun. A consistent inflection in the thermal profiles reflected the cooling effect of an open fracture in the bedrock, which appeared to act as a thermal cutoff in the sub-surface thermal regime. Our field data are the first to be obtained from an Alpine permafrost site where borehole temperatures are below -4 °C, and represent a first step towards the development of strategies to investigate poorly known aspects in steep bedrock permafrost such as the effects of snow cover and fractures.

  1. Rockfall source characterization at high rock walls in complex geological settings by photogrammetry, structural analysis and DFN techniques

    Agliardi, Federico; Riva, Federico; Galletti, Laura; Zanchi, Andrea; Crosta, Giovanni B.


    Rockfall quantitative risk analysis in areas impended by high, subvertical cliffs remains a challenge, due to the difficult definition of potential rockfall sources, event magnitude scenarios and related probabilities. For this reasons, rockfall analyses traditionally focus on modelling the runout component of rockfall processes, whereas rock-fall source identification, mapping and characterization (block size distribution and susceptibility) are over-simplified in most practical applications, especially when structurally complex rock masses are involved. We integrated field and remote survey and rock mass modelling techniques to characterize rock masses and detect rockfall source in complex geo-structural settings. We focused on a test site located at Valmadrera, near Lecco (Southern Alps, Italy), where cliffs up to 600 m high impend on a narrow strip of Lake Como shore. The massive carbonates forming the cliff (Dolomia Principale Fm), normally characterized by brittle structural associations due to their high strength and stiffness, are here involved in an ENE-trending, S-verging kilometre-scale syncline. Brittle mechanisms associated to folding strongly controlled the nature of discontinuities (bedding slip, strike-slip faults, tensile fractures) and their attributes (spacing and size), as well as the spatial variability of bedding attitude and fracture intensity, with individual block sizes up to 15 m3. We carried out a high-resolution terrestrial photogrammetric survey from distances ranging from 1500 m (11 camera stations from the opposite lake shore, 265 pictures) to 150 m (28 camera stations along N-S directed boat routes, 200 pictures), using RTK GNSS measurements for camera station geo-referencing. Data processing by Structure-from-Motion techniques resulted in detailed long-range (1500 m) and medium-range (150 to 800 m) point clouds covering the entire slope with maximum surface point densities exceeding 50 pts/m2. Point clouds allowed a detailed

  2. Automatic hanging protocol for chest radiographs

    Luo, Hui; Hao, Wei; Cornelius, Craig


    Chest radiography is one of the most widely used techniques in diagnostic imaging. It makes up at least one third of all conventional diagnostic radiographic procedures in hospitals. However, in both film-screen and computed radiography, images are often digitized with the view and orientation unknown or mislabeled, which causes inefficiency in displaying them in the picture archive and communication system (PACS). Hence, the goal of this work is to provide a robust, efficient, and automatic hanging protocol for chest radiographs. To achieve it, the method star ts with recognition by extracting a set of distinctive features from chest radiographs. Next, a well-defined probabilistic classifier is used to train and classify the radiographs. Identifying the orientation of the radiographs is performed by an efficient algorithm which locates the neck, heart, and abdomen positions in radiographs. The initial experiment was performed on radiographs collected from daily routine chest exams in hospitals, and it has shown promising results.

  3. Analysis and experimental studies of the control of hang gliders

    Phillips, W. H.


    A theoretical analysis of the longitudinal and lateral characteristics of hang gliders in straight flight, pullups, and turns is presented. Some examples of the characteristics of a straight-wing configuration and a Rogallo-wing configuration are given. A means for improving the control of hang gliders while retaining the same basic control feel is proposed.

  4. 'We Do Not Hang Around. It Is Forbidden' : Immigration and the Criminalisation of Youth Hanging around in the Netherlands

    T. Müller (Thaddeus)


    textabstractThe focus in this article is the ‘criminalisation’ of youth hanging around with the emergence of bans on hanging around. A critical social constructivist approach is used in this study, which draws predominantly on qualitative primary data collected between the late 1980s and 2010s. The

  5. Determination of the mechanical parameters of rock mass based on a GSI system and displacement back analysis

    Kang, Kwang-Song; Hu, Nai-Lian; Sin, Chung-Sik; Rim, Song-Ho; Han, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Chol-Nam


    It is very important to obtain the mechanical paramerters of rock mass for excavation design, support design, slope design and stability analysis of the underground structure. In order to estimate the mechanical parameters of rock mass exactly, a new method of combining a geological strength index (GSI) system with intelligent displacment back analysis is proposed in this paper. Firstly, average spacing of joints (d) and rock mass block rating (RBR, a new quantitative factor), surface condition rating (SCR) and joint condition factor (J c) are obtained on in situ rock masses using the scanline method, and the GSI values of rock masses are obtained from a new quantitative GSI chart. A correction method of GSI value is newly introduced by considering the influence of joint orientation and groundwater on rock mass mechanical properties, and then value ranges of rock mass mechanical parameters are chosen by the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. Secondly, on the basis of the measurement result of vault settlements and horizontal convergence displacements of an in situ tunnel, optimal parameters are estimated by combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and numerical simulation analysis using FLAC3D. This method has been applied in a lead-zinc mine. By utilizing the improved GSI quantization, correction method and displacement back analysis, the mechanical parameters of the ore body, hanging wall and footwall rock mass were determined, so that reliable foundations were provided for mining design and stability analysis.


    王开洋; 肖鸿; 尚彦军; 苏开敏; 何万通


    The prediction of rockburst is a great challenge for the construction of underground engineering.We take a tunnel in southwest China as a case study.We consider the three conditions inducing rockburst as:rockburst occurring probability of rock mass,the integrity of rock mass and the high in-situ stress.We take the maximum stored elastic strain energy(Es)and the rock brittleness modulus(B)as the indicators.We then analyze the rockburst occurring probability of quartz sandstone and limestone in the deep tunnel.Based on the collected in-situ stress data we collected,with the assistance of finite element method which immediately simulates the geological process,we launch a back analysis on the stress field of the rock mass in the tunnel area and consequently obtain the high in-situ stress-section in the area.Utilizing field sampling tests,we study the physical and mechanical properties of the wall rocks like the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock.We summarize the previous rockburst predicting methods,employ the comprehensive engineering geological analysis,elaborate the conditions causing tunnel rockburst.Then,we use the theory of rock mass mechanics,the non-linear science as guidance,the geological comprehensive analysis method and the stress intensity ratio method to predict the location and intensity of rockburst that may occur in the tunnel area.%岩爆预测一直是地下工程领域中的世界性难题。本文以西南某隧道工程为例,从岩爆形成的3个条件:岩石岩爆倾向性、岩体完整性和高地应力环境3个方面着手,应用最大储存弹性应变能指标Es和岩石脆性系数B,对深埋隧道区段内可能发生岩爆的石英砂岩、灰岩岩体进行岩爆倾向性分析预测;基于地应力测量数据资料,采用地质过程动态模拟的有限元分析方法,反演分析隧道工程区岩体地应力场,对隧道高应力区段作出判断;根据现场所取样品试验结果综合分析隧

  7. Design and finite element analysis for a new frame-rocking wall structure%一种框架摇摆墙结构的实现形式及其有限元分析

    张富文; 李向民; 陈玲珠; 许清风


    基于可更换构件理念,提出了一种框架摇摆墙结构的实现形式。在试验研究基础上,构建了4种不同节点形式的有限元模型,计算结果表明:延性连接件与摇摆墙和框架之间应采用刚接节点进行模拟,摇摆墙与基础之间的橡胶垫与抗剪键可采用铰接节点进行简化;随着连接件直径和摇摆墙厚度增加,框架摇摆墙层间位移更为均匀,结构承载力随之增加但增加幅度逐渐减小。实际工程中应首先结合结构抗震需求确定较为合理的摇摆墙厚度,而后再按该方法优化连接件直径和构造。%A type of practicable frame-rocking wall structures was proposed with the concept of replaceable members.Based on tests and studies,four kinds of finite element (FE )models with different joint types were built to simulate frame-rocking wall structures.The FE calculation results showed that rigid a joints should be adopted between ductility connectors and a rocking wall or a frame,while rubbers and shear keys between a rocking wall and a base can be simplified into hinge joints;with increase in the diameter of ductility connectors and the thickness of a rocking wall,inter-storey drifts of a frame-rocking wall structure become more uniform,the force-bearing capacity of the structure increases but the increasing level decreases gradually;at first,the reasonable thickness of a rocking wall should be determined to meet the aseismic requirements,then the diameter and configuration of ductility connectors can be optimized with the methods proposed here.

  8. The discovery and exploration of Hang Son Doong

    Limbert, H.; Limbert, D.; Hieu, N.; Phai, V. V.; Kinh Bac, D.; Phuong, T. H.; Granger, D.


    Hang Son Doong is located in the Phong Nha Ke Bang Limestone Massif in Quang Binh Province, Central Vietnam. Cave exploration by British cavers has been continuous in this area since 1990. Hang Son Doong is part of the Phong Nha Cave system which runs from the southern end of the National Park near the Lao border to the final resurgence at Phong Nha Cave. (Author)

  9. Sistem Informasi Akademik pada SMA Swasta Hang Tuah Belawan

    Syarifuddin, Ruisya


    Perancangan Sistem Informasi Akademik pada SMA Swasta Hang Tuah Belawan ini bertujuan untuk mempermudah proses pencarian atau searching data dan informasi untuk seluruh Siswa SMA Swasta Hang Tuah Belawan yang mengalami kesulitan dalam memperoleh data mengenai masalah Akademik tersebut. Faasilitas yang terdapat dalam aplikasi ini berupa penyediaan data dan informasi mengenai beritaberita terbaru, profil agenda kegiatan, dan data-data yang berguna untuk kelangsungan belajar si...

  10. A nonlinear model coupling rockfall and rainfall intensity based ewline on a four year measurement in a high Alpine rock wall (Reintal, German Alps

    M. Krautblatter


    Full Text Available A total of more than 140 000 kg of small-magnitude rockfall deposits was measured in eight rockfall collectors of altogether 940 m2 in size between 1999–2003 below a 400–600 m high rock face in the Reintal, German Alps. Measurements were conducted with a temporal resolution up to single days to attribute rockfall intensity to observed triggering events. Precipitation was assessed by a rain gauge and high-resolution precipitation radar. Intense rainstorms triggered previously unreported rockfall intensities of up to 300 000 g/(m2h that we term "secondary rockfall event." In comparison to dry periods without frost (10−2g/(m2h, rockfall deposition increased by 2–218 times during wet freeze-thaw cycles and by 56-thousand to 40-million times during secondary rockfall events. We obtained three nonlinear logistic growth models that relate rockfall intensity [g/(m2h] to rainfall intensity [mm/h]. The models account for different rock wall intermediate storage volumes, triggering thresholds and storage depletion. They apply to all rockfall collector positions with correlations from R2=0.89 to 0.99. Thus, the timing of more than 90% of the encountered rockfall is explained by the triggering factor rainfall intensity. A combination of rockfall response models with radar-supported storm cell forecast could be used to anticipate hazardous rockfall events, and help to reduce the exposure of individuals and mobile structures (e.g. cable cars to the hazard. According to meteorological recordings, the frequency of these intense rockfall events is likely to increase in response to global warming.

  11. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of Early Cretaceous S- and A-type granites in the northwest of the Gan-Hang rift, SE China

    Jiang, Yao-Hui; Zhao, Peng; Zhou, Qing; Liao, Shi-Yong; Jin, Guo-Dong


    The Gan-Hang rift, trending at least 450 km in a NE-SW direction, is a part of a Mesozoic Basin and Range Province in southeastern China. Detailed SHRIMP zircon U-Pb chronology, major and trace element, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data of three granitic plutons and a diabasic dike in the northwest of the Gan-Hang rift, are used to explore the origin of these granites and their relationship to the evolution of the Gan-Hang rift. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating shows that the granitic plutons and diabasic dike were emplaced in the Early Cretaceous (122-129 Ma). The Tongshan and Damaoshan plutons, close to the Gan-Hang rift, consist mainly of weakly peraluminous granitic rocks, which show A2 subtype affinity. These granites have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7080-0.7103, εNd (T) values of-1.4 to-5.6 and εHf (T) (in-situ zircon) values of - 3.8 to + 1.2. Detailed elemental and isotopic data suggest that they were formed by partial melting of granulitized Mesoproterozoic metamorphic basement (including metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks) in the shallow (residual phase. The association of Early Cretaceous (122-129 Ma) S- and A-type granites in the northwest of the Gan-Hang rift marks the onset of back-arc extension or intra-arc rift. With ongoing extension the crust and lithospheric mantle became progressively thinned. The upwelling of asthenosphere triggered partial melting of both metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks in the more thinned crust close to the Gan-Hang rift, forming the A-type granitic magmas such as Tongshan and Damaoshan, whereas partial melting of metasedimentary rocks in the less thinned crust farther from the Gan-Hang rift formed the S-type granitic magmas such as Ehu. The red sediments with the total thickness more than 10,000 m have been successively deposited in the Gan-Hang rift valley since the late Early Cretaceous (~ 105 Ma), suggesting that this region experienced the most back-arc extension.

  12. Oxygen and U-Th isotopes and the timescales of hydrothermal exchange and melting in granitoid wall rocks at Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    Ankney, Meagan E.; Bacon, Charles R.; Valley, John W.; Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.


    We report new whole rock U-Th and in-situ oxygen isotope compositions for partially melted (0-50 vol% melt), low-δ18O Pleistocene granitoid blocks ejected during the ∼7.7 ka caldera-forming eruption of Mt. Mazama (Crater Lake, Oregon). The blocks are interpreted to represent wall rocks of the climactic magma chamber that, prior to eruption, experienced variable amounts of exchange with meteoric hydrothermal fluids and subsequent partial melting. U-Th and oxygen isotope results allow us to examine the timescales of hydrothermal circulation and partial melting, and provide an ;outside in; perspective on the buildup to the climactic eruption of Mt. Mazama. Oxygen isotope compositions measured in the cores and rims of individual quartz (n = 126) and plagioclase (n = 91) crystals, and for transects across ten quartz crystals, document zonation in quartz (Δ18OCore-Rim ≤ 0.1-5.5‰), but show homogeneity in plagioclase (Δ18OCore-Rim ≤ ±0.8‰). We propose that oxygen isotope zonation in quartz records hydrothermal exchange followed by high-temperature exchange in response to partial melting caused by injection of basaltic to andesitic recharge magma into the deeper portions of the chamber. Results of modeling of oxygen diffusion in quartz indicates that hydrothermal exchange in quartz occurred over a period of ∼1000-63,000 years. Models also suggest that the onset of melting of the granitoids occurred a minimum of ∼10-200 years prior to the Mazama climactic eruption, an inference which is broadly consistent with results for magnetite homogenization and for Zr diffusion in melt previously reported by others. Uranium-thorium isotope compositions of most granitoid blocks are in 238U excess, and are in agreement with a 238U enriched array previously measured for volcanic rocks at Mt. Mazama. Uranium excess in the granitoids is likely due to enrichment via hydrothermal circulation, given their low δ18O values. The sample with the highest U excess (≥5.8%) also

  13. 弓长岭井下矿上盘运输巷道让压开拓方法研究%The Yielding Development in Hanging Haulage Roadway in Gongchangling Underground Mine

    付煜; 任凤玉; 宫国慧; 陈继宏


    弓长岭井下矿中央区-280 m上盘运输巷道地压活动剧烈,高强度的刚性支护无法控制地压显现,支护后巷道出现拱顶开裂下沉、墙体片帮内推、底鼓等现象,严重地影响了矿山正常生产。现场调查了-280 m上盘运输巷道的破坏部位和破坏范围,分析了岩性对巷道稳定性的影响,研究得出楔形体压力是地压显现的直接原因,建立了力学模型,并通过计算验证分析的可靠性。利用上盘回采边界与巷道破坏边界的相互关系,确定让压角为74°~78°,划分塑性变形区和弹性变形区,将-340 m上盘运输巷道布置在弹性变形区,采取让压开拓方式。实践表明,让压开拓方案能够有效地控制上盘运输巷道地压显现问题,保证矿山的正常生产。%There are strenuous ground pressure activities at the-280 m level in the central mining area of Gongchangling Mine,so that the high-strength support can not solve the problems that are caused by the ground pressure. The destructions of roof falling,rib spalling and floor heave still occur even after the roadways have been supported,which have seriously affected the normal production of the mine. It is indicated that the ground pressure activity is basically caused by the pressure of the a-bove wedge-shape rock mass based on the investigation of the failure positions of the haulage roadway,the test results of the rock mechanics properties and the analysis of the effect of the hanging wall to the stability of the roadways. The mechanic model is established and the analysis results have been proven based on the calculation of the model. The yielding angle is determined to be from 74°to 78° by analyzing the relationship between the mining boundary in the hanging wall and the destruction bound-ary of the roadways. Based on the yielding angle,the rock mass can be divided into the elastic zone and the plastic zone. The hanging haulage roadway at the-340 m

  14. Hanging-induced burst suppression pattern in EEG

    Nilgun Cinar


    Full Text Available Lethal suspension (hanging is one of the most common methods of attempting suicide. Spinal fractures, cognitive and motor deficits as well as epileptic seizures can be detected after unsuccessful hanging attempts. Introduced here is the case of a 25-year-old man exemplifying the clinical observations stated hereafter, who was conveyed to our emergency room after having survived attempted suicide by hanging, with his post-anoxic burst-suppression electroencephalography (BS-EEG pattern and clinical diagnoses in the post-comatose stage. The patient′s state of consciousness was gradually improved over a period of time. His neuropsychiatric assessment proved that memory deficit, a slight lack of attention and minor executive dysfunction was observed a month after the patient was discharged. Although the BS-EEG pattern indicates severe brain dysfunction, it is a poor prognostic factor; rarely, patients survive with minor cognitive deficits and can perform their normal daily activities.

  15. Pattern of burn injury in hang-glider pilots.

    Campbell, D C; Nano, T; Pegg, S P


    High-voltage electrical injury has been well documented in a number of situations, such as the occupational hazard of linesmen and construction workers, and in the context of overhead railway power lines. Two cases of hang-glider pilots contacting 11,000-volt power lines have recently been treated in the Royal Brisbane Hospital Burns Unit. They demonstrate an interesting pattern of injury, not described in current burns literature, involving both hand and lower abdominal burns. Both patients sustained full-thickness patches of burn injury, with underlying muscle damage and peripheral neurological injury. This distribution of injury seems to be closely related to the design of the hang glider.

  16. Dynamics of ultralight aircraft: Dive recovery of hang gliders

    Jones, R. T.


    Longitudinal control of a hang glider by weight shift is not always adequate for recovery from a vertical dive. According to Lanchester's phugoid theory, recovery from rest to horizontal flight ought to be possible within a distance equal to three times the height of fall needed to acquire level flight velocity. A hang glider, having a wing loading of 5 kg sq m and capable of developing a lift coefficient of 1.0, should recover to horizontal flight within a vertical distance of about 12 m. The minimum recovery distance can be closely approached if the glider is equipped with a small all-moveable tail surface having sufficient upward deflection.

  17. Thermal characteristics of permafrost in the steep alpine rock walls of the Aiguille du Midi (Mont Blanc Massif, 3842 m a.s.l.

    F. Magnin


    Full Text Available Permafrost and related thermo-hydro-mechanical processes are regarded as crucial factors in rock wall stability in high alpine areas, but a lack of field measurements means that the characteristics of such locations and the processes to which they are subjected are poorly understood. To help remedy this situation, in 2005 work began to install a monitoring system at the Aiguille du Midi (3842 m a.s.l.. This paper presents temperature records from nine surface sensors (eight years of records and three 10 m-deep boreholes (four years of records, installed at locations with different surface and bedrock characteristics. Annual and seasonal offsets between mean surface temperatures and air temperatures suggest that snow cover and slope aspect are also important factors governing bedrock surface temperatures in steep terrain. Snow-free sensors revealed additional effects of microtopography and micrometeorology. Active layer thicknesses ranged from < 2 m to nearly 6 m, depending on sun-exposure and interannual variations in atmospheric conditions. Warm and cold permafrost (about −1.5 °C to −4.5 °C at 10 m-depth coexists within the Aiguille du Midi, resulting in high lateral heat fluxes. A temperature inflection associated with a fracture provided evidence of non-conductive processes, most notably cooling due to air ventilation and some intermittent and local warming. Our field data, the first to be obtained from an Alpine permafrost site where temperatures are below −4 °C, confirm the results of previous studies of permafrost in steep bedrock slopes and highlight the importance of factors such as snow cover and fracturing.

  18. Christiaan Huygens and the Problem of the Hanging Chain

    Bukowski, John F.


    The seventeen-year-old Christiaan Huygens was the first to prove that a hanging chain did not take the form of the parabola, as was commonly thought in the early seventeenth century. We will examine Huygen's geometrical proof, and we will investigate the later history of the catenary.

  19. Christiaan Huygens and the Problem of the Hanging Chain

    Bukowski, John F.


    The seventeen-year-old Christiaan Huygens was the first to prove that a hanging chain did not take the form of the parabola, as was commonly thought in the early seventeenth century. We will examine Huygen's geometrical proof, and we will investigate the later history of the catenary.

  20. Weaning difficulty in a near hanging patient: An unusual cause

    Animesh Ray


    Full Text Available Suicidal hanging causes damage to the airways, neck blood vessels as well as soft tissue injuries. We report the development of tracheo-esophageal fistula in such a patient. Recurrent soiling of the airways and the resultant lung infection led to weaning failure. We highlight the approach to diagnosis and appropriate management in such a patient.

  1. Efficiency of hanging silt curtains in cross-flow

    Radermacher, M.; De Wit, L.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.; Winterwerp, J.C.


    When dredging in sensitive environments, efforts have to be made to limit the free dispersal of suspended fine sediment from the dredging spill. Especially the use of hanging silt curtains as an environmental mitigation measure is widespread. Despite frequent application, their ability to reduce tur

  2. The epidemiology of injury in hang-gliding and paragliding.

    Rekand, Tiina


    Para- and hang-gliding are modern air sports that developed in the 20th century. Performers should possess technical skills and manage certified equipment for successful flight. Injuries may happen during the take-off, flight and landing. PubMed was searched using the search terms 'paragliding' and/or 'hang-gliding'. The reference lists of articles identified in the search strategy were also searched for relevant articles. The most common injuries are fractures, dislocations or sprains in the extremities, followed by spinal and head traumas. Multiple injuries after accidents are common. Collision with electrical wires may cause burn injuries. Fatal outcomes are caused by brain injuries, spinal cord injuries at the cervical level or aorta rupture. Accidents happen because of risk-taking behavior, lack of education or use of self-modified equipment. Observational studies have suggested the need for protection of the head, trunk and lower extremities. The measures proposed are often based on conclusions of observational studies and not proven through randomized studies. Better education along with focusing on possible risk factors will probably diminish the risks of hang- and paragliding. Large denominator-based case series, case-control and population-based studies are needed for assessment of the risks of hang- and paragliding.

  3. Water collection behavior and hanging ability of bioinspired fiber.

    Hou, Yongping; Chen, Yuan; Xue, Yan; Zheng, Yongmei; Jiang, Lei


    Since the water-collecting ability of the wetted cribellate spider capture silk is the result of a unique fiber structure, bioinspired fibers have been researched significantly so as to expose a new water-acquiring route in fogging-collection projects. However, the design of the geometry of bioinspired fiber is related to the ability of hanging drops, which has not been investigated in depth so far. Here, we fabricate bioinspired fibers to investigate the water collection behavior and the influence of geometry (i.e., periodicity of spindle knot) on the hanging-drop ability. We especially discuss water collection related to the periodicity of geometry on the bioinspired fiber. We reveal the length of the three phase contact line (TCL) at threshold conditions in conjunction with the maximal volume of a hanging drop at different modes. The study demonstrates that the geometrical structure of bioinspired fiber induces much stronger water hanging ability than that of uniform fiber, attributed to such special geometry that offers effectively an increasing TCL length or limits the contact length to be shorted. In addition, the geometry also improves the fog-collection efficiency by controlling tiny water drops to be collected in the large water drops at a given location.

  4. 混凝土框架摇摆墙结构体系的抗震性能分析%Seismic Performance Analysis of RC Frame Rocking-wall Structure System

    曹海韵; 潘鹏; 叶列平; 曲哲; 刘明学


    The seismic responses of a 6-story reinforced concrete (RC) frame with and without the rocking-wall were compared using the elastic-plastic time history analysis by general finite element software SAP2000. The analysis results show that this system is forced to vibrate on a rocking mode during the earthquake. The failure mechanism of this structure is overall yielding mechanism instead of story yielding mechanism when it gets damaged. The overall yielding mechanism endows satisfactory energy dissipation capacity of the structure. The story drift becomes more uniform distributed and the deformation concentration phenomena significant improved thanks to the rocking-wall. The first story drift can also be effectively controlled even if the additional height of rocking-wall only reaches half of the entire height of structure. The RC frame rocking-wall structure system has satisfactory seismic performances.%为研究框架摇摆墙结构体系的抗震性能,以1个6层混凝土框架结构模型为例,利用通用有限元软件SAP2000建立了该结构的简化模型,并通过弹塑性动力时程分析,得到了附加摇摆墙前后结构的地震响应.分析结果表明:附加摇摆墙后,结构以摆动振型振动,各层的层间位移角趋于一致,结构层间变形的集中得到有效控制,从而使结构形成整体屈服破坏机制,防止局部层屈服破坏机制的产生,充分发挥整个结构的耗能能力;附加摇摆墙后,结构周期略有减小,不会显著增加结构基底剪力,即使仅附加高度为结构总高度一半的摇摆墙,也能有效控制结构底层的变形集中;该框架摇摆墙结构体系具有良好的抗震性能.

  5. Hanging out with Which Friends? Friendship-Level Predictors of Unstructured and Unsupervised Socializing in Adolescence

    Siennick, Sonja E.; Osgood, D. Wayne


    Companions are central to explanations of the risky nature of unstructured and unsupervised socializing, yet we know little about whom adolescents are with when hanging out. We examine predictors of how often friendship dyads hang out via multilevel analyses of longitudinal friendship-level data on over 5,000 middle schoolers. Adolescents hang out…

  6. Investigations of safety measures against rock bursts in Stara Jama of the brown coal mine 'Zenica'

    Osmanagic, M.; Kocar, F.; Petkovic, L.; Teskeredzic, S.


    This paper provides a detailed historical review, with charts, illustrations and formulae used, of the cause, effect, research done, and safety measures taken concerning rock bursts in the Stara Jama seam of the Zenica brown coal mine in Yugoslavia. The geological conditions of the seam, with high calorific value and strength lying in very hard and elastic limestone and limestone marls, are reviewed. From 1962 onward, systematic recording and classification of rock burst frequency, size, intensity, and location have been carried out. Some observations are: regular mining of the relaxed overlaying seam without leaving pillars proved effective relative to reducing rock burst danger; rate of advance considerably affects the number and intensity of rock bursts; breaking of the basic hanging wall is an important factor; coal pillars between two goafs is dangerous for mining. Partial success has been achieved in forecasting and artificially provoking rock bursts. Stress relaxation by blasting has proved to be the most effective measure. Advances have also been made in reducing stored energy by water injection under high pressure. (14 refs.) (In English)

  7. Investigation of Flight Dynamic of Hang-glider

    B. Gáti


    Full Text Available This paper shows, how the most important parameters of a two-body system like a hang-glider, can be identified. The first step is to develop a simulation program with an acceptable reality model. Such a model involves a lot of constants. I carried out an investigation of sensitivity ir; order to select the constants that are the most important to specify. The results show that the aerodynamic constant cmq has the most significant effect on a  phygoidal oscillation. I have developed an identification program and a measuring system to determine the real value of this constant as well as the hang-glider's other aerodynamical and stability parameters.

  8. 阿塔山水库壤土心墙堆石坝施工工艺%Construction Technology of Loam Core-wall Rock-fill Dam of Atashan Reservoir Dam



    阿塔山水库大坝是大型壤土心墙堆石坝,通过精心组织、科学管理、严把质量,填筑质量满足规范设计要求,保质保量完成合同任务。%Atashan reservoir dam is a large loam core-wall rock-fill dam. Through the elaborate organization, scientific management and strict quality control, the filling quality meets the requirements of the specification design, and the contract task is completed with good quality.

  9. The prefabricated wall construction technology of PU edge compound board with color plate and rock wool insulation%PU 封边彩钢岩棉复合保温板装配式墙体施工技术



    介绍了某钢结构厂房外墙采用聚氨酯涂层彩钢岩棉复合板自保温体系施工技术,通过应用墙面板材PU封边技术、对板式墙体节点处理进行了深化设计,并对该施工技术特点、质量标准控制进行了总结,指出该墙体具有保温、隔声性能良好、防水性能优越等优点。%This paper introduced a steel structure building exterior wall on the use of Polyurethane coating compound board with color plate and rock wool insulation system construction,through the application of PU edge on the wall plate,on the panel wall joint processing detailed design, application of the construction technology,summarizes the technical characteristics,quality control standard of the wall,with thermal insulation, sound insulation property,waterproof superior performance advantages.


    Rekha Gyanchand


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Requirement of donor cornea is essential to target the corneal blind. The best method to procure such corneas is from any major hospitals, which has a mortuary facility. The eye donation with hanging as the cause of death is very common in a mortuary setup. Some factors that are concerning regarding corneas procured from death due to hanging is the prolonged exposure of the cornea at the time of death, the exact time of death is not known, most of the cadavers are refrigerated for investigations as these arrive at the mortuary usually at night. Due to these reasons, the corneal surgeons are hesitant to use corneas procured from death due to hanging for corneal transplantation. Analysing these corneas would contribute to a great extent to the donor cornea pool in providing sight to the corneal blind, especially as majority are young individuals who commit suicide by hanging. In this study, the donor corneas were analysed with regards to corneal epithelial defect, endothelial cell morphology and utilisation of these corneas for transplantation. The aim of the HCRP study is to analyse the effect of death due to hanging on donor cornea. 1. Corneal epithelial status. 2. Corneal endothelial cell morphology. 3. Utilisation of corneas for transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Donor corneas from 22 donors who died due to hanging were procured from hospital mortuary. All the 44 corneas were transplanted. Various parameters like demography, death to enucleation time, cadaver preservation in cold storage, endothelial cell density and utilisation of cornea for transplantation were noted. Design- Retrospective study. Statistical Analysis- Descriptive statistics, Pearson and Spearman correlation and Chi-square test were used to test the hypotheses. RESULTS Out of the 44 corneas analysed, 75% of the donors were refrigerated as a part of medicolegal investigations protocol. The average DTP time was 12 hours in refrigerated group and 5 hours in non

  11. Application of Concrete Cutoff Wall in Reinforcement of Earth Rock Dam Seepage Control%混凝土防渗墙在土石坝防渗加固中的应用



    Earth rock dam seepage safety problems occupy an important position in the overall security, directly affecting the safe operation of the dam.Concrete diaphragm wall as the main body of water retaining structure of seepage prevention and reinforcement system,anti-seepage effect is most reliable.On the basis of materials and technology analysis,the paper summarizes the problems on design,reinforcement of concrete anti-seepage wall in earth rock dam seepage prevention and construction methods.%土石坝的渗流安全问题在整体安全中占有重要地位,直接影响大坝的运行安全。混凝土防渗墙作为挡水建筑物加固防渗体系的主体部分,防渗效果最为可靠。文章在分析材料及其工艺的基础上,对土石坝防渗加固中混凝土防渗墙的设计、施工方法等问题进行初步总结。

  12. Emplacement mechanisms and structural influences of a younger granite intrusion into older wall rocks - a principal study with application to the Goetemar and Uthammar granites. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Cruden, Alexander R. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Toronto (Canada))


    The c. 1.80 Ga old bedrock in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, which is the focus of the site investigation at Oskarshamn, is dominated by intrusive rocks belonging to the c. 1.86-1.65 Ga Transscandinavian Igneous Belt (TIB). However, the site investigation area is situated in between two c. 1.45 Ga old anorogenic granites, the Goetemar granite in the north and the Uthammar granite in the south. This study evaluates the emplacement mechanism of these intrusions and their structural influence on the older bedrock. Field observations and structural measurements indicate that both the Goetemar and the Uthammar granites are discordant and have not imposed any significant ductile deformation on their wall-rocks. The apparent conformity of geological contacts and fabrics in the wall rocks and the southern margin of the Goetemar granite is coincidental and inherited from the pattern of Svecokarelian deformation of the TIB. However, interpretation of regional aeromagnetic data suggests that the granites occur within a broad, NNE-SSW trending linear belt, pointing to deep seated tectonic control on their generation, ascent and emplacement. Thermochronology indicates that the granites were emplaced at depths between 4 and 8 km into brittle wall rocks. The 3-D shape of the Goetemar and Uthammar plutons has been investigated by 2.75D forward modelling of the residual gravity anomalies due to both granites. Both granites are associated with strong residual gravity anomalies of up to -10 mgal. Constraints on the geometry of the plutons at the surface are provided from surface geology maps and several deep boreholes located on or close to the model profiles. A further variable in the gravity modelling is introduced by either allowing the upper contact of the plutons to assume the most suitable orientation to produce the best fit between the modelled and observed gravity ('unconstrained models') or by forcing the near surface orientation of the contacts to be vertical (&apos

  13. 纵轴式掘进机截割人工岩壁的振动试验研究%Study on Vibration Experiment of Artificial Rock Wall Cutting with Longitudinal Shaft Type Mine Roadheader



    为解决纵轴式掘进机截割硬岩时振动幅度较大的问题,对其振动特性进行了试验研究。通过建立人工岩壁和试验测试系统,并按照实际工况及不同工作参数,对EBZ315纵轴式掘进机进行截割人工岩壁的振动试验研究。对振动数据从时域与频域进行了进一步的分析,结果显示,EBZ315纵轴式掘进机截割普氏系数为8的硬岩时局部加速度最大不超过6g(g为重力加速度),整体振幅较小,各部件不存在共振现象,说明该掘进机稳定性好,截割能力富余,可以经济地应用于硬岩巷道掘进。%In order to solve the high vibration range problem of the hard rock cutting with the longitudinal shaft type mine roadheader,an experiment study was conducted on the vibration features.With the establishment of the artificial rock wall and the experiment measurement and test system and according to the actual performances and different operation parameters,a vibration test study on the artificial rock wall cutting with the EBZ315 longitudinal shaft type roadheader.A further analysis was conducted on the vibration data from time domain and frequency domain.The results showed that when the EBZ315 longitudinal shaft type roadheader was cutting hard rock with Protodyakonov coefficient of 8,the max local vibration amplitude would be not over 6g,the integrated vibration amplitude would be small and there was no resonance phenomenon between each parts.All above showed that stability of the mine roadheader was good,the cutting capacity was sufficient and the mine roadheader could be economically applied to the heading of the mine hard rock roadway.

  14. Three-dimensional problems of wall-rock stability in the vicinity of a cleaned working with control exercised over the stress-strain state of the mass

    Bulat, A.F.; Chekhov, V.N. [S.P. Timoshenko Inst. of Mechanics, Kiev (Ukraine)


    As the depth of mining operations increases, control over the stress-stain state (SSS) of the rock mass to ensure safe and effective exploitation of coal deposits is becoming a basic underground procedural process. An arbitrary change in the SSS of the mass under conditions where it is acted upon by large compressive loads may lead, in turn, however, to local buckling and fracture of the free surface of the rock in the near-face zone of a cleaned working during the mining of mineral resources. Individual classes of rock-stability problems that arise in the three-diumensional statement are formulated in this paper on the basis of analysis of actual conditions and technology for the mining of mineral resources at great depths. The rock mass is treated as a inhomogeneous semi-restrained medium of laminar structure; these studies were therefore conducted within the framework of the model of a piecewise-homogeneous medium on the basis of approaches developed previously. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Masking and bondage in suicidal hanging: a case report.

    Benomran, F A; Masood, S E; Hassan, A I; Mohammad, A A


    The body of a 35-year-old man was found hanging in a relatively isolated place outdoors. A vest was wrapped over his head, neck and lower part of the face. The hands were loosely tied in front of the body. The vest was tucked between the neck and the ligature, to act as a pad. Thorough scene examination and post-mortem examination excluded any evidence of foul play. Although bondage is usually associated with autoerotic practices in asphyxiation deaths, it was established that this case was a suicide. DNA was used as a supportive measure to determine that the handkerchief and vest belonged to the deceased.

  16. Importance of tissue biopsy in suicidal hanging deaths

    Manal S. Bamousa


    The total number of cases was 62; 85.5% of the deceased were males, while 15% were females. The majority of cases (53% were among the age group of 20–30 years. Hemorrhage of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and carotid intimal tear were both found in 90% of cases. Thyroid congestion was detected in 91%, and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was diagnosed in 2% of studied cases. The study discusses the importance of biopsy examination in hanging deaths and compares its results with other similar previous studies.

  17. Investigation of Flight Dynamic of Hang-glider

    B. Gáti


    This paper shows, how the most important parameters of a two-body system like a hang-glider, can be identified. The first step is to develop a simulation program with an acceptable reality model. Such a model involves a lot of constants. I carried out an investigation of sensitivity ir; order to select the constants that are the most important to specify. The results show that the aerodynamic constant cmq has the most significant effect on a  phygoidal oscillation. I have developed an identif...

  18. Hanging Fatalities in Central Bangkok, Thailand: A 13-Year Retrospective Study

    Nattapong Tulapunt


    Full Text Available Hanging is violent asphyxial death. The objective of this study is to assess the data of hanging cases. A descriptive-retrospective study was conducted. We studied 244 hanging cases autopsied in Forensic Division, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, between January 2001 and December 2013. The study included 197 men (80.7% and 47 women (19.2%. Their age ranged from 14 to 93 years. Most of these cases were incomplete hanging (83.6%. Features of hanging victims, such as tongue protrusion; congestion of face; petechial hemorrhage of face, conjunctiva, and internal organs; and neck injuries, significantly correlated with complete hanging. The predominant occupation of hanging victims was in the service industry (63.1%. Suicides usually occurred in private homes or apartments (84.8%. A suicide note was found in 6.1% of cases. The most common ligature material used was nylon rope, found in 61.1% of cases. The most underlying diseases of the victims in hanging cases were tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection, 9 cases each. Blood ethanol levels of 29 cases (11.8% were detected to be higher than 150 mg%. Methamphetamine and benzodiazepine were detected in 5.3% and 3.3% of cases, respectively. This study provides comprehensive baseline data of hanging cases in central Bangkok.

  19. Ligature material in hanging deaths: The neglected area in forensic examination

    Vipul Namdeorao Ambade


    Full Text Available The hanging mark is the most relevant feature of hanging and its characteristics are well known in the literature. Most of the time, the ligature material is not available during autopsy examination in hanging. Hence, the features of the ligature material are not submitted to systematic analysis. However, the type and position of the knot plays an important role in the mechanism of death and autopsy findings in hanging. Out of the total hanging deaths, complete hanging was seen in 67.7% of the cases, but a typical hanging was noted in only 10.2% of the cases. The commonest type of ligature material used for ligation around the neck was nylon rope followed by odhni and jute rope. The fixed knot was noted in 64.6% of the cases and a running (slip in 21.3% of the cases. The commonest position of the knot was at nape of the neck, followed by the left side of the neck at mastoid process. The number of turns/loops of a ligature around the neck was one turn in 72.4% and two in 25.2% the hanging deaths. Most victims committed suicide by hanging in their homes, and the commonest ligature points were trees, flowed by beams and ceiling hook/fans.

  20. Digital microfluidics for automated hanging drop cell spheroid culture.

    Aijian, Andrew P; Garrell, Robin L


    Cell spheroids are multicellular aggregates, grown in vitro, that mimic the three-dimensional morphology of physiological tissues. Although there are numerous benefits to using spheroids in cell-based assays, the adoption of spheroids in routine biomedical research has been limited, in part, by the tedious workflow associated with spheroid formation and analysis. Here we describe a digital microfluidic platform that has been developed to automate liquid-handling protocols for the formation, maintenance, and analysis of multicellular spheroids in hanging drop culture. We show that droplets of liquid can be added to and extracted from through-holes, or "wells," and fabricated in the bottom plate of a digital microfluidic device, enabling the formation and assaying of hanging drops. Using this digital microfluidic platform, spheroids of mouse mesenchymal stem cells were formed and maintained in situ for 72 h, exhibiting good viability (>90%) and size uniformity (% coefficient of variation screen was performed on human colorectal adenocarcinoma spheroids to demonstrate the ability to recapitulate physiologically relevant phenomena such as insulin-induced drug resistance. With automatable and flexible liquid handling, and a wide range of in situ sample preparation and analysis capabilities, the digital microfluidic platform provides a viable tool for automating cell spheroid culture and analysis.

  1. Duodenoscope hang time does not correlate with risk of bacterial contamination.

    Heroux, Riley; Sheppard, Michelle; Wright, Sharon B; Sawhney, Mandeep; Hirsch, Elizabeth B; Kalaidjian, Robin; Snyder, Graham M


    Current professional guidelines recommend a maximum hang time for reprocessed duodenoscopes of 5-14 days. We sought to study the association between hang time and risk of duodenoscope contamination. We analyzed cultures of the elevator mechanism and working channel collected in a highly standardized fashion just before duodenoscope use. Hang time was calculated as the time from reprocessing to duodenoscope sampling. The relationship between hang time and duodenoscope contamination was estimated using a calculated correlation coefficient between hang time in days and degree of contamination on the elevator mechanism and working channel. The 18 study duodenoscopes were cultured 531 times, including 465 (87.6%) in the analysis dataset. Hang time ranged from 0.07-39.93 days, including 34 (7.3%) with hang time ≥7.00 days. Twelve cultures (2.6%) demonstrated elevator mechanism and/or working channel contamination. The correlation coefficients for hang time and degree of duodenoscope contamination were very small and not statistically significant (-0.0090 [P = .85] for elevator mechanism and -0.0002 [P = 1.00] for working channel). Odds ratios for hang time (dichotomized at ≥7.00 days) and elevator mechanism and/or working channel contamination were not significant. We did not find a significant association between hang time and risk of duodenoscope contamination. Future guidelines should consider a recommendation of no limit for hang time. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mass transfer controlled by fracturing in micritic carbonate rocks

    Richard, James; Coulon, Michel; Gaviglio, Patrick


    The fractured Coniacian chalk from the Omey area (Paris Basin, France) displays strong evidence of modifications controlled by brittle deformation. Fracturing is associated with important changes in pore space (decrease in total porosity and pore interconnection, change in distribution of pore access diameters and capillary characteristics), nannofacies (gradual evolution from a point-contact fabric to a welded, interlocked or coalescent fabric) and chemical composition (Sr concentration decrease). These modifications result from fluid-rock interaction that control significant mass transfer (percentage of secondary calcite >50%). Sr is a remarkable indicator of these mass transfers. Sr analyses allowed us to prove that the deformed zone (26.7 m) is wider than the fractured zone (11.3 m). They also indicate that the footwall block is less affected than the hanging wall block. A physicochemical model of the deformation mechanism is proposed. It shows that a cyclic process of fracturing controls the temporal evolution of the fluid saturation and fluid pressure and, consequently, the mass transfer.

  3. Geochemistry, Paragenesis, and Wall-Rock Alteration of the Qatruyeh Iron Deposits, Southwest of Iran: Implications for a Hydrothermal-Metasomatic Genetic Model

    Sina Asadi


    Full Text Available The Qatruyeh iron deposits, located on the eastern border of the NW-SE trending Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone, southwest of Iran, are hosted by a late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic sequence dominated by metamorphosed carbonate rocks. The magnetite ores occurred as layered to massive bodies, with lesser amounts of disseminated magnetite and hematite-bearing veins. Textural evidences, along with geochemical analyses of the high field strengths (HFSEs, large ion lithophiles (LILEs, and rare earth elements (REEs, indicate that the main mineralization stage occurred as low-grade layered magnetite ores due to high-temperature hydrothermal fluids accompanied by Na-Ca alteration. Most of the main ore-stage minerals precipitated from an aqueous-carbonic fluid (3.5–15 wt.% NaCl equiv. at temperatures ranging between 300° and 410°C during fluid mixing process, CO2 effervescence, cooling, and increasing of pH. Low-temperature hydrothermal activity subsequently produced hematite ores associated with propylitic alteration. The metacarbonate host rocks are LILE-depleted and HFSE-enriched due to metasomatic alteration.

  4. Collecting Rocks



    My hobby is collecting rocks.It is very special,isn’t it?I began to collect rocks about four years ago.I usually go hiking in the mountains,or near the river to look for rocks.When I find a rock,I pick it up and clean it with the brush and water.Then I put it into my bag.Most of the rocks I have collected are quartzite~*.They are really

  5. Follow-up on hang gliding injuries in Colorado.

    Krissoff, W B


    In a period extending from July 1973 to December 1975, seven fatal hang glider accidents were recorded in Colorado, all among experienced pilots. In addition, 11 serious nonfatal injuries were reported, which may represent only a fraction of those occurring. Accidents were noted to be multifactorial, caused by (1) pilot error, (2) equipment failure, (3) terrain hazards, and (4) possible design shortcomings. Accidents can be expected to decline in frequency with improved pilot training programs, grading and regulation of sites, and standardized safety clothing. No doubt over time, the less safe standard Rogallo wing will be replaced by the more stable Superkites and controlled collapsibles, which offer a higher safety margin. In the last analysis, this sport will remain a popular yet high risk endeavor (Figs. 2 through 5).

  6. Characteristic Features of Hanging: A Study in Rural District of Central India.

    Ambade, Vipul Namdeorao; Kolpe, Dayanand; Tumram, Nilesh; Meshram, Satin; Pawar, Mohan; Kukde, Hemant


    The ligature mark is the most relevant feature of hanging. This study was undertaken with a view to determine the characteristic features of hanging and its association with ligature material or mode of suspension. Of a total medicolegal deaths reported at an Apex Medical Centre, hanging was noted in 4.1% cases, all suicidal with mortality rate of 1.5 per 100,000 population per year. The hanging was complete in 67.7% with nylon rope as the commonest type of ligature material used for ligation. The hanging mark was usually single, situated above thyroid cartilage, incomplete, prominent, and directed toward nape of neck. The mark of dribbling of saliva was seen in 11.8% cases. Facial congestion, petechial hemorrhage, and cyanosis were significantly seen in partial hanging. Though occasionally reported, the argent line was noted in 78.7% hanging deaths with neck muscle hemorrhage in 23.6% cases. Fracture of neck structure was predominant in complete hanging. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Roof Weakening of Hydraulic Fracturing for Control of Hanging Roof in the Face End of High Gassy Coal Longwall Mining: A Case Study

    Huang, Bingxiang; Wang, Youzhuang


    The occurence of hanging roof commonly arises in the face end of longwall coal mining under hard roof conditions. The sudden break and subsequent caving of a hanging roof could result in the extrusion of gas in the gob to the face, causing gas concentrations to rise sharply and to increase to over a safety-limited value. A series of linear fracturing-holes of 32 mm diameter were drilled into the roof of the entries with an anchor rig. According to the theory that the gob should be fully filled with the fragmentized falling roof rock, the drilling depth is determined as being 3 5 times the mining height if the broken expansion coefficient takes an empirical value. Considering the general extension range of cracks and the supporting form of the entryway, the spacing distance between two drilling holes is determined as being 1 2 times the crack's range of extension. Using a mounting pipe, a high pressure resistant sealing device of a small diameter-size was sent to the designated location for the high-pressure hydraulic fracturing of the roof rock. The hydraulic fracturing created the main hydro-fracturing crack and airfoil branch cracks in the interior of the roof-rock, transforming the roof structure and weakening the strength of the roof to form a weak plane which accelerated roof caving, and eventually induced the full caving in of the roof in time with the help of ground pressure. For holes deeper than 4 m, retreating hydraulic fracturing could ensure the uniformity of crack extension. Tested and applied at several mines in Shengdong Mining District, the highest ruptured water pressure was found to be 55 MPa, and the hanging roof at the face end was reduced in length from 12 m to less than 1 2 m. This technology has eliminated the risk of the extrusion of gas which has accumulated in the gob.


    徐则民; 黄润秋; 许模; 屈科; 苟定才


    To predict water-gushing is one of the principal problems faced in the surveying and designing extra-long tunnels. To obtain hydraulic conductivity(HC) is the basis to forecast water-gushing and HC can not be determined by pumping test on a large scale for tunnels with superthick overburden. According to the hydraulic-mechanical coupling theory, the paper puts forward a method to predict the wall rock permeability for tunnels with superthick overburden. Its main steps are as follows: (1) to determine the tensor of hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass near the ground; (2) to back-analyzing of stress field; (3) to predict the fissure aperture at different levels; (4) to suppose the structure of fissure network not to vary with depth and to calculate the tensor of hydraulic conductivity of the wall rock.%涌水预测是特长超深隧道勘测设计及施工中面临的重要问题之一。围岩渗透性是涌水预测的基础,对于超深隧道,不能通过大规模抽水试验来获得渗透性参数。以水力耦合理论为基础,该文提出了一种超深隧道围岩渗透性预测方法。其主要思想是,首先确定近地表岩体的渗透张量;根据地应力实测资料进行地应力场的量级反演;选择适当的裂隙开度-应力模型,预测不同深度的裂隙开度;在裂隙网络结构不随深度变化这一假定的基础上,计算隧道标高的围岩渗透性。

  9. A preliminary description of the Gan-Hang failed rift, southeastern china

    Goodell, P. C.; Gilder, S.; Fang, X.


    The Gan-Hang failed rift, as defined by present-day topography, extends at least 450 km in length and 50 km in width. It is a northeast-southwest trending series of features spanning from Hangzhou Bay in Zhejiang province into Jiangxi province through Fuzhou City. Southwest of Fuzhou, the rift splits into two portions: one continuing along the southwestern trend, and the other diverging westward. The total extent of the rift cannot be defined at this time. The rift is superimposed upon a major suture zone of Caledonian or early Mesozoic age. The suture represents the fusing of the South China (Huanan) and Yangtze cratons. Perhaps in Late Triassic, but for sure by Late-Middle Jurassic time, the rifting was initiated and followed this older suture, in part. This time corresponds roughly to the middle stage of the Yanshanian orogeny and to the subduction of the postulated Pacific- Kula ridge southeast of the continental margin. The total thickness of the sediments and volcanics filling the rift valley reaches more than 10,000 m. Peak intensity of extension was between Late-Middle Jurassic and Middle to Late Cretaceous. Sedimentation within the rift was not continuous and is marked with periodic unconformities. Sediments within the rift include red beds, sandstones, siltstones, mudstones, conglomerates, breccias, tuffs, and ignimbrites. Vertebrate fossils and dinosaur eggs are also found. Contemporaneous volcanics within and flanking the rift include basalts, rhyolites, granites, gabbros, dacites, and andesites. Silicic volcanics are mostly attributed to caldera systems. Early basalts are tholeiitic and later change to alkaline-olivine basalt. Bimodal volcanism is recognized. Peak intensity of volcanism ranges between 135 and 75 Ma. In Early Cenozoic time, the area was a topographic low. Paleocene- Eocene sediments and evaporites are the last rocks to be deposited in the rift. Today the rift is delineated by major, high-angle faults (the Pingxiang-Guangfeng deep fault

  10. A psychological autopsy study of suicidal hanging from Cuttack, India: focus on stressful life situations.

    Bastia, Binaya K; Kar, Nilamadhab


    Factors and stressful life situations associated with suicidal hanging in a sample from India were studied with a view to explore preventability. Information was collected on consecutive suicidal hanging victims in a 2-year period from various sources including family members through psychological autopsy method. Out of 662 autopsies involving suicide during the study period, 104 had used hanging as the method. Age group of 21-30 years, married females, unmarried males, dowry related stress, unemployment, prolonged illness, failure in examinations, relationship and financial problems were associated more frequently with suicidal hanging. Stresses stemming from social practices and perceptions are linked with considerable number of suicidal hanging, which suggest priority areas for intervention.

  11. Timing and conditions of metamorphism and melt crystallization in Greater Himalayan rocks, eastern and central Bhutan: insight from U-Pb zircon and monazite geochronology and trace-element analyses

    Zeiger, K.; Gordon, S. M.; Long, S. P.; Kylander-Clark, A. R. C.; Agustsson, K.; Penfold, M.


    Within the eastern Himalaya in central and eastern Bhutan, Greater Himalayan (GH) rocks are interpreted to have been thickened by the Kakhtang thrust (KT). In order to understand the metamorphic and exhumation history of the GH and to evaluate the structural significance of the KT, zircon and monazite from twenty samples were analyzed by laser-ablation split-stream ICPMS. In eastern Bhutan, zircon and monazite from samples collected in the KT hanging wall revealed ca. 36-28 Ma metamorphism. Subsequently, the initiation of melt crystallization shows a trend with structural distance above the KT, with early melt crystallization (ca. 27 Ma) in the structurally highest samples and younger melt crystallization (ca. 16 Ma) for leucosomes within the KT zone. Melt crystallization was protracted and continued until ca. 14-13 Ma in both the KT hanging wall and the footwall. In comparison, in central Bhutan, two leucosomes revealed extended melt crystallization from ca. 31 to 19 Ma. The youngest zircon dates from samples exposed structurally above and below the KT are similar, indicating that the KT was not as significant of a structure as other fault systems to which it has been correlated. However, the younging trend in the initiation of melt crystallization with decreasing structural distance above the KT argues that progressive underplating of ductile material assisted in the initial emplacement of the GH unit in central and eastern Bhutan. The KT likely represents a minor shear zone that aided in this underplating process.

  12. Non-Judicial Hanging in Guilan Province, Iran between 2011 and 2013

    Vahid Monsef Kasmaee


    Full Text Available Introduction: Hanging is one of the most commonly used way to commit suicide in many countries. This method used in suicide is considered a problem in Iran too, but no clear data exists regarding hanging in different regions or the country as a whole. Because of the epidemiologic differences in non-judicial hanging in different regions, this study aimed to assess it in Gilan province, Iran between 2011 and 2013. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, profiles of hanging cases registered in Poorsina hospital in Gilan, Iran between 2011 and 2013 were evaluated. Age, sex, marital status, place of residency, level of education, occupation, history of suicide, history of clinical illness, season of suicide and hanging outcome were evaluated. Results: 59 cases of hanging (mean age 31.4 ± 13.1 years and 83.0% male were evaluated. 12 (20.34% suffered from psychological disorders, and 9 (15.2% confessed to substance abuse. 7 (11.9% had a history of suicide attempts by hanging. Hanging was significantly higher in men (p<0.001, people with an education level of less than high school diploma (p=0.02 and the unemployed (p<0.05 patients. In the end, 20 (33.9% of these attempts resulted in death. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that in 2 years, 59 cases committed suicide by hanging themselves, 33.9% of which finally died. Committing suicide by hanging was significantly more prevalent in men, people with an education level of less than high school diploma and the unemployed.

  13. Retrospective Study of Postmortem Cases of ‘Hanging – A Method Of Suicide

    Mohammed Ziyauddin G Saiyed


    Full Text Available Introduction and Objective: Hanging is a form of violent asphyxial death. It produces painless death for the victims so that it is a widely accepted method of suicide. The rate of suicidal hanging cases is increasing day by day. The Objective of study is to find out demography of hanging, its distribution according to age group, sex, most common ligature material used by victim and observed post-mortem findings and in this way try to identify the causative factors and developing the preventive measures that are essential to reduce death due to hanging.Material and Methods: A retrospective study of hanging cases reported to mortuary of Vadilal Sarabhai General Hospital, Ahmedabad during a period of 2 years, (from November 2009 to October 2011 is carried out.Results: Out of total 2244 cases of post-mortem during 2 years, 74 (3.29% were hanging cases. Maximum cases 34 (45.94% of death due to hanging seen in age group 21-30 years. Majority of cases 46 (62.16% were observed in Males. Majority of victims have used Dupatta, 40 (54.05% as a ligature material. Manner of death is suicide in all cases. Cyanosis, salivary marks and petechial hemorrhage in brain observed in variable number of cases. Conclusion: Suicide by Hanging has become very common now a days. A well designed and comprehensive programme is needed to identify the causative factor and prevention of suicidal hanging. Appropriate education, reducing unemployment, improving the quality of self esteem and involvement of young generation in encouraging activities may reduce rate of death due to hanging

  14. Fluid-rock interactions related to metamorphic reducing fluid flow in meta-sediments: example of the Pic-de-Port-Vieux thrust (Pyrenees, Spain)

    Trincal, Vincent; Buatier, Martine; Charpentier, Delphine; Lacroix, Brice; Lanari, Pierre; Labaume, Pierre; Lahfid, Abdeltif; Vennemann, Torsten


    In orogens, shortening is mainly accommodated by thrusts, which constitute preferential zones for fluid-rock interactions. Fluid flow, mass transfer, and mineralogical reactions taking place along thrusts have been intensely investigated, especially in sedimentary basins for petroleum and uranium research. This study combines petrological investigations, mineralogical quantifications, and geochemical characterizations with a wide range of analytical tools with the aim of defining the fluid properties (nature, origin, temperature, and redox) and fluid-host rock interactions (mass transfers, recrystallization mechanisms, and newly formed synkinematic mineralization) in the Pic-de-Port-Vieux thrust fault zone (Pyrenees, Spain). We demonstrate that two geochemically contrasted rocks have been transformed by fluid flow under low-grade metamorphism conditions during thrusting. The hanging-wall Triassic red pelite was locally bleached, while the footwall Cretaceous dolomitic limestone was mylonitized. The results suggest that thrusting was accompanied by a dynamic calcite recrystallization in the dolomitic limestone as well as by leaching of iron via destabilization of iron oxides and phyllosilicate crystallization in the pelite. Geochemical and physical changes highlighted in this study have strong implications on the understanding of the thrust behavior (tectonic and hydraulic), and improve our knowledge of fluid-rock interactions in open fluid systems in the crust.

  15. Analysis of a Large Rock Slope Failure on the East Wall of the LAB Chrysotile Mine in Canada: Back Analysis, Impact of Water Infilling and Mining Activity

    Grenon, Martin; Caudal, Philippe; Amoushahi, Sina; Turmel, Dominique; Locat, Jacques


    A major mining slope failure occurred in July 2012 on the East wall of the LAB Chrysotile mine in Canada. The major consequence of this failure was the loss of the local highway (Road 112), the main commercial link between the region and the Northeast USA. LiDAR scanning and subsequent analyses were performed and enabled quantifying the geometry and kinematics of the failure area. Using this information, this paper presents the back analysis of the July 2012 failure. The analyses are performed using deterministic and probabilistic limit equilibrium analysis and finite-element shear strength reduction analysis modelling. The impact of pit water infilling on the slope stability is investigated. The impact of the mining activity in 2011 in the lower part of the slope is also investigated through a parametric analysis.

  16. A convection-conduction model for analysis of the freeze-thaw conditions in the surrounding rock wall of a tunnel in permafrost regions

    何春雄; 吴紫汪; 朱林楠


    Based on the analyses of fundamental meteorological and hydrogeological conditions at the site of a tunnel in the cold regions, a combined convection-conduction model for air flow in the tunnel and temperature field in the surrounding has been constructed. Using the model, the air temperature distribution in the Xiluoqi No. 2 Tunnel has been simulated numerically. The simulated results are in agreement with the data observed. Then, based on the in situ conditions of air temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind force, hydrogeology and engineering geology, the air-temperature relationship between the temperature on the surface of the tunnel wall and the air temperature at the entry and exit of the tunnel has been obtained, and the freeze-thaw conditions at the Dabanshan Tunnel which is now under construction is predicted.

  17. Rock Stars



    Around the world young people are spending unbelievable sums of money to listen to rock music. Forbes Magazine reports that at least fifty rock stars have incomes between two million and six million dollars per year.

  18. KREEP Rocks

    邹永廖; 徐琳; 欧阳自远


    KREEP rocks with high contents of K, REE and P were first recognized in Apollo-12 samples, and it was confirmed later that there were KREEP rock fragments in all of the Apollo samples, particularly in Apollo-12 and-14 samples. The KREEP rocks distributed on the lunar surface are the very important objects of study on the evolution of the moon, as well as to evaluate the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks. Based on previous studies and lunar exploration data, the authors analyzed the chemical and mineral characteristics of KREEP rocks, the abundance of Th on the lunar surface materials, the correlation between Th and REE of KREEP rocks in abundance, studied the distribution regions of KREEP rocks on the lunar surface, and further evaluated the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks.

  19. Clinico-epidemiological study of near-hanging cases - An investigation from Nepal.

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj


    Hanging is one of the commonest methods of suicide. Epidemiological data of near-hanging patients from Nepal is limited. The present research from Nepal attempts to review the clinico-epidemiological profile of near-hanging patients. A retrospective review of case records was done for the near hanging patients admitted to a tertiary care teaching hospital in Nepal, between August 2012 and August 2014. Details regarding socio-demographic profile, circumstances of hanging, clinical details, and outcome etc. were obtained and examined. During the study period, 10 near hanging patients were admitted to the hospital. The majority of the patients were below 30 years. Mean age of the study group was 28.8 years. The GCS on arrival ranged between 5/15 and 15/15 with the mean GCS being 9.5/15. Hypoxic encephalopathy and cerebral edema were the only noted complications. None of the patient had a cervical spinal injury. All the patients survived the near hanging episode. The mean ICU and hospital stay were 3.9 days and 6.2 days respectively. Prompt resuscitation, active interventions and intensive care support favors a good prognosis. Psychiatric evaluation and support to the patients and their relatives is the key to preventing such attempts in future.

  20. Rock Art

    Henn, Cynthia A.


    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  1. Rock Art

    Henn, Cynthia A.


    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  2. Rock Finding

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.


    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  3. Cenozoic anatexis and exhumation of Tethyan Sequence rocks in the Xiao Gurla Range, Southwest Tibet

    Pullen, Alex; Kapp, Paul; DeCelles, Peter G.; Gehrels, George E.; Ding, Lin


    In order to advance our understanding of the suturing process between continental landmasses, a geologic and geochronologic investigation was undertaken just south of the India-Asia suture in southwestern Tibet. The focus of this study, the Xiao Gurla Range, is located near the southeastern terminus of the active, right-lateral strike-slip Karakoram fault in southwestern Tibet. The range exposes metasandstone, phyllite, schist (locally of sillimanite facies), calc-gneiss and marble, paragneiss (± pyroxene), quartzite, metagranite, and variably deformed leucogranite. These metamorphic rocks are exposed in the footwall of a domal, top-to-the-west low-angle normal (detachment) fault, structurally beneath Neogene-Quaternary basin fill and serpentinized ultramafic rocks of the Kiogar-Jungbwa ophiolite. The detachment is interpreted to be the northeastern continuation of the Gurla Mandhata detachment fault system that bounds metamorphic rocks of the Gurla Mandhata Range ~ 60 km to the southwest. U-Pb geochronology on five detrital zircon samples of schist, phyllite, and quartzite yielded maximum depositional ages that range from 644-363 Ma and age probability distributions that are more similar to Tethyan sequence rocks than Lesser Himalayan sequence rocks. A felsic gneiss yielded a metamorphic zircon age of 35.3 ± 0.8 Ma with a significant population of early Paleozoic xenocrystic core ages. The gneiss is interpreted to be the metamorphosed equivalent of the Cambro-Ordovician gneiss that is exposed near the top of the Greater Himalayan sequence. Leucogranitic bodies intruding metasedimentary footwall rocks yielded two distinct U-Pb zircon ages of ~ 23 Ma and ~ 15 Ma. Locally, rocks exposed in the hanging wall of this fault and of the southward-dipping, northward-verging Great Counter thrust to the north consist of serpentinite-bearing mélange and conglomerate of inferred Paleogene age dominated by carbonate clasts. The mélange is intruded by a 44 Ma granite and the

  4. Unintentional strangulation by a cervical collar after attempted suicide by hanging.

    Lemyze, Malcolm; Palud, Aurore; Favory, Raphael; Mathieu, Daniel


    We report the case of a young man who attempted suicide by hanging and whose neurological status deteriorated until the cervical collar, that had been correctly placed by the prehospital team, was removed. We discuss the physiopathological mechanisms leading to death in hanging that is, a blockage of the blood stream to the brain leading to vasogenic and cytotoxic cerebral edema rather than asphyxia or spinal fracture. Our case supports the early removal of neck stabilization devices that can dangerously harm the patient after an attempted suicide by hanging, by increasing intracerebral pressure.

  5. 破碎围岩锚注加固浆液扩散规律研究%Slurry diffusion within cracked wall rock during the bolt-grouting process

    李慎举; 王连国; 陆银龙; 张蓓


    基于连续介质力学和渗流力学理论,运用渗透张量法得出浆液在破碎围岩中扩散的基本方程;并通过对实际锚注支护工程进行假设与简化,建立锚注加固系统浆液在包含正交裂隙组的围岩中渗透扩散的数学模型.在此基础上,运用COMSOL软件对锚注支护工程进行实时模拟,研究了不同注浆压力和不同注浆锚杆布置方式对浆液流动扩散规律的影响.结果表明:对于巷道锚注支护工程,合理的注浆压力约为1.0~4.0MPa,合理的钻孔间距约为浆液扩散半径的1.3倍左右.将研究成果用于祁南煤矿新掘大巷锚注支护设计,取得了良好的效果.%Continuum mechanics were used with seepage theory to obtain a basic equation for slurry diffusion within cracked wall rock.The permeability tensor method was used to obtain the diffusion behavior.A mathematical model of slurry diffusion in a bolt grouting system within a wall rock having orthogonal fractures was developed.Certain assumptions and simplifications of field grouting and support methods were used during this derivation.A numerical simulation of the bolt grouting process was conducted using COMSOL.The slurry diffusion at different grouting pressures and for different bolt layouts were studied.The results show that a rational grouting pressure is from 1.0 to 4.0 MPa for roadway bolt supports.The borehole spacing should be nearly 1.3 times the slurry diffusion radius.These results were applied to the design of roadway supports in the Qinan coal of the Huaibei mine to good effect.

  6. Etiology and use of the "hanging drop" technique: a review.

    Todorov, Ludmil; VadeBoncouer, Timothy


    Background. The hanging drop (HD) technique presumably relies on the presence of subatmospheric epidural pressure. It is not clear whether this negative pressure is intrinsic or an artifact and how it is affected by body position. There are few data to indicate how often HD is currently being used. Methods. We identified studies that measured subatmospheric pressures and looked at the effect of the sitting position. We also looked at the technique used for cervical and thoracic epidural anesthesia in the last 10 years. Results. Intrinsic subatmospheric pressures were measured in the thoracic and cervical spine. Three trials studied the effect of body position, indicating a higher incidence of subatmospheric pressures when sitting. The results show lower epidural pressure (-10.7 mmHg) with the sitting position. 28.8% of trials of cervical and thoracic epidural anesthesia that documented the technique used, utilized the HD technique. When adjusting for possible bias, the rate of HD use can be as low as 11.7%. Conclusions. Intrinsic negative pressure might be present in the cervical and thoracic epidural space. This effect is more pronounced when sitting. This position might be preferable when using HD. Future studies are needed to compare it with the loss of resistance technique.

  7. On the role of hanging baffle performance enhancement by using slotted Helmholtz resonator array

    Hanina, R.; Yahya, I.; Harjana


    This paper emphasizes on the experimental investigation performance of hanging baffle with slotted Helmholtz resonator array inclusion. Laboratory test procedure refers to ATMS E-1050 was conducted for measuring the sound absorption coefficient of the Helmholtz resonator, while interrupted noise reverberation time measurement refers to ISO 3382-2 has been done for room acoustic performance test of the proposed design hanging baffle. The result shows that broadband absorption occurs when the Helmholtz resonator inserted to the hanging baffle. Sound energy dissipation increase both in resonance and viscous damping mechanism. It reduces the reverberation time significantly in all frequencies. The proposed design slotted resonator inclusion has brought opportunity for tuning the response and performance of the hanging baffle.

  8. 'Escher' Rock


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  9. 'Escher' Rock


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  10. An experimental study of the longitudinal aerodynamic and static stability characteristics of hang gliders

    Kilkenny, E. A.


    A mobile experimental test facility has been developed to carry out the aerodynamic evaluation of hang glider wings normally performed in a wind tunnel. Longitudinal aerodynamic data obtained using this facility is presented for three modern hang glider wings, a Silhouette, Demon 175 and Magic 166, together with surface flow patterns for the latter two wings. The longitudinal stability criterion are studied and alternatives established, equivalent to the stick fixed an...

  11. 'Earhart' Rock


    This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock informally named 'Earhart' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the pilot Amelia Earhart. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe fractures in Earhart could have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Rover team members do not have plans to investigate Earhart in detail because it is located across potentially hazardous sandy terrain. This image was taken on sol 219 (Sept. 4) by the rover's panoramic camera, using its 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

  12. Does performance of hang power clean differentiate performance of jumping, sprinting, and changing of direction?

    Hori, Naruhiro; Newton, Robert U; Andrews, Warren A; Kawamori, Naoki; McGuigan, Michael R; Nosaka, Kazunori


    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether the athlete who has high performance in hang power clean, a common weightlifting exercise, has high performances in sprinting, jumping, and changing of direction (COD). As the secondary purpose, relationships between hang power clean performance, maximum strength, power and performance of jumping, sprinting, and COD also were investigated. Twenty-nine semiprofessional Australian Rules football players (age, height, and body mass [mean +/- SD]: 21.3 +/- 2.7 years, 1.8 +/- 0.1 m, and 83.6 +/- 8.2 kg) were tested for one repetition maximum (1RM) hang power clean, 1RM front squat, power output during countermovement jump with 40-kg barbell and without external load (CMJ), height of CMJ, 20-m sprint time, and 5-5 COD time. The subjects were divided into top and bottom half groups (n = 14 for each group) based on their 1RM hang power clean score relative to body mass, then measures from all other tests were compared with one-way analyses of variance. In addition, Pearson's product moment correlations between measurements were calculated among all subjects (n = 29). The top half group possessed higher maximum strength (P hang power clean, jumping, sprinting, COD, maximum strength, and power. Therefore, it seems likely there are underlying strength qualities that are common to the hang power clean, jumping, and sprinting.

  13. Rock Art

    Huyge, Dirk


    Rock art, basically being non-utilitarian, non-textual anthropic markings on natural rock surfaces, was an extremely widespread graphical practice in ancient Egypt. While the apogee of the tradition was definitely the Predynastic Period (mainly fourth millennium BCE), examples date from the late Palaeolithic (c. 15,000 BCE) until the Islamic era. Geographically speaking, “Egyptian” rock art is known from many hundreds of sites along the margins of the Upper Egyptian and Nubian Nile Valley and...

  14. Rock blocks

    Turner, W.


    Consider representation theory associated to symmetric groups, or to Hecke algebras in type A, or to q-Schur algebras, or to finite general linear groups in non-describing characteristic. Rock blocks are certain combinatorially defined blocks appearing in such a representation theory, first observed by R. Rouquier. Rock blocks are much more symmetric than general blocks, and every block is derived equivalent to a Rock block. Motivated by a theorem of J. Chuang and R. Kessar in the case of sym...

  15. An unconventional depiction of viewpoint in rock art.

    Pettigrew, Jack; Scott-Virtue, Lee


    Rock art in Africa sometimes takes advantage of three-dimensional features of the rock wall, such as fissures or protuberances, that can be incorporated into the artistic composition (Lewis-Williams, 2002). More commonly, rock artists choose uniform walls on which two-dimensional depictions may represent three-dimensional figures or objects. In this report we present such a two-dimensional depiction in rock art that we think reveals an intention by the artist to represent an unusual three-dimensional viewpoint, namely, with the two human figures facing into the rock wall, instead of the accustomed Western viewpoint facing out!

  16. The influence of gravity on the distribution of the deposit formed onto a substrate by sessile, hanging, and sandwiched hanging drop evaporation.

    Sandu, Ion; Fleaca, Claudiu Teodor


    The focus of the present article is the study of the influence of gravity on the particle deposition profiles on a solid substrate during the evaporation of sessile, hanging and sandwiched hanging drops of colloidal particle suspensions. For concentrations of nanoparticles in the colloidal solutions in the range 0.0001-1 wt.%, highly diluted suspensions will preferentially form rings while concentrated suspensions will preferentially form spots in both sessile and hanging drop evaporation. For intermediary concentrations, the particle deposition profiles will depend on the nanoparticle aggregation dynamics in the suspension during the evaporation process, gravity and on the detailed evaporation geometry. The evaporation of a drop of toluene/carbon nanoparticle suspension hanging from a pendant water drop will leave on the substrate a circular spot with no visible external ring. By contrast, a clear external ring is formed on the substrate by the sessile evaporation of a similar drop of suspension sandwiched between a water drop and the substrate. From the application viewpoint, these processes can be used to create preferential electrical conductive carbon networks and contacts for arrays of self-assembled nanostructures fabricated on solid substrates as well as on flexible polymeric substrates.

  17. Silicalites of Hydrothermal Origin in the Lower Cambrian Black Rock Series of South China

    李胜荣; 高振敏


    A silicalite bed was found in the hanging wall and foot wall of the sulfide-rich bed of the Lower Cambrian black rock series in South China.Its origin was not described before,On the oxide(SiO2-Al2O3,SiO2-MgO,SiO2-k2o+Na2O)diagrams for discriminating silicalites of chemical,biological and volcanic origins(Liu Xiufeng,1991),most of the data points of silicalites fall within the areas representing silicalites of chemical and volcanic origins.On the Al-Fe-Mn diagram for discriminating silicalites of hydrothermal and biological origins(Yamamoto,1987),the data points fall within the areas representing silicalites of hydrotermal and hydrothermal-biological origins.On the SiO2-Al2O3 diagram for discriminating silicalites of hydrothermal and hydrogenous origins(Bonatti,1975),the data points mostly fall within the hydrothermal area.The ratios of SiO2/Al2O3,SiO2/(K2O+Na2O),SiO2/MgO,and K2O/Na2O in the silicalites stand between those of volcanic sediments and of seafloor hydrothermal sediments.The total amount of rare-earth elements in the silicalites is low;the North american Shale-normalized REE patterns decline leftward with obvious negative Ce anomaly.The trace elements Mo,Zn,As,Sb,Se,U,and Ba are higher than those in non-hydrothermal sediments and U/Th≥1.The present authors think that the silicalites are derived from seafloor hot brines which had attracted elements from igneous rocks.

  18. 40Ar/39Ar Dating of Deformation Events and Reconstruction of Exhumation of Ultrahigh-Pressure Metamorphic Rocks in Donghai,East China

    LI Jinyi; YANG Tiannan; CHEN Wen; ZHANG Sihong


    Recent investigations reveal that the ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHPM) rocks in the Donghai regionof East China underwent ductile and transitional ductile-brittle structural events during their exhumation. The earlierductile deformation took place under the condition of amphibolite facies and the later transitional ductile-brittledeformation under the condition of greenschist facies. The hanging walls moved southeastward during both of these twoevents. The 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovites from muscovite-plagioclase schists in the Haizhou phosphorous mine, whichare structurally overlain by UHPM rocks, yields a plateau age of 218.0±2.9 Ma and isochron age of 219.8Ma, indicatingthat the earlier event of the ampibolite-facies deformation probably took place about 220 Ma ago. The 40Ar/39Ar dating oforiented amphiboles parallel to the movement direction of the hanging wall on a decollement plane yields a plateau age of213.1 ±0.3 Ma and isochron age of 213.4±4.1 Ma, probably representing the age of the later event. The dating of pegmatiticbiotites and K-feldspars near the decollement plane from the eastern Fangshan area yield plateau ages of 203.4±0.3 Ma,203.6±0.4 Ma and 204.8±2.2 Ma, and isochron ages of 204.0±2.0 Ma, 200.6±3.1 Ma and 204.0±5.0 Ma, respectively,implying that the rocks in the studied area had not been cooled down to closing temperature of the dated biotites and K-feldspars until the beginning of the Jurassic (about 204 Ma). The integration of these data with previous chronological ageson the ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism lead to a new inference on the exhumation of the UHPM rocks. The UHPM rocksin the area were exhumed at the rate of 3-4 km/Ma from the mantle (about 80-100 km below the earth's surface at about240 Ma) to the lower crust (at the depth of about 20-30km at 220 Ma), and at the rate of 1-2 km/Ma to the middle crust (atthe depth of about 15 km at 213 Ma), and then at the rate of less than 1 km/Ma to the upper crust about 10 km deep

  19. Discrete Fracture Network Characterization and Modeling in the Swedish Program for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Crystalline Rocks Using Information Acquired by Difference Flow Logging and Borehole Wall Image Logging

    Follin, S.; Stigsson, M.; Levén, J.


    Difference flow logging is a relatively new hydraulic test method. It offers a superior geometrical resolution compared to the classic double-packer injection test method. Other significant features of the difference flow logging method are the long duration of the test period and the line source flow regime. These three features are vital for the characterization and the modeling of the conductive fracture frequency in crystalline rocks. Further, combining difference flow logging with core mapping and in situ borehole wall image logging (BIPS) allows for an enhanced geological cross correlation and structural interpretation. The data and analyses presented here come from the ongoing site investigations for a high-level nuclear waste repository in Forsmark managed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. First, we demonstrate the statistical properties of the fracture transmissivities acquired by difference flow logging for a number of one-kilometer-long cored boreholes. Secondly, we make a hydraulic comparison between these data and the transmissivities acquired by double-packer injection tests. Thirdly, we present a method for investigating the geometrical connectivity of open fractures in fracture network simulations and how this connectivity can be cross correlated to the fracture transmissivity distribution acquired by difference flow logging. Finally, we discuss the geometrical properties of flowing fractures as acquired by BIPS data and the correlation to the current stress situation in Forsmark. The geometrical anisotropy observed in the transmissivity data suggests that the current stress situation is very important for the flow field in Forsmark. This puts constraints on the collection and use of geological/structural data for hydrogeological discrete fracture network modeling.

  20. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Bickett, Marianne


    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  1. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Bickett, Marianne


    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…



    This paper introduces a new concept of the de-sign of the two storey intake in rivers with deficient discharge,gravel bed and higher diversion ratio. Instead of using classi-cal types of intake, a kind of two-level hanged-plate intake de-signs was suggested. The hanged-plate was arranged in themiddle level depth of flow and flow was separated to two por-tions I. E. The region above the hanged-plate and the regionunder the hanged-plate. In such way, the upper stream flowsinto channel and the bottom stream becomes the pressureflow. By using this arrangement, clearer water including lesssediment are deflected into irrigation channel in addition to in-creasing the transport sediment ratio. In this paper, flow pat-terns, velocity profile, pressure distribution, and diversionratio were studied experimentally for two different headers ofhanged-plate, P-weir and L-weir. The main characteristics offlow through hanged-plate was also inverstigated and com-pared with each other. The design works better in comparisonwith artificial band, sluice dam intake work, and so on.

  3. Suicidal hanging in Kuwait: retrospective analysis of cases from 2010 to 2012.

    Abd-Elwahab Hassan, Dalia; Ghaleb, Sherein S; Kotb, Heba; Agamy, Mervat; Kharoshah, Magdy


    Suicide is an important health hazard worldwide. We retrospectively analyzed the autopsy records of the Institute of Forensic Medicine between 2010 and 2012 to document the characteristics of fatalities resulting from hanging in Kuwait. Upon analysis of death scene investigation and autopsy reports together with the information gathered from the police, the cases of hanging fatalities of suicidal origin were selected. A retrospective study was carried out on 118 suicidal hanging cases autopsied at Forensic Medicine Center in Kuwait (from 2010 to 2012). Of these cases, 86 (73%) were males and 32 females (27%). There was an increasing trend of hanging among ages between 21 and 50 years (87.3%) and the third decade had the highest number of victims (about 43%) between all age groups. Local Kuwaiti nationals comprised a small proportion of cases (7 persons, 5.9%), while the others were foreigners working in Kuwait with an Indian precedence (54 persons, 54.8%), followed by other 12 different nationalities representing 39.3% of the cases. In conclusion, there was a decreasing trend of suicide by hanging in Kuwait from 44 cases in 2010 to 25 cases in 2012.

  4. ROCK ON

    Thomas Grose


    ..., however, was music - especially the high-pitched sounds of pop and rock, which boosted energy output by up to 40 percent. By contrast, classical music's lower pitches barely raised effectiveness. O...

  5. 岩棉钢网架板外墙外保温技术性能及应用分析%Analysis on technical properties and application of outer-wall external thermal insulation based on rock wool board with steel network



    对岩棉钢网架板外墙外保温技术的原理、特点、构造及性能要求做了系统的介绍,并对该技术的施工过程和未来应用进行了分析.岩棉钢网架板外墙外保温具有较好的防火性能、墙体的平均传热系数在0.35~0.50 W/(m2·K),绝热效果良好,采用把岩棉板固定于钢网架内,解决了岩棉板下坠的问题,系统的抗拉强度高、整体性和耐久性良好,使用年限可达25年以上.该技术在以后的工程实践中应需注意岩棉板的市场供应、面砖缝隙开裂、岩棉板吸水问题及岩棉板加工和施工中对人的影响等问题.%Technology principle, characteristics, technical structure, performance requirements of outer-wall external thermal insulation based on rock wool board with steel network are introduced, the construction process and application in the future of this technology was analyzed. Outer-wall external thermal insulation based on rock wool board has good fire performance, the average heat transfer coefficient of the wall is 0.35 to 0.50 W/(m2 *K) ,and the insulation effect is good. Fixing the rock wool board in the steel network can address the fall of the rock wool board. The tensile strength, integrity and durability of the system are good, and the service life can be up to 25 years. During the engineering practice in future, special attention should be paid to the market supply of rock wool board, tile gap cracking, rock wool board water absorption problems and the impact of rock wool processing and construction on the people.

  6. A PDMS-Based Microfluidic Hanging Drop Chip for Embryoid Body Formation.

    Wu, Huei-Wen; Hsiao, Yi-Hsing; Chen, Chih-Chen; Yet, Shaw-Fang; Hsu, Chia-Hsien


    The conventional hanging drop technique is the most widely used method for embryoid body (EB) formation. However, this method is labor intensive and limited by the difficulty in exchanging the medium. Here, we report a microfluidic chip-based approach for high-throughput formation of EBs. The device consists of microfluidic channels with 6 × 12 opening wells in PDMS supported by a glass substrate. The PDMS channels were fabricated by replicating polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) from SU-8 mold. The droplet formation in the chip was tested with different hydrostatic pressures to obtain optimal operation pressures for the wells with 1000 μm diameter openings. The droplets formed at the opening wells were used to culture mouse embryonic stem cells which could subsequently developed into EBs in the hanging droplets. This device also allows for medium exchange of the hanging droplets making it possible to perform immunochemistry staining and characterize EBs on chip.

  7. A PDMS-Based Microfluidic Hanging Drop Chip for Embryoid Body Formation

    Huei-Wen Wu


    Full Text Available The conventional hanging drop technique is the most widely used method for embryoid body (EB formation. However, this method is labor intensive and limited by the difficulty in exchanging the medium. Here, we report a microfluidic chip-based approach for high-throughput formation of EBs. The device consists of microfluidic channels with 6 × 12 opening wells in PDMS supported by a glass substrate. The PDMS channels were fabricated by replicating polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS from SU-8 mold. The droplet formation in the chip was tested with different hydrostatic pressures to obtain optimal operation pressures for the wells with 1000 μm diameter openings. The droplets formed at the opening wells were used to culture mouse embryonic stem cells which could subsequently developed into EBs in the hanging droplets. This device also allows for medium exchange of the hanging droplets making it possible to perform immunochemistry staining and characterize EBs on chip.

  8. Self-similar vortex-induced vibrations of a hanging string

    Grouthier, Clement; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya; de Langre, Emmanuel


    An experimental analysis of the vortex-induced vibrations of a hanging string with variable tension along its length is presented in this paper. It is shown that standing waves develop along the hanging string. The evolution of the Strouhal number St with the Reynolds number Re first follows a trend similar to what is observed for a circular cylinder in a flow for relatively low Reynolds numbers (32hanging string is then explained theoretically by performing a linear stability analysis of an adapted wake-oscillator model. This linear stability analysis finally provides an accurate description of the mode shapes and of the evolution of the self-similarity coefficient with the flow speed.

  9. Enhancement of nucleation during hanging drop protein crystallization using HF treatment of cover glasses

    Guo, Yun-Zhu; Yin, Da-Chuan; Lu, Qin-Qin; Wang, Xi-Kai; Liu, Jun [Key Laboratory for Space Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China)


    We examined a simple approach, i.e., etching cover glasses using hydrofluoric acid (HF), to determine whether cover glass treatment enhances nucleation in hanging drop protein crystallization. Hen egg white lysozyme and proteinase K were used as the model proteins. We found that the treatment increased the success rate of crystallization. The results indicated that the simple treatment, which is easy to adopt without changing much in the hanging drop method, can be utilized as an alternative method to enhance protein crystallization screens (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)


    C.Carstensen; Jun Hu


    A unified a posteriori error analysis has been developed in [18,21-23] to analyze the finite element error a posteriori under a universal roof.This paper contributes to the finite element meshes with hanging nodes which are required for local mesh-refining.The twodimensional 1-irregular triangulations into triangles and parallelograms and their combinations are considered with conforming and nonconforming finite element methods named after or by Courant,Q1,Crouzeix-Raviart,Han,Rannacher-Turek,and others for the a posteriori error analysis for triangulations with hanging nodes of degree≤1 which are fundamental for local mesh refinement in self-adaptive finite element discretisations.

  11. 'Wopmay' Rock


    This approximate true-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows an unusual, lumpy rock informally named 'Wopmay' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the Canadian bush pilot Wilfrid Reid 'Wop' May. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe the lumps in Wopmay may be related to cracking and alteration processes, possibly caused by exposure to water. The area between intersecting sets of cracks eroded in a way that created the lumpy appearance. Rover team members plan to drive Opportunity over to Wopmay for a closer look in coming sols. This image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 248 (Oct. 4, 2004), using its 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters.

  12. Source rock

    Abubakr F. Makky; Mohamed I. El Sayed; Ahmed S. Abu El-Ata; Ibrahim M. Abd El-Gaied; Mohamed I. Abdel-Fattah; Zakaria M. Abd-Allah


    West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro), and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members), Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history ...

  13. Development of a New Hanging-Type Esophageal Stent for Preventing Migration: A Preliminary Study in an Animal Model of Esophagotracheal Fistula

    Endo, Masayuki, E-mail:; Kaminou, Toshio, E-mail:; Ohuchi, Yasufumi, E-mail: [Tottori University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Sugiura, Kimihiko, E-mail: [Yonago Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Japan); Yata, Shinsaku, E-mail:; Adachi, Akira, E-mail:; Kawai, Tsuyoshi, E-mail:; Takasugi, Syohei, E-mail:; Yamamoto, Shuichi, E-mail:; Matsumoto, Kensuke, E-mail: [Tottori University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Hashimoto, Masayuki, E-mail: [Tottori Prefectural Kosei Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ihaya, Takashi, E-mail: [Sanin Rosai Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ogawa, Toshihide, E-mail: [Tottori University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Japan)


    Purpose: Covered, self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) have been enthusiastically adopted for the treatment of esophagotracheal fistula, but problems with stent migration have yet to be resolved. To overcome this problem, we have developed a new hanging-type esophageal stent designed to prevent migration, and we conducted an animal study to assess the efficacy of our method. Methods: A total of six female pigs were used in this study. The main characteristic of our stent was the presence of a string tied to the proximal edge of the stent for fixation under the skin of the neck. The first experiment was performed to confirm technical feasibility in three pigs with esophagotracheal fistula. The second experiment was performed to evaluate stent migration and esophagotracheal fistula in three pigs. Results: Creation of the esophagotracheal fistula and stent placement were technically successful in all pigs. In the first experiment, esophagotracheal fistula was sealed by stent placement. In the second experiment, no stent migration was seen 11 or 12 days after stent placement. Gross findings showed no fistulas on the esophageal or tracheal wall. Conclusions: Our new hanging-type esophageal stent seems to offer a feasible method for preventing stent migration.

  14. Energy stability of droplets and dry spots in a thin film model of hanging drops

    Cheung, Ka-Luen; Chou, Kai-Seng


    The 2-D thin film equation describing the evolution of hang drops is studied. All radially symmetric steady states are classified, and their energy stability is determined. It is shown that the droplet with zero contact angle is the only global energy minimizer and the dry spot with zero contact angle is a strict local energy minimizer.

  15. Improvement of hang glider performance by use of ultralight elastic wing

    Wolf, J. S.


    The problem of the lateral controllability of the hang glider by the pilot's weight shift was considered. The influence of the span and the torsional elasticity of the wing was determined. It was stated that an ultralight elastic wing of a new kind was most suitable for good control. The wing also has other advantageous properties.

  16. Measurement of the Mass of an Object Hanging from a Spring--Revisited

    Serafin, Kamil; Oracz, Joanna; Grzybowski, Marcin; Koperski, Maciej; Sznajder, Pawel; Zinkiewicz, Lukasz; Wasylczyk, Piotr


    In an open competition, students were to determine the mass of a metal cylinder hanging on a spring inside a transparent enclosure. With the time for experiments limited to 24 h due to the unexpectedly large number of participants, a few surprisingly accurate results were submitted, the best of them differing by no more than 0.5% from the true…


    Yanki D.


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In Sikkim, the rate of suicide has been on the rise since the last 10 years. Suicidal hanging as method of ending life is a major concern among school children. It is very rare that the victims are brought on time for successful resuscit ation in Sikkim. Suicide by hanging is probably the most easy way to go about taking one’s own life , as the means to do it are easily available and uncomplicated and, brutally efficient in most case s . This is a case report of a young female who was brought to the emergency room of our hospital a s a case of suicidal hanging. On admission her GCS was 6; she was unconscious with deteriorating v ital parameters and the breathing was laboured with SpO2 of 40% in room air. Early interv ention with intubation with ventilatory and circulatory support was given and she walked home a fter 7 days without any neurological deficit. KEY WORDS: Near hanging suicide, early intervention

  18. Rock Paintings.

    Jones, Julienne Edwards


    Discusses the integration of art and academics in a fifth-grade instructional unit on Native American culture. Describes how students studied Native American pictographs, designed their own pictographs, made their own tools, and created rock paintings of their pictographs using these tools. Provides a list of references on Native American…

  19. Ayers Rock



    Ayers Rock is right in the centre of Australia.It's nearly two thousand kilometres______Sydney.So we flew most of the way.h was rather cloudy______But after we left the mountains behind us, there was hardly a cloud in thesky.

  20. Intellektuaalne rock


    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  1. Intellektuaalne rock


    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  2. Strangulation injury from indigenous rocking cradle

    Saha Abhijeet


    Full Text Available Indigenously made rocking cradle is frequently used in rural India. We report strangulation from an indigenously made rocking cradle in an 11-month-old female child. The unique mode of injury and its mechanism have been discussed. Strangulation is an important cause of homicidal and suicidal injury in adults but in children it is usually accidental leading to death due to asphyxia as a result of partial hanging. In western countries, it is the third most common cause of accidental childhood deaths, 17% of them being due to ropes and cords. It ranks fourth amongst the causes of unintentional injury in children less than 1 year of age following roadside accidents, drowning and burns. However, in India, strangulation injury is under reported although indigenous rocking cradles are very commonly used in rural India, and they are even more dangerous than the cribs and adult beds as there are no safety mechanisms therein. We report a case of accidental strangulation following suspension from an indigenously made rocking cradle. The unique mode of injury has prompted us to report this case.

  3. Strangulation injury from indigenous rocking cradle.

    Saha, Abhijeet; Batra, Prerna; Bansal, Anuradha


    Indigenously made rocking cradle is frequently used in rural India. We report strangulation from an indigenously made rocking cradle in an 11-month-old female child. The unique mode of injury and its mechanism have been discussed. Strangulation is an important cause of homicidal and suicidal injury in adults but in children it is usually accidental leading to death due to asphyxia as a result of partial hanging. In western countries, it is the third most common cause of accidental childhood deaths, 17% of them being due to ropes and cords. It ranks fourth amongst the causes of unintentional injury in children less than 1 year of age following roadside accidents, drowning and burns. However, in India, strangulation injury is under reported although indigenous rocking cradles are very commonly used in rural India, and they are even more dangerous than the cribs and adult beds as there are no safety mechanisms therein. We report a case of accidental strangulation following suspension from an indigenously made rocking cradle. The unique mode of injury has prompted us to report this case.

  4. Kinematics of syn- and post-exhumational shear zones at Lago di Cignana (Western Alps, Italy): constraints on the exhumation of Zermatt-Saas (ultra)high-pressure rocks and deformation along the Combin Fault and Dent Blanche Basal Thrust

    Kirst, Frederik; Leiss, Bernd


    Kinematic analyses of shear zones at Lago di Cignana in the Italian Western Alps were used to constrain the structural evolution of units from the Piemont-Ligurian oceanic realm (Zermatt-Saas and Combin zones) and the Adriatic continental margin (Dent Blanche nappe) during Palaeogene syn- and post-exhumational deformation. Exhumation of Zermatt-Saas (U)HP rocks to approximately lower crustal levels at ca. 39 Ma occurred during normal-sense top-(S)E shearing under epidote-amphibolite-facies conditions. Juxtaposition with the overlying Combin zone along the Combin Fault at mid-crustal levels occurred during greenschist-facies normal-sense top-SE shearing at ca. 38 Ma. The scarcity of top-SE kinematic indicators in the hanging wall of the Combin Fault probably resulted from strain localization along the uppermost Zermatt-Saas zone and obliteration by subsequent deformation. A phase of dominant pure shear deformation around 35 Ma affected units in the direct footwall and hanging wall of the Combin Fault. It is interpreted to reflect NW-SE crustal elongation during updoming of the nappe stack as a result of underthrusting of European continental margin units and the onset of continental collision. This phase was partly accompanied and followed by ductile bulk top-NW shearing, especially at higher structural levels, which transitioned into semi-ductile to brittle normal-sense top-NW deformation due to Vanzone phase folding from ca. 32 Ma onwards. Our structural observations suggest that syn-exhumational deformation is partly preserved within units and shear zones exposed at Lago di Cignana but also that the Combin Fault and Dent Blanche Basal Thrust experienced significant post-exhumational deformation reworking and overprinting earlier structures.

  5. Study of morphological changes in the skin of the neck in suicidal cases by hanging.

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Orduña, Oliva; Carranza, Veronica


    the morphologic changes in specimens from people who have committed suicide by hanging have mainly centered on macroscopic findings. Pour purpose is to inestigate the microscopis changes in the ligature marks. we report the histopathologic features of the ligature mark on the neck of three people who committed suicide by hanging themselves. the main Finding was coagulative necrosis of all cutaneous layers and the subjacent striated muscle. In the areas close to the ligature, blood vessels appeared congestive with a mild inflammatory perivasculary infiltrate. In some other areas, we found preserved sebaceous and eccrine glands, underneath the epidermis with marked necrotic changes. These findings suggest that neither pressure nor hypoxia is enough to induce necrosis in cutaneous adnexa.

  6. Level-3 BLAS on a GPU: Picking the low hanging fruit

    Igual, Francisco D.; Quintana-Ortí, Gregorio; van de Geijn, Robert A.


    The arrival of hardware accelerators has created a new gold rush to be the first to deliver their promise of high performance for numerical applications. Despite the recent advances in programmability, it is still hard to develop tuned programs that extract all the potential performance promised by the manufacturers. In this paper we remind the community that while this development effort is a noble endeavor, there is a lot of low hanging fruit that can be harvested easily. Picking this low hanging fruit benefits the scientific computing community immediately and prototypes the approach that further optimizations may follow. We demonstrate this by focusing on a widely used set of operations, the level-3 BLAS, targeting the NVIDIA GPUs.

  7. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012


    Background: Worldwide, the suicide rate is decreasing. To examine changes in the rates of completed suicide in the Mexican population from 2003 to 2012, we analyzed these changes according to: (i) the method of suicide; (ii) age group and (iii) gender. Methods: The data analyzed were obtained from governmental organizations from the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The data provided 1836 cases of subjects born and residing in Tabasco, who completed suicide in this state. Results: Suicide by hanging ...

  8. Sustainable groundwater development and management in the Quaternary Hang-Jia-Hu Plain, China



    Based on the results of study on regional water supply system, water quality assessments, Quaternary aquifers investigation, and correlation analysis of groundwater depression resulting from land subsidence in the Hang-Jia-Hu Quaternary Plain, this paper presents the groundwater resources policy and sustainable management methods suitable for this area. Suggestions for controlling land subsidence by implementation of wise groundwater policy and management measures are also given.

  9. Hanging angles of two electrostatically repelling pith balls of different masses

    Tran, Phuc G.; Mungan, Carl E.


    An analytic solution can be derived for the angles of two mutually repelling charged pith balls of unequal mass hanging from strings from a common point of attachment. Just as in the equal-mass case, a cubic equation is found for the square of the sine of either angle, and an approximation can be used to avoid Cardano's formula for small angles. These results extend a standard problem treated in introductory undergraduate courses in electricity and magnetism.

  10. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012

    Hernández-Alvarado, Mervyn Manuel; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Fresán, Ana; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; López-Narváez, María Lilia; Villar-Soto, Mario; Genis-Mendoza, Alma


    Background: Worldwide, the suicide rate is decreasing. To examine changes in the rates of completed suicide in the Mexican population from 2003 to 2012, we analyzed these changes according to: (i) the method of suicide; (ii) age group and (iii) gender. Methods: The data analyzed were obtained from governmental organizations from the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The data provided 1836 cases of subjects born and residing in Tabasco, who completed suicide in this state. Results: Suicide by hanging was a common choice of suicide method for Mexicans. The rate of suicide by hanging increased from 5.80 to 6.49 per 100,000 persons between 2003 and 2012, a rate percentage increase of 11.89%. Conclusions: Hanging was found to be the most common choice of suicide in the Mexican population, probably because the materials required are easily available and the method does not require complicated techniques, especially in the 55–64 age group. Strategies for prevention and intervention should be developed for the Mexican population considering suicide rates by age group and gender. PMID:27258292

  11. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012

    Mervyn Manuel Hernández-Alvarado


    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide, the suicide rate is decreasing. To examine changes in the rates of completed suicide in the Mexican population from 2003 to 2012, we analyzed these changes according to: (i the method of suicide; (ii age group and (iii gender. Methods: The data analyzed were obtained from governmental organizations from the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The data provided 1836 cases of subjects born and residing in Tabasco, who completed suicide in this state. Results: Suicide by hanging was a common choice of suicide method for Mexicans. The rate of suicide by hanging increased from 5.80 to 6.49 per 100,000 persons between 2003 and 2012, a rate percentage increase of 11.89%. Conclusions: Hanging was found to be the most common choice of suicide in the Mexican population, probably because the materials required are easily available and the method does not require complicated techniques, especially in the 55–64 age group. Strategies for prevention and intervention should be developed for the Mexican population considering suicide rates by age group and gender.

  12. Design of 3D printed insert for hanging culture of Caco-2 cells.

    Shen, Chong; Meng, Qin; Zhang, Guoliang


    A Caco-2 cell culture on Transwell, an alternative testing to animal or human testing used in evaluating drug intestinal permeability, incorrectly estimated the absorption of actively transported drugs due to the low expression of membrane transporters. Similarly, three-dimensional (3D) cultures of Caco-2 cells, which have been recommended to be more physiological relevant, were not superior to the Transwell culture in either accuracy or convenience in drug permeability testing. Using rapid 3D printing prototyping techniques, this study proposed a hanging culture of Caco-2 cells that performed with high accuracy in predicting drug permeability in humans. As found, hanging cultured Caco-2 cells formed a confluent monolayer and maintained high cell viability on the 3D printed insert. Compared with the normal culture on Transwell, the Caco-2 cells on the 3D printed insert presented ∼30-100% higher brush border enzyme activity and ∼2-7 folds higher activity of P-glycoprotein/multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 during 21 days of incubation. For the eight membrane transporter substrates, the predictive curve of the 3D printing culture exhibited better linearity (R(2) = 0.92) to the human oral adsorption than that of the Transwell culture (R(2) = 0.84), indicating better prediction by the 3D printing culture. In this regard, the 3D printed insert for hanging culture could be potentially developed as a convenient and low-cost tool for testing drug oral absorption.

  13. Use of layer silicate for protein crystallization: effects of Micromica and chlorite powders in hanging drops.

    Takehara, Masahide; Ino, Keita; Takakusagi, Yoichi; Oshikane, Hiroyuki; Nureki, Osamu; Ebina, Takeo; Mizukami, Fujio; Sakaguchi, Kengo


    Two kinds of layer silicate powder, Micromica and chlorite, were used to aid protein crystallization by the addition to hanging drops. Using appropriate crystallization buffers, Micromica powder facilitated crystal growth speed for most proteins tested in this study. Furthermore, the addition of Micromica powder to hanging drops allowed the successful crystallization of lysozyme, catalase, concanavalin A, and trypsin even at low protein concentrations and under buffer conditions that otherwise would not generate protein crystals. Except for threonine synthase and apoferritin, the presence of chlorite delayed crystallization but induced the formation of large crystals. X-ray analysis of thaumatin crystals generated by our novel procedure gave better quality data than did that of crystals obtained by a conventional hanging drop method. Our results suggest that the speed of crystal growth and the quality of the corresponding X-ray data may be inversely related, at least for the formation of thaumatin crystals. The effect of Micromica and chlorite powders and the application of layer silicate powder for protein crystallization are discussed.




    Full Text Available Deaths by ligation of neck are in practice from the time immemorial and before advent of civilization. In uncivilized societies, the application of ligation for taking away the life of another person was one of the commonest practices which were successfu lly carried out into the civilized societies. Earliest it was a homicidal method as suicide was considered as a heinous act. Ligature mark is a pressure abrasion produced on the neck by ligature material due to force either from weight of the body or exter nal energies. More over the impression was ligation leads to wind pipe constriction for which manual violence is needed. When compared to other modalities of un - natural deaths, death by ligation was found world - wide popularity and is one of the preferred m ethods to take or take away the life. This study is conducted in the department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Gandhi Medical College & Hospital, Secunderabad. The period of analytical study of ligature mark in cases of deaths due to hanging and liga ture strangulation is from Jan . 2012 to Dec . 2012. The total number of autopsies done during the year of 2012 is 4950, among the total Autopsies hanging & ligature strangulations deaths were 522. A detailed study of these 522 cases of deaths due to hanging a nd ligature strangulation were analyzed with special reference to ‘ligature mark’

  15. Scanned Hardcopy Maps, All Engineering hanging files: sewer, water, construction plans, and subdivisions, Published in 2008, City of Hutchinson.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Scanned Hardcopy Maps dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2008. It is described as 'All Engineering hanging files: sewer,...


    Hozumi, Koki; KOMODA, Masaki; Ono, Takatsugu; TSUKANO, Yukichi; 穂積, 弘毅; 古茂田, 真幸; 小野, 孝次; 塚野, 雄吉


    In order to investigate longitudinal force and moment characteristics of a hang-glider-wing, ground run tests were conducted using a test vehicle. A hang-glider-wing was installed on a test vehicle using a six-components-balance for wind tunnel use. Aerodynamic force and moment were measrued during the vehicle run at various constant speeds. Geometrical twist distribution along the wing span was recorded as well. Measured force and moment data were corrected for possible ground effect and upw...

  17. Optimization of transfection parameters for ultrasound/SonoVue microbubble-mediated hAng-1 gene delivery in vitro.

    Zhou, Qing; Chen, Jin-Ling; Chen, Qian; Wang, Xiao; Deng, Qing; Hu, Bo; Guo, Rui-Qiang


    This study aimed to explore the effects of microbubble concentration, gene dosage, cell-microbubble mixing mode and fetal bovine serum (FBS) on gene delivery. 293T cells were transfected with Sonovue microbubbles carrying the hAng-1 gene via ultrasound irradiation. Various ultrasound exposure parameters and microbubble and DNA concentrations were investigated. In addition, FBS and the cell suspension or adherent mode was explored. Transfection efficiency and cell viability were used to determine the optimal transfection parameters. hAng-1 gene transfection efficiency gradually increased with elongation of ultrasound exposure and increasing microbubble concentration. However, if ultrasound irradiation exceeded 1.5 W/cm² and 30 sec or the microbubble concentration was over 20%, hAng-1 gene expression was significantly decreased, coupled with extensive cell death. Gene transfection levels were low under DNA concentrations less than 15 µg/ml. Furthermore, the gene transfer rate was significantly increased under cell suspension mode; FBS had no effect on hAng-1 gene transfection. The integrity of hAng-1 DNA was not affected by ultrasonic irradiation under optimal conditions. The optimal transfection parameters for the hAng-1 gene and Sonovue microbubble were ultrasound exposure of 1.5 W/cm² and 30 sec, 20% microbubbles, 15 µg/ml of DNA and under cell suspension mode.

  18. Wonderful Walls

    Greenman, Jim


    In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

  19. Ambiguous walls

    Mody, Astrid


    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how wall...

  20. Hanging-wall deformation and gas-migration associated to a major salt detaching fault in the Norwegian Danish Basin

    Clausen, O. R.; Andresen, K. J.; Mauritzen, E. K.; Connolly, D.; Korstgård, J. A.


    The central and southern regions of the North Sea Basin are characterized by mobile Zechstein Salt and represent an excellent area to study listric normal fault development related to halokinesis. The North Sea Basin-in spite of being a mature explored hydrocarbon producing basin-contains a generally not fully understood hydrocarbon plumbing system. Faults and associated fluid migration routes represent critical elements of the plumbing system. Here we present a combined 3D seismic mapping of a listric fault and detailed seismic attribute analysis of shallow gas anomalies near the fault implying a close and complex relationship between a major detaching fault, hangingwall deformation and fluid migration and entrapment. The fault and associated antithetic and secondary synthetic faults is controlled by the growth of the underlying salt structure. Three separate segments of the fault are recognized showing distinct and varying characteristics of structural maturity and fluid migration. The studied fault and shallow gas anomalies thus represent an example of a complex faulted shallow fluid migration system developing in relation to an underlying salt structure which could be relevant for understanding similar salt, fault and fluid migration systems around the world.

  1. Building Energy Conservation and Analysis of Rock Wool Exterior Wall Insulation Technology%建筑节能与岩棉外墙外保温技术分析



    Through an overview of China’s energy situation, this paper dicussed the importance of building energy conservation. Analysised the advantages and disadvantages and performance of rock wool exterior insulation technology.%通过概述我国的能源形势,论述建筑节能的意义,并就岩棉外墙外保温技术的优缺点及性能进行了分析。

  2. Subduction and accretion of sedimentary rocks in the Yakutat collision zone, St. Elias orogen, Gulf of Alaska

    Van Avendonk, Harm J. A.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Christeson, Gail L.; Worthington, Lindsay L.; Pavlis, Terry L.; Ridgway, Kenneth D.


    The collision of the Yakutat Block with the continental margin of North America in the Gulf of Alaska has intensified exhumation and erosion in the Chugach-St. Elias orogen over the last few million years. The resultant sediment flux and deposition of the glaciomarine Yakataga Formation on the continental shelf has filled a deep sedimentary basin offshore, where the Pamplona fold-thrust belt first deforms these strata. It is presently unclear whether the older sedimentary rocks of the Poul Creek and Kulthieth Formations are also accreted in the Pamplona Zone, or whether they are underthrusting the margin. In this paper we use marine seismic and well logging data to show that in the offshore Yakataga strata, porosity loss and lateral compaction can account for half of the convergence between the Yakutat Block and North America over the last 2 Myr. A lateral seismic velocity gradient in these syn-orogenic strata suggests that this layer-parallel shortening starts approximately 100 km outboard of the deformation front. Beneath the fold-and-thrust belt, where the seismic velocity is as high as 4.7 km/s, we image a large low-velocity zone (2.0-2.5 km/s) at 5 km depth. The dramatic decrease in seismic velocity with depth coincides with the boundary between the Yakataga and Poul Creek Formations in well data. Fine-grained and organic-rich Poul Creek strata possibly accommodate slip, such that older sedimentary rocks are entrained with the subducting Yakutat Block. Alternatively, the imaged low-velocity zone may have formed by increased fluid pressures in the hanging wall. In that case the décollement would lie beneath this low-velocity zone, possibly within the coal-bearing layers of the older and deeper Kulthieth Formation.

  3. 云南中旬岛弧带典型斑岩铜矿床围岩蚀变特征对比及其找矿意义%The comparison of the features of wall rock alteration and its prospecting significance in typical porphyry copper deposit in Zhongdian arc orogen, Yunnan

    姜永果; 吴静; 李峰; 崔银亮; 张亚辉


    中甸岛弧带是斑岩型铜矿的矿集区,区内的斑岩铜矿床围岩蚀变强烈,蚀变分带明显,围岩蚀变与矿化关系密切.文章对分别位于中甸岛弧东、西部成矿带的春都和普朗斑岩铜矿床围岩蚀变及矿化特征进行了对比分析.研究结果表明,2个斑岩铜矿床的围岩蚀变类型主要表现形式以及蚀变分带模式基本相同,研究还得出中旬岛弧带斑岩铜矿床钾硅化带以及绢英岩化带的蚀变强度及其规模共同决定斑岩铜矿床的规模.中旬岛弧带斑岩铜矿床中,青磐岩化玢岩为找矿的间接标志,绢英岩化或钾硅化斑岩(玢岩)为找矿的直接标志.%Zhongdian arc orogen is an important centralized zone of porphyry copper, where the wall rock alteration strongly related with mineralization is fierce and alteration zones are obivious. The characteristics of the wall rock alteration and mineralization of Pulang in the eastern matollgenic belts and Chundu porphyry copper deposit in the western matollgenic belts of Zhongdian arc were compared and analysised in this article. The studies show that the wall rock alteration types and zonality of alteration are roughly the same between Pulang and Chunduin porphyry copper deposits, and that the scale of porphyry copper deposit are controlled by thestrength and scale of kali silicification zone and sericitolite zone as well. In the porphyry copper deposit of Zhongdian arc orgen belts, the propyliti-zation porphyrite is an indirect prospecting sign, while sericitolite porphyry and kali silicification are the direct prospecting signs.

  4. Water resources and effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Hanging Woman Creek basin, southeastern Montana

    Cannon, M.R.


    Groundwater resources of the Hanging Woman Creek basin, Montana include Holocene and Pleistocene alluvial aquifers and sandstone , coal, and clinker aquifers in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Surface water resources are composed of Hanging Woman Creek, its tributaries, and small stock ponds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater ranged from 200 to 11,00 mg/L. Generally, concentrations were largest in alluvial aquifers and smallest in clinker aquifers. Near its mouth, Hanging Woman Creek had a median concentration of about 1,800 mg/L. Mining of the 20-foot to 35-foot-thick Anderson coal bed and 3-foot to 16-foot thick Dietz coal bed could increase dissolved-solids concentrations in shallow aquifers and in Hanging Woman Creek because of leaching of soluble minerals from mine spoils. Analysis of saturated-paste extracts from 158 overburden samples indicated that water moving through mine spoils would have a median increase in dissolved-solids concentration of about 3,700 mg/L, resulting in an additional dissolved-solids load to Hanging Woman Creek of about 3.0 tons/day. Hanging Woman Creek near Birney could have an annual post-mining dissolved-solids load of 3,415 tons at median discharge, a 47% increase from pre-mining conditions load. Post-mining concentrations of dissolved solids, at median discharge, could range from 2,380 mg/L in March to 3,940 mg/L in August, compared to mean pre-mining concentrations that ranged from 1,700 mg/L in July, November, and December to 2,060 mg/L in May. Post-mining concentrations and loads in Hanging Woman Creek would be smaller if a smaller area were mined. (USGS)

  5. CERN Rocks


    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  6. Deformation of footwall rock of Phulad Shear Zone, Rajasthan: Evidence of transpressional shear zone

    Manideepa Roy Choudhury; Subhrajyoti Das; Sadhana M Chatterjee; Sudipta Sengupta


    Phulad Shear Zone (PSZ) of Delhi Fold Belt in Rajasthan is a northeasterly striking ductile shear zonewith a well developed mylonitic foliation (035/70E) and a downdip stretching lineation. The deformationin the PSZ has developed in a transpressional regime with thrusting sense of movement. The northeasternunit, i.e., the hanging wall contains a variety of rocks namely calc-silicates, pelites and amphibolites andthe southwestern unit, i.e., the footwall unit contains only granitic rocks. Systematic investigation ofthe granites of the southwestern unit indicate a gradual change in the intensity of deformation from adistance of about 1 km west of the shear zone to the shear zone proper. The granite changes from weaklydeformed granite to a mylonite/ultramylonite as we proceed towards the PSZ. The weakly deformedgranite shows a crude foliation with the same attitude of mylonitic foliation of the PSZ. Microscopicstudy reveals the incipient development of C and S fabric with angle between C and S varying from15◦ to 24◦. The small angle between the C and S fabric in the least deformed granite variety indicatesthat the deformation has strong pure shear component. At a distance of about 1 m away from the PSZ,there is abrupt change in the intensity of deformation. The granite becomes intensely foliated with astrong downdip lineation and the rock becomes a true mylonite. In mesoscopic scale, the granite showsstretched porphyroclasts in both XZ and YZ sections indicating a flattening type of deformation. Theangle between the C and S fabric is further reduced and finally becomes nearly parallel. In most places,S fabric is gradually replaced by C fabric. Calculation of sectional kinematic vorticity number (Wn) fromthe protomylonitic and mylonite/ultramylonite granites varies from 0.3 ± 0.03 to 0.55 ± 0.04 indicatinga strong component of pure shear. The similarity of the geometry of structures in the PSZ and thegranites demonstrates that the deformation of the two units is

  7. Wall Turbulence.

    Hanratty, Thomas J.


    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  8. The maid behind "The Handmaid’s Tale": A tainted view of Half-hanged Mary

    Anirban Chatterjee, MBBS


    Full Text Available Although much has been debated about the role of syphilis in the witch hunting craze that swept across Europe in the 16th and 17th Century, the equally horrifying Witch Trials in the United States of America were all bracketed under the common heading of ergotism. Here, I focus on one specific case in particular, which is peculiar owing to many factors, not the least being the fact that the woman who was hanged after being accused of witchcraft, eventually lived!

  9. Increased sensitivity of anodic stripping voltammetry at the hanging mercury drop electrode by ultracathodic deposition.

    Rodrigues, José A; Rodrigues, Carlos M; Almeida, Paulo J; Valente, Inês M; Gonçalves, Luís M; Compton, Richard G; Barros, Aquiles A


    An improved approach to the anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV) determination of heavy metals, using the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE), is reported. It was discovered that using very cathodic accumulation potentials, at which the solvent reduction occurs (overpotential deposition), the voltammetric signals of zinc(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and copper(II) increase. When compared with the classical methodology a 5 to 10-fold signal increase is obtained. This effect is likely due to both mercury drop oscillation at such cathodic potentials and added local convection at the mercury drop surface caused by the evolution of hydrogen bubbles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Petechial hemorrhages of the tympanic membrane in attempted suicide by hanging

    Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Larsen, Per Leganger; Andersen, Kjeld


    of the eyes including the conjunctiva on both the upper and lower eyelids and photo documentation. Petechial hemorrhages of the conjunctiva are considered marker of life threatening hanging or strangulation. Hemorrhage from ears, perforated tympanic membrane and haematotympanum are scarcely described in case...... the fibrous layer. This assumption is made on the basis of our assessment of a normal tympanic membrane with light microscopy. Petechial hemorrhages of the tympanic membrane might in fact be the only sign of life threatening pressure applied to the neck. This is a very important finding and prospective...

  11. Residual drift response analysis and calculated method of self-centering rocking wall structural systems%自复位摇摆墙结构残余变形分析与计算方法

    陈适才; 刘波涛; 程少南; 闫维明


    为研究斜拉索自复位摇摆墙结构的抗震性能及残余变形响应规律,首先,基于抗震设计规范设计不同高度的自复位摇摆墙结构,并通过选择相应的地震波集合对其进行弹塑性时程分析,分析结构的位移和残余位移响应规律;其次,在研究抗震性能的基础上,进一步统计研究结构最大残余层间变形与最大层间变形之间的关系,并建立基于最大层间变形集中系数(DCF)的层间残余变形计算方法与计算公式;最后,通过算例进行分析,验证残余变形计算方法用于自复位摇摆墙结构残余变形分析与计算的合理性和可行性。%To study the seismic performance and residual deformation response of self-centering rocking struc-tures,self-centering rocking structures with different heights are firstly designed according to the code for seis-mic design of buildings,and nonlinear dynamic analysis is performed based on the selected earthquake ground motion records.The displacement response and seismic performance of the rocking structures are studied.Sec-ondly,further study of maximum story drift and residual story drift of the structures is carried out based on the statistical numerical results,and the corresponding residual deformation calculation method based on deforma-tion concentration factor (DCF)is established.Finally,a numerical example is analyzed,and the rationality and feasibility of the residual deformation calculation method for self-centering rocking structures are verified.

  12. Common Cause Case Study: An Estimated Probability of Four Solid Rocket Booster Hold-Down Post Stud Hang-ups

    Cross, Robert


    Until Solid Rocket Motor ignition, the Space Shuttle is mated to the Mobil Launch Platform in part via eight (8) Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) hold-down bolts. The bolts are fractured using redundant pyrotechnics, and are designed to drop through a hold-down post on the Mobile Launch Platform before the Space Shuttle begins movement. The Space Shuttle program has experienced numerous failures where a bolt has hung up. That is, it did not clear the hold-down post before liftoff and was caught by the SRBs. This places an additional structural load on the vehicle that was not included in the original certification requirements. The Space Shuttle is currently being certified to withstand the loads induced by up to three (3) of eight (8) SRB hold-down experiencing a "hang-up". The results of loads analyses performed for (4) stud hang-ups indicate that the internal vehicle loads exceed current structural certification limits at several locations. To determine the risk to the vehicle from four (4) stud hang-ups, the likelihood of the scenario occurring must first be evaluated. Prior to the analysis discussed in this paper, the likelihood of occurrence had been estimated assuming that the stud hang-ups were completely independent events. That is, it was assumed that no common causes or factors existed between the individual stud hang-up events. A review of the data associated with the hang-up events, showed that a common factor (timing skew) was present. This paper summarizes a revised likelihood evaluation performed for the four (4) stud hang-ups case considering that there are common factors associated with the stud hang-ups. The results show that explicitly (i.e. not using standard common cause methodologies such as beta factor or Multiple Greek Letter modeling) taking into account the common factor of timing skew results in an increase in the estimated likelihood of four (4) stud hang-ups of an order of magnitude over the independent failure case.

  13. Petechial hemorrhages of the tympanic membrane in attempted suicide by hanging: A case report.

    Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Larsen, Per Leganger; Andersen, Kjeld; Larsen, Michael; Qvortrup, Klaus; Hougen, Hans Petter


    It is important to determine whether a person has been strangulated and the diagnosis is not always straightforward since ligature marks are not always present. In forensic medicine the physical examination recommended is careful inspection of the head and neck region, oral cavity, examination of the eyes including the conjunctiva on both the upper and lower eyelids and photo documentation. Petechial hemorrhages of the conjunctiva are considered marker of life threatening hanging or strangulation. Hemorrhage from ears, perforated tympanic membrane and haematotympanum are scarcely described in case reports of strangulated patients. To our knowledge we are the first to report petechial hemorrhages of the tympanic membrane in a patient following attempted suicide by hanging. We believe that the petechial hemorrhages develop from the capillaries located in lamina propria of the epidermal layer above the fibrous layer. This assumption is made on the basis of our assessment of a normal tympanic membrane with light microscopy. Petechial hemorrhages of the tympanic membrane might in fact be the only sign of life threatening pressure applied to the neck. This is a very important finding and prospective studies should be conducted for further clarification on the matter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. [Safety provisions for recreational flying or sport with a hang-glider].

    Gennari, M; Lombardo, C


    The Act. n. 106 of 25th March 1985 had defined the specifications of the particular aircraft designed for hobby or sport flying as is the hang-glider. It has also provided for the issue, within six months, of special regulations aimed at "checking the psycho-physical fitness required in handling" such aircraft in additions to the technical knowledge and the information about traffic, safety, insurance regulations relevant to the matter. However, the patent default of the legislator causes the protection of hobby and sport practice of hang-gliding to be either wholly inadequate or ruled by ambiguous regulations. If, instead, the present law in force is referred to, it is deemed that--while waiting for the regulations provided for by n. 106 Act.--the Aereo Club of Italy may define as "agonistic" the practice of "hobby or sport flight" so that the checking of the "specific" fitness required by such sport comes into operation in compliance with the State Decree of 18th February 1982.

  15. Empirical Study on the Volatility of the Hang-Seng Index

    CAI Shi-Min; ZHOU Pei-Ling; YANG Hui-Jie; YANG Chun-Xia; WANG Bing-Hong; ZHOU Tao


    @@ We study the statistical properties of volatility of price fluctuation for the Hang-Seng index in the Hong Kong stock market, they are measured by locally averaging over a time window T, the absolute value of price change over a short time interval △t. The data include minute-by-minute records of the Hang-Seng index from 3 January 1994 to 28 May 1997. We find that the cumulative distribution of the volatility is consistent with the asymptotic power-law behaviour, characterized by the power exponent μ = 2.12 ± 0.04, different from that found in the previous studies as μ≈ 3. The volatility distribution remains the same asymptotic power-law behaviour for the time scales from T = 10 min to T = 80 min. Furthermore, we investigate the volatility correlations by using the power spectrum analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis. Both the methods show a long-range power-law decay with the exponent α = 0.636 ± 0.002.

  16. Empirical Study on the Volatility of the Hang-Seng Index

    Cai, Shi-Min; Zhou, Pei-Ling; Yang, Hui-Jie; Yang, Chun-Xia; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhou, Tao


    We study the statistical properties of volatility of price fluctuation for the Hang-Seng index in the Hong Kong stock market, they are measured by locally averaging over a time window T, the absolute value of price change over a short time interval Δt. The data include minute-by-minute records of the Hang-Seng index from 3 January 1994 to 28 May 1997. We find that the cumulative distribution of the volatility is consistent with the asymptotic power-law behaviour, characterized by the power exponent μ = 2.12+/-0.04, different from that found in the previous studies as μapprox3. The volatility distribution remains the same asymptotic power-law behaviour for the time scales from T = 10 min to T = 80 min. Furthermore, we investigate the volatility correlations by using the power spectrum analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis. Both the methods show a long-range power-law decay with the exponent α = 0.636+/-0.002.

  17. Vortex-induced Vibration of a Flexible Free-hanging Circular Cantilever

    R. W. Prastianto


    Full Text Available An experimental investigation on time-dependent motion of a flexible free-hanging circular cantilever subjected to uniform cross-flows has been carried out. The free-end condition cantilever has a 34.4 aspect ratio and a low mass ratio of about 1.24. The cylinder freely oscillates in both inline and transverse to the flow. Reynolds number varied from 10,800 to 37,800. The “jump phenomenon” was also found in the inline motion of the cylinder that agrees well with an existing comparable work, even occurred at lower flow velocity, Ur, due to distinct conditions of the test. At high flow velocities, the 3rd higher harmonic frequencies of the cylinder transverse response became predominant that produce quite different motion characteristics compared to the other existing comparable works with 2-dimensional bottom-end condition, even same in bidirectional motion aspect. Generally, the results suggested that the flexible free-hanging cantilever generate different vortex wake mode than either, a uniform (a short-rigid flexibly-mounted cylinder or a linear amplitude variation along the span case (a pivoted cylinder.

  18. Numerical simulation of the effects of hanging sound absorbers on TABS cooling performance

    Rage, Nils; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.


    to a degradation of the room acoustic comfort. Therefore, challenges arise when this system has to be combined with acoustic requirements. Soffit-hanging sound absorbers embody a promising solution. This study focuses on quantifying their impact on the cooling performance of TABS, assessed by means of the cooling...... capacity coefficient of the ceiling deck. The influence of different ceiling coverage ratios (0-30-45-60 and 80%) as well as the influence of the distance at which the absorbers are placed is studied by numerical simulations using a new, specially-developed TRNSYS Type. Tests were performed in a test room...... simulating a two-person office of 20 m2, with a typical cooling load of 42 W/m2. The results show that covering 60% of the ceiling surface with sound absorbers hanging at 300 mm from the ceiling active deck is expected to reduce the cooling capacity coefficient of TABS by 15.8%. This drops to 25...

  19. Detrended cross-correlation analysis on RMB exchange rate and Hang Seng China Enterprises Index

    Ruan, Qingsong; Yang, Bingchan; Ma, Guofeng


    In this paper, we investigate the cross-correlations between the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index and RMB exchange markets on the basis of a cross-correlation statistic test and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA). MF-DCCA has, at best, serious limitations for most of the signals describing complex natural processes and often indicates multifractal cross-correlations when there are none. In order to prevent these false multifractal cross-correlations, we apply MFCCA to verify the cross-correlations. Qualitatively, we find that the return series of the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index and RMB exchange markets were, overall, significantly cross-correlated based on the statistical analysis. Quantitatively, we find that the cross-correlations between the stock index and RMB exchange markets were strongly multifractal, and the multifractal degree of the onshore RMB exchange markets was somewhat larger than the offshore RMB exchange markets. Moreover, we use the absolute return series to investigate and confirm the fact of multifractality. The results from the rolling windows show that the short-term cross-correlations between volatility series remain high.

  20. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen


    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  1. Test Study on Insulation Performance of Straw Panel and Rock Wool Used in the Wood Frame Shear Wall%基于秸秆、岩棉材料的木框架剪力墙保温性能试验研究

    刘雁; 郭楷; 周超; 李娟


    Crops straw can be produced as wall insulation materials. The insulation performance of straw panel and rock wool used in the wood frame shear wall was tested and analyzed, and the heat transfer coefficient K0 of two different materials was obtained, both of them will satisfy the current national code. The research conclusion verifies the straw panel is available as the thermal insulation material.%农作物秸秆经过工厂的生产加工,可以制作成新型墙体保温材料。通过在木框架剪力墙墙体中分别放置秸秆板和岩棉,对其进行保温性能的试验和分析,得出秸秆板和岩棉墙体传热系数K0都符合国家规范K≤1.0的要求。试验研究为秸秆板在保温材料领域中的应用提供依据。

  2. Incipient Condition of Hang-up in a Long Standpipe-Hopper System for Geldart-D Powders


    The incipient condition of hang-up for three Geldart-D powders has been experimentally studied in a 21 m long standpipe hopper system. Experimental results show that the pressure gradient for hang-up to occur is independent of the materials height in the hopper and the diameter of orifice and equals to (dpw/dl)s, which can be predicted by Eq. (7). While the corresponding gas velocity in the standpipe equals to the incipient fluidized velocity of particles at the high pressure and can be predicted by Kwauk's equation.

  3. Incipient Condition of Hang-up in a Long Standpipe-Hopper System for Geldart-D Powders

    景山; 蔡国斌; 黄晟; 王金福; 金涌


    The incipient condition of hang-up for three Geldart-D powders has been experimentally studied in a 21 m long standpipe hopper system. Experimental results show that the pressure gradient for hang-up to occur is independent of the materials height in the hopper and the diameter of orifice and equals to (dpw/dl)a, which can be predicted by Eq. (7). While the corresponding gas velocity in the standpipe equals to the incipient fluidized velocity of particles at the high pressure and can be predicted by Kwauk's equation.

  4. Calculation of Electric Field at Ground Surface and ADSS Cable Prepared Hanging Point near EHV Power Transmission Tower

    Xu Bao-Qing


    Full Text Available A simplified model of the 750kV tower is established by CDEGS software which is based on the Method Of Moment. The power frequency electric field distribution on the ground is achieved by software calculation and field-measuring. The validity of the calculation is proved when compare the calculation and experiment results. The model also can be used to calculate the electric field in prepared hanging points on the tower. Results show that the electric field distribution on the ground surface around the tower and prepared hanging points are meet the standard by calculation and experiment.

  5. Wall Art

    McGinley, Connie Q.


    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  6. Petrogenesis and geodynamic setting of Early Cretaceous mafic-ultramafic intrusions, South China: A case study from the Gan-Hang tectonic belt

    Qi, Youqiang; Hu, Ruizhong; Liu, Shen; Coulson, Ian M.; Qi, Huawen; Tian, Jianji; Zhu, Jingjing


    A study using whole-rock major-trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes as well as zircon U-Pb dating has been carried out on Early Cretaceous mafic-ultramafic intrusions from the Gan-Hang tectonic belt (GHTB), South China, to understand the origin of mantle sources and the sequential evolution of the underlying Late Mesozoic lithospheric mantle of this area. The study focused on two intrusions, one at Quzhou and the other at Longyou (see Fig. 1). They are primarily composed of mafic-ultramafic rocks with wide range of chemical compositions. The Quzhou mafic rocks have relatively narrow ranges of SiO2 (48.94-51.79 wt%), MgO (6.07-7.21 wt%), Fe2O3 (10.48-11.56 wt%), CaO (8.20-8.81 wt%), and Mg# (51.7-56.5) with relatively low K2O (0.56-0.67 wt%) and Na2O (3.09-3.42 wt%). By contrast, the ultramafic rocks from Longyou have distinct lower SiO2 (41.50-45.11 wt%) and higher MgO (9.05-9.90 wt%), Fe2O3 (12.14-12.62 wt%), CaO (8.64-10.67 wt%), and Mg# (59.5-61.1) with relatively higher K2O (1.32-1.75 wt%) and Na2O (4.53-5.08 wt%). They are characterized by Ocean Island Basalts (OIB)-type trace element distribution patterns, with a significant enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREE), large ion lithophile elements (LILE, i.e., Rb, Ba, K, and Sr) and high field strength elements (HFSE, i.e., Nb, Ta), and slight depletion of Th, U, Ti, and Y. The intrusions exhibit relatively depleted Sr-Nd isotope compositions, with (87Sr/86Sr)i range of 0.7035 to 0.7055 (143Nd/144Nd)i of 0.51264 to 0.51281 and εNd(t) values of + 3.0 to + 6.6. Zircon U-Pb dating of Longyou and Quzhou intrusions yields consistent magma emplacement ages of 129.0 ± 3.9 to 126.2 ± 2.4 Ma, respectively. The dating results are consistent with the peak of extension in Early Cretacerous throughout the Gan-Hang tectonic belt. Their magmas were principally derived from near-solidus partial melting of pyroxenites with different content of silica, and the pyroxenites were resulted from a juvenile SCLM peridotite

  7. An autopsy study of death due to Suicidal Hanging – 264 cases

    Dinesh Rao


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out between 2010 and 2013, a total of 7968 Autopsies were conducted of which 3.31% (n – 264 cases were deaths due to hanging. The most preferred ligature materials were Stole (n – 79 and Bed spread/Sari (n – 68. In 88% of the cases, hanging was complete. Females (n – 136 and males (n – 128 were equally affected. The major age group involved in both the sexes was of 31–40 years, contributing to 50.76% (n – 136 of the self suspension. In 80.58% (n – 213 of the incidents, ligature mark showed discontinuity (incomplete. A Slip type of knot was used in majority of the noose, contributing to 97.73% (n – 258 of the suspensions. In 87.88% (n – 232 of hanging an oblique shaped ligature mark was noticed. The horizontal and near oblique ligature marks were seen only in cases of partial suspension. In 95.45% (n – 252 of the cases, the ligature mark showed blackening of the skin (friction burn. Only 4.54% (n – 12 showed intact skin. The outer layer of the skin over the ligature mark showed displacement in majority of the cases. Married victims contributed to 70.45% of cases. Domestic issues were the commonest reason (n – 82 for self suspension, of which female (n – 68 formed the majority of victims. In 70.83% (n – 187 of cases damage to neck muscle fibers and hemorrhage at the Sternal end of the Sternocleidomastoid muscle were present. In 85.61% (n – 226 of cases the cervical vertebra was intact. In 52.27% (n – 138 of the cases the internal carotid artery showed transverse tear. In 99.42% (n – 248 cases the thyroid cartilage was found intact. The hyoid bone was damaged in 6.06% (n – 16 of the victims. Majority of the victims, 59.09% (n – 156 belonged to low socioeconomic class.

  8. Seismic displacement of gravity retaining walls

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Seismic displacement of gravity walls had been studied using conventional static methods for controlled displacement design. In this study plain strain numerical analysis is performed using Plaxis dynamic program where prescribed displacement is applied at the bottom boundary of the soil to simulate the applied seismic load. Constrained absorbent side boundaries are introduced to prevent any wave reflection. The studied soil is chosen dense granular sand and modeled as elasto-plastic material according to Mohr–Column criteria while the gravity wall is assumed elastic. By comparing the resulted seismic wall displacements calculated by numerical analysis for six historical ground motions with that calculated by the pseudo-static method, it is found that numerical seismic displacements are either equal to or greater than corresponding pseudo-static values. Permissible seismic wall displacement calculated by AASHTO can be used for empirical estimation of seismic displacement. It is also found that seismic wall displacement is directly proportional with the positive angle of inclination of the back surface of the wall, soil flexibility and with the earthquake maximum ground acceleration. Seismic wall sliding is dominant and rotation is negligible for rigid walls when the ratio between the wall height and the foundation width is less than 1.4, while for greater ratios the wall becomes more flexible and rotation (rocking increases till the ratio reaches 1.8 where overturning is susceptible to take place. Cumulative seismic wall rotation increases with dynamic time and tends to be constant at the end of earthquake.

  9. Hemi-hepatectomy in pediatric patients using two-surgeon technique and a liver hanging maneuver

    Kyoko Mochizuki; Susumu Eguchi; Ryuichiro Hirose; Taiichiro Kosaka; Mitsuhisa Takatsuki; Takashi Kanematsu


    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of the two-surgeon technique with the liver hanging maneuver (LHM) for hepatectomies in pediatric patients with hepatoblastoma. METHODS: Three pediatric patients with hepatoblastoma were enrolled in this study. Two underwent right hemi-hepatectomies and one underwent a left hemihepatectomy using the two-surgeon technique by means of saline-linked electric cautery (SLC) and the Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator (CUSA; Valleylab, Boulder, CO) and the LHM. RESULTS: The mean operative time during the parenchymal transections was 50 min and the mean blood loss was 235 g. There was no bile leakage from the cut surface after surgery. No macroscopic or microscopic-positive margins were observed in the hepatic transections. CONCLUSION: The two-surgeon technique using SLC and CUSA with the LHM is applicable to even pediatric patients with hepatoblastoma.

  10. Explanation for the Transverse Radiation Force Observed on a Vertically Hanging Fiber

    Brevik, Iver


    As shown in the experiment of She {\\it et al.} [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 101}, 243601 (2008)], a weak laser beam sent through a vertically hanging fiber exerts a transverse force and produces a lateral displacement of the fiber's lower end. The experiment is of obvious theoretical interest in connection with the electromagnetic theory of media. Suggested explanations given for this effect in the past include the famous Abraham-Minkowski issue concerning the "correct" photon momentum in matter. In our opinion such an explanation can hardly be right. Instead, we propose instead a very simple description of the effect implying that the sideways deflection is caused by the radiation force on the {\\it obliquely cut} lower end face of the fiber. From a calculation based upon geometrical optics, we find quite good agreement with the observations. We present also, as an alternative approach, a calculation involving wave optics instead of geometrical optics, and find comparable results.

  11. Mathematical Modelling of the Electrode Process of Azithromycin Using Cyclic Voltammetry at Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode

    Maha F. Tutunji


    Full Text Available A theoretical treatment is presented to predict the kinetic behaviour of azithromycin at the surface of hanging mercury drop electrode using cyclic voltammetry. A model is developed to incorporate the occurrence of adsorption of the oxidized and reduced species of azithromycin at the surface of mercury drop electrode. An analytical solution was obtained using MATHEMATICA (V-3, Wolfram Research, Inc. to predict the cyclic voltammetric profiles by calculating the currents resulting after applying variable potentials ranging –1.9 to –1.3 V versus Ag/AgCl. Simulation runs at different initial concentrations of azithromycin and different scan rates showed good agreement with experimental findings. However, this model should be modified to describe a multilayer adsorption with irreversible electrochemical reaction.

  12. Time forecast of a break-off event from a hanging glacier

    Faillettaz, Jérome; Funk, Martin; Vagliasindi, Marco


    A cold hanging glacier located on the south face of the Grandes Jorasses (Mont Blanc, Italy) broke off on the 23 and 29 September 2014 with a total estimated ice volume of 105 000 m3. Thanks to accurate surface displacement measurements taken up to the final break-off, this event was successfully predicted 10 days in advance, enabling local authorities to take the necessary safety measures. The break-off event also confirmed that surface displacements experienced a power law acceleration along with superimposed log-periodic oscillations prior to the final rupture. This paper describes the methods used to achieve a satisfactory time forecast in real time and demonstrates, using a retrospective analysis, their potential for the development of early-warning systems in real time.

  13. Predictability of multifractal analysis of Hang Seng stock index in Hong Kong

    Sun, Xia; Chen, Huiping; Yuan, Yongzhuang; Wu, Ziqin


    In this paper, the daily Hang Seng index in Hong Kong stock market is studied by multifractal analysis. The main parameter of multifractal spectra used is Δ f, which can be used to characterize the ratio of number of highest index moments to that of lowest ones. The dependence of today's gain probability ( G%) and the day's index increase probability ( n%) with Δ f of the previous 3 days are studied. It is found that G% and n% can reach 70-80% at the large positive Δ f region and can be very close to 20% at the big negative Δ f region. The predictability decreases with the increasing number of the previous days.


    Jacek NOWICKI


    Full Text Available The behaviour of weaners after mixing housed in pens equipped with hanging wooden ball, aromatized with vanilla fluid hanging wooden ball and without enrichment was evaluated. It was found that both enrichments reduced aggression, however the most interesting for weaners was the aromatized wooden ball.


    Jacek NOWICKI


    Full Text Available The behaviour of weaners after mixing housed in pens equipped with hanging fl exible, destructible object for biting, hanging non-destructible wooden ball and without enrichment was evaluated. It was found that both enrichments reduced aggression, however the most interesting for weaners was the object for biting.

  16. Nonabsorbable versus absorbable sutures in large, hang-back medial rectus muscle recessions.

    Awadein, Ahmed; Marsh, Justin D; Guyton, David L


    To investigate the value of nonabsorbable sutures in reducing the incidence of consecutive exotropia after large, "hang-back" medial rectus recessions. The medical records of patients who underwent medial rectus recession of ≥6.5 mm in individuals ≤2 years of age, or ≥7.0 mm in those >2 years were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups based on suture material used: absorbable, polyglactin 910 sutures (44 patients); nonabsorbable, polyester sutures (50 patients). Preoperative measurements, ductions, strabismus surgery, and postoperative results were analyzed. Inadequate anchoring of the medial rectus muscle was suspected when consecutive exotropia developed 4-7 weeks after surgery after initial satisfactory alignment and was confirmed if during reoperation the medial rectus muscle appeared recessed >2 mm beyond the originally intended recession. Consecutive exotropia due to inadequate anchoring of the medial rectus muscle occurred in 11 of 66 muscles (17%) in the absorbable suture group. The muscle was found 6-10 mm posterior to the intended recession. Limited duction in the field of action of the involved medial rectus muscle occurred in 9 of the 11 muscles (82%). None of the eyes with nonabsorbable sutures showed inadequate anchoring. The incidence of consecutive exotropia was higher in the absorbable suture group (30%) than in the nonabsorbable suture group (6%) (P < 0.005). Using nonabsorbable suture for large, hang-back medial rectus recessions greatly reduces the incidence of consecutive exotropia that can occur when absorbable suture dissolves. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of various loads on the force-time characteristics of the hang high pull.

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Beckham, George K; Wright, Glenn A


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various loads on the force-time characteristics associated with peak power during the hang high pull (HHP). Fourteen athletic men (age: 21.6 ± 1.3 years; height: 179.3 ± 5.6 cm; body mass: 81.5 ± 8.7 kg; 1 repetition maximum [1RM] hang power clean [HPC]: 104.9 ± 15.1 kg) performed sets of the HHP at 30, 45, 65, and 80% of their 1RM HPC. Peak force, peak velocity, peak power, force at peak power, and velocity at peak power were compared between loads. Statistical differences in peak force (p = 0.001), peak velocity (p < 0.001), peak power (p = 0.015), force at peak power (p < 0.001), and velocity at peak power (p < 0.001) existed, with the greatest values for each variable occurring at 80, 30, 45, 80, and 30% 1RM HPC, respectively. Effect sizes between loads indicated that larger differences in velocity at peak power existed as compared with those displayed by force at peak power. It seems that differences in velocity may contribute to a greater extent to differences in peak power production as compared with force during the HHP. Further investigation of both force and velocity at peak power during weightlifting variations is necessary to provide insight on the contributing factors of power production. Specific load ranges should be prescribed to optimally train the variables associated with power development during the HHP.

  18. Learning the Hang Power Clean: Kinetic, Kinematic, and Technical Changes in Four Weightlifting Naive Athletes.

    Haug, William B; Drinkwater, Eric J; Chapman, Dale W


    The investment in learning required to reach benefit with weightlifting training is currently not well understood in elite athletes. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify changes in vertical jump power production and kinematic variables in hang power clean (HPC) performance during the learning process from a naive state in a multiple single-subject research design. Four elite athletes undertook HPC learning for approximately 20-30 minutes twice per week over a 169-day period. Changes in parameters of vertical power production during squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) were monitored from baseline (day 0) and at 3 additional occasions. Hang power clean movement kinematics and bar path traces were monitored from day 35 and at 3 additional occasions particular to the individual's periodized training plan. Descriptive statistics were reported within athletes as mean ± SD. We observed a 14.1-35.7% (SJ) and a -14.4 to 20.5% (CMJ) gain in peak power across the 4 jump testing occasions with improvements over the first 4 weeks (SJ: 9.2-32.6%; CMJ: -2.91 to 20.79%). Changes in HPC movement kinematics and barbell path traces occurred for each athlete indicating a more rearward-directed center of pressure over the concentric phase, greater double knee bend during the transition phase, decreased maximal plantar flexion, and minimal vertical displacement of body mass with HPC learning. Considering the minimal investment of 4 weeks to achieve increases in vertical power production, the benefits of training with HPC justified the associated time costs for these 4 elite athletes.

  19. Construct validity of a modification of the flexed arm hang test.

    Clemons, Jim M


    Despite the ubiquitous use of the flexed arm hang (FAH) as a field test of muscular fitness, evidence for the construct validity of it is lacking. The strongest validity coefficients (r) to date are 0.71 and 0.72 found by correlating modified versions of the FAH (i.e., 90 and 180° of elbow extension, respectively) with relative dynamic strength (i.e., 1 repetition maximum [1RM] lat pull downs × body mass). Considering a significant portion of all FAH and modified flexed arm hang (MFAH) performances are isometric, the test may be more correlated with the construct of relative isometric strength (RIS) rather than relative dynamic strength. The purpose of this study was to determine if the construct validity of the 90° MFAH might be strengthened by correlating it with either absolute isometric strength (AIS) (i.e., maximum volitional isometric contraction [MVIC]) or RIS (i.e., MVIC × body mass). Thirty-one college-aged women participated in the study. Inter-rater reliability coefficients for two 90° MFAH tests were determined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC): F1,30 = 1.356, ICC = 0.99; F1,30 = 0.675, ICC = 0.99. In addition, test-retest reliability was also found to be excellent: F1,30 = 3.809; ICC = 0.98. Pearson product moment correlation (r) was used at an adjusted alpha level of 0.025 to examine construct validity of the 90° MFAH with both AIS (MVIC) and RIS (MVIC × body mass). Results indicated no significant relationship with AIS (r = 0.096, p = 0.606); however, a strong significant relationship emerged with RIS (r = 0.878, p = 0.000). It was concluded that 90° MFAH scores alone were not related to absolute strength; however, they were found to be a valid and reliable estimate of the construct of RIS.

  20. Geotechnical Descriptions of Rock and Rock Masses.


    weathering is presented by Dornbusch (1982). 39. Mechanical, or physical, weathering of rock occurs primarily by (a) freeze expansion (or frost wedging...34Engineering Classifica- tion of In-Situ Rock," Technical Report No. AFWL-TR-67-144, Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N. Mex. Dornbusch , W



    The FIRE AND RESCUE Group of TIS Commission informs that the climbing wall in the yard of the Fire-fighters Station, is intended for the sole use of the members of that service, and recalls that access to this installation is forbidden for safety reasons to all persons not belonging to the Service.CERN accepts no liability for damage or injury suffered as a result of failure to comply with this interdiction.TIS/DI

  2. Hydrology of some deep mines in Precambrian rocks

    Yardley, D.H.


    A number of underground mines were investigated during the summer of 1975. All of them are in Precambrian rocks of the Lake Superior region. They represent a variety of geologic settings. The purpose of the investigations was to make a preliminary study of the dryness, or lack of dryness of these rocks at depth. In other words, to see if water was entering the deeper workings through the unmined rock by some means such as fracture or fault zones, joints or permeable zones. Water entering through old mine workings extending to, or very near to the surface, or from the drilling equipment, was of interest only insofar as it might mask any water whose source was through the hanging or footwall rocks. No evidence of running, seeping or moving water was seen or reported at depths exceeding 3,000 feet. At depths of 3,000 feet or less, water seepages do occur in some of the mines, usually in minor quantities but increased amounts occur as depth becomes less. Others are dry at 2,000 feet of depth. Rock movements associated with extensive mining should increase the local secondary permeability of the rocks adjoining the mined out zones. Also most ore bodies are located where there has been a more than average amount of faulting, fracturing, and folding during the geologic past. They tend to cluster along crustal flows. In general, Precambrian rocks of similar geology, to those seen, well away from zones that have been disturbed by extensive deep mining, and well away from the zones of more intense geologic activity ought to be even less permeable than their equivalents in a mining district.

  3. Toxicologic Laboratory Findings in Cases Reported with Hanging Death: a Two-Year Retrospective Study in Northeast Iran

    Mohammad Ranjbar


    How to cite this article: Ranjbar R, Liaghat AR, Ranjbar A, Mohabbati H. Toxicologic Laboratory Findings in Cases Reported with Hanging Death: a Two-Year Retrospective Study in Northeast Iran. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2013;2:92-5.

  4. A Flexible-Segment-Model-Based Dynamics Calculation Method for Free Hanging Marine Risers in Re-Entry

    XU Xue-song; WANG Sheng-wei


    In re-entry,the drilling riser hanging to the holding vessel takes on a free hanging state,waiting to be moved from the initial random position to the wellhead.For the re-entry,dynamics calculation is often done to predict the riser motion or evaluate the structural safety.A dynamics calculation method based on Flexible Segment Model (FSM) is proposed for free hanging marine risers.In FSM,a riser is discretized into a series of flexible segments.For each flexible segment,its deflection feature and external forces are analyzed independently.For the whole riser,the nonlinear governing equations are listed according to the moment equilibrium at nodes.For the solution of the nonlinear equations,a linearization iteration scheme is provided in the paper.Owing to its flexibility,each segment can match a long part of the riser body,which enables that good results can be obtained even with a small number of segments.Moreover,the linearization iteration scheme can avoid widely used Newton-Rapson iteration scheme in which the calculation stability is influenced by the initial points.The FSM-based dynamics calculation is timesaving and stable,so suitable for the shape prediction or real-time control of free hanging marine risers.

  5. 含水软岩马头门穿越冻结壁技术要点研究%Research of technical points on the cross of horsehead and freezing wall in water-bearing soft rock

    李俊鸿; 李林; 季兰明


    Taking the construction of Hongqingliang horse-head gate through the freezing walls as the example,the paper introduces the measures to prevent the freezing pipe from be damaged in the jacking process,and illustrates some techniques,including the safe emission and discharge of salty water in freezing pipes,disconnection of the freezing pipes,the consolidation,and the plugging,so as to achieve the expected construc-tion effect.%以红庆梁马头门穿越冻结壁施工为例,介绍了掘进过程中防止破坏冻结管需采取的措施,对冻结管内盐水的安全泄出及排放措施、冻结管的截断、加固、封堵等技术进行了详细阐述,以达到良好的施工效果。

  6. The Rock Cycle

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan


    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  7. My Pet Rock

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie


    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  8. My Pet Rock

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie


    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  9. 库什塔依水电站冬季施工的碾压式土石坝沥青混凝土心墙配合比试验研究%Experimental Study on the Mix Proportion of the Asphalt Concrete Core Wall of Rolled Earth-rock Dam in Winter Construction of Cush Kobita Bea Hydropower Station



    库什塔依水电站位于寒冷地区,沥青混凝土心墙施工期较短,为加快工程施工进度,提前发挥发电效益,对其沥青混凝土心墙冬季低温施工的配合比进行了试验研究,并通过模拟试验验证了-25℃低温条件下的施工工艺。主要包括确定适合冬季低温施工的配合比,冬季施工沥青混凝土的分离度、层间结合性能、压实效果、接合面渗透性及沥青混凝土的力学特性。试验成果表明,沥青混凝土的各项性能均满足设计要求。%Cush Kobita Bea Hydropower Station is located in cold region of Xinjiang ,which leaves shorter time for the construction of asphalt concrete core wall of the rolled earth-rock dam .In order to shorten the construction time and make it possible for the station to operate in advance ,the mix propotion of asphalt concrete core wall were studied for winter low temperature construction .The construction process were simulated at -25℃ to test for resolution ,performance be-tween the layers ,compaction effect ,permeability of contact face and physical-mechanical properties of the asphalt con-crete .The results indicate that the properties of the asphalt concrete can meet the design requirements .

  10. Rock History and Culture

    Gonzalez, Éric


    Two ambitious works written by French-speaking scholars tackle rock music as a research object, from different but complementary perspectives. Both are a definite must-read for anyone interested in the contextualisation of rock music in western popular culture. In Une histoire musicale du rock (i.e. A Musical History of Rock), rock music is approached from the point of view of the people – musicians and industry – behind the music. Christophe Pirenne endeavours to examine that field from a m...

  11. Comparison of Design Schemes of Inclined Pile and Vertical Pile in Embedded Rock Pile of Thin Walled Abut-ment%薄壁桥台嵌岩桩基础斜桩与直桩设计方案的比较



      According to the pile foundation engineering of 2nd section of Monapo bridge foundation project in Nampula-Cua-mbaroad road upgrading and regeneration in Mozambique, calculation analysis was made on the stress and reinforcement of different base heights and pile lengths of embedded rock pile of thin walled abutment with Prokon 2.5 structure analysis software, so as to provide the basis for rational selection of pile foundation type based on different formation conditions and base heights in the design.%  结合莫桑比克Nampula-Cuamba道路升级改造项目第二标段Monapo桥基础桩基工程,采用Prokon 2.5结构分析软件对薄壁桥台嵌岩斜桩和直桩在不同台高和不同桩长的受力和配筋情况分别进行计算分析,从而为设计中根据不同地层条件和不同台高选择合理的桩基形式提供依据.

  12. Principles of rock mechanics

    Turchaninov, I.A.; Iofis, M.A.; Kasparyan, E.V.


    This book presents the principles of rock mechanics in a systematic way, reflecting both the historic development and the contemporary status of theoretical and experimental techniques used for the determination of the properties and stress state of rock masses, calculation of elements of systems for exploitation of useful mineral deposits and the design of mine openings. The subject of rock mechanics is discussed and methods and basic approaches are analyzed. The most widely used methods for determining the properties of rock in specimens and in situ are described. Problems of determining the stress strain state of the rock around mine openings by both experimental and analytic methods are discussed. The primary results of the study of the stress state of rock around main, development and production openings are presented. Problems of the movement of rock due to extraction of minerals are analyzed in detail, as are the conditions and causes of the development of rock bursts and sudden release of rock and gas in both surface and underground mines. Procedures for preventing or localizing rock bursts or sudden outbursts are described. (313 refs.)

  13. Poverty Eradication in Fragile Places: Prospects for Harvesting the Highest Hanging Fruit by 2030

    Gary Milante


    Full Text Available This paper explores the range of likely and potential progress on poverty eradication in fragile states to 2030. Using the International Futures model and recently released 2011 International Comparison Program data, this paper calculates current (2015 poverty for a US$1.90 poverty line, and subsequently runs three scenarios. The estimates suggest that there are 485 million poor in fragile states in 2015, a 33.5 per cent poverty rate. This paper’s Base Case scenario results in a forecasted 22.8 per cent poverty rate in fragile states by 2030. The most optimistic scenario yields a 13.1 per cent poverty rate for this group of countries (257 million. An optimistic scenario reflecting political constraints in fragile states yields a 19.1 per cent poverty rate (376 million. Even under the most optimistic circumstances, fragile states will almost certainly be home to hundreds of millions of poor in 2030, suggesting that the world must do things dramatically differently if we are to reach the high hanging fruit and truly ‘leave no one behind’ in the next fifteen years of development.

  14. Mechanically tunable aspheric lenses via additive manufacture of hanging elastomeric droplets for microscopic applications

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Chen, Pin-Wen; Lai, Zheng-Hong


    Mechanically deformable lenses with dynamically tunable focal lengths have been developed in this work. The fabricated five types of aspheric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) lenses presented here have an initial focal length of 7.0, 7.8, 9.0, 10.0 and 10.2 mm. Incorporating two modes of operation in biconvex and concave-convex configurations, the focal lengths can be tuned dynamically as 5.2-10.2, 5.5-9.9, 6.6-11.9, 6.1-13.5 and 6.6-13.5 mm respectively. Additive manufacturing was utilized to fabricate these five types of aspheric lenses (APLs) via sequential layering of PDMS materials. Complex structures with three-dimensional features and shorter focal lengths can be successfully produced by repeatedly depositing, inverting and curing controlled PDMS volume onto previously cured PDMS droplets. From our experiments, we empirically found a direct dependence of the focal length of the lenses with the amount (volume) of deposited PDMS droplets. This new mouldless, low-cost, and flexible lens fabrication method is able to transform an ordinary commercial smartphone camera into a low-cost portable microscope. A few microscopic features can be readily visualized, such as wrinkles of ladybird pupa and printed circuit board. The fabrication technique by successively applying hanging droplet and facile mechanical focal-length-tuning set-up can be easily adopted in the development of high-performance optical lenses.

  15. An approach to Hang Seng Index in Hong Kong stock market based on network topological statistics


    Using homogenous partition of coarse graining process, the time series of Hang Seng Index (HSI) in Hong Kong stock market is transformed into discrete symbolic sequences S={S1S2S3…}, Si∈(R, r, d, D). Weighted networks of stock market are constructed by vertices that are 16 2-symbol strings (i.e. 16 patterns of HSI variations), and encode stock market relevant information about interconnections and interactions between fluctuation patterns of HSI in networks topology. By means of the measurements of betweenness centrality (BC) in networks, we have at least obtained 3 highest betweenness centrality uniform vertices in 2 order of magnitude of time subinterval scale, i.e. 18.7% vertices undertake 71.9% betweenness centrality of networks, showing statistical stability. These properties cannot be found in random networks; here vertices almost have identical betweenness centrality. By comparison to random networks, we conclude that Hong Kong stock market, rather than a random system, is statistically stable.

  16. Albrecht Ludwig Berblinger--inventor of the spring prosthesis and hang-glider (1811).

    Harsch, Viktor; Kriebel, Juergen


    Albrecht Ludwig Berblinger (1770-1829), known as the "Flying Tailor of Ulm", started with flight experiments in Ulm, Germany, in the early 19th century. He gained experience in downhill gliding with a maneuverable airworthy semi-rigid hang-glider and then attempted to cross the Danube River at Ulm's Eagle's Bastion on the 31st of May 1811. The tricky local winds caused him to crash and he was rescued by fishermen, making him the first survivor of a water immersion accident of a heavier-than-air manned "flight machine". Though he failed in his attempt to be the first man to fly, Berblinger can be regarded as one of the significant aviation pioneers who applied the "heavier than air" principle and paved the way for the more effective glide-flights of Otto Lilienthal (1891) and the Wright Brothers (1902). Less known are Berblinger's significant contributions to the construction of artificial limbs for medical use, as well as the spring-application in aviation. His invention of a special mechanical joint was also used for the juncture of the wings of his "flying machine". Because of his worthwhile contributions to medicine and flight, in 1993 the German Academy of Aviation Medicine named an annual award for young scientists in the field of aerospace medicine in his honor.

  17. Increased sensitivity of anodic stripping voltammetry at the hanging mercury drop electrode by ultracathodic deposition

    Rodrigues, Jose A.; Rodrigues, Carlos M.; Almeida, Paulo J.; Valente, Ines M.; Goncalves, Luis M. [Requimte - Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, no. 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Compton, Richard G. [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Barros, Aquiles A., E-mail: [Requimte - Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, no. 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)


    Highlights: {yields} At very cathodic accumulation potentials (overpotential deposition) the voltammetric signals of Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} increase. {yields} 5 to 10-fold signal increase is obtained. {yields} This effect is likely due to mercury drop oscillation at such cathodic potentials. {yields} This effect is also likely due to added local convection at the mercury drop surface caused by the evolution of hydrogen bubbles. - Abstract: An improved approach to the anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV) determination of heavy metals, using the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE), is reported. It was discovered that using very cathodic accumulation potentials, at which the solvent reduction occurs (overpotential deposition), the voltammetric signals of zinc(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and copper(II) increase. When compared with the classical methodology a 5 to 10-fold signal increase is obtained. This effect is likely due to both mercury drop oscillation at such cathodic potentials and added local convection at the mercury drop surface caused by the evolution of hydrogen bubbles.

  18. Heart rate responses and fluid balance of competitive cross-country hang gliding pilots.

    Morton, Darren P


    To evaluate the physiological challenges of competitive cross-country hang gliding. Seventeen experienced male pilots (age=41+/-9 y; mean+/-SD) were fitted with a monitor that recorded heart rate and altitude at 0.5 Hz throughout a competitive flight. Fluid losses were evaluated by comparing pilot pre- and postflight mass. The pilots' displacement was 88.4+/-43.7 km in 145.5+/-49.4 min. Mean flight altitude was 1902+/-427 m (range=1363-2601 m) with a maximum altitude of 2925+/-682 m (1870-3831 m). The mean in-flight heart rate of the pilots was 112+/-11 bpm (64+/-6% predicted HRmax). For all except one subject, heart rate was highest while launching (165+/-12 bpm, 93+/-7% predicted HRmax), followed by landing (154+/-13 bpm, 87+/-7% predicted HRmax). No statistically significant relationship was observed between heart rate during the launch and reported measures of state anxiety. Heart rate was inversely related (PFluid loss during the flight was 1.32+/-0.70 L, which approximated 0.55 L/h, while mean in-flight fluid consumption was 0.39+/-0.44 L. Six pilots consumed no fluid during the flight. Even among experienced pilots, high heart rates are more a function of state anxiety than physical work demand. Fluid losses during flight are surprisingly moderate but pilots may still benefit from attending to fluid balance.

  19. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect on Edge Distance of the Tensile Bearing Capacity of Embedded Hanging Parts

    Meng Xian Hong; Liu Wei


    In order to explore the trend of tensile bearing capacity of embedded hanging parts when change the edge distance. Based on the finite element analysis software ABAQUS, the four simulation model was established. The buried depth and strength of concrete remain unchanged, but the edge distance was gradient change. By the load - displacement curve of every model known, the greater the edge distance, the greater the bearing capacity. When the edge distance reaches 1.5 times buried depth, the eff...

  20. Hanging Maneuver for Stomach Traction in Laparoscopic Distal Pancreatic Resections: An Original Technique Applied in 218 Patients.

    Dokmak, Safi; Aussilhou, Béatrice; Ftériche, Fadhel Samir; Belghiti, Jacques; Sauvanet, Alain


    Stomach traction done to expose the pancreas is still a problem in laparoscopic left pancreatic resections. We developed a simple hanging maneuver to retract the stomach rapidly and effectively. After dividing the gastrocolic ligament, the stomach was encircled with a tape, turned along its horizontal axis and pulled with an epigastric trocar, which was later removed. This technique was used in all patients who underwent laparoscopic left pancreatic resections including 165 distal pancreatectomies (DP), 35 central pancreatectomies (CP) and 18 enucleations (En). Demographics, surgical and postoperative outcome data were recorded. There were no mortalities. The mean operative time for DP, CP and En were 174, 191 and 104 min, respectively. The transfusion (0-4%) and conversion (0-3%) rates were low for all procedures. Morbidity was mainly represented by pancreatic fistula and grades (B + C) for DP, CP and En were observed in 26, 22 and 17%, respectively. No complication related to hanging of the stomach, like gastric perforation, was observed. Re-intervention and the mean hospital stay for DP, CP and En were observed in 5, 11 and 0% and were 16, 22 and 12, respectively. The readmission rate was low (0-9%). Hanging maneuver of the stomach is a simple procedure to rapidly, safely and effectively retract the stomach during left laparoscopic pancreatic resections. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Magnetoplasma excitations and the effect of electron and hole velocity renormalization in free-hanging graphene studied by Raman scattering

    Kukushkin, V. I.; Kirpichev, V. E.; Kukushkin, I. V.


    The properties of plasma and magnetoplasma excitations in free-hanging graphene have been studied for the first time by Raman scattering. In addition to single-particle excitations associated with transitions between empty Landau levels of electrons and holes, collective plasma and magnetoplasma excitations in the system of electrons (and holes) of various densities have been discovered for the first time. Hybridization of plasma and cyclotron modes corresponding to the Kohn law has been shown to occur in the limit of high filling factors, which allows measuring directly the plasma and cyclotron energies. The dependence of the electron and hole velocities on their density has been investigated via the magnetic-field dependence of the cyclotron energy in free-hanging graphene. The effect of strong renormalization of the electron and hole dispersion relations seen as an increase in the velocity (by 40-50%) with a decrease in the charge-carrier density to 1011 cm-2 has been discovered. The charge-carrier density dependences of the widths of magnetoplasma resonances in free-hanging graphene and graphene lying on a silicon dioxide surface have been measured and shown to be at least 3.5 and 14.8 meV, respectively.

  2. Tertiary foraminiferal rock samples from the western Solomon Sea

    Haig, David W.


    Rock fragments dredged from four R/VNatsushima stations contain Tertiary foraminifera. The oldest sample is an upper bathyal biomicrite of Early Eocene age (52 to 53.5 Ma) from the the Trobriand Platform. Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene neritic limestones were located off the Trobriand Platform and on the inner wall of the New Britain Trench. Miocene bathyal sediments come from the Trobriand Platform; similar Pliocene rocks were recovered here as well as from the inner wall of the New Britain Trench and the central part of the Solomon Sea Basin. No reworked pre-Tertiary foraminifera are present in any sample.

  3. Measuring crustal convergence using rock exhumation along the complex glaciated Chugach Mountains, southeast Alaska

    Spotila, J. A.; Buscher, J.


    Rates of rock uplift often constrain magnitudes of convergent plate motion in collisional settings. In complex orogenic belts, however, these rates can be difficult to measure. In southeast Alaska, a rapidly-evolving mountain system is centered at a syntaxial bend in the Pacific-North American plate boundary. Rugged topography of the Chugach Mountains stretches for more than 500 km along the hanging wall of the Aleutian Trench, above a colliding microplate, and as coast ranges along the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather transform fault. At each segment of the plate boundary, crustal convergence within North America should vary according to the obliquity of plate motion and the degree of underthrusting. Geodetic and neotectonic studies of rapidly-eroding structures have yet to define rates of horizontal plate motion partitioning. Surface uplift studies, based on short term geodesy or Holocene motion of coastal landforms, are also complicated by megathrust elastic strain accumulation cycles and the viscoelastic response to recent glacial ice thinning. It is thus important to measure exhumation and the erosional transfer of mass as a proxy for the degree of upper crustal convergence accommodated by rock uplift. We have attempted to determine exhumation pattern where the highly-deformed, oceanic and continental rocks of the Yakutat microplate collide with North America. Although the total shortening rate between this microplate and North America is of the order ~3-5 cm/yr, an unconstrained magnitude of shortening is absorbed by imbricate thrust faults within it, the suture between it and North America, and within the previously accreted terranes that form the edge of the continent. We have constrained rock cooling histories as a proxy for exhumation on samples along a dense grid that spans major structural elements, including the Pamplona and Chugach-St. Elias fault systems. Apatite and zircon radiogenic helium ages provide a range in temperature sensitivity that can be used

  4. Falling walls

    It was 20 years ago this week that the Berlin wall was opened for the first time since its construction began in 1961. Although the signs of a thaw had been in the air for some time, few predicted the speed of the change that would ensue. As members of the scientific community, we can take a moment to reflect on the role our field played in bringing East and West together. CERN’s collaboration with the East, primarily through links with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR, in Dubna, Russia, is well documented. Less well known, however, is the role CERN played in bringing the scientists of East and West Germany together. As the Iron curtain was going up, particle physicists on both sides were already creating the conditions that would allow it to be torn down. Cold war historian Thomas Stange tells the story in his 2002 CERN Courier article. It was my privilege to be in Berlin on Monday, the anniversary of the wall’s opening, to take part in a conference entitled &lsquo...

  5. [Hangings in the material of Department of Forensic Medicine, Nicolaus Copernicus University Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, in the years 2000-2010].

    Sumińska-Ziemann, Barbara; Bloch-Bogusławska, Elzbieta


    This study presents an analysis of suicides based on autopsy protocols from the years 2000-2010. Out of all autopsies conducted at Department of Forensic Medicine, Nicolaus Copernicus University Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, 477 cases resulted from hanging. During this period the majority of hangings were recorded in 2010 (61 cases). The parameters assessed in this study included age, sex, post-mortem blood ethanol concentration and place of death of the victims. The age range of the deceased was similar in the group of men and women. Males represented the majority of victims of hanging (89%); only 11% of all the victims were females. The authors observed differences in blood alcohol level of the victims in association with their sex. Not present ethanol was noted in approx. 42% of men and 71% of women. More than 65% cases of suicide hangings were encountered in urban areas, in living quarters and outbuildings.

  6. Soft rocks in Argentina

    Giambastiani; Mauricio


    Soft rocks are a still fairly unexplored chapter in rock mechanics. Within this category are the clastic sedimentary rocks and pyroclastic volcanic rocks, of low to moderate lithification (consolidation, cemen-tation, new formed minerals), chemical sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks formed by minerals with Mohs hardness less than 3.5, such as limestone, gypsum, halite, sylvite, between the first and phyllites, graphitic schist, chloritic shale, talc, etc., among the latter. They also include any type of rock that suffered alteration processes (hydrothermal or weathering). In Argentina the study of low-strength rocks has not received much attention despite having extensive outcrops in the Andes and great impact in the design criteria. Correlation between geomechanical properties (UCS, deformability) to physical index (porosity, density, etc.) has shown promising results to be better studied. There are many studies and engineering projects in Argentina in soft rock geological environments, some cited in the text (Chihuído dam, N. Kirchner dam, J. Cepernic Dam, etc.) and others such as International Tunnel in the Province of Mendoza (Corredor Bioceánico), which will require the valuable contribution from rock mechanics. The lack of consistency between some of the physical and mechanical parameters explored from studies in the country may be due to an insufficient amount of information and/or non-standardization of criteria for testing materials. It is understood that more and better academic and professional efforts in improv-ing techniques will result in benefits to the better understanding of the geomechanics of weak rocks.

  7. Ultra-oxidized rocks in subduction mélanges? Decoupling between oxygen fugacity and oxygen availability in a Mn-rich metasomatic environment

    Tumiati, Simone; Godard, Gaston; Martin, Silvana; Malaspina, Nadia; Poli, Stefano


    solid oxides and silicates, because O2 is a negligible species in the fluid phase. Therefore, the description of the redox conditions of most petrological systems requires the introduction of an extensive variable, namely the oxygen molar quantity (nO2). As a consequence, the oxygen chemical potential, and thus fO2, becomes a dependent state variable, not univocally indicative of the redox conditions of the entire rock column of a subduction zone, from the dehydrating oceanic crust to the overlying mantle wedge. On a more general basis, the comparison of fO2 retrieved from different bulk compositions and different phase assemblages is sometimes challenging and should be undertaken with care. From the study of mélange rocks at Praborna, the distribution of oxygen at subduction zones could be modelled as an oxidation gradient, grading from a maximum in the subducted altered oceanic crust to a minimum in the overlying peridotites of the mantle hanging-wall.

  8. Monitoring of Grandes Jorasses hanging glacier (Aosta Valley, Italy): improving monitoring techniques for glaciers instability

    Vagliasindi, Marco; Funk, Martin; Faillettaz, Jerome; Dalban, Pierre; Lucianaz, Claudio; Diotri, Fabrizio; Motta, Elena; Margreth, Stephan


    Grandes Jorasses serac is an unbalanced hanging glacier located on the south side of Mont Blanc Massif (Aosta Valley - Italy). It stands above Ferret Valley, a famous and most frequented touristic site both in winter and summer. Historical data and morphological evidences show that the glacier is subject to recurrent icefalls which can be dangerous especially in winter, as they can trigger catastrophic combined snow and ice avalanches. Serac dynamic was monitored in 1997-98 by prof. M Funk (ETH Zurich) by means of temperature and topographic measurement. These allowed to forecast the breakdown within a 2 days time. Thanks to a monitoring program, a new instability could be recognized in autumn 2008: a crevasse opening in the lower part of the hanging glacier. A new monitoring system was installed recently, consisting of stakes with prisms on serac surface and an automatic total station (theodolite plus distantiometer) sited on the valley floor. Monitoring is based on an empirically based power law (developed by ETH) that describes the increasing displacement rate before collapse. This monitoring system requires to measure displacement rate of the serac continuously. Although the topographic system is so far the method, it implies some troubles: (i) the difficulty in placing stakes on the steep and dangerous glacier surface; (ii) potential instability of stakes themselves due to snow pressure in winter and surface ice melting in summer; (iii) impossibility to carry out measurement in case of cloudy or stormy weather, which is rather a frequent situation on Grandes Jorasses peak. Moreover, hazard and risk management require some more informations, such as the instable ice mass volume. New technologies have been applied, and are still under test, to achieve a more reliable monitoring system and a better understanding of the serac dynamics. Close-range photogrammetry techniques have been used, allowing to process helicopter-taken images and obtain

  9. Simulations of explosion-induced damage to underground rock chambers


    A numerical approach is presented to study the explosion-induced pressure load on an underground rock chamber wall and its resultant damage to the rock chamber.Numerical simulations are carried out by using a modified version of the commercial software AUTODYN.Three different criteria,i.e.a peak particle velocity (PPV) criterion,an effective strain (ES) criterion,and a damage criterion,are employed to examine the explosion-induced damaged zones of the underground rock chamber.The results show that the charg...

  10. The sweet branch of metabolic engineering: cherry-picking the low-hanging sugary fruits.

    Chen, Rachel


    In the first science review on the then nascent Metabolic Engineering field in 1991, Dr. James E. Bailey described how improving erythropoietin (EPO) glycosylation can be achieved via metabolic engineering of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In the intervening decades, metabolic engineering has brought sweet successes in glycoprotein engineering, including antibodies, vaccines, and other human therapeutics. Today, not only eukaryotes (CHO, plant, insect, yeast) are being used for manufacturing protein therapeutics with human-like glycosylation, newly elucidated bacterial glycosylation systems are enthusiastically embraced as potential breakthrough to revolutionize the biopharmaceutical industry. Notwithstanding these excitement in glycoprotein, the sweet metabolic engineering reaches far beyond glycoproteins. Many different types of oligo- and poly-saccharides are synthesized with metabolically engineered cells. For example, several recombinant hyaluronan bioprocesses are now in commercial production, and the titer of 2'-fucosyllactose, the most abundant fucosylated trisaccharide in human milk, reaches over 20 g/L with engineered E. coli cells. These successes represent only the first low hanging fruits, which have been appreciated scientifically, medically and fortunately, commercially as well. As one of the four building blocks of life, sugar molecules permeate almost all aspects of life. They are also unique in being intimately associated with all major types of biopolymers (including DNA/RNA, proteins, lipids) meanwhile they stand alone as bioactive polysaccharides, or free soluble oligosaccharides. As such, all sugar moieties in biological components, small or big and free or bound, are important targets for metabolic engineering. Opportunities abound at the interface of glycosciences and metabolic engineering. Continued investment and successes in this branch of metabolic engineering will make vastly diverse sugar-containing molecules (a

  11. NASA SOFIA International Year of Light (IYL) Event: Infrared Light: Hanging out in the Stratosphere

    Clark, Coral; Backman, Dana E.; Harman, Pamela; Veronico, Nicholas


    As an International Year of Light committee endorsed event, Infrared Light: Hanging out in the Stratosphere will engage learners around the world, linking participants with scientists at work on board NASA SOFIA, the world's largest flying observatory. This major event will showcase science-in-action, interviews, live data, and observations performed both aboard the aircraft and at partner centers on land.SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) is an 80% - 20% partnership of NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) consisting of an extensively modified Boeing 747SP aircraft carrying a reflecting telescope with an effective diameter of 2.5 meters. SOFIA is a program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Astrophysics Division. Science investigators leverage SOFIA's unique capabilities to study the universe at infrared wavelengths by making observations that are impossible for even the largest and highest ground-based telescopes. SOFIA received Full Operating Capacity status in May, 2014, and astrophysicists will continue to utilize the observatory and upgraded instruments to study astronomical objects and phenomena, including star birth and death; planetary system formation; identification of complex molecules in space; planets, comets, and asteroids in our solar system; and nebulae and dust in galaxies.This landmark event will reflect and build on the ProjectLink. In October 1995, SOFIA's predecessor, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), performed the first satellite links from an airplane to the ground. The KAO downlinked to the Exploratorium museum (SF, CA), where over 200 students watched the webcast, conversed, and participated in simultaneous observations at the world-renowned science museum. SOFIA will now take this concept into the 21st century, utilizing internet technologies to engage and inspire 100,000+ learners of all ages through simultaneous presentations and appearances by over 70 SOFIA Educators at schools and informal learning

  12. Liver mobilization and liver hanging for totally laparoscopic right hepatectomy: an easy way to do it.

    Rotellar, Fernando; Pardo, Fernando; Martí-Cruchaga, Pablo; Zozaya, Gabriel; Valentí, Victor; Bellver, Manuel; Lopez-Olaondo, Luis; Hidalgo, Francisco


    The purpose of this study is to describe a technical modification that facilitates right liver mobilization in laparoscopic right hepatectomy (LRH). In the supine position, an inflatable device is placed under the patient's right chest. For right hemiliver mobilization, the table is placed in 30° anti-Trendelenburg and full-left tilt. Balloon inflation offers an additional 30° left inclination that places the patient in an almost left lateral position. Foot and lateral supports are placed to prevent patient slippage during changes in the patient positioning. From December 2013 to October 2015, this technique has been used in 10 consecutive LRH. The indications for these procedures were as follows: four donor hepatectomies for living donor liver transplant, three hepatocellular carcinomas and one peripheral cholangiocarcinoma in cirrhotic patients, one hepatocellular carcinoma in a non-cirrhotic patient, and one case of colorectal cancer metastases. In this period, it has also been used to facilitate mobilization and resection in the posterior segments of the liver in seven patients. In every case, right hemiliver mobilization was easily performed in a maximum time of 15 min and placement of a tape or plastic tube for liver hanging was prepared. We have not observed any complication directly attributable to the technique herein described (i.e. right brachialgia; arms, back or left flank pain) in the early or late postoperative follow-up. The additional left inclination obtained with the inflation of a balloon under the right chest facilitates right hemiliver mobilization. Its use may help in the performance and adoption of LRH.

  13. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney


    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  14. Wall to Wall Optimal Transport

    Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Doering, Charles R


    The calculus of variations is employed to find steady divergence-free velocity fields that maximize transport of a tracer between two parallel walls held at fixed concentration for one of two constraints on flow strength: a fixed value of the kinetic energy or a fixed value of the enstrophy. The optimizing flows consist of an array of (convection) cells of a particular aspect ratio Gamma. We solve the nonlinear Euler-Lagrange equations analytically for weak flows and numerically (and via matched asymptotic analysis in the fixed energy case) for strong flows. We report the results in terms of the Nusselt number Nu, a dimensionless measure of the tracer transport, as a function of the Peclet number Pe, a dimensionless measure of the energy or enstrophy of the flow. For both constraints the maximum transport Nu_{MAX}(Pe) is realized in cells of decreasing aspect ratio Gamma_{opt}(Pe) as Pe increases. For the fixed energy problem, Nu_{MAX} \\sim Pe and Gamma_{opt} \\sim Pe^{-1/2}, while for the fixed enstrophy scen...

  15. Research on the Characteristics of Wall Rock Alteration and Ore Fabric of Shizishan Copper Deposit, Yimeng, Yunnan%云南易门狮子山铜矿床围岩蚀变岩相与矿石组构特征研究



    云南省易门狮子山铜矿床为昆阳裂谷典型的沉积-改造型铜矿床之一.矿床深部铜矿化与围岩蚀变有关,碳酸岩化与铜矿化关系密切.硅质白云岩类型铜矿体,矿石构造以脉状构造、浸染状构造为主;飘带矿矿石构造以层状构造为主.白云岩型铜矿中金属颗粒较细,为斑铜矿和黄铜矿;板岩型铜矿中金属颗粒较粗,为黄铜矿和黄铁矿.矿石化学成分具有高Si、Ca、Mg的特点,落雪组与鹅头厂组接触部位是重要的找矿地段.%Shizishan copper deposit,Yimeng,Yunnan is one of the typical sedimentary-reformed copper deposit in Kunyang rift valley.The Cu mineralization at the deep part of the deposit is relative to wall rock alteration,the carbonation has close relations with Cu mineralization.The ores in siliceous dolomite type copper ore body are mainly of vein structure,disseminated structure; the ribbon ore is mainly of layer structure.The mineral particle in dolomite type copper ore is finer,which is bornite and copper pyrites; the mineral particle in slate type copper ore is coarser,which is copper pyrites and pyrite.The chemical composition of ore has the features of high Si,Ca and Mg,the important prospecting area is the contact zone of Luoxue and Etouchang formations.

  16. Strain localisation in mechanically layered rocks beneath detachment zones: insights from numerical modelling

    L. Le Pourhiet


    Full Text Available We have designed a series of fully dynamic numerical simulations aimed at assessing how the orientation of mechanical layering in rocks controls the orientation of shear bands and the depth of penetration of strain in the footwall of detachment zones. Two parametric studies are presented. In the first one, the influence of stratification orientation on the occurrence and mode of strain localisation is tested by varying initial dip of inherited layering in the footwall with regard to the orientation of simple shear applied at the rigid boundary simulating a rigid hanging wall, all scaling and rheological parameter kept constant. It appears that when Mohr–Coulomb plasticity is being used, shear bands are found to localise only when the layering is being stretched. This corresponds to early deformational stages for inital layering dipping in the same direction as the shear is applied, and to later stages for intial layering dipping towards the opposite direction of shear. In all the cases, localisation of the strain after only γ=1 requires plastic yielding to be activated in the strong layer. The second parametric study shows that results are length-scale independent and that orientation of shear bands is not sensitive to the viscosity contrast or the strain rate. However, decreasing or increasing strain rate is shown to reduce the capacity of the shear zone to localise strain. In the later case, the strain pattern resembles a mylonitic band but the rheology is shown to be effectively linear. Based on the results, a conceptual model for strain localisation under detachment faults is presented. In the early stages, strain localisation occurs at slow rates by viscous shear instabilities but as the layered media is exhumed, the temperature drops and the strong layers start yielding plastically, forming shear bands and localising strain at the top of the shear zone. Once strain localisation has occured, the deformation in the shear band becomes


    ZHUDeren; ZHANGYuzhuo


    A great number of underground rock projects are maintained in the rock mass which is subject to rock damage and failure development. In many cases, the rock. engineering is still under normal working conditions even though rock is already fails to some extent. This paper introduces two different concepts: rock failure and rock engineering failure. Rock failure is defined as a mechanical state under which an applicable characteristic is changed or lost.However, the rock engineering failure is an engineering state under which an applicable function is changed or lost. The failure of surrounding rocks is the major reason of rock engineering failure. The criterion of rock engineering failure depends on the limit of applicable functions. The rock engineering failure state possesses a corresponding point in rock failure state. In this paper, a description of rock engineering failure criterion is given by simply using a mechanical equation or expression. It is expected that the study of rock engineering failure criterion will be an optimal approach that combines research of rock mechanics with rock engineering problems.

  18. Modelling stress-dependent permeability in fractured rock including effects of propagating and bending fractures

    Latham, J.P.; Xiang, J.; Belayneh, M.; Nick, H.M.; Tsang, C.F.; Blunt, M.J.


    The influence of in-situ stresses on flow processes in fractured rock is investigated using a novel modelling approach. The combined finite-discrete element method (FEMDEM) is used to model the deformation of a fractured rock mass. The fracture wall displacements and aperture changes are modelled in

  19. Patterns on House Walls in Gyirong



    Once you have a chance to visit Jingchuan and the Mingjiang River Valley in northwestem Sichuan Province, you will find yourself in a mysterious world:Rivers meander through mountains like hada scarves, snow-capped mountains fill people with mysterious atmosphere, sutra streamers flutter in wind, pillboxes stretch their arms to hug the sky, and there are various kinds of patterns drawn on the walls of villages and mountain rocks.

  20. Days of Rock



    FROM last October 1 st to 3rd, at the foot of Fragrant Hill, a suburban Beijing resort famous for its flaming maple leaves in autumn, more than 20,000 rock fans indulged themselves in music for three days.

  1. Writing Rock Music Reviews.

    Brown, Donal


    Suggests ways student reviewers of rock music groups can write better reviews. Among the suggestions made are that reviewers occasionally discuss the audience or what makes a particular group unique, support general comment with detail, and avoid ecstatic adjectives. (TJ)

  2. Rock kinoekraanil / Katrin Rajasaare

    Rajasaare, Katrin


    7.-11. juulini kinos Sõprus toimuval filminädalal "Rock On Screen" ekraanile jõudvatest rockmuusikuid portreteerivatest filmidest "Lou Reed's Berlin", "The Future Is Unwritten: Joe Strummer", "Control: Joy Division", "Hurriganes", "Shlaager"

  3. Art on Rock


    With sprawling deserts and serene lakes, the natural wonders of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region have never failed totake the breath away from visitors. The areahas another major attraction, though: the Helan Mountain rock engravings.

  4. Rock kinoekraanil / Katrin Rajasaare

    Rajasaare, Katrin


    7.-11. juulini kinos Sõprus toimuval filminädalal "Rock On Screen" ekraanile jõudvatest rockmuusikuid portreteerivatest filmidest "Lou Reed's Berlin", "The Future Is Unwritten: Joe Strummer", "Control: Joy Division", "Hurriganes", "Shlaager"

  5. Pop & rock / Berk Vaher

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-


    Uute heliplaatide Redman "Malpractice", Brian Eno & Peter Schwalm "Popstars", Clawfinger "A Whole Lot of Nothing", Dario G "In Full Color", MLTR e. Michael Learns To Rock "Blue Night" lühitutvustused

  6. Pop & rock / Berk Vaher

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-


    Uute heliplaatide Redman "Malpractice", Brian Eno & Peter Schwalm "Popstars", Clawfinger "A Whole Lot of Nothing", Dario G "In Full Color", MLTR e. Michael Learns To Rock "Blue Night" lühitutvustused

  7. Art on Rock

    HU YUE


    @@ With sprawling deserts and serene lakes, the natural wonders of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region have never failed to take the breath away from visitors. The area has another major attraction, though: the Helan Mountain rock engravings.

  8. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect on Edge Distance of the Tensile Bearing Capacity of Embedded Hanging Parts

    Meng Xian Hong


    Full Text Available In order to explore the trend of tensile bearing capacity of embedded hanging parts when change the edge distance. Based on the finite element analysis software ABAQUS, the four simulation model was established. The buried depth and strength of concrete remain unchanged, but the edge distance was gradient change. By the load - displacement curve of every model known, the greater the edge distance, the greater the bearing capacity. When the edge distance reaches 1.5 times buried depth, the effect of increasing edge distance for improving the bearing capacity will be impaired.

  9. Rock avalanches on glaciers

    Shugar, Daniel


    This thesis examines relations between rock avalanches and the glaciers on which they are deposited. I have attempted to understand a geophysical phenomenon from two viewpoints: sedimentology and glaciology. The contributions are both methodological, and practical. I have used a GIS to quantify debris sheet geomorphology. A thorough characterization of rock avalanche debris is a necessary step in understanding the flow mechanics of large landslide. I have also developed a technique for solvin...

  10. Evolution of sedimentary rock formation of a rock association level

    Kuznetsov, V. G.


    The evolution of sedimentary rock formation of a highly organized level (paragenetic rock associations) is more complex than that of a poorly organized level (rocks). Subjacent rock associations are established for the entire geological evolution of the Earth: they varied in time and were obsolescent or, in contrast, nascent and momentary. A certain cyclicity of evolution is identified along with directed changes.

  11. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'


    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  12. Study on calculation of rock pressure for ultra-shallow tunnel in poor surrounding rock and its tunneling procedure

    Xiaojun Zhou; Jinghe Wang; Bentao Lin


    A computational method of rock pressure applied to an ultra-shallow tunnel is presented by key block theory, and its mathematical formula is proposed according to a mechanical tunnel model with super-shallow depth. Theoretical analysis shows that the tunnel is subject to asymmetric rock pressure due to oblique topography. The rock pressure applied to the tunnel crown and sidewall is closely related to the surrounding rock bulk density, tunnel size, depth and angle of oblique ground slope. The rock pressure applied to the tunnel crown is much greater than that to the sidewalls, and the load applied to the left side-wall is also greater than that to the right sidewall. Mean-while, the safety of the lining for an ultra-shallow tunnel in strata with inclined surface is affected by rock pressure and tunnel support parameters. Steel pipe grouting from ground surface is used to consolidate the unfavorable surrounding rock before tunnel excavation, and the reinforcing scope is proposed according to the analysis of the asymmetric load induced by tunnel excavation in weak rock with inclined ground surface. The tunneling procedure of bench cut method with pipe roof protection is still discussed and carried out in this paper according to the special geological condition. The method and tunneling procedure have been successfully utilized to design and drive a real expressway tunnel. The practice in building the super-shallow tunnel has proved the feasibility of the calculation method and tunneling procedure presented in this paper.

  13. 黑龙江金厂金矿床18号矿体围岩蚀变及短波红外光谱特征%Characteristics of Wall-Rock Alteration and the Shortwave Infrared Spectra for Minerals in the 18th Orebody, Jinchang Gold DepositHeilongjiang Province

    孙雨沁; 许虹; 李胜荣; 张岩


    金厂金矿18号矿体围岩蚀变发育顺序从早到晚为:钾化、硅化、绿泥石化、绢云母化、碳酸盐化、高蛉土化,从内往外依次发育青磐岩化带、绢英岩化带和钾化带.矿化出现在泥化和绢英岩化叠加处,以及泥化和青磐岩化叠加处.通过短波红外光谱测试技术,识别出本矿区有26种蚀交矿物,其中白云母含量与金矿体呈正相关,说明绢云母化与金矿化关系密切;青磐岩化带蚀变矿物组合为绿泥石+绿帘石+伊利石±埃洛石±蒙脱石±石英;钾化带蚀变矿物组合为钾长石+高岭石+埃洛石±蒙脱石±石英;绢英岩化带蚀变矿物组合为绢云母+埃洛石±蒙脱石±高岭石±石英.%The wall-rock alteration sequence of the 18th orebody in the Jinchang gold deposit is feldspathization, si-licification, chloritization, sericitization, calcitization and kaolinite, including propylitic, phyllic and potassic alteration zones from central to outword parts of the complex. The gold mineralization occurs mainly in the overlapped parts of argillization and phyllic alteration zones and of argillization and propylitic alteration zones. 26 species of hy-drothermal alteration minerals were identified by the short-wave infrared spectroscope technique. The positive correlation of muscovite and Au contents in these minerals suggested that the gold mineralization is closely related with the sericitization. The minerals associated with the propylitic alteration zone are chlorite + epidote + illite ± hal-loysite ± montmorillonite ± quartz, the minerals in the potassic alteration zone are K-feldspar + kaolinite + hal-loysite ± montmorillonite ± quartz and the minerals in the phyllic alteration zone are muscovite + halloysite ± montmorillonite ± kaolinite ± quartz.

  14. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish


    Future robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the vertical and inverted rock walls of lava caves and cliff faces on Mars and other planetary bodies would require a method of gripping their rocky surfaces to allow mobility without gravitational assistance. In order to successfully navigate this terrain and drill for samples, the grippers must be able to produce anchoring forces in excess of 100 N. Additionally, the grippers must be able to support the inertial forces of a moving robot, as well gravitational forces for demonstrations on Earth. One possible solution would be to use microspine arrays to anchor to rock surfaces and provide the necessary load-bearing abilities for robotic exploration of asteroids. Microspine arrays comprise dozens of small steel hooks supported on individual suspensions. When these arrays are dragged along a rock surface, the steel hooks engage with asperities and holes on the surface. The suspensions allow for individual hooks to engage with asperities while the remaining hooks continue to drag along the surface. This ensures that the maximum possible number of hooks engage with the surface, thereby increasing the load-bearing abilities of the gripper. Using the microspine array grippers described above as the end-effectors of a robot would allow it to traverse terrain previously unreachable by traditional wheeled robots. Furthermore, microspine-gripping robots that can perch on cliffs or rocky walls could enable a new class of persistent surveillance devices for military applications. In order to interface these microspine grippers with a legged robot, an ankle is needed that can robotically actuate the gripper, as well as allow it to conform to the large-scale irregularities in the rock. The anchor serves three main purposes: deploy and release the anchor, conform to roughness or misalignment with the surface, and cancel out any moments about the anchor that could cause unintentional detachment. The ankle design contains a

  15. Experimental and theoretical analysis of the rate of solvent equilibration in the hanging drop method of protein crystal growth

    Fowlis, William W.; Delucas, Lawrence J.; Twigg, Pamela J.; Howard, Sandra B.; Meehan, Edward J.


    The principles of the hanging-drop method of crystal growth are discussed, and the rate of water evaporation in a water droplet (containing protein, buffer, and a precipitating agent) suspended above a well containing a double concentration of precipitating agent is investigated theoretically. It is shown that, on earth, the rate of evaporation may be determined from diffusion theory and the colligative properties of solutions. The parameters affecting the rate of evaporation include the temperature, the vapor pressure of water, the ionization constant of the salt, the volume of the drop, the contact angle between the droplet and the coverslip, the number of moles of salt in the droplet, the number of moles of water and salt in the well, the molar volumes of water and salt, the distance from the droplet to the well, and the coefficient of diffusion of water vapor through air. To test the theoretical equations, hanging-drop experiments were conducted using various reagent concentrations in 25-microliter droplets and measuring the evaporation times at 4 C and 25 C. The results showed good agreement with the theory.

  16. Measurement of force to obstruct the cervical arteries and distribution of tension exerted on a ligature in hanging.

    Yamasaki, Shigeru; Takase, Izumi; Takada, Naoki; Nishi, Katsuji


    We experienced suicidal hanging cases without a ligature in front of the neck. We conducted several anatomical autopsies and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and studied the dynamics behind hanging by applying an apparatus to cadaver and creating a dummy. MRI revealed that the vertebral artery protrudes diagonally upward from the second vertebra to the first one. We also found that this area was not covered with any bony tissue. The average length between the first and second transverse processes was 2 cm. We measured the minimum required force to obstruct the blood stream in both carotid and vertebral arteries exerting 130 mmHg. The required force was 6 kg for the carotid artery and 7 kg for the vertebral artery. Compared to the reported cases, there was not a significant difference in the force to obstruct the carotid artery, however, that of the vertebral artery was lower than the force reported so far. With an experiment of pressure sensitive plastic-sheet, we learned the lateral sides of the neck are compressed more. The results obtained from this study show that the complete and fatal obstruction of the carotid and the vertebral arteries may easily occur when the ligature transects at the lower part of mandible angle.

  17. Headspace Hanging Drop Liquid Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Flavors from Clove Buds

    Jung, Mi Jin; Shin, Yeon Jae; Oh, Se Yeon; Kim, Nam Sun; Kim, Kun; Lee, Dong Sun [Seoul Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    A novel sample pretreatment technique, headspace hanging drop liquid phase microextraction (HS-LPME) was studied and applied to the determination of flavors from solid clove buds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Several parameters affecting on HS-LPME such as organic solvent drop volume, extraction time, extraction temperature and phase ratio were investigated. 1-Octanol was selected as the extracting solvent, drop size was fixed to 0.6 μL. 60 min extraction time at 25 .deg. C was chosen. HS-LPME has the good efficiency demonstrated by the higher partition equilibrium constant (K{sub lh}) values and concentration factor (CF) values. The limits of detection (LOD) were 1.5-3.2 ng. The amounts of eugenol, β-caryophyllene and eugenol acetate from the clove bud sample were 1.90 mg/g, 1.47 mg/g and 7.0 mg/g, respectively. This hanging drop based method is a simple, fast and easy sample enrichment technique using minimal solvent. HSLPME is an alternative sample preparation method for the analysis of volatile aroma compounds by GC-MS.

  18. Comparative study of Trombe wall, water wall and trans wall

    Sodha, M.S.; Bansal, N.K.; Singh, S.; Ram, S.; Annamalai, M.; Iyer, M.V.; Nirmala, K.A.; Venkatesh, P.; Prasad, C.R.; Subramani, C.


    The thermal performances of three systems viz. Trombe wall: (1) without; and (2) with vents (forced air circulation), water wall and Transwall have been studied analytically interms of heat flux entering the living space (Maintained at 20/sup 0/C) corresponding to the meteriological data on January 19, 1981 at New Delhi (India), a typical cold winter day. Subsequent parametric studies using the simulation indicated that the Transwall system is the more efficient system for the passive heating of buildings.

  19. Resources evaluation of layer-shaped volcanic lava-type uranium deposits in Dazhou ore-field,Gan-Hang uranium metallogenic belt%赣杭铀成矿带大洲矿田层状火山熔岩型铀矿资源评价



    本文全面总结了大洲铀矿田成矿地质背景及铀矿特征,分析了溶浸采矿条件,论述了大洲铀矿田溶浸采矿的可行性,并指明应用溶浸采矿技术重新评价赣杭铀成矿带硬岩型铀矿资源的必要性。%According to the technological requirements, using theory ofsolution mining, the author makes a resources evaluation of layer-shaped volcanic lava-type uranium deposits in Dazhou ore-field, Gan-Hang uranium metallogenic belt. This paper comprehensively summarizes the metallogenic geologic background and characteristics of uranium deposits in Dazhou uranium ore-field, analyses the conditions of solution mining and describes the feasibility of solution mining in Dazhou uranium ore-field, then proposes the necessity to reevaluate hard rock uranium resources in Gan-Hang uranium metallognic belt.

  20. Digital carbonate rock physics

    Saenger, Erik H.; Vialle, Stephanie; Lebedev, Maxim; Uribe, David; Osorno, Maria; Duda, Mandy; Steeb, Holger


    Modern estimation of rock properties combines imaging with advanced numerical simulations, an approach known as digital rock physics (DRP). In this paper we suggest a specific segmentation procedure of X-ray micro-computed tomography data with two different resolutions in the µm range for two sets of carbonate rock samples. These carbonates were already characterized in detail in a previous laboratory study which we complement with nanoindentation experiments (for local elastic properties). In a first step a non-local mean filter is applied to the raw image data. We then apply different thresholds to identify pores and solid phases. Because of a non-neglectable amount of unresolved microporosity (micritic phase) we also define intermediate threshold values for distinct phases. Based on this segmentation we determine porosity-dependent values for effective P- and S-wave velocities as well as for the intrinsic permeability. For effective velocities we confirm an observed two-phase trend reported in another study using a different carbonate data set. As an upscaling approach we use this two-phase trend as an effective medium approach to estimate the porosity-dependent elastic properties of the micritic phase for the low-resolution images. The porosity measured in the laboratory is then used to predict the effective rock properties from the observed trends for a comparison with experimental data. The two-phase trend can be regarded as an upper bound for elastic properties; the use of the two-phase trend for low-resolution images led to a good estimate for a lower bound of effective elastic properties. Anisotropy is observed for some of the considered subvolumes, but seems to be insignificant for the analysed rocks at the DRP scale. Because of the complexity of carbonates we suggest using DRP as a complementary tool for rock characterization in addition to classical experimental methods.

  1. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter


    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  2. Modelling of a thermally activated building system (TABS) combined with free-hanging acoustic ceiling units using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Lacarte, Luis Marcos Domínguez; Fan, Jianhua


    of the heat exchange between the TABS and the room and the occupants. The simulations are validated by comparison with full scale measurements in laboratory conditions. The study shows that for equivalent sound absorption levels, free-hanging vertical sound absorbers have a lower impact on the heat exchange...... between the room and the TABS compared to free-hanging horizontal sound absorbers. Cold air stagnation between the sound absorber units and the TABS has been identified as the major cause of the cooling performance decrease of the TABS....

  3. Domain Walls on Singularities

    Halyo, Edi


    We describe domain walls that live on $A_2$ and $A_3$ singularities. The walls are BPS if the singularity is resolved and non--BPS if it is deformed and fibered. We show that these domain walls may interpolate between vacua that support monopoles and/or vortices.

  4. The Lamportian cell wall

    Keiliszewski, M.; Lamport, D. (Michigan State Univ. Plant Research Lab., East Lansing (United States))


    The Lamportian Warp-Weft hypothesis suggests a cellulose-extensin interpenetrating network where extensin mechanically couples the load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in a wall matrix that is best described as a microcomposite. This model is based on data gathered from the extensin-rich walls of tomato and sycamore cell suspension culture, wherein extensin precursors are insolubilized into the wall by undefined crosslinks. The authors recent work with cell walls isolated from intact tissue as well as walls from suspension cultured cells of the graminaceous monocots maize and rice, the non-graminaceous monocot asparagus, the primitive herbaceous dicot sugar beet, and the gymnosperm Douglas Fir indicate that although extensins are ubiquitous to all plant species examined, they are not the major structural protein component of most walls examined. Amino acid analyses of intact and HF-treated walls shows a major component neither an HRGP, nor directly comparable to the glycine-rich wall proteins such as those associated with seed coat walls or the 67 mole% glycine-rich proteins cloned from petunia and soybean. Clearly, structural wall protein alternatives to extensin exist and any cell wall model must take that into account. If we assume that extracellular matrices are a priori network structures, then new Hypless' structural proteins in the maize cell wall raise questions about the sort of network these proteins create: the kinds of crosslinks involved; how they are formed; and the roles played by the small amounts of HRGPs.

  5. Halogenation of microcapsule walls

    Davis, T. R.; Schaab, C. K.; Scott, J. C.


    Procedure for halogenation of confining walls of both gelatin and gelatin-phenolic resin capsules is similar to that used for microencapsulation. Ten percent halogen content renders capsule wall nonburning; any higher content enhances flame-retardant properties of selected internal phase material. Halogenation decreases permeability of wall material to encapsulated materials.

  6. Teaching the Rock Cycle with Ease.

    Bereki, Debra


    Describes a hands-on lesson for teaching high school students the concept of the rock cycle using sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. Students use a rock cycle diagram to identify pairs of rocks. From the rock cycle, students explain on paper how their first rock became the second rock and vice versa. (PVD)

  7. Microcraters on lunar rocks.

    Morrison, D. A.; Mckay, D. S.; Heiken, G. H.; Moore, H. J.


    Microcrater frequency distributions have been obtained for nine Apollo rocks and an exterior chip of an Apollo 12 rock. The frequency distributions indicate that five of the Apollo 14 rocks were tumbled more than once exposing different rock faces whereas four were not tumbled and represent a single exposure interval. The cumulative frequency of craters per square centimeter was extended below optical resolution limits using a SEM scan of an exterior chip of breccia 12073. No craters with central pit diameters less than 15 microns were seen in a total area of 0.44 sq cm. A detailed SEM scan of crystal faces and glassy crater liners revealed no microcraters equal to or larger than the resolution limit of 5 microns. An upper limit of 170 craters per sq cm with central pit diameters larger than 5 microns was set. The slope of the cumulative frequency curve for craters with central pit diameters less than about 75 microns is less than that obtained by other workers.

  8. Umhlanga Rocks coastal defense

    De Jong, L.; De Jong, B.; Ivanova, M.; Gerritse, A.; Rietberg, D.; Dorrepaal, S.


    The eThekwini coastline is a vulnerable coastline subject to chronic erosion and damage due to sea level rise. In 2007 a severe storm caused major physical and economic damage along the coastline, proving the need for action. Umhlanga Rocks is a densely populated premium holiday destination on the

  9. Rock-hard coatings

    Muller, M.


    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has sign

  10. Slippery Rock University

    Arnhold, Robert W.


    Slippery Rock University (SRU), located in western Pennsylvania, is one of 14 state-owned institutions of higher education in Pennsylvania. The university has a rich tradition of providing professional preparation programs in special education, therapeutic recreation, physical education, and physical therapy for individuals with disabilities.…

  11. Umhlanga Rocks coastal defense

    De Jong, L.; De Jong, B.; Ivanova, M.; Gerritse, A.; Rietberg, D.; Dorrepaal, S.


    The eThekwini coastline is a vulnerable coastline subject to chronic erosion and damage due to sea level rise. In 2007 a severe storm caused major physical and economic damage along the coastline, proving the need for action. Umhlanga Rocks is a densely populated premium holiday destination on the e

  12. 上海中心大厦巨型悬挂式幕墙系统设计%Giant Hanging Wall System of Shanghai Tower

    陈继良; 丁洁民



  13. Features of Changing Microwave Radiation from Loaded Rock in Elastic Phase

    Wu, Lixin; Mao, Wenfei; Huang, Jianwei; Liu, Shanjun; Xu, Zhongying


    Since the discovery of satellite infrared anomaly occurred before some earthquake by Russian geo-scientists in 1980's, both satellite remote sensing on seismic activities and experimental infrared detection on rock physics in process of rock loading were undertaken in many counties including China, Japan, Europe nations and United States. Infrared imager and spectrum instruments were applied to detect the changed infrared radiation from loaded rock to fracturing, which lead to the development of Remote Sensing Rock Mechanics. However, the change of microwave radiation from loaded rock was not so much studied, even if abnormal changes of microwave brightness temperature (MBT) preceding some large earthquakes were observed by satellite sensors such as AMSR-E on boarded Aqua. To monitor rock hazards, seismic activities, and to make earthquake precautions by via of microwave detection or microwave remote sensing, it is fairly demanded to explore the laws of microwave radiation variation with changed stress and to uncover the rock physics. We developed a large scale rock loading system with capability of 500 tons and 10 tons of load, respectively, at two horizontal loading head, and designed a group of microwave detectors in C, K, and Ka bands. To investigate the changed microwave radiation from loaded granite and sandstone in its elastics deformation phase, the first horizontal stress was circularly applied on rock samples of size 10×30×60cm3 at a constant second horizontal stress, and the changes microwave radiation was detected by the detectors hanged overhead the rock sample. The experiments were conducted outdoor at nighttime to keep off environmental radiation and to simulate the satellite observation conditions in background of cool sky. The first horizontal stress and the microwave radiations were synchronically detected and recorded. After reducing the random noise of detected microwave signals with wavelet method, we found the MBT increase with stress rising

  14. Range sections as rock models for intensity rock scene segmentation

    Mkwelo, S


    Full Text Available This paper presents another approach to segmenting a scene of rocks on a conveyor belt for the purposes of measuring rock size. Rock size estimation instruments are used to monitor, optimize and control milling and crushing in the mining industry...

  15. Controller Design and Analysis of Spacecraft Automatic Levelling and Equalizing Hoist Device based on Hanging Point Adjustment

    Tang Laiying


    Full Text Available Spacecraft Automatic Levelling and Equalizing Hoist Device (SALEHD is a kind of hoisting device developed for eccentric spacecraft level-adjusting, based on hanging point adjustment by utilizing XY-workbench. To make the device automatically adjust the spacecraft to be levelling, the controller for SALEHD was designed in this paper. Through geometry and mechanics analysis for SALEHD and the spacecraft, the mathematical model of the controller is established. And then, the link of adaptive control and the link of variable structure control were added into the controller to adapt the unknown parameter and eliminate the interference of support vehicle. The stability of the controller was analysed, through constructing Lyapunov energy function. It was proved that the controller system is asymptotically stable, and converged to origin that is equilibrium point. So the controller can be applied in SALEHD availably and safely.

  16. Prediction on rock stratum stability using numerical simulation

    刘少伟; 张永庆


    Numerical simulation, which is one of the important methods for tectonic simulation, can be successfully applied into the stability analysis of rock stratum in mining engineering. With numerical simulation, the characteristics of stress-deformation field of the area study can be well discovered, the stress concentration regions can be clearly located and the mechanism and effect of the stress concentration can be analyzed. The results of these studies offer fundamental data for evaluation of the rock stability and prediction of the tunnel wall stability in the working area.

  17. The Effect of Magnesium Carbonate (Chalk) on Geometric Entropy, Force, and Electromyography During Rock Climbing.

    Kilgas, Matthew A; Drum, Scott N; Jensen, Randall L; Phillips, Kevin C; Watts, Phillip B


    Rock climbers believe chalk dries the hands of sweat and improves the static coefficient of friction between the hands and the surface of the rock. The purpose of this study was to assess whether chalk affects geometric entropy or muscular activity during rock climbing. Nineteen experienced recreational rock climbers (13 males, 6 females; 173.5 ± 7.0 cm; 67.5 ± 3.4 kg) completed 2 climbing trails with and without chalk. The body position of the climber and muscular activity of the finger flexors was recorded throughout the trial. Following the movement sequence participants hung from a standard climbing hold until they slipped from the climbing structure, while the coefficient of friction and the ratio of the vertical forces on the hands and feet were determined. Although there were no differences in the coefficient of friction (P = .748), geometric entropy (P = .359), the ratio of the vertical forces between the hands and feet (P = .570), or muscular activity (P = .968), participants were able to hang longer after the use of chalk 62.9 ± 36.7 s and 49.3 ± 25.2 s (P = .046). This is advantageous because it may allow for prolonged rests, and more time to plan the next series of climbing moves.

  18. Inverting Images of the 40s: The Berlin Wall and Collective Amnesia.

    Loshitzky, Yosefa


    Examines images of World War II invoked in two live, international music concerts (one rock, one classical) celebrating the fall of the Berlin Wall. Argues that Western television's choice of imagery represented the Wall's demise as a marker of the end of the Cold War rather than a vanishing monument of Germany's conflicted struggle with Holocaust…

  19. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the skin on ...

  20. Toxicology findings in cases of hanging in the City and County of San Francisco over the 3-year period from 2011 to 2013.

    San Nicolas, A C; Lemos, N P


    In postmortem cases where the cause of death is hanging, toxicological analyses may be considered unnecessary by some medical examiners, toxicologists, and other persons involved in medico-legal investigations because the cause of death seems "obvious." To ascertain if toxicological analyses are necessary when the cause of death is hanging, all 102 hanging cases (25 females; 77 males) from 2011 to 2013 that came under the jurisdiction of the San Francisco Office of the Chief Medical Examiner were examined from a total of 3912 sudden, unexpected, or violent death cases in the same period. Suicide was the manner of death in 99 of these cases, with two accidental and one undetermined death. The average age of decedents was 43.9 years (median 41), the youngest was an 11-year old male and the oldest was an 86-year old female. Of the 102 cases, 33 had negative toxicology while 69 cases had at least one positive toxicology result. Females were equally likely to have negative or positive results (12 and 13 cases respectively), but males were 37.5% more likely to have positive toxicology (n=56) rather than negative toxicology (n=21). For females, alcohol, mirtazapine, venlafaxine, and trazodone were the top psychoactive substances in peripheral blood while THC, cocaine, hydrocodone, bupropion, olanzapine, doxylamine, quetiapine and dextromethorphan were also reported. For males, alcohol, THC, cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, bupropion, and diphenhydramine were the top psychoactive substances in blood, but several other drugs were also found in individual cases. Our study of hanging cases over a 3-year period support the idea that complete postmortem toxicology investigation of hangings should be performed, even when the "obvious" cause of death is asphyxia due to hanging. Many of these cases involved psychoactive substances (most often alcohol and cannabis), and having such knowledge provides a better understanding of the circumstances surrounding the decedent's death

  1. Oxygen isotope studies of early Precambrian granitic rocks from the Giants Range batholith, northeastern Minnesota, U.S.A.

    Viswanathan, S.


    Oxygen isotope studies of granitic rocks from the 2.7 b.y.-old composite Giants Range batholith show that: (1) ??(O18)quartz values of 9 to 10 permil characterize relatively uncontaminated Lower Precambrian, magmatic granodiorites and granites; (2) granitic rocks thought to have formed by static granitization have ??(O18)quartz values that are 1 to 2 permil higher than magmatic granitic rocks; (3) satellite leucogranite bodies have values nearly identical to those of the main intrusive phases even where they transect O18-rich metasedimentary wall rocks; (4) oxygen isotopic interaction between the granitic melts and their O18-rich wall rocks was minimal; and (5) O18/O18 ratios of quartz grains in a metasomatic granite are largely inherited from the precursor rock, but during the progression - sedimentary parent ??? partially granitized parent ??? metasomatic granite ??? there is gradual decrease in ??(O18)quartz by 1 to 2 permil. ?? 1974.

  2. Liquid Wall Chambers

    Meier, W R


    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  3. Rock and mineral magnetism

    O’Reilly, W


    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  4. Pitted Rock Named Ender


    This image was taken by the Sojourner rover's right front camera on Sol 33. The rock in the foreground, nicknamed 'Ender', is pitted and marked by a subtle horizontal texture. The bright material on the top of the rock is probably wind-deposited dust. The Pathfinder Lander is seen in the distance at right. The lander camera is the cylindrical object on top of the deployed mast.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  5. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.


    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  6. Alkaline Rocks and Geodynamics

    BONIN, Bernard


    Origin of A-type alkali feldspar granites is currently the subject of a world-wide debate. Contrasting hypotheses have been proposed, which range from an entirely crustal origin to an almost complete mantle derivation. A-type alkali feldspar granites belong to either unimodal granite (rhyolite)-dominated association, or bimodal gabbro (basalt)-granite (rhyolite) suite. It is argued that (i) the ultimate mantle origin of basic to intermediate rocks is beyond doubt, (ii) highly evolved felsi...

  7. Toxicology findings in suicides: concentrations of ethanol and other drugs in femoral blood in victims of hanging and poisoning in relation to age and gender of the deceased.

    Jones, Alan Wayne; Holmgren, Anita; Ahlner, Johan


    Over-consumption of alcohol and/or abuse of other drugs are closely linked to attempted or completed suicides. In this retrospective 10-year study (2001-2010), we compared the toxicology findings in hanging suicides (n = 4551) with drug poisoning (intoxication) suicides (n = 2468). The mean age of hanging deaths was 49 ± 19 y (±SD) and 80% were male, compared with a mean age of 52 ± 17 y and 47% males for the intoxication deaths. Poly-drug use was more common in poisoning suicides with an average of 3.6 drugs/case compared with 1.8 drugs/case in hangings. Moreover, 31% of hangings were negative for alcohol and/or drugs. Alcohol was detected (>0.20 g/L) in femoral blood in 30% of hanging suicides (mean 1.39 g/L) and 36% of drug poisonings (mean 1.39 g/L). The median BACs did not depend on the person's age or gender (p > 0.05). Ethanol, paracetamol, citalopram, diazepam, propiomazine, alimemazine and zopiclone were amongst the top-ten drugs detected in both methods of suicide. With the exception of ethanol, the concentrations of drugs in blood were considerably higher in the poisoning deaths, as might be expected. Regardless of the method of suicide, antidepressants and/or antipsychotics were common findings, which could implicate mental health as a significant suicide risk factor.

  8. Review of roadway control in soft surrounding rock under dynamic pressure



    The basic characteristics of the soft rock roadway under the dynamic pressure are analyzed. At the same time, the three fundamental approaches for controlling the surrounding rock are proposed, which are improving the surrounding rock strength, lowering the rock mass stress and selecting the reasonable supporting technology. The research results are elucidated, including the distribution of the surrounding rock plastic zone, the movement and damage of the surrounding rock under the dynamic pressure, controlling the floor heave through reinforcing the roadway walls and corners, the new route to develop the roadway metal supporting technique, the key theory and technique for the bolt supporting in the coal roadway, the performance and prospect of the ZKD high-water-content quick-setting material, and so on. Finally, some personally views are put forward about the roadway metal supporting, bolt supporting, new material and the stress-relief under the high stress condition.

  9. Rock blasting and explosives engineering

    Persson, P.-A.; Holmberg, R.; Lee, J. (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Research Center for Energetic Materials)


    The book covers the practical engineering aspects of different kinds of rock blasting. It includes a thorough analysis of the cost of the entire process of tunneling by drilling and blasting compared with full-face boring. It covers the economics of the entire rock blasting operation and its dependence on the size of excavation. The book highlights the fundamentals of rock mechanics, shock waves and detonation, initiation and mechanics of rock motion. It describes the engineering design principles and computational techniques for many separate mining methods and rock blasting operations. 274 refs.

  10. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  11. Rock in Rio: eternamente jovem

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas; Flávio Lins Rodrigues


    The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark ...

  12. Subsidence and collapse sinkholes in soluble rock: a numerical perspective

    Kaufmann, Georg; Romanov, Douchko; Hiller, Thomas


    Soluble rocks such as limestone, gypsum, anhydrite, and salt are prone to subsidence and the sudden creation of collapse sinkholes. The reason for this behaviour stems from the solubility of the rock: Water percolating through fissures and bedding partings can remove material from the rock walls and thus increase the permeability of the host rock by orders of magnitudes. This process occurs on time scales of 1,000-100,000 years, resulting in enlarged fractures, voids and cavities, which then carry flow efficiently through the rock. The enlargement of sub-surface voids to the meter-size within such short times creates mechanical conditions prone to collapse. The collapse initiates at depth, but then propagates to the surface. By means of numerical modelling, we discuss the long-term evolution of secondary porosity in gypsum rocks, resulting in zones of sub-surface voids, which then become mechanically unstable and collapse. We study two real-world case scenarios, in which we can relate field observations to our numerical model: (i) A dam-site scenario, where flow around the dam caused widespread dissolution of gypsum and subsequent subsidence of the dam and a nearby highway. (ii) A natural collapse sinkhole forming as a result of freshwater inflow into a shallow anhydrite formation with rapid evolution of voids in the sub-surface.

  13. Solar heating wall

    Schoenfelder, J.L.


    A solar heating wall is disclosed including a water pipe circulation system having a plurality of separate tubes, each formed as a loop, connected between a water supply and a return. The separate tubes are arranged in a single vertical plane at the approximate center of the wall. The wall is formed within a frame which is packed with a material suited for use as a thERMAL RESERVOIR, SUCH AS concrete. The frame provides extra support by having a series of horizontally disposed cross supports on one surface of the wall and a series of vertically disposed cross supports on the opposite surface A pressure relief valve may be provided between the water supply to the separate tubes and the water supply to the building or structure containing the solar wall, so that the solar wall can be adapted for use with a city water system.

  14. Late Cenozoic cooling history of the central Menderes Massif: Timing of the Büyük Menderes detachment and the relative contribution of normal faulting and erosion to rock exhumation

    Wölfler, Andreas; Glotzbach, Christoph; Heineke, Caroline; Nilius, Nils-Peter; Hetzel, Ralf; Hampel, Andrea; Akal, Cüneyt; Dunkl, István; Christl, Marcus


    Based on new thermochronological data and 10Be-derived erosion rates from the southern part of the central Menderes Massif (Aydın block) in western Turkey, we provide new insights into the tectonic evolution and landscape development of an area that undergoes active continental extension. Fission-track and (U-Th)/He data reveal that the footwall of the Büyük Menderes detachment experienced two episodes of enhanced cooling and exhumation. Assuming an elevated geothermal gradient of 50 °C/km, the first phase occurred with an average rate of 0.90 km/Myr in the middle Miocene and the second one in the latest Miocene and Pliocene with a rate of 0.43 km/Myr. The exhumation rates between these two phases were lower and range from 0.14 to 0.24 km/Myr, depending on the distance to the detachment. Cosmogenic nuclide-based erosion rates for catchments in the Aydın block range from 0.1 to 0.4 km/Myr. The similarity of the erosion rates on both sides of the Aydın block (northern and southern flank) indicate that a rather symmetric erosion pattern has prevailed during the Holocene. If these millennial erosion rates are representative on a million-year timescale they indicate that, apart from normal faulting, erosion in the hanging wall of the Büyük Menderes detachment fault did also contribute to the exhumation of the metamorphic rocks.

  15. Self-formed waterfall plunge pools in homogeneous rock

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Lo, Daniel Y.; Lamb, Michael P.


    Waterfalls are ubiquitous, and their upstream propagation can set the pace of landscape evolution, yet no experimental studies have examined waterfall plunge pool erosion in homogeneous rock. We performed laboratory experiments, using synthetic foam as a bedrock simulant, to produce self-formed waterfall plunge pools via particle impact abrasion. Plunge pool vertical incision exceeded lateral erosion by approximately tenfold until pools deepened to the point that the supplied sediment could not be evacuated and deposition armored the pool bedrock floor. Lateral erosion of plunge pool sidewalls continued after sediment deposition, but primarily at the downstream pool wall, which might lead to undermining of the plunge pool lip, sediment evacuation, and continued vertical pool floor incision in natural streams. Undercutting of the upstream pool wall was absent, and our results suggest that vertical drilling of successive plunge pools is a more efficient waterfall retreat mechanism than the classic model of headwall undercutting and collapse in homogeneous rock.

  16. Cell Wall Proteome

    Boudart, Georges; Minic, Zoran; Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Jamet, Elisabeth; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F


    In this chapter, we will focus on the contribution of proteomics to the identification and determination of the structure and function of CWPs as well as discussing new perspectives in this area. The great variety of proteins found in the plant cell wall is described. Some families, such as glycoside hydrolases, proteases, lectins, and inhibitors of cell wall modifying enzymes, are discussed in detail. Examples of the use of proteomic techniques to elucidate the structure of various cell wall...

  17. Staggered domain wall fermions

    Hoelbling, Christian


    We construct domain wall fermions with a staggered kernel and investigate their spectral and chiral properties numerically in the Schwinger model. In some relevant cases we see an improvement of chirality by more than an order of magnitude as compared to usual domain wall fermions. Moreover, we present first results for four-dimensional quantum chromodynamics, where we also observe significant reductions of chiral symmetry violations for staggered domain wall fermions.

  18. Green walls in Vancouver

    Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    With the renewed interest in design for microclimate control and energy conservation, many cities are implementing clean air initiatives and sustainable planning policies to mitigate the effects of urban climate and the urban heat island effect. Green roofs, sky courts and green walls must be thoughtfully designed to withstand severe conditions such as moisture stress, extremes in temperature, tropical storms and strong desiccating winds. This paper focused on the installation of green wall systems. There are 2 general types of green walls systems, namely facade greening and living walls. Green facades are trellis systems where climbing plants can grow vertically without attaching to the surface of the building. Living walls are part of a building envelope system where plants are actually planted and grown in a wall system. A modular G-SKY Green Wall Panel was installed at the Aquaquest Learning Centre at the Vancouver Aquarium in Stanley Park in September 2006. This green wall panel, which was originally developed in Japan, incorporates many innovative features in the building envelope. It provides an exterior wall covered with 8 species of plants native to the Coastal Temperate Rain Forest. The living wall is irrigated by rainwater collected from the roof, stored in an underground cistern and fed through a drip irrigation system. From a habitat perspective, the building imitates an escarpment. Installation, support systems, irrigation, replacement of modules and maintenance are included in the complete wall system. Living walls reduce the surface temperature of buildings by as much as 10 degrees C when covered with vegetation and a growing medium. The project team is anticipating LEED gold certification under the United States-Canada Green Building Council. It was concluded that this technology of vegetated building envelopes is applicable for acoustical control at airports, biofiltration of indoor air, greywater treatment, and urban agriculture and vertical

  19. Non-Isothermal Calcination Kinetics of Phosphate Rock

    Hatice Bayrakçeken


    Full Text Available The kinetics of thermal decomposition of the phosphate rock was studied by means of thermal analysis techniques (TG/DTG in inert nitrogen (N2 atmosphere at heating rates of 2, 5, 10, and 20 K min-1. TG and DTG measurements indicated that calcination of the phosphate rock has single-stage degradation in between 873-1173 K. Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose (KAS and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO isoconversional methods were applied to the data obtained from TG and DTG curves and the activation energies were found as 170 ve 187 kJmol-1, respectively. It was determined that the thermal decomposition mechanism of phosphate rock was occurred via nucleation and growth (-ln(1-α2/3 mechanism. Pre-exponentional factor (lnA was determined as 20.47.

  20. Experimental Study of Deformation of Surrounding Rock with Infrared Radiation

    ZHANG Yong-jun; AN Li-qian; REN Run-hou; FAN Shi-min; MA Nian-jie; LI Jian-hui; JI Yuan-ming


    According to the practical conditions of coal roadway in Changcun Coal Mine of Lu'an Mining Group, the deformation of rock surrounding roadway was experimentally studied by means of thermal infrared (TIR) imaging system in the process of confined compressions. It is found that the model surface TIR temperature (TIRT) changes with the increase of load. Furthermore, TIRT changes non-synchronously in different ranges such as the roof, floor, wall, corners and bolted ranges. The TIRT is higher in the location of stress concentration and bolted ranges than that in the location of stress relaxation and broken ranges. The interaction ranges of bolt and rock are determined preliminarily according to the corresponding relationship of TIRT fields and the strain fields of the surrounding rock. The new method of TIR image processing has been proved to be effective for the study of bolt support and observation of roadway stability under mine pressure.

  1. The Layer Cake Walls of Valles Marineris


    This image of the northern wall of Coprates Chasma, in Valles Marineris, was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1227 UTC (8:27 a.m. EDT) on June 16, 2007, near 13.99 degrees south latitude, 303.09 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point. Valles Marineris is a large canyon system straddling Mars' equator, with a total size approximating the Mediterranean Sea emptied of water. It is subdivided into several interconnected 'chasmata' each hundreds of kilometers wide and, in some cases, thousands of kilometers long. The walls of several of the chasmata, including Coprates Chasma, expose a section of Mars' upper crust about 5 kilometers (3 miles) in depth. Exposures like these show the layers of rock that record the formation of Mars' crust over geologic time, much as the walls of the Grand Canyon on Earth show part of our planet's history. The upper panel of this montage shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), taken in longer infrared wavelengths than measured by CRISM. The CRISM image samples the base of Coprates Chasma's wall, including a conspicuous horizontal band that continues along the wall for tens of kilometers to the east and west, and a topographic shelf just above that. The middle two panels show the CRISM image in visible and infrared light. In the middle left panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 0.59, 0.53, and 0.48 microns, similar to what the human eye would see. Color variations are subdued by the presence of dust on all exposed surfaces. In the middle right panel, the red, green, and blue image planes show brightness at 2.53, 1.51, and 1.08 microns. These three infrared wavelengths are the 'usual' set

  2. Heterogeneous alternation of fractured rock driven by preferential carbonate dissolution

    Wen, H.; Zhi, W.; Li, L.


    Understanding the alternation of fractured rock induced by geochemical reactions is critical for predicting the flow, solute transport and energy production in geosystems. Most existing studies on fracture alterations focus on rocks with single minerals where reactions occur at the fracture wall resulting in fracture aperture alteration while ignoring rock matrix properties (e.g. the formation and development of altered zones). In this work, we aimed to mechanistically understand the role of preferential calcite dissolution in the long-term evolution of fracture and rock matrix. We use direct simulation of physics-based reactive transport processes in an image of fractured rock at the resolution of tens of micrometers. Three numerical experiments were carried out with the same initial physical properties however different calcite content. Simulation results show that the formation and development of altered zones in the rock matrix is highly related to the abundance of fast-dissolving calcite. Abundant calcite (50% (v/v), calcite50) leads to a localized, thick zone of large porosity increase while low calcite content (10% (v/v), calcite10) creates an extended and narrow zone of small porosity increase resulting in surprisingly larger change in effective transport property. After 300 days of dissolution, although with relatively similar dissolved calcite mass and matrix porosity increase, effective matrix diffusion coefficients increase by 9.9 and 19.6 times in calcite50 and calcite10, respectively. In turn, calcite dissolution rates are directly limited by diffusive transport in the altered matrix and the shape of the altered zone. This work sheds light on the unique characteristics of reactive transport in fractured, mineralogically complex rocks that are different from those with single minerals (Wen et al., 2016). Reference: Wen, H., Li, L., Crandall, D. and Hakala, J.A. (2016) Where Lower Calcite Abundance Creates More Alteration: Enhanced Rock Matrix

  3. Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks

    Veizer, J.; MacKenzie, F. T.


    For almost a century, it has been recognized that the present-day thickness and areal extent of Phanerozoic sedimentary strata increase progressively with decreasing geologic age. This pattern has been interpreted either as reflecting an increase in the rate of sedimentation toward the present (Barrell, 1917; Schuchert, 1931; Ronov, 1976) or as resulting from better preservation of the younger part of the geologic record ( Gilluly, 1949; Gregor, 1968; Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971a; Veizer and Jansen, 1979, 1985).Study of the rocks themselves led to similarly opposing conclusions. The observed secular (=age) variations in relative proportions of lithological types and in chemistry of sedimentary rocks (Daly, 1909; Vinogradov et al., 1952; Nanz, 1953; Engel, 1963; Strakhov, 1964, 1969; Ronov, 1964, 1982) were mostly given an evolutionary interpretation. An opposing, uniformitarian, approach was proposed by Garrels and Mackenzie (1971a). For most isotopes, the consensus favors deviations from the present-day steady state as the likely cause of secular trends.This chapter attempts to show that recycling and evolution are not opposing, but complementary, concepts. It will concentrate on the lithological and chemical attributes of sediments, but not deal with the evolution of sedimentary mineral deposits (Veizer et al., 1989) and of life ( Sepkoski, 1989), both well amenable to the outlined conceptual treatment. The chapter relies heavily on Veizer (1988a) for the sections dealing with general recycling concepts, on Veizer (2003) for the discussion of isotopic evolution of seawater, and on Morse and Mackenzie (1990) and Mackenzie and Morse (1992) for discussion of carbonate rock recycling and environmental attributes.

  4. Michael Learns to Rock



    夜幕降临.空气中传来北欧的声音,来自丹麦的四人流行乐队Michael Learns to Rock(迈克学摇滚)正把探情款款的歌声带到上海的咖啡厅和酒吧。北欧一直活跃着一批世界顶级的乐队.从丹麦的A-Ha到Aqua,从瑞典的ABBA到Roxette和Ace of Base,从挪威的Se

  5. From stones to rocks

    Mortier, Marie-Astrid; Jean-Leroux, Kathleen; Cirio, Raymond


    With the Aquila earthquake in 2009, earthquake prediction is more and more necessary nowadays, and people are waiting for even more accurate data. Earthquake accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to the understanding of how oceanic expansion works and significant development of numerical seismic prediction models. Despite the improvements, the location and the magnitude can't be as accurate as citizen and authorities would like. The basis of anticipating earthquakes requires the understanding of: - The composition of the earth, - The structure of the earth, - The relations and movements between the different parts of the surface of the earth. In order to answer these questions, the Alps are an interesting field for students. This study combines natural curiosity about understanding the predictable part of natural hazard in geology and scientific skills on site: observing and drawing landscape, choosing and reading a representative core drilling, replacing the facts chronologically and considering the age, the length of time and the strength needed. This experience requires students to have an approach of time and space radically different than the one they can consider in a classroom. It also limits their imagination, in a positive way, because they realize that prediction is based on real data and some of former theories have become present paradigms thanks to geologists. On each location the analyzed data include landscape, core drilling and the relation established between them by students. The data is used by the students to understand the meaning, so that the history of the formation of the rocks tells by the rocks can be explained. Until this year, the CBGA's perspective regarding the study of the Alps ground allowed students to build the story of the creation and disappearance of the ocean, which was a concept required by French educational authorities. But not long ago, the authorities changed their scientific expectations. To meet the

  6. International Divider Walls

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)


    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful, a

  7. Domain wall filters

    Bär, O; Neuberger, H; Witzel, O; Baer, Oliver; Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert; Witzel, Oliver


    We propose using the extra dimension separating the domain walls carrying lattice quarks of opposite handedness to gradually filter out the ultraviolet fluctuations of the gauge fields that are felt by the fermionic excitations living in the bulk. This generalization of the homogeneous domain wall construction has some theoretical features that seem nontrivial.

  8. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka


    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  9. International Divider Walls

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)


    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  10. Hard and soft walls

    Milton, Kimball A


    In a continuing effort to understand divergences which occur when quantum fields are confined by bounding surfaces, we investigate local energy densities (and the local energy-momentum tensor) in the vicinity of a wall. In this paper, attention is largely confined to a scalar field. If the wall is an infinite Dirichlet plane, well known volume and surface divergences are found, which are regulated by a temporal point-splitting parameter. If the wall is represented by a linear potential in one coordinate $z$, the divergences are softened. The case of a general wall, described by a potential of the form $z^\\alpha$ for $z>0$ is considered. If $\\alpha>2$, there are no surface divergences, which in any case vanish if the conformal stress tensor is employed. Divergences within the wall are also considered.

  11. Heritage stones and their deterioration in rock-cut monuments in India

    Sharma, Vinod K.


    India is dotted with thousands of rock- cut monuments of considerable antiquity having artwork of global importance. It is evident from the location of many of these monuments that knowledge of viable selection of site, geotechnical considerations and amenability to sculptures' chisel was vital for construction of rock-cut monuments and sculptures. These rock-cut structures also represent significant achievements of geotechnical and structural engineering and craftsmanship of contemporary period. The paper deals with some of the sites where natural rock-mass exposures were used to hew the monuments and highlight the deterioration owing to geological and climatic conditions. The Kailash temple in Ellora and Ajanta rock-cut caves are among the greatest architectural feats which owe their grandeur to amenability and consistency of basalt of Deccan Volcanic Province from which it is hewn. The Kailash Temple was created through a single, huge top-down excavation 100 feet deep down into the volcanic basaltic cliff rock. These ancient rock cut structures are amazing achievements of structural engineering and craftsmanship. The lava flows are nearly horizontal, competent rock medium facilitated the chiseling for the sculptures. The deterioration of these basalts are seen where the amygdule, vesicles and opening in rock discontinuity had the medium of construction or excavation. The monolithic rock- cut monuments of Mahabalipuram temples are constructed in the form of rathas or chriot and adjoining caves by excavating solid charnockite/granites. The large rock exposures are excavated and cut to perfection with wall decorations and sculptured art. The charnockites are the strongest and the most durable rock, yet quite amenable to fine dressing. These monolithic monuments in charnockite and are cut out of the hillock. The 7th Century monuments now exhibit somewhat rough surface probably due to weathering effect of salt laden winds from the sea side and alteration of feldspars

  12. Rock critics as 'Mouldy Modernists'

    Becky Shepherd


    Full Text Available Contemporary rock criticism appears to be firmly tied to the past. The specialist music press valorise rock music of the 1960s and 1970s, and new emerging artists are championed for their ‘retro’ sounding music by journalists who compare the sound of these new artists with those included in the established ‘canon’ of rock music. This article examines the narrative tropes of authenticity and nostalgia that frame the retrospective focus of this contemporary rock writing, and most significantly, the maintenance of the rock canon within contemporary popular culture. The article concludes by suggesting that while contemporary rock criticism is predominately characterised by nostalgia, this nostalgia is not simply a passive romanticism of the past. Rather, this nostalgia fuels a process of active recontextualisation within contemporary popular culture.

  13. Fossils, rocks, and time

    Edwards, Lucy E.; Pojeta, John


    We study our Earth for many reasons: to find water to drink or oil to run our cars or coal to heat our homes, to know where to expect earthquakes or landslides or floods, and to try to understand our natural surroundings. Earth is constantly changing--nothing on its surface is truly permanent. Rocks that are now on top of a mountain may once have been at the bottom of the sea. Thus, to understand the world we live on, we must add the dimension of time. We must study Earth's history. When we talk about recorded history, time is measured in years, centuries, and tens of centuries. When we talk about Earth history, time is measured in millions and billions of years. Time is an everyday part of our lives. We keep track of time with a marvelous invention, the calendar, which is based on the movements of Earth in space. One spin of Earth on its axis is a day, and one trip around the Sun is a year. The modern calendar is a great achievement, developed over many thousands of years as theory and technology improved. People who study Earth's history also use a type of calendar, called the geologic time scale. It looks very different from the familiar calendar. In some ways, it is more like a book, and the rocks are its pages. Some of the pages are torn or missing, and the pages are not numbered, but geology gives us the tools to help us read this book.

  14. Rock Properties Model

    C. Lum


    The purpose of this model report is to document the Rock Properties Model version 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties model provides mean matrix and lithophysae porosity, and the cross-correlated mean bulk density as direct input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'', MDL-NBS-HS-000021, REV 02 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in Section 6.6 and 8.2. Model validation accomplished by corroboration with data not cited as direct input is discussed in Section 7. The revision of this model report was performed as part of activities being conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan for: The Integrated Site Model, Revision 05'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169635]). The purpose of this revision is to bring the report up to current procedural requirements and address the Regulatory Integration Team evaluation comments. The work plan describes the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and procedures for this process.

  15. A smart rock

    Pressel, Phil


    This project was to design and build a protective weapon for a group of associations that believed in aliens and UFO's. They collected enough contributions from societies and individuals to be able to sponsor and totally fund the design, fabrication and testing of this equipment. The location of this facility is classified. It also eventually was redesigned by the Quartus Engineering Company for use at a major amusement park as a "shoot at targets facility." The challenge of this project was to design a "smart rock," namely an infrared bullet (the size of a gallon can of paint) that could be shot from the ground to intercept a UFO or any incoming suspicious item heading towards the earth. Some of the challenges to design this weapon were to feed cryogenic helium at 5 degrees Kelvin from an inair environment through a unique rotary coupling and air-vacuum seal while spinning the bullet at 1500 rpm and maintain its dynamic stability (wobble) about its spin axis to less than 10 micro-radians (2 arc seconds) while it operated in a vacuum. Precision optics monitored the dynamic motion of the "smart rock."

  16. Analysis for interaction of supports and surrounding rock of gateways in Iongwall minging



    Gateway supporting in long-wall mining has been a problem that restricts the mine production and safety, the paper sets up an interaction model between support and surrounding rock ( rock mass structure) and probes the elementary t.heory about ground pressure behaviors of gateway. Based on the analysis of supporting theories, some new viewpoints about gateways supporting and ground pressure controlling are put forward.

  17. Analysis for interaction of supports and surrounding rock of gateways in longwall minging

    WU Yong-ping


    Gateway supporting in long-wall mining has been a problem that restri cts the mine production and safety, the paper sets up an interaction model betwe en support and surrounding rock (rock mass structure) and probes the elementary theory about ground pressure behaviors of gateway. Based on the analysis of supp orting theories, some new viewpoints about gateways supporting and ground pressu re controlling are put forward.

  18. Managing Rock Squirrels in Utah

    Frey, Nicki


    Although they do not exist in large colonies like other ground squirrels, rock squirrels can still sometimes generate conflicts with homeowners and farmers alike. Most damage occurs when a few rock squirrels take residence in a homeowner’s back yard, and begin to forage on garden vegetables and fruit trees. There are several direct and indirect ways that private landowners can manage and reduce rock squirrels on their property. This fact sheet give management tips.

  19. [Hearing disorders and rock music].

    Lindhardt, Bjarne Orskov


    Only few studies have investigated the frequency of hearing disorders in rock musicians. Performing rock music is apparently associated with a hearing loss in a fraction of musicians. Tinnitus and hyperacusis are more common among rock musicians than among the background population. It seems as if some sort of resistance against further hearing loss is developed over time. The use of ear protection devices have not been studied systematically but appears to be associated with diminished hearing loss.

  20. Life-History Traits of the Model Organism Pristionchus pacificus Recorded Using the Hanging Drop Method: Comparison with Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Gilarte, Patricia; Kreuzinger-Janik, Bianca; Majdi, Nabil; Traunspurger, Walter


    The nematode Pristionchus pacificus is of growing interest as a model organism in evolutionary biology. However, despite multiple studies of its genetics, developmental cues, and ecology, the basic life-history traits (LHTs) of P. pacificus remain unknown. In this study, we used the hanging drop method to follow P. pacificus at the individual level and thereby quantify its LHTs. This approach allowed direct comparisons with the LHTs of Caenorhabditis elegans recently determined using this method. When provided with 5×10(9) Escherichia coli cells ml(-1) at 20°C, the intrinsic rate of natural increase of P. pacificus was 1.125 (individually, per day); mean net production was 115 juveniles produced during the life-time of each individual, and each nematode laid an average of 270 eggs (both fertile and unfertile). The mean age of P. pacificus individuals at first reproduction was 65 h, and the average life span was 22 days. The life cycle of P. pacificus is therefore slightly longer than that of C. elegans, with a longer average life span and hatching time and the production of fewer progeny.

  1. Life-History Traits of the Model Organism Pristionchus pacificus Recorded Using the Hanging Drop Method: Comparison with Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Patricia Gilarte

    Full Text Available The nematode Pristionchus pacificus is of growing interest as a model organism in evolutionary biology. However, despite multiple studies of its genetics, developmental cues, and ecology, the basic life-history traits (LHTs of P. pacificus remain unknown. In this study, we used the hanging drop method to follow P. pacificus at the individual level and thereby quantify its LHTs. This approach allowed direct comparisons with the LHTs of Caenorhabditis elegans recently determined using this method. When provided with 5×10(9 Escherichia coli cells ml(-1 at 20°C, the intrinsic rate of natural increase of P. pacificus was 1.125 (individually, per day; mean net production was 115 juveniles produced during the life-time of each individual, and each nematode laid an average of 270 eggs (both fertile and unfertile. The mean age of P. pacificus individuals at first reproduction was 65 h, and the average life span was 22 days. The life cycle of P. pacificus is therefore slightly longer than that of C. elegans, with a longer average life span and hatching time and the production of fewer progeny.

  2. Resection of Segments 4, 5 and 8 for a Cystic Liver Tumor Using the Double Liver Hanging Maneuver

    Atsushi Nanashima


    Full Text Available To achieve complete anatomic central hepatectomy for a large tumor compressing surrounding vessels, transection by an anterior approach is preferred but a skillful technique is necessary. We propose the modified technique of Belghiti’s liver hanging maneuver (LHM. The case was a 77-year-old female with a 6-cm liver cystic tumor in the central liver compressing hilar vessels and the right hepatic vein. At the hepatic hilum, the spaces between Glisson’s pedicle and hepatic parenchyma were dissected, which were (1 the space between the right anterior and posterior Glisson pedicles and (2 the space adjacent to the umbilical Glisson pedicle. Two tubes were repositioned in each space and ‘double LHM’ was possible at the two resected planes of segments 4, 5 and 8. Cut planes were easily and adequately obtained and the compressed vessels were secured. Double LHM is a useful surgical technique for hepatectomy for a large tumor located in the central liver.

  3. Climate warming and stability of cold hanging glaciers: Lessons from the gigantic 1895 Altels break-off

    Faillettaz, Jerome; Funk, Martin


    The Altels hanging glacier broke off on September 11, 1895. The ice volume of this catastrophic rupture was estimated at $\\rm 4.10^6$ cubic meters and is the largest ever observed ice fall event in the Alps. The causes of this collapse are however not entirely clear. Based on previous studies, we reanalyzed this break-off event, with the help of a new numerical model, initially developed by Faillettaz and others (2010) for gravity-driven instabilities. The simulations indicate that a break-off event is only possible when the basal friction at the bedrock is reduced in a restricted area, possibly induced by the storage of infiltrated water within the glacier. Moreover, our simulations reveal a two-step behavior: (i) A first quiescent phase, without visible changes, with a duration depending on the rate of basal changes; (ii) An active phase with a rapid increase of basal motion over a few days. The general lesson obtained from the comparison between the simulations and the available evidence is that visible si...

  4. Development of downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor as post treatment of existing combined anaerobic tank treating natural rubber processing wastewater.

    Watari, Takahiro; Cuong Mai, Trung; Tanikawa, Daisuke; Hirakata, Yuga; Hatamoto, Masashi; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Fukuda, Masao; Nguyen, Ngoc Bich; Yamaguchi, Takashi


    Conventional aerated tank technology is widely applied for post treatment of natural rubber processing wastewater in Southeast Asia; however, a long hydraulic retention time (HRT) is required and the effluent standards are exceeded. In this study, a downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was installed as post treatment of anaerobic tank effluent in a natural rubber factory in South Vietnam and the process performance was evaluated. The DHS reactor demonstrated removal efficiencies of 64.2 ± 7.5% and 55.3 ± 19.2% for total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen, respectively, with an organic loading rate of 0.97 ± 0.03 kg-COD m(-3) day(-1) and a nitrogen loading rate of 0.57 ± 0.21 kg-N m(-3) day(-1). 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis of the sludge retained in the DHS also corresponded to the result of reactor performance, and both nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria were detected in the sponge carrier. In addition, anammox bacteria was found in the retained sludge. The DHS reactor reduced the HRT of 30 days to 4.8 h compared with the existing algal tank. This result indicates that the DHS reactor could be an appropriate post treatment for the existing anaerobic tank for natural rubber processing wastewater treatment.

  5. Study on the effects of sulfur fumigation on chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Hang-ju.

    Wang, Shan; Hao, Li-Juan; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Xian; Song, Xiao-mei


    The traditional after-harvesting drying method of C. morifolium cv. Hang-ju (HJ) is sun drying, but recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used as a cheap and convenient method. However, the effects of sulfur fumigation on chemical constituents and potential activities of HJ were unknown. A comprehensively comparison of the chemical profiles between non-fumigated HJ (NHJ) and sulfur-fumigated HJ (SHJ) was conducted by HPLC fingerprints analysis and the discrepant peaks were identified or tentatively assigned by HPLC-ESI/MS(n). Dramatic chemical changes were found that the contents of 4 flavonoid aglycones remarkably increased while those of 7 glycosides significantly reduced which suggested that sulfur-fumigation induced flavonoid glycosides transformed into aglycons by hydrolysis reaction. A significant loss of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids showed the sulfur fumigation was a destructive effect on HJ. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to rapidly discriminate NHJ and SHJ samples. By ICP-OES analysis, it was found that the residue of sulfur of SHJ were three times higher than NHJ (p<0.05). The antioxidant activity of NHJ and SHJ were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assay, and the results showed that NHJ had much stronger antioxidant activities than SCF (p<0.05). Combining the results of chemical analysis, residue of sulfur and pharmacological evaluation, it showed that the sulfur fumigation was a destructive effect on HJ.

  6. Planned complex suicide by penetrating captive-bolt gunshot and hanging: case study and review of the literature.

    Viel, Guido; Schröder, Ann Sophie; Püschel, Klaus; Braun, Christian


    Captive-bolt guns or slaughterer's guns are devices widely used in meat industry and private farmer households for slaughtering animal stocks. They consist of a simple cylindrical metal tube (barrel) with a metal bolt placed in their centre (around 9-15cm long and 1-1.5cm wide). The bolt is actuated by a trigger pull and is propelled forward by compressed air or by the discharge of a blank powder gun cartridge. Violent deaths inflicted by captive-bolt guns are rarely encountered in forensic practice and are predominantly suicidal events. We report an unusual complex suicide by hanging and self-shooting with a slaughterer's gun in a 21-year-old boy. The victim after putting a ceiling fixed rope around his neck shot himself in the head (occipital region) with a Kerner captive-bolt gun. He used two mirrors (a cosmetic mirror and a man-sized one) in order to properly visualize his back and to target the occipital region of his head. Radiological data (computed tomography with three dimensional reconstruction) and autopsy findings are discussed according to the clinical and forensic literature. A brief review on planned complex suicides is also given.

  7. Hanging canyons of Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada: Fault-control on submarine canyon geomorphology along active continental margins

    Harris, Peter T.; Barrie, J. Vaughn; Conway, Kim W.; Greene, H. Gary


    Faulting commonly influences the geomorphology of submarine canyons that occur on active continental margins. Here, we examine the geomorphology of canyons located on the continental margin off Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, that are truncated on the mid-slope (1200-1400 m water depth) by the Queen Charlotte Fault Zone (QCFZ). The QCFZ is an oblique strike-slip fault zone that has rates of lateral motion of around 50-60 mm/yr and a small convergent component equal to about 3 mm/yr. Slow subduction along the Cascadia Subduction Zone has accreted a prism of marine sediment against the lower slope (1500-3500 m water depth), forming the Queen Charlotte Terrace, which blocks the mouths of submarine canyons formed on the upper slope (200-1400 m water depth). Consequently, canyons along this margin are short (4-8 km in length), closely spaced (around 800 m), and terminate uniformly along the 1400 m isobath, coinciding with the primary fault trend of the QCFZ. Vertical displacement along the fault has resulted in hanging canyons occurring locally. The Haida Gwaii canyons are compared and contrasted with the Sur Canyon system, located to the south of Monterey Bay, California, on a transform margin, which is not blocked by any accretionary prism, and where canyons thus extend to 4000 m depth, across the full breadth of the slope.

  8. Geology and coal resources of the Hanging Woman Creek Study Area, Big Horn and Powder River Counties, Montana

    Culbertson, William Craven; Hatch, Joseph R.; Affolter, Ronald H.


    In an area of 7,200 acres (29 sq km) In the Hanging Woman Creek study area, the Anderson coal bed contains potentially surface minable resources of 378 million short tons (343 million metric tons) of subbituminous C coal that ranges in thickness from 26 to 33 feet (7.9-10.1 m) at depths of less than 200 feet (60 m). Additional potentially surface minable resources of 55 million short tons (50 million metric tons) are contained in the 9-12 foot (2.7-3.7 m) thick Dietz coal bed which lies 50-100 feet (15-30 m) below the Anderson. Analyses of coal from 5 core holes indicates that the Anderson bed contains 0.4 percent sulfur, 5 percent ash, and has a heating value of 8,540 Btu/lb (4,750 Kcal/kg). The trace element content of the coal is generally similar to other coals in the Powder River Basin. The two coal beds are in the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age which consists of sandstone, siltstone, shale, coal beds, and locally impure limestone. A northeast-trending normal fault through the middle of the area, downthrown on the southeast side, has displaced the generally flat lying strata as much as 300 feet (91 m). Most of the minable coal lies northwest of this fault.

  9. Building a sustainable land public transportation at Ayer Keroh, Malacca: Perspective view from hang tuah jaya municipal council (HTJMC)

    Sukri, Fatin Hafizah; Chew, Boon Cheong; Hamid, Syaiful Rizal; Loo, Heoy Shin


    Sustainable land public transportation (SLPT) aims to promote a better and healthier ways of meeting individual and community needs. Even though sufficient land public transportation have been provided at Ayer Keroh, Malacca but the level of usage among the community is still low as there is the growth in traffic. Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council (HTJMC) is responsible to identify the most appropriate strategies to manage the issues regarding SLPT in order to support of the Malacca state vision becoming Green Technology State in the year 2020. Therefore, this paper attempts to examine the strategies involve in building a SLPT, which may enhance the community's welfare. Thus, the proposed theoretical framework is to demonstrate the strategies towards building a SLPT, which can cater issues within the municipal council area. In this qualitative research, an in-depth focus group have been conducted to obtain the primary data. Thirteen (13) executives from HTJMC involved. This study brings a new paradigm in transforming land public transportation at Ayer Keroh to enhance the community welfare. The result found that land use development as the most significant strategy in SLPT, meanwhile the implementation program is the least strategy involved in building a SLPT at Ayer Keroh. Future research requires more information on the factors of implementing of SLPT so that HTJMC can plan an effective SLPT thorough the demand as the data may indicate numbers of passengers who really support to the implementation of SLPT.

  10. A new approach to the surgical treatment of parasitic cysts of the liver: Hepatectomy using the liver hanging maneuver


    AIM: To review 11 patients with parasitic cysts of the liver, who were treated by hepatic lobectomy using the liver hanging maneuver (LHM).METHODS: Between January 2003 and June 2006, we retrospectively analyzed patients who underwent surgical treatment due to parasitic cysts of the liver, at the Ege University School of Medicine, Department of General Surgery. Of these, the patients who underwent hepatic lobectomy using the LHM were reviewed and evaluated for surgical treatment outcome.RESULTS: Over a three-year period, there were 102 patients who underwent surgical treatment for parasitic cysts of the liver. Of these, 11 (10%) patients with parasitic cysts of the liver underwent hepatic lobectomy using the LHM. Presenting symptoms were abdominal pain, dyspepsia, and cholangitis. Cyst locations were as follows: right lobe filled with cyst, 7 (63%); segmental location, 2 (18%); and multiple locations, 2 patients (18%). All patients underwent hepatic lobectomy with an anterior approach using the LHM. The intraoperative blood transfusion requirement was one unit for 3 patients and two units for one patient. Postoperative complications included pulmonary atelectasy (2, 18%)and pleural effusion (2, 18%). No significant morbidity or mortality was observed.CONCLUSION: We concluded that hepatic lobectomy using the LHM should be considered, not only for hepatic tumors or donor hepatectomy, but also to treat parasitic cysts of the liver.

  11. Critical issues in soft rocks

    Milton Assis Kanji


    This paper discusses several efforts made to study and investigate soft rocks, as well as their physico-mechanical characteristics recognized up to now, the problems in their sampling and testing, and the possibility of its reproduction through artificially made soft rocks. The problems in utilizing current and widespread classification systems to some types of weak rocks are also discussed, as well as other problems related to them. Some examples of engineering works in soft rock or in soft ground are added, with emphasis on their types of problems and solutions.

  12. Cataclastic rheology of carbonate rocks

    LU Xiancai; SUN Yan; SHU Liangshu; GU Lianxing; GUO Jichun; ZHU Wenbin


    Based on the knowledge of the shallow-level mylonitization of detrital rocks and intrusive rocks, the poorly-known cataclastic rheology of carbonate rocks is discussed comprehensively in this paper. The cases taken from eastern China are analyzed in various aspects including ductile-brittle fault zone, rock texture and structure, clastomylonite layer, leucocratic stress minerals, and frictional dynamometamorphism. It is proposed that the cataclastic flow structure represented by clastomylonite texture is a cooling pattern of flow assemblage characterized by cooling metamorphism, cooling mylonite and cooling stress minerals. Such a pattern is formed generally in mildly reducing physicochemical environments, and is commonly related to regional tectonism and mesothermal and epithermal mineralization.

  13. Acritarchs in carbonaceous meteorites and terrestrial rocks

    Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Hoover, Richard B.


    Acritarchs are a group of organic-walled, acid-resistant microfossils of uncertain or unknown origin. Some are thought to represent the cysts or resting stages of unicellular protists (possibly dinoflagellates), chrysophytes (green algae) or other planktonic eukaryotic algae. Acritarchs are found throughout the geologic column extending back as far at 3.2 Ga. The presence of large sphaeromorphs in the Archaean provides evidence that the eukaryotic lineage extends much farther back in time than previously thought possible. Acritarchs are abundant in the Paleoproterozoic shales (1.9-1.6 Ga) of the former Soviet Union and they have been extensively used for the investigation of Proterozoic and Paleozoic biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental parameters. Scanning Electron Microscope studies have revealed the fossilized remains of organic-walled microfossils of unknown origin and exhibiting characteristics of acritarchs in a variety of carbonaceous meteorites. In many cases, these remains are black or brown in color and have Carbon/Oxygen ratios suggesting they have been diagenetically converted into kerogen. It is not feasible that the fossilized remains of organicwalled microfossils such as acritarchs represent biological contaminant that invaded and became embedded in the rock matrix of carbonaceous meteorites within the short time periods of their residence on Earth. Consequently, these groups of microfossils are considered to provide an additional line for the existence of indigenous extraterrestrial microbial remains in meteorites. This paper presents a brief review of acritarchs in terrestrial rocks and provides images of a number of similar morphotypes of uncertain origin found in freshly fractured samples of carbonaceous meteorites.

  14. Rock.XML - Towards a library of rock physics models

    Jensen, Erling Hugo; Hauge, Ragnar; Ulvmoen, Marit; Johansen, Tor Arne; Drottning, Åsmund


    Rock physics modelling provides tools for correlating physical properties of rocks and their constituents to the geophysical observations we measure on a larger scale. Many different theoretical and empirical models exist, to cover the range of different types of rocks. However, upon reviewing these, we see that they are all built around a few main concepts. Based on this observation, we propose a format for digitally storing the specifications for rock physics models which we have named Rock.XML. It does not only contain data about the various constituents, but also the theories and how they are used to combine these building blocks to make a representative model for a particular rock. The format is based on the Extensible Markup Language XML, making it flexible enough to handle complex models as well as scalable towards extending it with new theories and models. This technology has great advantages as far as documenting and exchanging models in an unambiguous way between people and between software. Rock.XML can become a platform for creating a library of rock physics models; making them more accessible to everyone.

  15. Saharan Rock Art: Local Dynamics and Wider Perspectives

    Marina Gallinaro


    Full Text Available Rock art is the best known evidence of the Saharan fragile heritage. Thousands of engraved and painted artworks dot boulders and cliffs in open-air sites, as well as the rock walls of rockshelters and caves located in the main massifs. Since its pioneering discovery in the late 19th century, rock art captured the imagination of travellers and scholars, representing for a long time the main aim of research in the area. Chronology, meaning and connections between the different recognized artistic provinces are still to be fully understood. The central massifs, and in particular the "cultural province" encompassing Tadrart Acacus and Tassili n’Ajer, played and still play a key role in this scenario. Recent analytical and contextual analyses of rock art contexts seem to open new perspectives. Tadrart Acacus, for the richness and variability of artworks, for the huge archaeological data known, and for its proximity to other important areas with rock art (Tassili n’Ajjer, Algerian Tadrart and Messak massifs is an ideal context to analyze the artworks in their environmental and social-cultural context, and to define connections between cultural local dynamics and wider regional perspectives.

  16. New developments of technology in rock engineering in China

    Qian Qihu


    In terms of rock engineering and technology in hydropower construction, the slope stability and monitoring techniques for high slopes of Three Gorges Project, the stability and support technology for high slopes of hydropower projects in deep river valley, the stabilization techniques for underground cavern group with large span and high side walls are introduced in this paper. As for rock engineering and technology in highway and railway construction, the Qinghai-Tibet Railway -- new construction techniques in permafrost, the support techniques for large squeezing deform- ation in Wuqiaoling Tunnel, the construction techniques for tunnels in alpine and high-altitude region, the geological prediction techniques for tunnels in karst region, the microseismic monitoring and early warning techniques for rock- bursts in deep and long tunnels are presented. For rock engineering and technology in mining engineering, the innova- tive techniques for roadway support in mines, the simultaneous extraction technique of pillarless coal and gas in coal seams with low permeability, the safe and efficient deep open mining technology, advances in monitoring, early warning and treatment of mine dynamic disasters are discussed. In addition, the new anchorage techniques and precision blasting technique in rock engineering are introduced.

  17. Addressing the Consequences of Dynamic Rock Failure in Underground Excavations

    Stacey, T. R.


    Rockbursts are violent events that result in the ejection of volumes of rock from the walls of underground excavations. They can be extremely hazardous and have been responsible for many accidents in underground excavations. They also are responsible for significant direct and indirect costs in mining and civil engineering projects. The occurrence of rockbursting can be reduced by optimising the design with regard to excavation layout, excavation geometry and size, excavation sequence, and by the application of destressing/preconditioning measures. Thereafter, containment of damage relies on rock support. Conventional design of rock support for the containment of rockburst damage is not possible since neither the demand that is generated, nor the capacity of support systems, are known, and thus there is a state of design indeterminacy. The approach recommended in this paper is a risk-consequence one: evaluation of the risk (the product of the probability of occurrence of a rockburst and its consequence, in financial terms), and use of this quantified risk as a decision making tool regarding the justification for significant dynamically capable rock support. A typically suitable rock support system for rockbursting conditions is suggested in the paper.

  18. "I Climbed the Great Wall"


    I finally climbed the Great Wall, A dream of my childhood; my heart is filled with pleasure at the indescribable beauty of the Wall. China’s ancient civilization is best documented by the grandeur of the Wall.

  19. Rock the Globe

    Laëtitia Pedroso


    Created in 2005, the Swiss rock band "Wind of Change" is now candidate for the Eurovision Song Contest 2011 with a new song " Night & Light " with the music video filmed at CERN.   With over 20 gigs under their belt and two albums already released, the five members of the band (Alex Büchi, vocals; Arthur Spierer, drums; David Gantner, bass; Romain Mage and Yannick Gaudy, guitar) continue to excite audiences. For their latest composition "Night & Light", the group filmed their music video in the Globe of Science and Innovation. Winning the Eurovision contest would be a springboard in their artistic career for these young musicians. The selection results will be available December 11, 2010.      

  20. Electrochemistry of lunar rocks

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.


    Electrolysis of silicate melts has been shown to be an effective means of producing metals from common silicate materials. No fluxing agents need be added to the melts. From solution in melts of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) composition, the elements Si, Ti, Ni, and Fe have been reduced to their metallic states. Platinum is a satisfactory anode material, but other cathode materials are needed. Electrolysis of compositional analogs of lunar rocks initially produces iron metal at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Utilizing mainly heat and electricity which are readily available from sunlight, direct electrolysis is capable of producing useful metals from common feedstocks without the need for expendable chemicals. This simple process and the products obtained from it deserve further study for use in materials processing in space.

  1. Advanced walling systems

    De Villiers, A


    Full Text Available The question addressed by this chapter is: How should advanced walling systems be planned, designed, built, refurbished, and end their useful lives, to classify as smart, sustainable, green or eco-building environments?...

  2. Resistor network as a model of fractures in granitic rocks - model for ERT interpretation in crystalline rocks

    Vilhelm, Jan; Jirků, Jaroslav; Janeček, Josef; Slavík, Lubomír; Bárta, Jaroslav


    Recently we have developed and tested system for long-term monitoring of underground excavation stability in granitic rocks. It is based on repeated ultrasonic time-of-flight measurement and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurement. The ERT measurement is performed directly on the rock wall using 48 electrodes. The spacing between electrodes was selected 20 centimeters. Based on sensitivity function it can be expected that maximum penetration depth of ERT is about 1.5 m. The observed time changes in apparent resistivity are expected to be mainly result of changes in fracture water saturation. To get some basic knowledge about relation between electrical resistivity in the rock fracture zone and its saturation a series of laboratory tests with rock samples with different porosity and different saturation was performed. The model of crystalline rock with sparse net of fractures is highly inhomogeneous medium and can be hardly considered as 2D layered model, which is usually used in ERT inversion. Therefore, we prepared resistor-network model for the qualitative/quantitative interpretation of observed apparent resistivity changes. Some preliminary results of our experience with this new type of resistivity model are presented. The results can be used for underground storage monitoring projects. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic, project No. TA 0302408

  3. Workshop on hydrology of crystalline basement rocks

    Davis, S.N. (comp.)


    This workshop covered the following subjects: measurements in relatively shallow boreholes; measurement and interpretation of data from deep boreholes; hydrologic properties of crystalline rocks as interpreted by geophysics and field geology; rock mechanics related to hydrology of crystalline rocks; the possible contributions of modeling to the understanding of the hydrology of crystalline rocks; and geochemical interpretations of the hydrology of crystalline rocks. (MHR)

  4. Rock Art in Kurdistan Iran

    Jamal Lahafian


    Full Text Available Kurdistan, with great potential and prehistoric resources, has numerous petroglyphs in different areas of the province. During the last 14 years of extensive field study, more than 30 sites of rock art have been identified and introduced by the author. In this article, we summarize these rock art areas in Iranian Kurdistan.

  5. Rock Art in Kurdistan Iran

    Jamal Lahafian


    Kurdistan, with great potential and prehistoric resources, has numerous petroglyphs in different areas of the province. During the last 14 years of extensive field study, more than 30 sites of rock art have been identified and introduced by the author. In this article, we summarize these rock art areas in Iranian Kurdistan.

  6. Rockin' around the Rock Cycle

    Frack, Susan; Blanchard, Scott Alan


    In this activity students will simulate how sedimentary rocks can be changed into metamorphic rocks by intense pressure. The materials needed are two small pieces of white bread, one piece of wheat bread, and one piece of a dark bread (such as pumpernickel or dark rye) per student, two pieces of waxed paper, scissors, a ruler, and heavy books.…

  7. Analysis of Seismic Performance of Rock Block Structures with STAAD Pro

    T. Subramani


    Full Text Available From olden days until now in our construction filed unreinforced masonry blocks of rocks is used as foundation and super structure wall as load bearing structure. In which blocks are stacked, sometimes being mortared with various cements. Ancient civilizations used locally available rocks and cements to construct rock block columns, walls and edifices for residences, temples, fortifications and infrastructure. Monuments still exist as testaments to the high quality construction by historic cultures, despite the seismic and other potentially damaging geo-mechanical disturbances that threaten them. Conceptual failure modes under seismic conditions of rock block structures, observed in the field or the laboratory, are presented. Our proposed work is analytically is carried out with rock block of 1m by 1m with 200 mm rock block under seismic loading to find out the damaged caused by the Mw 6.7 and 6.0 earthquakes on that block subject to dynamic load. Finally graphical output has generated and suggested for safe construction with more seismic load on rock blocks.

  8. Conducting Wall Hall Thrusters

    Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Polk, James E.; Dotson, Brandon


    A unique configuration of the magnetic field near the wall of Hall thrusters, called Magnetic Shielding, has recently demonstrated the ability to significantly reduce the erosion of the boron nitride (BN) walls and extend the life of Hall thrusters by orders of magnitude. The ability of magnetic shielding to minimize interactions between the plasma and the discharge chamber walls has for the first time enabled the replacement of insulating walls with conducting materials without loss in thruster performance. The boron nitride rings in the 6 kW H6 Hall thruster were replaced with graphite that self-biased to near the anode potential. The thruster efficiency remained over 60% (within two percent of the baseline BN configuration) with a small decrease in thrust and increase in Isp typical of magnetically shielded Hall thrusters. The graphite wall temperatures decreased significantly compared to both shielded and unshielded BN configurations, leading to the potential for higher power operation. Eliminating ceramic walls makes it simpler and less expensive to fabricate a thruster to survive launch loads, and the graphite discharge chamber radiates more efficiently which increases the power capability of the thruster compared to conventional Hall thruster designs.

  9. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.


    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  10. Seismic properties of polyphase rocks

    Wang, Qin


    Knowledge about the seismic properties of polyphase rocks is fundamental for interpreting seismic refraction and reflection data and for establishing lithospheric structure and composition models. This study aims to obtain more precise relationships between seismic properties of rocks and controlling factors (e.g., pressure, temperature, mineralogical and chemical compositions, microstructure of rocks), particularly for those rocks imprinted by ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism. These relationships will be very helpful to extrapolate calculated and measured seismic properties of rocks to depths of interest and to engender interpretations relevant to petrological composition and tectonic process. An Internet Database of Rock Seismic Properties (DRSP) was set up and a Handbook of Seismic Properties of Minerals, Rocks and Ores was published. They comprise almost all data available in the literature during the past 4 decades and can serve as a convenient, comprehensive and concise information source on physical properties of rocks to the earth sciences and geotechnical communities. Statistical results of the DRSP reveal the dependence of seismic properties on density, porosity, humidity, and mineralogical and chemical compositions. Using 16 different averaging methods, we calculated P-wave velocities of 696 dry samples according to the volume fraction and elastic constants of each constituent mineral. Although only 22 common minerals were taken into account in the computation, the calculated P-wave velocities agree well with laboratory values measured at about 300 MPa, where most microcracks are closed and the mean Vp of a polymineralic rock is exclusively controlled by its modal composition. However, none of these mixture rules can simultaneously fit measured P-wave velocities for all lithologies or at all pressures. Therefore, more prudence is required in selecting an appropriate mixture rule for calculation of seismic velocities of different rock types.

  11. 杭世骏诗文综论%An Overview of Hang Shijun′s Poetry and Prose Works



    In the eighth year of the reign of Emperor Qianlong (the year 1743),Hang Shiju made a for-mal suggestion to the court that people of the Han and Manchu ethnic groups should be equally treated in offi-cial selection.His suggestion infuriated the Emperor Qianlong and led to his dismissal from office at the age of 48.This incident had a lasting influence in the latter half of Hang′s life and also left a deep imprint on his writings both in verse and in prose.Hang is a unique poet and scholar,and also a member of the literati of the south of the Yangtze frustrated in his official career.A close examination of Hang′s writings,in particular,the poems written in his later career,shows that they fully embody the typical spiritual qualities of the literati of the south of the Yangtze,which might include,among other things,confidence rooted in talent,unyielding pride, a strong sense of responsibility,integrity,noble-mindedness,and an aversion to vulgarity even in poverty. These qualities,though persistently seen among the literati of the south of the Yangtze,have different manifes-tations in the Mid-Qing Dynasty as compared with any other period in the Qing Dynasty.Hang′s verse and prose works offer us a valuable glimpse into the spiritual world of the literati of the south of the Yangtze.%乾隆八年,四十八岁的杭世骏因上书言朝廷用人当泯满汉之见,触怒乾隆,被罢官放还,此事深刻地影响了杭世骏的后半生,也深刻地影响了杭世骏诗文的风貌。作为清代雍乾时期一个个性独特的诗人、学者,作为一个仕途遭遇重挫的江南士大夫,其诗文创作尤其是诗歌作品体现了典型的江南文化人的精神品质:高才自信、倔强狂傲、敢于担当、坚守气节,纵然清贫、绝不媚俗。这些在许多江南文化人中一以贯之的精神品质,在清代中期的表现形式,是和清代其他时期不一样的,而杭世骏的诗文作品,则正好给我们提

  12. Research on Mechanism of Rock Burst Generation and Development for High Stress Rock Tunnels

    高全臣; 赫建明; 王代华


    Through the investigation and analysis of high stress distribution in surrounding rock during the excavation of rock tunnels,the key factors to cause rock burst and the mechanism of rock burst generation and development are researched. The result shows that the scale and range of rock burst are related with elastic deformation energy storied in rock mass and the characteristics of unloading stress waves. The measures of preventing from rock burst for high stress rock tunnels are put forward.

  13. Differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetric determination of uranium with arsenazo-III at the hanging mercury dropping electrode

    Kadi, M.W.; El-Shahawi, M.S. [Chemistry Dept., King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)


    An accurate, inexpensive and less laborious controlled adsorptive accumulation of uranium(VI)-arsenazo-III on a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) has been developed for uranium(VI) determination. The method is based upon the collection of uranium(VI)-arsenazo-III complex at pH 5-6 at the HMDE and subsequent direct stripping measurement of the element in the nanomolar concentration level. The cathodic peak current (i{sub p,c}) of the adsorbed complex ions of uranium(VI) was measured at -0.35 V vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode by differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry (DP-CSV), proceeded by an accumulation period of 150s2.5 in Britton-Robinson buffer of pH 5. The plot of the resulting i{sub p,c} vs. uranium(VI) concentration was linear in the range 2.1 x 10{sup -9} to 9.60 x 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1} uranium(VI) and tended to level off at above 9.6 x 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1}. The limits of detection and quantification of uranium(VI) were found to be 4.7 x 10{sup -10} and 1.5 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1}, respectively. A relative standard deviation of {+-}2.39% (n = 5) at 8.5 x 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1} uranium(VI) was obtained. The method was validated by comparing the results with that obtained by ICP-MS method with RSD less than {+-}3.3%. The method was applied successfully for the analysis of uranium in certified reference material (IAEA soil-7), and in phosphate fertilizers. (orig.)

  14. Tracer tomography (in) rocks!

    Somogyvári, Márk; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Jimenez Parras, Santos; Bayer, Peter


    Physical behavior of fractured aquifers is rigorously controlled by the presence of interconnected conductive fractures, as they represent the main pathways for flow and transport. Ideally, they are simulated as a discrete fracture network (DFN) in a model to capture the role of fracture system geometry, i.e. fracture length, height, and width (aperture/transmissivity). Such network may be constrained by prior geological information or direct data resources such as field mapping, borehole logging and geophysics. With the many geometric features, however, calibration of a DFN to measured data is challenging. This is especially the case when spatial properties of a fracture network need to be calibrated to flow and transport data. One way to increase the insight in a fractured rock is by combining the information from multiple field tests. In this study, a tomographic configuration that combines multiple tracer tests is suggested. These tests are conducted from a borehole with different injection levels that act as sources. In a downgradient borehole, the tracer is recorded at different levels or receivers, in order to maximize insight in the spatial heterogeneity of the rock. As tracer here we chose heat, and temperature breakthrough curves are recorded. The recorded tracer data is inverted using a novel stochastic trans-dimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure. An initial DFN solution is generated and sequentially modified given available geological information, such as expected fracture density, orientation, length distribution, spacing and persistency. During this sequential modification, the DFN evolves in a trans-dimensional inversion space through adding and/or deleting fracture segments. This stochastic inversion algorithm requires a large number of thousands of model runs to converge, and thus using a fast and robust forward model is essential to keep the calculation efficient. To reach this goal, an upwind coupled finite difference method is employed

  15. Sulphur isotope geochemistry of the ores and country rocks at the Almadén mercury deposit, Ciudad Real, Spain

    Saupé, Francis; Arnold, Michel


    from -6.7%. to 14.4%.) is interpreted as resulting from bacterial seawater sulphate reduction under variable euxinic conditions. The stratabound pyrite ( n = 16) found in the sediments near, but independent of the Hg ores, also has a wide range of δ34S between 15.0%. and 16.4%., with a mode of about 8%.; the pyrite rims of the diagenetic dolomite nodules ( n = 2; δ34S = -14.7 ± 0.35%.) in the Hanging Wall Shales display the most negative values found at Almadén.

  16. Source rock potential in Pakistan

    Raza, H.A. (Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan))


    Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

  17. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    Nickell, R.E.


    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio ( ..-->.. 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard.

  18. Uranium series, volcanic rocks

    Vazquez, Jorge A.


    Application of U-series dating to volcanic rocks provides unique and valuable information about the absolute timing of crystallization and differentiation of magmas prior to eruption. The 238U–230Th and 230Th-226Ra methods are the most commonly employed for dating the crystallization of mafic to silicic magmas that erupt at volcanoes. Dates derived from the U–Th and Ra–Th methods reflect crystallization because diffusion of these elements at magmatic temperatures is sluggish (Cherniak 2010) and diffusive re-equilibration is insignificant over the timescales (less than or equal to 10^5 years) typically associated with pre-eruptive storage of nearly all magma compositions (Cooper and Reid 2008). Other dating methods based on elements that diffuse rapidly at magmatic temperatures, such as the 40Ar/39Ar and (U–Th)/He methods, yield dates for the cooling of magma at the time of eruption. Disequilibrium of some short-lived daughters of the uranium series such as 210Po may be fractionated by saturation of a volatile phase and can be employed to date magmatic gas loss that is synchronous with volcanic eruption (e.g., Rubin et al. 1994).

  19. They will rock you!

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    On 30 September, CERN will be the venue for one of the most prestigious events of the year: the concert for the Bosons&More event, the Organization’s celebration of the remarkable performance of the LHC and all its technical systems, as well as the recent fundamental discoveries. Topping the bill will be the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, the CERN Choir, the Zürcher Sing-Akademie and the Alan Parsons Live Project rock group, who have joined forces to create an unforgettable evening’s entertainment.   The Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, directed by Maestro Neeme Järvi, artistic and musical director of the OSR. (Image: Grégory Maillot). >>> From the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande… Henk Swinnen, General Manager of the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (OSR), answers some questions for the CERN Bulletin, just a few days before the event. How did this project come about? When CERN invited us to take part in the B...

  20. Where are the Walls?

    Olive, Keith A; Peterson, Adam J


    The reported spatial variation in the fine-structure constant at high redshift, if physical, could be due to the presence of dilatonic domains, and one or more domain walls inside our horizon. An absorption spectrum of an object in a different domain from our own would be characterized by a different value of alpha. We show that while a single wall solution is statically comparable to a dipole fit, and is a big improvement over a weighted mean (despite adding 3 parameters), a two-wall solution is a far better fit (despite adding 3 parameters over the single wall solution). We derive a simple model accounting for the two-domain wall solution. The goodness of these fits is however dependent on the extra random error which was argued to account for the large scatter in most of the data. When this error is omitted, all the above solutions are poor fits to the data. When included, the solutions that exhibit a spatial dependence agree with the data much more significantly than the Standard Model; however, the Stand...

  1. Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy

    Caballero, J. A.


    In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

  2. Geoelectrical Characterization of Sulphate Rocks

    Guinea Maysounave, Ander


    [eng] Gypsum rocks are widely exploited in the world as industrial minerals. The purity of the gypsum rocks (percentage in gypsum mineral –CaSO4•2H2O- in the whole rock) is a critical factor to evaluate the potential exploitability of a gypsum deposit. It is considered than purities higher than 80% in gypsum are required to be economically profitable. Gypsum deposits have been studied with geoelectrical methods; a direct relationship between the electrical resistivity values of the gypsum roc...

  3. Is rock slope instability in high-mountain systems driven by topo-climatic, paraglacial or rock mechanical factors? - A question of scale!

    Messenzehl, Karoline; Dikau, Richard


    Due to the emergent and (often non-linear) complex nature of mountain systems the key small-scale system properties responsible for rock slope instability contrast to those being dominant at larger spatial scales. This geomorphic system behaviour has major epistemological consequences for the study of rockfalls and associated form-process-relationships. As each scale requires its own scientific explanation, we cannot simply upscale bedrock-scale findings and, in turn, we cannot downscale the valley-scale knowledge to smaller phenomena. Here, we present a multi-scale study from the Turtmann Valley (Swiss Alps), that addresses rock slope properties at three different geomorphic levels: (i) regional valley scale, (ii) the hillslope scale and (iii) the bedrock scale. Using this hierarchical approach, we aim to understand the key properties of high-mountain systems responsible for rockfall initiation with respect to the resulting form-process-relationship at each scale. (i) At the valley scale (110 km2) rock slope instability was evaluated using a GIS-based modelling approach. Topo-climatic parameters, i.e. the permafrost distribution and the time since deglaciation after LGM were found to be the key variables causative for the regional-scale bedrock erosion and the storage of 62.3 - 65.3 x 106 m3 rockfall sediments in the hanging valleys (Messenzehl et al. 2015). (ii) At the hillslope scale (0.03 km2) geotechnical scanline surveys of 16 rock slopes and one-year rock temperature data of 25 ibuttons reveal that the local rockfall activity and the resulting deposition of individual talus slope landforms is mainly controlled by the specific rock mass strength with respect to the slope aspect, than being a paraglacial reaction. Permafrost might be only of secondary importance for the present-day rock mechanical state as geophysical surveys disprove the existence of frozen bedrock below 2600 m asl. (Messenzehl & Draebing 2015). (iii) At the bedrock scale (0.01 mm - 10 m) the

  4. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H


    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  5. Axion domain wall baryogenesis

    Daido, Ryuji; Kitajima, Naoya [Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Takahashi, Fuminobu [Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kavli IPMU, TODIAS, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)


    We propose a new scenario of baryogenesis, in which annihilation of axion domain walls generates a sizable baryon asymmetry. Successful baryogenesis is possible for a wide range of the axion mass and decay constant, m≃10{sup 8}–10{sup 13} GeV and f≃10{sup 13}–10{sup 16} GeV. Baryonic isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed in our model, in contrast to various spontaneous baryogenesis scenarios in the slow-roll regime. In particular, the axion domain wall baryogenesis is consistent with high-scale inflation which generates a large tensor-to-scalar ratio within the reach of future CMB B-mode experiments. We also discuss the gravitational waves produced by the domain wall annihilation and its implications for the future gravitational wave experiments.

  6. China Netcom Hangs Up


    One of the country’s largest telecom serviceproviders is forced to merge as the industry restructures During the Beijing Olympic Gameslast month, billions of spectatorsaround the world watched sportscompetitions and matches on theirtelevisions and computers.

  7. On hanging together

    Burke, Tom


    The 'global' problem of climate change is endlessly discussed, but rarely looked at cold. The crux of the matter is that all of us, everywhere, share this monumental problem. To prosper we need energy security; but if we persist in using fossil fuels with current technologies, our prosperity will founder. The roadmap drawn up at the Bali climate change convention will show what we need to do to hammer out the post-Kyoto regime. But to get through the ferocious complexity of the process, we will need a change of mind-set. Moving away from a focus on who is to blame and who should act first, we must gain a new political maturity.

  8. Congenital Abdominal Wall Defects

    Risby, Kirsten; Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte; Qvist, Niels


    complications were seen in five (15%) children: four had detachment of the mesh and one patient developed abdominal compartment syndrome. Mesh related clinical infection was observed in five children. In hospital mortality occurred in four cases (2 gastroschisis and 2 omphalocele) and was not procedure......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical utility of GORE® DUALMESH (GDM) in the staged closure of large congenital abdominal wall defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of patients with congenital abdominal wall defects managed with GDM was analyzed for outcome regarding complete fascial closure; mesh...

  9. Timber frame walls

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik


    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding....... It was found that the specific damages made to the vapour barrier as part of the test did not have any provable effect on the moisture content. In general elements with an intact vapour barrier did not show a critical moisture content at the wind barrier after four years of exposure....

  10. Low-Temperature Plasticity of Naturally Deformed Calcite Rocks


    Optical, cathodoluminescence and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses were conducted onfour groups of calcite fault rocks, a cataclastic limestone, cataclastic coarse-grained marbles from two fault zones, and afractured mylonite. These fault rocks show similar microstructural characteristics and give clues to similar processes ofrock deformation. They are characterized by the structural contrast between macroscopic cataclastic (brittle) andmicroscopic mylonitic (ductile) microstructures. Intragranular deformation microstructures (i.e. deformation twins, kinkbands and microfractures) are well preserved in the deformed grains in clasts or in primary rocks. The matrix materials areof extremely fine grains with diffusive features. Dislocation microstructures for co-existing brittle deformation andcrystalline plasticity were revealed using TEM. Tangled dislocations are often preserved at the cores of highly deformedclasts, while dislocation walls form in the transitions to the fine-grained matrix materials and free dislocations, dislocationloops and dislocation dipoles are observed both in the deformed clasts and in the fine-grained matrix materials. Dynamicrecrystallization grains from subgrain rotation recrystallization and subsequent grain boundary migration constitute themajor parts of the matrix materials. Statistical measurements of densities of free dislocations, grain sizes of subgrains anddynamically recrystallized grains suggest an unsteady state of the rock deformation. Microstructural andcathodoluminescence analyses prove that fluid activity is one of the major parts of faulting processes. Low-temperatureplasticity, and thereby induced co-existence of macroscopic brittle and microscopic ductile microstmctures are attributedto hydrolytic weakening due to the involvement of fluid phases in deformation and subsequent variation of rock rheology.During hydrolytic weakening, fluid phases, e.g. water, enhance the rate of dislocation slip and climb, and

  11. Anthropic Rock: a brief history

    R. B. Cathcart


    Full Text Available Stone tool-making is a reductive process. Synthetic rock manufacturing, preeminently an additive process, will not for-ever be confined to only the Earth-biosphere. This brief focuses on humanity's ancient past, hodiernal and possible future even more massive than present-day creation of artificial rocks within our exploitable Solar System. It is mostly Earth-centric account that expands the factual generalities underlying the unique non-copyrighted systemic technogenic rock classification first publicly presented (to the American Geological Society during 2001, by its sole intellectual innovator, James Ross Underwood, Jr. His pioneering, unique exposition of an organization of this ever-increasingly important aspect of the Anthropic Rock story, spatially expansive material lithification, here is given an amplified discussion for the broader geo and space science social group-purpose of encouragement of a completer 21st Century treatment of Underwood's explicative subject-chart (Fig. 2.

  12. Beach rock from Goa Coast

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Wagle, B.G.

    temperature under the beach and inland. However, the thickness depends upon variabilities of precipitation, hinterland, water table fluctuations, temperature changes, composition and changes in sea level. Since the beach rock is formed in the tidal or spray...

  13. ROCK DEFORMATION. Final Progress Report



    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on ROCK DEFORMATION was held at II Ciocco from 5/19/02 thru 5/24/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  14. Spatio-temporal measurements and analysis of snow depth in a rock face

    V. Wirz


    Full Text Available Snow in rock faces plays a key role in the alpine environment for permafrost distribution, snow water storage or run off in spring. However, a detailed assessment of snow depths in steep rock walls has never been attempted. To understand snow distribution in rock walls a high-resolution terrestrial laser scanner (TLS, including a digital camera, was used to obtain snow depth (HS data with a resolution of one metre. The mean HS, the snow covered area and their evolution in the rock face were compared to a neighbouring smoother catchment and a flat field station at similar elevation. Further we analyzed the patterns of HS distribution in the rock face after different periods and investigated the main factors contributing to them.

    In a first step we could show that with TLS reliable information on surface data of a steep rocky surface can be obtained. In comparison to the flatter sites in the vicinity, mean HS in the rock face was lower during the entire winter, but trends of snow depth changes were similar. We observed repeating accumulation and ablation patterns in the rock face, while maximum snow depth loss always occurred at those places with maximum snow depth gain. Further analysis of the main factors contributing to the snow depth distribution in the rock face revealed terrain-wind-interaction processes to be dominant. Processes related to slope angle seem to play a role, but no linear function of slope angle and snow depth was found.

    Further analyses should involve measurements in rock faces with other characteristics and higher temporal resolutions to be able to distinguish individual processes better. Additionally the relation of spatial and temporal distribution of snow depth to terrain-wind interactions should be tested.

  15. Microthermometric measurement of fluid inclusions and its constraints on genesis of PGE-polymetallic deposits in Lower Cambrian black rock series, southern China

    WANG Min; SUN Xiaoming; MA Mingyang


    Systematic microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusions in the PGE-polymetallic deposits hosted in the Lower Cambrian black rock series in southern China were performed, and the results suggest: (1) there exist two types of fluid inclusions. TypeⅠis of NaCl-H2O system with low-medium salinity, and its homogenization temperatures (Th) and salinities are 106.9- 286.4℃ and ( 0.8- 21.8) wt%NaCl eq. respectively; TypeⅡ is of CaCl2-NaCl-H2O system with medium-high salinities, and its homogenization temperatures and salinities range from 120.1℃ to 269.6℃ and ( 11.4- 31.4) wt%NaCl eq., respectively. The typeⅡ fluid inclusions have been discovered for the first time in this kind of deposits; (2) two generations of ore-forming fluids were recognized. Characteristics of fluid inclusions in the PGE-polymetallic ores and carbonate-quartz stockworks in the underlying phosphorites are almost of no difference, they may represent ore-forming fluids at the main metallogenic stage. The peak value of homogenization temperature of those fluid inclusions is about 170℃, while their salinities possess a remarkable bimodal distribution pattern with two peak values of (27-31) wt%NaCl eq. and (4-6) wt%NaCl eq. On the contrary, fluid inclusions in the carbonate-quartz veins in the hanging wall may represent ore-forming fluids at the post-metallogenetic stage. The homogenization temperatures and the peak values of salinities are mostly 130-170℃ and (12-14) wt%NaCl eq., respectively; (3) nobel gas isotopic composition analyses in combination with the microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusions suggest that the ore-forming fluids at the main metallogenetic stage were probably derived from mixing of basinal hot brines with the CaCl2-NaCl-H2O system and seawater with the NaCl-H2O system; (4) in the Early Cambrian, the basinal hot brines were trapped in the Caledonian basins, which were distributed along the southern margin of the Yangtze Craton, and where giant thick

  16. Effect of Groundwater Radiolysis on the Wall—rock Alteration of Uranium Ore Deposits

    闵茂中; 吴俊奇; 等


    Reported for the first time in this paper are the results of simulating experiments on the γ-irradiation-induced oxidation of Fe2+ under the physicochemical conditions(T=200℃,P=50MPa,Eh=-0.1V,pH=7.2)simial to those under which moderate-low temperature hydrothermal uranium deposits are formed.Evdence shows that the effect of groundwater radiolysis seems to be the major mechanism of wall-rock alteration(hematitizaton)of hydrothermal uranium deposits.Moreover,adiscussion was made of possible effects of radiolysis of the water-rock system on wall-rock alterations including argillization and decoloration of uranium ore deposits on the basis of the experimental results.

  17. Determination and distribution of diesel components in igneous rock surrounding underground diesel storage facilities in Sweden.

    Loren, A; Hallbeck, L; Pedersen, K; Abrahamsson, K


    In Sweden, a preliminary investigation of the contamination situation of igneous rock surrounding underground storage facilities of diesel showed that the situation was severe. The diesel was believed to have penetrated into the rock as far as 50 m from the walls of the vaults. Consequently, the risk for contamination of groundwater and recipients could not be neglected. To be able to assess the fate of diesel components in rock, both a suitable drilling method and a method for the determination of a wide range of diesel components were needed. The analytical method presented made it possible to quantify a number of hydrocarbons in rock samples collected with triple-tube core drilling. The samples were dissolved in hydrofluoric acid (HF) with hexane in Teflon centrifuge tubes. After digestion of the rock, extraction of the analytes with hexane was performed. Determination of the individual hydrocarbons present was done with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method was used to study the environmental impact of the underground storage of diesel. The drilling method enabled sampling without contamination risks. Our data show that the major transport of diesel components in rock occurs through fracture systems and that diffusion of diesel through the rock is of minor importance. The results have drastically changed the view of the contamination situation of diesel in the vicinity of storage facilities in hard rock in Sweden.

  18. Measurements of water potential and water content in unsaturated crystalline rock

    Schneebeli, Martin; Flühler, Hannes; Gimmi, Thomas; Wydler, Hannes; LäSer, Hans-Peter; Baer, Toni


    A water desaturation zone develops around a tunnel in water-saturated rock when the evaporative water loss at the rock surface is larger than the water flow from the surrounding saturated region of restricted permeability. We describe the methods with which such water desaturation processes in rock materials can be quantified. The water retention characteristic θ (ψ) of crystalline rock samples was determined with a pressure membrane apparatus. The negative water potential, identical to the capillary pressure, ψ, below the tensiometric range (ψ drilled into the granodiorite as a measuring chamber. The water potentials observed in a cylindrical granodiorite monolith ranged between -0.1 and -3.0 MPa; those near the wall in a ventilated tunnel between -0.1 and -2.2 MPa. Two types of three-rod TDR probes were used, one as a depth probe inserted into the rock, the other as a surface probe using three copper stripes attached to the surface for detecting water content changes in the rock-to-air boundary. The TDR signal was smoothed with a low-pass filter, and the signal length determined based on the first derivative of the trace. Despite the low porosity of crystalline rock these standard methods are applicable to describe the unsaturated zone in solid rock and may also be used in other consolidated materials such as concrete.

  19. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L. [Rockplan, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.


    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the

  20. Institute for Rock Magnetism established

    Banerjee, Subir K.

    There is a new focal point for cooperative research in advanced rock magnetism. The University of Minnesota in Minneapolis has established an Institute for Rock Magnetism (IRM) that will provide free access to modern equipment and encourage visiting fellows to focus on important topics in rock magnetism and related interdisciplinary research. Funding for the first three years has been secured from the National Science Foundation, the W.M. Keck Foundation, and the University of Minnesota.In the fall of 1986, the Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism (GP) section of the AGU held a workshop at Asilomar, Calif., to pinpoint important and emerging research areas in paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, and the means by which to achieve them. In a report of this workshop published by the AGU in September 1987, two urgent needs were set forth. The first was for interdisciplinary research involving rock magnetism, and mineralogy, petrology, sedimentology, and the like. The second need was to ease the access of rock magnetists and paleomagnetists around the country to the latest equipment in modern magnetics technology, such as magneto-optics or electronoptics. Three years after the publication of the report, we announced the opening of these facilities at the GP section of the AGU Fall 1990 Meeting. A classified advertisement inviting applications for visiting fellowships was published in the January 22, 1991, issue of Eos.

  1. Reactivation of a collisional suture by Miocene transpressional domes associated with the Red River and Song Chay detachment faults, northern Vietnam

    Osozawa, Soichi; Van Vuong, Nguyen; Van Tich, Vu; Wakabayashi, John


    Elongate Miocene gneissose and granitic domes in northern Vietnam formed in a dextral-transpressional ductile shear regime, possibly associated with large-scale restraining step-overs along dextral faults. Initial anticlinal D1 doming involved folding of both basement and hanging wall rocks with D1 secondary folds that verge toward the anticlinal axes. Such folds reflect dome-scale flexural slip folding. With continued shortening, D2 detachment faults developed on the flanks of the anticlines along the hanging wall-basement interface, so that the basement was extruded vertically into the overlying hanging wall rocks. The detachment faults were associated with D2 drag folds that verge away from the anticlinal axes. The hanging wall assemblage lacks a well-ordered stratigraphy, displaying primarily block-in-matrix fabric. We identified bedded cherts, associated with umbers and alkalic basaltic intrusions within these hanging wall rocks, a first report of such rocks from Vietnam. The association of cherts, umbers, and basaltic intrusions and extrusions with block-in-matrix units with clastic rocks strongly suggest that the hanging wall rocks comprise part of a subduction complex. Because the base of a subduction complex is a former subduction megathrust horizon, the hanging wall-basement interface represents a reactivated collisional suture. Such a suture was probably associated with the Indosinian orogeny, and the basement should be the Indochina continental block. This structure may have influenced the position of Miocene dextral faulting in addition to controlling the position of the dome detachments. The well-known Red River fault marks the boundary of one of the domes, but in this region it appears to be a detachment (normal) fault rather than a dextral strike-slip fault. However, the association with the dome evolution with large-scale restraining step-overs suggests that dextral faulting associated with dome development may lie further away from the dome axes


    M. Corsetti


    Full Text Available The methods for understanding rock instability mechanisms and for evaluating potential destructive scenarios are of great importance in risk assessment analysis dedicated to the establishment of appropriate prevention and mitigation actions. When the portion of the unstable rock mass is very large, effective actions to counteract the risks are complex and expensive. In these conditions, an optimal risk management cannot ignore procedures able to faster and accurately acquire i geometrical data for modeling the geometry of the rock walls and implementing reliable forecasting models and ii monitoring data able to describe the magnitude and the direction of deformation processes. These data contributes to the prediction of the behavior of a landslide if the measurements are acquired frequently and reliable numerical models can be implemented. Innovative geomatic techniques, based on GPS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning Surveying (TLS, automated total station and satellite and ground SAR Interferometry, have been recently applied to define the geometry and monitoring the displacements of unstable slopes. Among these, TLS is mainly adopted to generate detailed 3D models useful to reconstruct rock wall geometry by contributing to the estimation of geo-mechanical parameters, that is orientation, persistence and apparent spacing of rock discontinuities. Two examples of applications of TLS technique to the analysis of a large front in a quarry and of a rock shoulder of a dam are presented.

  3. Landslides and rock fall processes in the proglacial area of the Gepatsch glacier, Tyrol, Austria - Quantitative assessment of controlling factors and process rates

    Vehling, Lucas; Rohn, Joachim; Moser, Michael


    Due to the rapid deglaciation since 1850, lithological structures and topoclimatic factors, mass movements like rock fall, landslides and complex processes are important contributing factors to sediment transport and modification of the earth's surface in the steep, high mountain catchment of the Gepatsch reservoir. Contemporary geotechnical processes, mass movement deposits, their source areas, and controlling factors like material properties and relief parameters are mapped in the field, on Orthofotos and on digital elevation models. The results are presented in an Arc-Gis based geotechnical map. All mapped mass movements are stored in an Arc-Gis geodatabase and can be queried regarding properties, volume and controlling factors, so that statistical analyses can be conducted. The assessment of rock wall retreat rates is carried out by three different methods in multiple locations, which differ in altitude, exposition, lithology and deglaciation time: Firstly, rock fall processes and rates are investigated in detail on five rock fall collector nets with an overall size of 750 m2. Rock fall particles are gathered, weighed and grain size distribution is detected by sieving and measuring the diameter of the particles to distinct between rock fall processes and magnitudes. Rock wall erosion processes like joint formation and expansions are measured with high temporal resolution by electrical crack meters, together with rock- and air temperature. Secondly, in cooperation with the other working groups in the PROSA project, rock fall volumes are determined with multitemporal terrestrial laserscanning from several locations. Lately, already triggered rock falls are accounted by mapping the volume of the deposit and calculating of the bedrock source area. The deposition time span is fixed by consideration of the late Holocene lateral moraines and analysing historical aerial photographs, so that longer term rock wall retreat rates can be calculated. In order to limit

  4. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. BIPS logging in borehole KAS09

    Gustafsson, Jaana; Gustafsson, Christer (Malaa Geoscience AB (Sweden))


    This report includes the data gained in BIPS logging performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The logging operation presented here includes BIPS logging in the core drilled borehole KAS09. The objective for the BIPS logging was to observe the condition of KAS09 in order to restore the borehole in the hydrogeological monitoring programme.All measurements were conducted by Malaa Geoscience AB on October 9th 2009. The objective of the BIPS logging is to achieve information of the borehole including occurrence of rock types as well as determination of fracture distribution and orientation. This report describes the equipment used as well as the measurement procedures and data gained. For the BIPS survey, the result is presented as images. The basic conditions of the BIPS logging for geological mapping and orientation of structures are satisfying for borehole KAS09, although induced affects from the drilling on the borehole walls limit the visibility

  5. Effect and mechanism of stresses on rock permeability at different scales

    YIN; Shangxian; WANG; Shangxu


    The effect of geo-stress fields on macroscopic hydro-geological conditions or microcosmic permeability of water-bearing media should follow some laws or principles. Cases study and tests show that: (1) At macro-geologic large scale, deformed and crashed rocks which were induced by geo-stress fields changing provided space for groundwater storage and flow. Groundwater adjusts water-bearing space and dilatants fractures by flowing and press transferring. Coupling of liquid and solid can be implemented for rocks and groundwater. Although tectonic fields witness several times of change and build-up in geological time, stress fields forming regional tectonic framework are coherent with seepage fields, orientation of the maximum horizontal stress demonstrates main seepage directions. (2) At macro-geologic middle scale, zones of stresses changing sharply, quite low stresses,stress or shear concentration can be used to show locations and types of main fractures, zones of geo-stresses changing equably can be acted as normal base media zones of tri-porosity media. (3) At micro-geologic small scale, tri-porosity media include fractured rocks, porous rocks and capillary rocks. Investigations indicate that porosity or permeability is functions of effective stresses, and porosity or permeability changing rules of porous rocks with variation of effective stresses can be described as the index model, the model of power exponent functions is suitable for those of fractured rocks, the model of the second power parabola for capillary rocks. The porosity and permeability loss in fractured rocks, which are greater than that in porous rocks, are shown by calculation of effective compressive coefficient and closing pressure in cracks. The calculations can also explain themechanism why porosity changes are always larger than permeability changes. It is proved by the thick wall cylinder theory that the second power parabola relation between porosity or permeability loss and effective

  6. Klassiõpetaja peab särama / Ly Melesk, Kairis Kontus, Leida Talts, Viia Hang...[jt.] ; küsitles Anu Mõttus


    Vestlusringis on Tallinna Kuristiku Gümnaasiumi klassiõpetajad Viia Hang ja Ly Melesk, Tallinna Ülikooli 5. kursuse üliõpilane ja Tallinna Lepistiku Lasteaed-Algkooli õpetaja Kairis Kontus, Tallinna Ülikooli algõpetuse õppetooli juhataja Leida Talts ning algõpetuse õppetooli pedagoogika ja algõpetuse metoodika õppejõud Mare Müürsepp. Kui hästi on Tallinna Ülikool ja tema eelkäijad suutnud algklassiõpetajaid ette valmistada ja mis neil igapäevatöös toime tulla aitab

  7. Approach to the Design of Compound MSS Tail Hanging System%复合式移动模架尾部吊挂系统设计探讨

    刘宏刚; 张超福; 侯嵩


    尾部吊挂在已浇筑的混凝土梁面上走行的复合式移动模架因具备支腿自移功能,在国内外桥梁施工中得到大量应用,但此类移动模架的事故率也是相对较高的,且大多缘于吊挂系统的设计或加工缺陷。通过分析吊挂系统在走行过程中受到的多维度不断变化的弯、剪、扭、拉组合作用,结合实际使用中的经验教训,总结其计算、设计、制造及现场处理等方面需要注意的若干事项,并对照这些结论和建议,讨论几种常见的复合式移动模架吊挂系统设计方案的优缺点,以及在设计吊挂系统时动态地、相互关联地按照构件在使用中的真实情况研究其极限状态与破坏规律的重要性。%Owning to the self-moving brackets, the compound MSS with tail hanging running on the surface of cast in situ concrete girder has been widely used in bridge construction at home and abroad. But accidents of the MSS occur frequently, resulted largely from the hanging system design or manufacturing defects. This paper analyzes the hanging system being acted upon by the combination of the multi-dimensional changing of bending, shearing, torsion and pulling in the process of walking. With reference to the lessons learned in the actual operation, a number of issues on its calculation, design, manufacturing, and on - site handling are summarized, the merits and demerits of several common compound MSS designs are discussed on the basis of these conclusions and recommendations, and the importance is addressed of the limit status and failure laws relating to each other according to the element true conditions in use in the designing of the hanging system.

  8. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461 Mineral...-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty four hours report to the nearest MSHA office each rock burst which: (i) Causes persons...

  9. Seismic response of rock joints and jointed rock mass

    Ghosh, A.; Hsiung, S.M.; Chowdhury, A.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses


    Long-term stability of emplacement drifts and potential near-field fluid flow resulting from coupled effects are among the concerns for safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). A number of factors can induce drift instability or change the near-field flow patterns. Repetitive seismic loads from earthquakes and thermal loads generated by the decay of emplaced waste are two significant factors. One of two key technical uncertainties (KTU) that can potentially pose a high risk of noncompliance with the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 60 is the prediction of thermal-mechanical (including repetitive seismic load) effects on stability of emplacement drifts and the engineered barrier system. The second KTU of concern is the prediction of thermal-mechanical-hydrological (including repetitive seismic load) effects on the host rock surrounding the engineered barrier system. The Rock Mechanics research project being conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) is intended to address certain specific technical issues associated with these two KTUs. This research project has two major components: (i) seismic response of rock joints and a jointed rock mass and (ii) coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological (TMH) response of a jointed rock mass surrounding the engineered barrier system (EBS). This final report summarizes the research activities concerned with the repetitive seismic load aspect of both these KTUs.

  10. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, Pallavi [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)


    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  11. Determining the stress of rock massif


    Defining the stress rock massif is essential for design of underground facilities and methods of mining in the mines. Assessment the value of stress state of rock massif and rock strength in the various loads allows rational design. This is of particular importance when sizing columns, determining the extent of excavation, the cross-sections of underground rooms in problems with rock bursts and others. This paper briefly gives the basic methods of determining the rock massif stress as part of...

  12. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.


    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  13. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)


    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  14. Ellipsoidal anisotropy in elasticity for rocks and rock masses

    Pouya, Ahmad


    One of the interesting features with the ellipsoidal models of anisotropy presented in this paper is their acceptance of analytical solutions for some of the basic elasticity problems. It was shown by Pouya (2000) and Pouya and Zaoui (2006) that many closed-form solutions for basic problems involving linear isotropic materials could be extended by linear transformation to cover a variety of "ellipsoidal" materials. This paper will describe two main varieties of ellipsoidal elastic models and show how well they fit the in situ data for sedimentary rocks; numerical homogenization results for several varieties of fractured rock masses will also be provided.

  15. Analysis of borehole expansion and gallery tests in anisotropic rock masses

    Amadei, B.; Savage, W.Z.


    Closed-form solutions are used to show how rock anisotropy affects the variation of the modulus of deformation around the walls of a hole in which expansion tests are conducted. These tests include dilatometer and NX-jack tests in boreholes and gallery tests in tunnels. The effects of rock anisotropy on the modulus of deformation are shown for transversely isotropic and regularly jointed rock masses with planes of transverse isotropy or joint planes parallel or normal to the hole longitudinal axis for plane strain or plane stress condition. The closed-form solutions can also be used when determining the elastic properties of anisotropic rock masses (intact or regularly jointed) in situ. ?? 1991.

  16. Rock mass movements around development workings in various density of standing-and-roof-bolting support



    Presented measurement results of roof rocks and wall rock movements of un-derground development workings after their drifting. The research was carried out in thecoal mine workings with standing-and-roof bolting support. There were various density ofthe support, so the aim of the special monitoring programme was to determine movementintensity of rock mass in the premises of the heading area. There were four types of re-search did by the authors. They measured convergence, roof layers separation using tell-tales and sonic probes and load bearing of the headings' roofs by hydraulic dynamometers.Evaluation of fracture zone around the heading and investigation the load zone caused byfailed roof rocks may become a basement for the determination of support parameters ofthe workings. The combined system of standing support and roof bolting seems to be anessential for underground headings protection.

  17. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2000



    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory constitutes an important component of SKB's work to design, construct, and implement a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of selected repository sites. The retention effect of the rock has been studied by tracer tests in the Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE) and the TRUE Block Scale (TRUE BS). These tests are supplemented by the new Long Term Diffusion Experiment (LTDE). During year 2000 the field experiments of TRUE BS (50 m scale) were completed and preparations made for the LTDE (migration through a fracture wall and into the rock), including boring of approximately 10 m deep hole with 300 mm diameter. Laboratory investigations have difficulties in simulating natural conditions and need supplementary field studies to support validation exercises. A special borehole probe, CHEMLAB, has therefore been designed for different kinds of validation experiments where data can be obtained representative for the in-situ properties of groundwater at repository depth. During 2000 migration experiments were made with actinides (Am, Np and Pu) in CHEMLAB 2, the simplified supplement to CHEMLAB 1. Colloids of nuclides as well as of bentonite might affect the migration of released radionuclides and a separate project was planned during 2000 to assess the existence, stability and mobility of colloids. The development of numerical modelling tools continues with the general objective to improve the numerical models in terms of flow and transport and to update the site-scale and laboratory scale models for the Aespoe HRL. The Matrix Fluid Chemistry project aims at determining the origin and age of matrix fluids and the experiment has been designed to sample matrix fluids from predetermined, isolated borehole sections by specialised equipment. The Aespoe HRL also has the task to demonstrate and perform full scale tests of the function of different components of

  18. Occupy Wall Street

    Jensen, Michael J.; Bang, Henrik


    This article analyzes the political form of Occupy Wall Street on Twitter. Drawing on evidence contained within the profiles of over 50,000 Twitter users, political identities of participants are characterized using natural language processing. The results find evidence of a traditional oppositio......This article analyzes the political form of Occupy Wall Street on Twitter. Drawing on evidence contained within the profiles of over 50,000 Twitter users, political identities of participants are characterized using natural language processing. The results find evidence of a traditional...... oppositional social movement alongside a legitimizing countermovement, but also a new notion of political community as an ensemble of discursive practices that are endogenous to the constitution of political regimes from the “inside out.” These new political identities are bound by thin ties of political...

  19. Timber frame walls

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik


    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...... were removed in some of the elements to simulate damaged vapour barriers. The condition of the wind barriers of elements with intact vapour barriers was inspected from the inside after four years of exposure. This paper presents results with emphasis on the moisture conditions behind the wind barrier....... It was found that the specific damages made to the vapour barrier as part of the test did not have any provable effect on the moisture content. In general elements with an intact vapour barrier did not show a critical moisture content at the wind barrier after four years of exposure....

  20. Space, composition, vertical wall ...

    Despot, Katerina; Sandeva, Vaska


    The space in which it is an integral segment of our life is nourished with many functional and decorative elements. One aspect for consideration of vertical walls or The vertical gardens and their aesthetic impact in space called function. Vertical gardens bordering the decoration to totally functional garden in areas where there is little oxygen and space, ideal for residential buildings and public spaces where missing greenery, special place occupies in interior design where their expres...

  1. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    Leigh, Jason


    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  2. Wall Street som kreationistisk forkynder

    Ekman, Susanne


    Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong......Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong...

  3. Light shining through walls

    Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    Shining light through walls? At first glance this sounds crazy. However, very feeble gravitational and electroweak effects allow for this exotic possibility. Unfortunately, with present and near future technologies the opportunity to observe light shining through walls via these effects is completely out of question. Nevertheless there are quite a number of experimental collaborations around the globe involved in this quest. Why are they doing it? Are there additional ways of sending photons through opaque matter? Indeed, various extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of new particles called WISPs - extremely weakly interacting slim particles. Photons can convert into these hypothetical particles, which have no problems to penetrate very dense materials, and these can reconvert into photons after their passage - as if light was effectively traversing walls. We review this exciting field of research, describing the most important WISPs, the present and future experiments, the indirect hints from astrophysics and cosmology pointing to the existence of WISPs, and finally outlining the consequences that the discovery of WISPs would have. (orig.)

  4. A Hanged From the Past: Medical Consideration on the Judas Iscariot Fresco-Chapelle Notre-Dame-des-Fontaines, La Brigue (15th Century).

    Gaeta, Raffaele; Fornaciari, Antonio


    The medieval chapel of Notre Dame-des-Fontaines (Our Lady of the Fountains), in the French Maritime Alps, is entirely covered by the fresco cycle of the Passion (15th century) that depicts the last days of Jesus from the Last Supper to the Resurrection. Under a small window, there is the brutal representation of the suicide of Judas Iscariot, hanging from a tree, with the abdomen quartered from which his soul, represented by a small man, is kidnapped by a devil. The author, Giovanni Canavesio, represented the traitor's death with very detailed anatomical structures, differently thus from other paintings of the same subject; it is therefore possible to assume that the artist had become familiar with the human anatomy. In particular, the realism of the hanged man's posture, neck bent in an unnatural way, allows us to hypothesize that it probably comes from direct observation of the executions of capital punishment, not infrequently imposed by the public authorities in low medieval Italy.

  5. Hanging drop cultures of human testis and testis cancer samples: a model used to investigate activin treatment effects in a preserved niche

    Jørgensen, A; Young, J; Nielsen, J E; Joensen, U N; Toft, B G; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Loveland, K L


    Background: Testicular germ cell tumours of young adults, seminoma or non-seminomas, are preceded by a pre-invasive precursor, carcinoma in situ (CIS), understood to arise through differentiation arrest of embryonic germ cells. Knowledge about the malignant transformation of germ cells is currently limited by the lack of experimental models. The aim of this study was to establish an experimental tissue culture model to maintain normal and malignant germ cells within their niche and allow investigation of treatment effects. Methods: Human testis and testis cancer specimens from orchidectomies were cultured in ‘hanging drops' and effects of activin A and follistatin treatment were investigated in seminoma cultures. Results: Testis fragments with normal spermatogenesis or CIS cells were cultured for 14 days with sustained proliferation of germ cells and CIS cells and without increased apoptosis. Seminoma cultures survived 7 days, with proliferating cells detectable during the first 5 days. Activin A treatment significantly reduced KIT transcript and protein levels in seminoma cultures, thereby demonstrating a specific treatment response. Conclusions: Hanging drop cultures of human testis and testis cancer samples can be employed to delineate mechanisms governing growth of normal, CIS and tumorigenic germ cells retained within their niche. PMID:24781282

  6. Hanging Artificial Nest Boxes on Pinus tabulaeformis Plantation to Attract Beneficial Birds%油松人工林人工巢箱招引益鸟试验

    商胜才; 敖玉清


    In suitable stands of Pinus tabulaeformis plantation,experiments of hanging wooden nest boxes to attract beneficial birds were conducted.Result shows that:hanging nest boxes can attract beneficial birds(Parus major, Sturnus cineraceus),attract rate averagely are 5 6%;it can achieve a certain effect as long as taken the right way;the two kinds of predators which affect beneficial birds live in nests is Eutamiassibiricus and Hylaimmaculate,respec-tively.%在油松人工林适宜林分中,开展了挂木板巢箱招引益鸟的试验,结果表明:挂人工巢箱可以招引大山雀、椋鸟益鸟,招引率平均为56%,只要方法得当,当年即能取得一定的效果;影响益鸟筑巢的2种敌害分别是花鼠和无斑雨蛙。

  7. The design of full-automatic packaging production line in hanging desiccant%全自动挂式除湿袋包装生产线设计

    王吉岱; 王彬; 辛飞飞; 李栋


    The hook installation of hanging desiccant now can only be finished by manpower .Considering the situation , a full-au-tomatic packaging production line is devised , it can provide a automated equipment of simple structure , convenient operation and high productivity for hook ’ s installation .Rectangular closed layout is applied to the production line , making the hanging desic-cant’ s packaging circular and compact .Besides, Programmable Logic Controller ( PLC) and Human Machine Interface ( HMI) are adopted for the ordered control of the production line , which ensure that the production line is reliable and stable .%目前挂式除湿袋挂钩组装只能通过手工压合来完成。鉴于此,设计一条全自动包装生产线,可为除湿袋挂钩组装提供一种结构简单、操作方便和生产率高的自动化设备。该生产线采用矩形闭合布局,使挂式除湿袋的包装变得循环紧凑;同时,采用可编辑逻辑控制器( PLC)和人机界面( HMI)对生产线进行有序控制,保证了生产线的可靠性和稳定性。

  8. Attachable rock bolters for roadheaders

    Weibezahn, K. [Wirth Maschinen- und Bohrgeraete-Fabrik GmbH, Erkelenz (Germany); West, M. [Deilmann-Haniel Mining Systems GmbH (Germany)


    Roadheaders are used in mining and tunnelling in medium hard rock formations. The excavated space is made safe either by NATM-technology or a steel support system. The application of a rock bolting system up to now was restricted to formations that can cope with at least some support lag. A new system was developed in close cooperation between WIRTH Maschinen- und Bohrgeraetefabrik GmbH and deilmann-haniel mining systems gmbh that allows to carry out rock bolting with two drill rigs whicht are attached to the cutting boom of the roadheader even in front of the cutter head directly after cutting. Alternatively a robot may be attached to above named system that enables remotely controlled shot-creting close to the face.

  9. Hot dry rock geothermal energy

    Heiken, G.; Murphy, H.; Nunz, G.; Potter, R.


    Man-made geothermal systems are discussed which make it possible to extract heat from hot rocks in areas where natural fluids are insufficient for the development of hydrothermal energy. The location and magnitude of high- and low-temperature geothermal resources in the USA for such hot dry rock (HDR) systems are examined. An HDR concept is described in which water is injected into one of two nearly parallel wells connected at depth by man-made fractures; the injected water circulates through the fracture system, where it is heated by conduction from the hot rock, and hot fluid, which can be used for heating or for electric power generation, rises through the second well. Some heat-extraction experiments using the described concept are reviewed which are being conducted in a complex volcanic field in New Mexico. The economics of HDR energy is evaluated.

  10. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall

    Lewis, E. V.


    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  11. Cell Wall Biology: Perspectives from Cell Wall Imaging

    Kieran J.D.Lee; Susan E.Marcus; J.Paul Knox


    Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are important biomaterials that underpin plant growth,are major repositories for photosynthetically accumulated carbon,and,in addition,impact greatly on the human use of plants. Land plant cell walls contain in the region of a dozen major polysaccharide structures that are mostly encompassed by cellulose,hemicelluloses,and pectic polysaccharides. During the evolution of land plants,polysaccharide diversification appears to have largely involved structural elaboration and diversification within these polysaccharide groups. Cell wall chemistry is well advanced and a current phase of cell wall science is aimed at placing the complex polysaccharide chemistry in cellular contexts and developing a detailed understanding of cell wall biology. Imaging cell wall glycomes is a challenging area but recent developments in the establishment of cell wall molecular probe panels and their use in high throughput procedures are leading to rapid advances in the molecular understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of individual cell walls and also cell wall differences at taxonomic levels. The challenge now is to integrate this knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity with an understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms that underpin cell wall properties and functions.

  12. Canal Wall Reconstruction Mastoidectomy


    Objective To investigate the advantages of canal wall reconstruction (CWR) mastoidectomy, a single-stage technique for cholesteatoma removal and posterior external canal wall reconstruction, over the open and closed procedures in terms of cholesteatoma recurrence. Methods: Between June 2002 and December 2005, 38 patients (40 ears) with cholesteatoma were admited to Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital and received surgical treatments. Of these patients, 25 were male with ages ranging between 11 and 60 years (mean = 31.6 years) and 13 were female with ages ranging between 20 and 65 years (mean = 38.8 years). Canal wall reconstruction (CWR)mastoidectomy was performed in 31 ears and canal wall down (CWD) mastoidectomy in 9 ears. Concha cartilage was used for ear canal wall reconstruction in 22 of the 31 CWR procedures and cortical mastoid bone was used in the remaining 9 cases. Results At 0.5 to 4 years follow up, all but one patients remained free of signs of cholesteatoma recurrence, i.e., no retraction pocket or cholesteatoma matrix. One patient, a smoker, needed revision surgery due to cholesteatoma recurrence 1.5 year after the initial operation. The recurrence rate was therefore 3.2% (1/31). Cholesteatoma recurrence was monitored using postoperative CT scans whenever possible. In the case that needed a revision procedure, a retraction pocket was identified by otoendoscopy in the pars flacida area that eventually evolved into a cholesteatoma. A pocket extending to the epitympanum filled with cholesteatoma matrix was confirmed during the revision operation, A decision to perform a modified mastoidectomy was made as the patient refused to quit smoking. The mean air-bone gap in pure tone threshold was 45 dB before surgery and 25 dB after (p < 0.05). There was no difference between using concha cartilage and cortical mastoid bone for the reconstruction regarding air-bone gap improvement, CT findings and otoendoscopic results. Conclusion CWR mastoidectomy can be used for

  13. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S


    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  14. Best Position of R.C. Shear Wall due to seismic loads

    Amita Baghel


    Full Text Available A shear wall is a wall that is designed to resist shear, the lateral force that causes the bulk of damage in earthquakes. Many building codes mandate the use of such walls to make homes safer and more stable. In this work, a G+2 storey R.C. building frame has been considered and analyzed for seismic zone-lll(Jabalpur using staad.prov8i (series4 package, special moment resisting frame (SMRF and hard rock types used in work. Parameters are taken to compare and analyze for the results are Node displacement and Reactions for different arrangements

  15. Inelastic deformation in crystalline rocks

    Rahmani, H.; Borja, R. I.


    The elasto-plastic behavior of crystalline rocks, such as evaporites, igneous rocks, or metamorphic rocks, is highly dependent on the behavior of their individual crystals. Previous studies indicate that crystal plasticity can be one of the dominant micro mechanisms in the plastic deformation of crystal aggregates. Deformation bands and pore collapse are examples of plastic deformation in crystalline rocks. In these cases twinning within the grains illustrate plastic deformation of crystal lattice. Crystal plasticity is governed by the plastic deformation along potential slip systems of crystals. Linear dependency of the crystal slip systems causes singularity in the system of equations solving for the plastic slip of each slip system. As a result, taking the micro-structure properties into account, while studying the overall behavior of crystalline materials, is quite challenging. To model the plastic deformation of single crystals we use the so called `ultimate algorithm' by Borja and Wren (1993) implemented in a 3D finite element framework to solve boundary value problems. The major advantage of this model is that it avoids the singularity problem by solving for the plastic slip explicitly in sub steps over which the stress strain relationship is linear. Comparing the results of the examples to available models such as Von Mises we show the significance of considering the micro-structure of crystals in modeling the overall elasto-plastic deformation of crystal aggregates.



    <正>20041935 Chen Bailin (China University of Geosciences, Beijing);Shu Bin X-Ray Analysis of Deformed Rocks from Beishan Area, Gansu Province, China (Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition ), ISSN 1671-5888 CN22-1343/P, 33(4), 2003, p. 424-429, 442, 2 illus. , 3 tables, 13 refs. )

  17. Los abuelos de nuestro rock

    Jacobo Celnik


    Full Text Available Los Yetis. Una bomba atómica a go go. La historia de los abuelos de nuestro rock. Diego Londoño; Pulso & Letra Editores, Instituto para el Desarrollo de Antioquia, Instituto de Cultura y Patrimonio de Antioquia, 2014, 98 págs., fotografías.



    <正>20131550 Bai Jinfeng(Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Langfang 065000,China);Bo Wei Determination of 36Elements in Geochemical Samples by High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,31(5),2012,p.814



    <正>20050704 Cheng Lin (Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China); Feng Songlin Analysis of Colored Elements in Ancient Colored Glaze by SRXRF (Rock and Mineral Analysis, ISSN0254-5357, CN11 -2131/TD, 23 (2), 2004, p. 113-116, 120, 3 illus. , 3 tables, 6 refs. )



    <正>20142093Chen Daohua(Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey,Guangzhou 510075,China);Diao Shaobo The Latest Progress of Geological Marine Testing Technology in China(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,32(6),2013,p.850-859,105refs.)Key words:chemical analysis,China



    <正>20070252 Chen Meilan (Biological and Environmental College, Zhejiang Shuren University, Hangzhou 310015, China); Li Li Study on Adsorption of Phenol by Modified Organobentonite (Rock and Mineral Analysis, ISSN0254-5357, CN11-2131/TD, 24(4), 2005, p.259-261, 267, 6 illus., 1 table, 11 refs.) Key words: bentonite, benzene, adsorption



    20160255 Wang Na(Tianjin Center of Geological Survey,China Geological Survey,Tianjin 300170,China);Teng Xinhua Determination of Low-Content Iron Carbonate in Stream Sediments by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Aluminum Chloride Extraction(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,34(2),2015,p.229

  3. Metamorphic Rocks in West Irian

    Wegen, van der G.


    Low-grade metamorphics of West Irian occur to the east of Geelvink Bay associated with two narrow belts of basic and ultrabasic igneous rocks which represent ophiolitic suites of an eugeosynclinical development beginning in Early Mesozoic time. In both of these belts there are indications of regiona



    <正>20140786Deng Zhenping(Institute of Karst Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Guilin 541004,China);Yang Wen-qiong Application of Stripping Voltammetry with a Solid Amalgam Electrode for Determination of Copper in a Tracer and Groundwater Tracing Experiment(Rock and Mineral Analy-

  5. Plant Communities of Rough Rock.

    Jacobs, Linda

    A unit of study on plants grown in the Navajo community of Rough Rock, Arizona, is presented in sketches providing the common Navajo name for the plant, a literal English translation, the English name of the plant, and the Latin name. A brief description of each plant includes where the plant grows, how the Navajos use the plant, and the color and…

  6. Strains Induced in Urban Structures by Ultra-High Frequency Blasting Rock Motions: A Case Study

    Dowding, C. H.; Hamdi, E.; Aimone-Martin, C. T.


    This paper describes measurement and interpretation of strains induced in two, multiple story, older, urban structures by ultra-high frequency rock blast excitation from contiguous excavation. These strains are obtained from relative displacements found by integrating time correlated velocity time histories from multiple positions on the structures and foundation rock. Observations are based on ten instrumented positions on the structures and in the foundation rock during eight blast events, which provided over 70 time histories for analysis. The case study and measurements allowed the following conclusions: despite particle velocities in the rock that greatly exceed regulatory limits, strains in external walls are similar to or lower than those necessary to crack masonry structures and weak wall covering materials. These strains are also lower than those sustained by single story residential structures when excited by low frequency motions with particle velocities below regulatory limits. Expected relative displacements calculated with pseudo velocity single degree of freedom response spectra of excitation motions measured in the rock are similar to those measured.

  7. Pipe Poiseuille flow of viscously anisotropic, partially molten rock

    Allwright, Jane


    Laboratory experiments in which synthetic, partially molten rock is subjected to forced deformation provide a context for testing hypotheses about the dynamics and rheology of the mantle. Here our hypothesis is that the aggregate viscosity of partially molten mantle is anisotropic, and that this anisotropy arises from deviatoric stresses in the rock matrix. We formulate a model of pipe Poiseuille flow based on theory by Takei and Holtzman [2009a] and Takei and Katz [2013]. Pipe Poiseuille is a configuration that is accessible to laboratory experimentation but for which there are no published results. We analyse the model system through linearised analysis and numerical simulations. This analysis predicts two modes of melt segregation: migration of melt from the centre of the pipe toward the wall and localisation of melt into high-porosity bands that emerge near the wall, at a low angle to the shear plane. We compare our results to those of Takei and Katz [2013] for plane Poiseuille flow; we also describe a ne...

  8. Effect of Hydrothermal Alteration on Rock Properties in Active Geothermal Setting

    Mikisek, P.; Bignall, G.; Sepulveda, F.; Sass, I.


    Hydrothermal alteration records the physical-chemical changes of rock and mineral phases caused by the interaction of hot fluids and wall rock, which can impact effective permeability, porosity, thermal parameters, rock strength and other rock properties. In this project, an experimental approach has been used to investigate the effects of hydrothermal alteration on rock properties. A rock property database of contrastingly altered rock types and intensities has been established. The database details horizontal and vertical permeability, porosity, density, thermal conductivity and thermal heat capacity for ~300 drill core samples from wells THM12, THM13, THM14, THM17, THM18, THM22 and TH18 in the Wairakei-Tauhara geothermal system (New Zealand), which has been compared with observed hydrothermal alteration type, rank and intensity obtained from XRD analysis and optical microscopy. Samples were selected from clay-altered tuff and intercalated siltstones of the Huka Falls Formation, which acts as a cap rock at Wairakei-Tauhara, and tuffaceous sandstones of the Waiora Formation, which is a primary reservoir-hosting unit for lateral and vertical fluid flows in the geothermal system. The Huka Falls Formation exhibits argillic-type alteration of varying intensity, while underlying Waiora Formations exhibits argillic- and propylithic-type alteration. We plan to use a tempered triaxial test cell at hydrothermal temperatures (up to 200°C) and pressures typical of geothermal conditions, to simulate hot (thermal) fluid percolation through the rock matrix of an inferred "reservoir". Compressibility data will be obtained under a range of operating (simulation reservoir) conditions, in a series of multiple week to month-long experiments that will monitor change in permeability and rock strength accompanying advancing hydrothermal alteration intensity caused by the hot brine interacting with the rock matrix. We suggest, our work will provide new baseline information concerning

  9. Strengthening of Shear Walls

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    -plane loaded walls and disks is however not included in any guidelines, and only a small fraction of scientists have initiated research within this topic. Furthermore, studies of the principal behavior and response of a strengthened disk has not yet been investigated satisfactorily, and this is the principal...... be altered to fit the surrounding boundary conditions. The effective cohesive law will then become a function of the investigated structural geometry. A simplified approach for the latter topic was used to predict the load capacity of concrete beams in shear. Results obtained were acceptable, but the model...

  10. Axions from wall decay

    Chang, S; Hagmann, C; Sikivie, P


    The authors discuss the decay of axion walls bounded by strings and present numerical simulations of the decay process. In these simulations, the decay happens immediately, in a time scale of order the light travel time, and the average energy of the radiated axions is {approx_equal} 7m{sub a} for v{sub a}/m{sub a} {approx_equal} 500. is found to increase approximately linearly with ln(v{sub a}/m{sub a}). Extrapolation of this behavior yields {approx_equal} 60 m{sub a} in axion models of interest.

  11. Abdominal wall endometriosis.

    Upadhyaya, P; Karak, A K; Sinha, A K; Kumar, B; Karki, S; Agarwal, C S


    Endometriosis of abdominal wall scar following operation on uterus and tubes is extremely rare. The late onset of symptoms after surgery is the usual cause of misdiagnosis. Scar endometriosis is a rare disease which is difficult to diagnose and should always be considered as a differential diagnosis of painful abdominal masses in women. The diagnosis is made only after excision and histopathology of the lesion. Preoperative differentials include hernia, lipoma, suture granuloma or abscess. Hence an awareness of the entity avoids delay in diagnosis, helps clinicians to a more tailored treatment and also avoids unnecessary referrals. We report a case of abdominal endometriosis. The definitive diagnosis of which was established by histopathological studies.

  12. Understanding tectonic stress and rock strength in the Nankai Trough accretionary prism, offshore SW Japan

    Huffman, Katelyn A.

    Understanding the orientation and magnitude of tectonic stress in active tectonic margins like subduction zones is important for understanding fault mechanics. In the Nankai Trough subduction zone, faults in the accretionary prism are thought to have historically slipped during or immediately following deep plate boundary earthquakes, often generating devastating tsunamis. I focus on quantifying stress at two locations of interest in the Nankai Trough accretionary prism, offshore Southwest Japan. I employ a method to constrain stress magnitude that combines observations of compressional borehole failure from logging-while-drilling resistivity-at-the-bit generated images (RAB) with estimates of rock strength and the relationship between tectonic stress and stress at the wall of a borehole. I use the method to constrain stress at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 808 and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site C0002. At Site 808, I consider a range of parameters (assumed rock strength, friction coefficient, breakout width, and fluid pressure) in the method to constrain stress to explore uncertainty in stress magnitudes and discuss stress results in terms of the seismic cycle. I find a combination of increased fluid pressure and decreased friction along the frontal thrust or other weak faults could produce thrust-style failure, without the entire prism being at critical state failure, as other kinematic models of accretionary prism behavior during earthquakes imply. Rock strength is typically inferred using a failure criterion and unconfined compressive strength from empirical relations with P-wave velocity. I minimize uncertainty in rock strength by measuring rock strength in triaxial tests on Nankai core. I find strength of Nankai core is significantly less than empirical relations predict. I create a new empirical fit to our experiments and explore implications of this on stress magnitude estimates. I find using the new empirical fit can decrease stress

  13. Determination of ejection velocity of rock fragments during rock burst in consideration of damage

    ZUO Yu-jun; LI Xi-bing; ZHOU Zi-long


    The ejection velocity of rock fragments during rock burst, one of the important indexes representing the rock burst strength, is used most conveniently in the supporting design of tunnel with rock burst tendency and is often determined by means of observation devices. In order to calculate the average ejection velocity of rock fragments theoretically, the energy of rock burst was divided into damage consuming energy and kinetic energy gained by unit volume of rock firstly, and then the rock burst kinetic proportional coefficient η was brought up which could be determined according to the rock-burst damage energy index WD , at last the expression of the average ejection velocity of rock fragments during rock burst was obtained and one deep level underground tunnel was researched using the mentioned method. The results show that the calculation method is valid with or without considering the tectonic stress of tunnels, and that the method can be a reference for supporting design of deep mining.

  14. Significance of hanging total spine x-ray to estimate the indicative correction angle by brace wearing in idiopathic scoliosis patients

    Kuroki Hiroshi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although most idiopathic scoliosis patients subject to conservative treatment in daily clinical practice, there have been no ideal methods to evaluate the spinal flexibility for the patients who are scheduled the brace treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of hanging total spine x-ray to estimate the indicative correction angle by brace wearing in idiopathic scoliosis patients. Methods One hundred seventy-six consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis who were newly prescribed the Osaka Medical College (OMC brace were studied. The study included 14 boys and 162 girls with a mean age of 13 years and 1 month. The type of curves consisted of 62 thoracic, 23 thoracolumbar, 22 lumbar, 42 double major, 14 double thoracic, and 13 triple curve pattern. We compared the Cobb angles on initial brace wearing (BA and in hanging position (HA. Of those, 108 patients who had main thoracic curves were selected and evaluated the corrective ability of OMC brace. These subjects were divided into three groups according to the relation between BA and HA (BA HA group, and then, maturity was compared among them. Results The average Cobb angle in upright position (UA of all cases was 31.0 ± 7.8°. The average BA and HA of all cases were 20.3 ± 9.5° and 21.1 ± 8.4°, respectively. The average chronological age was lowest in BA Conclusions The use of hanging total spine x-ray served as a useful tool to estimate the degree of correction possible curve within the OMC brace for main thoracic curve in idiopathic scoliosis. Maturity had some influence on the correlation between HA and BA. Namely, in immature patients, HA tended to be larger than BA. In contrast, in mature patients, HA had a tendency to be smaller than BA. With consideration for spinal flexibility based on maturity, in mature patients, larger BA than HA may be allowed. However, in immature patients, smaller BA than HA should be aimed.

  15. Flow dynamics and solute transport in unsaturated rock fractures

    Su, Grace Woan-chee [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Rock fractures play an important role in flow and contaminant transport in fractured aquifers, production of oil from petroleum reservoirs, and steam generation from geothermal reservoirs. In this dissertation, phenomenological aspects of flow in unsaturated fractures were studied in visualization experiments conducted on a transparent replica of a natural, rough-walled rock fracture for inlet conditions of constant pressure and flow rate over a range of angles of inclination. The experiments demonstrated that infiltrating liquid proceeds through unsaturated rock fractures along non-uniform, localized preferential flow paths. Even in the presence of constant boundary conditions, intermittent flow was a persistent flow feature observed, where portions of the flow channel underwent cycles of snapping and reforming. Two modes of intermittent flow were observed, the pulsating blob mode and the rivulet snapping mode. A conceptual model for the rivulet snapping mode was proposed and examined using idealized, variable-aperture fractures. The frequency of intermittent flow events was measured in several experiments and related to the capillary and Bond numbers to characterize this flow behavior.

  16. Regulation of ROCK Activity in Cancer

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wewer, Ulla M; Yoneda, Atsuko


    , these findings demonstrate additional modes to regulate ROCK activity. This review describes the molecular mechanisms of ROCK activity regulation in cancer, with emphasis on ROCK isoform-specific regulation and interaction partners, and discusses the potential of ROCKs as therapeutic targets in cancer.......Cancer-associated changes in cellular behavior, such as modified cell-cell contact, increased migratory potential, and generation of cellular force, all require alteration of the cytoskeleton. Two homologous mammalian serine/threonine kinases, Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II), are key...... regulators of the actin cytoskeleton acting downstream of the small GTPase Rho. ROCK is associated with cancer progression, and ROCK protein expression is elevated in several types of cancer. ROCKs exist in a closed, inactive conformation under quiescent conditions, which is changed to an open, active...

  17. Exercise Desert Rock Letter Orders. Army, Camp Desert Rock, Nevada.


    WILF.iED J MSGT A19032i3 HJ;,ŕWAY, ELLafGzJN 8FC Xf,37791267 INOZ W, P. 1. PVT2 US52401808 KELLEY, JESSIE J SFC R1� EVaS, LOUIS PFC .,53073109...Ord Co (HAM) Camo Desert Rock, Nevada You will preeeed to Reynolds Funeral Vome, Sigourney, Iowa 0/a 24 AU ist 1957 for apprx fourteen (14) days to

  18. Morphofunctional Сhanges of Gallbladder and Biochemical Parametеrs of Lipid Metabolism in Children with Liver Steatosis

    S.O. Babii


    Full Text Available Background. The aim of study was to investigate peculiarities of structural and functional disorders of gallbladder in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Materials and methods. The study was conducted in 51 children aged 10–17 years. Patients were divided into four groups: the 1st group consisted of 11 children with biliary normokinesia without steatosis; the 2nd group — 20 children with biliary hypokinesia without steatosis; 3rd group — 11 children with biliary normokinesia and steatosis, and the 4th group — 9 children with biliary hypokinesia and steatosis. Anthropometric parameters were measured: height, weight, abdominal circumference, body mass index. Functional state of gallbladder was investigated with the help of ultrasound. Such biochemical parameters, as total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were defined, atherogenic index was calculated according to Friedewald formula. Results. Present study shows overweight (in 15 % of patients, obesity (in 85 % of patients, increase in the gallbladder volume by 30–50 % (p < 0.05, in the density of gallbladder wall by 12–16 % (p < 0.05 and its echogenicity by 24 % (p < 0.05 in children with steatosis versus group without steatosis and gallbladder normokinesia. Positive correlation between wall thickness and steatosis has been established. Thus, weight increase may potentially play a role in lipid disorders and biliary dysfunction. The 70 % of children with obesity had pathological changes of lipid levels, such as 74 % — increased blood atherogenicity. Conclusions. Physicians must necessarily correct a functional state of gallbladder during the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. Only comprehensive approach to the treatment allows prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its complications.

  19. Spatio-temporal measurements and analysis of snow depth in a rock face

    V. Wirz


    Full Text Available Snow in rock faces plays a key role in the alpine environment for permafrost distribution, snow water storage or runoff in spring. However, a detailed assessment of snow depths in steep rock walls has never been attempted. To understand snow distribution in rock faces a high-resolution terrestrial laser scanner (TLS, including a digital camera, was used to obtain interpolated snow depth (HS data with a grid resolution of one metre. The mean HS, the snow covered area and their evolution in the rock face were compared to a neighbouring smoother catchment and a flat field station at similar elevation. Further we analyzed the patterns of HS distribution in the rock face after different weather periods and investigated the main factors contributing to those distributions.

    In a first step we could show that with TLS reliable information on surface data of a steep rocky surface can be obtained. In comparison to the flatter sites in the vicinity, mean HS in the rock face was lower during the entire winter, but trends of snow depth changes were similar. We observed repeating accumulation and ablation patterns in the rock face, while maximum snow depth loss always occurred at those places with maximum snow depth gain. Further analysis of the main factors contributing to the snow depth distribution in the rock face revealed terrain-wind-interaction processes to be dominant. Processes related to slope angle seem to play a role, but no simple relationship between slope angle and snow depth was found.

    Further analyses should involve measurements in rock faces with other characteristics and higher temporal resolutions to be able to distinguish individual processes better. Additionally, the relation of spatial and temporal distribution of snow depth to terrain – wind interactions should be tested.

  20. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging and analysis of rock falls in Yosemite valley, California

    Stock, Gregory M.; Bawden, G.W.; Green, J.K.; Hanson, E.; Downing, G.; Collins, B.D.; Bond, S.; Leslar, M.


    We present quantitative analyses of recent large rock falls in Yosemite Valley, California, using integrated high-resolution imaging techniques. Rock falls commonly occur from the glacially sculpted granitic walls of Yosemite Valley, modifying this iconic landscape but also posing signifi cant potential hazards and risks. Two large rock falls occurred from the cliff beneath Glacier Point in eastern Yosemite Valley on 7 and 8 October 2008, causing minor injuries and damaging structures in a developed area. We used a combination of gigapixel photography, airborne laser scanning (ALS) data, and ground-based terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data to characterize the rock-fall detachment surface and adjacent cliff area, quantify the rock-fall volume, evaluate the geologic structure that contributed to failure, and assess the likely failure mode. We merged the ALS and TLS data to resolve the complex, vertical to overhanging topography of the Glacier Point area in three dimensions, and integrated these data with gigapixel photographs to fully image the cliff face in high resolution. Three-dimensional analysis of repeat TLS data reveals that the cumulative failure consisted of a near-planar rock slab with a maximum length of 69.0 m, a mean thickness of 2.1 m, a detachment surface area of 2750 m2, and a volume of 5663 ?? 36 m3. Failure occurred along a surfaceparallel, vertically oriented sheeting joint in a clear example of granitic exfoliation. Stress concentration at crack tips likely propagated fractures through the partially attached slab, leading to failure. Our results demonstrate the utility of high-resolution imaging techniques for quantifying far-range (>1 km) rock falls occurring from the largely inaccessible, vertical rock faces of Yosemite Valley, and for providing highly accurate and precise data needed for rock-fall hazard assessment. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  1. Partial deletion of ROCK2 protects mice from high-fat diet-induced cardiac insulin resistance and contractile dysfunction.

    Soliman, Hesham; Nyamandi, Vongai; Garcia-Patino, Marysol; Varela, Julia Nogueira; Bankar, Girish; Lin, Guorong; Jia, Zhengping; MacLeod, Kathleen M


    Obesity is associated with cardiac insulin resistance and contractile dysfunction, which contribute to the development of heart failure. The RhoA-Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway has been reported to modulate insulin resistance, but whether it is implicated in obesity-induced cardiac dysfunction is not known. To test this, wild-type (WT) and ROCK2(+/-) mice were fed normal chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 17 wk. Whole body insulin resistance, determined by an insulin tolerance test, was observed in HFD-WT, but not HFD-ROCK2(+/-), mice. The echocardiographically determined myocardial performance index, a measure of global systolic and diastolic function, was significantly increased in HFD-WT mice, indicating a deterioration of cardiac function. However, no change in myocardial performance index was found in hearts from HFD-ROCK2(+/-) mice. Speckle-tracking-based strain echocardiography also revealed regional impairment in left ventricular wall motion in hearts from HFD-WT, but not HFD-ROCK2(+/-), mice. Activity of ROCK1 and ROCK2 was significantly increased in hearts from HFD-WT mice, and GLUT4 expression was significantly reduced. Insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) Tyr(612), Akt, and AS160 was also impaired in these hearts, while Ser(307) phosphorylation of IRS was increased. In contrast, the increase in ROCK2, but not ROCK1, activity was prevented in hearts from HFD-ROCK2(+/-) mice, and cardiac levels of TNFα were reduced. This was associated with normalization of IRS phosphorylation, downstream insulin signaling, and GLUT4 expression. These data suggest that increased activation of ROCK2 contributes to obesity-induced cardiac dysfunction and insulin resistance and that inhibition of ROCK2 may constitute a novel approach to treat this condition.

  2. Rock Art: Connecting to the Past.

    Knipe, Marianne


    Presents an activity for fourth-grade students in which they learn about ancient art and create their own authentic-looking rock sculptures with pictograms, or painted images. Explains how the students create their own rocks and then paint a pictograph on the rocks with brown paint. (CMK)

  3. Rock Music's Place in the Library.

    Politis, John


    Discussion of the importance of rock music as an expression of aural culture includes its history, rock music today, and the development of a rock music collection in the library (placement of collection and books which aid in developing a collection of permanent value). Three references are included. (EJS)

  4. 30 CFR 57.3203 - Rock fixtures.


    ... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Scaling and Support-Surface and Underground § 57.3203 Rock fixtures. (a) For rock bolts and accessories addressed in... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock fixtures. 57.3203 Section 57.3203 Mineral...

  5. Rock-degrading endophytic bacteria in cacti

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan


    A plant-bacterium association of the cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei) and endophytic bacteria promotes establishment of seedlings and growth on igneous rocks without soil. These bacteria weather several rock types and minerals, unbind significant amounts of useful minerals for plants from the rocks, fix in vitro N2. produce...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a...

  7. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    Børglum, Jens; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F


    Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research.......  Recent findings Ultrasound guidance is now considered the golden standard for abdominal wall blocks in adults, even though some landmark-based blocks are still being investigated. The efficiency of USG transversus abdominis plane blocks in relation to many surgical procedures involving the abdominal wall...... been introduced with success. Future research should also investigate the effect of specific abdominal wall blocks on neuroendocrine and inflammatory stress response after surgery.  Summary USG abdominal wall blocks in adults are commonplace techniques today. Most abdominal wall blocks are assigned...

  8. Structure of axionic domain walls

    Huang, M. C.; Sikivie, P.


    The structure of axionic domain walls is investigated using the low-energy effective theory of axions and pions. We derive the spatial dependence of the phases of the Peccei-Quinn scalar field and the QCD quark-antiquark condensates inside an axionic domain wall. Thence an accurate estimate of the wall surface energy density is obtained. The equations of motion for axions, photons, leptons, and baryons in the neighborhood of axionic domain walls are written down and estimates are given for the wall reflection and transmission coefficients of these particles. Finally, we discuss the energy dissipation by axionic domain walls oscillating in the early universe due to the reflection of particles in the primordial soup.

  9. Structure of axionic domain walls

    Huang, M.C.; Sikivie, P.


    The structure of axionic domain walls is investigated using the low-energy effective theory of axions and pions. We derive the spatial dependence of the phases of the Peccei-Quinn scalar field and the QCD quark-antiquark condensates inside an axionic domain wall. Thence an accurate estimate of the wall surface energy density is obtained. The equations of motion for axions, photons, leptons, and baryons in the neighborhood of axionic domain walls are written down and estimates are given for the wall reflection and transmission coefficients of these particles. Finally, we discuss the energy dissipation by axionic domain walls oscillating in the early universe due to the reflection of particles in the primordial soup.

  10. Comparative study of P19 EC stem cell differentiation in between conventional hanging drop and the zebrafish chorion as a bio-derived material.

    Dae Seok Na; Lee, Hwang; Sun Uk Kim; Chang Nam Hwang; Sang Ho Lee; Ji Yoon Kang; Jai Kyeong Kim; James Jungho Pak


    Various materials including glass and polymers have been widely used for stem cell culture due to their biocompatibility. However, the roles of these materials are fundamentally limited because they cannot realize or imitate the complex biological functions of living tissues, except in very simple cases. Here, the development of a bio-derived material suitable for stem cell culture and improvement of differentiation efficiency to specific cell lineages with no stimulating agents by using a chorion obtained from a fertilized zebrafish egg through the removal of the yolk and embryonic cell mass from the egg is reported. Mouse P19 EC stem cells introduced into the empty chorion form a uniform embryoid body (EB) without addition of any inducing agent. It is demonstrated that the zebrafish chorion with nanopores improves efficiencies greatly in the EB formation, cell proliferation, and lineage-specific differentiations compared to those of the conventional hanging drop culture method.

  11. Differentiation and analysis on rock breaking characteristics of TBM disc cutter at different rock temperatures

    谭青; 张桂菊; 夏毅敏; 李建芳


    In order to study rock breaking characteristics of tunnel boring machine (TBM) disc cutter at different rock temperatures, thermodynamic rock breaking mathematical model of TBM disc cutter was established on the basis of rock temperature change by using particle flow code theory and the influence law of interaction mechanism between disc cutter and rock was also numerically simulated. Furthermore, by using the linear cutting experiment platform, rock breaking process of TBM disc cutter at different rock temperatures was well verified by the experiments. Finally, rock breaking characteristics of TBM disc cutter were differentiated and analyzed from microscale perspective. The results indicate the follows. 1) When rock temperature increases, the mechanical properties of rock such as hardness, and strength, were greatly reduced, simultaneously the microcracks rapidly grow with the cracks number increasing, which leads to rock breaking load decreasing and improves rock breaking efficiency for TBM disc cutter. 2) The higher the rock temperature, the lower the rock internal stress. The stress distribution rules coincide with the Buzin Neske stress circle rules: the maximum stress value is below the cutting edge region and then gradually decreases radiant around; stress distribution is symmetrical and the total stress of rock becomes smaller. 3) The higher the rock temperature is, the more the numbers of micro, tensile and shear cracks produced are by rock as well as the easier the rock intrusion, along with shear failure mode mainly showing. 4) With rock temperature increasing, the resistance intrusive coefficients of rock and intrusion power decrease obviously, so the specific energy consumption that TBM disc cutter achieves leaping broken also decreases subsequently. 5) The acoustic emission frequency remarkably increases along with the temperature increasing, which improves the rock breaking efficiency.

  12. Mechanism of Rock Burst Occurrence in Specially Thick Coal Seam with Rock Parting

    Wang, Jian-chao; Jiang, Fu-xing; Meng, Xiang-jun; Wang, Xu-you; Zhu, Si-tao; Feng, Yu


    Specially thick coal seam with complex construction, such as rock parting and alternative soft and hard coal, is called specially thick coal seam with rock parting (STCSRP), which easily leads to rock burst during mining. Based on the stress distribution of rock parting zone, this study investigated the mechanism, engineering discriminant conditions, prevention methods, and risk evaluation method of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP through setting up a mechanical model. The main conclusions of this study are as follows. (1) When the mining face moves closer to the rock parting zone, the original non-uniform stress of the rock parting zone and the advancing stress of the mining face are combined to intensify gradually the shearing action of coal near the mining face. When the shearing action reaches a certain degree, rock burst easily occurs near the mining face. (2) Rock burst occurrence in STCSRP is positively associated with mining depth, advancing stress concentration factor of the mining face, thickness of rock parting, bursting liability of coal, thickness ratio of rock parting to coal seam, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal, whereas negatively associated with shear strength. (3) Technologies of large-diameter drilling, coal seam water injection, and deep hole blasting can reduce advancing stress concentration factor, thickness of rock parting, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal to lower the risk of rock burst in STCSRP. (4) The research result was applied to evaluate and control the risk of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP.

  13. Asymptotic Dynamics of Monopole Walls

    Cross, R


    We determine the asymptotic dynamics of the U(N) doubly periodic BPS monopole in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, called a monopole wall, by exploring its Higgs curve using the Newton polytope and amoeba. In particular, we show that the monopole wall splits into subwalls when any of its moduli become large. The long-distance gauge and Higgs field interactions of these subwalls are abelian, allowing us to derive an asymptotic metric for the monopole wall moduli space.

  14. Dynamical domain wall and localization

    Yuta Toyozato


    Full Text Available Based on the previous works (Toyozato et al., 2013 [24]; Higuchi and Nojiri, 2014 [25], we investigate the localization of the fields on the dynamical domain wall, where the four-dimensional FRW universe is realized on the domain wall in the five-dimensional space–time. Especially we show that the chiral spinor can localize on the domain wall, which has not been succeeded in the past works as the seminal work in George et al. (2009 [23].

  15. Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Gene and Newcastle Disease Virus Titre and Body Weight in Leung Hang Khao Chickens.

    Molee, A; Kongroi, K; Kuadsantia, P; Poompramun, C; Likitdecharote, B


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II gene on resistance to Newcastle disease virus and body weight of the Thai indigenous chicken, Leung Hang Khao (Gallus gallus domesticus). Blood samples were collected for single nucleotide polymorphism analysis from 485 chickens. Polymerase chain reaction sequencing was used to classify single nucleotide polymorphisms of class II MHC. Body weights were measured at the ages of 3, 4, 5, and 7 months. Titres of Newcastle disease virus at 2 weeks to 7 months were determined and the correlation between body weight and titre was analysed. The association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and body weight and titre were analysed by a generalized linear model. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified: C125T, A126T, C209G, C242T, A243T, C244T, and A254T. Significant correlations between log titre and body weight were found at 2 and 4 weeks. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and titre were found for C209G and A254T, and between all single nucleotide polymorphisms (except A243T) and body weight. The results showed that class II MHC is associated with both titre of Newcastle disease virus and body weight in Leung Hang Khao chickens. This is of concern because improved growth traits are the main goal of breeding selection. Moreover, the results suggested that MHC has a pleiotropic effect on the titre and growth performance. This mechanism should be investigated in a future study.

  16. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene.

  17. Methods of rock burst prediction

    Genkin, V.A.; Minin, Yu.Ya.; Morozov, G.D.; Proskuryakov, V.M.; Cmirnov, V.A.


    Some methods of predicting rock bursts in underground coal and iron ore mines are evaluated: using BP-18 indenters and the MGD indenter with automatic recording; seismic method consisting in measuring the speed of shock waves travelling through various layers (apparatus SB-20 is designed for use in coal mines); electrometric method (measuring resistance between two electrodes when electric currents flow through coal and rocks). The design of the AEhSSh-1 measuring instrument, used in the electrometric method in coal mines is also described. Each of the methods is described and mathematical fomulae used as their theoretical basis are presented. The calculating process is explained and brief information on the design and use of the measuring instrument is given. The methods are evaluated from the viewpoint of precision. (In Russian)

  18. Kimberley rock art dating project

    Walsh, G.L. [Takarakka Rock Art Research Centre, NT, (Australia); Morwood, M. [New England University, Armidale, NSW, (Australia). Dept of Archaeology and Palaeoanthropology


    The art`s additional value, unequalled by traditionally recognised artefacts, is its permanent pictorial documentation presenting a `window` into the otherwise intangible elements of perceptions, vision and mind of pre-historic cultures. Unfortunately it`s potential in establishing Kimberley archaeological `big picture` still remains largely unrecognised. Some of findings of the Kimberley Rock Art Dating Project, using AMS and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques, are outlined. It is estimated that these findings will encourage involvement by a greater diversity of specialist disciplines to tie findings into levels of this art sequence as a primary reference point. The sequence represents a sound basis for selecting specific defined images for targeting detailed studies by a range of dating technique. This effectively removes the undesirable ad hoc sampling of `apparently old paintings`; a process which must unavoidably remain the case with researchers working on most global bodies of rock art.

  19. Origin of lunar feldspathic rocks

    Walker, D.; Grove, T. L.; Longhi, J.; Stolper, E. M.; Hays, J. F.


    Melting experiments and petrographic studies of lunar feldspathic rocks reveal possible genetic relationships among several compositionally and mineralogically distinct groups of lunar rocks and soil fragments. Dry, low PO2 partial melting of crustal anorthositic norites of the anorthositic-noritic-troctolitic (ANT) suite produces liquids of the KREEP-Fra Mauro basalt type; dry, low PO2 partial melting of pink spinel troctolite (PST) produces liquids of the 'very high alumina basalt' or microtroctolite type. Both ANT and PST are probable components of the primitive terra crust. If crystal fractionation in a cooling basaltic liquid could have produced such a crust, it would also produce a mafic interior capable of yielding mare basalts by later remelting at depth.

  20. Damage Model of Brittle Coal-Rock and Damage Energy Index of Rock Burst

    尹光志; 张东明; 魏作安; 李东伟


    Based on the mechanical experiment of brittle coal-rock and the damage mechanical theory, a damage model was established. Coal-Rock damage mechanical characteristic was researched. Furthermore, interior energy transformation mechanism of rock was analyzed from the point of view of damage mechanics and damage energy release rate of brittle coal rock was derived. By analyzing the energy transformation of rock burst, a new conception, damage energy index of rock burst, was put forward. The condition of rock burst was also established.