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  1. Geomorphic and Fish Genetics Constraints on Late Cenozoic Long Wavelength Topographic Evolution of the Hangay Mountains, Central Mongolia

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    Wegmann, K. W.; Tamra, M.; Sabaj Pérez, M.; Lopresti, M.; Cole, M. B.; Gosse, J. C.; Smith, S. G.; Bayasgalan, G.; Ancuta, L. D.; McDannell, K. T.; Gallen, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Hangay Mountains stand 1.5 - 2 km above adjacent lowlands and the timing and cause of their high elevation is debated. As part of a broad collaborative project, we synthesize several data sets that collectively suggest the Hangay increased in elevation during the mid-to-late Miocene, while topographic relief, one metric commonly associated with active mountain ranges, remained largely unchanged. The topographic crest of the Hangay forms the drainage divide between the Selenga River and internal drainage of the Mongolian Depression of Lakes (MDL) and northern Gobi. Synthetic drainage divides for the Hangay were created by filtering digital topography in the spectral domain (50 - 200 km wavelengths) using a 2D-FFT function. The co-location of the synthetic and modern divides suggests that the Hangay divide is in a stable, equilibrium configuration. This assumption is corroborated by chi-maps of steady-state river channel elevations that exhibit nearly equal values across water divides. An exception to both of these metrics occurs in the northwest Hangay where the Bulnay fault crosses a low divide between the western Selenga basin and the MDL. Recent basalt vesicle paleoaltimetry results allow for ~1 km of surface uplift of the central Hangay in the past ~ 10 Ma. These same basalt flows in-filled late Miocene valleys cut into basement with a minimum of 800 m of local relief; similar to the amount of modern, post-glacial relief along the drainage divide. mtDNA analyses from > 250 combined Stone Loaches (Barbatula), Grayling (Thymallus), and Eurasian Dace (Leuciscus) samples from both sides of the continental drainage divide are supportive of Miocene surface uplift. Molecular genetic differences between the loach populations across the divide suggest that they separated from a common ancestor between 20 and 11 Ma. This date is consistent with the timing of surface uplift and valley incision preserved in the Miocene basalt flows. The dace and grayling populations on

  2. Using Landsat imagery and GIS to constrain late Miocene paleorelief and rates of erosion in the Hangay Dome, Mongolia

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    Smith, S. G.; Wegmann, K. W.; Bayasgalan, G.; Ancuta, L. D.; Gosse, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Existing hypotheses maintain that the Hangay Dome of central Mongolia, situated significantly above continental freeboard and flanked by large strike-slip faults, is the result of relatively recent uplift, but ongoing geomorphological investigations of erosion rates, river incision, and paleotopography yield evidence to the contrary. For instance, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery provides a unique opportunity to establish a 1st order approximation of local topographic relief at ~10 Ma. This age corresponds to the lowest layer in a thick (>600m) sequence of lava flows capping a 525 km2 area of high topography in the Hangay Dome (47.15°N, 100.05°E). The lava flows filled in and now preserve paleovalleys with ~700 m of local relief that are cut into basement. These paleovalleys exhibit similar relief to modern day, and are exposed along valley walls carved by Quaternary alpine glaciers. We quantify paleorelief in this remote mountain range by mapping the contact between basalt flows and granitic basement with ArcGIS and Landsat TM imagery. Spectral contrast between basalt and granite is maximized in a 1-5-6 band combination, and field mapping served to ground-truth the contact in certain areas. From this contact, a basal surface was interpolated and inferred to represent local topography at the time of the lowermost basalt flow (~10 Ma). Hypsometry, zonal statistics and topographic profile analysis indicate that relief of the relict surface is analogous to that of the present day. A similar GIS technique was applied to calculate the volume of rock removed since 6.13 Ma, which is the age for the uppermost, ridge-top basalt flow. In this experiment, a post-eruptive landscape was constructed by ';filling in' the post-lava flow valleys that are now incised into the upper lava flow surface. Subtracting the modern landscape from the post-eruptive surface yields the removal of 118 km3 of rock. Normalized for the study area, this results in a late Miocene to present net

  3. Active faults paragenesis and the state of crustal stresses in the Late Cenozoic in Central Mongolia

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    V. A. Sankov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active faults of the Hangay-Hentiy tectonic saddle region in Central Mongolia are studied by space images interpretation, relief analysis, structural methods and tectonic stress reconstruction. The study results show that faults activation during the Late Cenozoic stage was selective, and a cluster pattern of active faults is typical for the study region. Morphological and genetic types and the kinematics of faults in the Hangay-Hentiy saddle region are related the direction of the ancient inherited structural heterogeneities. Latitudinal and WNW trending faults are left lateral strike-slips with reverse or thrust component (Dzhargalantgol and North Burd faults. NW trending faults are reverse faults or thrusts with left lateral horizontal component. NNW trending faults have right lateral horizontal component. The horizontal component of the displacements, as a rule, exceeds the vertical one. Brittle deformations in fault zones do not conform with the Pliocene and, for the most part, Pleistocene topography. With some caution it may be concluded that the last phase of revitalization of strike slip and reverse movements along the faults commenced in the Late Pleistocene. NE trending disjunctives are normal faults distributed mainly within the Hangay uplift. Their features are more early activation within the Late Cenozoic and the lack of relation to large linear structures of the previous tectonic stages. According to the stress tensor reconstructions of the last phase of deformation in zones of active faults of the Hangay-Hentiy saddle using data on tectonic fractures and fault displacements, it is revealed that conditions of compression and strike-slip with NNE direction of the axis of maximum compression were dominant. Stress tensors of extensional type with NNW direction of minimum compression are reconstructed for the Orkhon graben. It is concluded that the activation of faults in Central Mongolia in the Pleistocene-Holocene, as well as

  4. Seismic velocity variations beneath central Mongolia: Evidence for upper mantle plumes?

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    Zhang, Fengxue; Wu, Qingju; Grand, Stephen P.; Li, Yonghua; Gao, Mengtan; Demberel, Sodnomsambuu; Ulziibat, Munkhuu; Sukhbaatar, Usnikh

    2017-02-01

    Central Mongolia is marked by wide spread recent volcanism as well as significant topographic relief even though it is far from any plate tectonic boundaries. The cause of the recent magmatism and topography remains uncertain partially because little is known of the underlying mantle seismic structure due to the lack of seismic instrumentation in the region. From August 2011 through August 2013, 69 broadband seismic stations were deployed in central Mongolia. Teleseismic traveltime residuals were measured using waveform correlation and were inverted to image upper mantle P and S velocity variations. Significant lateral variations in seismic velocity are imaged in the deep upper mantle (100 to 800 km depth). Most significant are two continuous slow anomalies from the deep upper mantle to near the surface. One slow feature has been imaged previously and may be a zone of deep upwelling bringing warm mantle to beneath the Hangay Dome resulting in uplift and magmatism including the active Khanuy Gol and Middle Gobi volcanoes. The second, deep low velocity anomaly is seen in the east from 800 to 150 km depth. The anomaly ends beneath the Gobi Desert that is found to have fast shallow mantle indicating a relatively thick lithosphere. We interpret the second deep slow anomaly as a mantle upwelling that is deflected by the thick Gobi Desert lithosphere to surrounding regions such as the Hentay Mountains to the north. The upwellings are a means of feeding warmer than normal asthenospheric mantle over a widely distributed region beneath Mongolia resulting in distributed volcanic activity and uplift. There is no indication that the upwellings are rooted in the deep lower mantle i.e. classic plumes. We speculate the upwellings may be related to deep subduction of the Pacific and Indian plates and are thus plumes anchored in the upper mantle.

  5. Mongolia.

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    1987-05-01

    The population of Mongolia stood at 1.9 million in 1987, with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. Life expectancy is 65.6 years, and the literacy rate is about 80%. This communist state is governed by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party. The gross industrial product was US$1.6 billion in 1985, with a per capita gross domestic product of $780 and an annual growth rate of 7.6%. Close to 90% of Mongolia's land area is pasture or desert wasteland, and less than 1% is arable. 49% of the population lives in rural areas of the country. Nearly half of the population now lives in Ulaanbaatar and other urban centers. Although the Mongolian economy is heavily agricultural, rapid industrial development based on widespread mineral deposits has taken place. Live animals and animal products account for almost half of Mongolia's output and 90% of its exports. Most foreign trade is conducted with the Soviet Union and East European countries. The 8th 5-year National Economic and Social Development Plan calls for the further development of the technical base of the Mongolian economy and the country's further industrialization. The plan projects a 10-12% annual increase in gross animal husbandry products, greater mechanization of agriculture, and increased construction of grain elevators and irrigation systems.

  6. Mineralization Types of Gold in Central Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Yihong; Zhang Hongying

    2000-01-01

    There are four mineralization types of gold in Central Inner Mongolia: mylonite type, quartz vein type, quartzpotash- feldspar vein type and alteration type.Ore bodies of mylonite type were controlled by ductile shear zone. Both of ore and gangue minerals were undergone ductile deformation. Mineralization age is about 2040Ma and represents the metallogenetic process in deep tectonic level.There are three types of quartz veins differed from genesis mechanism. Small scaled, lens- shaped quartz veins formed during ductile shearing are found in mylonite ore bodies. Decation quartz veins are in the ore bodies of alteration type. Infiltration quartz veins are main gold- bearing bodies for some gold deposits such as Bainaimiao and Saiwusu gold mines. It also occurred in many other deposits from the middle Proterozoic to the Mesozoic.Quartz potash- feldspar veins are observed in the Palaeozoic and occurred in middle tectonic level.Gold deposits of alteration type such as Donghuofang and Saihudong occurred in shallow tectonic level of the Mesozoic.In short, from the Proterozoic to the Mesozoic, mineralization types varied from mylonite type to quartz potash- feldspar vein type and to alteration type. Gold - bearing quartz veins changed from syn - ductile - shearing quartz vein to infiltration vein and to decation quartz vein. Mineralization developed from deep to middle and to shallow level.

  7. Hydrochemical evaluation of the influences of mining activities on river water chemistry in central northern Mongolia.

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    Batsaikhan, Bayartungalag; Kwon, Jang-Soon; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Young-Joon; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Badarch, Mendbayar; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2017-01-01

    Although metallic mineral resources are most important in the economy of Mongolia, mining activities with improper management may result in the pollution of stream waters, posing a threat to aquatic ecosystems and humans. In this study, aiming to evaluate potential impacts of metallic mining activities on the quality of a transboundary river (Selenge) in central northern Mongolia, we performed hydrochemical investigations of rivers (Tuul, Khangal, Orkhon, Haraa, and Selenge). Hydrochemical analysis of river waters indicates that, while major dissolved ions originate from natural weathering (especially, dissolution of carbonate minerals) within watersheds, they are also influenced by mining activities. The water quality problem arising from very high turbidity is one of the major environmental concerns and is caused by suspended particles (mainly, sediment and soil particles) from diverse erosion processes, including erosion of river banks along the meandering river system, erosion of soils owing to overgrazing by livestock, and erosion by human activities, such as mining and agriculture. In particular, after passing through the Zaamar gold mining area, due to the disturbance of sediments and soils by placer gold mining, the Tuul River water becomes very turbid (up to 742 Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU)). The Zaamar area is also the contamination source of the Tuul and Orkhon rivers by Al, Fe, and Mn, especially during the mining season. The hydrochemistry of the Khangal River is influenced by heavy metal (especially, Mn, Al, Cd, and As)-loaded mine drainage that originates from a huge tailing dam of the Erdenet porphyry Cu-Mo mine, as evidenced by δ(34)S values of dissolved sulfate (0.2 to 3.8 ‰). These two contaminated rivers (Tuul and Khangal) merge into the Orkhon River that flows to the Selenge River near the boundary between Mongolia and Russia and then eventually flows into Lake Baikal. Because water quality problems due to mining can be critical

  8. Late Paleozoic rift-related basalts from central Inner Mongolia, China

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    Zhu, Wenping; Tian, Wei; Wei, Chunjing; Shao, Ji-an; Fu, Bin; Fanning, C. Mark; Chen, Mimi; Wang, Bin

    2017-08-01

    Late Paleozoic basaltic volcanism widely occurred in central Inner Mongolia, the southeastern part of the Central Asia Orogenic Blet (CAOB). Three volcanic pulses are identified by ion microprobe (SHRIMP II) zircon U-Pb analysis, which are Late Carboniferous (ca. 315 Ma), the latest Carboniferous (ca. 303 Ma) and early Permian (ca. 284 Ma). Basalts in the earliest stage are characterized by flat HREE, depletion in Nb and Ta, MORB-like Th/Yb ratios and depleted mantle (DM)-like Hf isotopic ratios. These are similar to forearc basalts, that have been generated by melting of a fluxed depleted mantle in an extensional environment. The latest Carboniferous basalts (sample D1363) have no Zr-Hf anomalies, relatively radiogenic Hf isotopic ratios (εHf(t) = +12.1 to +19.7) and high δ18O values up to 8.5‰, VSMOW. These are likely to be magmas originated from decompressional melting of a depleted mantle that interacted with ocean floor pillow basalts during their ascending through the crust. The early Permian sample D1380 have variable 206Pb/238U zircon ages with an interpreted magma crystallization age of 284.4 ± 2.5 Ma. These zircons have scattered Hf isotope (εHf(t) = +5 to +14) and δ18O (1.8-11.0‰, VSMOW), which suggest the involvement of a relatively enriched mantle source. Overall the temporal evolution of the Late Paleozoic basaltic volcanism from central Inner Mongolia suggests a rift-related tectonic setting.

  9. Nesting Biology and Behavior of Euodynerus dantici (Rossi, 1790 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae in Central Mongolia

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    Batchuluun Buyanjargal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesting biology of Euodynerus dantici (Rossi, 1790 was studied in the Khugnu- Khaan Mountains of Khugnu-Tarna National Park, central Mongolia in 2014 using nest traps. Euodynerus dantici is univoltine in the study site, with one generation per growth season. Nest architecture and its structural parts were described in details. The inner cells of the nests were longer and contained a proportionately larger amount of food than the shorter outer cells. Females developed in inner cells and males developed in outer cells. Developmental stages of E. dantici is studied with details of pupation period. All basic behavioral elements of nesting females are described. A nest parasitoid, Chrysis ignita (Linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae was reared from E. dantici nests for the fi rst time. For provisioning, caterpillars of the family Noctuidae (Lepidoptera were hunted by females. Diversity in nest architecture is possibly a result of nest parasite pressure

  10. Did the Paleo-Asian Ocean between North China Block and Mongolia Block exist during the late Paleozoic? First paleomagnetic evidence from central-eastern Inner Mongolia, China

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    Zhao, Pan; Chen, Yan; Xu, Bei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Guanzhong; Choulet, Flavien

    2013-05-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean between the North China Block (NCB) and the Mongolia Block (MOB) is a contentious issue, and geodynamic models remain speculative. In an effort to puzzle out this controversy, a paleomagnetic study was carried out on the Silurian to Permian formations in central-eastern Inner Mongolia (China). More than 680 sedimentary and volcanic samples were collected from 86 sites. We have established titanium-poor magnetite and hematite as the principal magnetic carriers. Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility measurements demonstrate negligible deformation of the majority of study rocks with sedimentary fabrics. From primary magnetizations, a Late Devonian and a Permian pole are calculated for Inner Mongolia Block (IMB) at λ = 46.8°N, φ = 349.1°E, dp = 14.6°, dm = 27.3° with N = 3 and λ = 48.7°N, φ = 3.7°E, dp = 5.2°, dm = 9.1° with N = 6, respectively. Two stages of secondary magnetization are also identified probably due to Early Permian and Early Cretaceous magmatic events. As preliminary results, the comparison of our new paleomagnetic poles with available data from NCB, MOB, and Siberia indicates that (1) the paleolatitudes of IMB, NCB, and MOB are consistent between Late Devonian and Permian, suggesting pre-Late Devonian closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and further evaluation of these three blocks as a single entity and (2) post-Permian intracontinental deformation was significant and characterized by block rotations, which are due to strike-slip faulting within the welded NCB-IMB-MOB block.

  11. Late Carboniferous N-MORB-type basalts in central Inner Mongolia, China: Products of hydrous melting in an intraplate setting?

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    Pang, Chong-Jin; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Xu, Bei; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Feng, Yue-Xing; Wang, Yan-Yang; Luo, Zhi-Wen; Liao, Wen

    2016-09-01

    Petrogenesis of the ca. 310 Ma Benbatu basalts in central Inner Mongolia is crucial for constraining the evolution of the Xing'an Mongolia Orogenic Belt (XMOB), eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The Benbatu basalts have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7042-0.7048), positive εNd(t) (+ 8.99 to + 9.24) and εHf(t) values (+ 15.38 to + 15.65), and are characterized by relatively flat rare earth element patterns and enrichment of Rb, U, Pb, Zr and Hf, but depletion of Nb, Ta, Sr and Ti, resembling those of the normal Mid-Ocean-Ridge Basalt (N-MORB). Variations of trace element ratios (e.g., Sm/Yb and La/Sm) suggest that the basalts were derived from spinel peridotites, with a melting depth of recycling water in the generation of the Late Carboniferous magmatism in this region.

  12. Mesozoic metamorphism and its tectonic implication along the Solonker suture zone in central Inner Mongolia, China

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    Zhang, Jinrui; Wei, Chunjing; Chu, Hang; Chen, Yaping

    2016-09-01

    The Xing'an-Inner Mongolia Orogenic Belt (XIMOB) exposed in the eastern section of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is generally thought to have resulted from closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. However, disputations still exist on the age and detailed tectonic processes involved in its final amalgamation. The Solonker suture zone in the central Inner Mongolia, once recognized as the major paleo-plate boundary recording the terminal collision of the XIMOB, is characterized by extensive regional low-temperature metamorphism of greenschist to epidote-amphibolite facies with local presence of blueschists, which lacks systematic study. Four metabasite and garnet-mica schist samples were studied for determination of metamorphic P-T evolution using pseudosection and conventional thermobarometry. The two metabasite samples from Wulangou and Daqing Pasture contain actinolite, albite, epidote, chlorite and hornblende (in Daqing Pasture) and are estimated to have peak P-T conditions of 5.2-5.9 kbar/415-450 °C in Wulangou and 7.0-7.9 kbar/470-475 °C in Daqing Pasture. Two garnet-mica schist samples from Shuangjing (or Shuangjing schist) contain garnet porphyroblasts, muscovite, quartz, plagioclase, chlorite with or without potassium feldspar, biotite, and calcite, and are modeled to record prograde P-T vectors respectively of 3.0 kbar/482 °C-3.3 kbar/495 °C and 4.2 kbar/478 °C-4.8 kbar/483 °C, followed by near-isothermal decompression. The zircon U-Pb dating analyses suggest that the metamorphism probably occurred soon afterwards in the Early Mesozoic. The peak P-T conditions for the metabasite and garnet-mica schist samples yield thermal gradients respectively of 18-22 °C/km and 26-33 °C/km, being intermediate and low P/T series, and the metamorphic evolution in these rocks characteristic of clockwise P-T paths may correspond to tectonic thickening and thinning processes. The extensive low-temperature metamorphism of intermediate to low P/T types along the

  13. SOURCE PROFILES AND FINGERPRINTS OF FINE AND COARSE SANDS RESUSPENDED FROM SOILS SAMPLED IN CENTRAL INNER MONGOLIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chung-Shin Yuan; Chun-Xing Hai; Ming Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Fingerprints and source profiles of fine and coarse sands that originate from Central Inner Mongolia during Asian continental sandstorms (ACS) can be used to identify the origin of Asian sands and to trace them as they travel downwind. Soil samples collected at various land surfaces in Central Inner Mongolia were resuspended using a dry powder atomizer in an enclosure chamber. The resuspended sands were then sampled by two dichotomous samplers situated at the bottom of the enclosure chamber for fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) sands, respectively. The chemical composition of sands, including water-soluble ionic species, metallic contents, and carbonaceous contents, were further analyzed. Results from resuspension tests indicated that the soils contained considerably more coarse particles than fine.Moreover, Mg, K, Al, and Fe in coarse sand had strong correlations with each other. The ratio of Mg, K, Fe (or Al) to Al (or Fe) and OC/EC in the coarse sands can be used as the fingerprints of Asian sands originating from Central Inner Mongolia.

  14. Holocene grassland vegetation, climate and human impact in central eastern Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Fei; Kealhofer; Lisa; XIONG; Shangfa; HUANG; Fengb

    2005-01-01

    Phytolith and pollen preserved in the Taipusi Banner paleosol profile, central eastern Inner Mongolia, provide evidence of Holocene grassland vegetation, climate and human impact. The combined phytolith and pollen records reveal a major change in vegetation composition about 5000 a BP. Before 5000 a BP, the vegetation was dominated by Aneurolepidium chinese-Stipa grandis grassland of C4 grasses. After 5000 a BP, C4 grasses rapidly retreated,indicating a shift to colder and more arid conditions. The gradual invasion of Stipa krylovii, Agropyron desertorum, Ephedra, Chenopodiaceae and Caragana reveal the onset of grassland degeneration. Between 10000 and 8720 a BP, the Aneurolepidium chinese-Stipa grandis grassland included a small proportion of Artemisia shrub and Echionopos type plants, implying a strong winter monsoon and very weak summer monsoon. From 8720 to 7000 a BP, C4 grasses were common, indicating a strengthening of the summer monsoon. Between 7000 and 5000 a BP,the Holocene thermal maximum was evident, with a significant expansion of C4 grasses and the presence of some trees (such as Pinus and Betula, and so on) in or near the study site. From 4200-3000 a BP, a sandy grassland of Artemisia and Agropyron desertorum together with As ter-type taxa occurred. Precipitation amelioration took place between 3000 and 2170 a BP, with a rapid development of Echinops type plants and a small expansion of C4 grasses. From 2170 a BP to present, human activities accelerated the process of grassland degeneration.

  15. Livestock seromonitoring and human brucellosis in central Mongolia: applying the one health approach

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    S Ariunaa, MD

    2015-03-01

    Funding: The project has been funded by the “Animal Health” project implemented jointly by the Government of Mongolia and the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute in Basel, with financial support from the Swiss development agency.

  16. Four Species of Oribatid Mites (Acari: Oribatida from Central and Southern Mongolia, with Notes on the Genera Montizetes and Zachvatkinibates

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    Badamdorj Bayartogtokh

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work four species of oribatid mites from central and southern parts of Mongolia are studied, and two of them, namely Zachvatkinibates mongolicus sp. nov. and Montizetes serratus sp. nov. are described as new to science. Two other species, Kunstella foveolata Krivolutsky and Liebstadia pannonica(Wil1mann are recorded as new to the fauna of Mongolia, and the latter species is reported for the first time from Asia. Description of new and redescription of known species, and data on geographic distribution of known species are given. Anew combination, Montizetes tianshanensis (Wen comb. nov. is proposed. Identification keys to the world species of the genera Zachvatkinibates and Montizetes are provided.

  17. A new species of Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 crane flies (Diptera: Pediciidae) from north-central Mongolia with first description of the larva for the genus.

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    Podenas, Sigitas; Podeniene, Virginija; Gelhaus, Jon

    2014-06-09

    A new species of Pediciidae, Heterangaeus mongolicus is described from specimens collected during the fieldwork of the Mongolian Aquatic Insect Survey Project in north-central Mongolia, Tov Aimag (district). Descriptions and illustrations of the distinguishing morphological features are provided. Habitat information is presented. Female ovipositor and larvae of Heterangaeus are described and illustrated for the first time. This discovery of Heterangaeus in Mongolia represents a 1700 kilometer extension of the known distribution for the genus.

  18. Community based ecological restoration of peatland in Central Mongolia for climate change mitigation and adaptation

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    Minayeva, Tatiana; Chultem, Dugarjav; Grootjans, Ab; Yamkhin, Jambaljav; Sirin, Andrey; Suvorov, Gennady; Batdorj, Oyunbileg; Tsamba, Batdorj

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands cover almost 2 % of Mongolia. They play crucial role in regulation of key natural processes in ecosystems and provide unique resources to maintain traditional way of life and livelihoods of herders. During the last decades, Mongolian peatlands severely degraded both due to the climate related events and due to overgrazing. The peat degradation causes significant losses of carbon store, GHG emissions and is followed by changes in water balance and water composition. The issue arises if such a type of ecosystems as peatlands could be a subject for ecosystem restoration in this arid and subhumid climate. Could it be considered as measure for climate change mitigation and adaptation? With funding opportunities from the Asian Development Bank a pilot project for peatland restoration had been launched in 2016 in Khashaat soum, Arkhangai aimag in Central Mongolia. The pilot aimed to merge local interests of herders with global targets of climate change mitigation. The following questions are addressed: what are the losses of natural functions and ecosystem services of peatland; what are expectations and demands of local communities and incentives for their involvement; how should and could look the target ecosystem; what are the technical solutions in order to achieve the target ecosystem characteristics; and what are the parameters for monitoring to assess the success of the project? The comprehensive baseline study addressed both natural and social aspects. The conclusions are: most of peat in the study area had been mineralised and has turned to organic rich soil with carbon content between 20 to 40 %, the key sources of water - small springs - are partly destroyed by cattle; the permafrost disappeared in this area and could not be the subject for restoration; local herders understand the value of peatland as water source and had carried out some voluntary activities for water storage and regulation such as dam construction; nevertheless there is no

  19. The Honey Bee Pathosphere of Mongolia: European Viruses in Central Asia

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    Tsevegmid, Khaliunaa; Neumann, Peter; Yañez, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Parasites and pathogens are apparent key factors for the detrimental health of managed European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera. Apicultural trade is arguably the main factor for the almost global distribution of most honey bee diseases, thereby increasing chances for multiple infestations/infections of regions, apiaries, colonies and even individual bees. This imposes difficulties to evaluate the effects of pathogens in isolation, thereby creating demand to survey remote areas. Here, we conducted the first comprehensive survey for 14 honey bee pathogens in Mongolia (N = 3 regions, N = 9 locations, N = 151 colonies), where honey bee colonies depend on humans to overwinter. In Mongolia, honey bees, Apis spp., are not native and colonies of European A. mellifera subspecies have been introduced ~60 years ago. Despite the high detection power and large sample size across Mongolian regions with beekeeping, the mite Acarapis woodi, the bacteria Melissococcus plutonius and Paenibacillus larvae, the microsporidian Nosema apis, Acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus and Lake Sinai virus strain 2 were not detected, suggesting that they are either very rare or absent. The mite Varroa destructor, Nosema ceranae and four viruses (Sacbrood virus, Black queen cell virus, Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Chronic bee paralysis virus) were found with different prevalence. Despite the positive correlation between the prevalence of V. destructor mites and DWV, some areas had only mites, but not DWV, which is most likely due to the exceptional isolation of apiaries (up to 600 km). Phylogenetic analyses of the detected viruses reveal their clustering and European origin, thereby supporting the role of trade for pathogen spread and the isolation of Mongolia from South-Asian countries. In conclusion, this survey reveals the distinctive honey bee pathosphere of Mongolia, which offers opportunities for exciting future research. PMID:26959221

  20. The Honey Bee Pathosphere of Mongolia: European Viruses in Central Asia.

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    Tsevegmid, Khaliunaa; Neumann, Peter; Yañez, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Parasites and pathogens are apparent key factors for the detrimental health of managed European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera. Apicultural trade is arguably the main factor for the almost global distribution of most honey bee diseases, thereby increasing chances for multiple infestations/infections of regions, apiaries, colonies and even individual bees. This imposes difficulties to evaluate the effects of pathogens in isolation, thereby creating demand to survey remote areas. Here, we conducted the first comprehensive survey for 14 honey bee pathogens in Mongolia (N = 3 regions, N = 9 locations, N = 151 colonies), where honey bee colonies depend on humans to overwinter. In Mongolia, honey bees, Apis spp., are not native and colonies of European A. mellifera subspecies have been introduced ~60 years ago. Despite the high detection power and large sample size across Mongolian regions with beekeeping, the mite Acarapis woodi, the bacteria Melissococcus plutonius and Paenibacillus larvae, the microsporidian Nosema apis, Acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus and Lake Sinai virus strain 2 were not detected, suggesting that they are either very rare or absent. The mite Varroa destructor, Nosema ceranae and four viruses (Sacbrood virus, Black queen cell virus, Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Chronic bee paralysis virus) were found with different prevalence. Despite the positive correlation between the prevalence of V. destructor mites and DWV, some areas had only mites, but not DWV, which is most likely due to the exceptional isolation of apiaries (up to 600 km). Phylogenetic analyses of the detected viruses reveal their clustering and European origin, thereby supporting the role of trade for pathogen spread and the isolation of Mongolia from South-Asian countries. In conclusion, this survey reveals the distinctive honey bee pathosphere of Mongolia, which offers opportunities for exciting future research.

  1. The Honey Bee Pathosphere of Mongolia: European Viruses in Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliunaa Tsevegmid

    Full Text Available Parasites and pathogens are apparent key factors for the detrimental health of managed European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera. Apicultural trade is arguably the main factor for the almost global distribution of most honey bee diseases, thereby increasing chances for multiple infestations/infections of regions, apiaries, colonies and even individual bees. This imposes difficulties to evaluate the effects of pathogens in isolation, thereby creating demand to survey remote areas. Here, we conducted the first comprehensive survey for 14 honey bee pathogens in Mongolia (N = 3 regions, N = 9 locations, N = 151 colonies, where honey bee colonies depend on humans to overwinter. In Mongolia, honey bees, Apis spp., are not native and colonies of European A. mellifera subspecies have been introduced ~60 years ago. Despite the high detection power and large sample size across Mongolian regions with beekeeping, the mite Acarapis woodi, the bacteria Melissococcus plutonius and Paenibacillus larvae, the microsporidian Nosema apis, Acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus and Lake Sinai virus strain 2 were not detected, suggesting that they are either very rare or absent. The mite Varroa destructor, Nosema ceranae and four viruses (Sacbrood virus, Black queen cell virus, Deformed wing virus (DWV and Chronic bee paralysis virus were found with different prevalence. Despite the positive correlation between the prevalence of V. destructor mites and DWV, some areas had only mites, but not DWV, which is most likely due to the exceptional isolation of apiaries (up to 600 km. Phylogenetic analyses of the detected viruses reveal their clustering and European origin, thereby supporting the role of trade for pathogen spread and the isolation of Mongolia from South-Asian countries. In conclusion, this survey reveals the distinctive honey bee pathosphere of Mongolia, which offers opportunities for exciting future research.

  2. The timing of ostrich existence in Central Asia: AMS {sup 14}C age of eggshells from Mongolia and southern Siberia (a pilot study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurochkin, Evgeny N. [Paleontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsouyznaya St. 123, Moscow 117647 (Russian Federation); Kuzmin, Yaroslav V., E-mail: kuzmin@fulbrightmail.or [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Koptuyg Avenue 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Antoshchenko-Olenev, Igor V. [S. Razin St. 5, Apt. 97, Kaluga 248012 (Russian Federation); Zabelin, Vladimir I. [Tuva Institute of Complex Studies of the Natural Resources, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Internatsionalnaya St. 17, Kyzyl 667007 (Russian Federation); Krivonogov, Sergey K. [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Koptuyg Avenue 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Nohrina, Tatiana I. [Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentiev Avenue 17, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Lbova, Ludmila V. [Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentiev Avenue 17, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov St. 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Burr, G.S.; Cruz, Richard J. [Arizona AMS Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0081 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The presence of Asiatic ostrich in Central Asia in the later Cenozoic time is well-documented; nevertheless, a few direct age determinations existed until recently. We performed AMS {sup 14}C dating of ostrich eggshells found in Mongolia, Transbaikal, and Tuva. It shows that ostriches existed throughout the second part of Late Pleistocene, until the Late Glacial time (ca. 13,000-10,100 BP). It seems that Asiatic ostrich went extinct in Central Asia just before or even in the Holocene.

  3. Tree-ring-width-based PDSI reconstruction for central Inner Mongolia, China over the past 333 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Xinjia; Song, Huiming; Cai, Qiufang; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Boyang; Liu, Han; Mei, Ruochen

    2016-04-01

    A tree-ring-width chronology was developed from Pinus tabulaeformis aged up to 333 years from central Inner Mongolia, China. The chronology was significantly correlated with the local Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). We therefore reconstructed the first PDSI reconstruction from March to June based on the local tree ring data from 1680 to 2012 AD. The reconstruction explained 40.7 % of the variance (39.7 % after adjusted the degrees of freedom) of the actual PDSI during the calibration period (1951-2012 AD). The reconstructed PDSI series captured the severe drought event of the late 1920s, which occurred extensively in northern China. Running variance analyses indicated that the variability of drought increased sharply after 1960, indicating more drought years, which may imply anthropogenic related global warming effects in the region. In the entire reconstruction, there were five dry periods: 1730-1814 AD, 1849-1869 AD, 1886-1942 AD (including severe drought in late 1920s), 1963-1978 AD and 2004-2007 AD; and five wet periods: 1685-1729 AD, 1815-1848 AD, 1870-1885 AD, 1943-1962 AD and 1979-2003 AD. Conditions turned dry after 2003 AD, and the PDSI from March to June (PDSI36) captured many interannual extreme drought events since then, such as 2005-2008 AD. The reconstruction is comparable to other tree-ring-width-based PDSI series from the neighboring regions, indicating that our reconstruction has good regional representativeness. Significant relationships were found between our PDSI reconstruction and the solar radiation cycle and the sun spot cycle, North Atlantic Oscillation, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, as well as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Power spectral analyses detected 147.0-, 128.2-, 46.5-, 6.5-, 6.3-, 2.6-, 2.2- and 2.0-year quasi-cycles in the reconstructed series.

  4. Tree-ring-width-based PDSI reconstruction for central Inner Mongolia, China over the past 333 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Xinjia; Song, Huiming; Cai, Qiufang; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Boyang; Liu, Han; Mei, Ruochen

    2017-02-01

    A tree-ring-width chronology was developed from Pinus tabulaeformis aged up to 333 years from central Inner Mongolia, China. The chronology was significantly correlated with the local Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). We therefore reconstructed the first PDSI reconstruction from March to June based on the local tree ring data from 1680 to 2012 AD. The reconstruction explained 40.7 % of the variance (39.7 % after adjusted the degrees of freedom) of the actual PDSI during the calibration period (1951-2012 AD). The reconstructed PDSI series captured the severe drought event of the late 1920s, which occurred extensively in northern China. Running variance analyses indicated that the variability of drought increased sharply after 1960, indicating more drought years, which may imply anthropogenic related global warming effects in the region. In the entire reconstruction, there were five dry periods: 1730-1814 AD, 1849-1869 AD, 1886-1942 AD (including severe drought in late 1920s), 1963-1978 AD and 2004-2007 AD; and five wet periods: 1685-1729 AD, 1815-1848 AD, 1870-1885 AD, 1943-1962 AD and 1979-2003 AD. Conditions turned dry after 2003 AD, and the PDSI from March to June (PDSI36) captured many interannual extreme drought events since then, such as 2005-2008 AD. The reconstruction is comparable to other tree-ring-width-based PDSI series from the neighboring regions, indicating that our reconstruction has good regional representativeness. Significant relationships were found between our PDSI reconstruction and the solar radiation cycle and the sun spot cycle, North Atlantic Oscillation, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, as well as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Power spectral analyses detected 147.0-, 128.2-, 46.5-, 6.5-, 6.3-, 2.6-, 2.2- and 2.0-year quasi-cycles in the reconstructed series.

  5. Juvenile crustal recycling in an accretionary orogen: Insights from contrasting Early Permian granites from central Inner Mongolia, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lingling; Zhang, Xiaohui; Xue, Fuhong; Liu, Fulin

    2016-11-01

    Coeval high-K calc-alkaline to alkaline granites constitute important components of post-collisional to post-orogenic igneous suites in most orogenic belts of various ages on Earth and their genesis harbors a key to ascertaining critical geodynamic controls on continental crustal formation and differentiation. This zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical study documents three contrasting Early Permian granites from Erenhot of central Inner Mongolia, eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) and reveals concurrent high-K calc-alkaline to alkaline granite association derived from successive partial melting of distinct protoliths. The ca. 280 Ma Gancihuduge (GCG) pluton shows a calc-alkaline I-type character, with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7035 to 0.7039, εNd(t) of + 1.87 to + 4.70, zircon εHf(t) of + 8.0 to + 13.2 and δ18O from 7.4 to 8.7‰. The ca. 276 Ma Cailiwusu (CLS) pluton is magnesian and peraluminous, with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7036 to 0.7040, εNd(t) of + 1.9 to + 2.4, zircon εHf(t) of + 6.5 to + 12.1 and δ18O from 9.7 to 10.9‰. These features are consistent with partial melts of mixed sources composed of newly underplated meta-basaltic to -andesitic protoliths and variable supracrustal components, with distinctively higher proportion of the latter in the CLS pluton. By contrast, the ca. 279 Ma Kunduleng (KDL) suite exhibits an A-type magmatic affinity, with typical enrichment in alkalis, Ga, Zr, Nb and Y, εNd(t) of + 2.39 to + 3.55, zircon εHf(t) from + 8.3 to + 12.3 and δ18O values from 6.8 to 7.5‰. These features suggest that they stem from high-temperature fusion of dehydrated K-rich mafic to intermediate protoliths. Besides presenting a snapshot into a stratified crustal architecture in δ18O, these contrasting granites could not only serve as a temporal marker for monitoring post-collisional extension in the aftermath of a retreating subduction zone, but also present spatial magmatic proxy for tracing crustal formation and

  6. Vesetation and climate changes during the last 8660 cal. a BP in central Mongolia, based on a high-resolution pollen record from Lake Ugii Nuur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; MA YuZhen; FENG ZhaoDong; MENG HongWei; SANG YanLi; ZHAI XinWei

    2009-01-01

    Based on modern pollen studies and reliable chronology of nine AMS 14C dates, a detailed history of vegetation and climate changes during the past 8660 cal. a BP was reconstructed by a high-resolution pollen record from Ugii Nuur in central Mongolia. Poaceae-steppe dominated the study area and the climate was mild and semi-humid before 7800 cal. a BP with a noticeable cool and humid interval at 8350-8250 cal. a BP. Xerophytic plant increased and the climate became warm and dry gradually since 7800 cal. a BP. From 6860 to 3170 cal. a BP, semi-desert steppe expanded, suggesting a prolonged warm and dry climate. Between 3170 and 2340 cal. a BP, regional forest steppe expanded whereas semi-desert steppe retreated, indicating the climate became cool and wet gradually and the humidity reached the maximum at the end of this stage. From 2340 to 1600 cal. a BP, a general cool and wet climate prevailed. And the climatic instability increased after 1600 cal. a BP. Review of regional pub-lished palaeoclimaUc records implies that the mid-Holocene dry climate might have prevailed in vast areas from central Mongolia to arid areas of northwest China. Pollen-based climate reconstruction for UG04 core was well correlated with the result of climate model on Central Asia by Bush. In addition, several abrupt climatic events (cool and wet) were found and some could be broadly compared with the cool events in Atlantic.

  7. Early Devonian back-arc extension in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from a bimodal volcanic sequence from Xilinhot, central Inner Mongolia (North China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen; Xu, Bei; Wang, Yanyang; Zhao, Pan; Li, Qunsheng

    2017-08-01

    The Early Devonian bimodal volcanic sequence is firstly recognized in the Xilinhot area, central Inner Mongolia (North China). Zircon U-Pb dating of rhyolitic sample gives crystallization age of 407 ± 2 Ma, which is interpreted as the extrusive age of this bimodal volcanic sequence. Basaltic samples belong to tholeiite series whereas rhyolitic samples are peraluminous. Basaltic rocks show typical N-MORB-like REE and trace elemental patterns, with depletion of LREEs and negligible anomalies of Eu (δEu = 0.83-1.00). They have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.7077 to 0.7086, and positive εNd(t) values from +7.5to +9.0. By contrast, rhyolitic rocks show enrichment in LREEs and LILEs but depletion in HFSEs, with negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.58-0.68). They have negative εNd(t) values from -6.7 to -7.7 and TDM2 (Nd) values from 1695 to 1771 Ma. These elemental and isotopic data indicate that basaltic rocks were derived from a depleted mantle source with input of slab-derived fluids, whereas rhyolitic rocks might have been derived from remelting of Paleoproterozoic crustal materials. From our data and previous geological studies in this region, a back-arc setting was proposed for the Early Devonian bimodal volcanic rocks in the Xilinhot region. Subduction of the Paleo-Asian oceanic lithosphere caused opening of this back-arc basin and upwelling of mantle caused the formation of basalts and provided heat for remelting of crustal materials and formation of rhyolite.the

  8. The First paleomagnetic study from Central-Eastern Inner Mongolia, China and its implication for the evolution of Paleo-Asian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Chen, Yan; Xu, Bei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Guanzhong; Choulet, Flavien

    2013-04-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean between North China Block (NCB) and Mongolia Block (MOB) is a contentious issue and geodynamical models remain speculative. As an effort to puzzle out this controversy, a paleomagnetic study was carried out on Paleozoic formations in Central-Eastern Inner Mongolia (China). Despite the indigent outcrop conditions to collect reliable samples over a three-year period, we present the first paleomagnetic data for Inner Mongolia Block (IMB). More than 680 sedimentary and volcanoclastic samples were collected from 86 sites. We have established titanium-poor magnetite and hematite as the principal magnetic carriers. AMS measurements demonstrate negligible deformation of the study rocks with sedimentary fabrics. From primary magnetizations, a Late Devonian and a Permian pole are calculated for IMB at: λ=46.8°N, φ=349.1°E, dp=14.6°, dm=27.3° with N=3 and λ=49.5°N, φ=0.0°E, dp=6.2°, dm=11.0° with N=5, respectively. Two stages of secondary magnetization are also identified probably due to Early Permian and Early Cretaceous magmatic events. As preliminary results, the comparison of our new paleomagnetic poles with available data from NCB, MOB and Siberia indicates that (1) paleolatitude of IMB, NCB and MOB are consistent between Late Devonian and Permian, suggesting pre-Late Devonian closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and further evaluation of these three blocks as a single entity; (2) post-Permian intracontinental deformation was significant and characterized by block rotations, which due to strike-slip faulting within the welded NCB-IMB-MOB block.

  9. Lightning incidents in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmar Doljinsuren

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.

  10. Yersinia pestis lineages in Mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M Riehm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whole genome sequencing allowed the development of a number of high resolution sequence based typing tools for Yersinia (Y. pestis. The application of these methods on isolates from most known foci worldwide and in particular from China and the Former Soviet Union has dramatically improved our understanding of the population structure of this species. In the current view, Y. pestis including the non or moderate human pathogen Y. pestis subspecies microtus emerged from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis about 2,600 to 28,600 years ago in central Asia. The majority of central Asia natural foci have been investigated. However these investigations included only few strains from Mongolia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Prokaryotic Repeats (CRISPR analysis and Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR analysis (MLVA with 25 loci was performed on 100 Y. pestis strains, isolated from 37 sampling areas in Mongolia. The resulting data were compared with previously published data from more than 500 plague strains, 130 of which had also been previously genotyped by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis. The comparison revealed six main clusters including the three microtus biovars Ulegeica, Altaica, and Xilingolensis. The largest cluster comprises 78 isolates, with unique and new genotypes seen so far in Mongolia only. Typing of selected isolates by key SNPs was used to robustly assign the corresponding clusters to previously defined SNP branches. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that Mongolia hosts the most recent microtus clade (Ulegeica. Interestingly no representatives of the ancestral Y. pestis subspecies pestis nodes previously identified in North-western China were identified in this study. This observation suggests that the subsequent evolution steps within Y. pestis pestis did not occur in Mongolia. Rather, Mongolia was most likely re-colonized by more recent clades coming back from

  11. Mongolia's search for security

    OpenAIRE

    Donrov, Ganbaatar

    2001-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited Mongolia entered a new security environment with the end of the Cold War. The demise of the Soviet Union and withdrawal of Soviet troops from its territory have presented opportunities and challenges for Mongolia. On the positive side, Mongolia has broken free from its narrow geostrategic framework and is now charting its own future by pursuing a more balanced policy toward Russia and China and exploring the opportunities for closer ti...

  12. Energy issues for Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    Mongolia is a very large, landlocked country, with a small population, located between Russia and China. In the last two decades, it has begun reforms to move from a centrally-planned economy towards one with market characteristics. At the same time, geological surveys have shown it is rich in natural resources, especially coal, copper and gold, as well as silver, uranium, molybdenum, iron, tin, nickel, zinc, tungsten, phosphates, fluorspar, and some oil. The Mongolia Government recognises that exploitation of its mineral wealth is essential if the economy is to grow; however, its GDP is too small to underwrite major investments to develop the mines and so there is a need for external assistance. This is creating problems as the government attempts to provide an attractive opportunity for external investors while maximising the material benefit to the country by establishing a stable process to manage mineral revenues for the public good. In order to both export the coal and use it within the country, there is a need to establish a major infrastructure development programme as well as reach an accord with China and Russia. The infrastructure needs include extensive rail/road links, an uprated and integrated power transmission and distribution grid, new power plant facilities, other industrial facilities, and townships in mining regions. It is essential that such developments should be undertaken with due regard for minimising environmental damage, to limit adverse impact on air quality in the cities, loss of water supplies and destruction of the fragile ecosystem. There are associated social problems, especially for the nomadic part of the population, as well as indigenous animal populations, both of whose migration routes are affected by some of the industrial developments. The country faces some difficult challenges with its need to establish mining-based commercial initiatives while at the same time seeking to establish a sustainable long-term future.

  13. Geochronology and geochemistry of Permian bimodal volcanic rocks from central Inner Mongolia, China: Implications for the late Palaeozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhicheng; Chen, Yan; Li, Ke; Li, Jianfeng; Yang, Jinfu; Qian, Xiaoyan

    2017-03-01

    Zircon U-Pb ages, geochemical data and Sr-Nd isotopic data are presented for volcanic rocks from the lower Permian Dashizhai Formation. These rocks are widely distributed in the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt in central Inner Mongolia, China. The volcanic rocks mainly consist of basaltic andesite and rhyolite, subordinate dacite and local andesite, and exhibit bimodal geochemical features. The results of zircon U-Pb dating indicate that the volcanic rocks formed during the early Permian (292-279 Ma). The mafic volcanic rocks belong to low-K tholeiitic to medium-K calc-alkaline series. These mafic volcanic rocks are also characterised by moderately enriched light rare earth element (LREE) patterns; high abundances of Th, U, Zr and Hf; negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies; initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70514-0.70623; and positive εNd(t) values (+1.9 to +3.8). These features indicate that the mafic volcanic rocks were likely derived from the high-percentage partial melting of subduction-related metasomatised asthenospheric mantle. The felsic rocks show an A-type affinity, with enrichments in alkalis, Th, U and LREEs. The felsic rocks are depleted in Ba, Sr, Nb, Ta and Ti and exhibit moderately LREE-enriched patterns (LaN/YbN = 2.09-6.45) and strongly negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu∗ = 0.04-0.25). These features, along with the positive εNd(t) values (+2.6 to +7.7) and young TDM2 ages (TDM2 = 435-916 Ma), indicate that the felsic rocks were likely derived from a juvenile crustal source that mainly consisted of juvenile mid-ocean ridge basalt-related rocks. The volcanic association in this study and in previously published work widely distributed in central Inner Mongolia. The observations in this study suggest that the lower Permian volcanic rocks formed in an identical tectonic environment. The regional geological data indicate that the bimodal volcanic rocks from the lower Permian Dashizhai Formation in the study area formed in an extensional setting that was

  14. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  15. Ages and origin of felsic rocks from the Eastern Erenhot ophiolitic complex, southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, Inner Mongolia China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinfu; Zhang, Zhicheng; Chen, Yan; Yu, Haifei; Qian, Xiaoyan

    2017-08-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is known for its massive Phanerozoic generation of juvenile crust. The tectonic evolution of the CAOB during the late Paleozoic era is still debated. The Eastern Erenhot ophiolite complex (EOC) has been recognized as one of the numerous late Paleozoic ophiolitic blocks in the southeastern part of the CAOB. Zircon U-Pb dating on rhyolite and plagiogranite from the EOC yielded a tight range of ages from 360 to 348 Ma, indicating that the complex formed in the early Carboniferous. The primitive mantle-normalized spider diagram of rhyolites (εNd(t) values of +6.8 and +7) and basalts almost overlaps. Such rhyolites may have been derived from partial melting of juvenile basaltic rocks during the initial opening of the Erenhot-Hegenshan oceanic basin. All of the plagiogranites exhibit similar trace element behaviours of High Field-Strength Elements, such as U, Zr and Hf, and Large Ion Lithophile Elements, such as Ba and Rb, to these of gabbros. These plagiogranites were considered products of episodes of partial melting of hydrous gabbros during ocean floor spreading. We conclude that the northern subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean stopped before 360 Ma and the southeastern CAOB experienced extension during the late Paleozoic era. The Erenhot-Hegenshan Ocean, which is comparable to the present Red Sea, originated from syn-collisional crustal thickening, subsequent lithosphere extension, and upwelling of the asthenosphere during orogenic quiescence with an age of 20 Ma.

  16. 内蒙古中西部地区历史文化期的气候变迁与沙化%Climate Change and Desertification of Central and Western Regions of Inner Mongolia in History and Culture Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于志勇

    2011-01-01

    内蒙古中西部地区位于我国北部边疆,处于生态环境脆弱的农牧交错带上,自然演变的过程漫长且复杂,是灾害多发的地带,是极易土地沙化的区域,对各种自然和人为扰动极为敏感.在阐述内蒙古中西部地区气候形成概况的基础上,通过文献资料回顾了人类古代历史文化期的气候的变化与沙化情况.研究结果表明,历史上冷暖干湿气候差异性的交替运行,导致区域生态环境的波动变化和易灾、易沙化的趋势;气候的变化还通过早期人类活动的集聚格局,间接地影响了历史时期土地沙化的发展.%Central-western region of Inner Mongolia located in northern border of China, in the fragile ecological environment belt, has a long and complex process of natural evolution, and is a disaster-prone and vulnerable to desertification area, sensitive on natural and man-made disturbances. Based on discussing the general situation of climate formation in central-western region of Inner Mongolia, the climate change and desertification in ancient history and culture period were reviewed through literatures. The results showed that such wet and dry climate alternating history, lead to fluctuations changes in the regional ecological environment and trends in disaster and desertification. Climate change through the accumulation of early human activity patterns, indirectly affected the development of land desertification in the historical period.

  17. Mongolia : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of corporate sector accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Mongolia. For purposes of this report, the corporate sector includes all private sector and state-owned enterprises. The report uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Au...

  18. China and Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China is set to launch feasibility studies on establishing a free trade area with Mongolia,said Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao during his recent visit to Ulan Bator.Wen told Mongolian Prime Minister Sukhbaataryn Batbold on June 1 the two

  19. Coking coals of Mongolia: Distribution and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Jargal, Luvsanchultem

    2016-04-01

    The coal deposits of Mongolia tend to become younger from west to east and can be subdivided into two provinces, twelve basins, and three areas. Main controlling factor of coal rank is the age of coal bearing sequences. Western Mongolian coal-bearing province contains mostly high rank bituminous coal in strata from Late Carboniferous. The basins in southern Mongolia and the western part of central Mongolia have low rank bituminous coal in strata from the Permian. The northern and central Mongolian basins contain mainly Jurassic subbituminous coal, whereas the Eastern Mongolian province has Lower Cretaceous lignite. Mongolian known coking coal reserves are located in western, southern and northern Mongolia and related to Carboniferous, Permian and Jurassic sequences, respectively. Pennsylvanian Nuurstkhotgor coal deposit is located in northwestern Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). The coals have 1-7.5 crucible swelling number (CSN) and 0-86 G-index. Vitrinite reflectance value (Rmax in oil) varies from 0.7% to 1.2% and sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.3% to 0.6% with an average of 0.4%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 1.0 billion ton, of which half is coking coal. Upper Permian Khurengol deposit is situated in western Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). CSN and G-index of coal are 8-9 and 54-99, respectively. The coals have Rmax of 1.1 to 1.7% (average 1.4%) and sulfur content of 0.2 to 0.6% (average 0.4%). Coking coal reserve of the deposit is estimated to be 340 million ton. Upper Permian Tavantolgoi, the largest coking coal deposit, lies in southern Mongolia (in South Gobi coal-bearing basin). The coals have CSN of 1 to 7.5 and Rmax of 0.7% to 1.2%. Sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.5% to 0.9%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 6.0 billion ton, of which 2.0 billion ton is accounted as coking coal. Lower-Middle Jurassic Ovoot coal is located in northern Mongolia (in Orkhon-Selenge coal-bearing area). This is one of

  20. Integrated water resources management in central Asia: nutrient and heavy metal emissions and their relevance for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, J; Venohr, M; Behrendt, H; Opitz, D

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) the nutrient and heavy metal levels within the Kharaa river basin were investigated. By the application of the MONERIS model, which quantifies nutrient emissions into river basins, various point and diffuse pathways, as well as nutrient load in rivers, could be analysed. Despite seasonal variations and inputs of point sources (e.g. Wastewater Treatment Plant Darkhan) the nutrient concentrations in most of the subbasins are on a moderate level. This shows evidence for a nutrient limited ecosystem as well as dilution effects. However, in the middle and lower reaches heavy metal concentrations of arsenic and mercury, which are linked to mining activities in many cases, are a point of concern. Thus measures are necessary to protect the valuable chemical and ecological status of the Kharaa River and its tributaries. As a result of the growing economic pressure Mongolia will enhance the agricultural production by irrigation. Until 2015 about 60% of the agricultural land shall be irrigated. In addition the gold mining activities shall increase by 20% a year. Both sectors have a high demand for water quantity and quality. The model MONERIS allows the assessment of measures which are inevitable to protect the water quality under shrinking water availability.

  1. Science-Based IWRM Implementation in a Data-Scarce Central Asian Region: Experiences from a Research and Development Project in the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Karthe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mongolia is not only a water-scarce but also a data-scarce country with regard to environmental information. At the same time, regional effects of global climate change, major land use changes, a booming mining sector, and growing cities with insufficient and decaying water and wastewater infrastructures result in an increasingly unsustainable exploitation and contamination of ground and surface water resources putting at risk both aquatic ecosystems and human health. For the mesoscale (≈15,000 km2 model region of the Kharaa River Basin (KRB, we investigated (1 the current state of aquatic ecosystems, water availability and quality; (2 past and expected future trends in these fields and their drivers; (3 water governance structures and their recent reforms; and (4 technical and non-technical interventions as potential components of an integrated water resources management (IWRM. By now, the KRB is recognized as one of the most intensively studied river basins of the country, and considered a model region for science-based water resources management by the Mongolian government which recently adopted the IWRM concept in its National Water Program. Based on the scientific results and practical experiences from a six-year project in the KRB, the potentials and limitations of IWRM implementation under the conditions of data-scarcity are discussed.

  2. 蒙华铁路货车段修能力探讨%Discussion on Freight Train Maintenance Capacity in Depot for Western Inner Mongolia-to-Central China Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆礼伦; 缪东

    2014-01-01

    阐述客货分线后铁路货运能力增强、货车保有量增长的特征,以及铁路货物高效率高质量的运输需求,必然会对货车段修能力提出新的要求。采用调研货车保有量、货车段修台位方法,结合货车保有量预测,分析全路及蒙西至华中煤运通道铁路(简称“蒙华铁路”)沿线区域内货车保有量增长与货车段修能力的矛盾,提出新建(或扩建)车辆段、加强检修工艺装备、优化组织管理、修程修制改革等货车段修能力增强措施,提出蒙华铁路货车车辆段(检修车间)设施布局方案,分析沿线区域货车段修能力增强措施。%This paper pointed out that after separated operation between railway passenger and freight transportations, the railway freight transportation capacity would be improved and the reserves of freight trains would be increased; and then the need of high efficiency and high quality of railway freight transportation would be bound to make demand on the freight train maintenance capacity in depot. In this paper, by means of investigation on the reserves of freight trains and depot repair bays, and in combination with the prediction on the reserves of freight trains, the conflicts between the freight train's growth and the freight train maintenance capacity in depot was analyzed for the whole railways and for the Western Inner Mongolia-to-Central China Railway which would be used for coal transportation. Furthermore, this paper proposed the measures to improve the freight train maintenance capacity in depot, such as building new ( or expanding ) freight train depots, enhancing repairing technical equipment, optimizing organization management, reforming repair schedule and repair regulations, and so on. Finally, this paper proposed a scheme of facility layout in the freight train depots ( or repairing workshops) for Western Inner Mongolia-to-Central China Railway, and analyzed the measures for improving the

  3. Geochemistry and zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopes of Early Paleozoic arc-related volcanic rocks in Sonid Zuoqi, Inner Mongolia: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Zhicheng; Li, Ke; Yu, Haifei; Wu, Tairan

    2016-11-01

    An Early Paleozoic acid volcanic sequence has been recently detected southeast of Sonid Zuoqi in central Inner Mongolia to constrain the tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in this area. First, the volcanic rocks have zircon U-Pb ages of 439-445 Ma. They are characterized by (a) a high silica content, moderate alkali content and low iron content; (b) enrichment in light rare earth elements, depletion of heavy rare earth elements, and negative Eu anomalies; and (c) negative Nb, Ta, and Ti anomalies. Finally, the volcanic samples yield εHf(t) values of - 4.7 to + 9.2 with TDM2 ages of 835-1724 Ma. For petrogenesis, they were possibly arc derived, from predominant juvenile materials with subordinate ancient continental crust. Combined with previous studies, the Early Paleozoic Sonid Zuoqi arc magmatism can be divided into three stages: a primitive arc stage represented by 464-490 Ma low-K, calcic granitoids; a normal continental arc stage represented by 439-445 Ma medium-K, calcic to calcic-alkalic plutons and volcanic rocks and a syn-collisional stage represented by 423-424 Ma high-K granites. Furthermore, the timing and tectonic settings of the above magmatic rocks show similarities to those in Xilinhot and other areas of the northern Early to Mid-Paleozoic orogenic belt (NOB), although the rock assemblies and their proportions vary more or less in different areas. Accordingly, the NOB that formed on this arc was probably attributed to the northward subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean beginning at 500 Ma, which experienced this type of arc development and was terminated by a soft collision before the Late Devonian.

  4. Comparing patterns of ecosystem service consumption and perceptions of range management between ethnic herders in Inner Mongolia and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, L.; Ochirbat, B.; Lv, Y.; Wei, Y. J.; Liu, X. L.; Chen, J. Q.; Yao, Z. J.; Li, F.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystems in the Central Asian Plateau, which includes the Mongolian Plateau, are becoming increasingly sensitive to human interventions, leading to deterioration of already fragile ecosystems. The goal of this paper is to illustrate human dependence on an ecosystem by identifying patterns of resource consumption in this region and investigating the knowledge and perceptions of herders living in these ecosystems. Data on consumption in the two regions were collected using structured questionnaires delivered to a total of 252 herders from Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia. Meat and other animal products remain the dominant food items for most households, accompanied by various vegetables and cereals. This unbalanced diet leads to excessive consumption of protein and fat from animal sources. The major energy sources used by herders are fuelwood, animal dung, crop residues, and dry grass, but consumption patterns differed between the two areas. Mongolian herders rely more heavily on livestock for meeting their consumption needs than herders in Inner Mongolia. Herder knowledge and perceptions of ecosystem conditions and consumption of resources differed between Mongolia and Inner Mongolia, reflecting the influence of different state policies. The data reported and the conclusions drawn are relevant for developing resource management policies for the Mongolian Plateau, but also provide useful insights for any region where livestock production dominates the use of rangeland resources.

  5. Establishing the Safety Infrastructure for NPP in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enkhbat, Norov [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y. E. [Korean Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The survey results and analyses were used to establish the basis for developing nuclear safety infrastructure in Mongolia. Power Energy effective reform or introduction of nuclear reactors should be implemented in coming future to avoid this critical situation faces us. The most participant suggested that Mongolia may cooperate in the field of nuclear safety and infrastructure development with the Republic of Korea. Nuclear Energy Agency of the government of Mongolia has organized Nuclear Power Infrastructure Development (NUPID) training in cooperating with Seoul National University and other organizations in 2008, 2010 and 2012. There is a need to improve the nuclear energy law of Mongolia. Total energy supply of Mongolia is 5124.08 MWt as of 2012. 92.4% of total energy supply produces with coal, 0.56% with liquid fuel, and 0.01% with renewable energy sources, remained 6% imports from Russia. Mongolia operates seven Thermal Centralized Systems (TCS) with total capacity of 802 MWt, which provides dual; electricity and thermal power. Energy demand in Mongolia is expected to increase, due to the dramatically expanding mining industry. It is absolutely impossible to supply such rapid growth having operated old technology and inefficient production which exists currently in Mongolia. Therefor Mongolian government is interested in utilizing nuclear energy and approved Nuclear Energy Law in 2009. National Development Strategy (2008-2021) stated as that the peaceful exploitation of the nuclear energy will be an important factor for the sustainable development of Magnolia. Action Plan of the Government for 2008-2012 stated as that ...conduct a comprehensive research for use of nuclear energy, develop technical and economic feasibility study and improve radiation control and safety. International community has developed appropriate approaches in the form of IAEA safety standards, which has a positive experience of regulation and safety. These approaches contribute to the

  6. Pluvials, droughts, the Mongol Empire, and modern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Neil; Hessl, Amy E.; Baatarbileg, Nachin; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Di Cosmo, Nicola

    2014-03-01

    Although many studies have associated the demise of complex societies with deteriorating climate, few have investigated the connection between an ameliorating environment, surplus resources, energy, and the rise of empires. The 13th-century Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous land empire in world history. Although drought has been proposed as one factor that spurred these conquests, no high-resolution moisture data are available during the rapid development of the Mongol Empire. Here we present a 1,112-y tree-ring reconstruction of warm-season water balance derived from Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) trees in central Mongolia. Our reconstruction accounts for 56% of the variability in the regional water balance and is significantly correlated with steppe productivity across central Mongolia. In combination with a gridded temperature reconstruction, our results indicate that the regional climate during the conquests of Chinggis Khan's (Genghis Khan's) 13th-century Mongol Empire was warm and persistently wet. This period, characterized by 15 consecutive years of above-average moisture in central Mongolia and coinciding with the rise of Chinggis Khan, is unprecedented over the last 1,112 y. We propose that these climate conditions promoted high grassland productivity and favored the formation of Mongol political and military power. Tree-ring and meteorological data also suggest that the early 21st-century drought in central Mongolia was the hottest drought in the last 1,112 y, consistent with projections of warming over Inner Asia. Future warming may overwhelm increases in precipitation leading to similar heat droughts, with potentially severe consequences for modern Mongolia.

  7. Pluvials, droughts, the Mongol Empire, and modern Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Neil; Hessl, Amy E; Baatarbileg, Nachin; Anchukaitis, Kevin J; Di Cosmo, Nicola

    2014-03-25

    Although many studies have associated the demise of complex societies with deteriorating climate, few have investigated the connection between an ameliorating environment, surplus resources, energy, and the rise of empires. The 13th-century Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous land empire in world history. Although drought has been proposed as one factor that spurred these conquests, no high-resolution moisture data are available during the rapid development of the Mongol Empire. Here we present a 1,112-y tree-ring reconstruction of warm-season water balance derived from Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) trees in central Mongolia. Our reconstruction accounts for 56% of the variability in the regional water balance and is significantly correlated with steppe productivity across central Mongolia. In combination with a gridded temperature reconstruction, our results indicate that the regional climate during the conquests of Chinggis Khan's (Genghis Khan's) 13th-century Mongol Empire was warm and persistently wet. This period, characterized by 15 consecutive years of above-average moisture in central Mongolia and coinciding with the rise of Chinggis Khan, is unprecedented over the last 1,112 y. We propose that these climate conditions promoted high grassland productivity and favored the formation of Mongol political and military power. Tree-ring and meteorological data also suggest that the early 21st-century drought in central Mongolia was the hottest drought in the last 1,112 y, consistent with projections of warming over Inner Asia. Future warming may overwhelm increases in precipitation leading to similar heat droughts, with potentially severe consequences for modern Mongolia.

  8. China-Mongolia Friendship Bringing Light Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>To celebrate the 60th an- niversary of the establish- ment of diplomatic relations be- tween China and Mongolia and the China-Mongolia Friendship Year, a delegation led by CPAFFC President Chen Haosu made a

  9. Mantle Branch Structure in the South-Central Segment of the Da Hinggan Mts., Inner Mongolia and Its Ore-controlling Role

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Shuyin; SUN Aiqun; WANG Baode; NIE Fengjun; JIANG Sihong; SHAO Jian; GUO Lijun; LIU Jianming

    2009-01-01

    Mantle branch structure is the third tectonic unit of multiple evolution of a mantle branch. It is not only the main mechanism of intercontinental orogeny, but also an important ore-forming and ore-control structure. Studies on geotectonic evolution, regional geological characteristics and ore-forming and ore-control structures have shown that since the Mesozoic the Da Hinggan Mts. region has entered a typical intercontinental orogenic stage, and it is closely related to mantle branch activities. The south-central segment of the Da Hinggan Mts. is a typical mantle branch structure and possesses obvious magmatic-metamorphic complexes in the core, detachment slip beds in the periphery and overlapped fault depression basins. Moreover, all of these are the principal factors leading to ore formation and ore control in the region. This paper also further explores the mechanism of mineralization in the south-central segment of the Da Hinggan, summaries the rules of mineralization, puts forward the models of mineralization and points out future ore-exploring orientation.

  10. Evolution of a Permian intraoceanic arc-trench system in the Solonker suture zone, Central Asian Orogenic Belt, China and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Ping; Liu, Dunyi; Kröner, Alfred; Windley, Brian F.; Shi, Yuruo; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Fuqin; Miao, Laicheng; Zhang, Liqao; Tomurhuu, Dondov

    2010-07-01

    The identification of a fossil arc-trench system from the ophiolite-decorated Solonker suture zone in the southernmost Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) enables us to constrain the timing of pre-subduction extension (ca. 299-290 Ma), subduction initiation (ca. 294-280 Ma), ridge-trench collision (ca. 281-273 Ma) and slab break-off (ca. 255-248 Ma) in the Permian. A fraction of proto-arc crust (ca. 45 km long, up to 8 km wide) is preserved as a volcanic-plutonic sequence and is juxtaposed against a wide (ca. 30-80 km) forearc mélange. This proto-arc crust comprises two distinct magma series, island arc tholeiite (IAT) and mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), both of which have strong supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical signatures. Zircons from a gabbro and a plagiogranite yielded weighted mean 206Pb/ 238U ages of 284.0 ± 4.0 and 288.0 ± 6.0 Ma. The forearc mélange consists of numerous ophiolite fragments and continental margin-derived olistoliths/blocks that predate the ophiolite. The olistoliths are best represented by a gabbroic block (291.8 ± 2.3 Ma) that contains granite xenoliths (312.6 ± 1.8 and 313.6 ± 3.1 Ma). Other dated blocks include a trondhjemite (323.9 ± 2.7 Ma), a gabbro (296.6 ± 1.7 Ma) and a tonalite (294.9 ± 2.4 Ma). Small bodies of diabase, andesite and diorite in the forearc mélange exhibit a wide variety of geochemical signatures. We dated zircons from an N-MORB-like diabase (274.4 ± 2.5 Ma), an E-MORB-like diabase (252.5 ± 2.3 Ma), a transitional sanukitoid/adakite (andesite, 250.2 ± 2.4 Ma), a sanukitoid (high-Mg diorite; 251.8 ± 1.1 Ma) and an anorthosite (252.2 ± 1.7 Ma). The N-MORB-like diabase contains ca. 301-394 Ma zircon xenocrysts suggesting assimilation of trench sediments when a spreading ridge intersected a trench. The other dated rocks simultaneously formed near the Permian/Triassic boundary and captured abundant zircon xenocrysts (ca. 269-295 Ma; ca. 301-495 Ma; and ca. 923-2501 Ma). Our new formation ages constrain

  11. The Nuclear Alternative: Energy Production within Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liodakis, Emmanouel Georgiou

    2011-06-01

    Over ninety percent of Mongolia's energy load is run through the Central Energy System. This primary grid provides Mongolia's capital, Ulaanbaatar, with the power it uses to function. In the first half of 2010 the Central Energy System managed 1739.45 million kWhs, a 4.6 percent increase from 2009. If this growth rate continues, by 2015 Ulaanbaatar's three power plants will be unable to generate enough heat and electricity to meet the city's needs. Currently, plans have been proposed to rehabilitate the aging coal power plants. However, rising maintenance costs and growing emission levels make the long-term sustainability of this solution uncertain. The following paper analyzes the capital, maintenance, and decommissioning costs associated with the current rehabilitation plans and compares them with a nuclear alternative.

  12. Mongolia - TVET Improvement of Learning Environments Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Impact Evaluation: The effect of of MCC's equipment upgrade investment in Mongolia's vocational education sector on vocational school graduate's employability and...

  13. The origin of Cenozoic basalts from central Inner Mongolia, East China: The consequence of recent mantle metasomatism genetically associated with seismically observed paleo-Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pengyuan; Niu, Yaoling; Sun, Pu; Ye, Lei; Liu, Jinju; Zhang, Yu; Feng, Yue-xing; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2016-01-01

    We present new major element, trace element and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data on Cenozoic basalts from central Inner Mongolia (CIM) in eastern China to study the origin of the incompatible-element enriched component in these basalts by testing whether or not the paleo-Pacific plate lying in the mantle transition zone beneath eastern China is the immediate cause. The Cenozoic CIM basalts have a large variation in major element, trace element and isotope compositions. Fractional crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene can readily explain much of the major element compositional variation, while trace element and isotope ratio variation largely reflect source heterogeneities and source histories. The variably low 87Sr/86Sr, high εNd, high εHf and elevated ratios of high field strength element over large ion lithophile element (HFSE/LILE, e.g., Nb/U, Nb/La) indicate that the CIM basalts are of asthenospheric origin, which is characterized by mixing between DMM and EM1. However, the CIM basalts are enriched in incompatible elements and enriched in the progressively more incompatible elements (e.g., variably high [La/Sm]N = 1.66-3.38), suggesting that the magma source(s) must have been enriched prior to the major episode of the magmatism. Participation of subducted ocean crust in the mantle source region of these basalts is recognized, but cannot be the major source material because the subducted ocean crust is expectedly too depleted in incompatible elements (e.g., [La/Sm]N ≪ 1) to produce magmas highly enriched in incompatible elements with [La/Sm]N ≫ 1. With the new data, we consider that low mass fraction (low-F) melt metasomatism in the seismic low velocity zone (LVZ) beneath eastern China as the most likely process to generate incompatible-element enriched source(s) for mantle melts parental to the Cenozoic CIM basalts. The low-F metasomatic agent most likely resulted from dehydration melting of the transition-zone paleo-Pacific slab, which has been taking place

  14. Results of the Dendrochronological Studies in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon C. Jacoby

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mongolian-AmericanTree-Ring Project was initiated in 1995 to develop longer climatic records in Mongolia and to help establish capabilities in Mongolia for independent tree-ring analyses. The records from old-aged trees can provide more complete information about the variations in the climate system and aid in planning for future changes or variations in climate. Many areas of Mongolia have been investigated and tree-ring samples collected. Dendroclimatic records of temperature extending back more than one thousand years and precipitation records of over 300 years have been developed. These records show that global warming is present in Mongolia and that variations in precipitation and stream-flow appear to show some solar influence. Scientists and students trained by ,the project are now engaged in tree-ring studies in various areas of Mongolia. The project is expected to continue for the next several years.

  15. Interest Rate Pass‐Through in Mongolia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doojav, Gan‐Ochir; Kalirajan, Kaliappa

    2016-01-01

    This study empirically examines the interest rate pass‐through of the money market interest rate to bank lending and bank deposit interest rates in Mongolia using both linear and nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) models...

  16. Mongolia - Peri-Urban Rangeland Land Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — As part of monitoring and evaluation activities, the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) and Millennium Challenge Account-Mongolia (MCA-M) carried out an impact...

  17. Petrographic compositions of Paleozoic coals of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargal, Luvsanchultem; Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh

    2016-04-01

    In Mongolia, the deposition of coal bearing strata commenced in Pennsylvanian, and continued in Upper Permian, in Lower-Middle Jurassic and finally in Lower Cretaceous time. Pennsylvanian coal seams were deposited in Western Mongolia, where peat formation was initially developed in the southernmost part and later gradually shifted to northward. By the Late Permian, the locus of coal formation had changed and main peat accumulation took place in southern Mongolia. Lower-Middle Jurassic coal was accumulated in western, northern and eastern Mongolia. During this time, peat forming condition was comparatively stable in entire Mongolia. In the Early Cretaceous, thick and extensive coal was formed in the Eastern Mongolia. Due to this general trend of peat accumulation, coal rank decreases from west (bituminous) to east (lignite). The significant portion of Pennsylvanian and Upper Permian coal reserves, existed in western and southern Mongolia, are coking coal. Thus, petrographical studies of the coals are notably important. However, previous studies of Paleozoic coals have been sparse, and only few deposits have been conducted. The maceral compositions of Western Mongolian Pennsylvanian coals such as Khushuut, Maanit, Khurengol, Zeegt, Tsagaangol, Nuurstkhotgor, Khartarvagatai and Olonbulag were studied. The results show that the coals are dominated by vitrinite (45 vol.% to 71 vol.%) and inertinite (28 vol.% to 53vol.%) macerals. Liptinite contents are low, less than 4 vol.%. In addition, vitrinite reflectance values (Rmax in oil) of Khushuut (1.85%), Maanit (0.92%), Khurengol (1.4%), Zeegt (0.86%), Tsagaangol (3.6%), Nuurstkhotgor (0.9%), Khartarvagatai (1.1%) and Olonbulag (1.7%) were determined. Upper Permian coals in southern Mongolia (Tavantolgoi, Nariinsukhait, Jargalant, Tsagaantolgoi, Buduuniikhyar) are dominated by vitrinite (55 vol.% to 78 vol.%) and inertinite macerals (19 vol.% to 44 vol.%). Liptinite contents range from 1 vol.% to 7 vol.%. The vitrinite

  18. Monitoring of Land degradation in the mining impacted areas of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, T.; Renchin, T.

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays, environmental issue is very important and complicated problem in Mongolia. Mongolia has long suffered from poor mining legislation and almost no regulation of its production . There is a need to undertake analyses of land degradation and land use in Mongolia as an important factor of Environment. Land degradation has been identified as one the priority concerns. Causes of land degradation can be divided into two categories natural and human induced in Mongolia. The second hand level mining contributes to land degradation increased small to large-scale mining, as well as illicit activity resulting in exploitation of the country's mineral resources. In the last decade Mongolia has been developing the mining sector and due to the great number of exploitations the related territories were ecologically damaged. The rivers and lakes are drained, the earth is defiled and all these damages brought the environmental problems. This study aims to monitor land degradation processes in the study area Ongi River Basin of the central region of Mongolia. This area is affected by mining activities and desertification processes. The main reason of drying up Ongiriver and Ulaannuur is definitely changed the Onggi riverbed due to the mining of gold placer deposit and never making technical and biological reclamation. About 60 thousand people and over one million livestock who one living around Onggi river one getting defective of drink water and pasture because of Onggi river and UlaanLake's evaporation. We applied change detection technique and supervised classification using Satellite data. This study contributes to the research which involves policy makers and stakeholders to define and negotiate relevant scenarios in participatory approaches in the local area and to the studies about linking people to pixels. This case study will enable our researchers to plan for the future by making more educated decisions in issues stemming from mining, land degradation, water

  19. The Current Situation of Informatics Education in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambuu UYANGA

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Mongolia started using Information and Communication Technology (ICT in secondary education relatively late. The computer training and informatics has been included as a subject in the secondary school curriculum in Mongolia since 1988 and in the university curriculum since 1982. This paper presents current situation of informatics education in Mongolia. SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat analysis of Informatics Education in Mongolia, conclusions and future recommendations are also presented.

  20. Hydrous parental magmas of Early to Middle Permian gabbroic intrusions in western Inner Mongolia, North China: New constraints on deep-Earth fluid cycling in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chong-Jin; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Xu, Bei; Luo, Zhi-Wen; Liu, Yi-Zhi

    2017-08-01

    The role of fluids in the formation of the Permian-aged Xigedan and Mandula gabbroic intrusions in western Inner Mongolia was significant to the evolution of the Xing'an Mongolia Orogenic Belt (XMOB), and the active northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) U-Pb zircon geochronology establishes that the Xigedan gabbroic intrusion in the northern NCC was emplaced at 266 Ma, and is therefore slightly younger than the ca 280 Ma Mandula gabbroic intrusion in the XMOB. Along with their felsic counterparts, the mafic igneous intrusions record extensive bimodal magmatism along the northern NCC and in the XMOB during the Early to Middle Permian. The Mandula gabbroic rocks have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7040-0.7043) and positive εNd(t) (+6.2 to +7.3) and εHf(t) values (+13.4 to +14.5), resembling to those of contemporaneous Mandula basalts. These features, together with the presence of amphibole and the enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE, e.g., Rb, Ba, U and Sr) and depletion of Nb-Ta suggest that the parental magmas of the Mandula mafic igneous rocks were derived from a depleted mantle source metasomatized by water-rich fluids. In contrast, the Xigedan gabbroic rocks are characterised by high 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7078-0.7080) and zircon δ18O values (5.84-6.61‰), but low εNd(t) (-9.3 to -10.2) and εHf(t) values (-8.76 to -8.54), indicative of a long-term enriched subcontinental lithosphere mantle source that was metasomatized by recycled, high δ18O crustal materials prior to partial melting. The high water contents (4.6-6.9 wt%) and arc-like geochemical signature (enrichment of fluid-mobile elements and depletion of Nb-Ta) of the parental magmas of the Xigedan gabbroic rocks further establish the existence of a mantle hydration event caused by fluid/melts released from hydrated recycled oceanic crust. Incompatible element modelling shows that 5-10% partial melting of an enriched mantle source by

  1. Permafrost and geotechnical investigations in Nalaikh Depression of Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dashjamts Dalai; Batsaikhan Anand; Dugersuren Enkhbaatar

    2015-01-01

    Mongolia is a land-locked country in Central Asia, located between Russia and China. The country's high altitude results in cold, dry, and harsh climatic conditions with permafrost being widespread through the territory. Although the capital city Ulaanbaatar is situated in an area with discontinuous permafrost, the downtown section has recently seen a disappearance of permafrost due to an underground central heating system. During the last decade, expansion of the suburbs toward the Nalaikh Depression has resulted in construction of a new residential complex (Urgakh Naran), construction materials trading center, cement factory and agricultural products market. In the next 10 years, projects such as a university campus, logistics center, residential complex, railway and highway extensions connecting Russia and China have been planned. Engineer-ing-geological and geotechnical investigations have been conducted for these construction projects. This paper presents some of the results determining the engineering geocryological conditions of Nalaikh district and offers foundation design options.

  2. Taeniasis in Mongolia, 2002-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myadagsuren, Narankhajid; Davaajav, Abmed; Wandra, Toni; Sandar, Tsogtsaikhan; Ichinkhorloo, Purevdorj; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Sato, Marcello O; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

    2007-08-01

    Survey on secondary data of taeniasis/cysticercosis was carried out in Mongolia in 2002-2006. A total of 118 taeniid proglottids, a diphyllobothriid segment, and 59 serum samples from 118 taeniasis cases were collected at National Center for Communicable Diseases, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. In 2006, 14 serum samples were collected from local people who had histories of epileptic seizures in Selenge Province where pig husbandry was the main business. The 118 proglottids were confirmed to be Taenia saginata by mitochondrial DNA analysis using cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and cytochrome b genes. T. saginata taeniasis was widely distributed at least in 10 of 21 provinces. No variation in the nucleotide sequences of the two genes was observed among T. saginata isolates from Mongolia. There was no evidence of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis or Taenia asiatica taeniasis. A diphyllobothriid segment was confirmed to be Diphyllobothrium latum by mitochondrial DNA analysis.

  3. Age and stratigraphic context of Pliopithecus and associated fauna from Miocene sedimentary strata at Damiao, Inner Mongolia, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaakinen, Anu; Abdul Aziz, Hayfaa; Passey, Benjamin H.; Zhang, Zhaoqun; Liu, Liping; Salminen, Johanna; Wang, Lihua; Krijgsman, Wout; Fortelius, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of mammalian fossils in Central Inner Mongolia in the beginning of the 20th century, this area has produced a rich and diverse record of Miocene faunas. Nevertheless, the stratigraphy has remained poorly constrained owing to scattered faunal horizons and lack of continuous vertic

  4. 内蒙古中部地区蒙古野驴冬季食性%Wintering Feeding Habits of Asiatic Wild Ass (Equus hemionus hemionus) in Central Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕; 司晓艳; 毕俊怀; 武晓东

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed winter diet of Asiatic wild ass ( Equus hemionus hemionus) by using micro histological analysis of fresh fecal simples and measure the nutrient of diet. There were 26 species of plants belonging to 13 families in the spring diet of Asiatic Wild Ass. Specifically, the Graminaceous plants ( Gramineae) as the primary food sources accounted for 54.74%, Chenopodiaceous plants ( Chenopodiaceae) for 14.96%, Tamarisk ( Tamaricaceae) for 9.48%, Leguminous plants ( Legu⁃minosae) for 5.43%, Rose family ( Rosaceae) for 2.17%, and Iris family ( Iridaceae) for 1.57%, respectively. While the primary plants consumed were as follows: Krylov needlegrass ( Stipa krylovii ) ( 24. 44%) , Lovely achnatherum ( Ach⁃natherum splendens) (15.31%), Humifuse euphorbia herb (Reaumuria soongorica) (9.48%), Salsola passerine (Salsola passerine) (9.41%), which took the major part (58.64%) of the diet together. Therefore, the winter diet of Asiatic wild ass in the center part of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region had good diversity with high⁃energy and less⁃fiber. High⁃ener⁃gy food and good⁃taste were the criteria for winter foraging behavior, while less selection was the outstanding feature of the winter diet.%为了了解内蒙古自治区中部蒙古野驴( Equus hemionus hemionus)冬季食物组成和食物的营养质量,采用直接观察法对取食的植物种类进行了野外调查,通过粪便显微组织学方法分析了蒙古野驴的冬季食性,并测定了其采食植物中各种营养成分的含量。结果表明:蒙古野驴共取食13科26种植物,其中,克氏针茅( Stipa krylo⁃vii)、芨芨草(Achnatherum splendens)、红沙(Reaumuria soongorica)、珍珠猪毛菜(Salsola passerina)为蒙古野驴冬季主要取食的植物,其取食量分别占总取食量的24.44%、15.31%、9.48%、9.41%;禾本科植物是蒙古野驴冬季的主要食物,占取食植物的54.74%;其次为藜科(14

  5. Area Handbook Series: Mongolia: a Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    useful critique of the entire manuscript, helping the authors and the editors to focus their efforts more sharply. Mary Frances Weidlich of the United...Russia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953. Weidlich , Mary Frances. "Mongolia in 1980: A Year of Adjust- ments and Resolves," Asian Survey, 21, No

  6. School and everydaylife - Children in Mongolia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla Ambrosius; Nørgaard, E.; Egelund, N.;

    2002-01-01

    This article comprises the results from a research project carried out in Mongolia from 1994-1999. The study focuses on the changes of children's everydaylife as part of the democratisation and modernisation processes. The data consists of interveiws, classroomobservation and diaries from75 child...

  7. If You Go to Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Inner Mongolia is a terrific tourist destination with various topographic features and a diversified ecology.It has abundant tourist resources,from grassland and deserts to forests and lakes.Here you will see more sheep and cows than people.

  8. Shakespeare's Improbable Journey to Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The author has written about his journey to Inner Mongolia, where he helped university students mount a production of a Shakespeare play, which led him to reflect on an earlier, perhaps even more improbable journey. He then describes his growth from a student with dyslexia into a teacher, and principal as the result of guidance and encouragement…

  9. Glacier Change and an Updated Glacier Inventory of Mongolia using Landsat 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, A.; Scambos, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain glaciers and ice caps around the world are recognized as significant contributors to both global sea level and local and regional water resources, especially for arid regions. However, the remote and rugged nature of glaciers in many parts of Asia hinders their study. To complicate the picture, not only are glaciers in High Mountain / Central / North Asia exhibiting considerable regional variability in mass balance, but different measurement methods are painting significantly different pictures of glacier health. Mongolia provides a subset of the global glacier inventory which exemplifies low data availability and seemingly contradictory results. Based on previous studies, Mongolia is home to ~500 glaciers totaling ~650 km2, but these figures are quite rough. Regional glacier mass balance estimates vary from -2 × 1 Gt / yr to 3 × 6 Gt / yr. However, the glaciers are important to the local environment and agriculture, as Mongolian glaciers are estimated to store 10% of Mongolia's fresh water. The glaciers have lost ~6% of their area from the 1960s to the 1990s. Most recent studies of high mountain Asia (the large group of glaciated ranges between the Tien Shan, Qilian Mountains, and the Himalayas) show accelerated losses in recent years. Therefore, from within this uncertainty, we harness newly available data from Landsat 8's Operational Land Imager (OLI) to build an updated glacier inventory for Mongolia. Prior regional studies have focused of a variety of sub-ranges across many different epochs within the Altai (i.e. Munkh Khairkhan, Tavan Bogd, Turgen, Kharkhiraa, Munkhkhairkhan, Sair, and Tsambagarav Mountains); here, we unify the picture of recent change for all of Mongolia's glaciers (i.e., the additional glaciated areas eastward of the Altai). In addition to highlighting the ease and utility of Landsat 8's OLI, we will take advantage of a further suite of data (i.e. Landsat archival imagery, ICESat, ASTER, SPOT-5, or submeter imagery) to further

  10. Building groundwater modeling capacity in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Carter, Janet M.; Anderson, Mark T.; Davis, Kyle W.; Haynes, Michelle A.; Dorjsuren Dechinlhundev,

    2016-06-16

    Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia (fig. 1), is dependent on groundwater for its municipal and industrial water supply. The population of Mongolia is about 3 million people, with about one-half the population residing in or near Ulaanbaatar (World Population Review, 2016). Groundwater is drawn from a network of shallow wells in an alluvial aquifer along the Tuul River. Evidence indicates that current water use may not be sustainable from existing water sources, especially when factoring the projected water demand from a rapidly growing urban population (Ministry of Environment and Green Development, 2013). In response, the Government of Mongolia Ministry of Environment, Green Development, and Tourism (MEGDT) and the Freshwater Institute, Mongolia, requested technical assistance on groundwater modeling through the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Scientists from the USGS and USACE provided two workshops in 2015 to Mongolian hydrology experts on basic principles of groundwater modeling using the USGS groundwater modeling program MODFLOW-2005 (Harbaugh, 2005). The purpose of the workshops was to bring together representatives from the Government of Mongolia, local universities, technical experts, and other key stakeholders to build in-country capacity in hydrogeology and groundwater modeling.A preliminary steady-state groundwater-flow model was developed as part of the workshops to demonstrate groundwater modeling techniques to simulate groundwater conditions in alluvial deposits along the Tuul River in the vicinity of Ulaanbaatar. ModelMuse (Winston, 2009) was used as the graphical user interface for MODFLOW for training purposes during the workshops. Basic and advanced groundwater modeling concepts included in the workshops were groundwater principles; estimating hydraulic properties; developing model grids, data sets, and MODFLOW input files; and viewing and evaluating MODFLOW output files. A key to success was

  11. The Social and Ecological Problems of Urbanized Areas in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Gunin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of studies on the formation of urbanized territories and metropolitan areas in Mongolia, and the in fl uences of the industrial complex on the pollution level in urban landscapes, as well as on population health. The capital city, Ulaanbaatar, is one of the most highly polluted cities in the Central Asian region. The data on spatial distribution and the contents of toxic elements in the soils, snow cover, plants and human hair are given, according to the main ecological zones of the city. The statistical data on the dynamics of birthrate, rates of sickness and death of the population by the main groups of diseases are analyzed in accordance with the classi fi cation of the World Health Organization.

  12. 内蒙古中西部农村产褥期妇女文化程度与营养知识调查%Investigation of educational level and nutrition knowledge of puerperal women in rural areas in central and western Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春芳; 刘洪元; 韩文林; 白荣; 马德淑; 王英; 韦丽琴; 刘福栋

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of educational level of rural puerperal women on nutritional knowledge and the sources of nutritional knowledge in the central and western Inner Mongolia. Methods: 1 000 mothers whose infants less than 6 months were collected in three cities in central and western Inner Mongolia, in rural areas (Baotou, Wuhai Bayannao'er) by using a random cluster sampling method,household survey investigation were taken. Results: Education during pregnancy accounted for 71.6%, the higher education level, the higher correct response rate of nutrition knowledge, there was statistical significance; The lower level of education, the higher proportion that access to postpartum nutrition knowledge from medical personnel , parents , friends and relatives. Conclusion: Based on rural women's literacy status of puerperal, proposing that multi - use of existing facilities to carry out health education and health talks to raise levels of nutrition knowledge of medical personnel, strengthening medical staff advice and seminars, publicity nutrition knowledge through the media broadcast, improve mother and child health by strengthening the health education for postpartum women and families.%目的:研究内蒙占中西部农村产褥期妇女的文化程度对营养知识及产褥期妇女营养知识来源的影响.方法:采用随机整群抽样的方法,抽取内蒙古中西部3个城市农村(包头市、乌海市、巴彦淖尔市)1 000名出生月龄在6个月以内的婴儿母亲为研究对象,入户进行问卷调查.结果:孕期接受孕期教育的人数占71.6%,文化程度越高对营养知识的正确应答率越高,有明显的统计学差异;文化程度越低,获得产褥期营养知识来源于医务人员和父母亲朋的比例越高.结论:根据农村的产褥期妇女的文化程度现状建议利用现有的便利条件多开展健康教育和健康讲座,提高医务人员的营养知识水平,加强咨询和讲座,通过媒体广播进

  13. Investigation on physiological status and psychological status of puerperal women in central and western regions of Inner Mongolia%内蒙古中西部地区产褥期妇女生理及心理状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓春; 刘洪元; 韩文林; 马德淑; 白荣; 韦丽琴; 王英; 安建钢

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and analyze physiological status and psychological status of puerperal women in central and western regions of Inner Mongolia.Methods: A random cluster sampling method was used to select 2 624 mothers whose children were under one year from three cities ( Baotou city, Wuhai city, and Bayannur city) of central and western regions of Inner Mongolia as study objects , a total of 2 563 valid questionnaires were retrieved, a self - designed questionnaire about puerperium was used to conduct home survey one by one.Results: There was no statistically significant difference in physiological status and psychological status among 2 563 puerperal women of different delivery modes and nationalities (P > 0.05 ) ; the proportion of multiparous women with duration time of bloody lochia more than two weeks was 34.0% , which was statistically significantly higher than that of primiparous women ( 26.6% ) (P < 0.05) ; the incidence rates of cracked nipple and postpartum depression in rural women were 15.8% and 9.0% , respectively, compared with urban women (11.9% , 3.9%), there were statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) .The results of Logistic regression analysis showed that the influencing factors of physiological status and psychological status of puerperal women included gestational education, activity time of leaving beds after delivery, preparation or not in the first half year of pregnancy, meals after delivery provided by whom, and annual household income.Conclusion: The physiological status and psychological status of puerperal women in central and western regions of Inner Mongolia are good, but there are rural - urban differences, the physiological status and psychological status of puerperal women in urban areas are superior to those of women in rural areas.%目的:调查分析内蒙古中西部地区产褥期妇女的生理及心理状况.方法:采用随机整群抽样法抽取内蒙古中西部3个地区(

  14. The Remediation Mode for the Polluted Land in Inner Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    YAO, Xijun; Zhang, Yanyu; Wang, Zhiyong; SUI, Yingying

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the method of contaminated soil remediation technologies at home and abroad, analyzes the soil restoration situation in Inner Mongolia, and puts forward some suggestions on the development direction of soil repair industry for Inner Mongolia. The research methods of this article include literature review, summarization of data, comparison and analysis, and generalization and summarization. The soil restoration has made certain achievements in Inner Mongolia in recent year...

  15. Cambrian Kherlen ophiolite in northeastern Mongolia and its tectonic implications: SHRIMP zircon dating and geochemical constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Laicheng; Baatar, Munkhtsengel; Zhang, Fochin; Anaad, Chimedtseren; Zhu, Mingshuai; Yang, Shunhu

    2016-09-01

    The Kherlen terrane, which contains the Kherlen ophiolitic complex, is located between two Precambrian continental blocks in the northeastern Mongolia. We present new geochemical and SHRIMP zircon U-Pb data for the Kherlen ophiolitic complex and for granitic plutons intruding the complex, providing constraints on the regional evolution in Early Paleozoic time. The Kherlen ophiolite, which is geochemically similar to SSZ-type ophiolites, was originated from two distinct mantle sources, a N-MORB-like source and an E-MORB-like source. A gabbro and a plagiogranite dike intruding the gabbro from the Kherlen ophiolite yielded similar SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages of ca. 500 Ma, suggesting that the ophiolite formed in Late Cambrian time. Post- or syn-collisional granites intruding the ophiolitic complex yielded crystallization ages of ca. 440 Ma, which is interpreted to record the minimum age of the tectonic emplacement of the ophiolite. These new data demonstrate that the Kherlen ophiolite belt is an Early Paleozoic suture between the Ereendavaa and the Idermeg continental terranes, which is generally coeval with the Bayankhongor belt in central Mongolia, indicating that they are regionally correlated, and thus they define a major Early Paleozoic suture between two Precambrian continental blocks in the central-northeastern Mongolia.

  16. Bat study in the Kharaa region, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariunbold Jargalsaikhan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study objectives were to determine bat species composition and to study the genetic variations and sound characteristics in bats of the Kharaa, Shatan, and Ulgii areas of Mongolia. This study is the first bat survey in this area. Nineteen species were from Mongolia. Six bat species belonged to three genera. We performed mitochondrial DNA sequencing of Myotis bombinus, Myotis gracilis, and Myotis petax to confirm the morphological identification of these species. We also determined the sound frequencies of the six bat species, based on their echolocation calls. The conservation status was determined using World Conservation Union red list categories and criteria. Sixteen bats from three species were ringed during this study and three artificial boxes were placed on trees in the Kharaa River Valley. Other than the northern bat, all species were eastern Palearctic. The northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii species is widespread in the northern Palearctic region.

  17. Industrial waste and pollution in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgormaa, L. [Minstry of Nature and Environment, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper very briefly outlines hazardous waste management issues, including regulations, in Mongolia. Air, water, and soil pollutants are identified and placed in context with climatic, social, and economic circumstances. The primary need identified is technology for the collection and disposal of solid wastes. Municipal waste problems include rapid urbanization and lack of sanitary landfills. Industrial wastes of concern are identified from the mining and leather industries. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Buddhism and Legal Tradition in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergen S. Ulanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of the influence of Buddhism on the legal tradition in Mongolia. The scientific relevance of the study concerning the history of interaction of Buddhism and legal tradition lies in the fact that religion and law are the values and norms that regulate social relations, revealing level and condition of morality of society, determining the system of value coordinates. The analysis of the cultural-historical context of interaction of legal and religious institutions is of particular importance. In this regard, the questions regarding the history of interaction of Buddhism and legal traditions in Mongolia are of special interest. The authors consider such monuments of Mongolian law as the «Great Yasa», the Hutuktay-Sechen’s Law, the Altan Khan’s Code, the «Eighteen steppe laws», the «Ih tsaaz» (the Mongol-Oirat Code of 1640, the «Mongol Tsaadzhin Bichig» («the Mongolian law», the «Khalkha Dzhirum» and modern legislation of Mongolia. A common in the religious studies view on Buddhism as a contemplative religion, indifferent to political-legal issues, is not entirely true. The study showed that Buddhism had a significant influence on the formation of state-legal relations in Mongolia. Inclusion of the Buddhist Canon law in the national legislation contributed to strengthening of the provisions of the world religion in the Mongolian society. As a result it became an important regulator of legal relations. It also contributed to the fact that the Buddhist clergy was beginning to be perceived by the population as an important and integral part of society. After proclamation of the Mongolian People's Republic and the subsequent persecution of the Church Buddhism ceased to have any serious impact on the law. In the modern democratic Mongolia the leading role of Buddhism in the country is enshrined in law, and it is regarded as an ideological foundation for preservation of national culture and Mongols

  19. China's first successful recovery of ice core in Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ In collaboration with their colleagues from the ROK and Mongolia,CAS scientists achieved their first success in obtaining a 40.18m ice core in a drilling operation from 5 to 20 June in an expedition to the (Hovd) Tsambagarav glacier in Altay Mountains of Mongolia.

  20. Research on Classification of Land Consolidation Project Zones in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking Inner Mongolia as the research object, from natural conditions, socio-economic conditions, land use conditions and so on, we select 8 indices that impact the land consolidation project, namely climate, topography, soil type, water resources conditions, farmland amount per capita, the degree of agricultural mechanization, the status of irrigation guarantee and land consolidation potential, so as to establish rational index system of project zoning. By using cluster analysis method, we divide Inner Mongolia into 5 different types of project zone, namely multiple-purpose project zone of the western Greater Khingan Mountains, irrigation project zone of Nenjiang and the western Liao River plain, the central dry farming complementary irrigation project zone, Hetao Plain and Huanghe River irrigation project zone, and the western oasis irrigation project zone. This paper analyzes the natural conditions of all regions and constraint factors of agricultural production, and establishes the corresponding project design model, in order to provide reference for the land consolidation project design in Inner Mongolia and even other similar regions.

  1. The Lost South Gobi Microcontinent: Protolith Studies of Metamorphic Tectonites and Implications for the Evolution of Continental Crust in Southeastern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Heumann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Central Asian Orogenic Belt, or Altaids, is an amalgamation of volcanic arcs and microcontinent blocks that records a complex late Precambrian–Mesozoic accretionary history. Although microcontinents cored by Precambrian basement are proposed to play an integral role in the accretion process, a lack of isotopic data hampers volume estimates of newly produced arc-derived versus old-cratonic crust in southeastern Mongolia. This study investigates metamorphic tectonites in southern Mongolia that have been mapped as Precambrian in age, largely on the basis of their high metamorphic grade and high strain. Here we present results from microstructural analyses and U-Pb zircon geochronology on samples from Tavan Har (44.05° N, 109.55° E and the Yagan-Onch Hayrhan metamorphic core complex (41.89° N, 104.24° E. Our results show no compelling evidence for Precambrian basement in southeastern Mongolia. Rather, the protoliths to all tectonites examined are Paleozoic–Mesozoic age rocks, formed during Devonian–Carboniferous arc magmatism and subsequent Permian–Triassic orogenesis during collision of the South Mongolia arc with the northern margin of China. These results yield important insights into the Paleozoic accretionary history of southern Mongolia, including the genesis of metamorphic and igneous basement during the Paleozoic, as well as implications for subsequent intracontinental reactivation.

  2. Plastic materials currently used in Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruvjir Shagdarsuren; Nachin Baasanjav; Sosor Baatarjav

    2007-01-01

    The first skin-flap procedures were performed in Mongolia by a team of Chinese doctors ( Chenod, Chen)who treated children with burn injuries in the 1950s. The field of plastic surgery was further developed through assistance from the former Soviet Union and is now widely practiced by a number of surgeons around the country.In recent years, the fast evolving field of plastic surgery in Mongolia has created a need for clear and consistent system for the classification of various plastic materials. A team of Mongolian surgeons at the National Hospital for Traumatology, Orthopedics, Rehabilitation and Teaching Research have completed a research programme aimed at adopting a leading classification system that can facilitate effective communication between plastic surgeons. This requires the chosen system to be in line with modern trends in plastic surgery and the established international norms.As a result of extensive research and analysis, they have developed a customized version of Vasiliev's classification that focuses on formulating general principles of the description of plastic materials based on their functional characteristics. The main reason for this selection is its similarity with existing Mongolian standards as well as its principles that contain important implications for surgery.

  3. Theorizing Violence in Mongolia (book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Elverskog

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Franck Billé, Sinophobia: Anxiety, Violence, and the Making of Mongolian Identity. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2014. 272 pp. $57 (cloth. Christopher Kaplonski, The Lama Question: Violence, Sovereignty, and Exception in Early Socialist Mongolia. Honolulu: Univeristy of Hawai'i Press., 2014 280 pp. $54 (cloth. In early 2015 an intellectual kerfuffle erupted about the state of violence in our contemporary world. On one side of this debate were scholars like Steven Pinker (2012 and Richard Bessel (2015, who argue that things are getting better; namely, the amount of violence today is at historical lows. This is an argument that others, such as John Gray and Nassim Nicholas Taleb, find preposterous. Whatever the case may be, it is certainly true that violence still exists in today’s world and that many scholars are trying to explain it. Indeed, understanding such violence is the driving force behind the excellent books under review here—two works that not only bring Mongolia into these larger intellectual debates but do so through an engagement with two distinct theoretical approaches to the question of violence: Giorgio Agamben’s political philosophy and Lacanian psychoanalysis...

  4. Occupational lung diseases and the mining industry in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lkhasuren, Oyuntogos; Takahashi, Ken; Dash-Onolt, Lkhamsuren

    2007-01-01

    Mining production has accounted for around 50% of the gross industrial product in Mongolia since 1998. Dust-induced chronic bronchitis and pneumoconiosis currently account for the largest relative share (67.8%) of occupational diseases in Mongolia, and cases are increasing annually. In 1967-2004, medically diagnosed cases of occupational diseases in Mongolia numbered 7,600. Of these, 5,154 were confirmed cases of dust-induced chronic bronchitis and pneumoconiosis. Lung diseases and other mining-sector health risks pose major challenges for Mongolia. Gold and coal mines, both formal and informal, contribute significantly to economic growth, but the prevalence of occupational lung diseases is high and access to health care is limited. Rapid implementation of an effective national program of silicosis elimination and pneumoconiosis reduction is critical to ensure the health and safety of workers in this important sector of the Mongolian economy.

  5. Occupational lung diseases and the mining industry in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lkhasuren, O.; Takahashi, K.; Dash-Onolt, L. [Health Science University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    2007-04-15

    Mining production has accounted for around 50% of the gross industrial product in Mongolia since 1998. Dust-induced chronic bronchitis and pneumoconiosis currently account for the largest relative share (67.8%) of occupational diseases in Mongolia, and cases are increasing annually. In 1967-2004, medically diagnosed cases of occupational diseases in Mongolia numbered 7,600. Of these, 5,154 were confirmed cases of dust-induced chronic bronchitis and pneumoconiosis. Lung diseases and other mining-sector health risks pose major challenges for Mongolia. Gold and coal mines, both formal and informal, contribute significantly to economic growth, but the prevalence of occupational lung diseases is high and access to health care is limited. Rapid implementation of an effective national program of silicosis elimination and pneumoconiosis reduction is critical to ensure the health and safety of workers in this important sector of the Mongolian economy.

  6. An Analysis of the Dairy Supply Chain in Inner Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In the past 20 years, people have started to pay attention to the health issues with the focus on the food hygiene and safety. Therefore, the liquid milk and dairy products have gradually become the essential food in daily life. However, many quality problems occurred during the expansion of the dairy industry. With an interest in the dairy industry in Inner Mongolia of China, its predominant geological location and long history of dairy culture lead to Inner Mongolia developed into the centr...

  7. Responses of Belowground Biomass and Biomass Allocation to Environmental Factors in Central Grassland of Inner Mongolia%内蒙古中部草原地下生物量与生物量分配对环境因子的响应关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴诚; 康慕谊; 纪文瑶; 江源

    2012-01-01

    为探究环境因子对草原地下生物量与生物量分配的影响以及验证功能平衡假说,沿水热变化梯度通过采样获取内蒙古中部草原的生物量,分析了地下生物量的垂直分布及其与地上生物量的关系,采用回归和结构方程模型的方法探讨了地下生物量与地下地上生物量比对环境因子的响应规律.结果表明:地下生物量主要分布在土壤表层,地下与地上生物量成显著正相关;地下生物量对年均降水量、土壤有机碳和全氮为正响应,对年均温和土壤pH值则为负响应;其中,降水量是导致地下生物量差异的主要因子;土壤环境也具有重要的作用.土壤全氮与地下地上生物量比之间的显著正响应关系与功能平衡假说不符.综上所述表明,环境因子对地下地上生物量比产生的影响十分复杂,需要进一步结合植物生理和生态学特性等多方面的综合分析才能得出可靠的结论.%In order to explore the influences of environmental factors on belowground biomass and biomass allocation in grassland ecosystems and to test 'functional equilibrium hypothesis', the vertical distribution of belowground biomass and the relationship of belowground biomass (BGB) with belowground biomass, as well as the patterns of BGB and the response of belowground/aboveground biomass ratio (B/A) to environmental factors were examined in the central Inner Mongolia grassland along with thermal and moist gradients. Results showed that belowground biomass mainly concentrated in topsoil layer and had significant correlation with aboveground biomass. Belowground biomass had positive response to annual mean precipitation, organic carbon and total nitrogen, whereas negative response to annual mean temperature. Precipitation, besides the effect of soil features, was the most prominent factor that influenced the geographic disparity of belowground biomass. Additionally, the effect of total nitrogen on B/A was

  8. School-to-Work Transitions in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastore, Francesco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little is known about the youth labour market in Mongolia. This paper addresses the issue by taking advantage of a recent ad hoc School to Work Transition Survey (SWTS on young people aged 15-29 years carried out in 2006. After a period of sharp reduction in the 1990s, educational attainment is increasing, as compared to other countries in the area. Nonetheless, important constraints seem to affect the supply of education, especially in rural areas. In addition, as application of the new ILO school-to-work transition classification shows, the country is unable to provide young people with a sufficient number of decent jobs. This translates into high youth unemployment in urban areas and very low productivity jobs in rural areas. Mincerian estimates confirm that human capital is an important determinant of earnings in urban, but not in rural areas

  9. The feasibility of solar energy use in rural areas of Mongolia: solar ''Ger''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishjamts Gonchigbat; Zandaryaa Sarantuyaa [Mongolian Technical University, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Yutaka, Maemura [JICA, (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Mongolia, despite its heavy investment in energy sector, still faces difficulties to supply the rural population with electricity. The energy system of Mongolia is strongly dependent on indigenous coal and imported oil, and needs applications of emerging energy efficient technologies. Rural centers, which are still not connected to the centralized electricity system, supply their inhabitants with the electricity by diesel . However, the use of renewable energies is just being initiated designing solar panels and wind generators for nomads. At present, in rural areas some nomadic families depend on a simple petrol generator or a small wind generator. To avoid the environmental degradation and to improve life standards in rural areas, it is essential to supply the rural population with an appropriate electricity. This paper synthesizes the possible application of emerging technologies of photovoltaics and solar panels in nomadic families. (author)

  10. Syn-collision Hairhan layered intrusion, Lakes Zone, Western Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskiy, A. V.; Izokh, A. E.; Kalugin, V. M.; Gertner, I. F.

    2012-04-01

    In the structure of the Lakes Zone of Western Mongolia, which is reconstructed as the Early Cambrian island arc (Lakes island arc terrane), there are several groups of contiguous space gabbroic intrusions, merged in Hirgisnuur complex. The largest (70 km2) is Hairhan intrusion, located in the central part of the Lake Zone in the Bumbat-Hairhan ridge. The structure of the intrusion disturbed by later tectonic movements and the subsequent formation of Cambrian granitoids Tohtoginshil complex. The structures of the body are two groups of rocks: layered series and marginal facies, fragmentary spread to the periphery of intrusion. Gabbronorites of marginal facies have intrusive contacts with the sedimentary rocks of Early Cambrian age Burgastay formation. The marginal facies, apparent thickness which is 1.5 km, is composed primarily of non-olivine gabbronorites in which there is trachytoid and sometimes bedding. Layered series composes the central part of the Hairhan intrusion, the direction of layering has a northwest strike, coaxial with the long axis of the intrusion. The lower part of the layered series consists mainly troctolites with minor olivine gabbroids. The upper part of the layered series consists mainly of olivine gabbro, troctolite occur here less frequently also observed small schlieren anorthosites. Of particular interest is the horizon taxitic gabbro and being above it - the horizon orbicular gabbro at the top of the layered series. The rocks are widely manifested magmatic disruptive and plastic deformation - both macro and micro levels. They are expressed in the collapse of layering of elements in small folds of varying amplitude (typically to a few tens centimeters), often passing into areas and zones taxitic disruption. The greatest number of these structural elements characteristic of the upper part of the layered series, including the orbicular gabbro and troctolites taxitic horizons. These features indicate intensive tectonic processes that

  11. Detection and molecular characterization of rabies virus in Mongolia during 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumduuren Tuvshintulga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to investigate the prevalence and molecular characterization of rabies virus (RABV from wild and domestic animals in Mongolia during 2008-2010. Materials and Methods: Brain tissue samples were collected from 24 rabid animals in Zavkhan, Omnogovi, Tov, Dundgovi, Govi-Altai, Selenge, Ovorkhangai, and Khentii provinces in Mongolia. Herein, samples were included from 13 domestic animals (dogs, cattle, camels, sheep, and goat and 11 wild animals (wolves and foxes in this study. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA test and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR were performed for detection of RABV, and positive samples were further processed for molecular characterization of the virus using nucleoprotein gene. Subsequently, the molecular characterization was determined based on the nucleoprotein gene. Results: Out of 24 samples, 22 samples were detected positive for RABV by DFA test, and its nucleoprotein gene was amplified in all of the 24 samples by RT-PCR. These Mongolian RABVs were classified within steppe-type virus clade by phylogenetic analysis of nucleoprotein gene sequences. This steppe-type virus clade was clearly divided by two Sub-clades (A and B. The most of Mongolian RABVs belongs to the Sub-clade A in the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion: These findings have clearly confirmed RABV in domestic and wild animals of Mongolia. Further molecular characterization indicated that this Mongolian strain is steppe-type virus clade consisting of two sub-clades; the Subclade A might be prevalent in Altai, Khangai, Khentii Mountains as a major genotype, whereas the Subclade B seems to be cosmopolitan in the steppe-type virus clade, is spread in northern central Eurasia.

  12. Use of Multicriteria Risk Ranking of Zoonotic Diseases in a Developing Country: Case Study of Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, A M J; Muellner, P; Baljinnyam, Z; Vink, D; Wilson, N

    2016-03-01

    Many developing countries face significant health burdens associated with a high incidence of endemic zoonoses and difficulties in integrated control measures for both the human and animal populations. The objective of this study was to develop and apply a multicriteria ranking model for zoonoses in Mongolia, a country highly affected by zoonotic disease, to inform optimal resource allocation at the national level. Diseases were evaluated based on their impact on human health, livestock sector health and the wider society through affects on the economic value of livestock, as well as the feasibility of control in both the human and livestock population. Data on disease in Mongolia were collected from various government departments including the Mongolian State Central Laboratory, the Mongolian Department of Veterinary and Animal Breeding, the Mongolian Ministry of Health, Mongolian National Center for Communicable Diseases, the National Center for Zoonotic Disease and expert opinion from a workshop with a number of Mongolian Government officials and researchers. A combined score for both impact of the disease and feasibility of its control was calculated. Five zoonotic diseases were determined to be of high priority from this assessment (i.e. ovine brucellosis, echinococcosis (hydatids), rabies, anthrax and bovine brucellosis). The results supported some of the findings for high-priority diseases (namely brucellosis, rabies and anthrax) from a previous priority setting exercise carried out in Mongolia in 2011, but also identified and ranked additional animal diseases of public health importance. While the process of model development was largely Mongolian specific, the experience of developing and parameterizing this multicriteria ranking model could be replicated by other countries where zoonoses have substantive impacts on both animal and human health.

  13. Geomorphological development of Eastern Mongolian plain, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    khukhuudei, Ulambadrakh; otgonbayar, Orolzodmaa

    2016-04-01

    Several summaries and investigations of the geomorphological description and feature for Eastern Mongolian plain (EMP), the one of the largest geomorphological district, fully covering east side of Mongolia (Murzayev, 1949; Vlodavets, 1950, 1955; Marinov, Khasin, 1954; Marinov, 1966; Nikolayeva, 1971; Selivanov, 1972; Chichagov, 1974, 1976; Grigorov, 1975; Korjuyev, 1982; Syirnev, 1982, 1984) had been publishing continuously. But literature for geomorphology of EMP have been not appeared during over the past 20 years. However, we re-combine the geomorphological development of EMP, according to the results of many publications for surrounding regions of Russia and China and unpublished maps. Main morphology of EMP has the plain, containing with aeolian, fluvial and lacustrine landforms. Plain morphology defined that denudation plains to North Kherlen, South Kherlen, Baruun Urt, Uulbayan, Delgerekh and other which developed on the Paleozoic rocks, layered plain to Choibalsan, Tamsag, Ongon, Gert, Sumiin nuur and Torey- on the Late Cretaceous and Neogene sediments and accumulation plain with alluvial and lacustrine origin such as Menen, Buir nuur, Tamsagbulag, Khalzan and other. These plains of EMP related with tectonics and structure of region and inherited the development of the Mesozoic, particularly Late Mesozoic structure. Large basins of EMP are Tamsag, Choibalsan and Torey and other small basins - from 7-10 km to 25-30 km width and rather a several 10 km extend, cutting a basement. The origin of plain morphology for EMP is interpreted as two main stages of the geomorphological development model, based on geology. In first stage or Late Jurassic (?) - Lower Cretaceous period, there was developed rift basin, then, in second stage or since Late Cretaceous period, plain morphology originated from the intermountain basin that dominated by exogenic process and kept in current EMP area. Data relevant to the development history of EMP are following. 1. Rift volcanism

  14. Age and stratigraphic context of Pliopithecus and associated fauna from Miocene sedimentary strata at Damiao, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakinen, Anu; Abdul Aziz, Hayfaa; Passey, Benjamin H.; Zhang, Zhaoqun; Liu, Liping; Salminen, Johanna; Wang, Lihua; Krijgsman, Wout; Fortelius, Mikael

    2015-03-01

    Since the discovery of mammalian fossils in Central Inner Mongolia in the beginning of the 20th century, this area has produced a rich and diverse record of Miocene faunas. Nevertheless, the stratigraphy has remained poorly constrained owing to scattered faunal horizons and lack of continuous vertical exposures. Consequently, most age estimates of these Miocene sites are based on paleontological evidence alone, with very few sites having been dated independently. Our field investigations in Damiao, in Siziwang Qi, Inner Mongolia have yielded more than 30 new fossiliferous localities from three horizons, including a pliopithecid fauna. This study presents the litho-, bio- and magnetostratigraphy of the Damiao area and provides age estimates for the three fossil-bearing horizons. The sedimentary sequence is interpreted as the remains of a fluvial system comprising channels, subaerially exposed floodplains and floodbasin environments. The two local stratigraphic sections measured and sampled for paleomagnetic analysis coincide with species-rich vertebrate fossil localities. The paleomagnetic results and faunal evidence suggest a correlation of lowermost fossil horizon (DM16) producing relatively rich small mammal assemblage to the early Miocene chron C6Ar or C6An.1r, roughly in 20-21 Ma age range. The pliopithecid locality level (DM01) represents latest middle Miocene and has an age estimate of about 12.1 Ma while the youngest localities (DM02) with cervoids and abundant and diverse small mammal fauna represents the earliest late Miocene with an age estimate of about 11.6 Ma. Our magnetostratigraphic results confirm that the Damiao strata constitute one of the best sequences in Inner Mongolia with early, middle and late Miocene mammalian faunas in stratigraphic superposition. The results also provide constraints on the paleoenvironmental evolution and bioevents of the area. The occurrence of pliopithecid primates in the middle Miocene of Inner Mongolia suggests humid

  15. Illegal and Unsustainable Wildlife Hunting and Trade in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zahler

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports and studies document dramatic declines in a wide variety of wildlife species in Mongolia. The prime driver in these declines appears to be illegal and unsustainable hunting, both for local trade and consumption and for the international market. While data on these declines are sparse, comparisons of survey reports since the 1980s present evidence that some species may have declined by up to 90% in recent years. We outline the situation for eight major species of wildlife in Mongolia (saiga antelope, Mongolian gazelle, red deer , musk deer , ar gali, brown bear , Siberian marmot, and saker falcon. We then review the existing legal conditions and government efforts to control this situation, and suggest specific changes and actions that Mongolia should take to halt these dramatic declines in wildlife populations and avoid what may soon become an extinction crisis.

  16. Exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to alcohol in Mongolia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro R; Dugee, Otgontuya; de Courten, Maximilian;

    2013-01-01

    The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to...... to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey....

  17. Luminescence dating of ancient Darhad basin, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheul Kim, Jin; Yi, Sangheon; Lim, Jaesoo; Kim, Ju-Yong

    2016-04-01

    Darhad basin is located in the northern Mongolia, in the western end of the Baikal Rift Zone. In contrast to the neighboring Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia's largest and deepest lake, the Darhad is a drained lake basin. It is ~100 km long (north-south), 20-40 km wide and covered by sediments which locally exceed 500 m thickness (Zorin et al., 1989). Darhad basin is characterized by alternating episodes of expansion and desiccation that are closely related with the Pleistocene damming events. Previous studies of the Darhad Basin suggest that the last paleolake was dammed by a large glacier or the sediments (Selivanov, 1967, 1968; Krivonogov et al., 2005; Gillespie et al., 2008). Especially, recent expansion of the paleolake might be caused by the two glacial maxima during MIS 4 and 2. However, glacier-dammed lakes might be short-lived, dried up and permafrost occurred in the drained basin during the Holocene period. The uppermost paleolake sediments (13.2 m depth) are exposed following the curvature of the meandering river (called "Hodon outcrop"). It is considered the most likely site for the youngest paleolake sediments because it is distributed in the northern middle part of the paleolake. Krivonogov et al. 2012 described the Hodon outcrop with the sedimentological and chronological data. Age dating of 16 samples (11 mollusk shells, 5 wood fragments) indicated that Hodon outcrop sediments were deposited between 10.1±7 and 4.9±5 ka. However, the ages obtained on shells much older dates than the matched wood samples because of ingestion of old carbon by mollusks. The age difference between shells and wood fragments is a minimum of 1.73 ka and a maximum of 3.41 ka (average 2.5 ka). In this case, 14C ages from shells should be corrected with appropriate correction factor. However, the old carbon effects could vary temperally and spatially in the Darhad paleolake. The limited number of the 14C ages from wood fragments result in a simple linear trend in the depth-age curve

  18. Inner Mongolia to Implement Production Quota in Iron Alloy Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>During the 12th Five-Year Plan period, Inner Mongolia will accelerate to eliminate outdated capacity, speed up to work out implementation plan for key industries to eliminate outdated production capacity during the 12th Five-Year Plan period, break down and assign the tasks by year to all leagues and cities; improve the

  19. Baseline Analysis on ICT in General Education of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanga, Sambuu

    2014-01-01

    These days ICT has penetrated into almost all sectors of the economy and society of Mongolia. More and more effort and attention is being paid to integrating ICT into the education sector. The current education reforms have a big component related to ICT, which includes the development of a Master plan for ICT in the Education sector, addressing…

  20. Ancient Polish Books in Buryatian Republic near Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Panasiuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ancient Polish books in Buryatian Republic near Mongolia: presentation of the problem and topics for the furhter research.   Przedstawienie problemów badawczych związanych ze starymi polskimi księgami znalezionymi w Buriacji.

  1. Study on Seismicity of Sino-Mongolia Arc Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangyin; Wang, Suyun

    2016-04-01

    Using the earthquake catalogue from China, Mongolia and the global catalogue, the uniform catalogue of North China, Mongolia and adjacent areas, which is within the region 80-130°E, 40-55°N, has been established by Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration and Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics, Mongolian Academy of Science for the seismic hazard analysis and seismic zoning map of Mongolia according to the following principles. 1) Earthquakes, which just exist in one catalogue, need to be verified further. If the earthquakes occurred in the country where the catalog comes from, then they will be adopted. If not, it should be checked with other more data. 2) The events that come from the three data sources have be checked and verified as followings. (1) The parameters of earthquakes that occurred in China will be taken from China catalog. (2)The parameters of earthquakes that occurred in Mongolia will be taken from Mongolia catalog. (3) The parameters of earthquakes that occurred in the adjacent areas will be taken from the global catalog by Song et al. According to the uniform catalogue, the seismicity of the North China, Mongolia and adjacent areas is analyzed, and the conclusions as followings are made. 1) The epicenter map can be roughly divided into two parts, bounded by the longitude line 105°E , in accordance with the "North-South Seismic Belt" of China. The seismicity is in a high level with many strong earthquakes in the west and is in a low level with little strong events in the east. 2) Most earthquakes are shallow-focus events, but there are also several middle or deep-focus events in the study area. 3) Earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5 are basically complete since 1450 A.D., and the seismicity of the study areas is in a high level since 1700 A. 4) Two seismic belts, Altay seismic belt and Bolnay-Baikal seismic belt, are determined according to the epicenters and tectonics. 5) The b-values of magnitude - frequency

  2. Carbon dioxide and water fluxes in grasslands of Inner Mongolia (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, S.; Ketzer, B.; Grünwald, T.; Bernhofer, Ch.

    2009-04-01

    precipitation than the mean annual sum results in reduced carbon dioxide fluxes. So, the precipitation is the major driver controlling the atmospheric fluxes besides the temperature. The seasonal pattern of the precipitation is important for the carbon dioxide as well as for the water budget. In contrast to the carbon dioxide fluxes there is less variability of the water fluxes of various grazing intensities. At all sites evapotranspiration was calculated about 80% of precipitation. The study shows clearly the sensitivity of the carbon dioxide flux and the evapotranspiration on the main drivers during the vegetation period. During drought and heat the CO2 sink is reduced or switched to positive values and CO2 source is increased, respectively. It is assumed that the steppe in Inner Mongolia will be a CO2 source in a changed climate characterised by increased temperatures and lower precipitation. Results from the on-going MAGIM measurements will be used to model carbon dioxide and water fluxes of grasslands in Central Asia by a combination of remote sensing and well parameterised models. This upcoming work is funded by the BMBF-project IWAS (International Water Alliance Saxony).

  3. Electrical structure beneath the Hangai Dome, Mongolia, from magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Matthew; Käufl, Johannes; Becken, Michael; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Demberel, Sodnomsambuu; Sukhbaatar, Usnikh; Batmagnai, Erdenechimeg; Tserendug, Shoovdor; Nasan, Ochir

    2017-04-01

    The Hangai Dome in west-central Mongolia is an unusual high-elevation intra-continental plateau located far from tectonic plate boundaries and characterized by dispersed, low-volume, basaltic volcanism. This region is an ideal natural laboratory for studying intra-continental orogenic and magmatic processes resulting from crust-mantle interactions. The processes responsible for developing the Hangai Dome remain unexplained, due in part to a lack of high resolution geophysical data over the area. Here we present newly acquired broadband (0.008 - 3,000 s) magnetotelluric (MT) data from a large-scale ( 200 x 450 km) and high resolution (site spacing > 5 km) survey across the Hangai Dome. A total of 125 sites were collected and include full MT sites and telluric-only sites where inter-station transfer functions were computed. The MT data are used to generate an electrical resistivity model of the crust and upper mantle below the Hangai Dome. The model shows that the lower crust ( 30 - 50 km; below the brittle-ductile transition zone) beneath the Hangai Dome contains anomalous discrete pockets of low-resistivity ( 30 ohm-m) material that indicate the presence of local accumulations of fluids and/or low-percent partial melts. These anomalous regions appear to be spatially associated with the surface expressions of past volcanism, hydrothermal activity, and an increase in heat flow. They also correlate with observed crustal low-density and low-velocity anomalies. However they are in contrast to some geochemical and petrological studies which show long-lived crustal melt storage is impossible below the Hangai due to limited crustal assimilation and crustal contamination, arguing for a single parent-source at mantle depths. The upper mantle ( 6%) at this location. The results are consistent with modern geochemical and geophysical data, which show a thin lithosphere below the Hangai region. Furthermore the results agree with geodynamic models that require a low-heat flux

  4. The Resource Curse in Mongolia: Mineral Wealth, Institutional Quality, and Economic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Development Planning in Mongolia: Failure and Potential,” http://www.apcss.org/development- planning -in-mongolia-failure-and-potential/. 4...46. 33 Naazneen H. Barma, “Petroleum, Governance and Fragility: The Micro-Politics of Petroleum in Postconflict States,” in Beyond the Resource...is responsible for the state and local budget planning and expenditure, as well as customs, taxation, and insurance policies.47 Mongolia has made

  5. Palinspastic reconstruction and geological evolution of Jurassic basins in Mongolia and neighboring China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Genyao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The important event in Jurassic tectonics in Mongolia was the subduction and closure of the Mongolia-Okhotsk ocean; correspondingly, basin evolution can be divided into two main stages, related to the orogeny and collapse of the orogenic belt, respectively. The developing of Early–Middle Jurassic basins to the north of the ocean resulted from back-arc extension. The fossil sutures, from the China–SE Asia sub-continent to the south of the ocean, were rejuvenated by subduction-related orogeny; in addition, the Yanshanian intra-continental movement occurred. Three Early–Middle Jurassic molasse basins were developed by movement in Inner Mongolia, all of which stretched westwards (or northwards into Mongolia; therefore, the molasse basins in eastern and southern Mongolia had the same geometric and kinematic features as the basins in the Inner Mongolia. Owing to the collapse of the Mongolia-Okhotsk orogenic belt, a group of rift basins developed during the Late Jurassic. In eastern Mongolia, the NE orientated extensional basins were controlled by the neogenic NE-structure. The contemporary basins in southern Mongolia and the neighboring areas in China were constrained by remobilization (inherited activation of the latitudinal or ENE-directional basement structures. Three stages can be recognized in the evolution of the Early–Middle Jurassic basins after reversal; the basins also experienced four episodes of reformation.

  6. The phylogeographic system survey of native sheep breeds in the eastern and southern Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W; Chang, H; Tsunoda, K; Musa, H H; Yang, Z P; Ma, Y H; Guan, W J

    2010-08-01

    The genetic diversity and phylogenetic survey of native sheep breeds in the eastern and southern Central Asia were assessed in the present study. The clustering, principal components, structure and F statistics all demonstrate that the native sheep breeds in these regions be classified into two genetic groups: Mongolia-Tibetan sheep group and South-Southeast Asia sheep group. The Mongolia sheep group and the Tibetan sheep group had a certain degree of gene communication from the ancient times. In the present study we demonstrated that the Chinese native sheep populations belonged to Mongolia-Tibetan sheep group. However, the relationships among the sheep populations in Mongolia sheep group in China were not closely related to the geographical distance among sheep populations.

  7. Satellite-marked waterfowl reveal migratory connection between H5N1 outbreak areas in China and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, D.J.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Newman, S.H.; Yan, B.; Douglas, D.C.; Hou, Y.; Xing, Z.; Zhang, Dongxiao; Li, T.; Li, Y.; Zhao, D.; Perry, W.M.; Palm, E.C.

    2009-01-01

    The role of wild birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 has been greatly debated and remains an unresolved question. However, analyses to determine involvement of wild birds have been hindered by the lack of basic information on their movements in central Asia. Thus, we initiated a programme to document migrations of waterfowl in Asian flyways to inform hypotheses of H5N1 transmission. As part of this work, we studied migration of waterfowl from Qinghai Lake, China, site of the 2005 H5N1 outbreak in wild birds. We examined the null hypothesis that no direct migratory connection existed between Qinghai Lake and H5N1 outbreak areas in central Mongolia, as suggested by some H5N1 phylogeny studies. We captured individuals in 2007 from two of the species that died in the Qinghai Lake outbreaks and marked them with GPS satellite transmitters: Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus (n = 14) and Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (n = 11). Three of 25 marked birds (one Goose and two Shelducks) migrated to breeding grounds near H5N1 outbreak areas in Mongolia. Our results describe a previously unknown migratory link between the two regions and offer new critical information on migratory movements in the region. ?? 2009 British Ornithologists' Union.

  8. Study on Rainwater Collection Efficient of the City Hardened Ground in the Central and Western Region of Inner Mongolia%内蒙古中西部地区城市硬化地面雨水高效利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓宝; 李兴

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of water shortage and high water price in Shengle Campus of Inner Mongolia Normal University, it was proposed that, with the hardened ground as the rainwater harvesting surface and by adopting the method of reservoir storage, the rainwater could be collected, storied and utilized. Results indicated that, the precipitation of Shengle Campus mainly concentrated in May, June, July and August; strong evaporation could be seen in the rest months except in January and December; the effective precipitation in the hardened ground was above 4mm; while the annual average rainwater to be collected is 0.31 m3/m2 ,especially in August with the maximum rainwater collection of 0.17 m3/m2.%针对内蒙古师范大学盛乐校区水资源紧张、水费高的突出问题,提出采用硬化地面为集雨面、利用蓄水池储存的方法进行雨水的收集、储存与利用.结果表明,盛乐校区全年降雨量主要集中在5、6、7、8月;蒸发量除了1和12月之外,其他月份的蒸发量均较大;硬化地面有效降水量应大于4 mm;硬化地面全年平均可收集雨水为0.31 m3/m2,其中8月份最大,收集雨水约0.17 m3/m2.

  9. Public private partnership in free trade zone project of Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓拉

    2014-01-01

    Free trade zone is a commonly used method in developing countries to generate economic growth, to at ract foreign direct investment, to increase employment and to improve living conditions. The progres of Mongolian FTZ projects is far behind schedule due to lack of financial resources. This paper analyses the pos ibility of private sector participation and gives some suggestions for finding an appropriate model of private sector participation on FTZ projects in Mongolia.

  10. Geology, Topography and Soils in Naiman, Inner Mongolia, China

    OpenAIRE

    Shirato, Yasuhito; TANIYAMA, Ichiro; Zhang, Tonghui; ZHAO, Halin

    1997-01-01

    [ABSTRACT] The characteristics and distribution of soils in Naiman, Inner Mongolia were studied, Soils were classified into 3 types, which were distributed corresponding to geology and topography; loess-derived soils in the southern loess plateau, aeolian sandy soils in Horqin sandy land and alluvial soils along rivers or in inter-dune areas. It was pointed out that each type has a different type of land degradation.

  11. Prevalence of childhood asthma in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigemi Yoshihara

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The asthma prevalence in Mongolian children was higher than that in the world and Asia–Pacific countries reported by ISAAC. The higher prevalence was probably attributable to households' (especially mothers smoking in draft-free houses designed for the cold area and severe air-pollution due to rapid industrialization and urbanization in Mongolia. Smoking prohibition in the mother (including family members and a reduction of exposure to air pollutants are urgently needed to prevent developing childhood asthma.

  12. Development of Groundwater Modeling Capacity in Mongolia: Keys to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. T.; Valder, J. F.; Carter, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia, is totally dependent on groundwater for its municipal and industrial water supply. Water is drawn from a network of shallow wells in an alluvial aquifer along the Tuul River. Evidence, however, suggests that current water use and especially the projected water demand from a rapidly growing urban population, is not sustainable from existing water sources. In response, the Mongolia Ministry of Environment and the Mongolian Fresh Water Institute requested technical assistance on groundwater modeling through the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Scientists from the USGS-SD Water Science Center provided a workshop to Mongolian water experts on basic principles of groundwater modeling using MODFLOW. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together representatives from the Government of Mongolia, local universities, technical experts, and other key stakeholders to build in-country capacity in hydrogeology and groundwater modeling. A preliminary steady-state groundwater flow model was developed to simulate groundwater conditions in the Tuul River Basin and for use in water use decision-making. The model consisted of 2 layers, 226 rows, and 260 columns with uniform 500 meter grid spacing. The upper model layer represented the alluvial aquifer and the lower layer represented the underlying bedrock, which includes areas characterized by permafrost. Estimated groundwater withdrawal was 180 m3/day, and estimated recharge was 114 mm/yr. The model will be modified and updated by Mongolian scientists as more data are available. Ultimately the model will be used to assist managers in developing a sustainable water supply, for current use and changing climate scenarios. A key to success was developing in-country technical capacity and partnerships with the Mongolian University of Science and Technology, Mongolian Freshwater Institute, a non-profit organization, UNESCO, and the government of Mongolia.

  13. Status of Nature Reserves in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nature reserves are an important component of the strategy to halt biodiversity loss caused by habitat fragmentation and loss, climate change and other anthropogenic factors. In the past decades, 184 nature reserves were designed for biodiversity conservation in Inner Mongolia. However, no studies have quantified the general condition of these reserves. In this paper, we summarized the history, distribution and effects of human interference on these reserves in Inner Mongolia. The results showed that: (1 The total area of nature reserves is 138,047 km2 in Inner Mongolia. This constitutes 11.7% of its geographic area, which is lower than the national (14.9%, and the global average (13%. These reserves are mainly forest (68 and inland wetland (31 ecosystems. However, in terms of area, desert (40,948 km2, forest (26,141 km2 and inland wetland ecosystems (25,540 km2 are predominant; (2 nature reserves have increased rapidly in number and area since 1995, especially at the province, city, and county levels; (3 the evergreen coniferous (26.4%, wetland (20.2% and deciduous needle-leaf forests (19.6% were sufficiently protected according to the 2020 target of 17% set by the Convention on Biological Diversity, while the other eight natural vegetation types, i.e., evergreen broad-leaved forests (14.2%, shrubs (13.5%, meadow vegetation (12.5%, typical steppe (10.2%, open forests (8.9%, desert vegetation (6.2%, desert steppe (2.9%, and sand vegetation (1.6% were insufficiently protected; (4 the effects of human activities on these vegetation types were different. Open forest, sand vegetation, shrub, typical steppe, meadow steppe, evergreen broad-leaved, and evergreen coniferous forest were more affected than other vegetation types. Our results indicated that a more scientific approach is needed to effectively manage nature reserves in Inner Mongolia.

  14. Study on Seismic Zoning of Sino-Mongolia Arc Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G.

    2015-12-01

    According to the agreement of Cooperation on seismic zoning between Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration and Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics, Mongolian Academy of Science, the data of geotectonics, active faults, seismicity and geophysical field were collected and analyzed, then field investigation proceeded for Bolnay Faults, Ar Hutul Faults and Gobi Altay Faults, and a uniform earthquake catalogue of Mongolia and North China were established for the seismic hazard study in Sino-Mongolia arc areas. Furthermore the active faults and epicenters were mapped and 2 seismic belts and their 54 potential seismic sources are determined. Based on the data and results above mentioned the seismicity parameters for the two seismic belts and their potential sources were studied. Finally, the seismic zoning with different probability in Sino-Mongolia arc areas was carried out using China probabilistic hazard analysis method. By analyzing the data and results, we draw the following main conclusions. Firstly, the origin of tectonic stress field in the study areas is the collision and pressure of the India Plate to Eurasian Plate, passing from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This is the reason why the seismicity is higher in the west than in the east, and all of earthquakes with magnitude 8 or greater occurred in the west. Secondly, the determination of the 2 arc seismic belts, Altay seismic belt and Bolnay-Baikal seismic belt, are reasonable in terms of their geotectonic location, geodynamic origin and seismicity characteristics. Finally, there are some differences between our results and the Mongolia Intensity Zoning map published in 1985 in terms of shape of seismic zoning map, especially in the areas near Ulaanbaatar. We argue that our relsults are reasonable if we take into account the data use of recent study of active faults and their parameters, so it can be used as a reference for seismic design.

  15. Recent Situation of Taeniasis in Mongolia (2002-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Davaasuren, Anu; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Davaajav, Abmed; Agvaandaram, Gurbadam; Enkhbat, Tsatsral; Gonchigoo, Battsetseg; Dulmaa, Nyamkhuu; Chuluunbaatar, Gantigmaa; Ito, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological situation of taeniasis in Mongolia was assessed based on mitochondrial DNA identification of the parasite species. Multiplex PCR was used on a total of 194 proglottid specimens of Taenia species and copro-PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays were utilized for detection of copro-DNA of 37 fecal samples from taeniasis patients submitted to the Mongolian National Center for Communicable Diseases (NCCD) from 2002 to 2012. In addition, 4 out of 44 calcified ...

  16. Source identification of fine-grained suspended sediment in the Kharaa River basin, northern Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theuring, Philipp [Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management — ASAM, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Brückstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg (Germany); Collins, Adrian L. [Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Rode, Michael [Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management — ASAM, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Brückstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    Fine sediment inputs into river systems can be a major source of nutrients and heavy metals and have a strong impact on water quality and ecosystem functions of rivers and lakes, including those in semiarid regions. However, little is known to date about the spatial distribution of sediment sources in most large scale river basins in Central Asia. Accordingly, a sediment source fingerprinting technique was used to assess the spatial sources of fine-grained (< 10 μm) sediment in the 15 000 km{sup 2} Kharaa River basin in northern Mongolia. Variation in geochemical composition (e.g. in Ti, Sn, Mo, Mn, As, Sr, B, U, Ca and Sb) was used for sediment source discrimination with geochemical composite fingerprints based on Genetic Algorithm (GA)-driven Discriminant Function Analysis, the Kruskal–Wallis H-test and Principal Component Analysis. All composite fingerprints yielded a satisfactory GOF (> 0.97) and were subsequently used for numerical mass balance modelling with uncertainty analysis. The contributions of the individual sub-catchment spatial sediment sources varied from 6.4% (the headwater sub-catchment of Sugnugur Gol) to 36.2% (the Kharaa II sub-catchment in the middle reaches of the study basin), generally showing higher contributions from the sub-catchments in the middle, rather than the upstream, portions of the study area. The importance of river bank erosion is shown to increase from upstream to midstream tributaries. The source tracing procedure provides results in reasonable accordance with previous findings in the study region and demonstrates the applicability and associated uncertainties of the approach for fine-grained sediment source investigation in large scale semi-arid catchments. - Highlights: • Applied statistical approach for selecting composite fingerprints in Mongolia. • Geochemical fingerprinting for the definition of source areas in semiarid catchment. • Test of applicability of sediment sourcing in large scale semi-arid catchments

  17. Implications of (reworked) aeolian sediments and paleosols for Holocene environmental change in Western Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinge, Michael; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Schulte, Philipp; Hülle, Daniela; Nottebaum, Veit

    2017-09-01

    In the semi-arid to semi-humid regions of western Mongolia four different geomorphological aeolian and fluvial archives were investigated in order to gain environmental information of landscape evolution during the late glacial and the Holocene. These archives, which contain aeolian deposits, fluvial sediments, and paleosols, are situated upon glacial moraines, fluvial terraces, floodplains, or mountain slopes. While radiometric dating provides information about the age of the sediment and paleosols, grain size and element distribution provide information about the sediment source and soil development. Extensive aeolian sediment transport occurred from 17 to 10 ka during the late glacial when climate was cold and dry. Since that period the developing steppe and alpine meadow vegetation served as a dust trap. During the warm and wet early to mid-Holocene sediment transport was reduced under a dense vegetation cover. All paleosols of the investigated archives show late Holocene ages which point to an environmental turning point around 3 ka. Since then, the Neoglacial period started with cooler climate conditions and periglacial processes intensified again. Recognizable glacier advances occurred during the Little Ice Age several centuries ago. Since then, global climate change leads to warmer and more arid conditions. During the late Holocene, a new period of strong geomorphological activity started and huge quantities of aeolian, colluvial and fluvial sediment accumulated. These intensified soil relocation processes cannot be explained exclusively by climate change because there are no explicit indications found in the palynological and lacustrine records of Mongolia. This discrepancy suggests that the additional factor of human impact has to be considered, which amplified the climate signal on the landscape. Simultaneously, when the enhanced geomorphological processes occurred, the prehistoric people changed from hunting and gathering to livestock husbandry. A first

  18. An equity tool for health impact assessments: Reflections from Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Jeremy, E-mail: jeremycsnyder@sfu.ca [Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Wagler, Meghan, E-mail: meghanwagler@gmail.com [Department of Health, Enkhtaivan Street, Building 13b, Suukhbaatar District, First Khoroo, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Lkhagvasuren, Oyun, E-mail: l_oyun2002@yahoo.com [Department of Health, Enkhtaivan Street, Building 13b, Suukhbaatar District, First Khoroo, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Laing, Lory, E-mail: lory.laing@ualberta.ca [School of Public Health, University of Alberta, 3-50E University Terrace, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2T4 (Canada); Davison, Colleen, E-mail: cmdaviso@ucalgary.ca [Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, 2nd and 3rd Floors, Carruthers Hall, Queen& #x27; s University Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Janes, Craig, E-mail: craigj@sfu.ca [Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    A health impact assessment (HIA) is a tool for assessing the potential effects of a project or policy on a population's health. In this paper, we discuss a tool for successfully integrating equity concerns into HIAs. This discussion is the product of collaboration by Mongolian and Canadian experts, and it incorporates comments and suggestions of participants of a workshop on equity focused HIAs that took place in Mongolia in October, 2010. Our motivation for discussing this tool is based on the observation that existing HIAs tend either to fail to define equity or use problematic accounts of this concept. In this paper we give an overview of socio-demographic and health indicators in Mongolia and briefly discuss its mining industry. We then review three accounts of equity and argue for the importance of developing a consensus understanding of this concept when integrating considerations of equity into an HIA. Finally, we present findings from the workshop in Mongolia and outline a tool, derived from lessons from this workshop, for critically considering and integrating the concept of equity into an HIA.

  19. Foreign powers competition in the mining sector of Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodionov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is about the issue of Mongolia cooperation with foreign companies playing an important role in its foreign policy strategy and national security. At the beginning of the 1990s, having proclaimed a “multipillar” policy strategy in relations with the world, Ulaanbaatar tends to follow it in the economic cooperation not willing to give any preference to any country. It creates a situation of competition between foreign companies backed by their states, especially such great powers as Russia, China, the USA. The most tense moment in the struggle for the influence in Mongolia is the rivalry betw een the different discourses, pretending the exclusive right to nominate the most effective model of cooperation between Mongolia and foreign states in the ore-mining industry. Among the most well-defined discourses, there are three of them. China prefers to define the discourse of “economic feasibility”. Western states, as a rule, tend to rely on the discourse of “values community”, which includes such concepts as “democracy”, “environmentally friendly”, “transparency” Russia often uses the “geopolitical” discourse. In spite of the attractiveness and relative effectiveness of the discourse selected by Russia, there are certain limits to its use.

  20. The Remediation Mode for the Polluted Land in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xijun; YAO; Yanyu; ZHANG; Zhiyong; WANG; Yingying; SUI

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the method of contaminated soil remediation technologies at home and abroad,analyzes the soil restoration situation in Inner Mongolia,and puts forward some suggestions on the development direction of soil repair industry for Inner Mongolia.The research methods of this article include literature review,summarization of data,comparison and analysis,and generalization and summarization.The soil restoration has made certain achievements in Inner Mongolia in recent years.But the technical level and policy level are still very imperfect,having not reached the national average.Some recommendations are proposed.The first is to improve soil repair local laws,regulations and technical standards.The second is to increase investment in scientific research in the field of soil restoration,and the introduction of new technology,to encourage independent innovation.The third is to fix soil combined with related industrial projects and avoid redundant construction.The last one is to intensify propaganda to improve public consciousness of the soil pollution prevention and control.

  1. Seroprevalence survey of brucellosis among rural people in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selenge Tsend

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: After the transition from socialism to a market economy in 1990, human brucellosis re-emerged in Mongolia. The aim of our study was to estimate a representative seroprevalence of Brucella spp. and to determine risk factors for brucellosis seropositivity among rural people. Methods: A cross-sectional study with multistage random selection was conducted in eight provinces of Mongolia. Study participants were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain their brucellosis history, current symptoms and likely risk factors. Blood samples were drawn to determine brucellosis seroprevalence. Results: A total of 2856 randomly selected rural people aged four to 90 years were enrolled in the study. The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. was 11.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.0–12.1, ranging between 2.3% and 22.6% in the eight provinces; 39.2% (n = 609 of nomadic camps had at least one seropositive participant. Risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity were being older than 45 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.9, 95% CI = 5.1–8.7 and being a veterinarian (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.5–5.0. Conclusion: Our study confirms that human brucellosis seroprevalence among rural people in Mongolia is high. Human brucellosis can be effectively controlled if high-coverage livestock mass vaccination is implemented with a coverage survey after the vaccinations to ensure completeness. This mass vaccination should be accompanied by public awareness and educational programmes.

  2. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions from an Inner Mongolia grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianhui; Baker, Bradly; Liang, Baosheng; Greenberg, James; Guenther, Alex

    Terpenoid emissions were measured at a grassland site in Inner Mongolia, China during four campaigns over a 2-year period. Emissions were strongly correlated with light and temperature and the variations could be simulated using a canopy emission model. Substantial seasonal and interannual variations in isoprene emissions were also observed. Area averaged isoprene emissions normalized to standard above-canopy temperature and light conditions (30 °C and 1500 μmol m -2 s -1) ranged from about 50 to 500 μg m -2 h -1. These rates are more than an order of magnitude higher than those previously reported for temperate grasslands but are lower than emission rates observed from ground cover vegetation at higher latitudes. Isoprene emissions from this Inner Mongolia grassland may be dominated by emissions from sedges, e.g. Carex appendiculata. Total monoterpene emissions normalized to a standard temperature of 30 °C were only about 3 μg m -2 h -1 and consisted primarily of carene and limonene with smaller contributions of α-pinene and β-pinene. A model sensitivity study showed that grass and other herbaceous ground cover can contribute >10% of the total isoprene emission from certain regions, such as Inner Mongolia, but are<4% on a global annual scale.

  3. Recent situation of taeniasis in Mongolia (2002-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaasuren, Anu; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Davaajav, Abmed; Agvaandaram, Gurbadam; Enkhbat, Tsatsral; Gonchigoo, Battsetseg; Dulmaa, Nyamkhuu; Chuluunbaatar, Gantigmaa; Ito, Akira

    2014-04-01

    Epidemiological situation of taeniasis in Mongolia was assessed based on mitochondrial DNA identification of the parasite species. Multiplex PCR was used on a total of 194 proglottid specimens of Taenia species and copro-PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays were utilized for detection of copro-DNA of 37 fecal samples from taeniasis patients submitted to the Mongolian National Center for Communicable Diseases (NCCD) from 2002 to 2012. In addition, 4 out of 44 calcified cysts in beef kept in formalin since 2003 were evaluated for histopathological confirmation of cattle cysticercosis. All proglottid specimens and stool samples were confirmed to be Taenia saginata by multiplex PCR and by copro-PCR and LAMP, respectively. Cysts collected from cattle were morphologically confirmed to be metacestodes of Taenia species. T. saginata taeniasis was identified from almost all ages from a 2-year-old boy up to a 88-year-old woman and most prominently in 15-29 age group (37%, 74/198) followed by 30-44 age group (34.8%, 69/198 ) from 15 of Mongolia's 21 provinces, while cattle cysticerci were found from 12 provinces. The highest proportion of taeniasis patients was in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia.

  4. Developing a Science-based River Basin Management Plan for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthe, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The Kharaa River Basin (KRB), which is located north of Mongolia's capital Ulaanbaatar and south of Lake Baikal, was chosen as a model region for the development and implementation of an integrated water resources management consisting of a monitoring concept, technical measures and a capacity development program (Karthe et al. 2012a). The basin of the Kharaa River covers an area of 14534 km² that is partly mountaineous and largely covered by taiga and steppe. At its outlet, the 362 km Kharaa River has a mean long-term annual discharge of 12.1 m³/s (MoMo Consortium 2009). A highly continental climate results in limited water resources, and rising water consumption coupled with the effects of climate and land use change may in the future exacerbate this water scarcity (Malsy et al. 2012; Karthe et al. 2013). Whereas the environment in the upper part of the catchment is in a relatively pristine state, the mid- and downstream sections of the river are characterized by nearby industry, mining activities and intensive agriculture (Menzel et al. 2011), resulting in declining water quality and ultimately a degradation of aquatic ecosystems (Hofmann et al. 2010; Hartwig et al. 2012). Moreover, it is a problem for the supply of major cities like Darkhan which largely rely on alluvial aquifers containing shallow-depth groundwater (Mun et al. 2008). Currently, there are alarming signs of water quality deterioration. With regard to water provision, a major problem is the poor state of distribution infrastructures which were often built in the 1960s and 70s (Scharaw & Westerhoff 2011). Rather little is currently known about the water quality supplied to end users; the latter is even more dubious in the city's informal ger districts (Karthe et al. 2012b). One important goal of the research and development project "Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Model Region Mongolia" lies in the implementation of a holistic concept for water resources monitoring and

  5. The Changing Nature of Work in Mongolia (1989-2003): Potential, Informal and Migrant Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dashtseren (Ariunaa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe transition and post-transition processes in Mongolia since 1989 have brought work insecurity to Mongolia. This research aimed at understanding diverse and complex urban livelihoods which emerged after the collapse of socialism, the evolving labour market, and increased migration. Des

  6. Inner Mongolia Wunugetu Copper & Molybdenum Mine Launched into Full-load Trial Run

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Recently,the Inner Mongolia Wunugetu Moun-tain Copper and Molybdenum Mine officially entered full load trial operation stage.This Pro-ject is constructed by Inner Mongolia MiningCo Ltd under the China National Gold GroupCorporation with an initial investment of

  7. Why Portfolio Assessment is Introduced to Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘若芸

    2004-01-01

    The concept of portfolio assessment derived from the field of fine arts. It has been proven an effective learning and assessment tool. In Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, the traditional assessment is still used. After analysing the benefits and disadvantages, the author is eager to introduce it to Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology. The problems are also predicted.

  8. Inner Mongolia raised the access threshold for heavy metal related industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>According to the‘"Twelfth Five Year"Plan of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region for Integrated Prevention&Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution’printed and distributed by the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Development and Reform Commission,during the"Twelfth Five Year Plan"period,the major heavy metal

  9. A Lead Smelting Project to Open in Inner Mongolia at the End of 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Inner Mongolia is one of key lead-zinc producing areas of China. According to statistics of China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association, between January and October 2010,lead concentrate output of Inner Mongolia amounted to 344,900tons

  10. PREGNANCY AND PERINATAL HEALTH, INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA, DECEMBER 1996-DECEMBER 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy and Perinatal Health, Inner Mongolia, China, December 1996- December 1999Subtitle: Pregnancy and Perinatal Health, Inner Mongolia, ChinaAuthors: Z. Liu1, D.T. Lobdell2, L. He1, M. Yang1, R. Kwok2, J. Mumford2Affiliations:1 Ba Men Anti-Epidemic Station, ...

  11. Sharing Global Musics: A Multimedia View of the Music of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitener, John L.

    2017-01-01

    The author, John Whitener, traveled to Mongolia, "the land of blue sky," in the summer of 2013 and again in summer of 2016. Mongolia is a land of awe-inspiring geography, similar in many respects to the wilds of Alaska. Approximately half the country's population has migrated to Ulaan-Baatar and other urban areas because of harsh winters…

  12. The Changing Nature of Work in Mongolia (1989-2003): Potential, Informal and Migrant Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dashtseren (Ariunaa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe transition and post-transition processes in Mongolia since 1989 have brought work insecurity to Mongolia. This research aimed at understanding diverse and complex urban livelihoods which emerged after the collapse of socialism, the evolving labour market, and increased migration. Des

  13. Supporting the Establishment of Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods in Mongolia with EO Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Nuno; Patinha, Carla; Sainkhuu, Tserendash; Bataa, Mendbayar; Doljinsuren, Nyamdorj

    2016-08-01

    The work presented here shows the results from the project "Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods in Mongolia", included in the EOTAP (Earth Observation for a Transforming Asia Pacific) initiative, a collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB), developed in cooperation with the Ministry of Food and Agriculture of Mongolia.The EO services developed within this EOTAP project primarily aimed at enriching the existing environmental database maintained by the National Remote Sensing Center (NRSC) in Mongolia and sustaining the collaborative pasture management practices introduced by the teams within the Ministry of Food and Agriculture of Mongolia. The geographic area covered by the EOTAP services is Bayankhongor province, in western Mongolia region, with two main services: drought monitoring at the provincial level for the year 2014 and Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) and changes mapping for three districts of this province (Buutsagaan, Dzag and Khureemaral) for the years 2013, 2014.

  14. Monitoring of Permafrost in the Hovsgol Mountain Region, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkhuu, A.; Natsagdorj, S.; Etzelmuller, B.; Heggem, E. S.; Nelson, F. E.; Shiklomanov, N.; Goulden, C.

    2005-12-01

    The Hovsgol Mountain Region is located between the coordinates of N 49°-52° and E 98°-102 ° in territory of Hovsgol Province, Mongolia. The territory is characterized by mountain permafrost, sporadic to continuous in its distribution, and occupies the southern fringe of the Siberian continuous permafrost zone. The main goal of permafrost monitoring in the region is to study recent degradation of permafrost under the influence of climate warming and human activities. Monitoring of permafrost is conducted within the framework of the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) and the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) programs. The main parameters being monitored are active layer depth and mean annual permafrost temperature at the level of the zero annual amplitude. Long-term CALM and GTN-P programs are based on ground temperature measurements in shallow to deep boreholes. Each borehole for monitoring is installed using instrumentation designed specifically to protect against air convection in them. Temperature measurements in the boreholes are made using identical thermo-resistors at corresponding depths, and carried out on the same dates each year. In addition, temperature dataloggers and thaw tubes are installed in most of the boreholes. At present, there are eight long-term (15-35 years) CALM and GTN-P active borehole sites. Boreholes are located in the Sharga valley (southwest), Burehkhan and Hovsgol phosphorite areas and Hatgal village (central part of the region) and in the Darhad depression. Initial results of the long term monitoring show that average rates of increase in active layer depth and mean annual permafrost temperature under influence of recent climate warming in the Hovsgol Mountain Region are 5-15 cm and 0.15-0.25°C per decade, respectively. The rate of permafrost degradation in bedrock is greater than in unconsolidated sediments, in ice-poor sediments more than ice-rich ones, and on north-facing slopes more than on south

  15. Seroprevalence survey of brucellosis among rural people in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljinnyam, Zolzaya; Suuri, Bujinlkham; Dashbal, Enkhbayar; Oidov, Baatarkhuu; Roth, Felix; Zinstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Dambadarjaa, Davaalkham

    2014-01-01

    Background After the transition from socialism to a market economy in 1990, human brucellosis re-emerged in Mongolia. The aim of our study was to estimate a representative seroprevalence of Brucella spp. and to determine risk factors for brucellosis seropositivity among rural people. Methods A cross-sectional study with multistage random selection was conducted in eight provinces of Mongolia. Study participants were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain their brucellosis history, current symptoms and likely risk factors. Blood samples were drawn to determine brucellosis seroprevalence. Results A total of 2856 randomly selected rural people aged four to 90 years were enrolled in the study. The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. was 11.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.0–12.1), ranging between 2.3% and 22.6% in the eight provinces; 39.2% (n = 609) of nomadic camps had at least one seropositive participant. Risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity were being older than 45 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.9, 95% CI = 5.1–8.7) and being a veterinarian (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.5–5.0). Conclusion Our study confirms that human brucellosis seroprevalence among rural people in Mongolia is high. Human brucellosis can be effectively controlled if high-coverage livestock mass vaccination is implemented with a coverage survey after the vaccinations to ensure completeness. This mass vaccination should be accompanied by public awareness and educational programmes. PMID:25685600

  16. Prevalence of childhood asthma in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Shigemi; Munkhbayarlakh, Sonomjants; Makino, Sohei; Ito, Clyde; Logii, Narantsetseg; Dashdemberel, Sarangerel; Sagara, Hironori; Fukuda, Takeshi; Arisaka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a common but important chronic disease in children in all over the world. To take measures against prevalence of childhood asthma, many researchers have surveyed the actual statuses of childhood asthma in developed countries, but in most Asia-Pacific developing countries including Mongolia such surveys have never been sufficiently conducted until now. We have thought that this survey, though performed in 2009, will give important and meaningful information even now in taking measures to prevent prevailing bronchial asthma in children in Mongolia or the countries under similar statuses. The asthma prevalence and patient background information in Mongolian children aged 6-7 living in Ulaanbaatar were examined using a written questionnaire modified for their parents from that prepared by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). The estimated prevalence of asthma in Mongolian children was 20.9%. The following 3 risk factors were found to be related to asthma: (1) having allergic rhinitis symptoms, (2) mothers' smoking, and (3) history of severe respiratory infection before 1-year-old. The asthma prevalence in Mongolian children was higher than that in the world and Asia-Pacific countries reported by ISAAC. The higher prevalence was probably attributable to households' (especially mothers) smoking in draft-free houses designed for the cold area and severe air-pollution due to rapid industrialization and urbanization in Mongolia. Smoking prohibition in the mother (including family members) and a reduction of exposure to air pollutants are urgently needed to prevent developing childhood asthma. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid autonomous generation systems in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dei, Tsutomu; Ushiyama, Izumi

    2005-01-01

    Two hybrid stand-alone (autonomous) power systems, each with wind and PV generation, were studied as installed at health clinics in semi-desert and mountainous region in Mongolia. Meteorological and system operation parameters, including power output and the consumption of the system, were generally monitored by sophisticated monitoring. However, where wind and solar site information was lacking, justifiable estimates were made. The results show that there is a seasonal complementary relationship between wind and solar irradiation in Tarot Sum. The users understood the necessity of Demand Side Management of isolated wind-PV generation system through technology transfer seminars and actually executed DSM at both sites. (author)

  18. Temperature and precipitation in Mongolia based on dendroclimatic investigations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. Jacoby; N. Pederson; R. D'Arrigo

    2003-01-01

    Recent tree-ring studies in Mongolia provide evidence of unusual warming that is in agreement with large-scale reconstructed and recorded temperaturesfor the Northern Hemisphere and the Arctic. One Mongolian proxy record for temperature extends back over 1000 years and several others are over 350 years in length. Precipitation reconstructions based on tree rings reflect recent increasesbut also indicate that the increases are within the long-term range of variations. Spectral analyses of recorded precipitation data and the reconstructions support the hypotheses of quasi-solar periodicity in precipitation variation, previously suggested by others.

  19. Geotechnical problems of construction on permafrost in Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Dashjamts; Z. Binderya; J. Altantsetseg

    2013-01-01

    Permafrost is found on 63%of the territory of Mongolia. This paper provides evidence that the main influences on per-mafrost formation are meso and micro factors of climate and geographical location. Regional classifications of permafrost areas in order to select the optimal principle of foundation design on permafrost are suggested based on many years’ ex-perience and lessons learned from past construction works in Mongolian geotechnical and climatic conditions. Finally, optimal alternatives for designing foundations for construction on permafrost are presented based on the specific charac-teristics of permafrost in the classification areas and certain building dimensions.

  20. Scientific Wealth of Mongolia on a Global Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazar tser en Boldgiv

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to objectively evaluate the scientific wealth of Mongolia as a nation, by analyzing journal publications by Mongolian scientists recorded in the ISI database. Publications by Mongolian authors for the period of 1979-2002 were included for analyses. Although the total number of publications has increased for the given period, there was no significant increase in the relative citation impact or RCI. Changes of publication quality as measured by RCI showed dif ferent trends for various scientific fields. Publications in clinical medicine and biology show most positive trend, whereas publications in mathematics and physics declined in quality. All the fields are well below the world’ s total publication quality for a comparable period. Additionally , percentage of papers by Mongolian senior authors has declined (though the trend is not significant. This is a rather disturbing trend given the fact that the number of researchers with a doctor ’s degree in the country has greatly increased during the same period of time. Quality of publications by Mongolian first authors and only Mongolian authors were significantly lower than collaborative ones. As far as we are aware, this is the first evaluation of scientific wealth of Mongolia as a whole and it is hoped that it would be helpful to policy-making and scientific communities in prioritizing and determining the direction of support and finance.

  1. Impacts of Future Grassland Changes on Surface Climate in Mongolia

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    Fan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change caused by land use/cover change (LUCC is becoming a hot topic in current global change, especially the changes caused by the grassland degradation. In this paper, based on the baseline underlying surface data of 1993, the predicted underlying surface data which can be derived through overlaying the grassland degradation information to the map of baseline underlying surface, and the atmospheric forcing data of RCP 6.0 from CMIP5, climatological changes caused by future grassland changes for the years 2010–2020 and 2040–2050 with the Weather Research Forecast model (WRF are simulated. The model-based analysis shows that future grassland degradation will significantly result in regional climate change. The grassland degradation in future could lead to an increasing trend of temperature in most areas and corresponding change range of the annual average temperature of −0.1°C–0.4°C, and it will cause a decreasing trend of precipitation and corresponding change range of the annual average precipitation of 10 mm–50 mm. This study identifies lines of evidence for effects of future grassland degradation on regional climate in Mongolia which provides meaningful decision-making information for the development and strategy plan making in Mongolia.

  2. Bat Diversity at Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

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    Hannah S. Davie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bats represent one of the least studied mammal groups in Mongolia, and little is known about the distribution and ecology of species in the country. We surveyed bats in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, which lies at the intersection of two ecozones in Mongolia, to determine the species present and obtain preliminary data on habitat associations. We conducted mist net surveys at 9 sites, including 4 at natural springs, 2 at human-made wells, and 3 at sites without water, from June to August 2011. We captured 149 individuals representing 3 species, Myotis aurascens, Eptesicus gobiensis, and Vespertilio sp. One species, E. gobiensis , represents a new record for the reserve. We captured all three species at sites near natural springs, only one species, M. aurascens, at human-made well sites, and no bats at sites without water. We also collected basic morphometric measurements for M. aurascens and E. gobiensis . Analysis of morphometric measurements for M. aurascens indicated some sexual dimorphisms. Our results provide a baseline estimate of bats in Ikh Nart and suggest that bat diversity is greater than previously thought. Our results also validate the presence of E. gobiensis and suggest that the species we captured associate mainly with natural water sources.

  3. POLITIK ISLAM MONGOLIA: MENCERMATI STRATEGI EKSPANSI TIMUR LENK

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    M. Hadi Masruri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper discusses Timur Lenk who is ambitious to dominate the world through the founding of the great Mongol Empire as a mission ever launched by the grandchildren of Genghis Khan and Hulagu Khan. Timur Lenk himself continued the tradition of the Mongolian invasion force that is not forcing religion or spiritual practices to a conquered nation; they even build the conquest countries with the principle of regionalism. Even, in the end, the King of Mongolia turned to Islam, including Timur Lenk himself at the end of the 13th century and early 14th century. Then Mongolism Ideology becomes a major platform in conquering the entire countries with the royal and military strength. There are two basic frameworks of the Mongolian nation in its military power expansion, as the one done by Timur Lenk: first, the geneolis theory: the world hegemony to perpetuate the Mongol Empire using military force and running the ancient absolutism politic believing that the greater authority of the ruler could result on achieving peace and security. Second, attack and defend theory: rebuilding a country that has been destroyed with luxurious infrastructures like an extraordinary magnificent palace, developing science, history, Sufism and then try to defend them. Keywords: Mongolia, Timur Lenk, Jenghiz Khan

  4. Factors Contributing to Foreign Direct Investment in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariunzul Javzandorj

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, globalization has led to a rapid increase in the growth of foreign direct investment (FDI all over the world. Mongolia for more than a decade has been in the process of radical transformation and has taken significant steps to build a market-based economic structure. Foreign Direct Investment plays a very important role in achieving rapid economic growth in the developing countries. This can be achieved by taking advantage of available mobilizing domestic savings, foreign capital, technology transfers, establishment of new premises and favorable foreign policies It is now widely acknowledged that FDI has potential benefits that can accrue to developing countries. This view is mainly based on the neo liberal and development economists. They suggest that FDI is crucial for economic growth as it provides the much needed capital for investment, increases competition in host countries economies, and helps local firms to become more productive by adopting more efficient technology or by investing in human or physical capital [1]. FDI is also said to contribute to growth in a substantive manner because it’s more stable than other forms of capital flows. This paper investigates the key drivers of foreign direct investment (FDI in Mongolia.

  5. AB38. Microorganisms in Chronic prostatitis in outpatient clinic Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samdankhuu, Khongorzul; Sanjmyatav, Purevjal; Damiran, Naransukh; Naidan, Nansalmaa

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent years, morbidity of chronic prostatis is increasing in Mongolia. Most common cause of the chronic prostatis is Non-Gonococcal Urethritis (NGU) such as chlamydia trachomatis, mycoplasma hominis, mycoplasma genitalium, ureaplasma urealyticum and ureaplasma parvum or mixed infections. Purpose The purpose of the study was to research possible relationships between signs or symptoms of the chronic prostatitis and its cause. Method A total of 466 males who have possible signs of chronic prostatitis were enrolled in the study. All patients were checked for urinalysis and expressed prostate secretion (EPS) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of EPS detection for neisser a gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, mycoplasma hominis, mycoplasma genitalium, ureaplasma urealyticum and ureaplasma parvum at an outpatient center of andrology office, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Results Two hundred and eighty three of all participants have positive PCR results. Mean age of in our study was 33.1±8 years. U. realyticum was the most common (48.6%), followed by M. hominis and C. trachomatis mixed infection. In Mach, April and August were highest episodes of morbidity were registered 16.2%, 11.69% and 10.71%. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome and lower urinary tract symptoms were the most common complaints of main reason to visit outpatient clinic. Conclusions U. urealyticum was most common infection detected by PCR analyses among men who have chronic prostatitis, who have chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Further research is needed to determine if there are associations between signs or symptoms and cause of the chronic prostatis.

  6. Outcomes of a faculty development conference in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A Kroeker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical Education International (MEI, an organization that provides faculty development to medical educators in developing countries, wanted information on the program effectiveness of its faculty development conferences. Objectives: To assess the outcomes of an MEI faculty development conference in Mongolia on the knowledge, confidence in applying new skills, and attitudes of participants. Methods: A retrospective pretest survey of participants was used to assess the outcomes of a 3-day faculty development conference given twice at the Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences. The survey assessed participant views on their ability to meet the objectives of the conference, the perceived overall value of the conference, and their suggestions for improvements in future MEI conferences. Results: Twenty participants (65% completed surveys. Participants reported significant changes in agreement with their ability to meet the objectives of the conference in all of the pre-post measures (pre-post p<0.001. The value of attending the conference was ranked at a mean score of 4.05 on a Likert scale from 1 to 5, with 1 indicating “Strongly Disagree” and 5 “Strongly Agree.” Conference attendees indicated interest in additional training on more advanced topics. Conclusion: Overall, the findings indicate that conference attendees gained knowledge and confidence in applying new skills and valued the training received from a faculty development conference led by physicians from the USA. Further research is needed to determine long-term impact on residency education in Mongolia.

  7. Ice nucleation, shape, and composition of aerosol particles in one of the most polluted cities in the world: Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenkopf, Christa A.; Veghte, Daniel P.; Schill, Gregory P.; Lodoysamba, Sereeter; Freedman, Miriam Arak; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2016-08-01

    Air pollution is attributable to 7 million deaths per year, or one out of every eight deaths globally. In particular, high concentrations of particulate matter (PM), a major air pollutant, have significant impacts on health and regional climate in urban centers. Many of the most polluted places, largely in developing countries, go severely understudied. Additionally, high particulate matter levels can have an impact on the microphysical properties of clouds, impacting precipitation and regional climate. Semi-arid regions can be especially affected by small changes in precipitation. Here we characterize the physical and chemical properties of PM in one of the most PM-polluted cities in the world: Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, a semi-arid region in central Asia. Twice monthly aerosol samples were collected over 10 months from a central location and analyzed for composition and ice nucleation activity. Almost all particles collected were inhalable, consisting primarily of mineral dust, soot, and sulfate-organic. In winter, all classes of PM increase in concentration, with increased sulfur concentrations, and the particles are less active towards heterogeneous ice nucleation. In addition, concurrent monthly average PM10, SO2, NOx, and O3 levels and meteorological data at a nearby location are reported and made publicly available. These measurements provide an unprecedented seasonal characterization of the size, shape, chemical structure, and ice nucleating activity of PM data from Ulaanbaatar. This 10-month field study, exploring a variety of aerosol properties in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, is one of very few such studies conducted in the region or in such a highly polluted environment. The results of this study may inform work done in other similarly situated and polluted cities in Asia and elsewhere.

  8. Evolutionary History of the Genus Capsella (Brassicaceae - Capsella orientalis , New for Mongolia

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    Barbara Neuffer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the evolutionary history of the genus Capsella , we included the hitherto poorly known species C. orientalis and C. thracica into our studies together with C. grandifl ora , C. rubella , and C. bursa-pastoris . We sequenced the ITS, and four loci of noncoding cpDNA regions (trnL – F, rps16, trnH – psbA, trnQ – rps16. In common garden fi eld experiments C. orientalis turned out as early fl owering with a specifi c leaf type. The crossing ability of the species was tested in pollen germination experiments. Capsella orientalis (self-compatible, SC; 2n = 16 forms a clade (eastern lineage with C . bursa-pastoris (SC; 2n = 32, which is a sister clade (western lineage to C. grandifl ora (self-incompatible, SI; 2n = 16 and C. rubella (SC; 2n = 16. Capsella bursa-pastoris is an autopolyploid species of multiple origin, whereas the Bulgarian endemic C. thracica (SC; 2n = 32 is allopolyploid and emerged from interspecifi c hybridisation between C. bursa-pastoris and C. grandifl ora . The common ancestor of the two lineages was diploid and SI, and its distribution ranged from eastern Europe to central Asia, predominantly confi ned to steppe like habitats. Biogeographic dynamics during the Pleistocene caused geographic and genetic subdivisions within the common ancestor giving rise to the two extant lineages. Capsella orientalis is verifi ed at several positions in western Mongolia.

  9. Risk of tuberculosis during pregnancy in Mongolia, a high incidence setting with low HIV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, N L; Batjargal, N; Jadambaa, N; Dobler, C C

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the epidemiology and the relative risk of tuberculosis (TB) in pregnant women in Mongolia, a high TB incidence setting with a low rate of human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, where active case finding for TB in pregnancy is implemented. We retrospectively collected data on pregnant women diagnosed with TB during 2013. Data were collected through doctors at central TB dispensaries who extracted the relevant information from patients' clinical records. The overall incidence of TB among pregnant women was 228 (95%CI 187276) per 100000 person-years, resulting in an incidence rate ratio of 1.31 (95%CI 1.081.59) in pregnant women compared to the general population. Twelve per cent of the pregnant women with TB chose to have an abortion. In this study, pregnant women had a 1.3-fold higher risk of developing TB than the general population. Based on a moderately increased risk of TB during pregnancy in our study and the potential for adverse health outcomes, TB screening among pregnant women can currently be justified, but the cost-effectiveness of this intervention remains unclear. Patients and doctors need to be educated about the safety of standard TB treatment in pregnancy to reduce the rate of abortions.

  10. Yanshan, Gaoshan-Two Active Volcanoes of the Volcanic Cluster in Arshan, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Zhida; Tian Mingzhong; Wu Fadong; Xu Debing; Li Tuanjie

    2005-01-01

    The volcanic cluster in Arshan, Inner Mongolia, is located in the west of the middle section of the Da Hinggan Mountains. There are more than forty Cenozoic volcanoes among which the Yanshan Volcano and Gaoshan Volcano are the active ones in broad sense and basaltic central vents. Arshan is a newly found volcanic active region in the Chinese continent. The volcanoes are perfectly preserved and composed of cinder cones, pyroclastic sheets and lava flows. Their cones are grand and the Gaoshan cone is about 362m high, and the depth of the Yanshan crater is about 140m. The pyroclastic sheet is mainly made up of scoria, and the distribution area of scoria with thickness more than 1m is about 27km2. There are two Carbonized-wood sites in the pyroclastic sheet and the 14C datings indicate ages of 1990 ± 100a B. P and 1900 ±70a B. P, which are rectified by dendrodating. Basaltic lava flows are uncovered, and they change from pahoehoe in the early stage to aa in the later stage. There are lots of perfect fumarolic cones, fumarolic dishes and lava tumulus in the front zones. The spread of lava flow is controlled by the local topography and its main body flowed northwestwards covering the Holocene rivers and swamp deposits and blocked up the Halahahe river and its branches to create six lava-dam lakes. For these distinguishing features, Arshan volcanic cluster could be called another natural "Volcano Museum".

  11. Emplacement age and tectonic implications of the Xilinhot A-type granite in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Guanghai; MIAO Laicheng; ZHANG Fuqing; JIAN Ping; FAN Weiming; LIU Dunyi

    2004-01-01

    A new rock type of granite, approximate 45 km2 in area and located about 10 km south of Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, was found in the Sunitezuoqi (or called Suzuoqi)-Xilinhot tectonic belt and identified as an A-type mia- rolitic intrusion. The pluton has miarolitic structure and is composed chiefly of perthite, quartz, euhedral albite and potassium feldspar. Various types of textures occur in the pluton, such as perthitie, graphic and myrmekite textures. Only quartz is found in miarolitic cavity. This A-type granite with seagull-shaped REE patterns and obvious negative Eu anomaly (δEu = 0.24-0.28) is high in SiO2 (76%-77%), K and Na (Na2O + K2O = 7.75%-8.15%) and low in Ca (CaO = 0.20%-0.22%), Fe and Mg. Both petrographical observations and chemical compositions indicate that it is an A-type granite. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb analyses indicate that this A-type granite was emplaced at 276 ( 2 Ma and coeval with the same type of granites in the adjacent areas. Therefore, it suggests that this pluton was likely formed in a post-orogenic extensional setting and probably related to break-off of subducted slabs in Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), which indicate that the Sunitezuoqi-Xilinhot belt was tectonically evolved into post-orogenic stage since early Permian.

  12. Argali Sheep (Ovis ammon Movement Corridors Between Critical Resources in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

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    James D. Murdoch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how animals move through a landscape can reveal corridors or narrow paths of movement that connect discrete parts of a landscape. Identifying corridors can be important for planning conservation activities, especially for threatened species. We synthesized information on the ranging behavior and distribution of argali sheep to quantify linkages and potential pinch points of movement between critical resources in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia. We used a cost-weighted distance approach to quantify the relative cost of movement between water sources (springs, which represent critical resources. We used values to map a corridor of movement and examined movement fl ow through the corridor using a circuit theory approach. We identifi ed a corridor connecting all springs that covered 50.6 km2 . Most of the corridor overlapped the reserve (77% and reserve’s core area (62%. A least-cost path between the furthest separated springs (18 km was 26.4 km. Most movement fl ow through the corridor concentrated around springs, especially those in the southern and central portions of the corridor. The analysis also revealed several pinch points that represent a conservation concern. We recommend prioritizing activities at pinch points and extending protected area boundaries to encompass all springs to eff ectively protect the entire corridor.

  13. Reconnaissance survey of the Duolun ring structure in Inner Mongolia: Not an impact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Kenkmann, Thomas; Xiao, Zhiyong; Sturm, Sebastian; Metzger, Nicolai; Yang, Yu; Weimer, Daniela; Krietsch, Hannes; Zhu, Meng-Hua

    2017-09-01

    The Duolun basin, which is located in Inner Mongolia, China, has been proposed to be an impact structure with an apparent rim diameter of about 70, or even 170 km. The designation as an impact structure was based on its nearly circular topography, consisting of an annular moat that surrounds an inner hummocky region, and the widespread occurrences of various igneous rocks, polymict breccias, and deformed crustal rocks. Critical shock metamorphic evidence is not available to support the impact hypothesis. We conducted two independent reconnaissance field surveys to this area and studied the lithology both within and outside of the ring structure. We collected samples from all lithologies that might contain evidence of shock metamorphism as suggested by their locations, especially those sharing similar appearances with impact breccias, suevites, impact melt rocks, and shatter cones. Field investigation, together with thin-section examination, discovered that the suspected impact melt rocks are actually Early Cretaceous and Late Jurassic lava flows and pyroclastic deposits of rhyolitic to trachytic compositions, and the interpreted impact glass is typical volcanic glass. Petrographic analyses of all the samples reveal no indications for shock metamorphic overprint. All these lines of evidence suggest that the Duolun basin was not formed through impact cratering. The structural deformation and spatial distribution pattern of the igneous rocks suggest that the Duolun basin is most likely a Jurassic-Cretaceous complex rhyolite caldera system that has been partly filled with sediments forming an annular basin, followed by resurgent doming of the central area.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Bronze Age horses recovered from Chifeng region, Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Dawei; Han Lu; Xie Chengzhi; Li Shengnan; Zhou Hui; Zhu Hong

    2007-01-01

    In this study, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis was carried out on 9 Bronze Age horses recovered from Dashanqian and Jinggouzi archaeological sites in Chifeng region, Inner Mongolia, China to explore the origin of Chinese domestic horses. Both mtDNA 16S rRNA gene and control region (D-loop) fragments of ancient horses were amplified and sequenced. The analysis of the highly conservative 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the burial environment of Chifeng region is suitable for the preservation of ancient DNA (aDNA). Combing 465 mtDNA D-loop sequences representing different breeds from East Asia, Central Asia, Near East and Europe, we constructed a phylogenetic network to investigate the relationship between ancient and modern horses. The phylogenetic network showed that the 9 horses were distributed into different modem horse clusters which were closely related to them representing a certain ge-ographical distribution. Our results showed that the maternal genetic line of the ancient horses in Chifeng region was highly diversified,which contributed to the gene pool of modern domestic horses and suggested a complex origin of domestic horses in China.

  15. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

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    Undarmaa Enkhbat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™ and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99 μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187 μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001. The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297 μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190 μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004. The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001. Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15. The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01 when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically

  16. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M.; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D’Ann L.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99) μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187) μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297) μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190) μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant

  17. Remote sensing of ecosystem vulnerability: Assessing climate-vegetation-livestock interactions in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S.; Hong, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Stock breeding is a major economic sector of Mongolia, supporting unique cultural and social identity. In spite of its long history, contemporary pastoralism increases interventions on climate-vegetation interactions substantially, which results in negative feedbacks to livestock sector. This presentation draws an attention how natural processes of climate and vegetation interact with livestock dynamics. Massive loss of livestock and wildlife animal during winter seasons (dzud) is an endemic climatic disaster in the Central Asia grasslands but the mechanisms are not well understood yet. Recent national-wide sever Dzud occurred during 2009-2010 winter in Mongolia. The dzud mechanisms were investigated by developing a schematic mechanism model on climate-vegetation-livestock interactions and applying it for quantitative statistical analysis. Various remote sensing products were integrated to prepare the status and process variables of the schematic model, including daily temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and primary production and biomass for a period from 2003 to 2010. At a lower level of administration (i.e., 'soum' generally larger than 1000 km2), stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to find significant factors of inter-annual livestock change. As results, linear regression models were successfully produced at 70% of soums. Summer and winter variables appeared equally important in controlling livestock dynamics. The primary factor of each soum showed certain regional patterns incident well with climate severity and foraging resource availability (e.g. temperature in north, dryness in south, and NDVI in middle). Regional pattern of herbaceous biodiversity depends on both climate and disturbance (i.e. fire and grazing) gradients but the livestock grazing effect appeared localized normally within 1.5 km from livestock shelter or wells. At a local-scale (i.e. family level smaller than 100 km2), species composition seems to provide useful

  18. Conceptualizing an IWRM for Mongolia's Kharaa River Basin: The Environmental Science Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthe, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Like its central Asian neighbors, highly continental Mongolia is not only a water-scarce but also a data-scarce country (Malsy et al. 2013; Cyffka & Karthe 2013). At the same time, regional effects of global climate change, major land use changes, a booming mining sector and growing cities with insufficient and decaying water and wastewater infrastructures result in an increasingly unsustainable exploitation and contamination of ground and surface water resources putting at risk both aquatic ecosystems (Hofmann et al. 2010) and human health (Karthe et al. 2012). In the context of a research and development project aiming at the implementation of an Integrated Water Resources Management, we have selected the mesoscale (15.000 km²) basin of the Kharaa River as a model region for Mongolia. Due to the scarcity of environmental data, one important prerequisite for the conceptualization of an IWRM was an integrative assessment of water availability, water quality and the ecological state of aquatic ecosystems. While global climate change is not expected to cause a decline in precipitation, deforestation in headwater areas and a rising water consumption for irrigation are likely to have adverse effects (Karthe et al. 2013). In surface water bodies and some ground water sources, elevated levels of nutrients and heavy metals could be observed. Due to anthropogenic activities, arsenic concentrations exceed both natural background levels and maximum permissible limits for drinking water in several locations (Hofmann et al. 2010; Pfeiffer et al. 2014). In the river system, high fine sediment loads impair the habitats of the macrozoobenthos. The principal cause for this is overgrazing in the floodplains and resultant riverbank erosion (Hartwig et al. 2012; Theuring et al 2013). Moreover, macroinvertebrate communities were found to be affected by land use intensity and mining activities (Schäffer et al. 2008; Avlyush 2011). As compared to other nearby rivers, which are home to

  19. Regional Differences in the Income of Farmers and Herdsmen in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miaomiao; XU

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the key indicators which reflect farmer and herdsman’s income in Inner Mongolia region,and then carries out regression analysis,factor analysis and cluster analysis of their income status in this region with SPSS software. Through the analysis,it can be seen that the net income of per farmer and herdsman in Inner Mongolia,has not reached the national level,and the differences in the influencing factors of the income are very obvious. According to present specific situation of farmers and herdsman in Inner Mongolia,this paper gives suggestions like proposing an agricultural prices security system,speeding up the strategic investment,improving the investment environment to promote the reasonable layout of the whole area,so as to improve the incomes of famers and herdsmen in Inner Mongolia region.

  20. West Inner Mongolia Coalfield to be the Largest Bauxite Mine in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>With the acceleration of industrialization of extraction of alumina from high aluminum fly ash technology, the West Inner Mongolia coalfield is expected to become the largest bauxite mine with the largest aluminum reserves in China.

  1. Taxonomy of the Genus Peganum L. (Peganaceae Van Tieghem in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narantsetseg Amartuvshin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the species of the Peganum found in Mongolia based on morphological structure of seeds. A depressed-hollow surface of seeds was found for Peganum harmala and smooth surface for P. nigellastrum Bge, while convex surface was found for P. harmala var. multisecta . Seeds of P. harmala var. multisecta disperse only by water fl ow, whereas seeds of P. harmala disperse only by the effects of human activities and those of P. nigellastrum disperse by both human activities and wind. P. harmala and P. nigellastrum are distributed in Mongolia and Tibet, but P. harmala var. multisecta are also distributed in Mongolia. We suggest that P. multisectum (Maxim. Bobr is distributed in Mongolia, but no P. harmala var. multisecta Maxim, based on morphological, ecological and areal differences.

  2. Workshop on environmental changes of arid regions convenes in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Hosted by the CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics and the local government, the International Workshop on Environmental Changes and Sustainable Development in Arid and Semi-arid Regions was held recently in Alashan Left Banner, Inner Mongolia.

  3. Does mountain permafrost in Mongolia control water availability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Lucas; Kopp, Benjamin; Munkhjargal, Munkhdavaa

    2016-04-01

    In semi-arid Mongolia, continuous and discontinuous permafrost covers wide parts of the mountains, especially in the northwest of the country. Long-term analysis of annual discharge from rivers draining the mountainous parts shows high temporal variability, with some evidence of decreasing trends, accompanied by decreased intra-annual variability. Investigations show that annual precipitation features small changes while annual air temperature significantly increased over the last decades, with warming rates clearly outranging the global average. Widespread and drastic changes in land cover through forest fires in northern Mongolia might have an additional impact on water retention and the stability of permafrost. Hence, there is concern about an increased degradation of mountain permafrost and a possible impact on river discharge and water availability. Decreased water availability from the mountains would have strong socio-economic implications for the population living in the steppe belt downstream the mountains. Therefore, a monitoring program has been conducted in northern Mongolia that aims to improve the understanding of how climate change and forest fires are influencing mountain permafrost and water resources. The study region, Sugnugur valley, is located about 100 km north of Ulaanbaatar and includes the transition belt between the steppe, the boreal zone and the alpine tundra of the Khentii Mountains. Extensive measurements of soil temperatures, soil moisture, discharge and climatic parameters have been carried out along transects which stretch across the Sugnugur river valley and include steppe, boreal forest as well as burnt forest. First results indicate that the environmental conditions show drastic changes after forest fire, with reduced water retention in the headwaters. After forest fires, changing runoff processes above the permafrost table have been observed, where water drains rapidly along preferential flow paths. This eventually leads to

  4. Isolation and characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus from Ixodes persulcatus in Mongolia in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Muto, Memi; Bazartseren, Boldbaatar; Tsevel, Bazartseren; Dashzevge, Erdenechimeg; Yoshii, Kentaro; KARIWA, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a zoonotic virus belonging to the genus Flavivirus, in the family Flaviviridae. The virus, which is endemic in Europe and northern parts of Asia, causes severe encephalitis. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been reported in Mongolia since the 1980s, but details about the biological characteristics of the endemic virus are lacking. In this study, 680 ticks (Ixodes persulcatus) were collected in Selenge aimag, northern Mongolia, in 2012. Nine Mongolian T...

  5. New dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata: Gomphaeschnidae) from the Yixian Formation in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Two fossil dragonflies from the Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation in Liutiaogou Village, Ningcheng County,Inner Mongolia, China are described and illustrated. They are assigned to two new genera and species, I.e., Sophoaeschna frigida gen.et sp. Nov. And Falsisophoaeschna generalis gen. Et sp. Nov. Within the family Gomphaeschnidae Tillyard & Fraser, 1940. This is the first report of Odonata from Yixian Formation in Inner Mongolia and the second record of fossil Gomphaeschnidae from China.

  6. Developing a national salt reduction strategy for Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhtungalag, Batsaikhan; Batjargal, Jamayan; Chimedsuren, Ochir; Tsogzolmaa, Bayandorj; Anderson, Craig S; Webster, Jacqui

    2015-06-01

    The increase in prevalence of risk factors such as hypertension has contributed to an incremental rise in non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Mongolia over recent decades, such that they now account for 80% of all deaths in the country. Salt reduction is one of the most cost-effective interventions to reduce the burden of NCDs. In 2011, the Ministry of Health (MOH) instigated the development of a national salt reduction strategy for Mongolia. As part of a 2-week national consultation and training program on salt reduction, it established an inter-sectoral working party and organized a series of bilateral meetings and visits to factories. Actions arising included a baseline survey of population salt consumption patterns and the implementation of a series of pilot salt reduction initiatives. The results of the baseline assessment revealed that average daily intake of salt, based on 24 hour urine samples from a representative national sample (n=1,027), was 11.06±5.99 g in 2011, more than double the World Health Organization (WHO) five grams recommendation. Moreover, while most participants knew that salt was bad for health, few were taking efforts to reduce intake, and many were consuming highly salty meals and tea; salt in tea alone was estimated to contribute 30% of daily salt intake. A pilot Pinch Salt intervention to reduce salt consumption of factory workers was undertaken in Ulaanbaatar (UB) city between 2012 and 2013, and was associated with a reduction of 2.8 g of salt intake. Ongoing food industry initiatives have led to significant reductions in salt levels in bread, and companies producing processed meat have indicated a willingness to reduce salt. Relevant stakeholders have also supported the campaign by participating in annual World Salt Awareness Week events. The activities to date have demonstrated the potential for action and there is now a need scale these up to a national level to ensure that Mongolia is in a strong position to achieve a 30

  7. Fire and climate in Mongolia (1532-2010 Common Era)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessl, Amy E.; Brown, Peter; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa; Cockrell, Shawn; Leland, Caroline; Cook, Ed; Nachin, Baatarbileg; Pederson, Neil; Saladyga, Thomas; Suran, Byambagerel

    2016-06-01

    Recent increases in wildland fire, warming temperatures, and land use change have coincided in many forested regions, making it difficult to parse causes of elevated fire activity. Here we use 20 multicentury fire scar chronologies (464 fire scar samples) from Mongolia to evaluate the role of climate forcing of fire in the context of livestock grazing and minimal fire suppression. We observe no change in fire return intervals post-1900; however, since the 1500s, periods of drought are coincident with more fire and shorter fire return intervals. We observe same year and some antecedent year effects of drought on fire, a pattern typical of semiarid forests elsewhere. During the instrumental period, drought remains an important driver of fire; however, limited fire activity in recent decades may be due to the coincidence of drought and intensive grazing that have synergized to reduce fuel continuity and fire spread.

  8. Chemical constituents isolated from Zygophyllum melongena Bunge growing in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganbaatar, Chunsriimyatav; Gruner, Margit; Tunsag, Jigjidsuren; Batsuren, Dulamjav; Ganpurev, Batsuren; Chuluunnyam, Lkhamjav; Sodbayar, Batsuren; Schmidt, Arndt W; Knölker, Hans-Joachim

    2016-07-01

    We report the first investigation of the chemical constituents of Zygophyllum melongena Bunge, a species growing in Mongolia. The quinovic acid glycosides 3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)quinovic acid and 3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)quinovic acid (28→1)-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester were identified in the chloroform fraction along with the flavonoid glycoside astragalin. The n-butanol fraction contained (+)-D-pinitol as the major component, a cyclitol with anti-diabetic properties. The structures of the isolated natural products were confirmed using ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and ROESY). This is the first report of the isolation of (+)-D-pinitol from the genus Zygophyllum.

  9. Geochemistry and chronology of Se' ertengshan greenstone, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianzhong; WANG Lili; ZHANG Fuqin; LI Chunlai; ZOU Yongliao; OUYANG Ziyuan; XU Lin

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the meta-mafic volcanic rocks of the Gongyiming iron deposit at Baotou, Inner Mongolia. The major and trace elements and REE data indicate that the meta-mafic volcanic rocks occurred in the environment similar to a modern continental rift. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic studies indicated that the meta-basic rocks were formed during the Early Neoarchean from 2800 Ma to 2900 Ma and reworked during the Late Neoarchean (2500 Ma) by metamorphism. Because of the separation of the North China Craton from the Siberia Craton during the Middle Proterozoic ( 1600 Ma), the Rb-Sr systematics of the rocks has been changed. The Se' ertengshan greenstone seems to occur during the Middle Archean. A stable continental crust may have existed during the Paleoarchean.

  10. THE EVOLUTION OF SMALL LAKE BASINS IN THE GOBI DESERT IN MONGOLIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Grunert; C.Stolz; N.Hempelmann; A.Hilgers; D.Hulle; F.Lehmkuhl; T.Felauer; D.Dasch

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate pluvial lakes in the Gobi two places were selected for field studies:Khongoryn Els in South-and Mongol Eis in West-Mongolia.In the eastern and central parts of Khongoryn gls two small endorheic basins,Bayan Tukhem and Khongoryn Gol depressions were studied.Pluvial lake deposits and beach ridges both supposedly mid-Holocene in age give evidence of a 9m and a 15m deep freshwater lake,respectively.Today both depressions are nearly dried out and exposed to wind deflation.A different situation was found at Uujin Sair river valley which cuts through the dune field at its lowest and narrowest(3 kin)part.Here,a 22.5 m thick fossil accumulation of at least 20 layers of fine sand (dune sand)alternating with silt(fluvial playa sediment)was exposed and OSL dated.12 dates ranging between 14ka and 17ka reveal the accumulation as Late Glacial which correlates well with the aridity at that time reported for Central Asia by several authors.Interpreting the dates it seems obvious that the whole sediment was quickly deposited in a period of about 16ka,and shortly after dissected by the Uujin Sair during a similar short time due to increasing humidity of the elimate.Another situation was found at the eastern rim of Mongol Els.Two rivers,Shurgiyn Gol and Zavran Gol are impinging here on the high dunes which have damed both rivers in the past.A younger,shallow lake existed during mid-Holocene (14C-dated to some 5.5ka)and a large,17m deep lake(14C-dated to some 39ka)probably during stage 4.Expected OSL dates will hopefully support this hypothesis.Anyhow,the palaeogeography of the dune field was different from today;it moved eastward daming the large river Shurgiyn Gol.

  11. Structur e and Functioning of Micr obial Community of Mineral Springs in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namsaraev B.B.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbial mats of dif ferent types of springs in Central Asia (Zabaikalye and Mongolia are described. The species diversity of mat-formed phototrophic bacteria was determined. The rates of microbial destruction processes (sulfate reduction and methane formation were measured. An important role of bacteria and algae in the formation of mineral water composition was shown.

  12. Studies on Phylogenetic Relationship of Sheep Population in East and South of Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wei; CHANG Hong; YANG Zhang-ping; GENG Rong-qing; LU Sheng-xia; DU Lei; NI Da-xing; FAN Bao-sheng; Tsunoda K

    2002-01-01

    This paper was based on the Hu sheep in China, after collecting the same data about 9 Asiasheep populations and 5 European sheep (breeds in Japan) populations. It clustered 15 populations in terms ofthe gene frequency of 10 loci and 33 allele in blood enzyme and other protein variations. The result of Hierar-chy Clustering showed that the sheep populations in the East and South of Central Asia could be classified intothree genetic groups: Mongolia sheep, South Asia sheep and European sheep, and the Hu sheep belonged toMongolia sheep.

  13. Stable Isotopes Suggest Low Site Fidelity in Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus) in Mongolia: Implications for Disease Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Eli S.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Xiao, Xiangming; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Newman, Scott H.

    2016-01-01

    Population connectivity is an important consideration in studies of disease transmission and biological conservation, especially with regard to migratory species. Determining how and when different subpopulations intermingle during different phases of the annual cycle can help identify important geographical regions or features as targets for conservation efforts and can help inform our understanding of continental-scale disease transmission. In this study, stable isotopes of hydrogen and carbon in contour feathers were used to assess the degree of molt-site fidelity among Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus) captured in north-central Mongolia. Samples were collected from actively molting Bar-headed Geese (n = 61), and some individual samples included both a newly grown feather (still in sheath) and an old, worn feather from the bird’s previous molt (n = 21). Although there was no difference in mean hydrogen isotope ratios for the old and new feathers, the isotopic variance in old feathers was approximately three times higher than that of the new feathers, which suggests that these birds use different and geographically distant molting locations from year to year. To further test this conclusion, online data and modeling tools from the isoMAP website were used to generate probability landscapes for the origin of each feather. Likely molting locations were much more widespread for old feathers than for new feathers, which supports the prospect of low molt-site fidelity. This finding indicates that population connectivity would be greater than expected based on data from a single annual cycle, and that disease spread can be rapid even in areas like Mongolia where Bar-headed Geese generally breed in small isolated groups. PMID:27695389

  14. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology and its implications on the Xilin Gol Complex, Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Guanghai; LIU Dunyi; ZHANG Fuqin; JIAN Ping; MIAO Laicheng; SHI Yuruo; TAO Hua

    2003-01-01

    The Xilin Gol Complex, consisting of deformed and metamorphosed rocks, was exposed as a large geological unit within the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, but its forming and subsequent deformed and metamorphic time has been an issue of little consensus. Petrographic analyses and SHRIMP dating on biotite-plagioclase gneiss, one of the major rocks within the Xilin Gol Complex, in southeast Xilinhot City, Inner Mongolia, China, where the Xilin Gol Complex was identified and named, yield its lower limit age of 437 ( 3 Ma (2--) by its magmatic zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating, and an upper limit age of 316 ( 3Ma (2--), which was constrained by SHRIMP dating of magmatic zircons from adjacent undeformed garnet-bearing granite which intruded the Complex. The Complex was thus determined to be formed and subsequently deformed/metamorphosed from the late Ordovician-early Silurian to the mid-Carboniferous. Consequently, it is not the Precambrian terrane as previously considered by most geologists. More or less, the major rock--biotite- plagioclase gneiss within the Complex is more likely to be Paleozoic fore-arc turbidite formation before metamorphism and intensive deformation, in which the detrital zircons gave sporadic Precambrian ages as old as up to 3.1 Ga. The source of the turbidite formation is multiple, which may be derived either from the North China Craton, or from the South- Mongolia Micro-continent, or probably came from a potential and undiscovered in situ terranes aged 600-800 Ma or even up to ca 3.1 Ga near the Complex.

  15. Environmental Reconnaissance of Shivee-Ovoo Coal Mine, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battogtokh, B.; Woo, N. C.; Nemer, B.

    2011-12-01

    Mining sector is one of most rapidly developing industries in Mongolia for the last several decades. However, environmental monitoring and protection measures have been left out. An exploratory investigation was conducted to evaluate potential impacts of the mining activities on the soil and water environment at the Shivee-Ovoo surface coal mine. Water samples were collected from the mine dewatering boreholes, discharge lakes and drinking water sources around the mine area. High levels of electrical conductivity, ranging from 325μS/cm to 2,909μS/cm, indicate significant contents of dissolved solids in water. In general, Mg, Fe, F and EC levels in drinking water exceed the level of Mongolian and WHO guidelines for drinking water, and they appear to result from water-rock interaction along the groundwater flow paths. Hierarchical cluster analysis implies that the waters from the mine area and those from public water-supply wells be originated from the same aquifer. However, the water from the spring, dug well and artesian well are grouped separately, indicating different geological effects due to the shallow groundwater system with relatively short period of water-rock interaction. Groundwater dewatering for open-pit mine excavation causes significant water-level decline, and subsequently, the residents nearby areas happen to be provided with water from the deeper aquifer, which has with higher dissolved solids probably through longer period of water-rock interaction. Soil samples were collected from the top, middle and lower soil layers of excavation bench, mine-waste dump sites, topsoil and subsoil from nearby area of the mine. To evaluate potential of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD), samples were analyzed for chemical composition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results show 0.36% of sulfur in only one sample, collected from waste dumping site of low quality coal. Since sulfur component were not detected in other samples, there appear no apparent threat of

  16. Land Cover Changes between 1974 and 2008 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagan, H.; Kinoshita, T.; Yamagata, Y.

    2009-12-01

    In the past 35 years, a combination of human actions and natural causes has led to a significant decline in land quality in Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia. Human causes include changes in conventional livestock husbandry, overgrazing, and exploitation for traditional uses. Natural causes include a harsh, dry climate, short growing seasons, and thin soils. Since 1995, many herders left the countryside to come to the city in search of new opportunities, the Ger areas (wooden houses and Ger) have expended, resulting in urban sprawl. Since urbanization usually advance in an uncontrolled or unorganized way in Mongolia, they have destructive effects on the environment, particularly on basic ecosystems, wildlife habitat, and pollution of natural resources (e.g. air and water). Land use and land cover changes occurred in the region are investigated using satellite images acquired in 1974 (Landsat MSS), 1990 (Landsat TM), 2000 (ASTER), 2006 (IKONOS), and 2008 (ALOS). Pre-processing of all data included orthorectification and registration to precisely geolocated imagery. In the detection of changes, classification approaches were employed using a self-organizing map (SOM) neural network classifier (Fig. 1a) and new developed subspace classification method (Fig. 1b). From the time-series classified remote sensing images, we extract the land cover and land cover temporal changes from 1974 to 2008. The results show some important findings regarding the size and nature of the change occurred in the study area. A significant amount of steppe and forest lands have been destroyed or replaced by residential areas; as a result, the total area of urban region doubled in the 35-year period with a higher urbanization rate between 2000 and 2008. Key words: Environment; Land Cover; Urban; Change detection; Classification. References Chinbat,B., Bayantur,M., & Amarsaikhan.D. (2006). Investigation of the internal structure changes of ulaanbaatar city using RS and GIS. ISPRS

  17. Integrated geographical research in the Khovd River basin (Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhanova, Mariia; Syromyatina, Margarita; Kurochkin, Yuriy; Chistyakov, Kirill

    2017-04-01

    Khovd River located in the endorheic basin of Grate Lakes Depression is a main river of western Mongolia. It has more than 500 km length and runs from the glaciers of the Tavan Bogd Mountains through different vegetation zones to the terminal Khar-Us lake. The main purpose of the study is to estimate the current state and dynamics of the geosystems in this river basin as it plays a critical part in the water supply of submontane desert steppe plains of western Mongolia. One of the objectives is to understand the formation and regime of water discharge in this inland river basin with glaciation. The results are mostly based on the 2013-2016 integrated field research including glaciological, meteorological, hydrological and dendrochronological measurements as well as hydrometeorological stations' data analysis and remote sensing data acquired from satellites. Last year the main attention was given to hydrological and hydrochemical research. In summer we measured TDS concentration in 71 points throughout the stream course of Khovd River and its tributaries. TDS is changing from 0-1 ppm at glaciers to 67 ppm at river mouth and 93 ppm at Khar-Us lake. The hydrochemical analysis shows that the water type is changing from hydrocarbonate-calcium at the beginning of the river to the sulfate-calcium at the mouth. Glaciers play a crucial role in feeding the river only in its upper part. Glaciological study revealed that the areas of the main glaciers were not much changed since 1989, while the glacier tongue regression was fixed. The total glacier area decreased approximately by 4.5 % in the Tsagaan-Gol basin and by 6.9 % in the Tsagaan-Us basin from 1989 to 2013. Large glaciers were retreating at an average rate of 28-34 m/year between 2001 and 2014. The hydrometeorological data analysis shows that most of the catchment area is characterized by aridization tendency for the last 10 years. This fact is well confirmed by the dendrochronological streamflow reconstruction of the

  18. Sedimentation History and Provenance Analysis of a Late Mesozoic Rifting Event at Tavan Har, East Gobi, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Sarah Cain

    2005-01-01

    The East Gobi Basin (EGB), which covers over 1.5 million square kilometers in southeastern Mongolia, is one of several basins in eastern China and Mongolia that was formed by extension and intracontinental rifting during the late Mesozoic. For reasons that are poorly understood, the continental lithosphere covering areas that are now known as…

  19. Detection of Babesia venatorum, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ixodes persulcatus ticks from Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnath, Carolin; Obiegala, Anna; Speck, Stephanie; Essbauer, Sandra; Derschum, Henri; Scholz, Holger; Kiefer, Daniel; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Dashdavaa, Otgonbataar; Tsogbadrakh, Nyamdorj; Jigjav, Battsetseg; Pfeffer, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Information about the prevalence and geographical distribution of tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, and Babesia spp. is still rare in Mongolia. We tested 275 Ixodes persulcatus ticks for A. phagocytophilum, Cand. N. mikurensis and Babesia spp. and 125 Dermacentor nuttalli ticks especially for Babesia spp. using different PCR methods. Ticks were collected from three provinces (Selenge, Arkhangai, Khentii) in Mongolia. DNA of A. phagocytophilum, Cand. N. mikurensis and Babesia spp. were found with a prevalence of 6.2%, 1.5% and 3.3% in each case in I. persulcatus ticks. This is the first time Cand. N. mikurensis was found in ticks from Mongolia. Sequence analysis of Babesia spp.-positive amplicons showed exclusively B. venatorum, which had also not been mentioned in Mongolia before. On the contrary, all D. nuttalli ticks tested negatively for Babesia spp. This study demonstrates that all three zoonotic pathogens are present in I. persulcatus ticks in Mongolia, and justify the need for further investigations of a more detailed genetic characterization of these pathogens.

  20. Mining in Mongolia. Everything is possible; Bergbau in der Mongolei. Alles ist moeglich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmuecking, Rebecca [German-Mongolian Business Association (DMUV), Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia). German-Mongolian Economic Commitee

    2016-07-01

    In 2011 Mongolia experienced an economic boom with growth recorded at 17.5% (1). This was triggered by the start of the first phase of the Oyu Tolgoi (OT) project that involved investments totalling 6.6 bn US$ (2). The International Monetary Fund (IMF) believes that Mongolia has natural resources worth between 1,000 and 3,000 bn US$ (3), including the world's second-largest reserves of copper. Mongolia is therefore one of the most resource-rich countries on the planet (4), having as it does plentiful supplies of gold, copper, coal, molybdenum, fluorite, tin and uranium. After presenting a briet description of the challenges that Mongolia is currently facing, the paper goes on to discuss four of the 20 or more mining projects that are under way in the country at the present t ime. The three ventures in question are at Oyu Tolgoi, Tavan Tolgoi, Erdenet and Tsagaan Suvarga. Germany has always enjoyed close economic ties with Mongolia and this explains the presence of two German business institutions, whose functions are described in more detail below. The revitalised German-Mongolian resource partnership, which is backed up by well-connected German-Mongolian institutions, offers great prospects for German companies on the Mongolian market.

  1. Transnational collaboration for faculty development in health professions education in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minsun; Amgalan, Nomin; Chinzorig, Tselmuun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences is the only national university in Mongolia and has produced more than 90% of health professionals in the country. Experts from Mongolia and Korea embarked on a collaborative effort to develop educational programs for faculty development based on the personal and professional needs of faculty members. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of those educational programs to determine whether this transnational collaboration was successful. Methods A needs assessment survey was conducted among 325 faculty members. Based on the results of this survey, the joint expert team developed educational programs on seven core topics: clinical teaching, curriculum development, e-learning, item writing, medical research, organizational culture, and resident selection. Surveys evaluating the satisfaction and the attitudes of the participants were conducted for each program. Results Throughout the 17-day program, 16 experts from Korea and 14 faculty members from Mongolia participated as instructors, and a total of 309 participants attended the program. The average satisfaction score was 7.15 out of 8.0, and the attitudes of the participants towards relevant competencies significantly improved after each educational program. Conclusion The faculty development programs that were developed and implemented as part of this transnational collaboration between Mongolia and Korea are expected to contribute to the further improvement of health professions education in Mongolia. Future studies are needed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of these educational programs. PMID:27907984

  2. Epidemiology Investigation of stroke among Mongolian and Han population aged over 45 in Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Lan, Tian; Zhe, Yan; Hu, Baolige; Zhang, Guohua; He, Juan; Wang, Zhiguang; Jiang, Mingfang; Hu, Riletemuer

    2017-04-04

    To discuss the status of epidemiology of stroke in the Mongolian and Han population aged over 45 years and to understand the treatment and prevention of stroke. Data collected on stroke populations aged over 45 years in the six areas in Inner Mongolia were analyzed by using stratified multi-stage cluster sampling. The prevalence rate of stroke in patients aged over 45 years in Inner Mongolia was 4.62%. The stroke prevalence rate increased with age in both males and females, the Han and Mongolian populations, and was higher in males than in females in Inner Mongolia. The prevalence rate of stroke in the Mongolian population was higher than in the Han population. The incidence rate of stroke in patients aged over 45 years in Inner Mongolia was 0.28%, of which the rate of relapsed ischemic stroke was 23.29%. The proportion of ischemic stroke in the stroke patients was higher than hemorrhagic stroke. The prevalence and incidence rates of stroke in patients aged over 45 years in Inner Mongolia were high. The prevalence rate of stroke in both the Han population and the Mongolian population increased with age. Ischemic stroke was the major form of stroke.

  3. Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values for Plants and Mammals in a Semi-Desert Region of Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Davie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information exists on the isotopic signatures of plants and animals in Mongolia, limiting the application of stable isotope analysis to wildlife biology studies. Here we present plant and mammal carbon (δ 13 C and nitrogen (δ 15 N isotope values from a desert-steppe region of southeastern Mongolia. We analyzed 11 samples from 11 plant species and 93 samples from 24 mammal species across Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, and compared these numbers to isotope values reported from other areas of Mongolia. Our plant and mammal 13 C and 15 N values were similar to those from a similar arid steppe region and more enriched than those from less arid habitats. Habitat variation within and between study sites has an important infl uence on δ 13 C and δ 15 N variation. Our results supplement current knowledge of isotopic variation in Mongolia and provide a reference for future stable isotope research in Mongolia and similar Asian steppe ecosystems.

  4. Agricultural land use intensity and its determinants: A case study in Taibus Banner, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haiguang; Li, Xiubin; Tan, Minghong; Zhang, Jiping; Zhang, Huiyuan

    2015-06-01

    Based on rural household survey data from Taibus Banner, in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, this study separately categorizes agricultural land use intensity into labor intensity, capital intensity, the intensity of labor-saving inputs, and the intensity of yield-increasing inputs, and then analyzes their determinants at the household level. The findings reveal that within the study area: (1) labor intensity is higher and capital intensity is lower than in the major grain-producing and economically developed areas of eastern and central China; (2) the most widely planted crops are those with the lowest labor intensity (oats) and capital intensity (benne); (3) there are marked differences in agricultural land use intensity among households; a major factor affecting land use decision-making is the reduced need for labor intensity for those households with high opportunity costs, such as those with income earned from non-farming activities which alleviates financial constraints and allows for increased capital intensity. As a result, these households invest more in labor-saving inputs; (4) households with a larger number of workers will allocate adequate time to manage their land and thus they will not necessarily invest more in labor-saving inputs. Those households with more land to manage tend to adopt an extensive cultivation strategy. Total income has a positive impact on capital intensity and a negative impact on labor intensity. Households that derive a higher proportion of their total income through farming are more reliant upon agriculture, which necessitates significant labor and yield-increasing inputs. Finally, the authors contend that policy makers should clearly recognize the impacts of non-farming employment on agricultural land use intensity. In order to ensure long-term food security and sustainable agricultural development in China, income streams from both farming and non-farming employment should be balanced.

  5. Upper Pleistocene human scapula from Salawusu, Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Hong; LIU Wu; WU Xinzhi; DONG Guangrong

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a fossil human scapula which was found in situ from the lower part of the Salawusu Formation in 1980 at the Salawusu site of Inner Mongolia,China. The stratum is dated from 70.9±6.2 ka BP to 124.9±15.8 ka BP by TL method. Dates from 44±7 ka BP to 63±3 ka BP, 61―68 ka BP and 35.34±2 ka BP are obtained for the lower part of this layer by 230Th, IRSL and 14C respectively. Based on the comparisons between this scapula and the scapulae of Neanderthals, Skhul/Qafzeh fossils, Eurasian Upper Paleolithic specimens and recent modern humans on the glenoid fossa, axillo-spinal angle, axillary border and other features, the present authors arrived at a preliminary conclusion that this Salawusu scapula is characterized by modern features of Upper Pleistocene humans mixed with a Neanderthal-like feature.

  6. [Monitoring nitrogen deposition on temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju; Kang, Rong-hua; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Yong-mei; Ye, Zhi-xiang; Duan, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Nitrogen deposition on temperate steppe was monitored from November 2011 to October 2012 in Taipusi County, Inner Mongolia. The dry deposition of gaseous nitrogen compounds was calculated based on online-monitored atmospheric concentrations of NH3 and NO2 and dry deposition velocity simulated by CMAQ model. The wet deposition, dry deposition of particle, and throughfall deposition were also estimated by collecting rainfall, dust fall, and throughfall samples and the chemical analysis of NH4+ and NO3-concentrations. Results showed that the total deposition of nitrogen was up to 3.43 g x (m2 x a)(-1), which might be harmful to the ecosystem. The wet deposition accounted for about 44% of the total deposition, while dry deposition of gases and particle accounted for 38% and 18%, respectively. Since the deposition contributed more than wet deposition, a great attention should be paid on dry deposition monitoring. However, the very simple method for total deposition monitoring based on throughfall seemed not suitable for grassland because the monitored throughfall deposition was much lower than the total deposition. In addition, reduced nitrogen (NH4+ and NH3) contributed to 71% of the total deposition, while oxidation nitrogen (NO3- and NO2) was only 29%. Therefore, NH3 emission reduction should be considered as important as nitrogen oxides (NO3x) for controlling nitrogen deposition.

  7. Reanalysis of "Raptorex kriegsteini": a juvenile tyrannosaurid dinosaur from Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Denver W; Woodward, Holly N; Freedman, Elizabeth A; Larson, Peter L; Horner, John R

    2011-01-01

    The carnivorous Tyrannosauridae are among the most iconic dinosaurs: typified by large body size, tiny forelimbs, and massive robust skulls with laterally thickened teeth. The recently described small-bodied tyrannosaurid Raptorex kreigsteini is exceptional as its discovery proposes that many of the distinctive anatomical traits of derived tyrannosaurids were acquired in the Early Cretaceous, before the evolution of large body size. This inference depends on two core interpretations: that the holotype (LH PV18) derives from the Lower Cretaceous of China, and that despite its small size, it is a subadult or young adult. Here we show that the published data is equivocal regarding stratigraphic position and that ontogenetic reanalysis shows there is no reason to conclude that LH PV18 has reached this level of maturity. The probable juvenile status of LH PV18 makes its use as a holotype unreliable, since diagnostic features of Raptorex may be symptomatic of its immature status, rather than its actual phylogenetic position. These findings are consistent with the original sale description of LH PV18 as a juvenile Tarbosaurus from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. Consequently, we suggest that there is currently no evidence to support the conclusion that tyrannosaurid skeletal design first evolved in the Early Cretaceous at small body size.

  8. Mercury content in electrum from artisanal mining site of Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, Satoshi [Geological Survey of Japan, AIST, Higashi 1-1-1, No. 7, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan)]. E-mail: s.murao@aist.go.jp; Naito, Kazuki [Geological Survey of Japan, AIST, Higashi 1-1-1, No. 7, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan); Dejidmaa, Gunchin [Geological Information Center, Mineral and Petroleum Resources Authority of Mongolia, State Building No. 5, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Sie, Soey H. [CSIRO, P.O. Box 136, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2006-08-15

    In Mongolia, artisanal gold mining, modern gold rush, in which people use mercury to extract gold, is being proliferated rapidly and the mercury contamination of mining site is becoming a serious social issue. For the risk assessment of mercury, it is necessary to understand how much mercury is introduced to the environment from what kind of materials during mining activity. It is already known that major contribution of the contamination comes from mercury that was bought at shops and brought to mining sites by miners. However, no information is available on how much mercury is removed from electrum (natural gold grain) to the environment. Since gold deposit is always accompanied by mercury anomaly, it is anticipated that electrum grains contain some amount of mercury of natural origin, and this mercury (primary mercury) contributes to some extent to the contamination. In order to clarify how much mercury is incorporated in electrum grains, micro-PIXE at CSIRO was used for grain-by-grain analysis. The result showed that electrum from study area contains mercury up to 8260 ppm. It is concluded that for the risk management of mercury contamination, release of natural mercury from electrum grains during smelting must not be ignored.

  9. Sizing wind/photovoltaic hybrids for households in inner Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, C.D.; Lew, D.J.; Flowers, L.T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Approximately 140,000 wind turbines currently provide electricity to about one-third of the non-grid-connected households in Inner Mongolia. However, these households often suffer from a lack of power during the low-wind summer months. This report describes an analysis of hybrid wind/photovoltaic (PV) systems for such households. The sizing of the major components is based on a subjective trade-off between the cost of the system and the percent unmet load, as determined by the Hybrid2 software in conjunction with a simplified time-series model. Actual resource data (wind speed and solar radiation) from the region are processed so as to best represent the scenarios of interest. Small wind turbines of both Chinese and U.S. manufacture are considered in the designs. The results indicate that combinations of wind and PV are more cost-effective than either one alone, and that the relative amount of PV in the design increases as the acceptable unmet load decreases and as the average wind speed decreases.

  10. Risk factors of burns among children in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandarmaa, Tseren-Ochir; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2012-08-01

    Burn is one of the leading causes of under-5 childhood injuries. Identification of risk factors and awareness level of caregivers could help reduction of burn-related morbidity. The objectives of this study were to identify general perceptions of risk factors of childhood burns, prevalence of burns among under-five Mongolian children, and to assess knowledge and practice of burn care and care seeking behaviors for care givers of those children. A household-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from September to October 2010 including 865 households with 1154 under-5 children. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using semi-structured questionnaire. Of total 1154 children, 291 (25.2%) had burn injury in their life-time. Above half of them had suffered a scald. Majority of burns occurred at home and urban children were at higher risk. The age up to 36 months, boys, and fewer children (burns. Caregivers' knowledge and practices on childhood burns were generally insufficient; most of them indicated the importance of physical environment at home. We concluded that burns were common among under-5 children, and caregivers' knowledge and practices on burns was inadequate. Specific interventions like "Caregivers education program" encouraging safe domestic environmental conditions should be undertaken to increase their awareness on burn-related issues to reduce childhood burns in Mongolia.

  11. Molecular genetic analysis of Dongzhou-period ancient human of Helingeer in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The mtDNA hypervariable region I (HVR-I) of 10 ancient individuals from Dongzhou-period ancient human populations in Helingeer county of Inner Mongolia were amplified and sequenced to investigate the genetic structure. The relationships between the ancient population and related extant populations, as well as its possible origin at the molecular level, were also studied. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis and multi-dimensional scaling analysis were also performed based on the mtDNA data of the ancient population in Helingeer and the related Eurasian population. The results showed that the ancient population in Helingeer were closer to the northern Asian populations than to the other compared populations in matrilineal lineage. Combining the research results of archaeology and anthropology as well as molecular biology, we inferred that they were nomads who migrated from Mongolia plateau and cis-Baikal region to Helingeer in Inner Mongolia, China.

  12. Curr ent Status of the Przewalski’s Horse Populations Reintroduced to Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarkhuu Enkhtur

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1992 the reintroduction program of the Przewalski’s horses in Mongolia was initiated, and totally 84 individuals of Przewalski’s horses were brought to the Hustai National Park between 1992 and 2000. At the same time another reintroduction program of the Przewalski’s horses was started, and 87 individuals were released in the Ta hiin T al (Bijiin Gol area in the semi-desert ecosystem of Southwestern Mongolia. Recently , in the Khomyn Tal ar ea of We s tern Mongolia transferred 24 individuals of Przewalski’s horses from zoos (the reintroduction program was started in 2004. All captive Przewalski’s horses were released into the wild (in 1994 in Hustai, and 1996 in Tah iin T al, and the populations of horses are gradually increasing in both sites. In this work, the results of analyses on the population dynamics of Przewalski’ s horses, reintroduced in these two sites are discussed.

  13. Status quo of chronic liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma, in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazag, Amarsanaa; Puntsagdulam, Natsagnyam; Chinburen, Jigjidsuren

    2012-06-01

    Because Mongolia has much higher liver disease burden than any other regions of the world, it is necessary to provide information on real-time situation of chronic liver disease in Mongolia. In this article, we reviewed studies performed in Mongolia from 2000 to 2011 on seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among healthy individuals and patients with chronic liver diseases, and on the practice patterns for the management of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). According to previous reports, the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV in general population in Mongolia is very high (11.8% and 15% for HBV and HCV, respectively). Liver cirrhosis is also highly prevalent, and mortality from liver cirrhosis remained high for the past decade (about 30 deaths per 100,000 populations per year). Among patients with cirrhosis, 40% and 39% are positive for HBsAg and anti-HCV, respectively, and 20% are positive for both. The seroprevalence is similar for HCC and more than 90% of HCC patients are positive for either HBV or HCV. The incidence of HCC in Mongolia is currently among the highest in the world. The mortality from HCC is also very high (52.2 deaths per 100,000 persons per year in 2010). Partly due to the lack of established surveillance systems, most cases of HCC are diagnosed at an advanced stage. The mortality from liver cirrhosis and HCC in Mongolia may be reduced by implementation of antiviral therapy program and control of alcohol consumption.

  14. Synergies of scale - A vision of Mongolia and China's common energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgford-Parnell, Nathan

    2010-09-15

    Energy consumption in China is expected to double over the next 20 years. Addressing the enormous scale of China's energy need and attendant increases in greenhouse gas emissions requires dramatic and rapid rollout of renewable energy technologies. Mongolia has some of the world's best renewable energy resources but the scale of its market cannot tap them efficiently. Developing Mongolia into a significant exporter of renewable energy to China will create synergies of scale moving both countries towards their energy goals, creating jobs, and fostering growth while significantly reducing GHG emissions in the region.

  15. Education for Pastoralists in Mongolia: The Role of Non-Formal Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Reddy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the nature of education for pastoralists in Mongolia as it has changed with the introduction of a market-based economy. Pastoralists face the challenge of sustaining their livelihoods in the wake of modernization and its ideologies embedded even in the education available to pastoralists. This study explores the strengths and weaknesses of non formal education and its ability to provide education for Mongolian pastoralists. Perhaps thinking outside the box about education and learning in Mongolia can shed light on global education issues.

  16. Echinococcus species from red foxes, corsac foxes, and wolves in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Chuluunbaatar, Gantigmaa; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Davaasuren, Anu; Sumiya, Battulga; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Ki, Toshiaki; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Davaajav, Abmed; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito

    2013-11-01

    The small intestines of 420 wild canids (111 corsac foxes, 191 red foxes and 118 wolves) from Mongolia, were examined for adult worms of the genus Echinococcus. The Mongolian genotype of Echinococcus multilocularis was found in fifteen red foxes and four wolves, whereas two genotypes (G6/7 and G10) of Echinococcus canadensis were found in two and three wolves, respectively. No adult Echinococcus worms were found in the corsac foxes examined. The genotypes of E. multilocularis and E. canadensis are discussed in terms of host specificity and distribution in Mongolia. The importance of wolves in the completion of the life cycle of Echinococcus spp. is also discussed.

  17. New fossil elaterids (Insect: Coleoptera: Polyphaga: Elateridae) from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huali Chang; Yunyun Zhao; Dong Ren

    2009-01-01

    A new genus with a new species of fossil elaterid, Paraprotagrypnus superbus gen. et sp. nov., from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in Daohugou Village (N41°18.979', E119°14.318'), Shantou Township, Ningcheng County, Inner Mongolia, China is described and illustrated. The genus Paraprotagrypnus belongs to the family of Elateridae, subfamily of Protagrypninae and tribe of Protagrypnini. Some primitive characters of the new genus and new species shed light on the ages between the Jiulongshan Formation in Inner Mongolia and the Yixian Formation in the western Liaoning Province of China. The habitat of the new species is briefly discussed.

  18. Pb Isotope Compositions of Shibaqinghao Gold Deposit in Central Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongying; LIANG Yibo

    2002-01-01

    There are two types of gold ore in Shibaqinghao gold deposit, a mylonite ore and a quartz - vein ore. Pb isotope compositions for mylonite ore are characterized by lower Pb isotope ratios ranging from 16.63 to 17.45 (206Pb/204Pb), 15.31 to15.48 (207Pb/204pb), 36.52 to 38.85 (208Pb/204Pb). They are scattered very close to a model curve of the mantle evolution. These ratios suggest that gold in the mylonite ore might be derived from the country rocks, which originated directly in the upper mantle. Pb isotope compositions for quartz - vein ore are characterized by higher Pb isotope ratios ranging from 18.23 to 19.74 (206Pb/204Pb), 15.69 to 15.89 (207Pb/204Pb), 38.64 to 40. 13 (208Pb/204Pb). They are scattered very close to a model curve of the upper crustal evolution. These facts indicate that the gold in the quartz - vein ore might be related to some granitic magma generated in the crust.

  19. Sulphur Isotope Compositions of Shibaqinghao Gold Deposit in Central Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hongying; Liu Xiang

    2001-01-01

    Shibaqinghao gold deposit is situated in the western part of the northern margin of the North China Craton. It is controlled by an E - W trending tectonic zone that is located in the middle unit of Dongwufenzi group which consists of a sequence of greenschist - facies metamorphic rocks in an Archean greenstone belt.In Shibaqinghao gold deposit there are two types of gold ore, a mylonite ore and a quartz vein ore. Mylonite ore bodies were formed during ductile shearing stage in the Early Proterozoic, whereas quartz vein ore bodies might have been formed in the Mesozoic time.Pyrite accompanied with native gold in the mylonite ore has sulpfur of which δ34S values range from - 5.8 to + 0.8 per mil, similar to the values of mantle- derived sulphur. These data suggest that gold in the mylonite ore be derived from the country rocks which originated directly in the upper mantle.Pyrite in quartz vein ore has the δ34 S values between + 3.0 and + 11.0 per mil, similar to the values of some granitic rocks. These facts indicate that the gold in the quartz vein ore is related to some granitic magma generated in the crust.This study revealed that two different mineralization occurred at different geological times and in different environments but in the same place, resuling in the Shibaqinghao gold deposit.

  20. Geological significance of componential characteristics of pyrite from Shibaqinghao gold deposit in central Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yihong Liang; Hongying Zhang; Yanhua Ma

    2006-01-01

    There are two types of gold ore in Shibaqinghao gold deposit, mylonite ore and quartz vein ore. Pyrite accompanying with native gold in mylonite ore has Fe from 43.66 to 45.32 wt% and S from 52.64 to 53.55 wt%. It is clear that this kind of pyrite is poor in both sulphur and iron. That means that the mylonite ore may be related to metamorphic water. Pyrite in the quartz vein ore has Fe from 44.38 to 45.30 wt% and S from 53.08 to 54.00 wt%. It means that this kind of pyrite is poor in iron but rich in sulphur, while the quartz vein ore may be related to magma water.

  1. Heavy metal distribution in sediment profiles of Tuul River, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyol-Erdene, T. O.; Lin, S.; Tuuguu, E.; Daichaa, D.; Ulziibat, B.; Enkh-Amgalan, T.; Hsieh, I. C.

    2016-12-01

    The distribution, enrichment, and accumulation of heavy metals in the sediments of Tuul River, Mongolia were investigated. Sediment core samples with depths of 4.0-49 cm from thirteen locations along the Tuul River were collected in the period from Sept. 2013 to Aug. 2014 and characterized for metal contents (e.g., Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, Hg and Cr), water content, and grain size. Results showed that metal average concentrations in the sample cores varied from 0.02 mg kg-1 for Hg (0.01 - 0.03 mg kg-1) to 481 mg kg-1 for Mn (277 - 623 mg kg-1). Metal concentrations at the downstream of the capital city were higher than those at other locations. All heavy metals studied, had average enrichment factors less than 3.0, but some sites had relatively higher values of enrichment factors up to 18 for Cu, 4.1 for Hg, 5.9 for Zn, and 25 for Cr, especially at middle depth ( 8-12 cm) of the cores. Importantly, severe pollution of mercury (Hg) was found at the downstream of the capital city which requires immediate remediation before this metal propagates into the food chain. Metal concentrations correlated to the physical-chemical properties of the sediments, which suggested the influence of industrial and municipal wastewaters discharged from the nearby cities. Results of this work would help to develop strategy to remediate of Tuul river sediment and to reduce the exposure of inhabitants to toxic substances.

  2. Perceptions of the health effects of stoves in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Joanna K; Emmel, Nick D; Manaseki, Semira; Chambers, Jacky

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the views of stove users in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia on how stoves affect their health. In this paper focus groups were conducted with improved stove users; traditional stove users; and a mix of traditional and improved stove users. Individual interviews were also held with various types of stove users. A translator moderated all discussions with a questioning route. All discussions were fully transcribed and translated. The transcripts were analysed by identifying common themes in responses to form an emerging theory. The findings in the paper are that all stove users recognised respiratory symptoms caused by stove smoke and other health effects such as warmth, dirt and workload, which they perceived to be important. Stove users had a lack of knowledge about the diseases caused by the smoke. Public health was a key driver for the improved stove project, yet has been neglected in improved stove marketing. The study used in this paper was limited by the language barrier. Some of the meanings of participants' responses may have been lost in translation. This paper has highlighted the importance of the health effects of stove smoke to stove users. Uptake of the improved stoves has been low. Public health should be included in marketing strategies for improved stoves to increase their uptake. The paper shows that acute respiratory infections are a major cause of mortality world-wide. Indoor air pollution from burning biomass fuels in household stoves causes a significant proportion of respiratory infections. No qualitative research has been published exploring stove users' views on the health effects of stoves. This paper provides an insight into stove users' perceptions for those interested in people-centred approaches to tackling international health issues.

  3. Residential Satisfaction in the Informal Neighborhoods of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Caldieron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Residential satisfaction is a very important factor in determining the quality of life, housing improvement proposals, and adequate housing policies. This paper reports on the findings of a study in four informal neighborhoods or “ger districts” of Ulaanbaatar, the Mongolian capital. Mongolia has been facing an onslaught of rural migration to the urban areas because of two reasons. First, rural nomads have lost their livestock due to recent harsh climate conditions, and second because of the transition from communism to a democratic market economy, based on the exploitation of Mongolia’s rich mineral resources. In the cities, migrants have invaded land and erected rural nomadic “ger” (felt tents or yurts. The traditional ger (as they are called in the Mongolian language are sustainable structures well adapted for a nomadic society. However, when they are located in high-density, unplanned shantytowns, they create many issues. The country’s capital, Ulaanbaatar, is the coldest capital in the world; ger’ household use coal for heating which causes dense air pollution, especially in the winter. These informal urban areas lack sanitation, adequate vehicular access and other services. Eventually residents build small permanent houses, but they still lack for basic services. This paper presents the findings of more than one hundred household surveys related to housing conditions in three informal ger districts of Ulaanbaatar. The surveys were held in the summer of 2011. This paper discusses some of the characteristics of the settlements as well as the residential satisfaction of its inhabitants.

  4. Inner Mongolia Having Proven More than 30 Mineral Sites Within 3 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>From 2005 up to the present,Inner Mongolia Geological & Mineral Resources Bureau has totally proven more than 30 mineral sites and more than 70 mineral sites with further exploi- tation value.The bureau has reported to the

  5. Inner Mongolia Put a Halt on an Redundant Iron Alloy Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>It is learned from the economic committee of Inner Mongolia on October 24th that the local government had ordered a halt on calcium car- bide and iron alloy projects as of the 20th of the same month.The order was introduced in ac- cordance with the requirement of Circular on Ensuring the Full Accomplishment of the En-

  6. Study on the University Students' Self-Expressive Tendency in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdag, Davaa; Dembereldorj, Zoljargal

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore Mongolian students' tendency of self-expression and a conduct of self-study at one university of Mongolia. It employed quantitative research method to explore the relationship between self-expression and self-study and examined them in terms of age, gender, years of study and field of study. The chi-squared test found…

  7. Current Situation of Household Income as a Factor, Having Impact on Mortgage Lending in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuselchimeg Batbileg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Amount of household income is the most important factor for housing loan. The article studies mortgage lending in Ulaanbaatar in 2007–2009, the factor, having great impact on the current economy of Mongolia, carries out the comparative analysis of capital’s medium and low income households and presents methods, which will help to solve these problems.

  8. Efficacy of exclosures in conserving local shrub biodiversity in xeric sandy grassland, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng-Rui Li; Zhi-Yu Zhou; Li-Ya Zhao; Ai-Sheng Zhang; Ling-Fen Kang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the abundance and frequency of occurrence of all shrub species present in the standing vegetation at four sites, including a 5-year exclosure (protected grassland) and three adjacent unprotected grazing sites that had been subjected to different levels of degradation (light, moderate and severe), in xeric sandy grassland of Inner Mongolia for...

  9. "Like Unbroken Cream": Education and Livelihoods among the Kazakh of Western Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portisch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns educational and livelihood trajectories of the Kazakh minority in western Mongolia. It outlines the trajectories of individuals over four generations of a Kazakh family and contextualizes these within social, political, and economic context. It describes the importance of family networks and considers the concept of social…

  10. Commercial Communities in China.Russia and Mongolia for Better Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On August 19,the Sixth China Russia and Mongolia Commercial Chamber Joint Forum,jointly held by CCPIT,Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry and Mongolian National Chamber of Commerce and Industry was held in New Siberia Russia.150 delegates from 17 business associations and trade promotion agencies,Russian local government officials and entrepreneurs attended the forum.

  11. Strategies to alleviate poverty and grassland degradation in Inner Mongolia: Intensification vs production efficiency of livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semi-nomadic pastoralism was replaced by sedentary pastoralism in Inner Mongolia during the 1960's in response to changes in land use policy and increasing human population. Large increases in numbers of livestock and pastoralist households (11- and 9-fold, respectively) during the past 60 yrs have ...

  12. Wolf Predation Among Reintroduced Przewalski Horses in Hustai National Park, Mongolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyne, van C.; Ras, E.; Vos, de A.E.W.; Boer, de W.F.; Henkens, R.J.H.G.; Usukhjargal, D.

    2009-01-01

    Depredation by wolves (Canis lupus) could threaten survival of reintroduced wild Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in Hustai National Park (HNP), Mongolia. We conducted scat analysis, spatial analyses of kills, and interviews to study prey species selection and temporal and spatial factors

  13. Study on Parental Involvement Preparation at a Preservice Institution in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhbaatar, Batdulam

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, in order to meet global standards for basic education, Mongolia adopted a new educational system replacing an 11-year system, under which children started primary school at age seven, with a 12-year system in which schooling commences at age six. Since education should be an active collaboration between school and family, having younger…

  14. Wolf Predation Among Reintroduced Przewalski Horses in Hustai National Park, Mongolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyne, van C.; Ras, E.; Vos, de A.E.W.; Boer, de W.F.; Henkens, R.J.H.G.; Usukhjargal, D.

    2009-01-01

    Depredation by wolves (Canis lupus) could threaten survival of reintroduced wild Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in Hustai National Park (HNP), Mongolia. We conducted scat analysis, spatial analyses of kills, and interviews to study prey species selection and temporal and spatial factors

  15. New Isophlebioid Dragonflies from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China (Insecta: Odonata: Isophlebioptera:Campterophlebiidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Binglan; REN Dong; PANG Hong

    2008-01-01

    Three new species of fossil dragonflies assigned to Sinokaratawia Nel, Huang and Lin in family Campterophlebiidae, i.e. S. daohugouica sp. nov., S. magica sp. nov. and S. gloriosa sp. nov., and new materials of male S. prokopi Nel, Huang and Lin, 2007 are described from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. An emended diagnosis of genus Sinokaratawia was proposed.

  16. A 500 Million Yuan of the Aluminum Production Project in Inner Mongolia has been Made

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Jarud Banner,Tongliao,Inner Mongolia has recently signed a cooperation agreement on the aluminum hub production project with Zhejiang Jinfei Kaida Wheel Co.,Ltd.The project will be implemented in two phases with a total investment of 500 million yuan,of which 200 million yuan is for the Phase I project to be put

  17. 内蒙古丰镇市十一窑子战国墓%Shiyiyaozi Cemetery of the Warring States Period in Fengzhen City,Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌兰察布盟博物馆

    2003-01-01

    This cemetery lies in Fengzhen City of Inner Mongolia, north of Shiyiyaozi Village of Heigedawa Township and east of the Yinma River. The eight tombs excavated are all rectangular earth pits, small in size and varying in direction. They are with or without coffins, and contain burials mostly in an extended supine position. A few human skeletons were found with bronze arrowheads inserted in them, and sheep bones were discovered as the remains of animal victims. The funeral objects are relatively small in number, with the pottery vessels belonging to the jar, pot, bowl, etc., all grey clay ware fired at a rather high temperature, and the bronzes including belt hooks, arrowheads and rings. These show quite typical features of the Central Plains culture. The tombs can be assigned to the Warring States period according to their shape and the characteristics of their objects.

  18. Remote Sensing Based Vulnerability Assessment of Desertification in Mongolia and Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C. H.; Lee, E. J.; Song, C.; Lee, W. K.; Jeon, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Desertification is one of the global threatening problems in respect of society, economy, and environment, and the assessment of desertification is essential for land planning and management. However desertification is a process that encompasses various factors in various aspects, having difficulties to assess qualitatively. The main purpose of the research is to qualitatively assess sensitivity of land to desertification, and detect the most vulnerable land to desertification in Mongolia and Myanmar using the Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use (MEDALUS) approach. MEDALUS approach aims to provide a manual on key indicators of desertification and mapping environmentally sensitive areas to desertification in the Mediterranean countries. However in this research, MEDALUS approach is implemented and reviewed on the countries located in the Middle Asia; Mongolia and Myanmar. MEDALUS approach identifies regions with the highest risk of desertification with 4 quality index; climate, soil, vegetation, management. Within the four quality index are several regional scale indicators for Mongolia and Myanmar, which gives effect with increasing or decreasing risk of desertification. MODIS satellite images, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and climatic and geographical data were used to calculate the indicators. The weighting of each indicator ranged from 1 to 2; the higher weight the more vulnerable to desertification. The weighted indicators were allocated to 4 quality index, and the four quality index was summed to calculate Environmentally Sensitive Area Index (ESAI) representing the vulnerability of land degradation to desertification. As a result, the Middle East region of Mongolia showed the highest sensitivity, thus the most vulnerable to desertification. Based on the result of this study, it is useful to identify the current state of affairs and the necessity of land planning in Mongolia and Myanmar, one tool that can be utilized for combating desertification. The

  19. 30年来蒙古国和内蒙古的LUCC区域分异%Mongolia and Inner Mongolia LUCC Regional Differentiation Over the Past 30 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师华定; 周锡饮; 孟凡浩; 白鹤鸣

    2013-01-01

    本文以欧空局300m土地覆盖数据集为基础,参考20世纪70年代至2005年2期蒙古高原遥感影像,建立20世纪70年代、2005年2期土地利用及动态数据库,结合土地利用变化数量模型,分析了蒙古国与内蒙古的土地利用类型转换情况。对比分析蒙古国和内蒙古近30年来的土地利用变化强度及各地类间的转移变化,揭示2个区域的LUCC分异规律,并对土地变化的驱动力进行分析。结果显示:在自然条件及人类扰动共同作用下,蒙古国及内蒙古均表现出草地面积逐年减少,草地退化趋势明显;裸地面积不断增加,沙漠化现象严重;农田及城镇建设用地面积持续增长;水域面积呈现衰减;未利用地是其他各种土地利用类型增加的主要来源;由于人类扰动差异,蒙古国林地面积略有减少,内蒙古林地面积大幅增加。气候干暖化、人口增长,政策及社会经济发展等是驱动蒙古高原土地利用变化的主要因素。%LUCC is a hot and difficult topic in the research of global change. Through the Mongolia Plateau LUCC research,we aimed to provide scientific and technological support for the upgrading of the regional land use structure and sustainable development. Based on EOA 300m land cover datasets,with reference to the re-mote sensing images in 1970s and 2005 of Mongolia Plateau,we established 1970s and 2005 land use dynamic database and used land use amount models(such as land use changes degree,land use change dynamic degree, land use change consumption reduction degree and land use change development degree)to analyze the process of land use type conversation between the Republic of Mongolia and Inner Mongolia,reveal the regional land use change characteristics and regularity,predict various land use types change,and analysis the land change driving force. The results are as follows:the grassland area decreased year by year,grassland degradation

  20. Analysis of infestation rate of Helicobacter pylori and factors affecting the infestation in Inner Mongolia border recruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-wei YU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infestation and its related risk factors in the recruits at Hulunbuir pastureland and Ala Shan Desert. Methods Nine hundred male recruits (16-24 years old were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. H. pylori infection was detected by 13C-urea breath test, and the related risk factors were surveyed by using questionnaires. The data of risk factors for H.pylori infection were analyzed by using chi-square test and logistic regression. Results The H. pylori infection rate was 47.5% in recruits located in Hulunbuir pastureland, while it was 44.8% in recruits located in Ala Shan Desert. The H. pylori infection rate was higher in recruits from the West China and Central China, and higher in the recruits from the rural area than those from city (P<0.05. The level of serum pepsinogen (PG I and PGⅡ was elevated, but PGR (PGⅠ/PGⅡ lowered in the recruits with H. pylori infection (P<0.05. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the factors as hand-washing with soap, smoking, halitosis, and halitosis with acne were positively correlated with H. pylori infection. Conclusions H. pylori infection rate of new recruits is lower in Inner Mongolia compared to the finding of previous studies. Residential environment is the fact DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.09.17

  1. Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of the Wengeqi Mafic-Ultramafic Complex and Associated PGE Mineralization, Guyang County, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S.; Lesher, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Wengeqi complex in Guyang County, Inner Mongolia is one of several Paleozoic PGE-mineralized zoned mafic-ultramafic complexes along the north-central margin of the North China. The complex comprises pyroxenites, biotite pyroxenites, amphibole pyroxenites, gabbros, and amphibolites. Zircons extracted from pyroxenites yield a U-Pb SHRIMP age of 399 ± 4 Ma. Several 2-6m wide syngenetic websterite dikes contain 1-3 ppm total PGE and are dominated by pyrite- chalcopyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite-(pentlandite) assemblages with minor sperrylite, sudburyite, and kotuskite. Textural relationships indicate that pyrite has replaced chalcopyrite and that magnetite has replaced pyrrhotite, suggesting alteration of an original of a S-rich oxidizing fluid. The mineralization is strongly enriched in Pd-Pt relative to Rh-Ru-Ir-Os, similar to that observed at New Rambler, Rathbun Lake, and Lac des Iles, but very different from the less fractionated compositions of magmatic PGE deposits. Textural, mineralogical, and geochemical relationships are inconsistent with retention of MSS in the source, fractional crystallization of chromite, or fractional crystallization of MSS, but are consistent with fluid-induced partial melting of sulfides and/or alteration by high-temperature (deuteric) hydrothermal fluids.

  2. Taking action on the social determinants of health: improving health access for the urban poor in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lhamsuren Khandsuren

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In recent years, the country of Mongolia (population 2.8 million has experienced rapid social changes associated with economic growth, persisting socio-economic inequities and internal migration. In order to improve health access for the urban poor, the Ministry of Health developed a "Reaching Every District" strategy (RED strategy to deliver an integrated package of key health and social services. The aim of this article is to present findings of an assessment of the implementation of the RED strategy, and, on the basis of this assessment, articulate lessons learned for equitable urban health planning. Methods Principal methods for data collection and analysis included literature review, barrier analysis of health access and in-depth interviews and group discussions with health managers and providers. Findings The main barriers to health access for the urban poor relate to interacting effects of poverty, unhealthy daily living environments, social vulnerability and isolation. Implementation of the RED strategy has resulted in increased health access for the urban poor, as demonstrated by health staff having reached new clients with immunization, family planning and ante-natal care services, and increased civil registrations which enable social service provision. Organizational effects have included improved partnerships for health and increased motivation of the health workforce. Important lessons learned from the early implementation of the RED strategy include the need to form strong partnerships among stakeholders at each level of the health system and in the community, as well as the need to develop a specific financing strategy to address the needs of the very poor. The diverse social context for health in an urban poor setting calls for a decentralized planning and partnership strategy, but with central level commitment towards policy guidance and financing of pro-poor urban health strategies. Conclusions Lessons

  3. The Influence of Repeated Thermal Shock on the Mechanical Properties of Mongolia Scotch Pine and Moso Bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sharp temperature changes in nature (e.g., forest fires, ice, and snow can cause mechanical damage to trees and bamboo. The mechanical properties of Mongolia Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica and Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis were investigated by a three-point bending test with a repeated thermal shock process (i.e., sudden changes of temperature. The experimental results indicated that the flexural modulus, flexural strength, and deformation work per volume decreased almost linearly with the increased repetition of thermal shock treatment for both Mongolia Scotch pine and Moso bamboo. The damage caused by repeated thermal shock was stronger for Mongolia Scotch pine, as compared to Moso bamboo, under the same thermal shock treatment. Thus, the experimental results provided basic data for engineering applications of Mongolia Scotch pine and Moso bamboo after natural disturbances.

  4. Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae from the Valley of the Great Lakes in Western Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B. Edlund

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available T he Valley of the Great Lakes (VOGL in western Mongolia is dominated by two main (Uvs, Khyargas and many minor closed basin lake systems. In 2004 and 2005, we sampled diatom communities from the surfi cial sediment of 64 lakes in the western Mongolian provinces of Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, and Bayan-Ulgii. Lakes ranged in water chemistry from fresh to hypersaline, oligotrophic to hypertrophic, and from low elevation VOGL lakes to high elevation lakes in the Altai Mountains. Over 300 diatom species were identifi ed in the sediment samples including a diverse fl ora limited to saline lakes, many widespread taxa, many new reports for the Mongolian diatom fl ora, and several new and possibly endemic species. We also review recent diatom literature from Mongolia including fl oristic surveys, paleo-ecology, and water quality studies.

  5. Competitiveness Analysis of Processing Industry Cluster of Livestock Products in Inner Mongolia Based on "Diamond Model"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xing-long; REN Ya-tong

    2012-01-01

    Using Michael Porter’s "diamond model", based on regional development characteristics, we conduct analysis of the competitiveness of processing industry cluster of livestock products in Inner Mongolia from six aspects (the factor conditions, demand conditions, corporate strategy, structure and competition, related and supporting industries, government and opportunities). And we put forward the following rational recommendations for improving the competitiveness of processing industry cluster of livestock products in Inner Mongolia: (i) The government should increase capital input, focus on supporting processing industry of livestock products, and give play to the guidance and aggregation effect of financial funds; (ii) In terms of enterprises, it is necessary to vigorously develop leading enterprises, to give full play to the cluster effect of the leading enterprises.

  6. Geographical Detector Model for Influencing Factors of Industrial Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying the influencing factors of carbon dioxide emissions is not only practically but also theoretically crucial for establishing regional carbon-reduction policies, developing low-carbon economy and solving the climate problems. Therefore, we used a geographical detector model which is consists of four parts, i.e., risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector and interaction detector to analyze the effect of these social economic factors, i.e., GDP, industrial structure, urbanization rate, economic growth rate, population and road density on the increase of energy consumption carbon dioxide emissions in industrial sector in Inner Mongolia northeast of China. Thus, combining with the result of four detectors, we found that GDP and population more influence than economic growth rate, industrial structure, urbanization rate and road density. The interactive effect of any two influencing factors enhances the increase of the carbon dioxide emissions. The findings of this research have significant policy implications for regions like Inner Mongolia.

  7. The Chinese-English Translational Corpus of Ecotourism in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tong

    2016-01-01

    Having reviewed the history of the development of the corpus, especially the translation corpus, this paper explicated the importance of building a Chinese-English translational corpus for specific areas on the basis of the status quo of corpus and the translation need in China. Then how to build a translational corpus of ecotourism promotional materials centred on Inner Mongolia, as well as its applications, is thoroughly discussed.

  8. Kawasaki disease in Mongolia: results from 2 nationwide retrospective surveys, 1996-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Baigalmaa, Davaakhuu; Davaa, Gombojav; Chimedsuren, Ochir; Sumberzul, Nyamjav; Lkhagvasuren, Tserenkhuu; Uehara, Ritei; Yanagawa, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Tomisaku

    2011-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) has been reported in many countries. However, the incidence of KD in Mongolia is not known. This is the first report of incident cases of KD in Mongolia, which were identified using data from 2 nationwide surveys. Two nationwide retrospective surveys were conducted: medical histories were collected from patients aged 0 to 16 years who were hospitalized countrywide between 1996 and 2008. Hospital records for these patients were also reviewed. Nationwide training seminars on KD were conducted before each survey. For the nationwide surveys, the participation rates among all hospitals with pediatric wards were 97% and 94%. Inpatient medical histories from 1996 through 2008 were reviewed, and, among children younger than 16 years, 9 patients with KD were investigated. The age of KD patients ranged from 1.4 to 14 years; 7 of 9 patients were male. Six (67%) patients fulfilled all 6 clinical diagnostic criteria; the other 3 (33%) were defined as having KD based on the presence of 5 such criteria. Fever persisting 5 or more days, bilateral conjunctival congestion, and changes of the lips and oral cavity were the most common symptoms, and cervical lymphadenopathy was the least common symptom. Cardiac sequelae developed in 5 of the patients, 4 of whom were older than 10 years. The results of these nationwide surveys reveal that KD cases do exist in Mongolia. However, knowledge of KD among Mongolian pediatricians is likely to be poor. Thus, there is a need to augment their understanding to improve management of KD patients. Further studies are crucial to clarify the epidemiologic characteristics of KD in Mongolia.

  9. Kawasaki Disease in Mongolia: Results From 2 Nationwide Retrospective Surveys, 1996–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Baigalmaa, Davaakhuu; Davaa, Gombojav; Chimedsuren, Ochir; Sumberzul, Nyamjav; Lkhagvasuren, Tserenkhuu; Uehara, Ritei; Yanagawa, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Tomisaku

    2011-01-01

    Background Kawasaki disease (KD) has been reported in many countries. However, the incidence of KD in Mongolia is not known. This is the first report of incident cases of KD in Mongolia, which were identified using data from 2 nationwide surveys. Methods Two nationwide retrospective surveys were conducted: medical histories were collected from patients aged 0 to 16 years who were hospitalized countrywide between 1996 and 2008. Hospital records for these patients were also reviewed. Nationwide training seminars on KD were conducted before each survey. Results For the nationwide surveys, the participation rates among all hospitals with pediatric wards were 97% and 94%. Inpatient medical histories from 1996 through 2008 were reviewed, and, among children younger than 16 years, 9 patients with KD were investigated. The age of KD patients ranged from 1.4 to 14 years; 7 of 9 patients were male. Six (67%) patients fulfilled all 6 clinical diagnostic criteria; the other 3 (33%) were defined as having KD based on the presence of 5 such criteria. Fever persisting 5 or more days, bilateral conjunctival congestion, and changes of the lips and oral cavity were the most common symptoms, and cervical lymphadenopathy was the least common symptom. Cardiac sequelae developed in 5 of the patients, 4 of whom were older than 10 years. Conclusions The results of these nationwide surveys reveal that KD cases do exist in Mongolia. However, knowledge of KD among Mongolian pediatricians is likely to be poor. Thus, there is a need to augment their understanding to improve management of KD patients. Further studies are crucial to clarify the epidemiologic characteristics of KD in Mongolia. PMID:21691035

  10. Coauthorship Hitchhiking: Indicators and Effects in Scientifi c Development in Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Bazartseren Boldgiv; Badamdorj Bayartogtokh

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses about a phenomenon newly called as the “coauthorship hitchhiking,” a term we coined to denote the inclusion of coauthors in peer-reviewed publications without signifi cant intellectual input from these coauthors to the published works. We feel that this phenomenon has become fairly common due to increasing international research interest in Mongolia as international authors include Mongolian resea...

  11. The institutionalization of River Basin Management as politics of scale - Insights from Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdret, Annabelle; Dombrowsky, Ines; Horlemann, Lena

    2014-11-01

    River Basin Management (RBM) as an approach to sustainable water use has become the dominant model of water governance. Its introduction, however, entails a fundamental realignment and rescaling of water-sector institutions along hydrological boundaries. Creating such a new governance scale is inherently political, and is being described as politics of scale. This paper analyzes how the politics of scale play out in the institutionalization of RBM in Mongolia. It furthermore scrutinizes the role of the broader political decentralization process in the introduction of RBM, an issue that has so far received little attention. Finally, it assesses whether the river basin is an adequate water management scale in Mongolia. This article finds that institutionalizing RBM in Mongolia is indeed a highly political negotiation process that does not only concern the choice of the governance scale, but also its detailed institutional design. It furthermore reveals that Mongolia's incomplete political decentralization process has for a long time negatively impacted the decentralization of water-related tasks and the implementation of RBM. However, the 2011 Budget Law and the 2012 Water Law provide for a fiscal strengthening of local governments and clearer sharing of responsibilities among the various different institutions involved in water management. Nevertheless, only if the 2012 Water Law is complemented by adequate by-laws - and if the newly created river basin institutions are adequately equipped - can RBM be effectively put into practice. This article confirms the usefulness of a politics-of-scale approach to understand scalar practices and changes in water management. However, the article also argues for a broadening of the analytical perspective to take the interdependencies between changes in water governance and other political processes, such as decentralization, into account.

  12. Mongolia; Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes-Fiscal Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of fiscal transparency practices in Mongolia against the requirements of the IMF Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency. This paper analyzes the government's participation in the financial and nonfinancial sectors of the economy. Executive Directors appreciated the achievements, and stressed the need for improvements in the areas of fiscal transparency. They emphasized the need for addressing weaknesses of fiscal data, maintaining a legal framework fo...

  13. ABOUT THE WAVE MECHANISM OF ACTIVATION OF FAULTS IN SEISMIC ZONES OF THE LITHOSPHERE IN MONGOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Mel’nikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study is focused on earthquake migrations along active faults in seismic zones of Mongolia. The earthquake migrations are interpreted as a result of the influence of deformational waves. Vector velocities and other parameters of the deformational waves are studied. Based on data from largescale maps, local faults are compared, and differences and similarities of parameters of waves related to faults of different ranks are described.

  14. In 2017 Annual Capacity of Aluminum in Inner Mongolia May Top 10 Million Tonnes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Up till now,Inner Mongolia whole region’s nonferrous metal industry has developed 5.64million tonnes of production capacity,newly added 1.45 million tonnes compared with 2012,up by 34.6%.Wherein,aluminum capacity was3.40 million tonnes,newly added 1.05 million tonnes,up by 44.7%;lead 400,000 tonnes,

  15. Evaluation of the Pollution by Toxic Elements around the Small-Scale Mining Area, Boroo, Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Bolormaa Oyuntsetseg; Katsunori Kawasaki; Makiko Watanabe; Batkhishig Ochirbat

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the contamination levels of toxic elements (TEs) in the vicinity of the small-scale mining Boroo area, Mongolia. Samples of surface soil, ground water and human hair were collected around the gold washing or milling places, grassland and village areas. After appropriate preparation, all samples were analyzed for major and toxic elements (TEs) by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission Spectrometry (PIXE). Soil texture, conductivity (EC), pH, total organic...

  16. First Report of the Herb Field Mouse , Apodemus uralensis (Pallas, 1811 from Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setev Shar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The herb fi eld mouse, Apodemus uralensis (Pallas, 1811 is recorded for the fi rst time in Mongolia, from western part of the Mongolian Altai and the adjacent Mongolian part of the Dzungarian Gobi. In addition, we discovered several additional fi ndings of this species recorded as early as 1976 from diff erent scientifi c collections. Body and skull measurements are presented along with a molecular genetic analysis of one specimen.

  17. Isolation and characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus from Ixodes persulcatus in Mongolia in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Memi; Bazartseren, Boldbaatar; Tsevel, Bazartseren; Dashzevge, Erdenechimeg; Yoshii, Kentaro; Kariwa, Hiroaki

    2015-07-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a zoonotic virus belonging to the genus Flavivirus, in the family Flaviviridae. The virus, which is endemic in Europe and northern parts of Asia, causes severe encephalitis. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been reported in Mongolia since the 1980s, but details about the biological characteristics of the endemic virus are lacking. In this study, 680 ticks (Ixodes persulcatus) were collected in Selenge aimag, northern Mongolia, in 2012. Nine Mongolian TBEV strains were isolated from tick homogenates. A sequence analysis of the envelope protein gene revealed that all isolates belonged to the Siberian subtype of TBEV. Two strains showed similar growth properties in cultured cells, but their virulence in mice differed. Whole genome sequencing revealed only thirteen amino acid differences between these Mongolian TBEV strains. Our results suggest that these naturally occurring amino acid mutations affected the pathogenicity of Mongolian TBEV. Our results may be an important platform for monitoring TBEV to evaluate the epidemiological risk in TBE endemic areas of Mongolia.

  18. Results of the influenza virus surveillance in wild birds in Western part of Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marchenko V Yu; Otgonbaatar D; Shestopalov AM; Alekseev A Yu; Tserennorov D; Yurlov AK; Susloparov IM; Sharshov KA; Ilyinykh FA; Zolotykh SI; Abmed D

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To present results of virological study of wild birds inhabiting Western Mongolia. Methods: Over a period of 2003-2008, we isolated 13 influenza A viruses: H1N1, H3N6, H13N8 and H4N6 subtypes. We did not isolate any H5N1 subtype, that still cause epizooty in wild birds and poultry.Results: We revealed taxonomic and ecological heterogeneity of the birds involved in maintenance of circulation of influenza viruses in the given territory. Influenza viruses were isolated from birds of 6 orders; among them there are species preferring water and semi-aquatic biotopes, one species preferring dry plain region, and also one species which can inhabit both dry and water biotopes.Conclusions: Representatives of all main orders of Western Mongolia avifauna are involved in support of influenza A virus circulation, highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses were registered in Mongolia thus it's necessary to continue permanent influenza virus surveillance in wild birds' populations.

  19. Comparative Study of Impacting Factors of Grain Production of Inner Mongolia Region in Different Periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of grey correlation analysis,8 factors impacting grain production prominently as follows are selected to establish indices system:yield per unit(X1),grain planting area(X2),agricultural labor forces(X3),the total power of agricultural machinery(X4),using amount of fertilizer(X5),the damaged area of crops(X6),effective irrigation area(X7),and agricultural fixed assets investment(X8).According to the relevant data of Inner Mongolia Statistical Yearbook from 1988 to 2008,we use the method of grey correlation analysis to analyze the factors impacting grain production in Inner Mongolia,quantify the correlation degree of the total grain output and all factors,and finally conclude the impacting capacity of all factors on grain production in the light of correlation degree value.The results show that yield per unit still is the principal factor impacting the total output of grain in Inner Mongolia;the area of grain planting and the area of affected crops are the two most important factors responsible for the decrease of grain output;effective irrigation area the total power of agricultural machinery are the two primary factors impacting the increase of grain output;the using amount of fertilizer shows dwindling impact on grain production;agricultural fixed assets investment still hovers at the minuscule impact degree on grain production.

  20. Using the RBFN model and GIS technique to assess wind erosion hazards of Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huading; Liu, Jiyuan; Zhuang, Dafang; Hu, Yunfeng

    2006-08-01

    Soil wind erosion is the primary process and the main driving force for land desertification and sand-dust storms in arid and semi-arid areas of Northern China. Many researchers have paid more attention to this issue. This paper select Inner Mongolia autonomous region as the research area, quantify the various indicators affecting the soil wind erosion, using the GIS technology to extract the spatial data, and construct the RBFN (Radial Basis Function Network) model for assessment of wind erosion hazard. After training the sample data of the different levels of wind erosion hazard, we get the parameters of the model, and then assess the wind erosion hazard. The result shows that in the Southern parts of Inner Mongolia wind erosion hazard are very severe, counties in the middle regions of Inner Mongolia vary from moderate to severe, and in eastern are slight. The comparison of the result with other researches shows that the result is in conformity with actual conditions, proving the reasonability and applicability of the RBFN model.

  1. Fragmentation of the habitat of wild ungulates by anthropogenic barriers in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takehiko Y; Lhagvasuren, Badamjav; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Shinoda, Masato; Takatsuki, Seiki; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Chimeddorj, Buyanaa

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss and habitat fragmentation caused by anthropogenic activities are the main factors that constrain long-distance movement of ungulates. Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa) and Asiatic wild asses (Equus hemionus) in Mongolia are facing habitat fragmentation and loss. To better understand how their movements respond to potential anthropogenic and natural barriers, we tracked 24 Mongolian gazelles and 12 wild asses near the Ulaanbaatar-Beijing Railroad and the fenced international border between Mongolia and China between 2002 and 2012. None of the tracked gazelles crossed the railroad, even though gazelles were captured on both sides of the tracks at the start of the study. Similarly, we did not observe cross-border movements between Mongolia and China for either species, even though some animals used areas adjacent to the border. The both species used close areas to the anthropogenic barriers more frequently during winter than summer. These results suggest strong impacts by the artificial barriers. The construction of new railroads and roads to permit mining and other resource development therefore creates the threat of further habitat fragmentation, because the planned routes will divide the remaining non-fragmented habitats of the ungulates into smaller pieces. To conserve long-distance movement of the ungulates in this area, it will be necessary to remove or mitigate the barrier effects of the existing and planned roads and railroads and to adopt a landscape-level approach to allow access by ungulates to wide ranges throughout their distribution.

  2. Sheep wool δ13C reveals no effect of grazing on the C3/C4 ratio of vegetation in the inner Mongolia-Mongolia border region grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Auerswald

    Full Text Available We tested whether the abundance of C(4 vegetation in grasslands of the Mongolian plateau is influenced by grazing conditions. The analysis exploited the politically originated contrast that exists between Mongolia (low stocking rate, transhumant system and the district of Inner Mongolia, China (high stocking rate, sedentary system. We estimated the proportion of C(4 carbon (P(C4 in grazed vegetation from the relative carbon isotope ratio (δ(13C of sheep wool sampled from 298 annual shearings originating from 1996 to 2007. Annual stocking rates varying over time and between the districts of both countries were taken from regional statistics. The P(C4 pattern within the 0.7 million km(2 sampling area was geostatistically analyzed and related to stocking rates and temperature gradients. For similar climatic conditions, P(C4 was the same in both countries. Further, a unique relationship was found between P(C4 and July temperature on both sides of the border, which explained 71% of the pattern. Stocking rate and grazing system had no significant influences on present-day C(3/C(4 abundance ratio. This finding suggests that recent changes in the C(3/C(4 ratio of these grasslands are mainly a consequence of regional warming, not overgrazing.

  3. Eddy covariance based carbon fluxes from differently grazed grassland in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Sylvia; Ketzer, Bettina; Bernhofer, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Grasslands are one of the dominating vegetation types in the world. In China grasslands capture 400 Mha. This huge area has great influence on water and carbon stocks and fluxes. Water and carbon exchange influence the local concentration of greenhouse gases. In the steppe of Inner Mongolia (China) problems exist of overgrazing, erosion and ongoing desertification. Through these processes the seasonal patterns of the carbon cycles are changed. Within the project MAGIM (Matter fluxes in grasslands of Inner Mongolia as influenced by stocking rate), which is a multidisciplinary project bringing together German and Chinese expertise, fluxes of CO2 and H2O were measured by the eddy covariance (EC) method. The study site is in the Xilin River catchment in the Northeast of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. The region is a continental temperate semiarid zone with cold dry winters and warm humid summers. The annual mean temperature is about 2 °C and the annual precipitation is 350 mm. The EC measurements at Leymus chinensis steppe include various grazing intensities (heavily grazed, continuously grazed, winter grazed, ungrazed since 1979) by one permanent and one roving tower. From 2004 to 2006, there were continuous measurements at the ungrazed site (Leymus chinensis). The roving tower was used in the vegetation period at the grazed sites. In general, carbon fluxes are small in Inner Mongolia: At the ungrazed site an average negative net ecosystem exchange NEE was observed of -0.13 g C m-2 d-1 (C sink) over all observations from 2004 to 2006. During roving periods only, ungrazed was C neutral, but the heavily grazed site showed a positive NEE of 0.48 g C m-2 s-1 (C source). The intermediately grazed sites switched from CO2 sink to source. Lack of precipitation reduced the CO2 sink or increased the CO2 source. So, precipitation and its seasonal pattern are the major drivers controlling the atmospheric fluxes. Temperature and soil moisture, as drivers of respiration

  4. The idea of mineral resources exploration and development in Inner Mongolia under the new normal condition%新常态下内蒙古矿产资源勘查开发思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彦璞

    2016-01-01

    From Inner Mongolia to cut into the present situation of the mineral resources environment , this paper through consulting a large number of first‐hand information research and analysis ,concludes that existed in the development of Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia mineral exploration ,coal ,iron ore ,oil and gas resources use excess capacity is insufficient ,low resource utilization ,small dew coexist ,more serious environmental problems and the main problems of groundwater ,etc .Central problem oriented ,combined with the new situation of "innovation ,coordination ,green ,open ,sharing" five big idea ,put forward to strengthen ,turn down the whole bulk ,raising the threshold of oil and gas reserves ,planning and control ,the mining development train of thought of technology innovation .The author thinks that this line of thinking to help Inner Mongolia mining development out of the dilemma is feasible .%本文从内蒙古矿产资源环境现状切入,通过查阅大量第一手资料研究分析,归纳出内蒙古内蒙古矿产勘查开发中存在的煤炭铁矿产能过剩、油气资源利用不足、资源利用率低、小多散露并存、环境问题严重及地下水超采等主要问题。以问题为导向,结合新形势下中央倡导的“创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享”五大理念,提出了加强油气、关小整散、提高门槛、资源储备、规划管控、技术创新的矿业发展思路。笔者认为这一思路对帮助内蒙古矿业发展走出目前困境是可行的。

  5. Devonian and carboniferous arcs of the oyu tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au district, South Gobi region, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, A.J.; Tosdal, R.M.; Forster, C.N.; Kirwin, D.J.; Lewis, P.D.; Wooden, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Central Asian orogenic belt consists of microcontinental blocks and mobile belts positioned between the Siberian craton and the Tarim and North China cratons. Extending across Asia for 5000 km, the belt consists of terranes that decrease in age southward away from the Siberian craton. A time-stratigraphic-structural sequence for the rocks is critical to defining the tectonic evolution of the belt. In the Oyu Tolgoi area of the South Gobi Desert (Mongolia), Devonian and Carboniferous rocks record the construction of multiple arcs, formation of a giant porphyry Cu-Au system, exhumation, and polyphase deformation. The oldest rocks are basaltic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of the Devonian Alagbayan Group intruded by Late Devonian quartz monzodiorite stocks and dikes, which host giant porphyry Cu-Au deposits. The rocks were exhumed, overlain by pyroclastic rocks, and then tectonically buried by marine mafic supracrustal rocks prior to the youngest Devonian granodiorite intrusions. The postmineral Carboniferous Gurvankharaat Group unconformably overlying the deformed terrane consists of effusive, pyroclastic, subvolcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, as well as sedimentary units. The supracrustal rocks underwent polyphase shortening after 330 Ma and prior to 290 Ma. Variations in stratigraphic sequences suggest that the region is underlain by a submarine arc that became emergent during the Upper Devonian and remained subaerial to shallow subaqueous through much of the Carboniferous. Xenocrystic zircons in igneous rocks suggest that the offshore arcs were sufficiently close to ancient crust to have interacted with detritus shed into marine basins, most likely from the Siberian craton and fringing early Paleozoic terranes. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  6. Geophysical and geochemical nature of relaminated arc-derived lower crust underneath oceanic domain in southern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Alexandra; Schulmann, Karel; Janoušek, Vojtech; Štípská, Pavla; Armstrong, Robin; Belousova, Elena; Dolgopolova, Alla; Seltmann, Reimar; Lexa, Ondrej; Jiang, Yingde; Hanžl, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in southern Mongolia consists of E-W trending Neoproterozoic cratons and Silurian-Devonian oceanic tectonic zones. Previous study revealed that the Early Paleozoic accretionary wedge and the oceanic tectonic zone are underlain by a layer giving a homogeneous gravity signal. Forward gravity modelling suggests that this layer is not formed of high-density material typical of lower oceanic crust but is composed of low- to intermediate-density rocks resembling continental crust. The nature of this lower crust is constrained by the whole-rock geochemistry and zircon Hf isotopic signature of abundant Late Carboniferous high-K calc-alkaline and Early Permian A-type granitoids intruding the two Early Paleozoic domains. It is possible to explain the genesis of these granitoids by anatexis of juvenile, metaigneous (tonalitic-gabbroic) rocks of Late Cambrian age, the source of which is presumed to lie in the "Khantaishir" arc (520-495Ma) further north. In order to test this hypothesis, the likely modal composition and density of Khantaishir arc-like protoliths are thermodynamically modelled at granulite- and higher amphibolite-facies conditions. It is shown that the current average density of the lower crust inferred by gravity modelling (2730 ±20kg/m3) matches best metamorphosed leucotonalite to diorite. Based on these results, it is now proposed that Mongolian CAOB has an architecture in which the accretionary wedge and oceanic upper crust is underlain by allochthonous lower crust that originated in a Cambrian arc. A tectonic model explaining relamination of allochthonous felsic to intermediate lower crust beneath mafic upper crust is proposed.

  7. Hair chemical element contents and influence factors of reproductive-age women in the West Ujimqin Banner, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shanshan; Yuan, Haodong; Ma, Xiaoling; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Women have an increased risk for chemical element deficiencies during reproductive age, particularly due to higher chemical element requirements and poor diets. Twenty-one chemical elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) in hair samples, which were collected from 71 non-pregnant and 236 pregnant women living in the West Ujimqin Banner, central Inner Mongolia, China, were measured, and the environment, dietary habits and ethnic group influence factors associated with the biomarker were analyzed. The results indicated that the average values of the chemical element contents from hair were greatly different compared to those from other areas, especially the Al, Cd, Pb, Ca and Sr contents. There was no significant difference among the three ethnicities for any element except Mn and Ti in non-pregnant women. Compared to non-pregnant women, in the first trimester group, the levels of nine chemical elements (Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se, Si, Sn and Ti) decreased, while the others increased, and the contents of all of the chemical elements decreased in the second trimester group, while in the third trimester, there was a slight increase. Three chemical elements (Cu, Mn and Zn) displayed a synergistic correlation between each other in the third trimester group, which may protect the placenta from some oxidant damage. The high levels of Cd and Pb in hair likely originate from house renovations and traffic pollution. This study provided basic and useful information on the levels of chemical elements in reproductive-age women, and the results of this study are helpful to control the contents and improve the health of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of a mumps outbreak in Mongolia, January to April 2011

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    Dapeng Luo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Gurvantes district in Omnogovi Province reported a suspected mumps outbreak to the Mongolia Ministry of Health in March 2011. An outbreak investigation team was established to verify the diagnosis and to determine the magnitude of the outbreak.Methods: The descriptive study comprised retrospective investigation of local hospital medical records and surveillance data, and interviews with school teachers, doctors, probable cases and their close contacts. The World Health Organization standard case definition was used to define mumps cases. Clinical specimens were collected for laboratory confirmation.Results: There were 153 cases, none under two years of age, with the five- to 14-years-old age group having the highest rates. There was no difference by sex (P = 0.12. A single index case appeared to be the source of the outbreak, and there were four outbreak waves. Of the 129 cases with information on epidemiological links, 94 (72.3% were linked to other cases at a kindergarten or school, 17 (13% were from secondary spread of family members, two (1.5% were from secondary spread of other relatives, and 16 had no established links. Eight cases (5.2% were confirmed through laboratory investigation.Conclusion: This was the first high-magnitude mumps outbreak since the introduction of the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in Mongolia in September 2009. There were no cases among vaccinated children; cases were seen among older children and adults not eligible for the vaccine. This suggests that immunity to mumps is still low in Mongolia. Future outbreaks may occur among this unvaccinated population.

  9. Genetic frequencies related to severe or profound sensorineural hearing loss in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region

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    Yongzhi Liu

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim was to study the frequencies of common deafness-related mutations and their contribution to hearing loss in different regions of Inner Mongolia. A total of 738 deaf children were recruited from five different ethnic groups of Inner Mongolia, including Han Chinese (n=486, Mongolian (n=216, Manchurian (n=24, Hui (n=6 and Daur (n=6. Nine common mutations in four genes (GJB2, SLC26A4, GJB3 and mitochondrial MT-RNR1 gene were detected by allele-specific PCR and universal array. At least one mutated allele was detected in 282 patients. Pathogenic mutations were detected in 168 patients: 114 were homozygotes and 54 were compound heterozygotes. The 114 patients were carriers of only one mutated allele. The frequency of GJB2 variants in Han Chinese (21.0% was higher than that in Mongolians (16.7%, but not significantly different. On the other hand, the frequency of SLC26A4 variants in Han Chinese (14.8% was lower than that in Mongolians (19.4%, but also not significantly different. The frequency of patients with pathogenic mutations was different in Ulanqab (21.4%, Xilingol (40.0%, Chifeng (40.0%, Hulunbeier (30.0%, Hohhot (26.3%, and in Baotou (0%. In conclusion, the frequency of mutated alleles in deafness-related genes did not differ between Han Chinese and Mongolians. However, differences in the distribution of common deafness-related mutations were found among the investigated areas of Inner Mongolia.

  10. The Vegetation of North-Western Mongolia: Floristic Checklist and Conservation Status of Mongolian Grassland Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Lapin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mongolia´s grassland (steppe is reported to be vulnerable to climate change, degradation, and densifi cation. The traditional Mongolian pastoral herding system is currently transforming due to changes in market relations and economic developments, and this transformation has an impact on species composition and biodiversity. For this study, we observed the current situation of the fl ora in the north-western Mongolian territories to provide data on plant species occurrence in this remote area. A vegetation assessment was conducted for 15 locations in June and July 2016. Indicator plant species were determined to assess the level of grazing and degradation, as well as the respective steppe sub-type. The conservation status of all recorded plant species was assessed in accordance with the IUCN Red List. In total, 106 vascular plant species belonging to 73 genera and 26 families were recorded. Four endemic plant species were observed. All locations were classifi ed into three steppe sub-types: Desert-steppe, dry-steppe and mountain-steppe. A large number of degradation indicator plant species were observed in almost all locations. No endangered species in the Mongolian IUCN Red List were observed. The observation indicates that the vegetation in the north-western area of Mongolia is partly showing tendencies towards overgrazing and degradation. The conservation status of the most recorded species is currently unknown, and more studies on Mongolian vegetation will need to be conducted to assess these species’ status. We emphasize the urgent need for further studies on the vegetation and plant species composition, and indicators in north-western Mongolia, especially in context of the ongoing rapid economic, social, and ecological changes in the region

  11. Geochemical distribution of trace element concentrations in the vicinity of Boroo gold mine, Selenge Province, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Edu; Khantotong, Supawan; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Tumendemberel, Bulgan; Erdenetsetseg, Sugar; Puntsag, Tamir

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impacts of Boroo gold mine project in Mongolia was evaluated by chemical characterization of trace element concentrations in water, soils and tailing dam sediment samples. The results showed that concentrations of B, Cd, Ni and Se in the water samples were within the accepted levels of the Mongolia water quality standard (MNS4586: 1998). However, the concentrations of Al, As, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb, U and Zn were higher than the maximum allowable concentration especially in the monitoring and heap leach wells. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the tailing dam sediment were 4419, 58.5, 56.0, 4.8, 20.6 and 25.7 mg/kg, respectively. Generally, arsenic and heavy metals in the soil samples were within the acceptable concentrations of the soil standard of Mongolia (MNS 5850: 2008). The chemical characterization of As solid phase in tailing dam sediment showed that the majority of As were found in the residual fraction comprising about 74% of total As. Assessing the potential risk to humans, simple bioavailability extraction test was used to estimate bioavailability of arsenic and heavy metals, and the concentrations extracted from tailing dam sediment were; 288.2 mg/kg As, 7.2 mg/kg Cd, 41.1 mg/kg Cu, 13.5 mg/kg Pb, 4.7 mg/kg Ni and 23.5 mg/kg Zn, respectively. From these results, the Boroo gold mine project has presently not significantly impacted the environment, but there is a high probability that it may act as a source of future contamination.

  12. Changes of predominant species/biovars and sequence types of Brucella isolates, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfen; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Yuan, Xitong; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Hai; Wang, Zhoujia; Zhen, Qing; Yu, Yaqin; Huang, Liuyu; Cui, Buyun; Chen, Zeliang

    2013-11-01

    Human brucellosis incidence in China was divided into 3 stages, high incidence (1950-1960s), decline (1970-1980s) and re-emergence (1990-2000s). Human brucellosis has been reported in all the 32 provinces, of which Inner Mongolia has the highest prevalence, accounting for over 40% of the cases in China. To investigate the etiology alteration of human brucellosis in Inner Mongolia, the species, biovars and genotypes of 60 Brucella isolates from this province were analyzed. Species and biovars of the Brucella strains isolated from outbreaks were determined based on classical identification procedures. Strains were genotyped by multi locus sequence typing (MLST). Sequences of 9 housekeeping genes were obtained and sequence types were defined. The distribution of species, biovars and sequence types (STs) among the three incidence stages were analyzed and compared. The three stages of high incidence, decline and re-emergence were predominated by B. melitensis biovar 2 and 3, B. abortus biovar 3, and B. melitensis biovar 1, respectively, implying changes in the predominant biovars. Genotyping by MLST revealed a total of 14 STs. Nine STs (from ST28 to ST36), accounting for 64.3% of all the STs, were newly defined and different from those observed in other countries. Different STs were distributed among the three stages. ST8 was the most common ST in 1950-1960s and 1990-2000s, while ST2 was the most common in 1970-1980s. The prevalence of biovars and sequence types of Brucella strains from Inner Mongolia has changed over time in the three stages. Compared with those from other countries, new sequence types of Brucella strains exist in China.

  13. New fossil caddisfly from Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China (Trichoptera: Philopotamidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meixia Wang; Yunyun Zhao; Dong Ren

    2009-01-01

    A new genus and new species, Juraphilopotamus lubricus gen. et sp. nov., from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China, is described and illustrated. It may be the first record of the family Philopotamidae in China, extending the geographic distribution of this family. A detailed description and illustration of the specimen along with a brief review of the fossil Philopotamidae are given. A proposal on dispersion and migration of Philopotamidae and problems of the paleoenvironment of the Daohugou beds are discussed.

  14. MESOZOIC GRANITIC MAGMATISM AND METALLOGENY IN THE KHENTEY RANGE,MONGOLIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ochir Gerel

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Petrogenesis of Mesozoic granitoids in Mongolia that comprise the Mongol-Okhotsk foldbelt was studied during more than 40 years.This belt is well known province of the Mesozoic magmatism and mineralization including gold,copper and molybdenum,tin and tungsten,lead and zinc,and fluorite.In the middle of the 1950's Chen Guoda proposed the diwa theory to explain tectonic activity in Chinese platform.In Russian Far East for similar processes the activization (revivation) theory was proposed which explained intracontinental events in the Mongol-okhotsk foldbwlt.

  15. MESOZOIC GRANITIC MAGMATISM AND METALLOGENY IN THE KHENTEY RANGE,MONGOLIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ochir; Gerel

    2001-01-01

    1 Introduction  Petrogenesis of Mesozoic granitoids in Mongolia that comprise the Mongol-Okhotsk foldbelt was studied during more than 40 years.This belt is well known province of the Mesozoic magmatism and mineralization including gold,copper and molybdenum,tin and tungsten,lead and zinc,and fluorite.In the middle of the 1950's Chen Guoda proposed the diwa theory to explain tectonic activity in Chinese platform.In Russian Far East for similar processes the activization (revivation) theory was proposed which explained intracontinental events in the Mongol-okhotsk foldbwlt.……

  16. New fossil mayflies (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Dong Huang; Dong Ren; Nina D. Sinitshenkova; Chung-Kun Shih

    2008-01-01

    Jurassonurus amoenus, a new genus and species of Siphlonuridae s. l. is described from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of the Daohugou Village, Shantou Township, Ningcheng County, Inner Mongolia, China. The new species is established by more than 20 imago and subimago specimens in relatively good condition. Detailed description and illustration of the specimens along with a review of fossil Siphlonuridae s.l. are given. Comparing with two known dominant nymph species Fuyous gregarious Zhang and Kluge, 2007 and Shantous lacustri Zhang and Kluge, 2007 from the same locality, we could not find any relationship among them. The new species is another dominant species in Daohugou beds.

  17. Sporopollen Assemblages from the Cretaceous Yimin Formation of the Hailar Basin, Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Chuanbiao; QIAO Xiuyun; XU Yanbin; SUN Yuewu; REN Yanguang; JIN Yudong; GAO Ping; LIU Tongyan

    2005-01-01

    Three sporopollen assemblages are recognized for the first time from the Cretaceous Yimin Formation in the Hailar Basin of eastern Inner Mongolia.They are (in ascending order): the Impardecispora-AequitriraditesClavatipollenites assemblage; the Triporoletes-Pilosisporites-Asteropollis assemblage; and the AppendicisporitesAsteropollis-Tricolpites assemblage,distributed in Members 1,2 and 3 of the Yimin Formation respectively.Recognition of this biostratigraphic sequence is very important for the division and correlation of the Yimin Formation in the basin.Meanwhile,the age of the Yimin Formation is considered to be Barremian to Early Albian based on the palynological data.

  18. FACE TO FACE KARIN M. FINKELSTON Senior Country Manager, China and Mongolia, IFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Kann M. Finkelston, senior country manager, China and Mongolia, of International Finance Corporation (IFC), has been working on projects in China since 1997. Founded in 1956, IFC is a private sector arm of the World Bank Group. It has 175 member countries proriding share capital and China holds 1.03 percent of the shares. China is IFC's ninth largest country portfolio. Since the corporation's first investment in China in 1985,it has approved investment in 74 projects with total financing of US$1.7 billion as of June 2004.

  19. The Baganuur coal deposit, Mongolia. Depositional environments and paleoecology of a Lower Cretaceous coal-bearing intermontane basin in Eastern Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Altangerel, S.; Bulgamaa, J.; Hongor, O. [Center of Geological Investigation, Ulaanbaatar 37, P.O. Box 318 (Mongolia); Khishigsuren, S.; Majigsuren, Yo.; Myagmarsuren, S. [Department of Geology and Mineralogy, School of Geology (Mongolia); Heunisch, C. [Geological Survey of Lower Saxony, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover (Germany)

    2004-12-03

    The investigations involved geophysical, sedimentological, palynological, chemical and mineralogical studies, supported by field-based infrared spectrometry. The Baganuur Basin, Central Mongolia, is among the rift or pull-apart-basins, which subsided at the boundary between the Jurassic and the Lower Cretaceous in East Asia. During the Berriasian, peat accumulation began in the area under study in Central Mongolia. The palynoflora is akin to the Siberian palynological province. Based on the phytoclast assemblages and the ratios of total sulfur content to total organic content, marine transgressions into this intermontane basin may be ruled out. The coal interseam sediments were laid down prevalently under neutral to slightly alkaline conditions; only in some carbonaceous sediments, the pH of intrastratal solutions was lowered. Suboxic to anoxic conditions persisted during almost the entire Lower Cretaceous period in the Baganuur Basin. Based on the distribution of fining- and coarsening-upward sequences and the organic matter, the basin fill has been subdivided into seven depositional units (A: fluvial-swamp, B: fluvial-lacustrine, C: deltaic-fluvial, D: fluvial, E: fluvial-deltaic-lacustrine/floodplain (?), F: lacustrine-deltaic-swamp, G: swamp-fluvial). A conspicuous change in the fluvial-lacustrine regime and an increase in the sediment supply may be observed at the boundary between depositional units B and C. A strong uplift triggered the onset of an intensive delta sedimentation. Lithoclasts, heavy minerals (e.g., apatite, zircon, garnet, anatase, brookite, epidote, sphene, tourmaline) and phyllosilicates (e.g., kaolinite, smectite, mica, chlorite) attest to a mixing of detrital material. One provenance area was abundant in acidic plutonic rocks as shown by the granitic lithoclasts, the other in volcanic rocks, which produced the vitroclastic debris deposited as tephra fallout. Post-depositional alteration of the siliciclastic interseam sediments was favored

  20. Small drones for geo-archaeology in the steppe: locating and documenting the archaeological heritage of the Orkhon Valley in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczipka, M.; Bemmann, J.; Piezonka, H.; Munkabayar, J.; Ahrens, B.; Achtelik, M.; Lehmann, F.

    2009-09-01

    The international project "Geo-Archaeology in the Steppe - Reconstruction of Cultural Landscapes in the Orkhon valley, Central Mongolia" was set up in July 2008. It is headed by the Department of Pre- and Protohistoric Archaeology of Bonn University. The project aims at the study of prehistoric and historic settlement patterns, human impact on the environment and the relation between towns and their hinterland in the Orkhon valley, Central Mongolia. The multidisciplinary project is mainly sponsored for three years by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and bridges archaeology, natural sciences and engineering (sponsorship code 01UA0801C). Archaeologists of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences and of the Bonn University, geographers of Free University Berlin, geophysics of the Institute for Photonic Technology Jena and the RWTH Aachen University, and geographers and engineers of the German Aerospace Centre Berlin collaborate in the development of new technologies and their application in archaeology1. On the basis of Russian aerial photographs from the 1970s, an initial evaluation regarding potential archaeological sites was made. Due to the poor geometric and radiometric resolution of these photographs, identification of archaeological sites in many cases remained preliminary, and detailed information on layout and size could not be gained. The aim of the flight campaign in September 2008 was therefore the confirmation of these sites as well as their high resolution survey. A 10 megapixel range finder camera was used for the recording of high resolution aerial photography. This image data is suited for accurate determination and mapping of selected monuments. The airborne camera was adapted and mounted on an electrically operated eight propeller small drone. Apart from high resolution geo-referenced overview pictures, impressive panoramic images and very high resolution overlapping image data was recorded for photogrammetric stereoscopic

  1. Mapping the topography and cone morphology of the Dalinor volcanic swarm in Inner Mongolia with remote sensing and DEM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Liwen; Li, Ni; Fan, Qicheng; Zhao, Yongwei; Zhang, Liuyi; Zhang, Chuanjie

    2016-09-01

    The Dalinor volcanic swarm, located south of Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia of China, was a result of multistage eruptions that occurred since the Neogene period. This swarm is mainly composed of volcanic cones and lava tablelands. The objective of this study is to map the topography and morphology of this volcanic swarm. It is based on a variety of data collected from various sources, such as the digital elevation model (DEM), Landsat images, and a 1:50,000 topographic map, in addition to various software platforms, including ArcGIS, Envi4.8, Global Mapper, and Google Earth for data processing and interpretation. The results show that the overall topography of the volcanic swarm is a platform with a central swell having great undulation, sizable gradient variations, a rough surface, and small terrain relief. According to the undulating characteristics of the line profile, the volcanic swarm can be divided into four stairs with heights of 1,280 m, 1,360 m, 1,440 m, and 1,500 m. The analysis of the swath profile characterizes the two clusters of volcanoes with different height ranges and evolution. The lava tablelands and volcanic cones are distributed in nearly EW-trending belts, where tableland coverage was delineated with superposed layers of gradients and degrees of relief. According to the morphology, the volcanic cones were classified into four types: conical, composite, dome, and shield. The formation causes and classification basis for each type of volcanic cone were analyzed and their parameters were extracted. The H/D ratios of all types of volcanic cones were then statistically determined and projected to create a map of volcanic density distribution. Based on the relationship between distribution and time sequence of the formation of different volcanic cones, it can be inferred that the volcanic eruptions migrated from the margins to the center of the lava plateau. The central area was formed through superposition of multi-stage eruptive materials. In addition

  2. Alpha, beta and gamma diversity differ in response to precipitation in the Inner Mongolia grassland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhang

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution pattern and maintenance mechanism of species diversity along environmental gradients is essential for developing biodiversity conservation strategies under environmental change. We have surveyed the species diversity at 192 vegetation sites across different steppe zones in Inner Mongolia, China. We analysed the total species diversity (γ diversity and its composition (α diversity and β diversity of different steppe types, and their changes along a precipitation gradient. Our results showed that (i β diversity contributed more than α diversity to the total (γ diversity in the Inner Mongolia grassland; the contribution of β diversity increased with precipitation, thus the species-rich (meadow steppe grassland had greater contribution of β diversity than species-poor (desert steppe grassland. (ii All α, β and γ species diversity increased significantly (P0.10. (iii The α diversity increased logarithmically, while β diversity increased exponentially, with γ diversity. Our results suggest that for local species diversity patterns, the site species pool is more important in lower precipitation areas, while local ecological processes are more important in high precipitation areas. In addition, for β diversity maintenance niche processes and diffusion processes are more important in low and high precipitation areas, respectively. Our results imply that a policy of "multiple small reserves" is better than one of a "single large reserve" for conserving species diversity of a steppe ecosystem, and indicate an urgent need to develop management strategies for climate-sensitive desert steppe ecosystem.

  3. Understanding of Grassland Ecosystems under Climate Change and Economic Development Pressures in the Mongolia Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, J.; Chen, J.; Shan, P.; Pan, X.; Wei, Y.; Wang, M.; Xin, X.

    2011-12-01

    The land use and land cover change, especially in the form of grassland degradation, in the Mongolian Plateau, exhibited a unique spatio-temporal pattern that is a characteristic of a mixed stress from economic development and climate change of the region. The social dimension of the region played a key role in shaping the landscape and land use change, including the cultural clashes with economic development, conflicts between indigenous people and business ventures, and exogenous international influences. Various research projects have been conducted in the region to focus on physical degradation of grasslands and/or on economic development but there is a lack of understanding how the social and economic dimensions interact with grassland ecosystems and changes. In this talk, a synthesis report was made based on the most recent workshop held in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, of China, that specifically focused on climate change and grassland ecosystems. The report analyzed the degree of grassland degradation, its climate and social drivers, and coupling nature of economic development and conservation of traditional grassland values. The goal is to fully understand the socio-ecological-economic interactions that together shape the trajectory of the grassland ecosystems in the Mongolia Plateau.

  4. Microbial community in high arsenic shallow groundwater aquifers in Hetao Basin of Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Wang, Yanhong; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Jiang, Zhou; Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Shang; Jiang, Hongchen; Wang, Yanxin; Dong, Hailiang

    2015-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the microbial community of 20 groundwater samples (4 low and 16 high arsenic groundwater) and 19 sediments from three boreholes (two high arsenic and one low arsenic boreholes) in a high arsenic groundwater system located in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, using the 454 pyrosequencing approach. A total of 233,704 sequence reads were obtained and classified into 12-267 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Groundwater and sediment samples were divided into low and high arsenic groups based on measured geochemical parameters and microbial communities, by hierarchical clustering and principal coordinates analysis. Richness and diversity of the microbial communities in high arsenic sediments are higher than those in high arsenic groundwater. Microbial community structure was significantly different either between low and high arsenic samples or between groundwater and sediments. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter and Alishewanella were the top four genera in high arsenic groundwater, while Thiobacillus, Pseudomonas, Hydrogenophaga, Enterobacteriaceae, Sulfuricurvum and Arthrobacter dominated high arsenic sediments. Archaeal sequences in high arsenic groundwater were mostly related to methanogens. Biota-environment matching and co-inertia analyses showed that arsenic, total organic carbon, SO4(2-), SO4(2-)/total sulfur ratio, and Fe(2+) were important environmental factors shaping the observed microbial communities. The results of this study expand our current understanding of microbial ecology in high arsenic groundwater aquifers and emphasize the potential importance of microbes in arsenic transformation in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus from Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

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    Rajeshwari Nair

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus strains isolated from human infections in Mongolia. Infection samples were collected at two time periods (2007–08 and 2011 by the National Center for Communicable Diseases (NCCD in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. S. aureus isolates were characterized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR for mecA, PVL, and sasX genes and tested for agr functionality. All isolates were also spa typed. A subset of isolates selected by frequency of spa types was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multilocus sequence typing. Among 251 S. aureus isolates, genotyping demonstrated methicillin resistance in 8.8% of isolates (22/251. Approximately 28% of the tested S. aureus isolates were observed to be multidrug resistant (MDR. Sequence type (ST 154 (spa t667 was observed to be a strain with high virulence potential, as all isolates for this spa type were positive for PVL, had a functional agr system and 78% were MDR. S. aureus isolates of ST239 (spa t037 were observed to cause infections and roughly 60% had functional agr system with a greater proportion being MDR. Additionally, new multilocus sequence types and new spa types were identified, warranting continued surveillance for S. aureus in this region.

  6. Confronting international research topics with stakeholders on multifunctional land use: the case of Inner Mongolia, China

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    König HJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The established pattern of land use in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is being challenged by China’s rapid overall economic transition. The provision of required land-related functions and services is subject to land management decision making. Scientific research can offer substantial support for this decision making by providing evidence of the interaction between land management and land function services. This paper’s objective was to identify the most important land use functions and services from a local perspective and to compare these functions and services with the land-related research topics addressed in the scientific literature. For this purpose, we conducted a workshop with local stakeholders (land use decision makers in the West Ujimqin Banner (Inner Mongolia as a specific case study and performed a comprehensive survey of the Inner Mongolian land use research published in international scientific journals. Our analysis indicated that the stakeholders assigned particular importance to social land use functions, such as jobs, as well as environmental land use functions and ecosystem processes. In contrast, the research topics were primarily concerned with natural science. We discussed possible shortcomings in the research agenda by emphasising and contrasting local stakeholder perspectives with the research topics and concluded that without bottom-up stakeholder participation, there would be a mismatch between the research interests of land use scientists and the needs of stakeholders. Future research that can contribute to local policy making with the aim of meeting the objectives of a multifunctional land use concept is required.

  7. Changes in the proximate determinants of fertility decline in post-socialist Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoorenberg, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    Mongolian fertility decline has received only limited analysis in the demographic literature. Using the 2003 Reproductive Health Survey of Mongolia the classical proximate determinants of fertility framework proposed by Bongaarts is applied here in order to analyse which factors shape period fertility. The results indicate that the fertility-inhibiting effect of contraception contributed to reduce period fertility by 54.2% from its theoretical maximum, while induced abortion accounted for only 6.1% of the reduction in fertility. Compared with previous studies made in the early 1990s, these results show that important changes in the control of reproduction took place in Mongolia during the fertility transition. In order to assess the changes implied by the transition to democracy and market economy, the proximate determinants of fertility are estimated for the year 1994. The results show that the importance of induced abortion in the determination of fertility level has reduced and that the use of modern contraception has increased progressively and contributed most in determining fertility level in 2003.

  8. Microbial community in high arsenic shallow groundwater aquifers in Hetao Basin of Inner Mongolia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out on the microbial community of 20 groundwater samples (4 low and 16 high arsenic groundwater and 19 sediments from three boreholes (two high arsenic and one low arsenic boreholes in a high arsenic groundwater system located in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, using the 454 pyrosequencing approach. A total of 233,704 sequence reads were obtained and classified into 12-267 operational taxonomic units (OTUs. Groundwater and sediment samples were divided into low and high arsenic groups based on measured geochemical parameters and microbial communities, by hierarchical clustering and principal coordinates analysis. Richness and diversity of the microbial communities in high arsenic sediments are higher than those in high arsenic groundwater. Microbial community structure was significantly different either between low and high arsenic samples or between groundwater and sediments. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter and Alishewanella were the top four genera in high arsenic groundwater, while Thiobacillus, Pseudomonas, Hydrogenophaga, Enterobacteriaceae, Sulfuricurvum and Arthrobacter dominated high arsenic sediments. Archaeal sequences in high arsenic groundwater were mostly related to methanogens. Biota-environment matching and co-inertia analyses showed that arsenic, total organic carbon, SO4(2-, SO4(2-/total sulfur ratio, and Fe(2+ were important environmental factors shaping the observed microbial communities. The results of this study expand our current understanding of microbial ecology in high arsenic groundwater aquifers and emphasize the potential importance of microbes in arsenic transformation in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia.

  9. A new oribatid mite of the genus Peloribates Berlese, 1908 (Acari, Oribatida, Haplozetidae from Mongolia

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    Bayartogtokh, B.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In the course of study on the species diversity and ecology of oribatid mites of Mongolia one interesting species belonging to the genus Peloribates was found and is described here as new to science. The new species, Peloribates angulatus differs from the closely related species by the relatively long and narrow head of sensillus, the different number of genital setae; the presence of distinct angular projection on the lateral margins of ventral plate, the presence of network consisting numerous striations and muscle sigillae on the anterolateral part of notogaster, the different arrangement of notogastral setae and the larger body size.Durante la realización de estudios sobre la diversidad y ecología de los ácaros oribátidos de Mongolia se encontró una interesante especie del género Peloribates que aquí se describe como nueva para la ciencia. La nueva especie, Peloribates angulatus, se diferencia de las especies próximas por la morfología de la cabeza del sensilo: relativamente larga y estrecha, el distinto número de setas genitales, la presencia de una marcada proyección angular en el margen lateral de la placa ventral, la existencia en el área anterolateral del notogáster de un retículo formado por múltiples estriaciones e impresiones musculares, la diferente disposición de las setas notogastrales y un mayor tamaño corporal.

  10. Ecology of the Daurian Hedgehog ( Hemiechinus dauuricus in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia: Preliminary Findings

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    James D. Murdoch

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Daurian hedgehog ranges across northern Mongolia, southern Siberia, and northern China. However, few details of the species’ behavior, ecology, or distribution are known. We conducted a pilot study of the ranging behavior and diet of Daurian hedgehogs in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia. We captured and radio-tagged eight hedgehogs (six males/two females between June and September 2006. We tracked their movements until hibernation to estimate home range sizes and daytime nest characteristics. We also analyzed scats ( N = 38 to gain a preliminary understanding of the food habits of the species. During the study, we collected 237 hedgehog locations, including 91 night, 141 day, and fi ve hibernation sites. Hedgehogs were followed a mean of 53.43 ± 4.35 SE days from capture before entering hibernation. Mean home range size for seven hedgehogs was 422.72 ± 94.07 SE ha. Daytime nest sites had one, rarely two entrances, and usually occurred in rocky outcrops or at the base of shrubs. The most frequently occurring prey groups in scats included beetles (47%, cockroaches (28%, and grasshoppers (20%. Scats also included bird (3%, reptile (1%, and rodent (1% remains. Daurian hedgehogs in Ikh Nart were generally larger in size, occupied larger home ranges, and ate similar foods compared to Daurian hedgehogs in other regions. The presence of Daurian hedgehogs in Ikh Nart also represents a range extension for the species.

  11. Argali sheep Ovis ammon trophy hunting in Mongolia

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    Amgalanbaatar, S.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Argali sheep Ovis ammon in Mongolia are highly sought by foreign hunters because of their impressive size and long, spiraling horns. To be sustainable, hunting programs must be well managed and have the support of local communities. Argali numbers in Mongolia seems to be declining rapidly due primarily to poaching and competition with domestic livestock, which have increased over the past decade. Laws, regulations, and revenue disbursement associated with argali trophy hunting in Mongolia are described. Argali trophy hunting is lucrative and the number of argali licenses and hunting organizations has been increasing over the past decade. Controversy surrounds the program. This controversy has been manifested in growing local opposition and accusations of corruption by the media. To help address this controversy, we suggest a reform of argali trophy hunting management in Mongolia that will better conserve the argali, as well as enjoy enduring public support. A reformed trophy hunting program should be characterized by 1 openness and transparency, 2 external review and oversight, 3 a mix of top-down and bottom-up authority that enjoys local support, and 4 active and adaptive argali conservation and management using funds generated by trophy hunters.

    [fr]
    L’argali Ovis ammon de Mongolie est un trophée très apprécié par les chasseurs étrangers du fait de ses grandes cornes spiralées. La gestion de la chasse, si on la veut soutenable, doit être bien planifiée et doit faire participer les populations locales. Le nombre d'argalis en Mongolie a beaucoup baissé ces dernières années surtout du fait du braconnage et de la compétition avec les animaux domestiques, ces derniers ayant augmenté au cours de la dernière décade. Nous étudions les lois, les réglementations et les revenus associés à la chasse en Mongolie. Cette chasse au trophée se montre lucrative et le nombre de licences et d'associations de

  12. Health sector reform and sexual and reproductive health services in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Peter S; Dodd, Rebecca; Dashdorj, Khurelmaa

    2006-05-01

    Since its transition to democracy, Mongolia has undergone a series of reforms, both at national level and in the health sector. This paper examines the pace and scope of these reforms, the ways in which they have impacted on sexual and reproductive health services and their implications for the health workforce. Formerly pro-natalist, Mongolia has made significant advances in contraceptive use, women's education and reductions in maternal mortality. However, rising adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, and persisting high levels of abortion, remain challenges. The implementation of the National Reproductive Health Programme has targeted skills development, outreach and the provision of resources. Innovative adolescent-friendly health services have engaged urban youth, and the development of family group practices has created incentives to provide primary medical care for marginalised communities, including sexual and reproductive health services. The Health Sector Strategic Masterplan offers a platform for coordinated development in health, but is threatened by a lack of consensus in both government and donor communities, competing health priorities and the politicisation of emerging debates on fertility and abortion. With previous gains in sexual and reproductive health vulnerable to political change, these tensions risk the exacerbation of existing disparities and the development by default of a two-tiered health care system.

  13. Identification of Animal Rabies in Inner Mongolia and Analysis of the Etiologic Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Jing Feng; LIANG Guo Dong; WANG Feng Long; WANG Jin Ling; TANG Qing; DING Yu Lin; TAO XiaoYan; LI Hao; SONG Miao; GUO ZhenYang; SHEN Xin Xin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To perform pathological observation and etiological identification of specimens collected from dairy cows, beef cattle and dogs which were suspected of rabies in Inner Mongolia in 2011, and analyze their etiological characteristics. Methods Pathological observation was conducted on the brain specimens of three infected animals with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining, followed by confirmation using immunofluorescence and nested RT-PCR methods. Finally, phylogenetic analysis was conducted using the virus N gene sequence amplified from three specimens. Results Eosinophilic and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were seen in neuronal cells of the CNS; and rabies non-characteristic histopathological changes were also detected in the CNS. The three brain specimens were detected positive. N gene nucleotide sequence of these three isolates showed distinct sequence identity, therefore they fell into different groups in the phylogenetic analysis. N gene in the cow and dog had higher homology with that in Hebei isolate, but that in the beef cattle had higher homology with that in Mongolian lupine isolate and Russian red fox isolate. Conclusion Rabies were observed in the dairy cow, beef cattle and canine in the farm in Inner Mongolia, in 2011, which led to a different etiologic characteristics of the epidemic situation.

  14. Acute hepatitis A, B and C but not D is still prevalent in Mongolia: a time trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatarkhuu, Oidov; Lee, Hye Won; George, Jacob; Munkh-Orshikh, Dashchirev; Enkhtuvshin, Baasankhuu; Ariunaa, Sosorbaram; Eslam, Mohammed; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Kim, Do Young

    2017-06-01

    Mongolia has one of the highest hepatitis A, C, B and D infection incidences worldwide. We sought to investigate changes in the proportion of acute viral hepatitis types in Mongolia over the last decade. The cohort comprised 546 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis from January 2012 to December 2014 in Ulaanbaatar Hospital, Mongolia. A time trend analysis investigating the change in proportion of acute hepatitis A virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection among the cohort with respect to a previous published study was undertaken. Acute hepatitis A, B and C was diagnosed in 50.9%, 26.2% and 6.0% of the cohort. Notably, 16.8% of the cohort had a dual infection. The etiologies of acute viral hepatitis were varied by age groups. The most common cause of acute viral hepatitis among 2-19 year olds was hepatitis A, HBV and superinfection with HDV among 20-40 year olds, and HCV among 40-49 year olds. Patients with more than one hepatitis virus infection were significantly older, more likely to be male and had a higher prevalence of all risk factors for disease acquisition. These patients also had more severe liver disease at presentation compared to those with mono-infection. Acute viral hepatitis is still prevalent in Mongolia. Thus, the need for proper infection control is increasing in this country.

  15. Application of satellite remote sensing for mapping wind erosion risk and dusk emission-deposition in Inner Mongolia grassland, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiche, M.; Funk, R.; Zhang, Z.; Hoffmann, C.; Reiche, J.; Wehrhan, M.; Li, Y.; Sommer, M.

    2012-01-01

    Intensive grazing leads to land degradation and desertification of grassland ecosystems followed by serious environmental and social problems. The Xilingol steppe grassland in Inner Mongolia, China, which has been a sink area for dust for centuries, is strongly affected by the negative effects of ov

  16. Molecular characterization and phylogenetics of a reassortant H13N8 influenza virus isolated from gulls in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A double reassortant H13N8 influenza A virus was isolated from gulls in Mongolia. The basic virological characteristics were studied. Complete genome sequence analysis indicated the complicated evolutionary history. The PA gene belongs to classical Avian-like lineage and more likely originated fro...

  17. Challenges in modeling ice floods on the Ningxia-Inner Mongolia reach of the Yellow River, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, C.; Popescu, I.; Wang, C.; Mynett, A.E.; Zhang, F.

    2013-01-01

    During winter the Yellow River in China is frequently subjected to ice flood disasters. Possible dike-breaking due to ice floods poses a serious threat to the part of the region located along the river, in particular the Ning-Meng reach (including Ningxia Hui and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region

  18. Challenges in modelling river flow and ice regime on the Ningxia–Inner Mongolia reach of the Yellow River, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, C.; Popescu, I.; Wang, C.; Mynett, A.E.; Zhang, F.

    2014-01-01

    During winter the Yellow River in China is frequently subjected to ice flood disasters. Possible dike breaking due to ice floods poses a serious threat to the part of the region located along the river, in particular the Ning–Meng reach (including Ningxia Hui and the Inner Mongolia autonomous region

  19. Triassic to Cenozoic multi-stage intra-plate deformation focused near the Bogd Fault system, Gobi Altai, Mongolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Cunningham, Dickson; Straathof, Gijsbert B.; Ganerød, Morgan; Hendriks, Bart W H; Dijkstra, Arjan H.

    2015-01-01

    The Gobi Altai region of southern Mongolia has been in the Eurasian plate interior since the mid-Mesozoic, yet has experienced episodic phases of deformation since that time. In this paper, we document field evidence to characterize and date the intra-plate tectonic history of the Gobi Altai region

  20. The Global/Local Nexus in Comparative Policy Studies: Analysing the Triple Bonus System in Mongolia over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses a phenomenon that has accompanied teacher salary reform in Mongolia: the import of two global education policies that were nearly identical to the already existing local bonus system ("olympiads"). To make sense of an import that appears superfluous, the author analyses the reception and translation of the triple…

  1. Perceptions of healthcare professionals regarding the main challenges and barriers to effective hospital infection control in Mongolia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ider Bat-Erdene

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not fully understood why healthcare decision-makers of developing countries often give low priority to infection control and why they are unable to implement international guidelines. This study aimed to identify the main perceived challenges and barriers that hinder the effective implementation of infection control programmes in Mongolia. Methods In 2008, qualitative research involving 4 group and 55 individual interviews was conducted in the capital city of Mongolia and two provincial centres. Results A total of 87 health professionals participated in the study, including policy and hospital-level managers, doctors, nurses and infection control practitioners. Thematic analysis revealed a large number of perceived challenges and barriers to the formulation and implementation of infection control policy. These challenges and barriers were complex in nature and related to poor funding, suboptimal knowledge and attitudes, and inadequate management. The study results suggest that the availability of infection control policy and guidelines, and the provision of specific recommendations for low-resource settings, do not assure effective implementation of infection control programmes. Conclusions The current infection control system in Mongolia is likely to remain ineffective unless the underlying barriers and challenges are adequately addressed. Multifaceted interventions with logistical, educational and management components that are specific to local circumstances need to be designed and implemented in Mongolia. The importance of international peer support is highlighted.

  2. Characterization of health care provider attitudes toward parental involvement in neonatal resuscitation-related decision making in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Ryan M; McPherson, Ronald J; Batra, Maneesh; Gerelmaa, Zagd

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize attitudes and practices among health care providers (HCPs) in Mongolia regarding parental involvement in neonatal resuscitation (NR)-related decisions. A voluntary, anonymous questionnaire was administered to 210 HCPs across 19 of 21 Mongolia provinces. Eligible HCPs included midwives, neonatologists, pediatricians, and obstetricians involved in neonatal-perinatal care in both rural and urban hospitals. A total of 210 pediatric HCPs were surveyed and 100 % completed all questions (response rate 100 %). Despite the absence of nation-wide guidelines, NR is uniformly performed at 32-weeks gestation across HCP professions and across rural/urban settings. Most HCPs (67 %) indicate that parents should be counseled about resuscitation, but only 9 % ask the parents if they want their extremely premature child resuscitated and only 17 % counsel the parents prior to birth of an at-risk infant. Most HCPs (72 %) prefer to unilaterally decide when to withdraw NR, and only 28 % indicated that both parents should be involved in the decision. Following a newborn's death, 75 % of all HCPs reported that they do explain the death to parents, although only 28 % reported receiving any training in parental grief counseling. For HCPs in Mongolia, a discrepancy exists between the perceived value of parental involvement and the actual practice of NR-related counseling. This report is a necessary first step toward understanding the factors that influence NR-related practices in Mongolia, and may serve as model for collecting these types of data in other low and middle income countries.

  3. Effects of Mowing Heights on N2O Emission from Temperate Grasslands in Inner Mongolia, Northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lihua; Hou, Longyu; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.; Guo, Dufa; Wang, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Grazing and mowing are two common practices for grassland management. Mowing is now recommended as an alternative to the traditional grazing for grassland conservation in Inner Mongolia, northern China. Many studies have revealed that mowing may alter ecosystem properties in various ways. However, l

  4. Hypertension and hypertension-related disease in Mongolia; findings of a national knowledge, attitudes and practices study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro R; Otgontuya, Dugee; de Courten, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    Mongolia has a high and increasing burden of hypertension and related disease, with cardiovascular diseases among the leading causes of death. Yet little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian population with regards to blood pressure. With this in mind, a national...

  5. 蒙美关系探析*--从蒙古国“第三邻国”的视角%Analysis of the Relation of Mongolia -U .S .---From The Perspective of Mongolia “Third Neighbors” Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏日毕合

    2014-01-01

    As Mongolia’s most important ”third neighbor” ,The U .S .is the key point of Mongolia”Third Neighbor”foreign policy ,and because consideration of it ’s Asia-Pacific strategy ,The United States attaches great importance to relations with Mongolia .With the development of Mongolia ”third neighbors” foreign poli-cy ,Mongolia -US cooperation intensified in the political ,economic ,military and other fields . The relation based on the”comprehensive partnership of common values ??and strategic interests”are have constantly deep-ened .This article will discusses the Mongolia -US relations from the perspective of the Mongolia ”third neigh-bors” foreign policy ,and try to seek their internal motivation and future trends .%作为蒙古国最重要的“第三邻国”,美国一直是蒙古国“第三邻国”外交政策推进的重点,而基于亚太战略的考虑,美国也非常重视与蒙古国的关系。随着蒙古国“第三邻国”外交政策的不断推进,蒙美在政治、经济、军事等领域的合作持续深化,两国基于“共同价值观和战略利益的全面伙伴关系”正在不断发展。文章从蒙古国“第三邻国”外交政策的角度论述新时期的蒙美关系实践,并解析其内部动因以及未来发展趋势。

  6. Deployable centralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-02-28

    A centralizer assembly is disclosed that allows for the assembly to be deployed in-situ. The centralizer assembly includes flexible members that can be extended into the well bore in situ by the initiation of a gas generating device. The centralizer assembly can support a large load carrying capability compared to a traditional bow spring with little or no installation drag. Additionally, larger displacements can be produced to centralize an extremely deviated casing.

  7. Fluoride in drinking water, brick tea infusion and human urine in two counties in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-rong; Liu, Qing-bin; Wang, Wu-yi; Yang, Lin-sheng; Li, Yong-hua; Feng, Fu-jian; Zhao, Xiao-yu; Hou, Kun; Wang, Ge

    2009-08-15

    The objective of this study was to detect the fluoride level in the drinking water and the urine of habitants aged 16-55 years living in Inner Mongolia China. Furthermore, fluoride concentration of the brick tea infusion samples which were drunk by Mongolia herdsmen in everyday life living in SumuErga village of Ejin Horo Banner, Inner Mongolia China was also determined. A total of 117 participants (61 female and 56 male) were recruited from two counties for a cross-sectional study on health effects of chronic fluoride exposure from drinking water and drinking brick tea infusion. The fluoride concentration in drinking water, urine and brick tea infusion samples were determined using fluoride ion selective electrode method obtained from the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China. The average fluoride concentration in drinking water samples was 0.32+/-0.01 mg/L at AretengXire town of Ejin Horo Banner, 0.70+/-0.19 mg/L at SumuErga village of Ejin Horo Banner, and 2.68+/-1.15 mg/L at ZhalaiNuoer district of Manzhouli city. The average fluoride concentration in brick tea infusion samples which collected from Mongolia herdsmen at SumuErga village of Ejin Horo Banner was 1.81+/-1.09 mg/L. The average urinary fluoride concentration at AretengXire town of Ejin Horo Banner was 0.59+/-0.48 mg/L, at SumuErga village of Ejin Horo Banner was 1.45+/-0.93 mg/L and at ZhalaiNuoer district of Manzhouli city was 3.06+/-1.53 mg/L. The higher fluoride levels in the urine of participants may be associated to higher fluoride in drinking water at ZhalaiNuoer of Manzhouli city. However, drinking brick tea infusions with higher fluoride may be the cause of the higher fluoride contents in the Mongolia herdsmen's urine.

  8. The role of hormones in the differences in the incidence of breast cancer between Mongolia and the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Troisi

    Full Text Available There are striking differences in breast cancer incidence between Asian and western women. Rates vary substantially within Asia also, with Mongolia's even lower than China's. These profound differences have been speculated to be due in part to diet, mediated by circulating hormone concentrations.Sex steroid hormone concentrations were measured in women living in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia and the United Kingdom (U.K.. Diet was obtained by interview and national survey data. Mean hormone differences were compared by country, and systematic variation by number of days since last menstrual period was modeled and adjusted for age and parity; difference in overall area under the curves was assessed.The diet in Mongolia was higher in meat and dairy than in the U.K. Mean testosterone concentrations were 18.5% lower (p<0.0001 while estradiol concentrations were 19.1% higher (p = 0.02 in Mongolian than British women, adjusted for age and parity. Progesterone was almost 50% higher in Mongolian women (p = 0.04, particularly during the follicular phase and early luteal surge. Hormone concentrations generally were similar in Mongolian women born in Ulaanbaatar compared with those born in rural areas, although there was a decreasing progesterone trend by degree of westernization (rural Mongolia; urban Mongolia; U.K.. Mean hormone differences were similar when restricted to parous women, and with further adjustment for body mass index, height, and smoking status.These data augment accumulating evidence that circulating estrogens are unlikely to explain reduced breast cancer rates in Asia compared with the west, and suggest casting a wider net with respect to biomarkers. Lower testosterone and higher progesterone in Mongolian women raise the possibility that these hormones may be important to consider. In addition, the almost exclusive dietary reliance of Mongolians on meat and dairy argues against beneficial effects of a low-fat diet on circulating hormones

  9. Observations of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide at Tae-Ahn peninsula (Korea), Mount Waliguan (China), Ulaan Uul (Mongolia) and at Mauna Loa (Hawaii USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y.S. [Korea National Univ. of Education, Chongwon (Korea, Republic of); Tans, P.P.; Conway, T.J.; Dlugokencky, E.J. [Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab., Bouler (United States); Novelli, P.C.; Tolier, M. [Colorado Univ. (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences; Wen, Y. [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing (China); Dagvadorj, D. [Mongolian Hydrometeorological Research Inst., Ulaan Batar (Mongolia)

    1995-12-31

    It has been discussed that the greenhouse gases, e.g. carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) methane (CH{sub 4}), enhance warming in the biosphere. Many scientists are therefore interested in monitoring the minor constituents of the atmosphere and in the carbon cycle. In cooperation with the Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) of U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and carbon monoxide (CO) at the western tip of the Tae-ahn Peninsula (TAP) in central Korea since October 1990 has been measured. Shortly thereafter, two more sites were added for the measurement of greenhouse gases in East Asia; one at Mount Waliguar Qinghai Province (QPC) in China and another at Ulaan Uul (UUM), the Gobi Desert in Mongolia. Also, trace gas data obtained at Mauna Loa (MLO) in Hawaii in the USA has been used. The Hawaiian data represent the world`s longest period of CO{sub 2} monitoring since 1958. The present monitoring is a part of the Global Air Sampling Network the WMO`s Global Atmospheric Watch. The method of collecting and measuring CO{sub 2}, CO and CH{sub 4} have been described else where. Here the four year monitoring of the trace gases at the three sites in East Asia is reported. The results are also compared with the measured values obtained at the free troposphere background site at MLO in Hawaii

  10. The chemistry of river-lake systems in the context of permafrost occurrence (Mongolia, Valley of the Lakes). Part I. Analysis of ion and trace metal concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopińska, Małgorzata; Szumińska, Danuta; Polkowska, Żaneta; Machowiak, Katarzyna; Lehmann, Sara; Chmiel, Stanisław

    2016-07-01

    This study provides a description of water chemistry in river-lake systems located in central Mongolia, at the borderline of permafrost occurrence. The analysis involved water samples collected from two river-lake systems: Baydrag River-Böön Tsagaan Lake system, and Shargalyuut/Tuyn Rivers-Orog Lake system. In the water samples, ions and trace elements were detected and quantified. Additionally, the parameters of pH, electrical conductivity (SEC), total dissolved solids (TDS) and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed on the sample results. Water chemistry is mostly influenced by geochemical and hydrometeorological processes. Permafrost thawing could increase the concentration of nitrogen (NH4+, NO3-) as well as Na+ and Ca2+, Cl- and SO42 -. However, it may also be an effect of other factors such as livestock farming. Seasonal drying out of lakes (e.g., Lake Orog) may also influence water chemistry by deflation of evaporites from exposed lake beds and, at the same time, with lower concentration of chemical compounds in water. The PCA shows that water samples can be divided into two groups. The first group contains lake samples, where water chemistry is shaped by prevailing evaporation processes, whereas the second includes samples from rivers and springs. Water chemistry of the latter is predominantly influenced by geochemical and hydro-meteorological processes.

  11. 内蒙古县域经济的时空变化研究%The temporal and spatial variation of the county economy in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋亮; 白永平; 赵明

    2012-01-01

    以内蒙古旗县(区)为研究尺度,以人均GDP为指标,选取2000年到2010年11年的数据,运用变异系数和ESDA相结合的方法研究内蒙古县域经济的时空变化。研究结果表明:内蒙古县域经济表现为总体上升,差距急剧拉大的特点。县域经济的分布表现为西北高东南低的空间特点,高收入县和发达县主要集中在内蒙古中西部鄂尔多斯和阿拉善盟的资源富集旗县,而贫困区和低收入区主要集中呼伦贝尔、兴安盟的大兴安岭东侧低山丘陵区,西辽河流域的通辽市和赤峰市中部,蛮汉山和大青山交汇处的乌兰察布市区域,具有明显的空间聚集性。%This study is based on the GDP per capita of all counties of Inner Mongolia.The data from 2000 to 2010 was selected,the coefficient and ESDA methods were used to study the temporal and spatial changes of the counties' economy.The results showed that the all counties' economy increased,the gaps among these counties were widened sharply.The spatial distribution of the counties' economy was that the high-income counties were in the northwestern area and the low-income counties were in the southeastern area.High-income counties and developed counties were mainly concentrated in the Erdos and Alashan resource-rich counties,the western of Inner Mongolia.The poverty and low-income areas were mainly concentrated in the eastern of Hulunbeier,Hing'an,the central of Chifeng and Tongliao City,the south of Wulanchabu city,with a significant spatial aggregation.

  12. Triassic to Cenozoic multi-stage intra-plate deformation focused near the Bogd Fault system, Gobi Altai, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douwe J.J. van Hinsbergen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Gobi Altai region of southern Mongolia has been in the Eurasian plate interior since the mid-Mesozoic, yet has experienced episodic phases of deformation since that time. In this paper, we document field evidence to characterize and date the intra-plate tectonic history of the Gobi Altai region from the Triassic to the present. To this end, we provide detailed mapping of the structure and stratigraphy of the eastern flanks of Mt. Ih Bogd that contains the widest variety of rock-time units in the area. We carry out geochronological analysis of basaltic lavas and basement granite in the area. We demonstrate that a crystalline basement with a 502 ± 8 Ma granitoid (U/Pb underwent two phases of basin formation in the Mesozoic, which we date with new 40Ar/39Ar lava ages of 218.5 ± 1.5, 123.2 ± 0.7 and 124.8 ± 1.2 Ma, respectively. Both phases are linked to deposition of fluvio-lacustrine sediments and trap-like basaltic volcanics, with cumulative thicknesses of 1000–1500 m. Both basins were likely north-facing half-grabens that developed under ∼N–S extension, but were subsequently overthrusted by Paleozoic and older crystalline basement during a less well constrained, but likely mid-Cretaceous phase of N–S shortening and basin inversion. Our results are consistent with recent seismic imaging of rift basins ∼100 km to the NE of the study area where a similar history was reconstructed. The multiple phases of intra-plate deformation appear to have parallel structural trends, most likely due to reactivated Paleozoic basement structures created during the original terrane amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt continental crust. This strong basement heterogeneity may predispose it to reactivation, and make it sensitive to changes in the overall stress field of the Eurasian plate driven by forces at its margins and base. Detailed study of Mongolia's multi-stage tectonic history may thus provide a key proxy for the long

  13. Disappearance of Sea Floor of the Paleo-asian Ocean: Geological Evidence from the Dong Ujimqin, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Zhang, T.; Wang, B.; Yu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    It is well accepted that the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) formed by the Paleozoic collision of the Siberia and the North China plates and the simultaneous closure of the Paleo-Asian Sea, but the location of the suture zone is still very debatable. Three proposed hypotheses of where the suture zone is are: Solonker-Sonid Zuoqi-Hegenshan, Ophiolite belt along Solonker-Xar Moron River, and the Main Mongolian Lineament in Mongolia. Our mapping, geochronology and geochemistry work in Dong Ujimqin (about 240 km to the NE of Hegan Shan) support the third hypothesis the best. Paleozoic stratigraphy in the research area was studied in detail. From Ordovician to middle Permian, local stratigraphy from bottom to top includes: Ordovician echinodermmeta fossil bearing crystalline limestone, sandstone and argillite; Middle Devonian coarse grained sandstone and argillite; Lower Middle Permian interlayerred sandstone and siltstone. There is an angular unconformity between the Middle Devonian and the overlying Permian strata. The Permian strata contain fossils of Cathaysia flora which include Cladophlebis sp.1,Cladophlebis sp. 2, Pterophyllum daihoense Kawasaki, Calamites suckowiiBrongniart, Sphenopteris sp., Cladophlebis nystroemii Halle, Cladophlebis ozakii Yabe et Oishi, Emplectopteris triangularis Halle, Lepidophylloides sp., Mariopteris hallei (Stockmans et Mathieu), Cladophlebis manchuica (Kawasaki). Structurally, Ordovian strata thrust over the Middle Devonian from NW to SE, and the Middle Devonian thrust over Upper Devonian from NW to SE too. The strike of the axial plane of the folds associated with the thrusts is NE. Two Carboniferous magmatic belts were discovered in the research area. U-Pb zircon geochronology using LA-ICP-MS gave ages of 325-326Ma and 298-311Ma for the North and South belts respectively. The magamatic activities moved from NW to SE. Whole rock, trace element and REE geochemistry tell us that all these magmatic rocks are of syn

  14. Cathodoluminescence characterization of quartz grains from the Upper Cretaceous of dinosaur fossil localities in the Gobi desert, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneyoshi, M.; Nishido, H.; Masuda, R.; Tsogtbaatar, K.; Chinzorig, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Upper Cretaceous eolian sediments in Mongolia's Gobi desert are one of the most important occurrences of the dinosaurs in the world. Large numbers of confiscated dinosaur fossils illegally worked out by poachers has been stored in the Mongolian Paleontological Center at Ulaanbaatar. In most cases, their localities are unknown. The purpose of this study is to identify their localities by cathodoluminescence (CL) features of quartz grains attached to the dinosaur specimens by comparing to the quartz samples collected from the sediments of circumjacent resources in this area. This study focuses on the confiscated specimen which makes up the nest with the babies' Protoceratops. Most of all Protoceratops in every growth process, have been discovered from the Djadokhta Formation in the Gobi desert. This formation crops out at Tugrikin Shireh and Bayn Dzak in the central part of the Gobi desert, and is derived from medium- to fine-grained sand mainly composed of quartz grains, of which sedimentary environments should be obvious to be eolian. The formation age of the sand beds at Tugrikin Shireh and Bayn Dzak has been estimated to be Middle Campanian. CL spectra of quartz have been demonstrated to show different features between the quartz from hydrothermal, plutonic, volcanic and metamorphic origins, suggesting the spectra reflect the condition of the quartz formation and the local environment. Therefore, we have applied the CL characterization of quartz grains to the evaluation of the provenance of the desert sediments. The quartz grains after sieving (#60-80 mesh size) were embedded in the brass holders with non-luminescent epoxy resin, and their surfaces were polished with 1 μm diamond abrasive. Color CL images obtained by the Luminoscope exhibit blue, violet and red emissions in the grains, suggesting various types of emission centers in the quartz. SEM-CL analysis was conducted using an SEM (JSM-5410) combined with a grating monochromator (Mono CL2) to measure

  15. Triassic to Cenozoic multi-stage intra-plate deformation focused near the Bogd Fault system, Gobi Altai, Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Douwe J.J. van Hinsbergen; Dickson Cunningham; Gijsbert B. Straathof; Morgan Ganerød; Bart W.H. Hendriks; Arjan H. Dijkstra

    2015-01-01

    The Gobi Altai region of southern Mongolia has been in the Eurasian plate interior since the mid-Mesozoic, yet has experienced episodic phases of deformation since that time. In this paper, we docu-ment field evidence to characterize and date the intra-plate tectonic history of the Gobi Altai region from the Triassic to the present. To this end, we provide detailed mapping of the structure and stratigraphy of the eastern flanks of Mt. Ih Bogd that contains the widest variety of rock-time units in the area. We carry out geochronological analysis of basaltic lavas and basement granite in the area. We demonstrate that a crystalline basement with a 502 ? 8 Ma granitoid (U/Pb) underwent two phases of basin formation in the Mesozoic, which we date with new 40Ar/39Ar lava ages of 218.5 ? 1.5, 123.2 ? 0.7 and 124.8 ? 1.2 Ma, respectively. Both phases are linked to deposition of fluvio-lacustrine sediments and trap-like basaltic volcanics, with cumulative thicknesses of 1000e1500 m. Both basins were likely north-facing half-gra-bens that developed under wNeS extension, but were subsequently overthrusted by Paleozoic and older crystalline basement during a less well constrained, but likely mid-Cretaceous phase of NeS shortening and basin inversion. Our results are consistent with recent seismic imaging of rift basins w100 km to the NE of the study area where a similar history was reconstructed. The multiple phases of intra-plate deformation appear to have parallel structural trends, most likely due to reactivated Paleozoic base-ment structures created during the original terrane amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt continental crust. This strong basement heterogeneity may predispose it to reactivation, and make it sensitive to changes in the overall stress field of the Eurasian plate driven by forces at its margins and base. Detailed study of Mongolia’s multi-stage tectonic history may thus provide a key proxy for the long-term dynamics of the Eurasian plate. In

  16. The geology, structure and mineralisation of the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposits, Mongolia:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.M. Mike Porter

    2016-01-01

    The Oyu Tolgoi cluster of seven porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposits in southern Mongolia, define a narrow, linear, 12 km long, almost continuously mineralised trend, which contains in excess of 42 Mt of Cu and 1850 t of Au, and is among the largest high grade porphyry Cu-Au deposits in the world. These deposits lie within the Gurvansayhan island-arc terrane, a fault bounded segment of the broader Silurian to Carboniferous Kazakh-Mongol arc, located towards the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, a collage of magmatic arcs that were periodically active from the late Neoproterozoic to Permo-Triassic, extending from the Urals Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. Mineralisation at Oyu Tolgoi is associated with multiple, overlapping, intrusions of late Devonian (w372 to 370 Ma) quartz-monzodiorite intruding Devonian (or older) juvenile, probably intra-oceanic arc-related, basaltic lavas and lesser volcaniclastic rocks, unconformably overlain by late Devonian (w370 Ma) basaltic to dacitic pyroclastic and volcano sedimentary rocks. These quartz-monzodiorite intrusions range from early-mineral porphyritic dykes, to larger, linear, syn-, late- and post-mineral dykes and stocks. Ore was deposited within syn-mineral quartz-monzodiorites, but is dominantly hosted by augite basalts and to a lesser degree by overlying dacitic pyroclastic rocks. Following ore deposition, an allochthonous plate of older Devonian (or pre-Devonian) rocks was overthrust and a post-ore biotite granodiorite intruded at w365 Ma. Mineralisation is characterised by varying, telescoped stages of intrusion and alteration. Early A-type quartz veined dykes were followed by Cu-Au mineralisation associated with potassic alteration, mainly K-feldspar in quartz-monzodiorite and biotite-magnetite in basaltic hosts. Downward reflux of cooled, late-magmatic hydrothermal fluid resulted in intense quartz-sericite retrograde alteration in the upper parts of the main syn-mineral intrusions, and an equivalent chlorite

  17. "In the driver's seat": the Health Sector Strategic Master Plan as an instrument for aid coordination in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulikpan, Anar; Narula, Indermohan; Malik, Asmat; Hill, Peter

    2014-04-03

    In 2005, the Ministry of Health (MoH) in Mongolia initiated the process of developing its Health Sector Strategic Master Plan (HSSMP), using a wide-ranging consultative process, driven by the MoH, and requiring participation from all levels of health facilities, other ministries, donor agencies and NGOs. Among other objectives, the MoH sought to coordinate the disparate inputs from key donors through the HSSMP, aligning them with the Plan's structure. This research explores the extent to which the HSSMP process served as a mechanism for effective aid coordination while promoting ownership and capacity building and the lessons learned for the wider international development community. The study is based on document review, key-informant interviews and authors' experience and participation in the MoH planning processes. The HSSMP process improved alignment and harmonisation. It enabled a better local understanding of the benefits of aid coordination, and the recognition that aid coordination as not only a mere administrative task, but a strategic step towards comprehensive management of both domestic and external resources. The process was not challenge free; the fractious political environment, the frequent turnover of key MoH staff, the resistance of some donors towards MoH scrutiny over their programmes and the dismantling of the central coordination and return of seconded staff following completion of the HSSMP, has slowed the pace of reform. Despite the challenges, the approach resulted in positive outcomes in the areas of ownership and better aid coordination, with HSSMP development emphasising ownership and capacity building. This contrasted with the usual outcomes focus, and neglect of the capacity building learning processes and structural and policy changes needed to ensure sustainable change. The largest and most influential programmes in the health sector are now largely aligned with HSSMP strategies, enabling the MoH to utilize these opportunities to

  18. Leaching of Silver from Boorchi Ag-Pb Ore in Mongolia with Acidic Thiourea Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nyamdelger Shirchinnamjil; 杨超; 方兆珩

    2008-01-01

    A hydrometalhirgical process to extract silver from the silver-lead ore in Boorchi, Mongolia by using thiourealeaching solution is studied in this work. Through the observation of optical and scanning electron microscopes, and energyspectral analysis, it is determined that 5 kinds of silver minerals exist in the ore, including argentite, Ag-tetrahedrite,Ag-Zn-Sb-tetrahedrite, freibergite and acanthite. The experimental results of direct thiourea leaching of the ore show that56%~60% of silver is leached. The main reason for the low leaching rate is due to silver minerals enveloped in galena andother minerals, even though the ore is ground to the particle size of 75 μm. When the ore is pretreated with ammoniumcarbonate solution under oxidation, the experimental results of thiourea leaching show that the leaching rate of silver increasesto near 75% with the pretreatment. Based on the leaching experiments, a principle hydrometallurgical technological route toextract silver from the Ag-Pb ore is proposed.

  19. Coauthorship Hitchhiking: Indicators and Effects in Scientifi c Development in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazartseren Boldgiv

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about a phenomenon newly called as the “coauthorship hitchhiking,” a term we coined to denote the inclusion of coauthors in peer-reviewed publications without signifi cant intellectual input from these coauthors to the published works. We feel that this phenomenon has become fairly common due to increasing international research interest in Mongolia as international authors include Mongolian researchers as coauthor(s in their publications. Collaborative work is important and indeed required to advance knowledge frontier, but it needs signifi cant input from all coauthors to be a truly collaborative research output, namely a scientifi c publication. Although the coauthorship hitchhiking is benefi cial to career of individual researchers, it is detrimental to overall improvement of scientifi c thinking in the country. The authorship should be limited to those who have substantially contributed to the work and who have a shared responsibility for the results.

  20. Specific Identification of a Taeniid Cestode from Snow Leopard, Uncia uncia Schreber, 1776 (Felidae in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiya Ganzorig

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available An unknown taeniid cestode, resembling Taenia hydatigena, was recovered from a snow leopard, Uncia uncia in Mongolia. Morphology and nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial cytochromec oxidase subunit 1 gene (mt DNA COI ofthe cestode found was examined. The cestode is differed from T hydatigena both morphologically and genetically. The differences between two species were in the gross length, different number of testes, presence of vaginal sphincter and in egg size. The nucleotide sequence of this cestode differed from that of 7: hydatigena at 34 of the 384 (8.6% nucleotide positions examined. The present cestode is very close to 7: kotlani in morphology and size of rostellar hooks. However, the adult stages of the latter species are unknown, and further comparison was unfeasible.

  1. Ore-forming fluid and metallization of the Huanggangliang skarn Fe-Sn deposit, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two kinds of inclusions, fluid-melting inclusion and gas-liquid inclusion, are present in the Huanggangliang deposit in eastern Inner Mongolia. Temperature ranges from 1050℃ of fluid-melting inclusion to 150℃ of liquid inclusion. Away from intrusion, the inclusions of orebodies in-tend to be characterized by simpler type, lower temperature and lower salinity, as well as weakened relation to intrusion. The metallization of the Huanggangliang deposit is characterized by multiple activities of ore-forming fluid, multi-source, multi-stage accumulation of ore-forming material, F-rich environment, enrichment of F, organic gas, CO2 and N2, and involving of residual magma.

  2. The Empidemiology of Wheat Rosette Stunt in Hulunbeir District of Inner—Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangMinghou; LuJun; 等

    1995-01-01

    The virus disease threatening wheat production in Hulunbeir District of Inner-Mongolia was identified as NCMV(Northern Cereal Mosaic Virus)or WRSV(Wheat Rosette Stunt Virus)by test of host range,transmission,virus particle and serology.The main vector for spreading the virus is planthopper,Laodelphax striatellus(Fallen),Which overwinters in the stubbles of wheat underground.The overwintered viruliferous nymphs emerged in late Pril is responsible for the early infection of the disease.Agropyron repens,an important perennial weed in cultivated regions,is also an important wild host of the virus and its vector.Severe loss is induced when wheat is infected before 3-leaf stage.The disease incidence could be predicted by a model with the population and viruliferous rate of overwintered vectors as independent variables.

  3. Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks from a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic agent of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. An investigation of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum as well as Anaplasma platys was conducted in a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia, where ticks are widely distributed and tick-borne diseases are highly endemic. Ticks were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction based on groEL methodology. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 14 (6%) of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and four (1%) Dermacentor nuttalli ticks; infection of Anaplasma platys was detected in 1% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and 10% of Dermacentor nuttalli ticks. The phylogenetic tree showed that the Anaplasma phagocytophilum clustered with the Russian group, most likely due to similar geographical locations. This finding is significant for both veterinary and public health officials given that these agents can cause both animal and human illness.

  4. Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks from a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Javkhlan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic agent of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. An investigation of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum as well as Anaplasma platys was conducted in a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia, where ticks are widely distributed and tick-borne diseases are highly endemic. Ticks were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction based on groEL methodology. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 14 (6% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and four (1% Dermacentor nuttalli ticks; infection of Anaplasma platys was detected in 1% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and 10% of Dermacentor nuttalli ticks. The phylogenetic tree showed that the Anaplasma phagocytophilum clustered with the Russian group, most likely due to similar geographical locations. This finding is significant for both veterinary and public health officials given that these agents can cause both animal and human illness.

  5. Monitoring Grassland Tourist Season of Inner Mongolia, China Using Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quansheng Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenology-driven events, such as spring wildflower displays or fall tree colour, are generally appreciated by tourists for centuries around the world. Monitoring when tourist seasons occur using satellite data has been an area of growing research interest in recent decades. In this paper, a valid methodology for detecting the grassland tourist season using remote sensing data was presented. On average, the beginning, the best, and the end of grassland tourist season of Inner Mongolia, China, occur in late June (±30 days, early July (±30 days, and late July (±50 days, respectively. In south region, the grassland tourist season appeared relatively late. The length of the grassland tourist season is about 90 days with strong spatial trend. South areas exhibit longer tourist season.

  6. Diversity and taxonomy of endophytes from Leymus chinensis in the Inner Mongolia steppe of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min-Jie; Ren, An-Zhi; Wen, Wei; Gao, Yu-Bao

    2013-03-01

    Epichloë species and their anamorphic relatives in genus Neotyphodium are fungal symbionts of grasses ubiquitously existing in temperate regions all over the world. To date, 13 Epichloë species and 22 Neotyphodium species have been formally described, based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analyses. Leymus chinensis (Poaceae) is a dominant grass native to the Inner Mongolia steppe of China. Previously, it was reported to harbor endophytes, but little was known about these endophytes. To investigate their diversity and taxonomy, 96 fungal isolates were obtained from three field populations of L. chinensis. The isolates were classified into three morphotypes based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analyses of sequences of genes for β-tubulin (tubB), translation elongation factor 1-α (tefA), and actin (actG). The dominant morphotype, morphotype I, was identified as a choke disease endophyte, Epichloë bromicola. This broadened the host range and phylogenetic definition of E. bromicola.

  7. New discovery of Palaeontinid fossils from the Middle Jurassic in Daohugou, Inner Mongolia (Homoptera, Palaeontinidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIH; ChungKun

    2007-01-01

    Three new species of fossil Palaeontinidae are described from Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China: Daohugoucossus shii sp. nov., D. parallelivenius sp. nov., D. lii sp. nov. The diagnosis of Dao- hugoucossus Wang, Zhang and Fang, 2006 is revised. These materials are the first complete fossil palaeontinids in the Middle Jurassic of the world. Based on observation of these new specimens, Sc of this new genus has the following combined characters: joined with R at base, diverged near M separa- tion, coalesced with R before the nodal line, extended beyond the nodal line and fused with R1 before distal end. Due to the Sc characteristics mentioned above, the genus Liaocossus Ren, Yin and Dou, 1998 can be well distinguished from “Ilerdocossus-complex”.

  8. The Caustic Alkali-free Water Extraction Agents for Treating Inner Mongolia Oil Sands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Zhibing; Zhang Juntao; Zhang Jie; Liang Shengrong

    2014-01-01

    The caustic alkali-free water extraction agents were studied for treating the oil sands excavated from Inner Mon-golia, China. Several kinds of chemical reagents were evaluated, among which sodium carbonate (SC), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SD) and sodium chloride were conifrmed as composite solutes. Their proportion was optimized by an orthogonal test. The optimum proportion of the composite agent covered 0.03%of SD, 0.50%of sodium chloride, 3.00%of SC, with the rest composed of water. The optimal operating condition was also conifrmed. The oil sands were extracted at the following optimized conditions:a treating time of 15 min, a temperature of 80℃and an extraction agent/feed ratio of 1:1, with the bitumen yield reaching more than 96%. The extraction agent after separation from the bitumen product can be recycled for reuse to carve out a good environmentally friendly route.

  9. Creating a Ruggedness Layer for Use in Habitat Suitability Modeling for Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

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    Nanette Bragin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatially-explicit wildlife habitat models are increasingly used to study optimal habitat for species of conservation focus. A ruggedness layer, that summarizes aspect and slope, provides a useful tool for analyses conducted in a Geographic Information System (GIS, such as developing a habitat suitability index model to measure species habitat use. Ruggedness layers prove especially useful in areas where topography represents a key habitat component. We created a ruggedness layer for the Ikh Nart Nature Reserve and surrounding areas in northern Dornogobi Aimag (province, Mongolia. Using a 90 m Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation model (DEM and ArcGIS 10 spatial analyst, we created 9 categories for ruggedness. When combined with other thematic layers such as vegetation, the ruggedness layer becomes a powerful tool for analyzing habitat use by individual animals. The results of such analyses may inform decision makers in protected area planning and conservation of endangered species.

  10. Ediacarian sponge spicule clusters from southwestern Mongolia and the origins of the Cambrian fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasier, Martin; Green, Owen; Shields, Graham

    1997-04-01

    Carbon and strontium isotopic data are used to show that the earliest sponge spicule clusters and associated phosphatic sediments (with Anabarites) from southwestern Mongolia are of Ediacarian age. Spicule morphologies include bundles of oxeas arranged in three-dimensional quadrules, linked together at junctions by tetracts, pentacts, hexacts, or polyactines. All are referred to the Phylum Porifera, Class Hexactinellida. These sponge spicules provide the oldest remains that can be assigned without question to an extant phylum, and also the first firm evidence for filter feeding and metazoan silica biomineralization in the fossil record. It is suggested that siliceous and phosphatic members of the “Cambrian fauna” may have had their origins in eutrophic and outer shelf facies of the Late Proterozoic.

  11. PIXE analysis of heavy metals in water samples from a mining area in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolormaa, Oyuntsetseg; Baasansuren, Jamsranjav; Kawasaki, Katsunori; Watanabe, Makiko; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    The affect of mining activity on the environment has been long of public concern. The present paper deals with chemical analysis of the Boroo River water samples collected in mining area of Mongolia focusing the determination of heavy metal contents by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The samples were prepared by preconcentration method (water samples treated to form metal-dibenzyldithiocarbamate (DBDTC) complexes and collected on a nuclepore track-etch membrane filter) and irradiated by 2.5 MeV proton beam from the single-end type Van de Graaff accelerator. The accuracy of the results was proved by using certified river water samples. The total dispersions of experimental procedure were evaluated by variance analysis.

  12. PIXE analysis of heavy metals in water samples from a mining area in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolormaa, Oyuntsetseg [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)]. E-mail: bolormaa@n.cc.titech.ac.jp; Baasansuren, Jamsranjav [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kawasaki, Katsunori [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Watanabe, Makiko [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Hattori, Toshiyuki [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    The affect of mining activity on the environment has been long of public concern. The present paper deals with chemical analysis of the Boroo River water samples collected in mining area of Mongolia focusing the determination of heavy metal contents by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The samples were prepared by preconcentration method (water samples treated to form metal-dibenzyldithiocarbamate (DBDTC) complexes and collected on a nuclepore track-etch membrane filter) and irradiated by 2.5 MeV proton beam from the single-end type Van de Graaff accelerator. The accuracy of the results was proved by using certified river water samples. The total dispersions of experimental procedure were evaluated by variance analysis.

  13. Effects of introducing energy recovery processes to the municipal solid waste management system in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshiki, Kosuke; Giang, Pham Quy; Serrona, Kevin Roy B; Sekikawa, Takahiro; Yu, Jeoung-soo; Choijil, Baasandash; Kunikane, Shoichi

    2015-02-01

    Currently, most developing countries have not set up municipal solid waste management systems with a view of recovering energy from waste or reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this article, we have studied the possible effects of introducing three energy recovery processes either as a single or combination approach, refuse derived fuel production, incineration and waste power generation, and methane gas recovery from landfill and power generation in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, as a case study. We concluded that incineration process is the most suitable as first introduction of energy recovery. To operate it efficiently, 3Rs strategies need to be promoted. And then, RDF production which is made of waste papers and plastics in high level of sorting may be considered as the second step of energy recovery. However, safety control and marketability of RDF will be required at that moment.

  14. Infection with hepatitis A, B, C, and delta viruses among patients with acute hepatitis in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsralt-Od, Bira; Takahashi, Masaharu; Endo, Kazunori; Buyankhuu, Osorjin; Baatarkhuu, Oidov; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2006-05-01

    One hundred ten consecutive patients (60 males and 50 females; age, mean +/- standard deviation [SD], 22.6 +/- 6.4 years; range 16-48 years) who were clinically diagnosed with sporadic acute hepatitis between December 2004 and January 2005 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, were studied. IgM antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected in 18 patients (16.4%), IgM antibodies to hepatitis B core (anti-HBc IgM) in 38 patients (34.5%) including two patients with concurrent hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection, and hepatitis C virus RNA in nine patients (8.2%). There were 30 hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers who had detectable hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to HDV but were negative for anti-HBc IgM, suggesting that they acquired type D acute hepatitis due to superinfection of HDV on a background of chronic HBV infection. None had IgM antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV). Consequently, 16.4, 32.7, 6.4, 1.8, and 27.3% of the patients were diagnosed as having acute hepatitis of type A, B, C, type B + D (HBV/HDV coinfection), and type D (superinfection of HDV), respectively. The cause of hepatitis was not known in the remaining 17 patients (15.5%). All 18 HAV isolates were genotyped as IA, all 9 HCV isolates were genotyped as 1b, and all 32 HDV isolates were classified into genotype I. The distribution of HBV genotypes among the 67 HBV isolates was A (1.5%, n = 1) and D (98.5%, n = 66). The present study indicates that de novo infections of HAV, HBV, HCV, and HDV are prevalent among young adults in Mongolia. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Perspectives on Hydro-Climatic Change in Rivers Sourced From the Khangai Mountains, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, N. B.; Fassnacht, S. R.; Tumenjargal, S.; Batbuyan, B.; Odgarav, J.; Sukhbataar, J.; Fernandez-Gimenez, M.; Adyabadam, G.

    2012-12-01

    Patterns of pastoralism have shaped the Mongolian countryside throughout history. These patterns are largely dictated by seasonal and extreme climate and water conditions. While change has always been a part of the traditional herder lifestyle, the magnitude and variety of impacts imposed by natural and human-induced changes in the last few decades has increased, negatively affecting the coupled natural-human systems of Mongolia. Regional hydrologic impacts from increased mining, irrigation, urbanization, and climate change are challenging to measure and model due to sparse and relatively short meteorological and hydrological records. Characterization of the variability inherent in Mongolian hydrological systems in the international literature remains limited. To quantify recent changes to these systems, several river basins near the Khangai Mountains were analyzed. These basins adjoin and include community-based managed and non-managed grazing lands under study as part of an ongoing National Science Foundation Coupled Natural and Human Systems (NSF-CNH) project. Statistically significant increasing temperatures and decreasing streamflows in the study areas support herder's perceptions of hydro-climatic changes and variability. The results of basin characterization combined with water balance modeling and trend analyses illustrate the future potential for further change in these hydro-climatic systems. Alternate land-uses and herder lifestyle modifications may amplify impacts from climatic change. Recent fieldwork also revealed complex surface-groundwater interactions in some areas that may affect model outcomes. Future explorations of longer-term variability through the use of proxies and the development of hydrologic scenarios will place the current basin analyses in context to more fully assess possible impacts to the hydrologic-human systems of Mongolia.

  16. Soil organic matter dynamics under different land-use in grasslands in Inner Mongolia (northern China

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    L. Zhao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined bulk soil properties and molecular biomarker distributions in surface soils from Inner Mongolia grasslands in order to understand the responses of soil organic matter to different land-use. The total of sixteen soils were collected from severely degraded grassland by overgrazing (DG, native grassland without apparent anthropogenic disturbance (NG, groundwater-sustaining grassland (GG and restored grassland from previous potato cropland (RG. Compared to NG, soil organic carbon content was lower by 50% in DG, but higher by six-fold in GG and one-fold in RG. The δ13C values of soil organic carbon were −24.2 ± 0.6‰ in DG, −24.9 ± 0.6‰ in NG, −25.1 ± 0.1‰ in RG and −26.2 ± 0.6‰ in GG, reflecting different degradation degrees of soil organic matter or different water use efficiencies. The soils in DG contained the lowest abundance of aliphatic lipids (n-alkanes, n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, ω-hydroxylalkanoic acids and α-hydroxylalkanoic acids and lignin-phenols, suggesting selective removal of these biochemically recalcitrant biomarkers with grassland degradation by microbial respiration or wind erosion. Compared to NG, the soils in GG and RG increased ω-hydroxylalkanoic acids by 60–70%, a biomarker for suberin from roots, and increased α-hydroxylalkanoic acids by 10–20%, a biomarker for both cutin and suberin. Our results demonstrate that the groundwater supply and cultivation-restoration practices in Inner Mongolia grasslands not only enhance soil organic carbon sequestration, but also change the proportions of shoot vs. root-derived carbon in soils. This finding has important implications for global carbon cycle since root derived aliphatic carbon has a longer residence time than the aboveground tissue-derived carbon in soils.

  17. Soil organic matter dynamics under different land-use in grasslands in Inner Mongolia (northern China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Wu, W.; Xu, X.; Xu, Y.

    2014-04-01

    We examined bulk soil properties and molecular biomarker distributions in surface soils from Inner Mongolia grasslands in order to understand the responses of soil organic matter to different land-use. The total of sixteen soils were collected from severely degraded grassland by overgrazing (DG), native grassland without apparent anthropogenic disturbance (NG), groundwater-sustaining grassland (GG) and restored grassland from previous potato cropland (RG). Compared to NG, soil organic carbon content was lower by 50% in DG, but higher by six-fold in GG and one-fold in RG. The δ13C values of soil organic carbon were -24.2 ± 0.6‰ in DG, -24.9 ± 0.6‰ in NG, -25.1 ± 0.1‰ in RG and -26.2 ± 0.6‰ in GG, reflecting different degradation degrees of soil organic matter or different water use efficiencies. The soils in DG contained the lowest abundance of aliphatic lipids (n-alkanes, n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, ω-hydroxylalkanoic acids and α-hydroxylalkanoic acids) and lignin-phenols, suggesting selective removal of these biochemically recalcitrant biomarkers with grassland degradation by microbial respiration or wind erosion. Compared to NG, the soils in GG and RG increased ω-hydroxylalkanoic acids by 60-70%, a biomarker for suberin from roots, and increased α-hydroxylalkanoic acids by 10-20%, a biomarker for both cutin and suberin. Our results demonstrate that the groundwater supply and cultivation-restoration practices in Inner Mongolia grasslands not only enhance soil organic carbon sequestration, but also change the proportions of shoot vs. root-derived carbon in soils. This finding has important implications for global carbon cycle since root derived aliphatic carbon has a longer residence time than the aboveground tissue-derived carbon in soils.

  18. Animals Good for Healing: On Experiences with Folk Healers in Inner Mongolia (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Knecht

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Peter Knecht. 2015. Animals Good for Healing: On Experiences with Folk Healers in Inner Mongolia (China in Gerald Roche, Keith Dede, Fernanda Pirie, and Benedict Copps (eds Asian Highlands Perspectives 37 Centering the Local, A Festschrift for Dr. Charles Kevin Stuart on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, 138-167. The opportunity for fieldwork with shamans in northeastern Inner Mongolia, together with experienced colleagues, came as a windfall, causing me contradictory feelings. On the one hand it was a pleasant surprise, because it promised the fulfillment of a dream I had long nurtured. On the other hand, however, it made me painfully aware of the limits for my work. Limits in time, because I could not use more than a few weeks each year, and limits in communication, because I lacked practically any knowledge of Chinese or Mongolian. I could not change the problem of limited time, but I was fortunate enough to find a good interpreter. His help went a long way to solve at least part of my linguistic problem. In addition, the fact that he was a Mongol proved instrumental in opening many doors to us. Furthermore, he had a great number of friends and acquaintances in the area, something that turned out to be an invaluable asset, because these people gracefully agreed to support us in many ways and at every stage of my fieldwork. Nevertheless, my linguistic handicap was not completely overcome. For that reason, explanations I can offer for actions I have observed may often remain unsatisfactory. However, I will make an effort to describe as truthfully as possible what I have observed in the hope of making up at least in part for my lacunae.

  19. A socio-ecological survey in Jalantai Area, Alxa League, Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Orioli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns with new and traditional practises in agriculture in Alxa League in the Inner Mongolia of China. For such a purpose, the DISPAA Department of University of Florence (Italy collaborated with the University of Tuscia (Italy, which has been one of the Italian executives for the Beijing Wind Dust Control Project under the framework of the Sino-Italian Cooperation Programme on Environmental Protection. In the context of ADAM Project, the Inner Mongolia was indicated as a potential hot-spot due to the combination of climatic change, human activities and the general phenomenon of desertification, which is an ongoing process in this area. During the past centuries, arid and semi-arid general environmental characteristics of Inner Mongolia’s landscape have conditioned the main course of economic development in rural areas. Into the Alxa League, a sub-case study situated around Jarantai City in the Alxa Left Banner was selected. During 2005-06, the work analysed the agricultural activities of the local rural population to evaluate if these might be able to cope with desertification and, more in general, with climatic change impacts. In particular, field surveys were implemented among local peasants, which were old herders or new farmers immigrated in the area, following a non-structured interview approach where the length of the interview was calibrated on the characteristics of the single interviewed. The interviews showed that soil fertility and water requirement (e.g. water drawdown and high evaporation rate that cause superficial salt crust formation are yet the main constraints to social and economic development of agriculture.

  20. Factors associated with skipping breakfast among Inner Mongolia Medical students in China

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    Sun Juan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies on the breakfast consumption habits of medical students in China have been carried out. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of skipping breakfast and factors associated with skipping breakfast among medical students in Inner Mongolia of China, and to assist in the design of interventions to improve breakfast consumption habits of medical college students in this region. Methods From December 2010 to January 2011 a cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical students in the Inner Mongolia Medical College using a self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of skipping breakfast in relation to lifestyle habits was described and factors associated with breakfast consumption were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The overall prevalence of skipping breakfast was 41.7% and 23.5% for males and females, respectively. The Faculty of Medicine Information Management had the highest breakfast skipping prevalence. Logistic regression models found that the main factors associated with breakfast consumption habits among medical students were gender, class years of education, monthly expenses, faculty, appetite, sleeping quality, and the learning process; monthly expenses, sleeping quality, and the learning process showed a dose-dependent relationship. Conclusions Breakfast consumption was associated with many factors, most importantly monthly expenses, sleeping quality and the learning process. The prevalence of skipping breakfast is significantly higher compared recently reported figures for medical students in western countries and other areas of China. Improvement of breakfast education should be considered for students in which higher monthly expenses, poor sleeping quality, or a laborious learning process have been identified.

  1. New coxsackievirus B4 genotype circulating in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

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    Xiaoling Tian

    Full Text Available Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD surveillance was initiated in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China in 2007, a crucial scrutiny for monitoring the prevalence of enterovirus serotypes associated with HFMD patients. However, this surveillance mostly focused on enterovirus 71 (EV-A71 and coxsackievirus A16; therefore, information on other enterovirus serotypes is limited. To identify the other circulating enterovirus serotypes in the HFMD outbreaks in Inner Mongolia in 2010, clinical samples from HFMD patients were investigated. Six coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4 strains were isolated and phylogenetic analyses of VP1 sequences were performed. Full-length genome sequences of two representative CVB4 isolates were acquired and similarity plot and bootscanning analyses were performed. The phylogenetic dendrogram indicated that all CVB4 strains could be divided into 5 genotypes (Genotypes I-V with high bootstrap support (90-100%. The CVB4 prototype strain (JVB was the sole member of genotype I. CVB4 strains belonging to genotype II, which were once common in Europe and the Americas, seemingly disappeared and gave way to genotype III and IV strains, which appear to be the dominant circulating strains in the world. All Chinese CVB4 strains belonged to Genotype V, a newly identified genotype supported by a high bootstrap value (100%, and are circulating only in mainland of China. Intertypic recombination occurred in the Chinese CVB4 strains with novel unknown serotype EV-B donor sequences. Two Chinese CVB4 strains had a virulent residue at position 129 of VP1, and one strain also had a virulent residue at position 16 of VP4. Increased surveillance is needed to monitor the emergence of new genetic lineages of enteroviruses in areas that are often associated with large-scale outbreaks. In addition, continued monitoring of enteroviruses by clinical surveillance and genetic characterization should be enhanced.

  2. Late Paleozoic low-angle southward-dipping thrust in the Züünharaa area, Mongolia: tectonic implications for the geological structures in the Sayan-Baikal and Hangai-Daur belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onon, Gantumur; Tsukada, Kazuhiro

    2017-02-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is key to understanding the Paleozoic-Mesozoic geodynamics of Eurasian continent. The geological structure of the Middle-to-Late Paleozoic rock units in the North Mongolia-West Transbaikal region is critical in revealing development process of CAOB. The region is largely comprised of rocks from the continental affinity and accretionary complexes which form the Sayan-Baikal (SB) and Hangai-Daur (HD) belts. This paper describes the lithology, stratigraphy, geological structure, and U-Pb age of the rocks in the Züünharaa area, which is located within the Haraa terrane of the HD belt in Mongolia. We identified a regional low-angle southward-dipping thrust in this area. The tectonic implication of the low-angle south-dipping thrust is discussed within the North Mongolia-West Transbaikal region. The study area exposes metamorphosed clastic rocks of the Haraa Group intruded by Ordovician-Silurian granitic rocks, Devonian felsic volcanic rocks of the Ulaan Öndör Formation, and Visean clastic rocks of the Örmögtei Formation in ascending order. The Haraa Group, granitic rock, and Ulaan Öndör Formation are cut by the low-angle southward-dipping thrust throughout this area. The rocks along the thrust are fractured to form cataclasite zone up to 40 m wide. The thrust includes granite-rhyolite clast of 450-420 Ma, and is unconformably covered by Visean Örmögtei Formation. Therefore, thrusting occurred after Ordovician-Silurian and before Visean. Late Paleozoic low-angle southward-dipping thrusts, similar to the present study, are widely distributed in the Haraa terrane of the Hangai-Daur belt and in terranes of the Sayan-Baikal belt. Whereas, the contemporaneous southeast-verging composite folds and northward-dipping thrusts are developed in the accretionary complexes, which are exposed at south of the Haraa terrane. These contrasting structures suggest a couple of "landward-verging" and "oceanward-verging" structures and may

  3. Home Range Characteristics and Habitat Selection by Daurian Hedgehogs ( Mesechinus dauuricus in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirka Zapletal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined home range characteristics and habitat selection of Daurian hedgehogs in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia. Home ranges of hedgehogs varied from 113.15 ha to 2,171.97 ha, and were larger in early summer than late summer. Hedgehogs showed relative preference for rocky outcrops and low-density shrub habitats, and relative avoidance of high- density shrub areas. Habitat selection also changed between early and late summer, shifting to greater use of low-density shrub areas and decreased use of forb-dominated short grass. Our baseline data on home ranges and habitat selection expand understanding of hedgehog ecology and provide guidance for future management decisions in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve and elsewhere in Mongolia.

  4. Practice and Exploration of Leisure Agriculture Construction in Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, HuaiDong; Li, Ming; Hao, Lazhu; Ge, Maoyue

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces the basic information about Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park, and the practice concerning leisure agriculture; summarizes the experience obtained. Finally, some ideas are put forth for further construction and development of leisure agriculture in science and technology park as follows: making unified layout and rational planning; integrating the local tourism resources, to establish the system of leisure agriculture; creating...

  5. ANALYZING HLA HAPLOTYPE OF THE LOCI HLA-A, -B, AND -DRB1 IN MONGOLIA ETHNIC GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hongbo; Li Shengbin

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate HLA-A,-B and -DRB1 allele and HLA-A-B-DRB1 haplotype frequencies in Mongolia ethnic group. Methods HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 allele and haplotype in the Mongolia ethnic group were investigated based on 93 individuals by PCR- sequence-based typing (SBT) method. Results Twenty-one alleles were detected for HLA-A, 44 for HLA-B, and 26 for HLA-DRB1. The most frequent alleles were HLA-A*2402(0.2097), HLA-B*1302(0.0699), and HLA-DRB1*0701(0.1237). The most common HLA-A-B-DRB1 haplotype were A*3001-B*1302-DRB1*0701, A*0101-B*3701-DRB1*1001, followed by the A*0201-B*4601-DRB1*0901, A*2402-B*4801-DRB1*1101, A*2402-B*5201-DRB1*1501, A*3201-B*3503-DRB1*1301, and A*3303-B*5801-DRB1*0301, which were also presented in Chinese populations. Conclusion The data can be used in forensic and paternity tests to estimate the frequency of a DNA profile or anthropologic research. The characteristics of the distribution of HLA alleles revealed that Mongolia ethnic group is characterized by northern Mongolian Chinese.

  6. Impacts of Open Placer Gold Mining on Aquatic Communities in Rivers of the Khentii Mountains, North-East Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Krätz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the political change and due to high market prices for gold the mining sector has consid- erably grown in Mongolia and has become one of the most important economical sectors. With in- creasing mining activities the mining related environmental problems also increased, especially those, which are caused by open placer gold mining. Placer gold deposits are located in the alluvial sedi- ments of river fl oodplains and the exploitation of these deposits often induces severe impacts to river ecosystem and its different components. In this paper we describe the effects of open placer gold min- ing on diatoms, benthic invertebrates and fi sh in four rivers in the north-east of Mongolia. Our fi ndings are based on a comparative analysis of these biocoenotic groups in pristine and mining affected river sections, taking into account also abiotic habitat characteristics. Our analyses revealed that placer gold mining causes multiple stressors acting on different trophic levels. The biocoenotic groups under in- vestigation reacted differently against stressors, and we indentifi ed a wide range of direct and indirect effects. These fi ndings are new for Mongolia and are essential to defi ne adapted and successful strate- gies for an ecologically based management and monitoring of open placer gold mining pressures and ecological impacts.

  7. Strategies to alleviate poverty and grassland degradation in Inner Mongolia: intensification vs production efficiency of livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briske, David D; Zhao, Mengli; Han, Guodong; Xiu, Changbai; Kemp, David R; Willms, Walter; Havstad, Kris; Kang, Le; Wang, Zhongwu; Wu, Jianguo; Han, Xingguo; Bai, Yongfei

    2015-04-01

    Semi-nomadic pastoralism was replaced by sedentary pastoralism in Inner Mongolia during the 1960's in response to changes in land use policy and increasing human population. Large increases in numbers of livestock and pastoralist households (11- and 9-fold, respectively) during the past 60 yrs have variously degraded the majority of grasslands in Inner Mongolia (78 M ha) and jeopardize the livelihoods of 24 M human inhabitants. A prevailing strategy for alleviating poverty and grassland degradation emphasizes intensification of livestock production systems to maintain both pastoral livelihoods and large livestock numbers. We consider this strategy unsustainable because maximization of livestock revenue incurs high supplemental feed costs, marginalizes net household income, and promotes larger flock sizes to create a positive feedback loop driving grassland degradation. We offer an alternative strategy that increases both livestock production efficiency and net pastoral income by marketing high quality animal products to an increasing affluent Chinese economy while simultaneously reducing livestock impacts on grasslands. We further caution that this strategy be designed and assessed within a social-ecological framework capable of coordinating market expansion for livestock products, sustainable livestock carrying capacities, modified pastoral perceptions of success, and incentives for ecosystem services to interrupt the positive feedback loop that exists between subsistence pastoralism and grassland degradation in Inner Mongolia.

  8. Molecular analysis of hepatitis A virus strains obtained from patients with acute hepatitis A in Mongolia, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsralt-Od, Bira; Baasanjav, Nachin; Nyamkhuu, Dulmaa; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Tominari; Nagashima, Shigeo; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    Despite the high endemicity of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in Mongolia, the genetic information on those HAV strains is limited. Serum samples obtained from 935 patients with acute hepatitis in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia during 2004-2013 were tested for the presence of HAV RNA using reverse transcription-PCR with primers targeting the VP1-2B region (481 nucleotides, primer sequences at both ends excluded). Overall, 180 patients (19.3%) had detectable HAV RNA. These 180 isolates shared 94.6-100% identity and formed four phylogenetic clusters within subgenotype IA. One or three representative HAV isolates from each cluster exhibited 2.6-3.9% difference between clusters over the entire genome. Cluster 1 accounted for 65.0% of the total, followed by Cluster 2 (30.6%), Cluster 3 (3.3%), and Cluster 4 (1.1%). Clusters 1 and 2 were predominant throughout the observation period, whereas Cluster 3 was undetectable in 2009 and 2013 and Cluster 4 became undetectable after 2009. The Mongolian HAV isolates were closest to those of Chinese or Japanese origin (97.7-98.5% identities over the entire genome), suggesting the evolution from a common ancestor with those circulating in China and Japan. Further molecular epidemiological analyses of HAV infection are necessary to investigate the factors underlying the spread of HAV and to implement appropriate prevention measures in Mongolia.

  9. Paleomagnetic study on orogenic belt:An example from Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks,Inner Mongolia,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN; Shoumai; ZHU; Rixiang; HUANG; Baochun; ZHANG; Fuqin

    2004-01-01

    We report paleomagnetic results for Early Cretaceous lava flows collected from the Suhongtu area of Inner Mongolia, the middle part of the Tianshan-Mongolia Fold Belt (TMFB).Rock-magnetic experiments for different lava flows indicate that the main magnetic mineral is pseudo-single-domain (PSD) magnetite. The characteristic high-temperature remanence component is isolated by thermal demagnetization temperature steps between 300℃ and 585℃,which yields a mean direction of D= 23.6°, /= 56.0° with α95 = 2.3°. We interpret this high-temperature remanence component as primary magnetization based mainly upon the petrographic analysis, which shows that the shape of magnetite crystal is relatively rounded square or polygon without internal reflection and deuterogenous phenomenon. The corresponding pole of the high-temperature remanence component is at 71.1°N, 200.5°E with A95 = 2.7°.This Early Cretaceous pole is in good agreement with those for Siberia, North China, and Inner Mongolia, suggesting that these continental blocks had already sutured together in the Early Cretaceous, which would further provide constraints on better understanding of the formation and evolution of the TMFB.

  10. Composition of lactic acid bacteria in dairy products and their effect on tourism development of inner Mongolia

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    Min Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of dairy industry in Inner Mongolia has accelerated its economic growth, and its grassland culture has become appealing to the public. As an important support industry for the economic development in tourism area of Inner Mongolia, dairy industry can create economic value for the development of tourism. In view of the importance of dairy products-the habitat of lactic acid bacteria, this study aims to reveal the composition of lactic acid bacteria in dairy products and isolate lactic acid bacteria resources. Firstly, we selected 60 traditional dairy product samples (from the pasture in scenic area of Inner Mongolia as the research objects. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, lactic acid bacteria in the samples were isolated and identified; Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR technology was applied to the comparative analysis on the population of dominant bacteria in samples. It was found that there were significant differences in the numbers of dominant bacteria in different dairy products. With the advantages of improving nutritional value and extending storage time of dairy products, lactic acid bacteria is contributive to the development of dairy industry, which further promotes the prosperity of economy and tourism. Therefore, it is of great importance to study the composition of lactic acid bacteria in dairy products.

  11. 中蒙两国治疗 AECOPD 药物分析%Drug utilization review of AECOPD patients in China and Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉布胡兰; 蒙龙; 丁选胜; 方芸

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析比较中国、蒙古国两国慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期(AECOPD)患者的用药情况,为临床合理用药提供依据.方法 收集2009-2010年南京大学医学院附属鼓楼医院(中国)和国家中央医院(蒙古国)呼吸科的AECOPD病历,对患者情况和治疗药物的使用情况进行统计分析,并依照慢性阻塞性肺疾病全球创议评价两院治疗AECOPD所用药品的合理性和安全性.结果 鼓楼医院和国家中央医院两年内共有1052人次(695 vs 357)入院,其中接受支气管扩张剂,磷酸二酯酶抑制剂,糖皮质激素和抗菌药治疗的比率分别为87.1% vs 80.1%,82.9% vs 78.43%,54.7% vs 73.1%,98.5% vs 82.07%.在抗感染治疗方面,鼓楼医院使用的抗菌药等级较高,疗程更长,但抗感染失败率和住院天数更长.结论 两院药品的使用基本合理,但是仍存在磷酸二酯酶抑制剂和抗菌药使用过多,糖皮质激素使用偏少等问题.%Objective To compare the drugs for treatment of AECOPD patients in China and Mongolia, so as to provide a basis for clinical rational drug use. Methods We retrospectively analyzed medical records of acute exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease( AECOPD )hospitalized patients in Drum Tower Hospital, China and State Central Hospital, Mongolia, from January 2009 to December 2010. Treatment was evaluated according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease( GOLD ). Results The study involved 1052 patient records, including 695 records identified in Drum Tower Hospital and 357 in State Central Hospital. Clinicians prescribed bronchodilators in 87. 1% cases, methybcanthines in 82. 9% cases,steroids in 54. 7% cases, and antibiotics in 98. 5% cases in Drum Tower Hospital. But,a total prescription in State Central Hospital was bronchodilators in 80. 1% cases,methybcanthines in 78. 4% cases,steroids in 73. 1% cases,and antibiotics in 82. 1% cases. Conclusion Although clinical treatment of AECOPD was

  12. Centralized Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

      With the complexities surrounding the choice of decentralized vs. centralized labs, as well as the most optimal use of biomarkers in clinical trials, choosing the right lab or CRO partner is paramount...

  13. Geodynamics of Cenozoic deformation in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the tectonic stresses in central Asia based on an interpretation of satellite gravity data for mantle convection and supplemented with published fault plane solutions of earthquakes. Northwest-southeast to north-south compressional stresses exist in the Tien Shan region where reverse faulting dominates. The maximum compressive stress is oriented approximately northeast-southwest in the regions of Altai and southern Mongolia. Farther north, compressive stress gives way to tensional stress which causes normal faulting in the Baikal rift system. It is also shown that all of the tectonic stresses in the Tibetan plateau and Himalayan frontal thrust are related to the convection-generated stress patterns inferred from satellite gravity data. These results suggest that the complex crustal deformation in central Asia can be convincingly described by the deformation of the lithosphere on top of the up- and down-welling asthenospheric material beneath it. This observational fact may not only upset the simple view of the fluid crustal model of the Tibetan plateau, but also provide some useful constraints for the future development of deformation theory of continental crust.

  14. Prevalence of birth defects and risk-factor analysis from a population-based survey in Inner Mongolia, China

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    Zhang Xingguang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth Defects are a series of diseases that seriously affect children's health. Birth defects are generally caused by several interrelated factors. The aims of the article is to estimate the prevalence rate and types of birth defects in Inner Mongolia, China, to compare socio-demographic characteristics among the children with birth defects and to analyze the association between risk factors and birth defects. Methods Data used in this study were obtained through baseline survey of Inner Mongolia Birth Defects Program, a population-based survey conducted from 2005 to 2008. The survey used cluster sampling method in all 12 administrative districts of Inner Mongolia. Sampling size is calculated according to local population size at a certain percentage. All live births, stillbirths and abortions born from October 2005 to September 2008, whose families lived in Inner Mongolia at least one year, were included. The cases of birth defects were diagnosed by the clinical doctors according to their experiences with further laboratory tests if needed. The inclusion criteria of the cases that had already dead were decided according to death records available at local cites. We calculated prevalence rate and 95% confidence intervals of different groups. Outcome variable was the occurrence of birth defects and associations between risk factors and birth defects were analyzed by using Poisson regression analysis. Results 976 children with birth defects were diagnosed. The prevalence rate of birth defects was 156.1 per 10000 births (95%CI: 146.3-165.8. The prevalence rate of neural tube defect (20.1 per 10000 births including anencephaly(6.9 per 10000, spina bifida (10.6 per 10000, and encephalocele (2.7 per 10000 was the highest, followed by congenital heart disease (17.1 per 10000. The relative risk (RR for maternal age less than 25 was 2.22 (95%CI: 2.05, 2.41. The RR of the ethnic Mongols was lower than Han Chinese (RR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0

  15. [Determination of inorganic elements in five kinds of Mongolia medicines by high pressure sealed microwave digestion-ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara; Zhaorigetu; Dong, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Jing-Xia

    2008-07-01

    Five kinds of Mongolia medicines, Eridun-Urile, Deduhonghuaqiweiwan, Tonglage-5, Uzhumu-7 and Geiwang-9 are digested with HNO3-HClO4 system by high pressure system-sealed Microwave Digestion. The 17 inorganic elements content of magnesium, aluminum, calcium, chromium, manganese, ferrum, cobalt, nickel, copper, zincum, arsenic, selenium, strontium, molybdenum, silver, cadmium, plumbum in the solution are determined by ICP-AES. The results are proved to be reliable by adding standard recovery experiment. The recovery is 97.48%-103.01% for Mg, 102.71%-105.60% for Al, 102.00%-105.53% for Ca, 98.78%-100.34% for Cr, 101.93%-104.65% for Mn, 100.34%-104.51% for Fe, 103.13%-105.46% for Co, 100.07%-103.22% for Ni, 97.25%-99.06% for Cu, 98.57%-100.10% for Zn, 102.35%-105.37% for As, 100.24%-104.59% for Se, 99.19%-102.70% for Sr, 103.35%-105.78% for Mo, 99.65%-101.32% for Ag, 102.73%-105.32% for Cd, and 104.76%-106.35% for Pb by this method. The relative standard deviation is less than 3.3% for all the elements. And the method has high accuracy and good precision The determination results indicate that the content of element in Five Kinds of Mongolia Medicines is 0-15 microg x g(-1) for Cd, Ag, As, Pb, Co, Ni, Cu; 15-100 microg x g(-1) for Mo, Se, Zn, Cr; 100-3 000 microg x g(-1) for Mn, Sr, Fe, Mg, Al; 3 000-8 000 microg x g(-1) for Ca. Among of the five kinds of mongolia medicines, the content of elements has great differences. The order is Ca > Mg > Al > Fe > Mn > Sr > Se > Zn > Mo > Cu > Pb > As >Cr > Ni > Co > Cd > Ag for Eridun-Urile; Ca > Al > Fe > Mg > Mn > Sr > Se > Mo > Zn > Ni > Cr > Cu > Pb > As > Co > Cd > Ag for Deduhonghuaqiweiwan; Ca > Fe > Mg > Al > Mn > Sr > Se > Zn > Mo > Cr > Ni > Cu > Pb > As > Co > Cd > Ag for Tonglage-5, Ca > Al > Mg > Fe > Sr > Mn > Se > Zn > Co > Mo > Cr > Cu > Pb > As > Ag > Ni > Cd for Uzhumu-7 and Mg > Ca > Al > Fe > Se > Mn > Zn > Sr > Mo > Cu > Cr > Pb >As > Ag > Co = Cd = Ni for Geiwang-9. The content of common elements Ca, Mg

  16. Effects of Grazing Intensity on Soil Water Regime and Flux in Inner Mongolia Grassland, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Lei; PENG Xin-Hua; S.PETH; R.HORN

    2012-01-01

    In the past few decades,the increase in grazing intensity has led to soil degradation and desertification in Inner Mongolia grassland,China,due to population growth and shift in the socio-economic system.Two sites with different grazing intensities,continuous grazing site (CG) with 1.2 sheep ha-1 year-1 and heavy grazing site (HG) with 2.0 sheep ha-1 year-1,were investigated at the Inner Mongolia Grassland Ecosystem Research Station (43° 37′ 50″ N,116° 42′ 18″E) situated in the northern China to i) characterize the temporal distribution of soil water content along soil profile; and ii)quantify the water fluxes as affected by grazing intensity.Soil water content was monitored by time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes.Soil water retention curves were determined by pressure membrane extractor,furthermore processed by RETC (RETention Curve) software. Soil matric potential,plant available water and water flux were calculated using these data.Both sites showed an identical seasonal soil water dynamics within four defined hydraulic periods:1) wetting transition coincided with a dramatic water increase due to snow and frozen soil thawing from March to April; 2) wet summer,rainfall in accordance with plant growth from May to September; 3) drying transition,a decrease of soil water from October to November due to rainfall limit; and 4) dry winter,freezing from December to next February.Heavy grazing largely reduced soil water content by 43%-48% and plant available water by 46%-61% as compared to the CG site.During growing season net water flux was nearly similar between HG (242 mm) and CG (223 mm) sites between 5 and 20 cm depths.However,between 20 and 40 cm depths,the upward flux was more pronounced at HG site than at CG site,indicating that water was depleted by root uptake at HG site but stored at CG site.In semi-arid grassland ecosystem,grazing intensity can affect soil water regime and flux,particularly in the growing season.

  17. MLVA Genotyping Characteristics of Human Brucella melitensis Isolated from Ulanqab of Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Guo; Di, Dong-Dong; Wang, Miao; Liu, Ri-Hong; Zhao, Hong-Yan; Piao, Dong-Ri; Tian, Guo-Zhong; Fan, Wei-Xing; Jiang, Hai; Cui, Bu-Yun; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is a serious public health problem in Ulanqab, which is a region located in the middle of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region adjacent to Shanxi and Hebei provinces. The disease is prevalent in both the latter provinces and Ulanqab with the highest prevalence of brucellosis occurring in Inner Mongolia. The MLVA-16 scheme is a genotyping tool for assessing genetic diversity and relationships among isolates. Moreover, this genotyping tool can also be applied to epidemiological trace-back investigations. This study reports the occurrence of at least two B. melitensis biovars (1 and 3) in Ulanqab, encompassing 22 and 94 isolates, respectively. B. melitensis biovar 3 was the predominant biovar in the area examined. Panel 1 (MLVA-8) identified three genotypes (42, 63, and 114), with genotype 42 (n = 101) representing 87% of the tested strains. MLVA-11 identified eight genotypes (116, 111, 297, 291, and 342–345) from 116 of the analyzed isolates. All of these isolates were identified as belonging to the East Mediterranean group. Genotype 116 (n = 94) was the predominant genotype and represented 81% of the isolates. The isolates pertaining to this genotype were distributed throughout most of Ulanqab and neighboring regions. The MLVA-16 scheme showed the presence of 69 genotypes, with 46 genotypes being represented by single isolates. This analysis revealed that Ulanqab brucellosis cases had epidemiologically unrelated and sporadic characteristics. The remaining 23 genotypes were shared (between a total of 70 isolates) with each genotype being represented by two to eight isolates. These data indicate that these cases were epidemiologically related. MLVA genotyping confirmed the occurrence of a multipoint outbreak epidemic and intrafamilial brucellosis. Extensive genotype-sharing events were observed among isolates from different regions of Ulanqab and from other provinces of China. These findings suggest either a lack of control of animal movement between

  18. Genetic Mechanism of Mineral Inclusions in Zircons from the Khondalite Series, Southeastern Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The early Precambrian khondalite series is widely distributed in the Jining-Zhuozi-Fengzhen- Liangcheng area, southeastern Inner Mongolia. The khondalite series mainly consists of sillimanite garnet potash feldspar (or two-feldspar) gneiss and garnet biotite plagioclase gneiss. These gneissic rocks have commonly experienced granulite-facies metamorphism. In zircons separated from sillimanite garnet potash feldspar gneisses, many mineral inclusions, including Sil, Grt, Ky, Kfs, Qtz and Ap, have been identified by the Laser Raman spectroscopy. Generally, prograde metamorphic mineral inclusion assemblages such as Ky + Kfs + Qtz + Ap and Ky + Grt + Kfs + Qtz are preserved in the core of zircon, while peak granulite-facies metamorphic minerals including Sil + Grt + Kfs + Qtz and Sil + Grt + Kfs + Qtz + Ap are identified in the mantle and rim of the same zircon. However, in some zircons are only preserved the peak metamorphic minerals such as Sil + Grt + Kfs + Qtz and Sil + Grt + Kfs + Qtz + Ap from core to rim, and in others are inherited the primary cores with minor mineral inclusions of Kfs + Qtz, with peak metamorphic mineral inclusions around the inherited cores. These data indicate that the mineral assemblage evolution of sillimanite garnet potash feldspar gneisses in the study are did experience a polymorphic transformation of kyanite to sillimanite. In garnet biotite plagioclase gneisses, secondary electron microscopic images reveal that most zircons display distinct zoning textures, which comprise cores and rims, each with distinctive inclusion assemblages. The inherited mineral inclusions, mainly consisting of Kfs + Pl + Qtz, Kfs + Qtz and Kfs + Qtz + Ap, are preserved in the primary cores, while peak granulite-facies mineral asemblages, including Grt + Bt + Pl + Qtz + Ap, Grt + Bt + Pl + Qtz and Grt + Bt + Pl + Qtz + Rt, are identified on the rims. The occurrence of peak metamorphic mineral inclusions in zircons indicates that these gneissic rocks, including

  19. Characterization of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in Mongolia 2005 through 2007

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    Sodnomdarjaa Ruuragchaa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the emergence of H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP avian influenza virus (AIV in Asia, numerous efforts worldwide have focused on elucidating the relative roles of wild birds and domestic poultry movement in virus dissemination. In accordance with this a surveillance program for AIV in wild birds was conducted in Mongolia from 2005-2007. An important feature of Mongolia is that there is little domestic poultry production in the country, therefore AIV detection in wild birds would not likely be from spill-over from domestic poultry. Results During 2005-2007 2,139 specimens representing 4,077 individual birds of 45 species were tested for AIV by real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR and/or virus isolation. Bird age and health status were recorded. Ninety rRT-PCR AIV positive samples representing 89 individual birds of 19 species including 9 low pathogenicity (LP AIVs were isolated from 6 species. A Bar-headed goose (Anser indicus, a Whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus and 2 Ruddy shelducks (Tadorna ferruginea were positive for H12N3 LP AIV. H16N3 and H13N6 viruses were isolated from Black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus. A Red-crested pochard (Rhodonessa rufina and 2 Mongolian gulls (Larus vagae mongolicus were positive for H3N6 and H16N6 LP AIV, respectively. Full genomes of each virus isolate were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically and were most closely related to recent European and Asian wild bird lineage AIVs and individual genes loosely grouped by year. Reassortment occurred within and among different years and subtypes. Conclusion Detection and/or isolation of AIV infection in numerous wild bird species, including 2 which have not been previously described as hosts, reinforces the wide host range of AIV within avian species. Reassortment complexity within the genomes indicate the introduction of new AIV strains into wild bird populations annually, however there is enough over-lap of infection for reassortment to occur. Further work is

  20. Estimation of Net Primary Production (NPP) of Inner Mongolia in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Kwak, Y.; Yasuda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    1. Introduction In the latter part of 1970's, the need for more precise calculation of the fixed-quantity of global land vegetation was emphasized. This data is necessary for estimating carbon income and expenditure at a global level. Research at the Mauna Loa volcano has clearly shown that the density of CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing. This increase is caused mainly by changes in human activities and the respiration of plants and animals. At present, however, the value of CO2 income and expenditure as calculated for human activities does not agree with the value thought to be contained in the marine and terrestrial carbon sinks. Clearly the value of primary production needs to be measured more precisely on a global scale. The use of satellite data immediately enables application at a global level, leading to higher precision of estimation when analyzing ecosystem models. In this study, we analyzed and compared Hohhot and Naiman, two regions in Inner Mongolia. In situ observation data (biomass and reflection data for each type of vegetation) was collected from 1999 to 2002. The results of these ground observations were then compared to the results from wide area measurement of vegetation index utilizing Terra/MODIS data 2. Application to satellite data The MODIS Surface Reflectance product (MOD09), with resolution of 250m, was utilized from April to November of 2002. MOD09 did atmosphere correction and geometric correction. Bands 1 (RED : 620-670nm) and 2 (NIR : 841-876nm) from MOD09 were used to produce a NDVI image. In addition, to remove the influence of cloud cover, monthly vegetation index images for May to September were generated using the Temporal Window Operation method (TWO : Park et al.1999), with the mid day of each month designated as a representative day. 3. Conclusion In this study, we estimate Net Primary Production (NPP) for a semiarid region of northern China using satellite data. An area in which pasturage is prohibited was studied in 1999

  1. INVESTIGATION OF LITHOSPHERIC STRUCTURE IN MONGOLIA: INSIGHTS FROM INSAR OBSERVATIONS AND MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jing

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The western Mongolia is a seismically active intracontinental region, with ongoing tectonic deformation and widespread seismicity related to the far-field effects of India-Eurasia collision. During the 20th century, four earthquakes with the magnitude larger than 8 occurred in the western Mongolia and its surrounding regions, providing a unique opportunity to study the geodynamics of intracontinental tectonic deformations. The 1957 magnitude 8.3 Gobi-Altai earthquake is one of the largest seismic events. The deformation pattern of rupture zone associated with this earthquake is complex, involving left-lateral strike-slip and reverse dip-slip faulting on several distinct geological structures in a 264 × 40 km wide zone. To understand the relationship between the observed postseismic surface deformation and the rheological structure of the upper lithosphere, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR data are used to study the 1957 earthquake. Then we developed a postseismic model in a spherical, radially layered elastic-viscoelastic Earth based on InSAR results, and further analysed the dominant contribution to the surface deformation. This work is important for understanding not only the regional tectonics, but also the structure and dynamics of the lithosphere. SAR data were acquired from the ERS1/2 and Envisat from 1996 to 2010. Using the Repeat Orbit Interferometry Package (ROI_PAC, 124 postseismic interferograms are produced on four adjacent tracks. By stacking these interferograms, the maximum InSAR line-of-sight deformation rate along the Gobi-Altai fault zone is obtained. The main results are as follows: (1 The maximum InSAR line-of-sight deformation velocity along this large fault zone is about 6 mm/yr; (2 The modelled surface deformation suggests that the viscoelastic relaxation is the most reasonable mechanism to explain the observed surface motion; (3 The optimal model cover the Gobi-Altai seismogenic thickness is 10

  2. Investigation of Lithospheric Structure in Mongolia: Insights from Insar Observations and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Z.; Bihong, F.; Pilong, S.; Qiang, G.

    2017-09-01

    The western Mongolia is a seismically active intracontinental region, with ongoing tectonic deformation and widespread seismicity related to the far-field effects of India-Eurasia collision. During the 20th century, four earthquakes with the magnitude larger than 8 occurred in the western Mongolia and its surrounding regions, providing a unique opportunity to study the geodynamics of intracontinental tectonic deformations. The 1957 magnitude 8.3 Gobi-Altai earthquake is one of the largest seismic events. The deformation pattern of rupture zone associated with this earthquake is complex, involving left-lateral strike-slip and reverse dip-slip faulting on several distinct geological structures in a 264 × 40 km wide zone. To understand the relationship between the observed postseismic surface deformation and the rheological structure of the upper lithosphere, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data are used to study the 1957 earthquake. Then we developed a postseismic model in a spherical, radially layered elastic-viscoelastic Earth based on InSAR results, and further analysed the dominant contribution to the surface deformation. This work is important for understanding not only the regional tectonics, but also the structure and dynamics of the lithosphere. SAR data were acquired from the ERS1/2 and Envisat from 1996 to 2010. Using the Repeat Orbit Interferometry Package (ROI_PAC), 124 postseismic interferograms are produced on four adjacent tracks. By stacking these interferograms, the maximum InSAR line-of-sight deformation rate along the Gobi-Altai fault zone is obtained. The main results are as follows: (1) The maximum InSAR line-of-sight deformation velocity along this large fault zone is about 6 mm/yr; (2) The modelled surface deformation suggests that the viscoelastic relaxation is the most reasonable mechanism to explain the observed surface motion; (3) The optimal model cover the Gobi-Altai seismogenic thickness is 10 km; (4) The

  3. I.Ya. Korostovetz, "the Creator of Mongolia" and Russian Diplomatic Mission in Urga in 1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel N. Dudin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The author defines the role of Russian diplomacy and one of its brightest representatives – Ivan Korostovetz in establishing their own Mongolian state in 1911–1912 through the analysis of diplomatic correspondence, as well as relying on other sources and memoirs of the contemporaries. The author studied the challenges faced by the diplomatic mission and ways to overcome them, showing the position and arguments of each party on the issue of the status of Mongolia. It is noted that the Russian Far East policy was not a priority at the beginning of the twentieth century, giving way to solving of the European problems and it gave rise to a certain alienation of the outlying territories, which eventually became a threat to the national security. The Xinhai Revolution of 1911–1912 and the collapse of the Qing Empire contributed to the awareness of the possibility of gaining a foothold in the region and ensure its economic and geopolitical interests in many ways. Not being interested in the aggravation of relations with China, the Russian government through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs entrusted solving the sudden Outer Mongolia's independence declaration problem to an experienced diplomat, the former envoy to the Qing’s court – Ivan Korostovets. However, a simple task at first glance was complicated by the fact that representatives of the Mongolian side, resting on Western concepts of the state, state sovereignty, etc. did not see themselves as a part of China, while Russia recognized for its neighbor the principle of the territorial integrity. In turn, China was considering the activities of the Russian side as interference in its internal affairs, in that time, Russia insisted on defending of only its commercial interests. As a result of lengthy and difficult negotiations Korostavets persuaded the Mongols to make concessions, the Chinese - not to start military operations and not to make provocations and Russian Foreign Ministry – in

  4. On Northward Strategy of Inner Mongolia Development%“北向战略”:内蒙古发展战略的基石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李罗力

    2013-01-01

      内蒙古具有与蒙、俄全面陆路对接的优越条件,在这个优势上做文章,需要把自己的战略发展核心建立在“国家向北开放桥头堡”的基石上,紧紧围绕中国向北开放的战略目标,实现大开放,促进大发展,构筑大通道,打造大基地,培育大平台,建设大窗口,维护大团结,保护大生态。通过实施“北向战略”,实现内蒙古的发展和腾飞。%  Inner Mongolia is privileged with fully geographic connection with Mongolia and Russia, therefore the key development strategy of Inner Mongolia is to be built on the privilege of the national strategy of Northward development, to make it the base stone and fortress of China’s Northward Opening Strategy. With opening Northward as its key strategy, Inner Mongolia is to enhance its development with opening to the North, to build opening infrastructure, opening platform, opening window and testing field, so as to unify all nationality powers, protect ecology system, and to realize the leap forward and fast development of Inner Mongolia.

  5. Early Paleogene stratigraphic sequences,mammalian evolution and its response to environmental changes in Erlian Basin,Inner Mongolia,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher; K.BEARD; Daniel; L.GEBO

    2010-01-01

    Paleogene strata in the Huheboerhe area,Erlian Basin,Inner Mongolia,China have been subdivided into three lithological units:the Nomogen Formation,the Arshanto Formation,and the Irdin Manha Formation.At least 12 mammal-bearing horizons have been recognized in these formations,of which 4 in the Nomogen Formation,6 in the Arshanto Formation,and 2 in the Irdin Manha Formation.Recent investigation proved that the "Houldjin Formation" recognized in this area by the Central Asiatic Expeditions(CAE) of the American Museum Natural History in the 1920s is actually the Irdin Manha Formation,while the "Irdin Manha Formation" of CAE is the Arshanto Formation.A recent paleomagnetic study suggests that the upper part of the Nomogen Formation is early Eocene in age and the Arshanto Formation is mainly early Eocene rather than middle Eocene as previously thought.The Gashatan,Bumbanian,and Arshantan land mammal ages are correlated respectively to the Thanetian,the early Ypresian,and the middle Ypresian through earliest Lutetian of the Geological Time Scale.These land mammal ages are also correlated with the late Tiffanian through Clarkforkian,the early Wasatchian,and the middle-late Wasatchian and most of the Bridgerian of the North American Land Mammal Ages.During the early Paleogene,the mammalian history of the Erlian Basin was dominated by the appearance of new mammalian families and the replacement of a variety of genera and species,corresponding to the gradual climatic changes during this time period.The abrupt emergence of several modern mammalian orders at the beginning of the Eocene is probably related to extreme climatic warming in relation to the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

  6. Permian High Ba-Sr Granitoids:Geochemistry,Age and Tectonic Implications of Erlangshan Pluton,Urad Zhongqi,Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Hongling; WU Tairan; ZHAO Lei; HE Yuankai; JIN Xu

    2009-01-01

    Erlangshan Pluton from Urad Zhongqi.central Inner Mongolia,is located in the middle segment of the northern margin of the North China Plate.The rocks consist mainly of diorites with gneissic structure.Petrochemicai characteristics reveal that the diorites belong to metaluminous,high-potassium calc-alkaline series,with chemical signatures of 1-type granites.They are characterized by low SiO2 contents(56.63%-58.53%)and A/CNK(0.90-0.96),high Al2O3 contents(17.30%-17.96%)and Na2O/K2O ratios(1.20-1.70),enrichment in large ion lithophile elements(LILE,e.g.,Ba=556-915ppm,Sr=463-595 ppm),and relative depletion in high field strength elements(HFSE,e.g.,Nb,Ta,Ti)in primitive mantle-normalized spidergram.and right-declined rare earth element patterns with slightly negative Eu anomalies(δEu=0.72-0.90).They have Sr/Y ratios(20-25)evidently less than Kebu Pluton (49-75)to its east.Sensitive high resolution ion micro-probe U-Pb zircon dating of thediOrites has yieldIed an intrnsive a2e of 270±8 Ma.This leads US to conclude that Erlangshan diorites were formed by mixing between the middle or lower crustal.derived magma and minor mantle-derived mafic magnm,followed by fractional crystallization,which was trigged by crustal extension and fault activity in post-coilisional setting.

  7. The chemistry of river-lake systems in the context of permafrost occurrence (Mongolia, Valley of the Lakes) Part II. Spatial trends and possible sources of organic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopińska, Małgorzata; Dymerski, Tomasz; Polkowska, Żaneta; Szumińska, Danuta; Wolska, Lidia

    2016-07-01

    The chemistry of river-lake systems located in Central Mongolia near the southern border of permafrost occurrence has not been well studied. The main aim of this paper is to summarize patterns in water chemistry in supply springs, rivers and lakes in relation to permafrost occurrence, as well as other natural and anthropogenic impacts. The analyses involved water samples taken from two river-lake systems: the Baydrag River-Böön Tsagaan Lake system and the Shargalyuut/Tuyn Rivers-Orog Lake system. Total organic carbon (TOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected and quantified. Other organic compounds, such as organic halogen compounds, phthalates, and higher alkanes were also noted. The main factors which influence differences in TOC concentrations in the water bodies involve permafrost occurrence, mainly because compounds are released during active layer degradation (in the upper reach of the Tuyn river), and by intensive livestock farming in river valleys and in the vicinity of lakes. In relation to the concentrations of PAHs, high variability between samples (> 300 ng L- 1), indicates the influence of thermal water and local geology structures (e.g., volcanic and sedimentary deposits), as well as accumulation of suspended matter in lakes transported during rapid surface runoff events. The monitoring of TOC as well as individual PAHs is particularly important to future environmental studies, as they may potentially reflect the degradation of the environment. Therefore, monitoring in the Valley of the Lakes should be continued, particularly in the light of the anticipated permafrost degradation in the 21st century, in order to collect more data and be able to anticipate the response of river-lake water chemistry to changes in permafrost occurrence.

  8. Early Cretaceous overprinting of the Mesozoic Daqing Shan fold-and-thrust belt by the Hohhot metamorphic core complex, Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gregory A. Davis; Brian J. Darby

    2010-01-01

    The Early Cretaceous Hohhot metamorphic core complex (mcc) of the Daqing Shan (Mtns.) of central Inner Mongolia is among the best exposed and most spectacular of the spatially isolated mcc's that developed within the northern edge of the North China "craton". All of these mcc's were formed within the basement of a Late Paleozoic Andean-style arc and across older Mesozoic fold-and-thrust belts of variable age and tectonic vergence. The master Hohhot detachment fault roots southwards within the southern margin of the Daqing Shan for an along-strike distance of at least 120 km. Its geometry in the range to the north is complicated by interference patterns between ( 1 ) primary, large-scale NW-SE-trending convex and concave fault corrugations and (2) secondary ENE-WSW-trending antiforms and synforms that folded the detachment in its late kinematic history. As in the Whipple Mtns. of California,the Hohhot master detachment is not of the Wernicke (1981) simple rooted type; instead, it was spawned from a mid-crustal shear zone, the top of which is preserved as a mylonitic front within Carboniferous metasedimentary rocks in its exhumed lower plate. 40Ar-39Ar dating of siliceous volcanic rocks in basal sections of now isolated supradetachment basins suggest that crustal extension began at ca. 127 Ma,although lower-plate mylonitic rocks were not exposed to erosion until after ca. 119 Ma. Essentially synchronous cooling of hornblende, biotite, and muscovite in footwall mylonitic gneisses indicates very rapid exhumation and at ca. 122-120 Ma. Contrary to several recent reports, the master detachment clearly cuts across and dismembers older, north-directed thrust sheets of the Daqing Shan foreland fold-and-thrust belt. Folded and thrust-faulted basalts within its foredeep strata are as young as 132.6 ± 2.4 Ma, thus defining within 5-6 Ma the regional tectonic transition between crustal contraction and profound crustal extension.

  9. Zircon age and geochemistry of the Tost bimodal volcanic rocks: Constraints on the Early Carboniferous tectonic evolution of the South Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shunhu; Miao, Laicheng; Zhang, Fochin; Meng, Qingren; Zhu, Mingshuai; Baatar, Munkhtsengel; Anaad, Chimedtseren

    2016-04-01

    SIMS zircon U-Pb dating, geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data are presented for the Late Paleozoic volcanic rocks from Tost area in Mongolia, the southern portion of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The Tost volcanic rocks show a bimodal feature characterized by a mafic member of basalt and a felsic component of rhyolite, which are temporally and spatially related each other, implying a genetic relationship. Zircon U-Pb isotopic data of the rhyolite constrain the Tost bimodal magmatism occurring from 355 Ma to 320 Ma. The Tost basalt is characterized by high abundances in Th, U and Pb, slightly enriched LREE patterns and low HFSE/LREE ratios. These features, together with their OIB-like isotopic signature ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7039378-0.704397, εNd(t) = 3.55-5.02), suggest that they were likely derived from low-degree partial melting of a metasomatized asthenospheric mantle source with subordinate input of subduction components. The Tost rhyolite, which displays an intimate affinity to Tost basalt, with enrichment in Th, U and Pb, depleted in Nb, Ta and Ti, and gently right-tilted REE patterns, is inferred to be generated by partial melting of a juvenile lower crustal source heated by underplating mafic magmas which rise from asthenosphere during continued rifting. The Tost bimodal volcanic rocks are comparable both in age and composition with those in the East Tianshan, which together constitute an E-W-oriented belt of bimodal volcanic rocks, marking an Early Carboniferous rifting event. Considering regional geology, we propose that the rifting took place in a back-arc extensional setting, probably induced by the subduction of the Dzungaria Ocean between the East Tianshan and Junggar-Kazakhstan plate during the Early Carboniferous.

  10. Conservation genetics and phylogeography of endangered and endemic shrub Tetraena mongolica (Zygophyllaceae in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Kuo-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetraena mongolica (Zygophyllaceae, an endangered endemic species in western Inner Mongolia, China. For endemic species with a limited geographical range and declining populations, historical patterns of demography and hierarchical genetic structure are important for determining population structure, and also provide information for developing effective and sustainable management plans. In this study, we assess genetic variation, population structure, and phylogeography of T. mongolica from eight populations. Furthermore, we evaluate the conservation and management units to provide the information for conservation. Results Sequence variation and spatial apportionment of the atpB-rbcL noncoding spacer region of the chloroplast DNA were used to reconstruct the phylogeography of T. mongolica. A total of 880 bp was sequenced from eight extant populations throughout the whole range of its distribution. At the cpDNA locus, high levels of genetic differentiation among populations and low levels of genetic variation within populations were detected, indicating that most seed dispersal was restricted within populations. Conclusions Demographic fluctuations, which led to random losses of genetic polymorphisms from populations, due to frequent flooding of the Yellow River and human disturbance were indicated by the analysis of BEAST skyline plot. Nested clade analysis revealed that restricted gene flow with isolation by distance plus occasional long distance dispersal is the main evolutionary factor affecting the phylogeography and population structure of T. mongolica. For setting a conservation management plan, each population of T. mongolica should be recognized as a conservation unit.

  11. Soil CO 2 Flux in Hövsgöl National Park, Northern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avirmed Otgonsuren

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated soil CO 2 fl ux and bare soil respiration in grasslands that are located at the southern edge of the Siberian boreal forest in Northern Mongolia. The study area has warmed by almost 1.8 o C over the last 40 years, and the soil and vegetation covers have been changed due to intense nomadic grazing pressure. Bare soil respiration is decreased with increasing grazing pressure, but there was no consistent pattern of total soil CO 2 fl ux under three distinct grazing levels. Bare soil respiration and soil CO 2 fl ux were higher on north-facing slopes than on south-facing slopes, due to high organic matter accumulation and the presence of permafrost. Both bare soil respiration and soil CO 2 fl ux were signi fi cantly higher in riparian areas compared with the lower and upper portions of the south-facing slope. Topography has a stronger effect on variability of soil CO 2 fl ux and bare soil respiration than variability induced by grazing. Inter-annual variability in soil CO 2 fl ux and bare soil respiration was very high, because of high variability in climate conditions.

  12. Digital Earth, a new approach for geoconservation: case study of Hexigten Global Geopark, Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwen; Tian, Mingzhong; Shi, Wenqiang

    2010-11-01

    Though Digital Earth (DE) has been adopted in the nature conservation, its application in geoheritage conservation is still rather limited. Geoheritage are usually distributed over extensive areas, posing great problems to actual conservation. The Digital Earth is a useful tool for systematic spatial accounts and data management. The aim of this article is attempting to apply DE in geoconservation. The Hexigten Global Geopark (HGG) in Inner Mongolia of China, which covers an area of 1783.58km2, was chosen as the study area. This paper was composed of five sections. The first section, we briefly reviewed the origin of geoheritage and developments of world geoconservation, and present the justifications of adopting DE for it. In the second and third section, DE is a comprehensive, massively distributed geographic information and knowledge organization system, so we developed a theoretic frame based on it, which can be applied in geoheritage survey, resources appraisal, geoconservation planning, research and public. The fourth section, DE platforms - Google Earth and Skyline Globe Pro were as tools for geoheritage surveying and zoning of HGG. Finally, we draw conclusions that DE can be applied in geoheritage conservation limitedly today; however, excellent characteristics such VR earth, geo-library and digital atlas has huge potential for geoconservation.

  13. Remote Sensing Monitoring of Changes in Soil Salinity: A Case Study in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Wu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This study used archived remote sensing images to depict the history of changes in soil salinity in the Hetao Irrigation District in Inner Mongolia, China, with the purpose of linking these changes with land and water management practices and to draw lessons for salinity control. Most data came from LANDSAT satellite images taken in 1973, 1977, 1988, 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2006. In these years salt-affected areas were detected using a normal supervised classification method. Corresponding cropped areas were detected from NVDI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values using an unsupervised method. Field samples and agricultural statistics were used to estimate the accuracy of the classification. Historical data concerning irrigation/drainage and the groundwater table were used to analyze the relation between changes in soil salinity and land and water management practices. Results showed that: (1 the overall accuracy of remote sensing in detecting soil salinity was 90.2%, and in detecting cropped area, 98%; (2 the installation/innovation of the drainage system did help to control salinity; and (3 a low ratio of cropped land helped control salinity in the Hetao Irrigation District. These findings suggest that remote sensing is a useful tool to detect soil salinity and has potential in evaluating and improving land and water management practices.

  14. Fungal Ferromanganese Mineralisation in Cretaceous Dinosaur Bones from the Gobi Desert, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owocki, Krzysztof; Kremer, Barbara; Wrzosek, Beata; Królikowska, Agata; Kaźmierczak, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Well-preserved mycelia of fungal- or saprolegnia-like biota mineralised by ferromanganese oxides were found for the first time in long bones of Late Cretaceous dinosaurs from the Gobi Desert (Nemegt Valley, Mongolia). The mycelia formed a biofilm on the wall of the bone marrow cavity and penetrated the osteon channels of the nearby bone tissue. Optical microscopy, Raman, SEM/EDS, SEM/BSE, electron microprobe and cathodoluminescence analyses revealed that the mineralisation of the mycelia proceeded in two stages. The first stage was early post-mortem mineralisation of the hyphae by Fe/Mn-oxide coatings and microconcretions. Probably this proceeded in a mildly acidic to circumneutral environment, predominantly due to heterotrophic bacteria degrading the mycelial necromass and liberating Fe and Mn sorbed by the mycelia during its lifetime. The second stage of mineralisation, which proceeded much later following the final burial of the bones in an alkaline environment, resulted from the massive precipitation of calcite and occasionally barite on the iron/manganese-oxide-coated mycelia. The mineral phases produced by fungal biofilms colonising the interiors of decaying dinosaur bones not only enhance the preservation (fossilisation) of fungal remains but can also be used as indicators of the geochemistry of the dinosaur burial sites.

  15. Genetic Polymorphisms of Nine X-STR Loci in Four Population Groups from Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao-Fang Hou; Bin Yu; Sheng-Bin Li

    2007-01-01

    Nine short tandem repeat (STR) markers on the X chromosome (DXS101, DXS6789, DXS6799, DXS6804, DXS7132, DXS7133, DXS7423, DXS8378, and HPRTB) were analyzed in four population groups (Mongol, Ewenki, Oroqen, and Daur) from Inner Mongolia, China, in order to learn about the genetic diversity, forensic suitability, and possible genetic affinities of the populations. Frequency estimates, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and other parameters of forensic interest were computed. The results revealed that the nine markers have a moderate degree of variability in the population groups. Most heterozygosity values for the nine loci range from 0.480 to 0.891, and there are evident differences of genetic variability among the populations. A UPGMA tree constructed on the basis of the generated data shows very low genetic distance betweent Mongol and Han (Xi'an) populations. Our results based on genetic distance analysis are consistent with the results of earlier studies based on linguistics and the immigration history and origin of these populations. The minisatellite loci on the X chromosome studied here are not only useful in showing significant genetic variation between the populations, but also are suitable for human identity testing among Inner Mongolian populations.

  16. Groundwater storage changes from GRACE satellite in the Southern Gobi Region of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemer, B.; Yanping, C.; Bayanzul, B. B.; Altangerel, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater is an important resource in the Southern Gobi Region of Mongolia because rainfall and surface water availability are severely limited and the demands are expected to increase rapidly with the development of mining and new population centers. Groundwater systems are more complex and yet its distribution and quantity are poorly known. The purpose of the research is to evaluate the potential utility of GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites to monitor groundwater storage in the arid area. Regional groundwater storage changes in SGR are estimated using monthly GRACE total water storage change data. Groundwater storage change estimates are compared to groundwater level measurements of 66 shallow dug wells and 72 deep boreholes for the period 2004-2012. Groundwater storage decreases during the cold season and increases during the warm season. Seasonal groundwater change calculated from GRACE total water storage is highly correlated to groundwater level measurements in shallow aquifers. There is no correlation between groundwater storage changes derived from GRACE and deep aquifer. The result indicates that GRACE can be used to monitor large area where groundwater observation is limited, especially unconfined shallow aquifers.

  17. Relationships between bird communities and vegetation structure in Honghua'erji, northern Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The survey on bird communities was conducted by the belt-style methodinsix different sample plots in the Honghua'erji Forests area in the northern Inner Mongolia in June 2001 and totally 28 bird species were recorded. Vegetatio n investigation was carried out in five 10 m×10 m quadrats at each plot. The as ymptotic regression function formulae were adopted to identify the relationships between the vegetation coverage and the numbers of bird species and individuals . The analytical results showed that the changes of species number and density o f bird as well as the formation of bird communities follow the changes of forest type and the total foliage. Both the number of bird species and their density d ecreased with the decrease of total foliage. The similarity of bird community wa s very low at the breeding time. In the same classification of cluster, no simil arity was higher than 0.65, which indicated that the composition of species had agreat difference between all the bird communities. The bird breeding density w as closely related to forest growth stage. From the bare grassland ecosystem to climax ecosystem, the density of bird species showed a gradually increasing trend.

  18. Effects of grazing and climate change on species diversity in sandy grassland, Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshiya; Okuro

    2009-01-01

    To understand the effects of animal grazing activities and climate change on sandy grassland vegetation in northern China, a field grazing and protected enclosure experiment was conducted from 1992 through 2006 in Horqin Sand Land, Inner Mongolia. The results showed that (1) the grazing was primary responsible for changes of the vegetation richness and diversity in the grazing grassland and that changing climate was the main reason for changes in the species richness and diversity in the grassland protected from grazing; (2) light and moderate grazing can promote restoration of the richness and the diversity in the degraded grassland, and heavy grazing could result in a decrease of the richness and diversity; (3) heavy grazing can result in significant decrease of the perennial diversity, and moderate and light grazing promotes increase of the perennial diversity; the grazing, whether heavy or moderate and light grazing, was beneficial to increase of the annual diversity; (4) heavy grazing was not beneficial to diversity of Graminean and Chenopodiaceae, and moderate and light grazing was favorable the diversity of Compositae and Chenopodiaceae; (5) the warm-humid climate was favorable to increase of the richness and the diversity, and the warm-drought climate could result in decease of the richness and the diversity; (6) increased precipitation was favorable to perennial diversity and the diversity of Graminean, Leguminosae, and Compositae, and decreased precipitation had few effects on the annual diversity and Chenopodiaceae diversity.

  19. Above- and belowground biomass in relation to envi- ronmental factors in temperate grasslands, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Above- and belowground biomasses of grasslands are important parameters for characterizing re- gional and global carbon cycles in grassland ecosystems. Compared with the relatively detailed in- formation for aboveground biomass (AGB), belowground biomass (BGB) is poorly reported at the re- gional scales. The present study, based on a total of 113 sampling sites in temperate grassland of the Inner Mongolia, investigated regional distribution patterns of AGB, BGB, vertical distribution of roots, and their relationships with environmental factors. AGB and BGB increased from the southwest to the northeast of the study region. The largest biomass occurred in meadow steppe, with mean AGB and BGB of 196.7 and 1385.2 g/m2, respectively; while the lowest biomass occurred in desert steppe, with an AGB of 56.6 g/m2 and a BGB of 301.0 g/m2. In addition, about 47% of root biomass was distributed in the top 10 cm soil. Further statistical analysis indicated that precipitation was the primary determinant factor in shaping these distribution patterns. Vertical distribution of roots was significantly affected by precipitation, while the effects of soil texture and grassland types were weak.

  20. Factors Affecting Home Ranges of Red Foxes in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

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    Tserendorj Munkhzul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in red fox home range size in relation to environmental and intrinsic factors were studied using radio-telemetry during 2006–2008 in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, southeastern Mongolia. We captured a total of 12 red foxes (8 females and 4 males and fi tted them with VHF radio-collars. Marked animals were tracked up to fi ve times a week to estimate home ranges. We also trapped small mammal and insects in different biotopes for 3 years to estimate relative abundance of prey. Our results showed that mean individual home range sizes varied widely and differed among years. There was variation in home ranges between adults versus juveniles, but no signifi cant difference was found between males versus females. In addition, mean home range size did not differ seasonally for pooled years. Variation in home ranges was best explained by a model that included covariates of year and age. We suggest that spatiotemporal changes in resource availability across years infl uenced home range dynamics of red foxes in our study.

  1. Transmission dynamics and control for a brucellosis model in Hinggan League of Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingtao; Sun, Guiquan; Zhang, Juan; Jin, Zhen; Sun, Xiangdong; Wang, Youming; Huang, Baoxu; Zheng, Yaohui

    2014-10-01

    Brucellosis is one of the major infectious and contagious bacterial diseases in Hinggan League of Inner Mongolia, China. The number of newly infected human brucellosis data in this area has increased dramatically in the last 10 years. In this study, in order to explore effective control and prevention measures we propose a deterministic model to investigate the transmission dynamics of brucellosis in Hinggan League. The model describes the spread of brucellosis among sheep and from sheep to humans. The model simulations agree with newly infected human brucellosis data from 2001 to 2011, and the trend of newly infected human brucellosis cases is given. We estimate that the control reproduction number Rc is about 1.9789 for the brucellosis transmission in Hinggan League and compare the effect of existing mixed cross infection between basic ewes and other sheep or not for newly infected human brucellosis cases. Our study demonstrates that combination of prohibiting mixed feeding between basic ewes and other sheep, vaccination, detection and elimination are useful strategies in controlling human brucellosis in Hinggan League.

  2. Distributed modelling of climate change impacts on snow sublimation in Northern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Menzel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sublimation of snow is an important factor of the hydrological cycle in Mongolia and is likely to increase according to future climate projections. In this study the hydrological model TRAIN was used to assess spatially distributed current and future sublimation rates based on interpolated daily data of precipitation, air temperature, air humidity, wind speed and solar radiation. An automated procedure for the interpolation of the input data is provided. Depending on the meteorological parameter and the data availability for the individual days, the most appropriate interpolation method is chosen automatically from inverse distance weighting, Ordinary Least Squares interpolation, Ordinary or Universal Kriging. Depending on elevation simulated annual sublimation in the period 1986–2006 was 23 to 35 mm, i.e. approximately 80% of total snowfall. Moreover, future climate projections for 2071–2100 of ECHAM5 and HadCM3, based on the A1B emission scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, were analysed with TRAIN. In the case of ECHAM5 simulated sublimation increases by up to 17% (26...41 mm while it remains at the same level for HadCM3 (24...34 mm. The differences are mainly due to a distinct increase in winter precipitation for ECHAM5. Simulated changes of the all-season hydrological conditions, e.g. the sublimation-to-precipitation ratio, were ambiguous due to diverse precipitation patterns derived by the global circulation models.

  3. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants in Baotou,Inner Mongolia,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Min-hui; LIU Yue; WANG Zhen-wang; CUI Zhan-hu; HUANG Lu-qi; XIAO Pei-gen

    2012-01-01

    Objective To document the knowledge and the use of indigenous medicinal plants by traditional healers in Baotou,Inner Mongolia,China.Methods Data were collected from 112 randomly-selected interviewees using semistructured interviews in wild herbal plant collected from 2007 to 2010.The data from the interviewees were analyzed with two quantitative tools.With the informant consensus factor,the information homology was evaluated and with the fidelity level the most important species from the categories were found.Results One hundred and fifty-two species belonging to 112 genera in 48 families with medicinal values were recorded.The reported medicinal plants species were used to treat 63 kinds of diseases.And the medicinal plants in this district possessed significant potentials for their pharmacological activities in the context of ethnopharmacological knowledge,especially in the treatments of gastrointestinal,dermatological,and cardiovascular diseases.Conclusion In this work,152 medicinal plants with their ethnopharmacological information are reported.This study demonstrates that many species play an important role in healing practices among inhabitants from Baotou.More ethnopharmacological information of Mongolian medicinal plants should be gathered and documented in further studies,which is a fundamental step toward developing efficacious natural drugs for various diseases.

  4. Early Permian coal-forming floras preserved as compressions from the Wuda District (Inner Mongolia, China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferkorn, Hermann W. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6316 (United States); Wang, Jun [Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2007-01-02

    Four different compression/impression floras are preserved in only 4.32 m of the geologic section in the Early Permian Shanxi Formation of the Wuda District of Inner Mongolia, northwestern China. These floras represent four different plant communities and landscapes that followed each other in time. The oldest flora was rooted in sandy clay and initiated peat accumulation that lead to the formation of the lower coal seam. This seam is 230-cm thick and overlain by a 66-cm thick volcanic tuff that preserves a second different flora that grew on the peat at the time of the ash-fall. Standing stems and large plant parts are present. The upper part of the tuff is rooted by a single species of lycopsid (the third flora) again initiating peat accumulation. On top of this second seam of 120 cm thickness rests a roof-shale, deposited as mud in a shallow lake, the formation of which was responsible for the cessation of peat deposition. This fourth flora represents the plants growing around the lake on clastic substrate. Four different environments followed each other in this locality over a geologically short time span and each time conditions prevailed to preserve plant macrofossils. Three of these floras represent peat-forming plant communities of essentially the same time interval. This demonstrates the great variability of vegetation and landscapes in the tropical Cathaysian realm of the Late Paleozoic. (author)

  5. Climate change in Inner Mongolia from 1955 to 2005-trends at regional, biome and local scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, N; Wilske, B; John, R; Chen, J [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Ni, J, E-mail: nan.lu@utoledo.ed, E-mail: burkhard.wilske@utoledo.ed, E-mail: jni@ibcas.ac.c, E-mail: ranjeet.john@utoledo.ed, E-mail: jiquan.chen@utoledo.ed [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Telegrafenberg A43, D-14473 Potsdam (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    This study investigated the climate change in Inner Mongolia based on 51 meteorological stations from 1955 to 2005. The climate data was analyzed at the regional, biome (i.e. forest, grassland and desert) and station scales, with the biome scale as our primary focus. The climate records showed trends of warmer and drier conditions in the region. The annual daily mean, maximum and minimum temperature increased whereas the diurnal temperature range (DTR) decreased. The decreasing trend of annual precipitation was not significant. However, the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) increased significantly. On the decadal scale, the warming and drying trends were more significant in the last 30 years than the preceding 20 years. The climate change varied among biomes, with more pronounced changes in the grassland and the desert biomes than in the forest biome. DTR and VPD showed the clearest inter-biome gradient from the lowest rate of change in the forest biome to the highest rate of change in the desert biome. The rates of change also showed large variations among the individual stations. Our findings correspond with the IPCC predictions that the future climate will vary significantly by location and through time, suggesting that adaptation strategies also need to be spatially viable.

  6. Coleoptera in the Altai Mountains (Mongolia: species richness and community patterns along an ecological gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyundelger Khurelpurev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Altai Mountains located in western Mongolia comprise diverse habitats including forest, mountain steppe, dry steppe, semidesert, and desert. This study used advanced statistics to examine how diversity and species composition of beetle communities depend on vegetation pattern and environmental factors along an ecological gradient from steppe to desert. Our study included the beetle families Tenebrionidae, Carabidae, Curculionidae, and Coccinellidae, which account for the majority of the known beetle fauna in the area. The most abundant Coleoptera in all plots were Harpalus limbaris, Corsyra fusula, and Anatolica cellicola; otherwise, we caught a large number of rare species. The beta diversity of communities was correlated with distance between plots. Species richness of beetles was positively impacted by plant cover and correlated negatively with rising temperatures, whereas Shannon diversity of beetle communities was significantly higher in areas with higher precipitation. Distribution and community composition of Coleopterans were governed by environmental factors, especially plant diversity, mean annual temperature, and summer precipitation, as revealed by redundancy analysis.

  7. Biological characteristics of Acanthocinus carinulatus, a new record insect pest in Aershan, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Fei; LUO You-qing; SHI Juan; Kari KELI(O)VAARA; QI Guo-xin; CHEN Yu-jie; MA Ling-yun

    2008-01-01

    Biological characteristics of a new record pest insect Acanthocinus carinulatus Gebler has been reported in China. During the last few years, outbreaks of this insect in larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) plantations of Aershan, Inner Mongolia have occurred. Each year one generation is born. The insects only damage the phloem in L. gmelinii, overwinter in galleries as larvae and pupate in May of the following year. The pupation culminates in late May. The pupal phase lasts about 45 d. Adults emerge in early June and require nutrition after emergence. Mating and oviposition occur from late June to early August and the adult males and females and may copulate many times in their lifetime. The female adults lay eggs in bark crevices. Oviposition sites with one egg occupy 70.5% of all sites, sites with three eggs occupy 6.8% and 22.7% of all crevices are without eggs. Eggs stay in this stage for a period of 7 to 11 d.Larvae hatch in early July and hibernate in early September. The rate of successful hatching is only 37.8%.

  8. Paleointensity of the geomagnetic field in the Cretaceous (from Cretaceous rocks of Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Kovalenko, D. V.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Zhidkov, G. V.

    2011-09-01

    A representative collection of Cretaceous rocks of Mongolia is used for the study of the magnetic properties of the rocks and for determination of the paleodirections and paleointensities H anc of the geomagnetic field. The characteristic NRM component in the samples is recognized in the temperature interval from 200 to 620-660°C. The values of H anc are determined by the Thellier-Coe method with observance of all present-day requirements regarding the reliability of such kind of results. Comparison of data in the literature on paleointensity in the Cretaceous superchron and in the Miocene supports the hypothesis of the inverse correlation between the average intensity of the paleofield and the frequency of geomagnetic reversals. The increase in the average intensities is accompanied by an appreciable increase in the variance of the virtual dipole moment (VDM). We suggest that the visible increase in the average VDM value in the superchron is due to the greater variability of VDM in this period compared to the Miocene.

  9. Aircraft measurements of cloud-aerosol interaction over East Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yuhuan; Lei, Hengchi; Yang, Jiefan

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the potential effects of aerosols on the microphysical properties of warm clouds, airborne observational data collected from 2009 to 2011 in Tongliao, Inner Mongolia, China, were statistically analyzed in this study. The results demonstrated that the vertical distribution of the aerosol number concentration ( N a) was similar to that of the clean rural continent. The average aerosol effective diameter ( D e) was maintained at approximately 0.4 μm at all levels. The data obtained during cloud penetrations showed that there was a progressive increase in the cloud droplet concentration ( N c) and liquid water content (LWC) from outside to inside the clouds, while the N a was negatively related to the N c and LWC at the same height. The fluctuation of the N a, N c and LWC during cloud penetration was more obvious under polluted conditions (Type 1) than under clean conditions (Type 2). Moreover, the wet scavenging of cloud droplets had a significant impact on the accumulation mode of aerosols, especially on particles with diameters less than 0.4 μm. The minimum wet scavenging coefficient within the cloud was close to 0.02 under Type 1 conditions, while it increased to 0.1 under Type 2 conditions, which proved that the cloud wet scavenging effect under Type 1 conditions was stronger than that under Type 2 conditions. Additionally, cloud droplet spectra under Type 1 conditions were narrower, and their horizontal distributions were more homogeneous than those under Type 2 conditions.

  10. Molecular epidemiological investigation of Brucella melitensis circulating in Mongolia by MLVA16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Il; Her, Moon; Erdenebaataar, Janchivdorj; Vanaabaatar, Batbaatar; Cho, Hyorim; Sung, So-Ra; Lee, Jin Ju; Jung, Suk Chan; Park, Yong Ho; Kim, Ji-Yeon

    2017-02-01

    Mongolia has a high incidence of brucellosis in human and animals due to livestock husbandry. To investigate the genetic characteristics of Mongolian B. melitensis, an MLVA (multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis)-16 assay was performed with 94 B. melitensis isolates. They were identified as B. melitensis biovar (bv.) 1 (67), 3 (10) and Rev. 1 vaccine strains (17) using a classical biotyping and multiplex PCR. In genotyping, three human isolates were grouped at 2 genotypes with sheep isolates, and it implies that B. melitensis are cross-infected between human and livestock. In the parsimony analysis, Mongolian B. melitensis isolates had high genetic similarity with Chinese strains, likely due to the geographical proximity, clustered distinctively as compared with other foreign isolates. B. melitensis Rev. 1 vaccine strains were divided into 4 genotypes with 92% similarity. In the analysis of Rev.1 strains, the risk of mutation of vaccine strain might not be overlooked. Animal quarantines should be strengthened to prevent the spread of Brucella species among adjacent countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hazard Assessment of Debris-Flow along the Baicha River in Heshigten Banner, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chen; Xu, Peihua; Chen, Jianping; Zheng, Lianjing; Niu, Cencen

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on a cloud model approach for considering debris-flow hazard assessment, in which the cloud model provided a model for transforming the qualitative and quantitative expressions. Additionally, the entropy method and analytical hierarchy process were united for calculating the parameters weights. The weighting method avoids the disadvantages inherent in using subjective or objective methods alone. Based on the cloud model and component weighting method, a model was established for the analysis of debris-flow hazard assessment. There are 29 debris-flow catchments around the pumped storage power station in the study area located near Zhirui (Inner Mongolia, China). Field survey data and 3S technologies were used for data collection. The results of the cloud model calculation process showed that of the 29 catchments, 25 had low debris-flow hazard assessment, three had moderate hazard assessment, and one had high hazard assessment. The widely used extenics method and field geological surveys were used to validate the proposed approach. This approach shows high potential as a useful tool for debris-flow hazard assessment analysis. Compared with other prediction methods, it avoids the randomness and fuzziness in uncertainty problems, and its prediction results are considered reasonable. PMID:28036079

  12. Permian vegetational Pompeii from Inner Mongolia and its implications for landscape paleoecology and paleobiogeography of Cathaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Pfefferkorn, Hermann W; Zhang, Yi; Feng, Zhuo

    2012-03-27

    Plant communities of the geologic past can be reconstructed with high fidelity only if they were preserved in place in an instant in time. Here we report such a flora from an early Permian (ca. 298 Ma) ash-fall tuff in Inner Mongolia, a time interval and area where such information is filling a large gap of knowledge. About 1,000 m(2) of forest growing on peat could be reconstructed based on the actual location of individual plants. Tree ferns formed a lower canopy and either Cordaites, a coniferophyte, or Sigillaria, a lycopsid, were present as taller trees. Noeggerathiales, an enigmatic and extinct spore-bearing plant group of small trees, is represented by three species that have been found as nearly complete specimens and are presented in reconstructions in their plant community. Landscape heterogenity is apparent, including one site where Noeggerathiales are dominant. This peat-forming flora is also taxonomically distinct from those growing on clastic soils in the same area and during the same time interval. This Permian flora demonstrates both similarities and differences to floras of the same age in Europe and North America and confirms the distinct character of the Cathaysian floral realm. Therefore, this flora will serve as a baseline for the study of other fossil floras in East Asia and the early Permian globally that will be needed for a better understanding of paleoclimate evolution through time.

  13. A new Burgess Shale-type deposit from the Ediacaran of western Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbos, Stephen Q.; Oji, Tatsuo; Kanayama, Akihiro; Gonchigdorj, Sersmaa

    2016-03-01

    Preservation of soft-bodied organisms is exceedingly rare in the fossil record. One way that such fossils are preserved is as carbonaceous compressions in fined-grained marine sedimentary rocks. These deposits of exceptional preservation are known as Burgess Shale-type (BST) deposits. During the Cambrian Period, BST deposits are more common and provide a crucial view of early animal evolution. The earliest definitive fossil evidence for macroscopic animal-grade organisms is found in the preceding Ediacaran Period. BST deposits from the Ediacaran are rarer and lack conclusive evidence for animals. Here we report the discovery of a new Ediacaran BST deposit with exceptional preservation of non-mineralizing macro-organisms in thinly bedded black shale from Zavkhan Province, western Mongolia. This fossil assemblage, here named the Zuun-Arts biota, currently consists of two new species of probable macroscopic multicellular benthic algae. One species, Chinggiskhaania bifurcata n. gen., n. sp., dominates the biota. The other species, Zuunartsphyton delicatum n. gen., n. sp., is known from three specimens. SEM-EDS analysis shows that the fossils are composed of aluminosilicate clay minerals and some carbon, a composition comparable to fossils from the Cambrian Burgess Shale biota. This discovery opens a new window through which to view late Precambrian life.

  14. Above- and belowground biomass in relation to environmental factors in temperate grasslands, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA WenHong; YANG YuanHe; HE JinSheng; ZENG Hui; FANG JingYun

    2008-01-01

    Above- and belowground biomasses of grasslands are important parameters for characterizing regional and global carbon cycles in grassland ecosystems. Compared with the relatively detailed information for aboveground biomass (AGB), belowground biomass (BGB) Is poorly reported at the regional scales. The present study, based on a total of 113 sampling sites in temperate grassland of the Inner Mongolia, investigated regional distribution patterns of AGB, BGB, vertical distribution of roots,and their relationships with environmental factors. AGB and BGB increased from the southwest to the northeast of the study region. The largest biomass occurred in meadow steppe, with mean AGB and BGB of 196.7 and 1385.2 g/m2, respectively; while the lowest biomass occurred in desert steppe, with an AGB of 56.6 g/m2 and a BGB of 301.0 g/m2. In addition, about 47% of root biomass was distributed in the top 10 cm soil. Further statistical analysis indicated that precipitation was the primary determinant factor in shaping these distribution patterns. Vertical distribution of roots was significantly affected by precipitation, while the effects of soil texture and grassland types were weak.

  15. Pastureland degradation and poverty among herders in Mongolia: Data analysis and game estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lise, Wietze [Energy Markets and International Climate Policy Group, ECN Policy Studies, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Badhuisweg 3, 1031 CM Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hess, Sebastiaan [Institute for Environmental Studies, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Purev, Byamba [Centre for Policy Research CPR MONTSAME Building 206 Jigjidjav street 8 Ulaanbaatar 210620/A P.O. Box 29 (Mongolia)

    2006-06-15

    Since the beginning of the transition to a market economy herders in Mongolia are encountering enormous challenges. Degradation of pastureland as resulting from overgrazing pastures seriously jeopardizes the vulnerable livelihood of small herders' household economies. To analyse herder's grazing behavior, the Ugtaal district in the Tov province (north of the capital) and the Gurvansaikhan district in the Dundgovi province (south of the capital) have been selected. In analysing collected primary data, it turns out with the help of a Principle Component Analysis that the herders in Ugtaal rank the perception of the quality of the environment second after a security factor, while the herders in Gurvansaikhan rank it first. A regression analysis indicates that richer herder do care more for the environment than poorer do in Ugtaal. Herders in Ugtaal face a reverse assurance game in choosing the growth in herd size. Hence, herd maximizing behavior leads to the highest payoff, while a second equilibrium exists where herders keep their herds constant. The herders in Gurvansaikhan also face a reverse assurance game in choosing the growth in herd size. The conclusion of this game is the same as for the game in Ugtaal. Hence, there are institutional alternatives in changing herder's behavior, but it comes at the cost of lowering their income from herding by about 30% in Gurvansaikhan, but the reduction can go up to 60% in Ugtaal. (author)

  16. Genetic polymorphisms of nine X-STR loci in four population groups from Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qiao-Fang; Yu, Bin; Li, Sheng-Bin

    2007-02-01

    Nine short tandem repeat (STR) markers on the X chromosome (DXS101, DXS6789, DXS6799, DXS6804, DXS7132, DXS7133, DXS7423, DXS8378, and HPRTB) were analyzed in four population groups (Mongol, Ewenki, Oroqen, and Daur) from Inner Mongolia, China, in order to learn about the genetic diversity, forensic suitability, and possible genetic affinities of the populations. Frequency estimates, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and other parameters of forensic interest were computed. The results revealed that the nine markers have a moderate degree of variability in the population groups. Most heterozygosity values for the nine loci range from 0.480 to 0.891, and there are evident differences of genetic variability among the populations. A UPGMA tree constructed on the basis of the generated data shows very low genetic distance between Mongol and Han (Xi'an) populations. Our results based on genetic distance analysis are consistent with the results of earlier studies based on linguistics and the immigration history and origin of these populations. The minisatellite loci on the X chromosome studied here are not only useful in showing significant genetic variation between the populations, but also are suitable for human identity testing among Inner Mongolian populations.

  17. [Characteristics of net ecosystem flux exchanges over Stipa krylovii steppe in Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Wang, Yun-Long; Wang, Yu-Hui

    2008-03-01

    Based on an entire year continuous measurement of surface fluxes by eddy covariance (EC) tower and micro-climate gradient observation system, the diurnal and seasonal dynamics of net ecosystem fluxes including carbon, water, and heat fluxes over Stipa krylovii steppe in Inner Mongolia were investigated. The results indicated that the diurnal pattern of carbon fluxes during growing season could be expressed as U curve. S. krylovii steppe ecosystem emitted CO2 before the sunrise and absorbed CO2 after the sunrise, with the maximum CO2 uptake around noon. The ecosystem had weaker CO2 uptake after the noon, and turned to emit CO2 after sunset. The CO2 uptake by S. krylovii steppe ecosystem reached the maximum in September, followed in August, and got the minimum in October. The diurnal dynamic patterns of sensible heat flux (Hs) and latent heat flux (LE) could be expressed as inverse U curves. The Hs and LE over S. krylovii steppe ecosystem were positive during the daytime, while Hs was negative and LE was close to zero during the nighttime. The ecosystem had the highest Hs and LE in May and September, respectively. In winter, the steppe acted as a weak carbon source, with the CO2 flux being small; while in summer, it became an obvious carbon sink.

  18. [Dynamics of sensible and latent heat fluxes over a temperate desert steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Yang, Fu-Lin

    2010-03-01

    This paper studied the diurnal and seasonal characteristics of sensible and latent heat fluxes over a temperate desert steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia, based on the 2008 observation data from eddy covariance tower. The diurnal patterns of sensible and latent heat fluxes over the ecosystem were both single kurtosis, with the maximum value being 319.01 W x m(-2) (on May 30th, 2008) and 425.37 W x m(-2) (on Jun 2nd, 2008), respectively, and occurred at about 12:00-13:30 (local time), which was similar to the diurnal pattern of net radiation but lagged about one hour of the maximum net radiation. The maximum diurnal variations of monthly mean sensible and latent heat fluxes occurred in May and June, and their minimum diurnal variations occurred in January and November, respectively. There was a closer relationship between soil moisture content and precipitation. Surface soil moisture content was most sensitive to precipitation, while the moisture content in deeper soil layers had a lagged response to precipitation. The seasonal dynamics of sensible and latent heat fluxes was similar to that of net radiation, and affected by precipitation. Sensible heat flux was obviously affected by net radiation, but latent heat flux was more sensitive to precipitation and mainly controlled by soil moisture content.

  19. Using Satellite Data for Environmental Impact Analysis in Economic Growth: the Case of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungalag, A.; Tsolmon, R.; Ochirkhuyag, L.; Oyunjargal, J.

    2016-06-01

    The Mongolian economy is based on the primary and secondary economic sectors of agriculture and industry. In addition, minerals and mining become a key sector of its economy. The main mining resources are gold, copper, coal, fluorspar and steel. However, the environment and green economy is one of the big problems among most of the countries and especially for countries like Mongolia where the mining is major part of economy; it is a number one problem. The research of the work tested how environmental elements effect to current Mongolian economic growth, which is growing economy because of mining sector. The study of economic growth but the starting point for any study of economic growth is the neoclassical growth model emphasizing the role of capital accumulation. The growth is analysed either in terms of models with exogenous saving rates (the Solow-Swan model), or models where consumption and hence savings are determined by optimizing individuals. These are the so-called optimal growth or Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans. The study extends the Solow model and the Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans model, including environmental elements which are satellite data determine to degraded land and vegetation value from 1995 to 2013. In contrast, we can see the degraded land area increases from 1995 (4856 m2) to 2013 (10478 m2) and vegetation value decrease at same time. A description of the methodology of the study conducted follows together with the data collected and econometric estimations and calibration with environmental elements.

  20. Correlation between dust events in Mongolia and surface wind and precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganbat Amgalan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents dust event spatiotemporal distribution and regional trends, and the impact of surface wind and precipitation on dust occurrences in Mongolia. We used data collected between 2000 and 2013 from 113 meteorological stations in natural forest steppe, steppe, Gobi Desert, and mountain zones. We analyzed the relationship between dusty days, derived using the sum of days with dust storms and/or drifting dust, and days with strong winds (at a threshold wind speed of a constant 6.5 m s-1, hereafter, strong wind days and precipitation by comparing the dusty days in dust-frequent years, dust-less years, and dust-mean years. Dusty days in dust-frequent years were associated with strong wind days when the precipitation is about 10 mm and dust occurrences were suppressed by large amounts of precipitation (approximately 22 mm in dust-less years over the southeastern part of the Gobi Desert in May. We propose a potential dust index (PDI based on the correlations among dusty days, strong winds and precipitation. The PDI performed as predicted in most areas of the country in the spring season.

  1. Siberian Ibex (Capra sibirica Neonatal Kid Survival and Morphometric Measurements in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baatargal Otgonbayar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors infl uencing survival of ungulate neonates facilitates successful management programs, particularly as they relate to population dynamics and adaptive species management. However, kid survival of near threatened Siberian ibex (Capra sibirica remains poorly understood. During 2005-2013, we captured and collared 21 ibex kids in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve in southeastern Mongolia, to monitor their survival and cause-specifi c mortality. We found no diff erences in morphometric measurements between male and female kids, except body mass being males weighing more than females. A total of 11 mortalities were documented and predations by red foxes (n=5, Vulpes vulpes and grey wolf (n=1, Canis lupus was the leading cause of the mortalities. Known fate models indicate the monthly survival of kids best explained by body mass and fi rst month of life (April-May + weight. Monthly survival estimates ranged from 0.077 (95% CI = 0.60-0.88 in April-May to 0.97 (95% CI = 0.90-0.99 in June-March, with an annual survival rate of 0.45 (95% CI = 0.24-0.68. We found little support for the hypotheses that body mass or birth date infl uenced survival; however, our small sample size limited the power of the analyses. Overall, our results indicated that predation and other factors led to high kid mortality during the period shortly after birth

  2. Fungal Ferromanganese Mineralisation in Cretaceous Dinosaur Bones from the Gobi Desert, Mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Owocki

    Full Text Available Well-preserved mycelia of fungal- or saprolegnia-like biota mineralised by ferromanganese oxides were found for the first time in long bones of Late Cretaceous dinosaurs from the Gobi Desert (Nemegt Valley, Mongolia. The mycelia formed a biofilm on the wall of the bone marrow cavity and penetrated the osteon channels of the nearby bone tissue. Optical microscopy, Raman, SEM/EDS, SEM/BSE, electron microprobe and cathodoluminescence analyses revealed that the mineralisation of the mycelia proceeded in two stages. The first stage was early post-mortem mineralisation of the hyphae by Fe/Mn-oxide coatings and microconcretions. Probably this proceeded in a mildly acidic to circumneutral environment, predominantly due to heterotrophic bacteria degrading the mycelial necromass and liberating Fe and Mn sorbed by the mycelia during its lifetime. The second stage of mineralisation, which proceeded much later following the final burial of the bones in an alkaline environment, resulted from the massive precipitation of calcite and occasionally barite on the iron/manganese-oxide-coated mycelia. The mineral phases produced by fungal biofilms colonising the interiors of decaying dinosaur bones not only enhance the preservation (fossilisation of fungal remains but can also be used as indicators of the geochemistry of the dinosaur burial sites.

  3. Hydrological Response of Populus euphratica Olve. Radial Growth in Ejinaa Banner, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu-Xing Liu; Jian-Feng Peng; Fa-Hu Chen

    2007-01-01

    Populus euphratica Olve. is a dominant tree species in Ejinaa Oasis of the lower reaches of the Helhe River, Inner Mongolia, China. In recent years, the population of this species has shown signs of degradation that are suggested to be probably associated with the decrease of surface water. In this study, the history of river runoff In this region was examined with a dendrochronological study of P. euphratica from four sites. it is found that tree-ring widths in the all sites have negative correlation with runoffs of all months at the Zhengyixia hydrological station. Principal component (PC) analysis of the tree-ring chronologies shows that the first PC (PC1) accounts for 49.98% of the total variances. The first PC is found to have a significantly negative correlation with runoffs In March and April (-0.52 and- 0.43, respectively, P<0.05). This negative correlation might be related to varlatlons In the depth of underground water.

  4. Siberian Ibex ( Capra sibirica Home Ranges in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia: Preliminary Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Reading

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Siberian ibex ( Capra sibirica remain poorly understood, as little is known about their ecology . W e began studying ibex in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Dornogobi Aimag, Mongolia to better understand the species’ ecological needs and threats. In this paper we report on home range and core range sizes. We captured 27 ibex and fi t them with radio telemetry collars using drive nets for adults and juveniles ( n = 22 and hand captures for neonatal kids ( n = 5 . W e collected 1,029 locations from September 2003 to February 2007. Throughout the study, 9 ibex with 40+ fi xe s used mean, annual home range sizes of 3,115.5 ± 504.2 ha using the Minimum Convex Polygon method. Home ranges calculated using the fi xe d kernel method were smaller: 475.9 ± 14.7 ha for 50% kernel and 1,808.0 ± 88.1 ha for 95% kernel. Ibex from different demographic groups (males vs. females and juveniles vs. adults used remarkably similar home and core ranges; we found no signifi ca nt differences among any demographic groups. Although not quantifi ed , ibex mostly restricted their activities to areas with steep cliffs and rocky outcrops and home ranges overlapped extensively.

  5. Contributions of Russian Scientists to the Research of Aquatic Ecosystems in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Yu. Dgebuadze

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the overview of the studies of the aquatic fauna and fl ora of Mongolia by the Russian (and Soviet scientists for the period of more than a century. This history is divided into three periods: the fi rst period covers the end of the 19 th and the beginning of the 20 th centuries, the second one – the middle of the 20 th century and the third one – the last one third of the 20 th and the beginning of the 21 th centuries. The fi rst period is connected with the research of Hubsugul Lake and Selenge River basin completely, the second period – with the works of Mongolian Commission and Science Committee of the Mongolian People’s Republic. The third period started in 1970’s with simultaneous organization of two important expeditions: the Joint Hubsugul Lake Expedition by the Irkutsk and Mongolian State Universities, and Joint Soviet-Mongolian Complex Biological Expedition by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the Mongolian Academy of Sciences. The latter expedition celebrates 40th anniversary of its permanent activity this year. In the second part of this paper the results of hydrobiological studies of this expedition led in 2000-2009 in the Selenge River basin are given.

  6. A measure for spatial heterogeneity of vegetation in the Center of Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baimin Song; Daming Huang; Renqing Wang; Masae Shiyomi; Fei Xu; Wei Wang; Gaosheng Zhang; Xianqiane Zhang; Jian Qiao

    2008-01-01

    This study surveyed and analyzed the vegetation heterogeneity in the Center of Inner Mongolia (CIM) by a new method based on the beta-binomial distribution for each kind of vegetation. As many as 190 large quadrats of 5 mm x S mm (representing an area of 50 km × 50 km) (referred to as L-quadrats hereafter) were extracted from about an area of 475,000 km2. Each L-quadrat was divided into four small quadrats (S-quadrat) of 2.5 mm x 2.5 mm (equivalent to 25 km x 25 km) and the frequency of occurrence of each type of vegetation was recorded in each small quadrate. The weighted average heterogeneity from all of the vegetations composing a landscape provides a measure at landscape level to determine the spatial intricateness of landscape composition. Our results indicated that each vegetation has its own distribution pattern and the degree of heterogeneity is different from one kind of vegetation to the other. The results proved that the beta-binomial distribution can be very useful for analyzing vegetation landscapes.

  7. Vegetation Spatial Heterogeneity of Different Soil Regions in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The vegetation spatial heterogeneity and ecological characteristics in different soil regions were analyzed by surveying the vegetation in 12 different soil regions of Inner Mongolia, China, including coniferous-broadleaf deciduous forests, shrub, grassland, and desert regions with 1122 large 2 cm × 2 cm quadrats (actual size 30 km × 30 km, referred to as L-quadrat hereafter) in about 1.18 million km2. Each Lquadrat was divided into four small 1 cm× 1 cm quadrats (actual size 15 km × 15 km, S-quadrat). The vegetation was analyzed based on the beta-binomial distribution to describe the frequency of occurrence and spatial heterogeneity for each kind of vegetation. The weighted average of the heterogeneity of all vegetation in the same soil region provides a measure of the soil regional landscape level heterogeneity which describes the spatial complexity of the regional landscape composition of the existing vegetation. Comparison of the vegetation characteristics in the 12 soil regions shows that, the calcic gray soil has the highest average vegetation type per quadrat. The largest soil region is calcic chestnut soil and has the most vegetation types. Every soil region has its own dominant vegetation sequence which dominates in occurrence and dominant vegetation types which dominates in spatial heterogeneity. For the Inner Mongolian vegetation, the weighted average of the heterogeneity is 0.60 and the vegetation diversity index is 4.47.

  8. On scientific expedition tourism of desert region: a case of eastern Ulan Buh Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Desert-based adventure tourism is a rapidly expanding tourism market segment after the late 20th century around the world.Perhaps the most significant factor in the development of desert adventure tourism is the extent to which common tourists are really engaged in scientific expedition.Inner Mongolia has long been considered as the resources accumulation area of desert tourism.The investigation on the Ulan Buh Desert has discovered that the desert animals,the vegetation,the insects,the fungus,the landform and the climate are impressive for both the researchers and the mass tourists.After the resources investigation a survey was carried out in 2007 to get the detailed information of the tourists attitude toward the planning desert scientific product in the Ulan Buh Desert.Based on the resources and market analysis,this paper tries to make a planning of the desert scientific expedition tour of the Ulan Buh Desert.The planning includes the functional division,expedition route design,tour-explaining system,facility of safety guaranty and service planning,and the professional training base.

  9. Response of bankfull discharge of the Inner Mongolia Yellow River to flow and sediment factors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suzhen Hou; Ping Wang; Yan Guo; Ting Li

    2014-08-01

    Bankfull discharge is a comprehensive factor reflecting the channel-forming capability of water flow and the flood and sediment transport capacity of a river channel. It is based on the interaction of the flow, sediment, and river channel, of which flow and sediment conditions play crucial roles. Using data recorded since the 1950s, this paper analyses statistically, the characteristics and variations of bankfull discharge at two stations on the Inner Mongolian reaches of the upper Yellow River. Results indicate that flood season variations in bankfull discharge are nonlinear and are governed by flood peak discharge, mean discharge, and the mean incoming sediment coefficients. Variation in bankfull discharge is related not only to the flow and sediment conditions of the current year but also to those of previous years. The 10-year moving average of flow and sediment conditions can be representative of present and previous years. By considering flood season peak discharge and incoming sediment coefficients as independent impact factors, a formula is derived to determine bankfull discharge. The results can be used to predict the bankfull discharge of the Yellow River channel in Inner Mongolia under specific flow and sediment conditions and provide reference for the purpose of further study related to restoring and maintaining the basic functions of the river channel regarding flood discharge and sediments.

  10. 内蒙古农产品区域品牌发展战略研究%Inner Mongolia Agricultural Regional Brand Develops Strategic Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2012-01-01

    Based on the current situation of the development of Inner Mongolia regional brand of agricuhural products and eonstnlction conditions of investigation and analysis, to explore the Inner Mongolia regional brands of agricultural products in development of practical problems, tot the government and a- gricultural enterprises brand of scientific decision-making pro- vide reference, promote Inner Mongolia agriculture products in the market competitiveness and regional competitiveness.%依托对内蒙古农产品区域品牌发展现状和建设条件的调查分析,探索内蒙古农产品区域品牌发展的现实问题,可以为政府和农业企业进行品牌化的科学决策提供参考,提升内蒙古农产品的市场竞争力和区域竞争力。

  11. Central line infections - hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection; Central venous catheter - infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired ...

  12. Decadal variability in the occurrence of wintertime haze in central eastern China tied to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sen; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Haze is a serious issue in China with increasing concerns, and understanding the factors driving decadal-scale variations in haze occurrence is relevant for government policymaking. Using a comprehensive observational haze dataset, we demonstrate notable decadal fluctuations in the number of haze days (HD) during winter in central eastern China, showing a decline since the mid-1980s. The leading mode of the wintertime HD features an increasing trend for 1959-2012 in eastern China, highly correlated with China’s gross domestic product (GDP) that represents increasing trend of pollutant emissions, and to a lesser extent meteorological factors. The second mode shows decadal variations in central eastern China associated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Observations and numerical simulations suggest that Mongolia High and corresponding descending motion tend to be enhanced (weakened) in central eastern China during the positive (negative) phase of PDO. With PDO shifting towards a negative phase, the weakened Mongolia High and ascending anomalies make the air unstable and conduce to the spread of pollutants, leading to the decline in the wintertime HD over central eastern China since the mid-1980s. Based on above physical mechanisms, a linear model based on PDO and GDP metrics provided a good fit to the observed HD.

  13. Decadal variability in the occurrence of wintertime haze in central eastern China tied to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sen; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng

    2016-06-10

    Haze is a serious issue in China with increasing concerns, and understanding the factors driving decadal-scale variations in haze occurrence is relevant for government policymaking. Using a comprehensive observational haze dataset, we demonstrate notable decadal fluctuations in the number of haze days (HD) during winter in central eastern China, showing a decline since the mid-1980s. The leading mode of the wintertime HD features an increasing trend for 1959-2012 in eastern China, highly correlated with China's gross domestic product (GDP) that represents increasing trend of pollutant emissions, and to a lesser extent meteorological factors. The second mode shows decadal variations in central eastern China associated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Observations and numerical simulations suggest that Mongolia High and corresponding descending motion tend to be enhanced (weakened) in central eastern China during the positive (negative) phase of PDO. With PDO shifting towards a negative phase, the weakened Mongolia High and ascending anomalies make the air unstable and conduce to the spread of pollutants, leading to the decline in the wintertime HD over central eastern China since the mid-1980s. Based on above physical mechanisms, a linear model based on PDO and GDP metrics provided a good fit to the observed HD.

  14. The Application of a Geographically Weighted Principal Component Analysis for Exploring Twenty-three Years of Goat Population Change across Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Tsutsumida, N; Harris, P.; Comber, A

    2017-01-01

    En Mongolia, los dzud son eventos meteorológicos extremos caracterizados por alta precipitación y acumulación de nieve, frío severo u otras condiciones que comprometen la disponibilidad de forraje o lo hacen inaccesible, lo cual a su vez resulta en alta mortalidad de ganados. Mongolia es vulnerable económicamente a eventos extremos debido a un incremento de ganaderos no profesionales y de la población ganadera, generados por una industria no regularizada. Entonces, es altamente informativo tr...

  15. Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Central Solenoid (CS) is a single layer coil wound internally in a supporting cylinder housed in the cryostat of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. It was successfully tested at Toshiba in December 2000 and was delivered to CERN in September 2001 ready for integration in the LAr Calorimeter in 2003. An intermediate test of the chimney and proximity cryogenics was successfully performed in June 2002.

  16. Needlestick and sharps injuries among health care workers at public tertiary hospitals in an urban community in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsolmon Muugolog

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Needlestick and sharps injuries (NSSIs are one of the major risk factors for blood-borne infections at healthcare facilities. This study examines the current situation of NSSIs among health care workers at public tertiary hospitals in an urban community in Mongolia and explores strategies for the prevention of these injuries. Findings A survey of 621 health care workers was undertaken in two public tertiary hospitals in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, in July 2006. A semi-structured and self-administered questionnaire was distributed to study injection practices and the occurrence of NSSIs. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate factors associated with experiencing NSSIs. Among the 435 healthcare workers who returned a completed questionnaire, the incidence of NSSIs during the previous 3 months was 38.4%. Health care workers were more likely to report NSSIs if they worked longer than 35 hours per week (odds ratio, OR: 2.47; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.31-4.66 and administered more than 10 injections per day (OR: 4.76; 95% CI: 1.97-11.49. The likelihood of self-reporting NSSIs significantly decreased if health care workers adhered to universal precautions (OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.17-0.68. Conclusions NSSIs are a common public health problem at public tertiary hospitals in Mongolia. The promotion of adequate working conditions, elimination of excessive injection use, and adherence to universal precautions will be important for the future control of potential infections with blood-borne pathogens due to occupational exposures to sharps in this setting.

  17. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  18. 内蒙古种子植物新资料%New Data of Seed Plants in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵利清; 达来; 陶格日勒

    2011-01-01

    报道了内蒙古1个新分布记录属--莴苣属(Lactuca L.);3个新分布记录种:双穗麻黄 (Ephedra distachya L.)、丝毛蓝刺头(Echinops nanus Bunge)、野莴苣(Lactuca serriola L.).%New records of seed plants in Inner Mongolia are reported. Among those, Lactuca L. is a newly recorded genus,Ephedra distachya L. ,Echinops nanus Bunge,Lactuca serriola L. are three newly recorded species.

  19. Isotope Method for Confined Groundwater Recharge of the Lower Reaches of the Heihe River, Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Environmental isotopes have been applied to analyze confined groundwater recharge in the lower reaches of the Heihe River, Inner Mongolia. CFC is regarded as a tracer that determines the date of groundwater, the date being less than 45 a. The confined groundwater within the Gurinai area and Ejin Basin other than the surface water of Heihe River might have originated from precipitation from Qilian Mountain or/and the Tibetan Plateau. The deep confined groundwater overflows into an upper aquifer and emerges into the ground, forming springs and lakes within the low-lying area. The recharge volume is estimated to be around 400 million-cubic meters.

  20. Practice and Exploration of Leisure Agriculture Construction in Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaidong; WANG; Ming; LI; Lazhu; HAO; Maoyue; GE

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces the basic information about Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park, and the practice concerning leisure agriculture; summarizes the experience obtained. Finally, some ideas are put forth for further construction and development of leisure agriculture in science and technology park as follows: making unified layout and rational planning; integrating the local tourism resources, to establish the system of leisure agriculture; creating features of leisure agriculture in the park; establishing the brand of leisure-oriented training base in science and technology park; carrying out exploration into operation mode of leisure agriculture in the park.

  1. The surface pollen and relative pollen production of the desert vegetation of the Alashan Plateau, western Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U. Herzschuh; H. Kürschner; MA Yuzhen

    2003-01-01

    This preliminary investigation focuses on the comparison of the recentpollen precipitation and its related vegetation of eight different plant communities in the Alashan Region, the most western part of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Most zonal and azonal communities can be well identified by their pollen spectra. Relative pollen production factors of various plant taxa have beencalculated and the following sequences from over- to under represented taxa have been found for zonal vegetation: Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia, Ephedra, Nitraria,Reaumuria, Calligonum, Zygophyllum; and for azonal vegetation: Peganum, Populus, Tamarix, Lycium.

  2. Paleomagnetic Results of Permo-Carboniferous Volcanic-sedimentary Strata in Mid-eastern Inner Mongolia, China: Implications for Tectonic Evolution of the Eastern CAOB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Huang, B.; Zhao, J.; Bai, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, T.

    2015-12-01

    There has been hotly debating over the closure time of the eastern Paleo-Asian Ocean and the tectonic evolution of the eastern CAOB (Central Asian Orogenic Belt) for decades. To better puzzle out this controversy, we carried out a detailed paleomagnetic study on the Permo-Carboniferous volcanic-sedimentary strata in mid-eastern Inner Mongolia, northeast of China. More than 820 samples were collected from 81 sites and titanium-poor magnetite and hematite are proved as the principal magnetic carriers. (1)In Kingan Block, 9 sites of volcanic rocks from Dashizhai Formation (P1) were calculated to get a mean magnetic direction Dg/Ig = 285.5°/77.4°, kg = 68.2, α95 = 6.8° before and Ds/Is = 206.5°/48.2°, ks = 100.8, α95 = 5.5°, N = 9 after bedding correction, which suggests a paleolatitude of 34.5°±5°N. Both the positive fold test and reversal test suggest a pre-folding magnetization and thus may indicate a primary remanence. (2)Three volcanic sections of Baoligaomiao Formation (C3-P1) from Uliastai Passive Margin were sampled and a mean magnetic direction derived from 16 sites is Dg/Ig = 30.1°/31.8°, kg = 16.3, α95 = 9.8° before and Ds/Is = 65.6°/58.1°, ks = 39.8, α95 = 6.1°, N = 16 after bedding correction. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole Plat. /Plong = 43.1° N/186.7°E, A95=8° suggests a paleolatitude of 38.7°±6.3°N. A primary remanence is confirmed by positive fold test. (3) In the northern margin of NCB (North China Block), a ChRM is successfully isolated from 6 sites of basaltic rocks in Elitu Formation (P2) as Dg/Ig = 351.1°/67.2°, kg = 2.1, α95 = 71.8° before and Ds/Is = 351.1°/29.1°, ks = 32.7, α95 = 71.8°, N = 16 after bedding correction, and thus yielded a paleomagnetic pole as Plat. /Plong = 63.1° N/313.5°E, A95=9.5°, which suggests a paleolatitude of 17.2°±7.2°N. A positive fold test and reversal test indicate that the remanence should be primary. The paleomagetic pole of Kingan Block and Uliastai Passive Margin are

  3. Geological and Geochemical Characteristics of the Zhulazhaga Gold Deposit in Inner Mongolia,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Sihong; NIE Fengjun

    2005-01-01

    Located in Alxa Zuoqi (Left Banner) of Inner Mongolia, China, the Zhulazhaga gold deposit is the first largescale gold deposit that was found in the middle-upper Proterozoic strata along the north margin of the North China craton in recent years. It was discovered by the No. 1 Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration Party of Inner Mongolia as a result of prospecting a geochemical anomaly. By now, over 50 tonnes of gold has been defined, with an average Au grade of 4 g/t. The ore bodies occur in the first lithological unit of the Mesoproterozoic Zhulazhagamaodao Formation (MZF), which is composed mainly of epimetamorphic sandstone and siltstone and partly of volcanic rocks. With high concentration of gold,the first lithological unit of the MZF became the source bed for the late-stage ore formation. Controlled by the interstratal fracture zones, the ore bodies mostly appear along the bedding with occurrence similar to that of the strata. The primitive ore types are predominantly the altered rock type with minor ore belonging to the quartz veins type. There are also some oxidized ore near the surface. The metallic minerals are composed mainly of pyrite, pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite with minor chalcopyrite, galena and limonite. Most gold minerals appear as native gold and electrum. Hydrothermal alterations associated with the ore formation are actinolitization, silicatization, sulfidation and carbonation.A total of 100 two-phase H20-rich and 7 three-phase daughter crystal-bearing inclusions were measured in seven goldbearing quartz samples from the Zhulazhaga gold deposit. The homogenization temperatures of the two-phase H2O-rich inclusions range from 155 to 401℃, with an average temperature of 284℃ and bimodal distributions from 240 to 260℃ and 300 to 320℃ respectively. The salinities of the two-phase H20-rich inclusions vary from 9.22wt% to 24.30wt% NaCl equiv, with a mode between 23 wt% and 24wt% NaCl equiv. Comparatively, the homogenization temperatures of

  4. Multilocus sequence typing of Lactobacillus casei isolates from naturally fermented foods in China and Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qiuhua; Song, Yuqin; Xu, Haiyan; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Wenyi; Menghe, Bilige; Zhang, Heping; Sun, Zhihong

    2016-07-01

    Lactobacillus casei is a lactic acid bacterium used in manufacturing of many fermented food products. To investigate the genetic diversity and population biology of this food-related bacterium, 224 Lb. casei isolates and 5 reference isolates were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Among them, 224 Lb. casei isolates were isolated from homemade fermented foods, including naturally fermented dairy products, acidic gruel, and Sichuan pickles from 38 different regions in China and Mongolia. The MLST scheme was developed based on the analysis of 10 selected housekeeping genes (carB, clpX, dnaA, groEL, murE, pyrG, pheS, recA, rpoC, and uvrC). All 229 isolates could be allocated to 171 unique sequence types, including 25 clonal complexes and 71 singletons. The high index of association value (1.3524) and standardized index of association value (0.1503) indicate the formation of an underlying clonal population by all the isolates. However, split-decomposition, relative frequency of occurrence of recombination and mutation, and relative effect of recombination and mutation in the diversification values confirm that recombination may have occurred, and were more frequent than mutation during the evolution of Lb. casei. Results from Structure analyses (version 2.3; http://pritch.bsd.uchicago.edu/structure.html) demonstrated that there were 5 lineages in the Lb. casei isolates, and the overall relatedness built by minimum spanning tree showed no clear relationship between the clonal complexes with either the isolation sources or sampling locations of the isolates. Our newly developed MLST scheme of Lb. casei was an easy and valuable tool that, together with the construction of an MLST database, will contribute to further detailed studies on the evolution and population genetics of Lb. casei from various niches. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Contamination of water and soil by the Erdenet copper-molybdenum mine in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battogtokh, B.; Lee, J.; Woo, N. C.; Nyamjav, A.

    2013-12-01

    As one of the largest copper-molybdenum (Cu-Mo) mines in the world, the Erdenet Mine in Mongolia has been active since 1978, and is expected to continue operations for at least another 30 years. In this study, the potential impacts of mining activities on the soil and water environments have been evaluated. Water samples showed high concentrations of sulfate, calcium, magnesium, Mo, and arsenic, and high pH values in the order of high to low as follows: tailing water > Khangal River > groundwater. Statistical analysis and the δ2H and δ18O values of water samples indicate that the tailing water directly affects the stream water and indirectly affects groundwater through recharge processes. Soil and stream sediments are highly contaminated with Cu and Mo, which are major elements of ore minerals. Based on the contamination factor (CF), the pollution load index (PLI), and the degree of contamination (Cd), soil appears to be less contaminated than stream sediments. The soil particle size is similar to that of tailing materials, but stream sediments have much coarser particles, implying that the materials have different origins. Contamination levels in stream sediments display a tendency to decrease with distance from the mine, but no such changes are found in soil. Consequently, soil contamination by metals is attributable to wind-blown dusts from the tailing materials, and stream sediment contamination is caused by discharges from uncontained subgrade ore stock materials. Considering the evident impact on the soil and water environment, and the human health risk from the Erdenet Mine, measures to mitigate its environmental impact should be taken immediately including source control, the establishment of a systematic and continuous monitoring system, and a comprehensive risk assessment. Sampling locations around the Erdenet Mine

  6. Magmatism of the Shuteen Complex and Carboniferous subduction of the Gurvansaikhan terrane, South Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batkhishig, Bayaraa; Noriyoshi, Tsuchiya; Greg, Bignall

    2010-03-01

    The Carboniferous Shuteen Complex, a volcano-plutonic ring complex associated with Cu-Au porphyry mineralization, is located in the Gurvansaikhan island arc terrane of South Mongolia. This paper presents new data on the petrography, major and trace element chemistry, and Sr-Nd isotopic chemistry of the Shuteen Complex. We discuss the relationship between volcanic and plutonic rocks of the complex, and consider their similarity to high-Al 2O 3 trondhjemite-tonalite-granodiorite and adakites. We also consider the origin, magma source, and dynamic processes of the Shuteen Complex; propose a petrogenetic model; and investigate the composition of the subducting slab and the features of arc volcanism at the time. We assess some of the magmatic processes likely to have occurred within the Shuteen Complex, such as Carboniferous slab subduction and partial melting, and examine their influence on magma composition. The Shuteen Complex is geochemically similar to adakite-type rocks. The complex is silica-saturated (SiO 2 ⩾ 56%), rich in Al 2O 3 (⩾15%), MgO (400 ppm), and depleted in high field strength elements. It also has a high Sr/Y value, and ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) I arc setting, and partial melting was the dominant process during petrogenesis. The primary Shuteen magma had an adakitic composition and was probably derived from the partial melting of subducting oceanic crust, possibly with minor local interaction with mantle material. The results of quantitative modelling of mass balance and partial melt equilibrium for the magma source indicate that the subducting slab contained oceanic basalt and a minor component of oceanic sediment, which together with a restite eclogite phase formed the source of the Shuteen magma. The conclusive results of this study provide new insights into the magmatic evolution of the Shuteen Complex.

  7. Microbial Community of High Arsenic Groundwater in Agricultural Irrigation Area of Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Li, Ping; Jiang, Zhou; Sinkkonen, Aki; Wang, Shi; Tu, Jin; Wei, Dazhun; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities can play important role in arsenic release in groundwater aquifers. To investigate the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater aquifers in agricultural irrigation area, 17 groundwater samples with different arsenic concentrations were collected along the agricultural drainage channels of Hangjinhouqi County, Inner Mongolia and examined by illumina MiSeq sequencing approach targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering results indicated that these samples were divided into two groups (high and low arsenic groups) according to the variation of geochemical characteristics. Arsenic concentrations showed strongly positive correlations with [Formula: see text] and total organic carbon (TOC). Sequencing results revealed that a total of 329-2823 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed at the 97% OTU level. Microbial richness and diversity of high arsenic groundwater samples along the drainage channels were lower than those of low arsenic groundwater samples but higher than those of high arsenic groundwaters from strongly reducing areas. The microbial community structure in groundwater along the drainage channels was different from those in strongly reducing arsenic-rich aquifers of Hetao Plain and other high arsenic groundwater aquifers including Bangladesh, West Bengal, and Vietnam. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas dominated with high percentages in both high and low arsenic groundwaters. Alishewanella, Psychrobacter, Methylotenera, and Crenothrix showed relatively high abundances in high arsenic groundwater, while Rheinheimera and the unidentified OP3 were predominant populations in low arsenic groundwater. Archaeal populations displayed a low occurrence and mainly dominated by methanogens such as Methanocorpusculum and Methanospirillum. Microbial community compositions were different between high and low arsenic groundwater samples based on the results of principal

  8. Prey preference of snow leopard (Panthera uncia in South Gobi, Mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasim Shehzad

    Full Text Available Accurate information about the diet of large carnivores that are elusive and inhabit inaccessible terrain, is required to properly design conservation strategies. Predation on livestock and retaliatory killing of predators have become serious issues throughout the range of the snow leopard. Several feeding ecology studies of snow leopards have been conducted using classical approaches. These techniques have inherent limitations in their ability to properly identify both snow leopard feces and prey taxa. To examine the frequency of livestock prey and nearly-threatened argali in the diet of the snow leopard, we employed the recently developed DNA-based diet approach to study a snow leopard population located in the Tost Mountains, South Gobi, Mongolia. After DNA was extracted from the feces, a region of ∼100 bp long from mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was amplified, making use of universal primers for vertebrates and a blocking oligonucleotide specific to snow leopard DNA. The amplicons were then sequenced using a next-generation sequencing platform. We observed a total of five different prey items from 81 fecal samples. Siberian ibex predominated the diet (in 70.4% of the feces, followed by domestic goat (17.3% and argali sheep (8.6%. The major part of the diet was comprised of large ungulates (in 98.8% of the feces including wild ungulates (79% and domestic livestock (19.7%. The findings of the present study will help to understand the feeding ecology of the snow leopard, as well as to address the conservation and management issues pertaining to this wild cat.

  9. Land cover/land use change in semi-arid Inner Mongolia: 1992-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Ranjeet; Chen Jiquan; Lu Nan; Wilske, Burkhard, E-mail: ranjeet.john@utoledo.ed [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The semi-arid grasslands in Inner Mongolia (IM) are under increasing stress owing to climate change and rapid socio-economic development in the recent past. We investigated changes in land cover/land use and landscape structure between 1992 and 2004 through the analysis of AVHRR and MODIS derived land cover data. The scale of analysis included the regional level (i.e. the whole of IM) as well as the level of the dominant biomes (i.e. the grassland and desert). We quantified proportional change, rate of change and the changes in class-level landscape metrics using the landscape structure analysis program FRAGSTATS. The dominant land cover types, grassland and barren, 0.47 and 0.27 million km{sup 2}, respectively, have increased proportionally. Cropland and urban land use also increased to 0.15 million km{sup 2} and 2197 km{sup 2}, respectively. However, the results further indicated increases in both the homogeneity and fragmentation of the landscape. Increasing homogeneity was mainly related to the reduction in minority cover types such as savanna, forests and permanent wetlands and increasing cohesion, aggregation index and clumpy indices. Conversely, increased fragmentation of the landscape was based on the increase in patch density and the interspersion/juxtaposition index (IJI). It is important to note the socio-economic growth in this fragile ecosystem, manifested by an increasing proportion of agricultural and urban land use not just at the regional level but also at the biome level in the context of regional climate change and increasing water stress.

  10. INAA for determination of trace elements in bottom sediments of the Selenga river basin in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljinnyam, N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Aleksiayenak, Yu. V.

    2014-03-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used for the determination of major, minor and trace elements in samples of bottom sediments of the inflows of the Selenga river basin to assess the impact of the contamination from the industrial complex Erdenet and other industrial enterprises in Mongolia. A total of 42 elements (Na, Mg, Cl, K, Ca, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th, and U) was determined by combination of conventional and epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor, FLNP JINR, Dubna. For the first time such a large set of elements was used for characterization of the bottom sediments as accumulating media which may reflect industrial contamination of the water basin. The concentrations of heavy metals and other trace elements in the samples from three inflows of the Selenga river basin were compared with data from the previous studies. It was shown that the industrial zone of the Erdenet Mining Corporation (EMC) and gold mining zone Zaamar are the sources of strong environmental contamination. The concentrations of Cu and Sb determined in sediment samples of the River Khangal and Govil near the EMC exceed average crustal rock and soil values by factors of 50 and 15, respectively. In the area of the gold mining zone Zaamar concentrations of Au, As, and Sb exceed crustal rock and soil values by factors of 4, 25, and 6, respectively. The relatively high levels of As, V, Zn, V, and Sr in the sediments of the studied rivers are obviously due to the discharges of untreated wastewater of desalination plant, electrical power station, textile industry and mining activities as well as domestic wastewater.

  11. Initial Characterization and Water Quality Assessment of Stream Landscapes in Northern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Hofmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive monitoring project (2006–2013 provided data on hydrology, hydromorphology, climatology, water physico-chemistry, sedimentology, macroinvertebrate community and fish diversity in the Kharaa River basin in northern Mongolia, thus enabling, for the first time, a detailed characterization of the stream landscapes. Surface waters were categorized into separate “water bodies” according to their identifiable abiotic and biocoenotic features, subsequently creating the smallest management sub-units within the river basin. Following the approach of the European Water Framework Directive (EC-WFD, in order to obtain a good ecological status (GES, four clearly identifiable water bodies in the Kharaa River main channel and seven water bodies consisting of the basin’s tributaries were delineated. The type-specific undisturbed reference state of various aquatic ecosystems was identified in the assessment and used to set standards for restoration goals. With regards to water quality and quantity, the upper reaches of the Kharaa River basin in the Khentii Mountains were classified as having a “good” ecological and chemical status. Compared with these natural reference conditions in the upper reaches, the initial risk assessment identified several “hot spot” regions with impacted water bodies in the middle and lower basin. Subsequently, the affected water bodies are at risk of not obtaining a level of good ecological and/or chemical status for surface waters. Finally, a matrix of cause-response relationships and stressor complexes has been developed and is presented here. The applicability of management approaches is discussed to better foster the development of a sustainable river basin management plan. The application of natural references states offers a sound scientific base to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities across the Kharaa River basin.

  12. Subduction-related oceanic crust in the Khantaishir ophiolite (western Mongolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianola, O.; Schmidt, M. W.; Jagoutz, O. E.

    2014-12-01

    Most of the oceanic crust is generated at mid oceanic ridges and only a minor portion results from magmatism related to subduction zones (i.e. back-arc basins or in incipient arcs). However it has been observed that several ophiolites preserve an oceanic crust displaying a subduction zone signature. Such a signature is also found in the Khantaishir ophiolite located in western Mongolia. This ~570 m.y. old ophiolite is ~480 km2 in size and displays a complete sequence, tectonically slightly dismembered during the emplacement process. The ophiolite exposes ~130 km2 of highly refractory harzburgitic mantle with local dunite channels and lenses. Towards its top the mantle is replaced by sub-horizontal km-wide discrete zones of pyroxenites situated either in the mantle or forming a crust-mantle transition zone overlain by gabbros. The crust is then composed of various gabbros and minor gabbronorite (both in part replaced by pyroxenites and/or cut by intermediate dykes), by a dyke/sill-complex and by pillow lavas. The entire ophiolite is re-equilibrated at lower greenschist facies conditions. Major and trace elements of the crustal rocks of the Khantaishir ophiolite show trends similar to those observed for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system. Mafic dykes/sills and pillow lavas of the Khantaishir ophiolite have overall basaltic-andesite compositions, resembling high-Mg andesites with an average SiO2 of 57 wt%. Their low TiO2 (high-Mg andesites and boninites from modern island arcs. This evidence suggests that the Kantaishir crust might represent the submarine initial stage of an incipient arc, probably when the preexisting oceanic crust is spread and incipient island arc crust is formed.

  13. Microbial Community of High Arsenic Groundwater in Agricultural Irrigation Area of Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Li, Ping; Jiang, Zhou; Sinkkonen, Aki; Wang, Shi; Tu, Jin; Wei, Dazhun; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities can play important role in arsenic release in groundwater aquifers. To investigate the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater aquifers in agricultural irrigation area, 17 groundwater samples with different arsenic concentrations were collected along the agricultural drainage channels of Hangjinhouqi County, Inner Mongolia and examined by illumina MiSeq sequencing approach targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering results indicated that these samples were divided into two groups (high and low arsenic groups) according to the variation of geochemical characteristics. Arsenic concentrations showed strongly positive correlations with NH4+ and total organic carbon (TOC). Sequencing results revealed that a total of 329–2823 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed at the 97% OTU level. Microbial richness and diversity of high arsenic groundwater samples along the drainage channels were lower than those of low arsenic groundwater samples but higher than those of high arsenic groundwaters from strongly reducing areas. The microbial community structure in groundwater along the drainage channels was different from those in strongly reducing arsenic-rich aquifers of Hetao Plain and other high arsenic groundwater aquifers including Bangladesh, West Bengal, and Vietnam. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas dominated with high percentages in both high and low arsenic groundwaters. Alishewanella, Psychrobacter, Methylotenera, and Crenothrix showed relatively high abundances in high arsenic groundwater, while Rheinheimera and the unidentified OP3 were predominant populations in low arsenic groundwater. Archaeal populations displayed a low occurrence and mainly dominated by methanogens such as Methanocorpusculum and Methanospirillum. Microbial community compositions were different between high and low arsenic groundwater samples based on the results of principal coordinate

  14. Wild Fire Risk Map in the Eastern Steppe of Mongolia Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasanbat, Elbegjargal; Lkhamjav, Ochirkhuyag

    2016-06-01

    Grassland fire is a cause of major disturbance to ecosystems and economies throughout the world. This paper investigated to identify risk zone of wildfire distributions on the Eastern Steppe of Mongolia. The study selected variables for wildfire risk assessment using a combination of data collection, including Social Economic, Climate, Geographic Information Systems, Remotely sensed imagery, and statistical yearbook information. Moreover, an evaluation of the result is used field validation data and assessment. The data evaluation resulted divided by main three group factors Environmental, Social Economic factor, Climate factor and Fire information factor into eleven input variables, which were classified into five categories by risk levels important criteria and ranks. All of the explanatory variables were integrated into spatial a model and used to estimate the wildfire risk index. Within the index, five categories were created, based on spatial statistics, to adequately assess respective fire risk: very high risk, high risk, moderate risk, low and very low. Approximately more than half, 68 percent of the study area was predicted accuracy to good within the very high, high risk and moderate risk zones. The percentages of actual fires in each fire risk zone were as follows: very high risk, 42 percent; high risk, 26 percent; moderate risk, 13 percent; low risk, 8 percent; and very low risk, 11 percent. The main overall accuracy to correct prediction from the model was 62 percent. The model and results could be support in spatial decision making support system processes and in preventative wildfire management strategies. Also it could be help to improve ecological and biodiversity conservation management.

  15. Urbanization and Socioeconomic Development in Inner Mongolia in 2000 and 2010: A GIS Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganlin Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic indicators and other indices measuring overall development describe local development trajectories differently. In this paper, we illustrated this difference and explored how urbanization is related to development by a case study in Inner Mongolia, China. We calculated the human development index (HDI and compared the temporal and spatial dynamics of the overall development (represented by the HDI and economic growth (represented by the GDP in 2000 and 2010. We conducted partial correlation analysis between the HDI and urbanization rate whilst controlling for the effects of the GDP. Our results showed that the spatial pattern of the HDI was little in 2000 and became clearer in 2010 when the western part tended to have higher values and the northeastern part tended to have lower values. The spatial trend for the GDP was obvious in 2000 as the high values clustered in the northwest and the low values clustered in the southeast but became less obvious in 2010 when high values clustered in several counties in the southwest and low values took up almost the entire northeast and some counties in the middle. Furthermore, we found that the HDI of all the city districts were significantly higher than their surrounding rural counties in both 2000 and 2010. Urbanization rates are found to be positively correlated with the HDI even when we controlled the effects of the GDP (p < 0.001. This study illustrated that the HDI and GDP told different stories on local performance in development at the county level. Translating the fast economic growth into an improvement in education and health relies on many other factors and our results seem to suggest that urbanization is one of these factors.

  16. Tree-ring precipitation records from Baiyinaobao, Inner Mongolia since A.D. 1838

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Correlation function analysis shows that total precipitation from April to early July (to July 10) in growing season limits the ring width of Picea Koraiensis significantly in Baiyinaobao, Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia. Thus a transfer function is designed to reconstruct the total precipitation from April to early July over the region for the last 160 years. The explained variance of the reconstruction is 49.3% (and 45.7% when adjusted for loss of degrees of freedom, N = 31, r = 0.702, F = 13.608, p < 0.0001). There are three relatively wet periods in the reconstruction which are: 1869-1875, 1886-1921 and 1943-1968, and four relatively dry periods: 1851-1868, 1876-1885, 1922-1943 and 1969-1999. Among them, the wet periods of 1886-1921 and 1943-1968, and the dry period of 1922-1943 appeared almost at the same time with those in Mt. Qilian region. Meanwhile, the dry period of 1922-1943 corresponds to high temperature and low rainfall during the 1920s and thereafter, and wetness of 1943-1968 corresponds very well to low temperature and more precipitation after the 1940s in Northwest, Northern China and the Changjiang River drainage basin. Calculation shows that the reconstruction series is significantly correlated with local dry-wet index (r = -0.234, p < 0.007, N = 143). Wavelet analysis indicates that there is a 22-a cycle in the precipitation of April to early July during 1838-1920, and an 11-a cycle during 1920-1952. No more cycles that reach 95% confidence limits are identified after 1953. The precipitation from April to early July quickly dropped into low during the 1920s. After 1950, precipitation shows a declining trend, but the reconstruction shows a tendency of increase in the late of 1990s.

  17. Satellite telemetry of large mammals in Mongolia: what expectations should we have for collar function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Y. Ito

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid pace of the development of satellite wildlife tracking tools has left little time for thorough testing of new equipment and identifying possible sources of technical failures. In the Gobi and Eastern Steppe region of Mongolia we deployed 104 satellite collars, collecting animal locations using the Doppler based Argos or the global positioning system (GPS, on 45 Asiatic wild asses (Equus hemionus, 34 Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa, 15 Przewalski’s horses (Equus ferus przewalskii, eight wild Bactrian camels (Camelus ferus, and two wolves (Canis lupus. Although, we collected valuable data from little-known species in a remote environment, of 104 collars deployed, only 34 worked as good as or better than expected whereas 70 were subject to technical problems. The majority of problems had to do with a reduced performance of the Argos component (n = 13, with both the Argos and the GPS components (n = 1, or with the Argos component in combination with another unknown problem (n = 12. Further problems were caused by human error during manufacturing or deployment (n = 10, software bugs (n = 7, mechanical failures (n = 5, poor GPS performance (n = 1 and premature failures for unknown reasons (3 ≤ n ≤ 21. Although, several premature failures may have been caused by animals being poached, our failure rate remains high and indicates that managers and researchers need to be aware that there is a high risk of equipment failure when applying newly emerging satellite tracking technology. This entrains logistic and financial uncertainties which may be difficult to explain to the scientific community, the public, management and funding agencies alike. We recommend the development of a web-based platform where users and producers of telemetry products can quickly post and exchange their experiences.

  18. Integrated water resources assessment and management in the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibisch, Ralf; Karthe, Daniel; Hofmann, Jürgen; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive study on hydrology, hydro-morphology, climatology, water physico-chemistry and ecology was conducted in the Kharaa River Basin (Mongolia) between 2006 and 2013. The assessment provided a detailed characterization of water resources for the first time and serves as a scientific basis to develop an integrated water resources management (IWRM) in the region. Following European water management approaches we identified "water bodies" as the smallest management sub-unit within the river basin, based on characteristic abiotic and biocenotic features. Four clearly identifiable water bodies in the Kharaa River main channel and seven water bodies in the tributaries were delineated. In order to achieve a good ecological status of the surface water bodies, type-specific undisturbed reference states of various aquatic ecosystems were identified and current deviations thereof were assessed. Based on the assessment a set of water management measures was developed. With regards to water quality and quantity, the upper reaches of the Kharaa River basin were classified as having a "good" ecological and chemical status. Compared to these natural reference conditions in the upper reaches, the initial risk assessment identified several "hot spot" regions with impacted water bodies in the middle and lower basin. Therefore, the affected water bodies are at risk of not achieving the good ecological and/or chemical status for surface waters. The use of natural references conditions offers a sound scientific base to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities across the Kharaa River basin. Based on the scientific results and practical experiences from a seven-year project in the region, the potentials and limitations of IWRM implementation will be discussed in the presentation.

  19. Movements of dams milked for fermented horse milk production in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat-Oyun, Tserenpurev; Ito, Takehiko Y; Purevdorj, Yadamjav; Shinoda, Masato; Ishii, Satomi; Buho, Hoshino; Morinaga, Yuki

    2017-08-18

    Airag, (Fermented horse milk) is a traditional milk product in Mongolia. Herders separate foals from their dams and tie them at a milking site during the daytime to produce airag. To evaluate the effects of horse management on the movement of dams, we tracked three dams in a herd in camp 1 during summer and camp 2 during autumn of 2013 and analyzed their movements during the milking (daytime) and non-milking (nighttime) periods in an area famous for its high-quality airag. Dams were gathered every 1.7 ± 0.0 h between 07.46 and 15.47 hours at the milking sites and milked 4.6 ± 0.2 times/day during the study period (86 days). Daily cumulative and maximum linear distances from the milking sites were longer (P < 0.01) during the non-milking period than during the milking period. Daily home ranges were 91 and 26 times greater during the non-milking period (P < 0.001) in camps 1 and 2, respectively. The greater range during the non-milking period would reflect the spatial distributions of water, salt and forage. The dams initially used similar areas and gradually shifted their daily home ranges after several days. This shift suggests that the dams grazed farther afield as forage availability declined around the milking site. For better airag production and sustainable pasture use, our results provide insights useful for evaluating the effects of milking management on vegetation and soil in those pastures, for selecting the appropriate milking times and frequency, and for choosing the right timing to shift milking sites. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. High-Dose Vitamin D3 during Tuberculosis Treatment in Mongolia. A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Munkhzul, Baatar; Fawzi, Wafaie; Spiegelman, Donna; Willett, Walter C; Bayasgalan, Purev; Baasansuren, Erkhembayar; Buyankhishig, Burneebaatar; Oyun-Erdene, Sereeter; Jolliffe, David A; Xenakis, Theodoros; Bromage, Sabri; Bloom, Barry R; Martineau, Adrian R

    2017-09-01

    Existing trials of adjunctive vitamin D in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are variously limited by small sample sizes, inadequate dosing regimens, and high baseline vitamin D status among participants. Comprehensive analyses of the effects of genetic variation in the vitamin D pathway on response to vitamin D supplementation are lacking. To determine the effect of high-dose vitamin D3 on response to antimicrobial therapy for PTB and to evaluate the influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in vitamin D pathway genes on response to adjunctive vitamin D3. We conducted a clinical trial in 390 adults with PTB in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, who were randomized to receive four biweekly doses of 3.5 mg (140,000 IU) vitamin D3 (n = 190) or placebo (n = 200) during intensive-phase antituberculosis treatment. The intervention elevated 8-week serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (154.5 nmol/L vs. 15.2 nmol/L in active vs. placebo arms, respectively; 95% confidence interval for difference, 125.9-154.7 nmol/L; P vitamin D3 accelerated sputum culture conversion in patients with one or more minor alleles for SNPs in genes encoding the vitamin D receptor (rs4334089, rs11568820) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1: rs4646536) (adjusted hazard ratio ≥ 1.47; P for interaction ≤ 0.02). Vitamin D3 did not influence time to sputum culture conversion in the study population overall. Effects of the intervention were modified by SNPs in VDR and CYP27B1. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01657656).

  1. Arsenic associations in sediments from shallow aquifers of northwestern Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Wang, Y.; Ma, T.; Yang, H.; He, J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of arsenic mobilization from sediments to groundwater is important for water quality management in areas of endemic arsenic poisoning, such as the Hetao Basin in Inner Mongolia, northern China. Aquifer geochemistry was characterized at three field sites (SH, HF, TYS) in Hangjinhouqi County of northwestern Hetao Basin. The results of bulk geochemistry analysis of sediment samples indicated that total As concentrations have a range of 6. 8-58. 5 mg/kg, with a median of 14. 4 mg/kg. The highest As concentrations were found at 15-25 m depth. In the meanwhile, the range of As concentration in the sediments from background borehole is 3-21. 8 mg/kg, with a median value of 9 mg/kg. The As sediments concentrations with depth from the SH borehole were correlated with the contents of Fe, Sb, B, V, total C and total S. Generally, the abundance of elements varied with grain size, with higher concentrations in finer fractions of the sediments. Distinct lithology profile and different geochemical characteristics of aquifer sediments indicate the sediments are associated with different sources and diverse sedimentary environments. Up to one third of arsenic in the sediments could be extracted by ammonium oxalate, suggesting that Fe oxyhydroxides may be the major sink of As in the aquifer. Sequential extraction results indicate that arsenic occurs as strongly adsorbed on and/or co-precipitated with amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides in sediments accounting for 35 and 20%, respectively, of the total contents of arsenic. The release of As into groundwater may occur by desorption from the mineral surface driven by reductive dissolution of the Fe oxide minerals. Furthermore, small proportions of As associated with iron sulfides occur in the reductive sediments. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  2. [Estimation of soil carbon sequestration potential in typical steppe of Inner Mongolia and associated uncertainty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Jian-Guo; Han, Xing-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Based on the measurements in the enclosure and uncontrolled grazing plots in the typical steppe of Xilinguole, Inner Mongolia, this paper studied the soil carbon storage and carbon sequestration in the grasslands dominated by Leymus chinensis, Stipa grandis, and Stipa krylovii, respectively, and estimated the regional scale soil carbon sequestration potential in the heavily degraded grassland after restoration. At local scale, the annual soil carbon sequestration in the three grasslands all decreased with increasing year of enclosure. The soil organic carbon storage was significantly higher in the grasslands dominated by L. chinensis and Stipa grandis than in that dominated by Stipa krylovii, but the latter had much higher soil carbon sequestration potential, because of the greater loss of soil organic carbon during the degradation process due to overgrazing. At regional scale, the soil carbon sequestration potential at the depth of 0-20 cm varied from -0.03 x 10(4) to 3.71 x 10(4) kg C x a(-1), and the total carbon sequestration potential was 12.1 x 10(8) kg C x a(-1). Uncertainty analysis indicated that soil gravel content had less effect on the estimated carbon sequestration potential, but the estimation errors resulted from the spatial interpolation of climate data could be about +/- 4.7 x 10(9) kg C x a(-1). In the future, if the growth season precipitation in this region had an average variation of -3.2 mm x (10 a)(-1), the soil carbon sequestration potential would be de- creased by 1.07 x 10(8) kg C x (10 a)(-1).

  3. Airflow and sediment movement within an inland blowout in Hulun Buir sandy grassland, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Hasi, Eerdun; Liu, Meiping; Du, Huishi; Guan, Chao; Tao, Binbin

    2016-09-01

    We measured wind flows and sediment transport rates through a blowout in Hulun Buir grassland, Inner Mongolia. Topography and the angle of incidence between the approaching wind and the blowout long-axis significantly affected the air flow. Flow separated and decelerated at the western wall and accelerated towards the east, until maximum wind speed occurred at the top of the depositional lobe, and then decelerated on the lee side. When airflow emerged on the eastern wall, resultant directions were always NW. When winds approached from directions within 17.5° of the blowout axis, both the northwestern and southwestern walls developed turbulent flow, and significant topographic steering occurred. The deceleration zone expanded eastwards from 10.3 to 12.8 m from the western rim. When the wind direction was more oblique than 17.5°, turbulent flow at the southwestern wall disappeared. 'S-shaped' flow intensified, causing more pronounced steering at the bottom, but topographic steering elsewhere was reduced, and the boundary of the deceleration moved to 10 m from the western rim. Minor sediment deposition occurred on the western wall, while other parts were eroded; maximum sediment transport occurred at the top of the depositional lobe. The approaching wind speed affected the sediment transport rate more than the direction; and spatial variability in sediment transport reflected differences in compaction, vegetation coverage, slope, aspect, and upwind sediment availability, resulting in asymmetrical development. Overall, flow-form interactions governed the flow structures and controlled the evolution of the blowout via sediment transport.

  4. Analysis of the variability of canopy resistance over a desert steppe site in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo; Zhou, Guangsheng; Chen, Fei; Wang, Yu

    2014-05-01

    Canopy resistance substantially affects the partitioning of available energy over vegetated surfaces. This study analyzed the variability of canopy resistance and associated driving environmental factors over a desert steppe site in Inner Mongolia, China, through the use of eddy-flux and meteorological data collected from 2008 to 2010. Distinct seasonal and interannual variabilities in canopy resistance were identified within those three years, and these variabilities were controlled primarily by precipitation. Strong interannual variability was found in vapor pressure deficit (VPD), similar to that of air temperature. Based on the principal component regression method, the analysis of the relative contribution of five major environmental factors [soil-water content (SWC), leaf-area index (LAI), photosynthetically active radiation ( K p), VPD, and air temperature] to canopy resistance showed that the canopy-resistance variation was most responsive to SWC (with > 35% contribution), followed by LAI, especially for water-stressed soil conditions (> 20% influence), and VPD (consistently with an influence of approximately 20%). Canopy-resistance variations did not respond to K p due to the small interannual variability in K p during the three years. These analyses were used to develop a new exponential function of water stress for the widely used Jarvis scheme, which substantially improved the calculation of canopy resistance and latent heat fluxes, especially for moist and wet soils, and effectively reduced the high bias in evaporation estimated by the original Jarvis scheme. This study highlighted the important control of canopy resistance on plant evaporation and growth for the investigated desert steppe site with a relatively low LAI.

  5. The Health Impacts of Energy Policy Pathways in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: A Total Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L. A.; Damdinsuren, Y.; Olkhanud, P. B.; Smith, K. R.; Turner, J. R.; Edwards, R.; Odsuren, M.; Ochir, C.

    2015-12-01

    Ulaanbaatar is home to nearly half of Mongolia's 2.8 million residents. The city's rapid growth, frigid winters, valley topography, and reliance on coal-fired stoves have led to some of the worst winter pollution levels in the world. To better understand this issue, we modeled integrated PM2.5exposures and related health impacts for various city-wide heating policies through 2024. This assessment is one of the first to employ a total exposure approach and results of the 2014 Comparative Risk Assessments of the Global Burden of Disease Project (CRA/GBD) in a policy-relevant energy study. Emissions related to heating, traffic, and power generation were considered under Business as Usual, Moderate Improvement, and Max Improvement scenarios. Calibrated outdoor models were combined with indoor models, local infiltration and time activity estimates, and demographic projections to estimate PM2.5exposures in 2014 and 2024. Indoor exposures were assigned by heating type, home type, and smoking status; outdoor exposures were assigned through geocoding. Population average annual exposures were calculated and applied to local disease rates and integrated exposure-response curves (2014 CRA/GBD) to arrive at annual projections of premature deaths and DALYs. We estimate 2014 annual average exposures at 68 μg/m3, dictated almost exclusively by indoor winter exposures. Under current trends, annual exposures increase 10% to 75 μg/m3 in 2024. This is in stark contrast to the moderate and max improvement scenarios, which lead to 2024 annual exposures that are 31%, and 68% lower, respectively. Under the Moderate scenario, 2024 per capita annual DALY and death burdens drop 26% and 22%, respectively, from 2014 levels. Under the Max scenario, 2024 per capita annual DALY and death burdens drop 71% and 66%, respectively, from 2014. SHS becomes a major contributor as emissions from other sectors decrease. Reductions are dominated by cardiovascular and lower respiratory diseases in children.

  6. Chronic arsenic poisoning in drinking water in Inner Mongolia and its associated health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juan X; Hu, Lin; Yand, Peng Z; Tanabe, Kimiko; Miyatalre, Munetoshi; Chen, Yao

    2007-10-01

    Since 1990, a large number of people have been experiencing various health problems from drinking arsenic contaminated water (50-1860 microg/L) in 13 counties of Inner Mongolia, China, most of which are located in the Hetao Plain area. It is calculated that 411,243 people are currently at risk from arsenic poisoning. Clinical and epidemiological investigations were carried out on 13,021 people to ascertain the nature and degree of morbidity that occurred due to chronic arsenic toxicity. In all of the studied patients, 22% had typical hyperkeratosis on the palms or soles and some had raindrop-like hyperpigmentation and depigmentation on the trunk. Other data recorded included subjective and objective symptoms, such as chronic cough (35.0%) and insomnia (37.5%). During physical checkups of 680 villagers in arsenic affected areas, liver function tests showed elevated globulin levels in 6.8% (P value=0.006) of the subjects. Neurotoxicity manifesting as loss of hearing 5.88 (P value=0.005), loss of taste 5.44% (P value=0.001), blurred vision 17.35% (P value=0.000), tingling and numbness of the limbs 33.53% (P value=0.000) and hypertension 8.09% (P value=0.000) were significantly higher in the arsenic affected villages and arsenic pollution also seemed to affect patients' social life and mental health. To solve the problem of arsenic exposure, the quality of drinking water needs to be improved by reducing the arsenic content. We also plan to carry out a survey to detect the incidence and types of cancer among this population.

  7. Impact of land surface degradation in northern China and southern Mongolia on regional climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jingyong; DONG Wenjie; FU Congbin

    2005-01-01

    Clear evidence provided by the singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and precipitation data identifies that there exists a sensitive region of vegetation-climate interaction located in the transitional zone over northern China and its surrounding areas, where the vegetation cover change has the most significant influence on summer precipitation over China. Comparison of reanalysis data with station data provides a good method to assess the impacts of land use change on surface temperature, and the most obvious contribution of land use change may be to lead to notable warming over northern China in the interdecadal time scale. Based on the new statistical results, a high-resolution regional integrated environmental model system (RIEMS) is employed to investigate the effects of land surface degradation over the transitional zone and its surrounding areas (northern China and southern Mongolia) on the regional climate. Land degradation results in the decreases in precipitation over northern and southern China, and the increase in between, and increased and decreased temperature over vegetation change areas and the adjacent area to the south, respectively. Not only would it change the surface climate, but also bring the significant influence on the atmospheric circulation. Both the surface climate and circulation changes generally agree to the observed interdecadal anomalies over the last five decades. These integrated statistical and simulated results imply that land surface degradation over the transitional zone in northern China and its surrounding areas could be one of the main causes responsible for the climate anomalies over China, especially the drought over northern China.

  8. GPR measurements to assess the Emeelt active fault's characteristics in a highly smooth topographic context, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jean-Rémi; Bano, Maksim; Schlupp, Antoine; Ferry, Matthieu; Munkhuu, Ulziibat; Tsend-Ayush, Nyambayar; Enkhee, Bayarsaikhan

    2014-07-01

    To estimate the seismic hazard, the geometry (dip, length and orientation) and the dynamics (type of displacements and amplitude) of the faults in the area of interest need to be understood. In this paper, in addition to geomorphologic observations, we present the results of two ground penetrating radar (GPR) campaigns conducted in 2010 and 2011 along the Emeelt fault in the vicinity of Ulaanbaatar, capital of Mongolia, located in an intracontinental region with low deformation rate that induces long recurrence time between large earthquakes. As the geomorphology induced by the fault activity has been highly smoothed by erosion processes since the last event, the fault location and geometry is difficult to determine precisely. However, by using GPR first, a non-destructive and fast investigation, the fault and the sedimentary deposits near the surface can be characterized and the results can be used for the choice of trench location. GPR was performed with a 50 MHz antenna over 2-D lines and with a 500 MHz antenna for pseudo-3-D surveys. The 500 MHz GPR profiles show a good consistency with the trench observations, dug next to the pseudo-3-D surveys. The 3-D 500 MHz GPR imaging of a palaeochannel crossed by the fault allowed us to estimate its lateral displacement to be about 2 m. This is consistent with a right lateral strike-slip displacement induced by an earthquake around magnitude 7 or several around magnitude 6. The 2-D 50 MHz profiles, recorded perpendicular to the fault, show a strong reflection dipping to the NE, which corresponds to the fault plane. Those profiles provided complementary information on the fault such as its location at shallow depth, its dip angle (from 23° to 35°) and define its lateral extension.

  9. Light use efficiency over two temperate steppes in inner Mongolia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Vegetation light use efficiency (LUE is a key parameter of Production Efficiency Models (PEMs for simulating gross primary production (GPP of vegetation, from regional to global scales. Previous studies suggest that grasslands have the largest inter-site variation of LUE and controlling factors of grassland LUE differ from those of other biomes, since grasslands are usually water-limited ecosystems. Combining eddy covariance flux data with the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the plant canopy from MODIS, we report LUE on a typical steppe and a desert steppe in Inner Mongolia, northern China. Results show that both annual average LUE and maximum LUE were higher on the desert steppe (0.51 and 1.13 g C MJ(-1 than on the typical steppe (0.34 and 0.88 g C MJ(-1, despite the higher GPP of the latter. Water availability was the primary limiting factor of LUE at both sites. Evaporative fraction (EF or the ratio of actual evapotranspiration to potential evapotranspiration (AET/PET can explain 50-70% of seasonal LUE variations at both sites. However, the slope of linear regression between LUE and EF (or AET/PET differed significantly between the two sites. LUE increased with the diffuse radiation ratio on the typical steppe; however, such a trend was not found for the desert steppe. Our results suggest that a biome-dependent LUE(max is inappropriate, because of the large inter-site difference of LUE(max within the biome. EF could be a promising down-regulator on grassland LUE for PEMs, but there may be a site-specific relationship between LUE and EF.

  10. Surface characteristics of grasslands in Inner Mongolia as detected by micrometeorological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketzer, Bettina; Liu, Huizhi; Bernhofer, Christian

    2008-09-01

    A roving tower concept was used to compare a semi-arid grassland site in Inner Mongolia (China), which was fenced in 1979 and ungrazed thereafter (UG79) with differently grazed semi-arid steppe ecosystems. The study was conducted during three consecutive years characterised by contrasting precipitation. The different grazing intensities included continuously and moderately grazed (CG), winter grazed (WG), and heavily grazed (HG). Here, we compare the energy fluxes and surface parameters that characterise the differently managed plots. The main focus is on sensible heat flux (H), available energy (AE), surface temperature (T ( s )), and surface albedo (alpha). Systematic errors were excluded by a side-to-side intercomparison of the instruments, and systematic climatic differences were minimised by the close distance between the fixed and the roving eddy covariance tower. Statistically, AE and T ( s ) were always significantly different between two simultaneously measured grazing intensities. Whereas AE was higher at UG79 in all years (mean difference of about 19Wm(-2)), T ( s ) was typically lower at UG79 (mean differences of 0.4 degrees C to about 2 degrees C). The exception was the end of the vegetation period in 2004 when T ( s ) was 0.6 degrees C higher at UG79 compared to CG. At UG79 alpha was typically significantly lower, and H was typically significantly higher. Consequently, latent heat fluxes (both as energy balance residual and directly measured) do not differ much between the different grazing intensities. It is concluded, that (1) the roving tower concept is able to detect differences due to grazing, (2) differences between the sites can be attributed to real surface differences, and (3) differences due to grazing intensities are small compared to interannual differences in surface fluxes.

  11. Central pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Supreet

    2014-12-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is central pain, a neuropathic pain syndrome caused by a lesion in the brain or spinal cord that sensitizes one's perception of pain. It is a debilitating condition caused by various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, strokes, spinal cord injuries, or brain tumors. Varied symptoms and the use of pharmacological medicines and nonpharmacological therapies will be addressed.

  12. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  13. Identifying Potential Conservation Corridors Along the Mongolia-Russia Border Using Resource Selection Functions: A Case Study on Argali Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyanaa Chimeddorj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The disruption of animal movements is known to affect wildlife populations, particularly large bodied, free-ranging mammals that require large geographic ranges to survive. Corridors commonly connect fragmented wildlife populations and their habitats, yet identifying corridors rarely uses data on habitat selection and movements of target species. New technologies and analytical tools make it possible to better integrate landscape patterns with spatial behavioral data. We show how resource selection functions can describe habitat suitability using continuous and multivariate metrics to determine potential wildlife movement corridors. During 2005–2010, we studied movements of argali sheep ( Ovis ammon near the Mongolia-Russia border using radio-telemetry and modeled their spatial distribution in relation to landscape features to create a spatially explicit habitat suitability surface to identify potential transboundary conservation corridors. Argali sheep habitat selection in western Mongolia positively correlated with elevation, ruggedness index, and distance to border. In other words, argali were tended use areas with higher elevation, rugged topography, and distances farther from the international border. We suggest that these spatial modeling approaches offer ways to design and identify wildlife corridors more objectively and holistically, and can be applied to many other target species.

  14. Child abuse, disruptive behavior disorders, depression, and salivary cortisol levels among institutionalized and community-residing boys in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Hruschka, Daniel J; Kohrt, Holbrook E; Carrion, Victor G; Waldman, Irwin D; Worthman, Carol M

    2015-03-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is related to childhood disruptive behavior disorders and to exposure to abuse and neglect. This study explores the relationship of diurnal salivary cortisol levels with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and caregiver attitudes toward physical punishment among boys in Mongolia. Salivary cortisol was collected in the home or institution 4 times daily for 4 days from 46 boys, aged 4-10 years, in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Caregivers rated child disruptive behavior symptoms, attitudes toward physical punishment, and community violence exposures. Mixed effects models were used to estimate the association of psychopathology and caregiver attitudes with salivary cortisol levels. Boys meeting criteria for ODD displayed consistently lower diurnal salivary cortisol levels compared to boys without ODD diagnoses. Controlling for ODD diagnosis, boys with depression showed higher cortisol levels throughout the day. No other diagnosis was associated with cortisol levels. Psychiatric diagnosis accounted for 17% of between individual variations in cortisol levels unexplained by the covariates. In a separate model, caregivers' beliefs regarding physical punishment accounted for 11% of between individual differences: boys with caregivers who stated physical punishment was necessary for discipline displayed hypocortisolism. Institutionalization did not associate with cortisol levels. Salivary cortisol data from a non-Western naturalistic setting support an association of reduced basal HPA activity with disruptive behavior disorders and caregiver attitudes toward discipline. These findings suggest HPA functioning may be a reflection of or mediate disruptive behavior disorders in children across ethnic and cultural settings. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Correlation Between the "seeing FWHM" of Satellite Optical Observations and Meteorological Data at the OWL-Net Station, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-Ho; Jo, Jung Hyun; Yim, Hong-Suh; Park, Young-Sik; Park, Sun-Youp; Moon, Hong Kyu; Choi, Young-Jun; Jang, Hyun-Jung; Roh, Dong-Goo; Choi, Jin; Park, Maru; Cho, Sungki; Kim, Myung-Jin; Choi, Eun-Jung; Park, Jang-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The correlation between meteorological data collected at the optical wide-field patrol network (OWL-Net) Station No. 1 and the seeing of satellite optical observation data was analyzed. Meteorological data and satellite optical observation data from June 2014 to November 2015 were analyzed. The analyzed meteorological data were the outdoor air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and cloud index data, and the analyzed satellite optical observation data were the seeing full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) data. The annual meteorological pattern for Mongolia was analyzed by collecting meteorological data over four seasons, with data collection beginning after the installation and initial set-up of the OWL-Net Station No. 1 in Mongolia. A comparison of the meteorological data and the seeing of the satellite optical observation data showed that the seeing degrades as the wind strength increases and as the cloud cover decreases. This finding is explained by the bias effect, which is caused by the fact that the number of images taken on the less cloudy days was relatively small. The seeing FWHM showed no clear correlation with either temperature or relative humidity.

  16. Lichen elemental composition distinguishes anthropogenic emissions from dust storm inputs and differs among species: Evidence from Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Jie; Fang, Shi-Bo; Liu, Si-Wa; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Guo, Xiu-Ping; Jiang, Yun-Jun; Hu, Jian-Sen; Liu, Xiao-Di; Xia, Yu; Wang, Yi-Dan; Wu, Qing-Feng

    2016-10-01

    To test the applicability of lichens in the biomonitoring of atmospheric elemental deposition in a typical steppe zone of Inner Mongolia, China, six foliose lichens (Physcia aipolia, PA; P. tribacia, PT; Xanthoria elegans, XE; X. mandschurica, XM; Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis, XPC; and Xp. tinctina, XPT) were sampled from the Xilin River Basin, Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China. Twenty-five elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) in the lichens were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show that Cd, Pb and Zn were mainly atmospheric in origin, whereas the other elements were predominantly of crustal origin. Compared with other studies, our data were higher in crustal element concentrations and lower in atmospheric element concentrations, matching with the frequent, severe dust storms and road traffic in the area. The elemental concentrations in lichens are both species- and element-specific, highlighting the importance of species selection for biomonitoring air pollution using lichens. We recommend PT, XE, XM and XPT for monitoring atmospheric deposition of crustal elements; XPC and XPT for Cd and Pb; PA for Cd and Zn; and PT for Cd.

  17. Phylogenetic Analysis of mtDNA from the Ancient Human of Yuan Dynasty in Inner Mongolia in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A study of the genetic structure of an ancient human excavated from the Yikeshu site of Yuanshangdu ancient city in Inner Mongolia and the relationships between the ancient population and the extant populations was carried out.Sequences of the control region and coding region of mtDNA from the ancient human were analyzed by using direct sequencing and restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods. Phylogenetic analysis and multidimensional scaling analysis were also performed on the mtDNA data of the ancient population and 12 extant populations. These results show that the ancient individuals of Yikeshu site can be assigned to D, G, B and Z haplogroups that are prevalent in Duars and Mongolians from Inner Mongolia. The ancient population is also closer to Duar and Mongolian populations in genetic distance than other compared populations. This study reveals that the ancient population from Yikeshu site in the Yuan Dynasty shares a common ancestor with Mongolic-speaking Daur and Mongolian tribes.

  18. Diverse Responses of Remotely Sensed Grassland Phenology to Interannual Climate Variability over Frozen Ground Regions in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Frozen ground may regulate the phenological shifts of dry and cold grasslands at the southern edge of the Eurasian cryosphere. In this study, an investigation based on the MODIS Collection 5 phenology product and climatic data collected from 2001 to 2009 reveals the diverse responses of grassland phenology to interannual climate variability over various frozen ground regions in Mongolia. Compared with middle and southern typical steppe and desert steppe, the spring (start of season; SOS and autumn (end of season; EOS phenological events of northern forest steppe with lower air temperature tend to be earlier and later, respectively. Both the SOS and EOS are less sensitive to climate variability in permafrost regions than in other regions, whereas the SOS of typical steppe is more sensitive to both air temperature and precipitation over sporadic permafrost and seasonal frozen ground regions. Over various frozen ground regions in Mongolia; the SOS is mainly dominated by the prior autumn precipitation, and frozen ground plays a vital role in storing the precipitation of the previous autumn for the subsequent grass green-up. The EOS is mainly dominated by autumn air temperature. These findings could help to improve phenological models of grasslands in extremely dry and cold regions.

  19. Application of the Ritual Banquet Empresses in Mongolia and Yuan Dynasty%蒙元后妃宴礼探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠; 贾陈亮

    2012-01-01

    The ritual banquet of Mongolia and Yuan Dynasty is complicated, after the founding of the Yuan Dynasty, although formulate a ritual banquet which refers the system of Song Dynasty and Jin Dynasty and the Mongols' Customs, mongolian often according to the older customs at the banquet. The ritual banquet has a lot of characters by comparison with The previous dynasties, empresses attend and sponsor many banquets sat court and study their ritual at ritual banquet, which is of value to know their important roles in the political life and represent the heritage and development of the ritual banquet of Mongolia and Yuan Dynasty .%蒙元时期宴礼错综复杂,元朝建立后虽采择宋金遗制、参酌国俗制定了一套宴仪,但蒙古人饮宴仍多按旧俗。宴礼较前代颇具特色,其中后妃多参与并主办多种宫廷宴会,考察后妃在宴会中的礼仪,对我们了解蒙元后妃在政治生活中的重要角色有一定的价值,且能再现蒙元宴礼的传承与发展。

  20. Functional dominance rather than taxonomic diversity and functional diversity mainly affects community aboveground biomass in the Inner Mongolia grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Buyantuev, Alexander; Li, Frank Yonghong; Jiang, Lin; Niu, Jianming; Ding, Yong; Kang, Sarula; Ma, Wenjing

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and productivity has been a hot topic in ecology. However, the relative importance of taxonomic diversity and functional characteristics (including functional dominance and functional diversity) in maintaining community productivity and the underlying mechanisms (including selection and complementarity effects) of the relationship between diversity and community productivity have been widely controversial. In this study, 194 sites were surveyed in five grassland types along a precipitation gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland of China. The relationships between taxonomic diversity (species richness and the Shannon-Weaver index), functional dominance (the community-weighted mean of four plant traits), functional diversity (Rao's quadratic entropy), and community aboveground biomass were analyzed. The results showed that (1) taxonomic diversity, functional dominance, functional diversity, and community aboveground biomass all increased from low to high precipitation grassland types; (2) there were significant positive linear relationships between taxonomic diversity, functional dominance, functional diversity, and community aboveground biomass; (3) the effect of functional characteristics on community aboveground biomass is greater than that of taxonomic diversity; and (4) community aboveground biomass depends on the community-weighted mean plant height, which explained 57.1% of the variation in the community aboveground biomass. Our results suggested that functional dominance rather than taxonomic diversity and functional diversity mainly determines community productivity and that the selection effect plays a dominant role in maintaining the relationship between biodiversity and community productivity in the Inner Mongolia grassland.

  1. Extraction of Elm Sparse Woodlands from GF-2 Image Based on GEOBIA in Zhenglan Banner, Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z.; del Barrio, G.; Li, X.

    2016-08-01

    The objective of Dragon 3 Project 10367 is the development of techniques research for desertification assessment and monitoring in China using remote sensing data in combination with climate and environmental-related data. The main achievements acquired during the last two years could be summarized as follows:(1) Photosynthetic vegetation (PV) and non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) were estimated in Otindag sandy land by comparison of the pixel-invariant (Spectral Mixture Analysis, SMA) and pixel-variable (Multi-Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis, MESMA, Automated Monte Carlo Unmixing Analysis, AutoMCU) methods, based on GF-1 data and field measured spectral library.(2) Based on GF-1 data, SMA was applied to solve vegetation cover and transitional sandy land detection in Zhenglan Banner, Inner Mongolia, China.(3) By defined a new indictor, Moisture-responded NPP(MNPP), a new method for identification of degraded lands was put forward, and the land degradation in Xinlin Gol league, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China was assessed preliminarily. (4) The 2dRUE proved to be a good indicator for land degradation, based on which, land degradation status in the general potential extent of desertification in China (PEDC) was assessed.

  2. Lichen elemental composition distinguishes anthropogenic emissions from dust storm inputs and differs among species: Evidence from Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Jie; Fang, Shi-Bo; Liu, Si-Wa; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Guo, Xiu-Ping; Jiang, Yun-Jun; Hu, Jian-Sen; Liu, Xiao-Di; Xia, Yu; Wang, Yi-Dan; Wu, Qing-Feng

    2016-01-01

    To test the applicability of lichens in the biomonitoring of atmospheric elemental deposition in a typical steppe zone of Inner Mongolia, China, six foliose lichens (Physcia aipolia, PA; P. tribacia, PT; Xanthoria elegans, XE; X. mandschurica, XM; Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis, XPC; and Xp. tinctina, XPT) were sampled from the Xilin River Basin, Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China. Twenty-five elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) in the lichens were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show that Cd, Pb and Zn were mainly atmospheric in origin, whereas the other elements were predominantly of crustal origin. Compared with other studies, our data were higher in crustal element concentrations and lower in atmospheric element concentrations, matching with the frequent, severe dust storms and road traffic in the area. The elemental concentrations in lichens are both species- and element-specific, highlighting the importance of species selection for biomonitoring air pollution using lichens. We recommend PT, XE, XM and XPT for monitoring atmospheric deposition of crustal elements; XPC and XPT for Cd and Pb; PA for Cd and Zn; and PT for Cd. PMID:27698382

  3. Imagining Manmō: Mapping the Russo-Japanese Boundary Agreements in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia, 1907-1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa T. Matsusaka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to delineate the boundaries of the spheres of interest in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia established under the Russo-Japanese accords of 1907 and 1912. Although the agreements are well known, there have been few efforts to reconstruct these spheres cartographically. Two existing maps offer contradictory interpretations. These partition agreements had a major impact on diplomacy, railway policy, and strategic planning during the decade they held force between 1907 and 1916, and the precise location of the Russo-Japanese sphere boundaries in this contested region was a matter of no small consequence. The author proposes a revised boundary map based on an examination of textual and cartographic sources, including maps produced by the army command of the Kwantung government-general. At the same time, the author seeks to highlight the potential value of cartographic analysis as a mode of historical inquiry into the record of Japanese imperialism. Cartography was an indispensable tool for modern empire builders in bringing a measurable territoriality to their realms and making their lands and subjects politically legible. The mapping entailed in these boundary agreements was important not only in bilateral diplomacy, but also in enhancing the legibility of Manchuria and Inner Mongolia to Japanese imperialists themselves.

  4. Speciation analysis of arsenic in groundwater from Inner Mongolia with an emphasis on acid-leachable particulate arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong Zhilong [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2G3 (Canada); Lu Xiufen [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2G3 (Canada); Watt, Corinna [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2G3 (Canada); Wen Bei [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2G3 (Canada); He Bin [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2G3 (Canada); Mumford, Judy [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Environmental Protection Agency, Human Studies Division, Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Ning Zhixiong [Ba Men Anti-Epidemic Station, Lin He, Inner Mongolia (China); Xia Yajuan [Inner Mongolia Center for Endemic Disease Control and Research, Huhhot, Inner Mongolia (China); Le, X. Chris [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2G3 (Canada)]. E-mail: xc.le@ualberta.ca

    2006-01-05

    Arsenic in drinking water affects millions of people around the world. While soluble arsenic is commonly measured, the amount of particulate arsenic in drinking water has often been overlooked. We report here determination of the acid-leachable particulate arsenic and soluble arsenicals in well water from an arsenic-poisoning endemic area in Inner Mongolia, China. Water samples (583) were collected from 120 wells in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia, where well water was the primary drinking water source. Two methods were demonstrated for the determination of soluble arsenic species (primarily inorganic arsenate and arsenite) and total particulate arsenic. The first method used solid phase extraction cartridges and membrane filters to separate arsenic species on-site, followed by analysis of the individual arsenic species eluted from the cartridges and filters. The other method uses liquid chromatography separation with hydride generation atomic fluorescence detection to determine soluble arsenic species. Analysis of acidified water samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry provided the total arsenic concentration. Arsenic concentrations in water samples from the 120 wells ranged from <1 to {approx}1000 {mu}g L{sup -1}. On average, particulate arsenic accounted for 39 {+-} 38% (median 36%) of the total arsenic. In some wells, particulate arsenic was six times higher than the soluble arsenic concentration. Particulate arsenic can be effectively removed using membrane filtration. The information on particulate and soluble arsenic in water is useful for optimizing treatment options and for understanding the geochemical behavior of arsenic in groundwater.

  5. The Influence of Land Use on the Grassland Fire Occurrence in the Northeastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Grassland, as one of the most important ecosystems on Earth, experiences fires that affect the local ecology, economy and society. Notably, grassland fires occur frequently each year in northeastern China. Fire occurrence is a complex problem with multiple causes, such as natural factors, human activities and land use. This paper investigates the disruptive effects of grassland fire in the northeastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. In this study, we relied on thermal anomaly detection from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor to identify fire occurrences, and land use data were acquired by Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper (TM/ETM. We discussed the relationship between land use and the spatial distribution of grassland fires. The results showed that the impact of land use on grassland fires was significant. Spatially, approximately 80% of grassland fires were clustered within 10 km of cultivated land, and grassland fires generally occurred in areas of intense human activity. The correlation between the spatial distribution of grassland fires and the land use degree in 2000, 2005 and 2010 was high, with R2 values of 0.686, 0.716, 0.633, respectively (p < 0.01. These results highlight the importance of the relationship between land use and grassland fire occurrence in the northeastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. This study provides significance for local fire management and prevention.

  6. Biogenic VOCs emission inventory development of temperate grassland vegetation in Xilin River Basin,Inner Mongolia,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Nian-peng; HAN Xing-guo; SUN Wei; Pan Qing-min

    2004-01-01

    Given the key role of biogenic volatile organic compounds(VOCs) to tropospheric chemistry and regional air quality, it is important to generate accurate VOCs emission inventories. However, only a less fraction of plant species, in temperate grassland of Inner Mongolia, has been characterized by quantitative measurements. A taxonomic methodology, which assigns VOCs measurements to unmeasured species, is an applicable and inexpensive alternation for extensive VOCs emission survey, although data are needed for additional plant families and genera to further validate the taxonomic approach in grassland vegetation. In this experiment, VOCs emission rates of 178 plant species were measured with a portable photoionization detector(PID). The results showed the most of genera and some families have consistent feature of their VOCs emission, especially for isoprene, and provide the basic premise of taxonomic methodology to develop VOCs emission inventories for temperate grassland. Then, the taxonomic methodology was introduced into assigning emission rate to other 96 species, which no measured emission rates available here. A systematical emission inventory of temperate grassland vegetation in Inner Mongolia was provided and further evidence that taxonomy relationship can serve as a useful guide for generalizing the emissions behavior of many, but not all, plant families and genera to grassland vegetation.

  7. The Influence of Land Use on the Grassland Fire Occurrence in the Northeastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiping; Zhao, Jianjun; Guo, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Zhengxiang; Tan, Gang; Yang, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Grassland, as one of the most important ecosystems on Earth, experiences fires that affect the local ecology, economy and society. Notably, grassland fires occur frequently each year in northeastern China. Fire occurrence is a complex problem with multiple causes, such as natural factors, human activities and land use. This paper investigates the disruptive effects of grassland fire in the northeastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. In this study, we relied on thermal anomaly detection from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to identify fire occurrences, and land use data were acquired by Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper (TM/ETM). We discussed the relationship between land use and the spatial distribution of grassland fires. The results showed that the impact of land use on grassland fires was significant. Spatially, approximately 80% of grassland fires were clustered within 10 km of cultivated land, and grassland fires generally occurred in areas of intense human activity. The correlation between the spatial distribution of grassland fires and the land use degree in 2000, 2005 and 2010 was high, with R2 values of 0.686, 0.716, 0.633, respectively (p fire occurrence in the northeastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. This study provides significance for local fire management and prevention. PMID:28241476

  8. The Effect of Using XO Computers on Students' Mathematics and Reading Abilities: Evidences from Learning Achievement Tests Conducted in Primary Education Schools in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinobu; Sukhbaatar, Javzan; Takada, Jun-ichi; Dayan-Ochir, Khishigbuyan

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, Mongolia took part in One Laptop per Child (OLPC) project. Since that time, over 10,000 students in grades 2-5 in 43 primary education schools are using XO computers. This paper presents the findings of a study conducted in 2012 to evaluate the impact of the OLPC initiatives on students' literacy and math skills. This study covered 14…

  9. Piloting a Savings-Led Microfinance Intervention with Women Engaging in Sex Work in Mongolia: Further Innovation for HIV Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Laura Cordisco; Witte, Susan S; Aira, Toivgoo; Altantsetseg, Batsukh; Riedel, Marion

    2011-12-30

    This paper describes a pilot study testing the feasibility of an innovative savings-led microfinance intervention in increasing the economic empowerment and reducing the sexual risk behavior of women engaging in sex work in Mongolia. Women's economic vulnerability may increase their risk for HIV by compromising their ability to negotiate safer sex with partners and heightening the likelihood they will exchange sex for survival. Microfinance has been considered a potentially powerful structural HIV prevention strategy with women conducting sex work, as diversification of income sources may increase women's capacity to negotiate safer transactional sex. With 50% of all reported female HIV cases in Mongolia detected among women engaging in sex work, direct prevention intervention with women conducting sex work represents an opportunity to prevent a potentially rapid increase in HIV infection in urban Mongolia. The piloted intervention consisted of a matched savings program in which matched savings could be used for business development or vocational education, combined with financial literacy and business development training for women engaging in sex work. Results of the pilot demonstrate participants' increased confidence in their ability to manage finances, greater hope for pursuing vocational goals, moderate knowledge gains regarding financial literacy, and an initial transition from sex work to alternative income generation for five out of nine participants. The pilot findings highlight the potential for such an intervention and the need for a clinical trial testing the efficacy of savings-led microfinance programs in reducing HIV risk for women engaging in sex work in Mongolia.

  10. Regulating the for-profit private healthcare providers towards universal health coverage: A qualitative study of legal and organizational framework in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsevelvaanchig, Uranchimeg; Narula, Indermohan S; Gouda, Hebe; Hill, Peter S

    2017-05-29

    Regulating the behavior of private providers in the context of mixed health systems has become increasingly important and challenging in many developing countries moving towards universal health coverage including Mongolia. This study examines the current regulatory architecture for private healthcare in Mongolia exploring its role for improving accessibility, affordability, and quality of private care and identifies gaps in policy design and implementation. Qualitative research methods were used including documentary review, analysis, and in-depth interviews with 45 representatives of key actors involved in and affected by regulations in Mongolia's mixed health system, along with long-term participant observation. There has been extensive legal documentation developed regulating private healthcare, with specific organizations assigned to conduct health regulations and inspections. However, the regulatory architecture for healthcare in Mongolia is not optimally designed to improve affordability and quality of private care. This is not limited only to private care: important regulatory functions targeted to quality of care do not exist at the national level. The imprecise content and details of regulations in laws inviting increased political interference, governance issues, unclear roles, and responsibilities of different government regulatory bodies have contributed to failures in implementation of existing regulations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. "If You Were the Researcher What Would You Research?": Understanding Children's Perspectives on Educational Research in Mongolia and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Julia; Sengedorj, Tumendelger

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on data from a project undertaken with children (N?=?72) in Mongolia and Zambia. The research is distinctive in bringing together diverse children, ranging from those living on the street to those in mainstream education and involving them in discussions about educational research. Being conscious of critiques of adult-initiated…

  12. 内蒙古青贮饲料质量研究%The quality of silage in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓娜; 孙启忠; 韩海波; 张晓庆; 孙长乐

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the current situation of silage in Inner Mongolia, on the one hand from Inner Mongolia silage production of hands on the other hand from the silage mass quality determination, on the situation in Inner Mongolia silage for analysis summary. Inner Mongolia silage modulation and storage are able to follow the silage norms, its main storage device to store storage and moat, silage storage time is 9 months, silage species there are whole corn silage, Corn Stover, beet silage, etc. Mongolia silage mass quality overall better, through the production of fine grade rating reached accounted for 83% of the total sample, in three kinds of silage corn stover silage in nutritional quality or fermentation quality were significant (P<0.05).%为探讨内蒙古青贮饲料品质现状,采用抽样方法对内蒙古青贮饲料质量进行研究.结果表明,内蒙古青贮设备主要以窖贮和壕贮为主,青贮时间一般为9和10月,青贮种类主要有全株玉米青贮、玉米秸青贮、甜菜类青贮等;青贮饲料发酵品质总体表现较好,通过对青贮饲料有机酸进行费氏评分,达到优良等级的占总样品的83%,全株玉米青贮和甜菜类青贮经费氏评分均达到优等,但是,全株玉米青贮饲料中的乳酸含量显著高于甜菜类青贮饲料(P<0.05),乙酸和丁酸含量均显著低于甜菜类青贮饲料(P<0.05),玉米秸青贮饲料费氏评分为良,内蒙古青贮饲料有机酸费氏评定结果与感官评定结果基本相符;3种青贮饲料中,甜菜类青贮饲料的营养品质最好,全株玉米青贮饲料次之,玉米秸青贮饲料最劣.综合分析结果表明,内蒙古全株玉米青贮饲料和甜菜类青贮饲料营养保存率高,发酵效果好,玉米秸青贮饲料质量较差.

  13. Temporal and spatial dynamics of grassland fires in Inner Mongolia%内蒙古草原火的时空动态特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周怀林; 王玉辉; 周广胜

    2016-01-01

    Analyses of a dataset for grassland fires in Inner Mongolia from 1981 to 2005 showed that there were 3142 grassland fires in the last 25 years.Among them,68.84% were caused by human activities,5.19% were caused by lightening,and 25.97% were attributed to unknown causes.Grade Ⅲ and Ⅳ fires accounted for the majority (81.17%)of grassland fires with known causes.The number of grassland fires generally decreased o-ver time,but tended to increase in the early 21st century.Spring and autumn were the main fire seasons,with more human-caused fires in April and more lightning-caused fires in May and June.During the main fire sea-sons,human-caused fires tended to occur between 9:00 am to 16:00 pm,while lightning-caused fires mainly started between 13:00 pm and 17:00 pm.In terms of geographical distribution,the number of grassland fires in Inner Mongolia decreased from the northeast to the southwest.The areas with the most fires were the Xin Barag Right Banner,the Chenbarhu Banner,and the Yakeshi-Oroqen Autonomous Banner,the total number of fires in these regions ranged from 119 to 187.These results indicate that the grassland fire prevention region in Inner Mongolia should include its central,eastern and northeast regions,and that efforts to detect and control fires should be made in the spring,especially between 9:00 am and 16:00 pm.%基于1981-2005年内蒙古草原火的统计资料分析表明,内蒙古草原在25年间共发生草原火3142次,其中人为火占68.84%,雷击火占5.19%,未查明起火原因草原火占25.97%。草原火强度主要以Ⅳ、Ⅲ级草原火为主,占查明起火原因草原火的81.15%。草原火的年发生次数总体呈减少趋势,但在21世纪初有所增加,且春、秋季是草原火的高发期,其中人为火在4月份发生次数最多,而雷击火集中于5,6月份。草原人为火发生时段集中在9:00-16:00,雷击火主要在13:00-17:00。内蒙古草原火的发

  14. The eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: formation and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bei; Xu, Wenliang

    2017-08-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) extends from the northern Eurasian continent in the west via Mongolia, Inner Mongolia and northeast part of China to the Russia Far East in the east. It is characterized by complex trench-arc-basin subduction system, exotic terrane (microcontinents) accretion, massive generation of juvenile crust during the Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic (e.g., Jahn et al., 2000, 2004; Sengör et al., 1993). A lot of papers about formation and evolution of the CAOB have been published and new field observations and geochemical data for key areas of the CAOB challenge to previous assessments. Several areas previously defined as juvenile are now shown to have mixed crustal compositions. For example, Kröner et al. (2014, in press) estimated that the distribution of various crustal provinces is truly juvenile crustal material ca. 20%, mixed crust ca. 30%, old crust ca. 50%,respectively, in the CAOB, similar to those in other accretionary orogens through Earth history. A two-stage model for the evolution of the CAOB has been suggested based on recent data from the Eastern Tianshan and Beishan (Gao et al., 2011; Su et al., 2011; Chen et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2017), which suggests the process of the formation and evolution of the CAOB includes closure of the Paleo Asian ocean (PAO), formation of orogenic belt before the late Paleozoic and crustal extension and magmatism resulted from plume upon the young orogenic belt after the late Paleozoic. This new model changes previous concept that the CAOB developed through the Paleozoic and is supported by recent researches on the eastern CAOB.

  15. Distribution of lichens biomass and its affecting factors during restoration process of Inner Mongolia steppe%内蒙古草原放牧恢复过程地衣生物量分布及其影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠宽; 汪诗平; 韩建国; 王艳芬; 陈佐忠

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was installed in the typical steppe area of Central Inner Mongolia to study the distribution characteristics of lichen biomass in the restoration process. The experimental areas were continuously grazed for ten years (1989 to 1998) under different stocking rate, and stopped grazing since 1999. Two years (2001 to 2002) monitoring on the distribution of lichen biomass and its affecting factors showed that no significant difference was found between different stocking rate treatments (P<0.05 ). There existed positive correlations between lichen biomass and plant species diversity and between soil water content and soil organic matter content (P < 0.05 ), and negative correlations between lichen biomass and soil bu/k density, and between Gramineae plant functional group and plant communirv coveratage and biomass(P<0.05).

  16. Time Series MODIS and in Situ Data Analysis for Mongolia Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munkhzul Dorjsuren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a period of abnormally dry weather with a serious shortage of water supply. Drought indices can be an advantageous indicator to assess drought for taking further response actions. However, drought indices based on ground meteorological measurements could not completely reveal the land use effects over a regional scale. On the other hand, the satellite-derived products provide consistent, spatial and temporal comparisons of global signatures for the regional-scale drought events. This research is to investigate the drought signatures over Mongolia by using satellite remote sensing imagery. The evapotranspiration (ET, potential evapotranspiration (PET and two-band Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI2 were extracted from MODIS data. Based on the standardized ratio of ET to PET (ET/PET and EVI2, the Modified Drought Severity Index (MDSI anomaly during the growing season from May–August for the years 2000–2013 was acquired. Fourteen-year summer monthly data for air temperature, precipitation and soil moisture content of in situ measurements from sixteen meteorological stations for four various land use areas were analyzed. We also calculated the percentage deviation of climatological variables at the sixteen stations to compare to the MDSI anomaly. Both comparisons of satellite-derived and observed anomalies and variations were analyzed by using the existing common statistical methods. The results demonstrated that the air temperature anomaly (T anomaly and the precipitation anomaly (P anomaly were negatively (correlation coefficient r = −0.66 and positively (r = 0.81 correlated with the MDSI anomaly, respectively. The MDSI anomaly distributions revealed that the wettest area occupied 57% of the study area in 2003, while the driest (drought area occurred over 54% of the total area in 2007. The results also showed very similar variations between the MDSI and T anomalies. The highest (wettest MDSI anomaly indicated the lowest T anomaly

  17. Effects of Rest Grazing on Organic Carbon Storage in Stipa grandis Steppe in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-jie; ZHU Yan; ZHAO Jian-ning; LI Gang; WANG Hui; LAI Xin; YANG Dian-lin

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the potential effects of rest grazing on organic carbon storage in Stipa grandis steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. Using potassium dichromate heating method, we analyzed the organic carbon storage of plant and soil in Stipa grandis steppe after rest grazing for 3, 6, and 9 yr. The results indicated that as the rest grazing ages prolonged, the biomass of aboveground parts, litter and belowground plant parts (roots) of the plant communities all increased, meanwhile the C content of the biomass increased with the rest grazing ages prolonging. For RG0, RG3a, RG6a, and RG9a, C storage in aboveground vegetation were 60.7, 76.9, 82.8 and 122.2 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage of litter were 5.1, 5.8, 20.4 and 25.5 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage of belowground roots (0-100 cm) were 475.2, 663.0, 1 115.0 and 1 867.3 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage in 0-100 cm soil were 13.97, 15.76, 18.60 and 32.41 kg Cm-2, respectively. As the rest grazing ages prolonged, the organic C storage in plant communities and soil increased. The C storage of belowground roots and soil organic C was mainly concentrated in 0-40 cm soil body. The increased soil organic C for RG3a accounted for 89.8% of the increased carbon in vegetation-soil system, 87.2%for RG6a, and 92.6%for RG9a. From the perspective of C sequestration cost, total cost for RG3a, RG6a, and RG9a were 2 903.4, 5 806.8 and 8 710.2 CNY ha-1, respectively. The cost reduced with the extension of rest grazing ages, 0.15 CNY kg-1 C for RG3a, 0.11 CNY kg-1 C for RG6a and 0.04 CNY kg-1 C for RG9a. From the growth characteristics of grassland plants, the spring was one of the two avoided grazing periods, timely rest grazing could effectively restore and update grassland vegetation, and was beneifcial to the sustainable use of grassland. Organic C storage for RG9a was the highest, while the cost of C sequestration was the lowest. Therefore, spring rest grazing should be encouraged because it was proved to be a very

  18. Tree decline and its possible causes around Mt. Bogdkhan in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sase, H.; Bulgan, T.; Batchuluun, T.; Shimizu, H.; Totsuka, T. [Acid Deposit & Oxidant Research Center, Niigata (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    A decline of larch trees (Larix sibirica) has been reported around the Bogdkhan Mountain near the city of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and it has been suggested that air pollution derived from the thermal power plants was one of the possible causes. Surveys on air pollutants concentrations by passive samplers, field observation of tree decline and chemical properties of needles/soils were carried out in 2001 and 2003 at Bogdkhan Mountain in order to obtain information on relationship between air pollution and chemical/(eco-)physiological properties of plant and soil. Tree decline was observed not only on the slope facing the thermal power plant but also in reference forests because of insect attack. However, decline symptoms observed on the slope were different from those in the reference forests. In summer, concentrations of all the monitored pollutants except O{sub 3} were not high; less than 5ppb (average concentration of two weeks), but O{sub 3} concentration was relatively high (ca. 40ppb). From autumn to winter, concentrations of NOx increased probably due to increasing of combustion of coal/wood in winter. Mean concentrations of SO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} during the sampling period of the year 2003 were higher at the sites on the slope than those at the other sites. In addition, sulfur contents of larch needles were also higher on the slope than other sites. It was suggested that the slope facing the thermal power plant has received more negative effects than the other areas. Soil acidification due to acid deposition may hardly occur because of the high concentration of base cations; e.g. pH (H{sub 2}O) {gt} 5.8, exchangeable Ca {gt} 22.6 cmol{sup +}/kg in sites on the slope. Direct effects of air pollution, especially effects of O{sub 3}, should be considered as one of the possible causes for the tree decline on the slope as well as natural environmental factors such as insect attack.

  19. Characteristics and modeling of evapotranspiration over a temperate desert steppe in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fulin; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2011-01-01

    SummaryThe magnitude and seasonal dynamics of evapotranspiration ( ET) over a temperate desert steppe in Inner Mongolia, China, were investigated during a growing season (from 1st May to 15th October 2008) using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. Diurnal variations of latent heat flux ( LE) at different phenological stages showed similar patterns with the peak value around noon. The sensible heat flux dominated the latent heat flux at midday during the whole growing season. Seasonal variation in ET followed closely the variation in soil water content ( SWC) and leaf area index ( LAI). The maximum daily ET rate was 3.8 mm day -1. Cumulative ET during the study period estimated directly by EC method was 150.9 mm, exceeding the precipitation ( PPT) received at the site during the same period (133.0 mm) by 13.4%. The daily crop coefficient ( Kc, calculated as the ratio of the measured ET (from the EC system) to the reference ET (from the Penman-Monteith model)) also showed a distinct seasonal pattern, however its value on average was considerable lower (0.17) during the measurement period than the results reported from other grasslands, suggesting that this steppe was strongly affected by the deficit of available water. SWC was the most important environmental factor controlling ET in this steppe. The correlation analysis between daily Kc and its major environmental controls indicated that SWC, relative humidity ( RH), and net radiation ( Rn) were the major explanatory variables for daily Kc. Daily Kc showed a linear increase with SWC and Rn, and an exponential increase with RH. Thus, a daily Kc model would be developed as a function of SWC, RH, and Rn. An empirical daily ET model derived from the FAO 56 crop coefficient approach was developed based on this daily Kc model and the Penman-Monteith model. This ET model was validated by the data from the growing season in 2009, and showed a good consistency between the simulated and the measured ET values. Based on the

  20. Study on Climate and Grassland Fire in HulunBuir, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meifang; Zhao, Jianjun; Guo, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Zhengxiang; Tan, Gang; Yang, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Grassland fire is one of the most important disturbance factors of the natural ecosystem. Climate factors influence the occurrence and development of grassland fire. An analysis of the climate conditions of fire occurrence can form the basis for a study of the temporal and spatial variability of grassland fire. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of monthly time scale climate factors on the occurrence of grassland fire in HulunBuir, located in the northeast of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in China. Based on the logistic regression method, we used the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire data products named thermal anomalies/fire daily L3 Global 1km (MOD14A1 (Terra) and MYD14A1 (Aqua)) and associated climate data for HulunBuir from 2000 to 2010, and established the model of grassland fire climate index. The results showed that monthly maximum temperature, monthly sunshine hours and monthly average wind speed were all positively correlated with the fire climate index; monthly precipitation, monthly average temperature, monthly average relative humidity, monthly minimum relative humidity and the number of days with monthly precipitation greater than or equal to 5 mm were all negatively correlated with the fire climate index. We used the active fire data from 2011 to 2014 to validate the fire climate index during this time period, and the validation result was good (Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0.578), which showed that the fire climate index model was suitable for analyzing the occurrence of grassland fire in HulunBuir. Analyses were conducted on the temporal and spatial distribution of the fire climate index from January to December in the years 2011–2014; it could be seen that from March to May and from September to October, the fire climate index was higher, and that the fire climate index of the other months is relatively low. The zones with higher fire climate index are mainly distributed in Xin

  1. Patterns of Hydroclimatic Variability in Proxy: Tree-Rings from the Khangai Mountains of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassnacht, S. R.; Venable, N. B. H.

    2015-12-01

    The sparse water resources of semi-arid regions such as Mongolia are important for sustaining traditional livelihoods and supporting modern development. Nomadic pastoralists of the Khangai Mountain region rely on surface water supplies for their livestock. Increasing agricultural and industrial development, particularly mining, will place strain on already limited water resources. The large amounts of spatial and temporal hydroclimatic variability inherent to this region can be assessed through dendrohydrology, or the application of tree-ring research to study long-term past hydrologic phenomena. The Larix sibirica, and Pinus sibirica trees of the region provide records of the persistence of moisture limitation over the last several hundred years. We analyze a network of ten tree-ring sites, two of which are newly developed and examine correlations of ring width to monthly and seasonal streamflow in four river basins across the region to inform the selection of tree-ring predictor sites for use in streamflow reconstruction. Precipitation correlations were also assessed using data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre as previous research suggests gridded precipitation data correlates as strongly with the selected tree-ring sites as station-based data, yet have no missing data. The streamflow data had fewer missing values than station-based precipitation data, but were also not complete. Missing monthly mean flow values from five gages were filled using Predictive Mean Matching methods. Moderate (r=0.35-0.54) to strong (r=0.55-0.74) significant positive correlations were found for previous year's (PY) and current year's (CY) summer precipitation, mainly in June, July, and August. More strong and moderate correlations were observed with streamflow in PY and CY summer months than with precipitation; some spring months were also well correlated. Northern river gages correlated with more tree ring sites and had overall higher correlation values than southern

  2. Crystal chemistry of elpidite from Khan Bogdo (Mongolia) and its K- and Rb-exchanged forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor' eva, A. A.; Zubkova, N. V., E-mail: nata_zubkova@rambler.ru; Pekov, I. V. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Geology (Russian Federation); Kolitsch, U. [Museum of Natural History of Vienna, Department of Mineralogy and Petrography (Austria); Pushcharovsky, D. Yu.; Vigasina, M. F. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Geology (Russian Federation); Giester, G.; Dordevic, T.; Tillmanns, E. [University of Vienna, Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography (Austria); Chukanov, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    Elpidite Na{sub 2}ZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O [space group Pbcm, a = 7.1312(12), b = 14.6853(12), and c = 14.6349(15) Angstrom-Sign ] from Khan Bogdo (Mongolia) and its K- and Rb-exchanged forms K{sub 1.78}Na{sub 0.16}H{sub 0.06}ZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} {center_dot} 0.85H{sub 2}O [Cmce, a = 14.054(3), b = 14.308(3), and c = 14.553(3) Angstrom-Sign ] and Na{sub 1.58}Rb{sub 0.2}H{sub 0.22}ZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} {center_dot} 2.69H{sub 2}O [Pbcm, a = 7.1280(10), b = 14.644(3), and c = 14.642(3) Angstrom-Sign ] that were obtained by cation exchange at 90 Degree-Sign C, as well as K{sub 1.84}Na{sub 0.11}H{sub 0.05}ZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} {center_dot} 0.91H{sub 2}O [Cmce, a = 14.037(3), b = 14.226(3), and c = 14.552(3) Angstrom-Sign ] and Rb{sub 1.78}Na{sub 0.06}H{sub 0.16}ZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} {center_dot} 0.90H{sub 2}O [Cmce, a = 14.2999(12), b = 14.4408(15), and c = 14.7690(12) Angstrom-Sign ], obtained at 150 Degree-Sign C are studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The base of the structures is a heteropolyhedral Zr-Si-O framework whose cavities accommodate Na (K, Rb) cations and H{sub 2}O molecules.

  3. Climate Compatible Development in the Mongolia Steppe: analysis of vulnerability and adaptation response to global changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D. S.; Togtokh, C.; Galvin, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: Climate change and variability, market and policy changes are shaping pastoral communities' decisions on what pathways their future livelihoods will take and how the steppe landscapes and river basins, are managed. Recent droughts and damaging winter storms (zuds) of the past two decades have exacerbated the situation and undermined the natural capital on which the pastoral livelihoods depend upon. River basins are critical natural resources well-being of social-ecological systems in Mongolia. River basins provide the ecosystem services which support pastoral communities and industrial and urban development. Green development strategies are strongly dependent on water resources. Consequently, integrated planning of river basin management is needed to maintain these critical ecosystem services to meet the multiple needs of livelihoods of communities in these basins and to support sustainable development activities within the basins. For this study our team worked in nine sums (i.e., county level administrative areas) in three river basins in two provinces (aimags) to collect household data from 144 households. We also collected census data from the aimags and national level to understand trends at the level of ecosystems and river basins. We have selected 3 sums in each river basis, representing forest steppe, steppe and desert steppe regions for comparison across river basins and ecological zones. FINDINGS: Integrated planning efforts would be enhanced through, one, use of a social-ecological framework and, two, the development of a cross-ministerial working group to address natural resource considerations. Across the three basins agriculture, pastoral, industrial, and urban needs vie for similar ecosystem services. The natural capital and ecosystem services of these basins need to be assessed to understand the vulnerability and capacity of the resources. The most frequently listed "best coping strategy" across all ecosystem types was for herders to

  4. Review on the Ulaanbaatar Special Congress of the People’s Revolutionary Party of Inner Mongolia%内蒙古人民革命党乌兰巴托特别大会述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朝鲁孟

    2013-01-01

    In August 1927 ,the People’s Revolutionary Party of Inner Mongolia held a Special Con-gress in Ulaanbaatar , they tried to solve the interior problem of the party and searched for the better grow th by organizing this conference .During the Special Congress ,there was a serious internal division occurred in the party ,as a result ,Serengdonrob and Merse were released from their leading duty ,the new Central Committee were reelected ,and approved the declaration of the Special Congress .This consequence was closely related with the internal conflict of the People’Revolutionary Party of Inner Mongolia ,and the domestic and the international political situation .The Special Congress forced the internal collapse of the party rapidly .Since then ,the influence of the party became more and more weak ,also they were unable to promote the development of Inner Mongolian democratic and national movement .%1927年8月,在国民革命急转直下的形势下,内蒙古人民革命党在乌兰巴托召开一次特别大会,试图解决该党内部问题,以推动日后发展。会议上,该党内部发生严重冲突,最终撤销色楞栋鲁布、墨尔色等人的领导职务,改选中央委员会并通过大会宣言。此结果与该党内部矛盾及当时的国内外政治局势具有紧密联系。这次大会直接促成了内蒙古人民革命党内部的迅速瓦解,从此该党对内蒙古的影响越来越小,再无法有力推动内蒙古民族、民主运动的发展了。

  5. Ore-forming fluid and metallization of the Huanggangliang skarn Fe-Sn deposit, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Lijuan

    2001-01-01

    [1]Rui Zongyao, Shi Lindao, Fang Ruhuan, Geology of Nonferrous Metallic Deposits in Northern Margin of North China Landmass (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1994, 314-362, 528-533.[2]Zhao Yiming, Zhang Dequan, Metallogenic Regularity and Prospective Value 1997 (in Chinese), Beijing: Seismology Press, 1997, 125-144.[3]Wang Lijuan, Wang Yuwang, Wang Jingbin et al., Study on fluid-melting inclusions of the Huanggangliang skarn Fe-Sn Deposit, Acta Geologica Sinica, 2001, 1(2): 75.[4]Shao, J. A., Han, Q. J., Early Mesozoic mantle-crust transition zone in eastern Inner-Mongolia: Evidence from measure-ments of compreessional velocities of xenoliths at high pressure and high temperature, Science in China, Ser. D, 43 (sup-plement): 253-261.[5]Shao, J. A., Mu, B. L., He, G. Q., Geological effects in tectonic superposition of Paleo-Pacific domain and paleo-Asia do-main in northern part of North China, Science in China, Ser. D, 1997, 40(6): 634-640.[6]Shao Ji'an, Zhang Fuqiao, Mu Baolei, Tectono-thermal evolution of middle-south section of the Da Hinggan Mountains, Science in China, Ser. D, 1998, 41(6): 570-579.[7]Zhai Mingguo, Bian Aiguo, Zhao Taiping, The amalgamation of the supercontinent of North China Craton at the end of Neo-Archaean and its breakup during late Palaeoproterozoic and Meso-Proterozoic, Science in China, Ser. D, 43 (supple-ment): 219-232.[8]Chen Yanjing, Skarn gold deposits in China, Resource Geology, 1996, 46(6): 369-376.[9]Chen Yanjing, Shan, Q., Xin, L., Chron, spare, geodynamic setting and mode for metallogenization of Chinese skarn type gold deposit, Journal of Peking University, 1997, 33(4): 456-466.[10]Li Yinqing, Melting and fluid inclusions of some mid-acid intrusions and volcanic rocks in Yulong, Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, 1984, 2: 85-106.[11]Lu Huanzhang, Melting inclusions of fluid, Geochemistry, 1990, 3: 225-229.[12]Lu Huanzhang, Ore-forming Fluid

  6. Association of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with metabolic syndrome, prediabetes and diabetes in adults from Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Tanika N

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the association of biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS in persons from Inner Mongolia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,536 people aged 20 years and older from Inner Mongolia, China. Overnight fasting blood samples were obtained to measure plasma concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, soluble inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1, sE-selectin, angiotensin II, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood glucose. Waist circumference and blood pressure were measured by trained staff. MetS was defined according to the modified ATP III definition for Asians. Elevated level of the biomarker was defined as values in the upper tertile of the distribution. Participants were categorized into one of four groups based on the presence or absence of metabolic and glycemic abnormalities: 1 free of prediabetes, diabetes and MetS (reference group, 2 prediabetes or diabetes only, 3 MetS without prediabetes or diabetes, and 4 MetS plus prediabetes or diabetes. The multivariable models are adjusted for age, gender, smoking, drinking, family history of hypertension, and body mass index. Results Among study participants, 18.5% had prediabetes, 3.6% had diabetes, and 27.4% of the entire study population had 3 or more components of the MetS. Elevated hsCRP was associated with an increased odds of prediabetes or diabetes only, MetS without prediabetes or diabetes, and MetS plus prediabetes or diabetes with multivariable adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals of 2.3 (1.7-3.1, 3.0 (2.4-3.8, and 5.8 (4.5-7.5, respectively. Elevated sICAM-1 was associated with increased odds (95% CI of prediabetes or diabetes only (2.1, 1.6-2.9 and MetS plus prediabetes or diabetes (4.2, 3.2-5.3 but was not associated with MetS alone. Elevated sE-selectin was associated with a modestly increased risk of MetS (OR 1.7, 95

  7. Predictive value of respiratory symptoms for the diagnosis of pollen-induced seasonal asthma among children and adults in Inner Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma TT

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ting Ting Ma,1–3 Yan Zhuang,1 Hai Ying Gong,4 Anthony Chauang Yii,5 Xue Yan Wang,1 Huan Zhong Shi2,3 1Department of Allergy, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 2Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Capital Medical University, 3Center of Medical Research, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Diseases, 4Fangshan District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore Background: The diagnosis of asthma is made on the basis of variable respiratory symptoms and supported by objective evidence of variable airflow limitation. However, spirometry and bronchoprovocation tests may not be routinely available in resource-scarce settings or in the context of large-scale epidemiological studies. There is a gap in knowledge about the predictive value of respiratory symptoms for the diagnosis of pollen-induced asthma.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of self-reported respiratory symptoms for diagnosing pollen-induced asthma.Patients and methods: We recruited 1,161 patients with respiratory symptoms who presented to the respiratory medicine outpatient clinic of two central hospitals in Inner Mongolia during the pollen season of July–September 2015. All patients were interviewed by a respiratory physician and completed a questionnaire survey, lung function tests and skin prick tests for common inhaled allergens.Results: A total of 392 patients (33.8% were diagnosed with asthma and 292 (25.2%, 160 adults, 132 children with pollen-induced asthma. Respiratory symptoms of cough, wheezing, dyspnea, chest pain and nocturnal awakenings due to breathlessness were all associated with increased odds of being diagnosed with pollen-induced asthma, with cough being the most common symptom in

  8. U-Pb (zircon) and geochemical constraints on the age, origin, and evolution of Paleozoic arc magmas in the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au district, southern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, A.J.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Friedman, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Uranium-Pb (zircon) ages are linked with geochemical data for porphyry intrusions associated with giant porphyry Cu-Au systems at Oyu Tolgoi to place those rocks within the petrochemical framework of Devonian and Carboniferous rocks of southern Mongolia. In this part of the Gurvansayhan terrane within the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, the transition from Devonian tholeiitic marine rocks to unconformably overlying Carboniferous calc-alkaline subaerial to shallow marine volcanic rocks reflects volcanic arc thickening and maturation. Radiogenic Nd and Pb isotopic compositions (??Nd(t) range from +3.1 to +7.5 and 206Pb/204Pb values for feldspars range from 17.97 to 18.72), as well as low high-field strength element (HFSE) contents of most rocks (mafic rocks typically have rocks are dominantly medium- to high-K calc-alkaline and characterized by a decrease in Sr/Y ratios through time, with the Carboniferous rocks being more felsic than those of Devonian age. Porphyry Cu-Au related intrusions were emplaced in the Late Devonian during the transition from tholeiitic to calc-alkaline arc magmatism. Uranium-Pb (zircon) geochronology indicates that the Late Devonian pre- to syn-mineral quartz monzodiorite intrusions associated with the porphyry Cu-Au deposits are ~372Ma, whereas granodiorite intrusions that post-date major shortening and are associated with less well-developed porphyry Cu-Au mineralization are ~366Ma. Trace element geochemistry of zircons in the Late Devonian intrusions associated with the porphyry Cu-Au systems contain distinct Th/U and Yb/Gd ratios, as well as Hf and Y concentrations that reflect mixing of magma of distinct compositions. These characteristics are missing in the unmineralized Carboniferous intrusions. High Sr/Y and evidence for magma mixing in syn- to late-mineral intrusions distinguish the Late Devonian rocks associated with giant Cu-Au deposits from younger magmatic suites in the district. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Natural resource inventory and monitoring for Ulaan Taiga Specially Protected Areas—An assessment of needs and opportunities in northern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Peggy E.; Meyer, Joseph B.; Chow, Leslie S.

    2017-03-10

    Between 1997 and 2011, Mongolia established three specially protected areas in the north-central part of the country to protect various high-value resources. These areas are jointly referred to as the Ulaan Taiga Specially Protected Areas. In accordance with the goals of the draft general management plan, this report identifies options for initiating an inventory and monitoring program for the three protected areas. Together, the three areas comprise over 1.5 million hectares of mountainous terrain west of Lake Hovsgol and bordering the Darkhad Valley. The area supports numerous rare ungulates, endangered fish, and over 40 species of threatened plants. Illegal mining, illegal logging, and poaching pose the most immediate threats to resources. As a first step, a review of published literature would inform natural resource management at the Ulaan Taiga Specially Protected Areas because it would inform other inventories.Vegetation classification and mapping also would inform other inventory efforts because the process incorporates geographic analysis to identify environmental gradients, fine-scale sampling that captures species composition and structure, and landscape-scale results that represent the variety and extent of habitats for various organisms. Mapping using satellite imagery reduces the cost per hectare.Following a determination of existing knowledge, field surveys of vertebrates and vascular plants would serve to build species lists and fill in gaps in existing knowledge. For abiotic resources, a focus on monitoring air quality, evaluating and monitoring water quality, and assembling and storing weather data would provide information for correlating resource response status with changing environmental conditions.Finally, we identify datasets that, if incorporated into a geographic information system, would inform resource management. They include political boundaries, infrastructure, topography, surficial geology, hydrology, fire history, and soils.In terms

  10. Globalization of the cashmere market and the decline of large mammals in central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Mishra, Charudutt

    2013-08-01

    As drivers of terrestrial ecosystems, humans have replaced large carnivores in most areas, and human influence not only exerts striking ecological pressures on biodiversity at local scales but also has indirect effects in distant corners of the world. We suggest that the multibillion dollar cashmere industry creates economic motivations that link western fashion preferences for cashmere to land use in Central Asia. This penchant for stylish clothing, in turn, encourages herders to increase livestock production which affects persistence of over 6 endangered large mammals in these remote, arid ecosystems. We hypothesized that global trade in cashmere has strong negative effects on native large mammals of deserts and grassland where cashmere-producing goats are raised. We used time series data, ecological snapshots of the biomass of native and domestic ungulates, and ecologically and behaviorally based fieldwork to test our hypothesis. In Mongolia increases in domestic goat production were associated with a 3-fold increase in local profits for herders coexisting with endangered saiga (Saiga tatarica).That increasing domestic grazing pressure carries fitness consequences was inferred on the basis of an approximately 4-fold difference in juvenile recruitment among blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur)in trans-Himalayan India. Across 7 study areas in Mongolia, India, and China's Tibetan Plateau, native ungulate biomass is now effects to markets induced by the trade for cashmere. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Project to donate wind power generators to nomads in Mongolia. Part 2. Report of 1994 and 1995; Mongoru no Yuboku Minzoku ni furyoku hatsudenki wo okuru keikaku. 2. 1994 nen/1995 nen hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, K. [Miyakonojo National College of Technology, Miyazaki (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    In 1993, Miyakonojo College installed wind power generators in Mongolia, but the generators had been designed based on the data on the wind power reported by Mongolia (annual average 5-6m/s, and the maximum 7-8m/s) which had been too small, and in reality, they were destroyed due to the strong winds of 20-30m/s in Southern Gobi together with the fatigue caused by repeated loads. Hence the college continued to cope with installation of wind power generators in Mongolia in both 1994 and 1995. This article is a report of the outline of the above activities. Based on the above experience in Mongolia, the college tried to use various types of automobile generators, and regarding the blade, it prepared that with the angle of about 20{degree} at the root and 5{degree} at the tip and equiped with a controllable pitch mechanism. These assemblies were tested their practical applicability at the Nichinan seashore. The college brought into Mongolia 5 wind power generators and one solar battery in August, 1994. In Southern Gobi, a company manufacturing wind power generators was established which manufactured wind power generators modelling after the one made by Miyakonojo College and started its sale to local farmers. In 1995, 4 wind power generators manufactured by Matsumura Machinery Manufacturing Co. have been brought into Mongolia. 3 figs.

  12. 内蒙古地区干旱风险评估%Drought Risk Assessment in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付丽娟; 宫春宁; 德勒格日玛

    2012-01-01

    分析了形成旱灾风险的有关因素,表明旱灾风险不仅与缺雨程度及持续时间有关,而且还有明显的季节性差异。用单位评价期内的降水距平百分率反映缺雨程度,用作物和生态系统不同季节的缺雨敏感度反映干旱影响的季节性差异,并以干旱持续期内单位时段旱灾风险的累加反映其累积效应,从而建立起旱灾风险的识别指数。应用旱灾风险指数对60年来内蒙古的旱灾风险进行了初步评估。给出了各级旱灾发生的概率,并统计出及各级旱灾对应的后果。对影响范围大、跨经两个以上作物生长年份、最大旱灾风险指数双倍于特旱的极端干旱在内蒙古的发生情况进行了分析。结果表明,20世纪80年代中期以来,内蒙古的极端干旱过程在逐渐东扩,内蒙古东部地区的旱灾出现了增多增强的趋势。%It is indicated that drought risk is related to the lack of rain level and duration of rain via analyzing the relevant factors of the risk of drought. The impact of drought have the cumulative effect and obvious seasonal variations .In order to establish the identi- fication index of drought risk, lack of rain level is reflected by the percentage of the rainfall anomaly, sensitivity of the lack of rain to crops and ecosystem in different seasons reflects seasonal variations of effects of drought, accumulating the drought risk in unit time during the drought period reflects it's accumulative effects. A preliminary assessment for drought risk in Inner Mongolia over past 60 years has conducted in the support of application of drought risk index. In this article has given probabilities of drought occurrences at all levels and all corresponding consequences of drought events. Through analyzing extreme drought in Inner Mongolia with broad influenced range, across more than two crop growth years and the maximum drought risk index is as much as two times of severe drought, the results show

  13. Preliminary elemental analysis of fossil insects from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia and its taphonomic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bo; LI JianFeng; FANG Yan; ZHANG HaiChun

    2009-01-01

    Fossil insects from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for the first time, and portions and distribution of some elements in com-pression and pyrited fossils were also revealed by X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) at-tached to SEM. Most of compression fossil insects from the Daohugou Biota are preserved in organic remains (diagenetic products of the original organic components). A small part of compression fossils retain a comparatively high Fe concentration which probably resulted from the absorption of Fe by biopolymers during the decaying period. Pyritized insect fossils suggest that the "fossil envelop" model found in the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota probably also occurs in the Daohugou Biota. Different preservation modes show various mechanisms of fossilization, and also suggest that several different microenvironments are present in Daohugou palaeolakes.

  14. Further development and sustainable utilization mode of grassland tourism resources: a ease study of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Min; Liu Aili; Chen Tian

    2007-01-01

    Tourism resources are important foundation for the development of tourism industry.Grassland is not only a kind of important resource but also a great attraction to visitors.Therefore,the integrated development and sustainable utilization of grassland tourism resources are of great significance.This paper,based on the analysis of literatures and the current problems existing in grassland tourism,summarizes the speciality of grassland tourism development,deals nation as example and carries out empirical research.Based on the status quo of grassland tourism resources in Inner Mongolia,this study analyzes the characteristics of grassland tourism resources,the necessity and feasibility of integrated development,then proposes the following suggestions: idea for development,mode of development,regional cooperation,tourism products development,especially the three modes of development based on the resources conditions - the mode of relying on market,the mode of combination aggregation and the mode of relying on quality.

  15. Spatial damage distribution of August 16, 2003, Inner Mongolia, China, MS=5.9 earth-quake and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Meng-tan; XU Li-sheng; GUO Wen-sheng; WAN Bo; YU Yan-xiang

    2005-01-01

    The spatial damage distribution of August 16, 2003, Inner Mongolia, China, MS=5.9 earthquake is summarized through field investigation. The moment tensor solution and focal mechanism are inverted using the digital long-period waveform records of China Digital Seismograph Network (CDSN). The relation between the spatial damage distribution and focal mechanism is analyzed according to the focal mechanism, the aftershock distribution and the spatial damage distribution. The possible relation between the characteristics of ground motion and the tectonic background of the source region is discussed in terms of the global ground motion records, historical earthquake documents and the damage distribution. Investigation reveals that the meizoseismal region is in east-west direction, which is consistent with the nodal plane of focal mechanism inversion. The meizoseismal area is relatively large and the damage of single-story adobe houses or masonry houses is more severe. This may have relations with local seismotectonic environment.

  16. The World Health Organization program for emergency surgical, obstetric, and anesthetic care: from Mongolia to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Fizan; Troedsson, Hans; Cherian, Meena

    2011-05-01

    This special article provides an introduction to the World Health Organization (WHO) Emergency and Essential Surgical Care (EESC) program. The program was launched by the WHO in December of 2005 to address the lack of adequate surgical capacity as a global public health issue. The overall objective is to reduce death and disability from trauma, burns, pregnancy-related complications, domestic violence, disasters, and other surgically treatable conditions. The program and materials have spread to over 35 countries and focus on providing (1) basic education and training materials; (2) enhancement of surgical infrastructure at the governmental and health facility level; and (3) resources for monitoring and evaluating surgical, obstetrical, and anesthetic capacity. Additionally, a global forum for program members was established that collaborates with ministries of health, WHO country offices, nongovernmental organizations, and academia. The results of the third biennial meeting of global EESC members in Mongolia are outlined as well as future challenges.

  17. A Geochemical Study of an REE-rich Carbonatite Dyke at Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An REE-rich carbonatite dyke was found in Dulahala, close to the Bayan Obo superlarge REE-Nb-Fe mineral deposit in Inner Mongolia, northern China. The REE content in the dyke varies greatly, from 1% up to 20% (wt), which might constitute rich REE ores. Light REEs in the carbonatite are enriched and highly fractionated relative to heavy REEs and there is no Eu anomaly. The REE and trace element distribution patterns of the carbonatite are identical to those of fine-grained dolomite marble which is the host rock of the Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe superlarge mineral deposit. This indicates a petrogenetic linkage between the REE-rich carbonatite and the mineralizations in this region.

  18. New discovery of Palaeontinid fossils from the Middle Jurassic in Daohugou,Inner Mongolia (Homoptera,Palaeontinidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; REN Dong; SHIH ChungKun

    2007-01-01

    Three new species of fossil Palaeontinidae are described from Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China:Daohugoucossus shii sp. Nov., D. Parallelivenius sp. Nov., D. Lii sp. Nov. The diagnosis of Daohugoucossus Wang, Zhang and Fang,2006 is revised. These materials are the first complete fossil palaeontinids in the Middle Jurassic of the world. Based on observation of these new specimens, Sc of this new genus has the following combined characters:joined with R at base, diverged near M separation, coalesced with R before the nodal line, extended beyond the nodal line and fused with R1 before distal end. Due to the Sc characteristics mentioned above, the genus Liaocossus Ren, Yin and Dou, 1998 can be well distinguished from"llerdocossus-complex".

  19. Re-engineering of the forest stand database: case study of Bilahe Forestry Bureau, Inner Mongolia of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wen-bo; ZHENG Jiao

    2008-01-01

    The forest stand database of Bilahe Forestry Bureau, Inner Mongolia of China was taken as an example to demonstrate the whole process of building a temporal geodatabase by means of reengineering. The process was composed of establishing a conceptual data model from the initial database, constructing a logical database by means of mapping, and building a temporal geodatabase with the help of Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tool and Unified Markup Language (UML). The results showed that as the reengineered forest stand geodatabase was dynamic, it could easily store the historical data and answer time related questions by Structured Query Language (SQL), meanwhile, it maintains the integrity of database and eliminates the redundancy.

  20. Analysis of flow process variation degree and influencing factors in inner Mongolia reach of the Yellow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S. Y.; Zhang, P.; Zhao, W. R.

    2017-06-01

    The provincial hydrological sections of Shizuishan and Toudaoguai are selected as the object of study to analyze flow process variation degree and influencing factor in Inner Mongolia reach of the Yellow River, according to observe and natural monthly runoff from 1956 to 2013. The result shows that there are three phases of the flow process variation degree of the two sections, namely the year 1956 to 1968, 1969 to 1986 and 1987 to 2013, and which increase by phases. The markings appear to decrease by phases and the marking in Toudaoguai section is lower than that in Shizuishan section. The key reasons of the above features are water consumption of industry and agriculture along the river and reservoir operation of Longyangxia and Liujiaxia.

  1. Persistent organic pollutants (PCBs and OCP in air and soil from Ulaanbaatar and the Lake Hovsgol region, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EA Mamontova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations of POPs in soil and air in three urban and rural sites of the Mongolia are presented. The POPs distribution in air repeats the POPs distribution in soil on the area investigated. The POPs levels in soil and air are lower than maximum permissible concentrations (MPC and preliminary permissible concentrations (PPC of PCBs and OCP accepted in Russia. POPs levels in Mongolian soil obtained in the investigation are comparable with those from background areas of the world. POPs levels in Mongolian air are in the frame of concentrations found in the world. The PCB homological pattern in soil near electric power station in Ulaanbaatar is close to homological pattern in PCB technical mixture (Sovol or Arochlor 1254. The homological patterns in soil from other sites changed due to the redistribution of PCB congeners in the environment. The ratio of DDT and its metabolites indicates fresh entrance of DDT in the environment of Mongolia due to the atmospheric transboundary transport from countries using DDT (China, India or from local agricultural sources. Hazard indexes in result from human exposure with POPs in soil and air are lower by 2-4 orders than 1 that denotes the possible default of disturbances in target organ and system. CR under the same scenario corresponds to the first diapason that is taken by population as negligible risk, not differ from usual everyday risks. Such risks don’t require additional measures for the reducing of risks and their levels are a subject of periodical control. The necessity of additional investigation of POPs distribution and the fate in Mongolian environment is indicated.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.176 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 69-77

  2. Outbound medical tourism from Mongolia: a qualitative examination of proposed domestic health system and policy responses to this trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Byambaa, Tsogtbaatar; Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Janes, Craig; Ewan, Melanie

    2015-05-03

    Medical tourism is the practice of traveling across international boundaries in order to access medical care. Residents of low-to-middle income countries with strained or inadequate health systems have long traveled to other countries in order to access procedures not available in their home countries and to take advantage of higher quality care elsewhere. In Mongolia, for example, residents are traveling to China, Japan, Thailand, South Korea, and other countries for care. As a result of this practice, there are concerns that travel abroad from Mongolia and other countries risks impoverishing patients and their families. In this paper, we present findings from 15 interviews with Mongolian medical tourism stakeholders about the impacts of, causes of, and responses to outbound medical tourism. These findings were developed using a case study methodology that also relied on tours of health care facilities and informal discussions with citizens and other stakeholders during April, 2012. Based on these findings, health policy changes are needed to address the outflow of Mongolian medical tourists. Key areas for reform include increasing funding for the Mongolian health system and enhancing the efficient use of these funds, improving training opportunities and incentives for health workers, altering the local culture of care to be more supportive of patients, and addressing concerns of corruption and favouritism in the health system. While these findings are specific to the Mongolian health system, other low-to-middle income countries experiencing outbound medical tourism will benefit from consideration of how these findings apply to their own contexts. As medical tourism is increasing in visibility globally, continued research on its impacts and context-specific policy responses are needed.

  3. Study on heavy metals and ecological risk assessment from Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections of the Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jun; Liu, Ying

    2013-12-01

    The Yellow River is the most important resource of water supply in northern China. The purpose of this work are to investigate the concentrations and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, the concentrations of eight heavy metals including As, Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn in filtered water and suspended particles from 12 sampling sites of Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections of the Yellow River of China were studied by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) and high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS) in this paper. The results implied that all heavy metals in filtered water were lower than the limit standards for drinking water except for Cr (56.9 approximately 71. 5 microg L-1 ). Water quality parameters such as total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and pH we