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Sample records for hanford water treatment

  1. Hanford facilities tracer study report (315 Water Treatment Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambalam, T.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results and findings of a tracer study to determine contact time for the disinfection process of 315 Water Treatment Facility that supplies sanitary water for the 300 Area. The study utilized fluoride as the tracer and contact times were determined for two flow rates. Interpolation of data and short circuiting effects are also discussed. The 315 Water Treatment Facility supplies sanitary water for the 300 Area to various process and domestic users. The Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR), outlined in the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments enacted by the EPA in 1989 and regulated by the Washington State Department of Health (DOH) in Section 246-290-600 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), stipulates filtration and disinfection requirements for public water systems under the direct influence of surface water. The SWTR disinfection guidelines require that each treatment system achieves predetermined inactivation ratios. The inactivation by disinfection is approximated with a measure called CxT, where C is the disinfectant residual concentration and T is the effective contact time of the water with the disinfectant. The CxT calculations for the Hanford water treatment plants were derived from the total volume of the contact basin(s). In the absence of empirical data to support CxT calculations, the DOH determined that the CxT values used in the monthly reports for the water treatment plants on the Hanford site were invalid and required the performance of a tracer study at each plant. In response to that determination, a tracer study will be performed to determine the actual contact times of the facilities for the CxT calculations

  2. A systems engineering analysis to examine the economic impact for treatment of tritiated water in the Hanford KE-Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas, A.; Clark, L.; Schmidt, A.

    1995-02-01

    Federal and state agencies have established a Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to address some key environmental issues faced at the Hanford Site. Under the TPA, the Department of Energy is currently under a consent order to reduce the tritium concentration in the spent fuel storage basin for KE-Reactor from 3.0 μCi/L to 0.3 μCi/L in the KE spent fuel storage basin, starting in 1996. The 100KE and 100KW Area fuel storage basins (K-Basins) at Hanford were built in the early 1950s to receive and provide temporary storage for irradiated fuel from the now shutdown KE and KW production reactors. In 1977, the KE-Basin began to leak at a rate of 13.5 gpm (51 L/min.), but, decreased to 0.03 to 0.05 gpm (0. 13 to 0.19 L/min.) by 1980. In 1993, the leak increased to a rate of 0.42 gpm (1.6 L/min.). This engineering analysis examines the relative costs to reduce the tritium concentration KE-Basin water using a polyphosphazene polymer membrane under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The estimated cost of using the membrane to reduce the tritium concentration is compared to three no-treatment alternatives that include: (1) disposing of the tritium-contaminated water directly to the Columbia River, (2) disposing of the contaminated water to the soil at the on-site Effluent Treatment Facility, and (3) disposing of the contaminated water by evaporation using solar evaporation ponds

  3. Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danch, D.A.; Gay, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system

  4. Hanford Site ground-water surveillance for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.; Kemner, M.L.

    1990-06-01

    This annual report of ground-water surveillance activities provides discussions and listings of results for ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1989. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assesses the impacts of Hanford operations on the environment for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The impact Hanford operations has on ground water is evaluated through the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance program. Five hundred and sixty-seven wells were sampled during 1989 for Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. This report contains a listing of analytical results for calendar year (CY) 1989 for species of importance as potential contaminants. 30 refs., 29 figs,. 4 tabs

  5. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities

  6. Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste thermal treatment initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.; Riddelle, J.G.

    1993-03-01

    This paper is a progress report of current Westinghouse Hanford Company engineering activities related to the implementation of a program for the thermal treatment of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste. Topics discussed include a site-specific engineering study, the review of private sector capability in thermal treatment, and thermal treatment of some of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste at other US Department of Energy sites

  7. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ''ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated

  8. Hydrothermal treatment of Hanford waste constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Orco, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    The destruction of nitrates, organics, and ferrocyanides contained in underground storage tanks at the Department of Energy Hanford site in Washington state would significantly reduce the volume, hazard, and toxicity of the waste, while meeting pretreatment requirements for vitrification and grouting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of supercritical water oxidation for the destruction of nitrates organics, and ferrocyanides. Laboratory studies were performed studying oxidation/reduction reactions of nitrate with a simple organic compound, methanol, and with ammonia. Additional studies examined the reaction of nitrate with ferrocyanide. When reacted with methanol above 500 degrees C, greater than 99% of the nitrate was destroyed at the shortest residence times (< 6 seconds). At the same conditions, greater than 80% of the methanol was converted to bicarbonate and carbon dioxide. Studies involving the reaction of nitrate and nitrite with ammonia indicated that the reaction proceeds to completion in short residence times at temperatures above the critical point of water (374.2 degrees C). Ferrocyanide to also reacted rapidly with nitrate above the critical point, to produce carbon dioxide and ammonia

  9. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment

  10. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  11. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality across the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of mobile radionuclides and identify chemicals present in ground water as a result of Site operations and whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. To comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, additional monitoring was conducted at individual waste sites by the Site Operating Contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), to assess the impact that specific facilities have had on ground-water quality. Six hundred and twenty-nine wells were sampled during 1990 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities

  12. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  13. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site's geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal

  14. Plans and Progress on Hanford MLLW Treatment and Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, K. M.; Blackford, L. T.; Nester, D. E.; Connolly, R. R.; McKenney, D. E.; Moy, S. K.

    2003-01-01

    Mixed low-level waste (MLLW) contains both low-level radioactive materials and low-level hazardous chemicals. The hazardous component of mixed waste has characteristics identified by any or all of the following statutes: the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), as amended; the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976; and Washington State dangerous waste regulations. The Fluor Hanford Waste Management Project (WMP) is responsible for storing, treating, and disposing of solid MLLW, which includes organic and inorganic solids, organics and inorganic lab packs, debris, lead, mercury, long-length equipment, spent melters, and remote-handled (RH) and oversized MLLW. Hanford has 7,000 cubic meters, or about 25%, of the MLLW in storage at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Hanford plans to receive 57,000 cubic meters from on-site generators, or about 50% of DOE's newly generated MLLW. In addition, the Hanford Environment Restoration Program and off-site generators having approved Federal Facility Consent Agreement site treatment plans will most likely send 200 cubic meters of waste to be treated and returned to the generators. Volumes of off-site waste receipts will be affected when the MLLW Record of Decision is issued as part of the process for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The WMP objective relative to MLLW is to treat and dispose of ∼8000 cubic meters of existing inventory and newly-generated waste by September 30, 2006

  15. Identification of contaminants of concern in Hanford ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.R.; Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    More than 1,500 waste-disposal sites have been identified at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. At the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, these sites were aggregated into four administrative areas for listing on the National Priority List. Within the four aggregate areas, 646 inactive sites were selected for further evaluation using the Hazard Ranking System (HRS). Evaluation of inactive waste sites by HRS provided valuable insight to design a focused radiological- and hazardous-substance monitoring network. Hanford Site-wide ground-water monitoring was expanded to address not only radioactive constituents but also hazardous chemicals. The HRS scoring process considers the likelihood of ground-water contamination from past disposal practices at inactive waste sites. The network designed to monitor ground water at those facilities identified 129 I, 99 Tc, 90 Sr, uranium, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, and cyanide

  16. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used to evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  17. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used ito evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  18. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  19. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site's geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices

  20. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Rieger, J.T.; Webber, W.D.; Thorne, P.D.; Gillespie, B.M.; Luttrell, S.P.; Wurstner, S.K.; Liikala, T.L.

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Groundwater Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1995 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that impacted groundwater quality on the site. Monitoring of water levels and groundwater chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination, to note trends in contaminant concentrations,a nd to identify emerging groundwater quality problems. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of onsite groundwater quality. A three- dimensional, numerical, groundwater model is being developed to improve predictions of contaminant transport. The existing two- dimensional model was applied to predict contaminant flow paths and the impact of changes on site conditions. These activities were supported by limited hydrogeologic characterization. Water level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Radiological monitoring results indicated that many radioactive contaminants were above US Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington drinking water standards at the Hanford Site. Nitrate, fluoride, chromium, cyanide, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene were present in groundwater samples at levels above their US EPA or State of Washington maximum contaminant levels

  1. The influence of small-mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities that were conducted in support of the long-term surface barrier development program by Westinghouse Hanford Company to determine the degree that small-mammal burrow systems affect the loss or retention of water in the soils at the Hanford Site in Washington state. An animal intrusion lysimeter facility was constructed, consisting of two outer boxes buried at grade, which served as receptacles for six animal intrusion lysimeters. Small burrowing animals common the Hanford Site were introduced over a 3- to 4-month period. Supplemental precipitation was added monthly to three of the lysimeters with a rainfall simulator (rainulator). Information collected from the five tests indicated that (1) during summer months, water was lost in all the lysimeters, including the supplemental precipitation added with the rainulator; and (2) during winter months, all lysimeters gained water. The data indicate little difference in the amount of water stored between control and animal lysimeters. The overall water loss was attributed to surface evaporation, a process that occurred equally in control and treatment lysimeters. Other causes of water loss are a result of (1) constant soil turnover and subsequent drying, and (2) burrow ventilation effects. This suggests that burrow systems will not contribute to any significant water storage at depth and, in fact, may enhance the removal of water from the soil

  2. Hanford Ground-Water Data Base management guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Mitchell, P.J.; Muffett, D.M.; Fruland, R.M.; Moore, S.B.; Marshall, S.M.

    1990-02-01

    This guide describes the Hanford Ground-Water Data Base (HGWDB), a computerized data base used to store hydraulic head, sample analytical, temperature, geologic, and well-structure information for ground-water monitoring wells on the Hanford Site. These data are stored for the purpose of data retrieval for report generation and also for historical purposes. This guide is intended as an aid to the data base manager and the various staff authorized to enter and verify data, maintain the data base, and maintain the supporting software. This guide focuses on the structure of the HGWDB, providing a fairly detailed description of the programs, files, and parameters. Data-retrieval instructions for the general user of the HGWDB will be found in the HGWDB User's Manual. 6 figs

  3. Hanford Site waste treatment/storage/disposal integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998 Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. began the integration of all low-level waste, mixed waste, and TRU waste-generating activities across the Hanford site. With seven contractors, dozens of generating units, and hundreds of waste streams, integration was necessary to provide acute waste forecasting and planning for future treatment activities. This integration effort provides disposition maps that account for waste from generation, through processing, treatment and final waste disposal. The integration effort covers generating facilities from the present through the life-cycle, including transition and deactivation. The effort is patterned after the very successful DOE Complex EM Integration effort. Although still in the preliminary stages, the comprehensive onsite integration effort has already reaped benefits. These include identifying significant waste streams that had not been forecast, identifying opportunities for consolidating activities and services to accelerate schedule or save money; and identifying waste streams which currently have no path forward in the planning baseline. Consolidation/integration of planned activities may also provide opportunities for pollution prevention and/or avoidance of secondary waste generation. A workshop was held to review the waste disposition maps, and to identify opportunities with potential cost or schedule savings. Another workshop may be held to follow up on some of the long-term integration opportunities. A change to the Hanford waste forecast data call would help to align the Solid Waste Forecast with the new disposition maps

  4. Hanford Tank Waste - Near Source Treatment of Low Activity Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, William Gene

    2013-01-01

    Abstract only. Treatment and disposition of Hanford Site waste as currently planned consists of 100+ waste retrievals, waste delivery through up to 8+ miles of dedicated, in-ground piping, centralized mixing and blending operations- all leading to pre-treatment combination and separation processes followed by vitrification at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The sequential nature of Tank Farm and WTP operations requires nominally 15-20 years of continuous operations before all waste can be retrieved from many Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). Also, the infrastructure necessary to mobilize and deliver the waste requires significant investment beyond that required for the WTP. Treating waste as closely as possible to individual tanks or groups- as allowed by the waste characteristics- is being investigated to determine the potential to 1) defer, reduce, and/or eliminate infrastructure requirements, and 2) significantly mitigate project risk by reducing the potential and impact of single point failures. The inventory of Hanford waste slated for processing and disposition as LAW is currently managed as high-level waste (HLW), i.e., the separation of fission products and other radionuclides has not commenced. A significant inventory of this waste (over 20M gallons) is in the form of precipitated saltcake maintained in single shell tanks, many of which are identified as potential leaking tanks. Retrieval and transport (as a liquid) must be staged within the waste feed delivery capability established by site infrastructure and WTP. Near Source treatment, if employed, would provide for the separation and stabilization processing necessary for waste located in remote farms (wherein most of the leaking tanks reside) significantly earlier than currently projected. Near Source treatment is intended to address the currently accepted site risk and also provides means to mitigate future issues likely to be faced over the coming decades. This paper

  5. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) monitors the distribution of radionuclides and other hazardous materials in ground water at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This work is performed through the Ground-Water Surveillance Project and is designed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1 that apply to environmental surveillance and ground-water monitoring (DOE 1988). This annual report discusses results of ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1991. In addition to the general discussion, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and the 200-West areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100, 200, and 600 areas; (4) trichloroethylene in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill, 100-F Area, and 300 Area; (5) nitrate across the Site; (6) tritium across the Site; and (7) other radionuclide contamination throughout the Site, including gross alpha, gross beta, cobalt-60, strontium-90, technetium-99, iodine-129, cesium-137, uranium, and plutonium

  6. Evaluation of the Hanford 200 West Groundwater Treatment System: Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jackson, Dennis G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dickson, John O. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eddy-Dilek, Carol A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-12

    A fluidized bed reactor (FBR) in the 200W water treatment facility at Hanford is removing nitrate from groundwater as part of the overall pump-treat-reinject process. Control of the FBR bed solids has proven challenging, impacting equipment, increasing operations and maintenance (O&M), and limiting the throughput of the facility. In response to the operational challenges, the Department of Energy Richland Office (DOE-RL) commissioned a technical assistance team to facilitate a system engineering evaluation and provide focused support recommendations to the Hanford Team. The DOE Environmental Management (EM) technical assistance process is structured to identify and triage technologies and strategies that address the target problem(s). The process encourages brainstorming and dialog and allows rapid identification and prioritization of possible options. Recognizing that continuous operation of a large-scale FBR is complex, requiring careful attention to system monitoring data and changing conditions, the technical assistance process focused on explicit identification of the available control parameters (“knobs”), how these parameters interact and impact the FBR system, and how these can be adjusted under different scenarios to achieve operational goals. The technical assistance triage process was performed in collaboration with the Hanford team.

  7. Foaming in Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant LAW Evaporation Processes - FY01 Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calloway, T.B.

    2002-01-01

    The LAW evaporation processes currently being designed for the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant are subject to foaming. Experimental simulant studies have been conducted in an effort to achieve an effective antifoam agent suitable to mitigate such foaming

  8. Hanford wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGhan, V.L.; Myers, D.A.; Damschen, D.W.

    1976-03-01

    The Hanford Reservation contains about 2100 wells constructed from pre-Hanford Works to the present. As of Jan. 1976, about 1800 wells still exist, 850 of which were drilled to the groundwater table; 700 still contain water. This report provides the most complete documentation of these wells and supersedes all previous compilations, including BNWL-1739

  9. WATER ACTIVITY DATA ASSESSMENT TO BE USED IN HANFORD WASTE SOLUBILITY CALCULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2011-01-06

    The purpose of this report is to present and assess water activity versus ionic strength for six solutes:sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Water activity is given versus molality (e.g., ionic strength) and temperature. Water activity is used to estimate Hanford crystal hydrate solubility present in the waste.

  10. WATER ACTIVITY DATA ASSESSMENT TO BE USED IN HANFORD WASTE SOLUBILITY CALCULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disselkamp, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present and assess water activity versus ionic strength for six solutes:sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Water activity is given versus molality (e.g., ionic strength) and temperature. Water activity is used to estimate Hanford crystal hydrate solubility present in the waste.

  11. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993

  12. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993.

  13. Water washes and caustic leaches of sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 and water washes of sludge from Hanford Tank C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R.D.; Collins, J.L.; Chase, C.W.

    1998-07-01

    In 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the enhanced sludge washing (ESW) process as the baseline for pretreatment of Hanford tank sludges. The ESW process uses a series of water washes and caustic leaches to separate nonradioactive components such as aluminum, chromium, and phosphate from the high-level waste sludges. If the ESW process is successful, the volume of immobilized high-level waste will be significantly reduced. The tests on the sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 focused on the effects of process variables such as sodium hydroxide concentration (1 and 3 M), temperature (70 and 95 C), and leaching time (5, 24, 72, and 168 h) on the efficacy of the ESW process with realistic liquid-to-solid ratios. Another goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of water washes on a sludge sample from hanford Tank C-103. The final objective of this study was to test potential process control monitors during the water washes and caustic leaches with actual sludge. Both 137 Cs activity and conductance were measured for each of the water washes and caustic leaches. Experimental procedures, a discussion of results, conclusions and recommendations are included in this report

  14. Preliminary analysis of some waters from the confined aquifers underlying the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.

    1978-09-01

    This report presents results of analyses available at this time from waters from some wells sampled in or near the Hanford Site. The analyses of these wells were done for various purposes and are consolidated to help define the nature of the waters found within the Columbia Plateau basaltic sequence. Results of the analyses show the waters from the unconfined aquifers underlying the Hanford Site are characterized by a high calcium--magnesium content. These waters can be described as calcium--magnesium--bicarbonate-type. Waters from deeper basaltic confined aquifers are primarily of the sodium bicarbonate type. Two waters sampled from the Grande Ronde Formation from Rattlesnake Hills Exploratory Well Number 1 are slightly different and can be described as sodium--calcium--bicarbonate--sulfate--chloride-type. Age-dating results for these water samples lead to the conclusions that waters from the confined aquifers were entrapped 15,000 to 23,000 years ago

  15. Evaluation of chemical sensors for in situ ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E.M.; Hostetler, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    This report documents a preliminary review and evaluation of instrument systems and sensors that may be used to detect ground-water contaminants in situ at the Hanford Site. Three topics are covered in this report: (1) identification of a group of priority contaminants at Hanford that could be monitored in situ, (2) a review of current instrument systems and sensors for environmental monitoring, and (3) an evaluation of instrument systems that could be used to monitor Hanford contaminants. Thirteen priority contaminants were identified in Hanford ground water, including carbon tetrachloride and six related chlorinated hydrocarbons, cyanide, methyl ethyl ketone, chromium (VI), fluoride, nitrate, and uranium. Based on transduction principles, chemical sensors were divided into four classes, ten specific types of instrument systems were considered: fluorescence spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), spark excitation-fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor (FOSES), chemical optrodes, stripping voltammetry, catalytic surface-modified ion electrode immunoassay sensors, resistance/capacitance, quartz piezobalance and surface acoustic wave devices. Because the flow of heat is difficult to control, there are currently no environmental chemical sensors based on thermal transduction. The ability of these ten instrument systems to detect the thirteen priority contaminants at the Hanford Site at the required sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, all ten instrument systems were qualitatively evaluated for general selectivity, response time, reliability, and field operability. 45 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of chemical sensors for in situ ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.M.; Hostetler, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    This report documents a preliminary review and evaluation of instrument systems and sensors that may be used to detect ground-water contaminants in situ at the Hanford Site. Three topics are covered in this report: (1) identification of a group of priority contaminants at Hanford that could be monitored in situ, (2) a review of current instrument systems and sensors for environmental monitoring, and (3) an evaluation of instrument systems that could be used to monitor Hanford contaminants. Thirteen priority contaminants were identified in Hanford ground water, including carbon tetrachloride and six related chlorinated hydrocarbons, cyanide, methyl ethyl ketone, chromium (VI), fluoride, nitrate, and uranium. Based on transduction principles, chemical sensors were divided into four classes, ten specific types of instrument systems were considered: fluorescence spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), spark excitation-fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor (FOSES), chemical optrodes, stripping voltammetry, catalytic surface-modified ion electrode immunoassay sensors, resistance/capacitance, quartz piezobalance and surface acoustic wave devices. Because the flow of heat is difficult to control, there are currently no environmental chemical sensors based on thermal transduction. The ability of these ten instrument systems to detect the thirteen priority contaminants at the Hanford Site at the required sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, all ten instrument systems were qualitatively evaluated for general selectivity, response time, reliability, and field operability. 45 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs

  17. Modeling Hydrogen Generation Rates in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Sherwood, David J.; Stock, Leon M.

    2004-03-29

    This presentation describes a project in which Hanford Site and Environmental Management Science Program investigators addressed issues concerning hydrogen generation rates in the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant. The hydrogen generation rates of radioactive wastes must be estimated to provide for safe operations. While an existing model satisfactorily predicts rates for quiescent wastes in Hanford underground storage tanks, pretreatment operations will alter the conditions and chemical composition of these wastes. Review of the treatment process flowsheet identified specific issues requiring study to ascertain whether the model would provide conservative values for waste streams in the plant. These include effects of adding hydroxide ion, alpha radiolysis, saturation with air (oxygen) from pulse-jet mixing, treatment with potassium permanganate, organic compounds from degraded ion exchange resins and addition of glass-former chemicals. The effects were systematically investigated through literature review, technical analyses and experimental work.

  18. Non-Thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    DOE proposes to transport contact-handled LLMW from the Hanford Site to the Allied Technology Group (ATG) Mixed Waste Facility (MWF) in Richland, Washington, for non-thermal treatment and to return the treated waste to the Hanford Site for eventual land disposal. Over a 3-year period the waste would be staged to the ATG MWF, and treated waste would be returned to the Hanford Site. The ATG MWF would be located on an 18 hectare (ha) (45 acre [at]) ATG Site adjacent to ATG's licensed low-level waste processing facility at 2025 Battelle Boulevard. The ATG MWF is located approximately 0.8 kilometers (km) (0.5 miles [mi]) south of Horn Rapids Road and 1.6 km (1 mi) west of Stevens Drive. The property is located within the Horn Rapids triangle in northern Richland (Figure 2.1). The ATG MWF is to be located on the existing ATG Site, near the DOE Hanford Site, in an industrial area in the City of Richland. The effects of siting, construction, and overall operation of the MWF have been evaluated in a separate State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) EIS (City of Richland 1998). The proposed action includes transporting the LLMW from the Hanford Site to the ATG Facility, non-thermal treatment of the LLMW at the ATG MWF, and transporting the waste from ATG back to the Hanford Site. Impacts fi-om waste treatment operations would be bounded by the ATG SEPA EIS, which included an evaluation of the impacts associated with operating the non-thermal portion of the MWF at maximum design capacity (8,500 metric tons per year) (City of Richland 1998). Up to 50 employees would be required for non-thermal treatment portion of the MWF. This includes 40 employees that would perform waste treatment operations and 10 support staff. Similar numbers were projected for the thermal treatment portion of the MWF (City of Richland 1998).

  19. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization

  20. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization.

  1. DEWATERING TREATMENT SCALE-UP TESTING RESULTS OF HANFORD TANK WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEDESCHI AR

    2008-01-01

    This report documents CH2M HILL Hanford Group Inc. (CH2M HILL) 2007 dryer testing results in Richland, WA at the AMEC Nuclear Ltd., GeoMelt Division (AMEC) Horn Rapids Test Site. It provides a discussion of scope and results to qualify the dryer system as a viable unit-operation in the continuing evaluation of the bulk vitrification process. A 10,000 liter (L) dryer/mixer was tested for supplemental treatment of Hanford tank low-activity wastes, drying and mixing a simulated non-radioactive salt solution with glass forming minerals. Testing validated the full scale equipment for producing dried product similar to smaller scale tests, and qualified the dryer system for a subsequent integrated dryer/vitrification test using the same simulant and glass formers. The dryer system is planned for installation at the Hanford tank farms to dry/mix radioactive waste for final treatment evaluation of the supplemental bulk vitrification process

  2. Hanford wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamness, M.A.; Merz, J.K.

    1993-08-01

    Records describing wells located on or near the Hanford Site have been maintained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the operating contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company. In support of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, portions of the data contained in these records have been compiled into the following report, which is intended to be used by those needing a condensed, tabular summary of well location and basic construction information. The wells listed in this report were constructed over a period of time spanning almost 70 years. Data included in this report were retrieved from the Hanford Envirorunental Information System (HEIS) database and supplemented with information not yet entered into HEIS. While considerable effort has been made to obtain the most accurate and complete tabulations possible of the Hanford Site wells, omissions and errors may exist. This document does not include data on lithologic logs, ground-water analyses, or specific well completion details

  3. Summary of radiological monitoring of Columbia River water along the Hanford Reach, 1980 through 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Columbia River monitoring program, conducted as part of the SESP, provides a historical record of contaminant concentrations in the river attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and operations conducted at the Hanford Site. In addition to ongoing monitoring, special studies are conducted periodically to enhance the understanding of the transport and fate of contaminants in the river. The Columbia River monitoring program includes sampling of river water, river sediment, river-bank springs entering the river, and various types of aquatic biota found in or along the river. These samples are analyzed for radiological constituents and a wide range of chemical parameters. This report describes the water sampling component of the overall Columbia River monitoring program conducted during the years 1980 through 1989 and summarizes the radiological results generated through the program during this time period. The only radionuclides found in the river that were consistently influenced by Hanford were tritium and iodine-129. Strontium-90 and uranium, also attributable to Hanford operations, were present in localized areas within the river near ground-water discharge points; however, these contaminants are quickly dispersed within the river to concentrations similar to background

  4. Hanford site water table changes 1950-1980: data observations and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, D.A.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Black, G.D.; Young, M.A.

    1986-04-01

    The basalt formations underlying the Hanford site are being considered for characterization and evaluation as a deep geologic repository for defense and commercial radioactive wastes. To understand the hydrology of the Hanford area, we need to know if the ground-water system is in steady state and what impact a change in surface stress from artificial recharge may have on the underlying basalt aquifers. Researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory are supporting efforts to understand these issues by illustrating how changes in wastewater disposal activities at the Hanford site have altered the configuration of the water table surface with time. The objective of this work was to determine the magnitude and direction of changes in the elevation of the water table across the Hanford site from 1950 to 1980. Plots of the magnitudes of water-level changes occurring over 5-year intervals from 1950 through 1980 are presented. The water-level changes that occurred during each 5-year interval are related to water discharges from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities or other discharge sources. The plots of water-level changes show large water-level increases in the vicinity of the Separations Area (200 East and 200 West) from 1950 to 1960; the rate of increase of water-level changes grows more slowly from 1960 to 1970, while the areal extent of the mounding continues to expand. Only small changes occur from 1970 to 1980; during this time period, the unconfined system appears to be in approximate equilibrium with the sources. Based on previous experience, it is believed that an increase in ground-water mounding will begin to appear near the 200 East Area B Pond as a result of the increased discharges from the restart of PUREX in 1983

  5. Environmental consequences to water resources from alternatives of managing spent nuclear fuel at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.; McDonald, J.P.; Sato, C.

    1994-11-01

    With an environmental restoration and waste management program, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is involved in developing policies pertinent to the transport, storage, and management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The DOE Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Programmatic SNF management is documented in a Volume 1 report, which contains an assessment of the Hanford installation, among others. Because the Hanford installation contains approximately 80% of the SNF associated with the DOE complex, it has been included in the decision for the ultimate disposition of the fuel. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a series of assessments on five alternatives at Hanford for managing the SNF: No-Action, Decentralization, 1992/1993 Planning Basis, Regionalization, and Centralization. The environmental consequences associated with implementing these assessment alternatives potentially impact socioeconomic conditions; environmental quality of the air, groundwater, surface water, and surface soil; ecological, cultural, and geological resources; and land-use considerations. The purpose of this report is to support the Programmatic SNF-EIS by investigating the environmental impacts associated with water quality and related consequences, as they apply to the five assessment alternatives at the Hanford installation. The results of these scenarios are discussed and documented

  6. Hanford ground-water data base management guide and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Argo, R.S.; Bradymire, S.L.; Newbill, C.A.

    1985-05-01

    This management guide and user's manual is a working document for the computerized Hanford Ground-water Data Base maintained by the Geosciences Research and Engineering Department at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Hanford Ground-Water Surveillance Program. The program is managed by the Occupational and Environmental Protection Department for the US Department of Energy. The data base is maintained to provide rapid access to data that are rountinely collected from ground-water monitoring wells at the Hanford site. The data include water levels, sample analyses, geologic descriptions and well construction information of over 3000 existing or destroyed wells. These data are used to monitor water quality and for the evaluation of ground-water flow and pollutant transport problems. The management guide gives instructions for maintenance of the data base on the Digital Equipment Corporation PDP 11/70 Computer using the CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) data base management software developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Maintenance activities include inserting, modifying and deleting data, making back-up copies of the data base, and generating tables for annual monitoring reports. The user's guide includes instructions for running programs to retrieve the data in the form of listings of graphical plots. 3 refs

  7. Development of Historical Water Table Maps of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site (1950-1970)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, Teena M.; McDonald, John P.

    2006-01-01

    A series of detailed historical water-table maps for the 200-West Area of the Hanford Site was made to aid interpretation of contaminant distribution in the upper aquifer. The contaminants are the result of disposal of large volumes of waste to the ground during Hanford Site operations, which began in 1944 and continued into the mid-1990s. Examination of the contaminant plumes that currently exist on site shows that the groundwater beneath the 200-West Area has deviated from its pre-Hanford west-to-east flow direction during the past 50 years. By using historical water-level measurements from wells around the 200-West Area, it was possible to create water-table contour maps that show probable historic flow directions. These maps are more detailed than previously published water-table maps that encompass the entire Hanford Site.

  8. Electrometallurgical treatment of metallic spent nuclear fuel stored at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.; Gay, E.C.

    1996-01-01

    The major component of the DOE spent nuclear fuel inventory is the metallic fuel stored at the Hanford site in the southeastern part of the state of Washington. Most of this fuel was discharged from the N-Reactor; a small part of the inventory is fuel from the early Hanford production reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plans to remove these fuels from the spent fuel storage pools in which they are presently stored, dry them, and place them in interim storage at a location at the Hanford site that is far removed from the Columbia River. It is not yet certain that these fuels will be acceptable for disposal in a mined geologic repository without further treatment, due to their potential pyrophoric character. A practical method for treatment of the Hanford metallic spent fuel, based on an electrorefining process, has been developed and has been demonstrated with unirradiated N-Reactor fuel and with simulated single-pass reactor (SPR) spent fuel. The process can be operated with any desired throughput rates; being a batch process, it is simply a matter of setting the size of the electrorefiner modules and the number of such modules. A single module, prototypic of a production-scale module, has been fabricated and testing is in progress at a throughput rate of 150 kg (heavy metal) per day. The envisioned production version would incorporate additional anode baskets and cathode tubes and provide a throughput rate of 333 kgHM/day. A system with four of these modules would permit treatment of Hanford metallic fuels at a rate of at least 250 metric tons per year

  9. Treatment option evaluation for liquid effluent secondary streams on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.; Triplett, M.B.; Fow, C.L.; White, M.K.

    1988-08-01

    This study, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), examines the range of secondary waste types and volumes likely to result from treatment of contaminated liquid effluents. Alternatives for treatment of these effluents were considered, taking into account the implementation of the ''best-available technology'' as assumed in current and ongoing engineering studies for treating the various liquid effluent waste streams. These treatment alternatives, and potential variations in the operating schedules for Hanford Site facilities generating contaminated liquid effluents, were evaluated to project an estimated range for the volume of each of the various secondary waste streams that are likely to be generated. The conclusions and recommendations were developed, based on these estimates. 23 refs., 34 figs., 16 tabs

  10. Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site – FY 2010 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, Michael J.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Felmy, Diana

    2010-10-27

    This report summarizes the recharge data collected in FY 2010 at five locations on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Average monthly precipitation and temperature conditions in FY 2010 were near normal and did not present an opportunity for increased recharge. The recharge monitoring data confirmed those conditions, showing normal behavior in water content, matric head, and recharge rates. Also provided in this report is a strategy for recharge estimation for the next 5 years.

  11. Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site - FY09 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Waichler, Scott R.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2009-09-28

    Recharge provides the primary driving force for transporting contaminants from the vadose zone to underlying aquifer systems. Quantification of recharge rates is important for assessing contaminant transport and fate and for evaluating remediation alternatives. This report describes the status of soil water balance and recharge monitoring performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at the Hanford Site for Fiscal Year 2009. Previously reported data for Fiscal Years 2004 - 2008 are updated with data collected in Fiscal Year 2009 and summarized.

  12. Predicted impacts of future water level decline on monitoring wells using a ground-water model of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Freshley, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    A ground-water flow model was used to predict water level decline in selected wells in the operating areas (100, 200, 300, and 400 Areas) and the 600 Area. To predict future water levels, the unconfined aquifer system was stimulated with the two-dimensional version of a ground-water model of the Hanford Site, which is based on the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) Code in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software package. The model was developed using the assumption that artificial recharge to the unconfined aquifer system from Site operations was much greater than any natural recharge from precipitation or from the basalt aquifers below. However, artificial recharge is presently decreasing and projected to decrease even more in the future. Wells currently used for monitoring at the Hanford Site are beginning to go dry or are difficult to sample, and as the water table declines over the next 5 to 10 years, a larger number of wells is expected to be impacted. The water levels predicted by the ground-water model were compared with monitoring well completion intervals to determine which wells will become dry in the future. Predictions of wells that will go dry within the next 5 years have less uncertainty than predictions for wells that will become dry within 5 to 10 years. Each prediction is an estimate based on assumed future Hanford Site operating conditions and model assumptions

  13. Linearity and Reversibility of Iodide Adsorption on Sediments from Hanford, Washington Under Water Saturated Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2004-01-01

    A series of adsorption and desorption experiments were completed to determine the linearity of iodide adsorption, as a function of concentration, and its reversibility onto sediment for geochemical conditions germane to the proposed disposal of low-level radioactive waste by the U.S. Department of Energy's Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Iodine-129 is predicted to be one of the top three long-term risk drivers based on past performance assessment conducted for the eventual disposal of the low-level portion of radioactive wastes currently stored in underground storage tanks at Hanford, because iodide exhibits little adsorption affinity to mineral surfaces resulting in high mobility in the subsurface environment. Adsorption experiments, conducted with Hanford formation sediments and groundwater spiked with dissolved 125I (as an analog tracer for 129I), indicated that iodide adsorption was very low at pH 7.5 and could be represented by a linear isotherm up to a total concentration of 100 mg/L dissolved iodide. The linearity of iodide adsorption up to concentrations of 100 mg/L validates the use of the linear Kd construct in transport models to predict the fate and transport of 129I in subsurface systems at Hanford. The results of desorption experiments indicated that up to 60% of adsorbed iodide was readily desorbed after 14 days by the same groundwater solution. Iodide adsorption was considered to be partially reversible or weakly binding on the sediments. Even though small amount of initial iodide is retarded by adsorption reactions at mineral-water interfaces, the weak adsorption affinity results in release of iodide when iodide free pore waters and ground waters contact the contaminated sediments in the vadose zone and aquifer systems

  14. Assessment of impacts from water level fluctuations on fish in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D.; Fickeisen, D.H.; Montgomery, J.C.

    1981-05-01

    Observations on the effects of water level fluctuations in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, were made in 1976 and 1977. The two years provided contrasting flow regimes: high water and fluctuations of greater magnitude prevailed in 1976; low water and higher temperatures prevailed in 1977. Situations where fish and other aquatic organisms were destroyed by changing water levels were observed and evaluated each year in three study areas: Hanford, F-Area, and White Bluffs sloughs. Losses primarily were due to stranding, entrapment (with or without complete dewatering), and predation. Juvenile fish were more susceptible to entrapment and stranding than were adult fish. Estimates of actual losses were biased and conservative because relatively few fish could be found after each decline of water level and dewatering. The most valued species of fish affected by water level fluctuations at Hanford were the anadromus fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and the resident smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui). Crucial periods for chinook salmon occurred during winter when incubating eggs were in the gravel of the main channel, and before and during seaward migration in the spring when fry were abundant in shoreline zones. The crucial period for smallmouth bass was during spring and early summer when adults were spawning in warmed sloughs and shoreline zones. Chinook salmon and smallmouth bass fry were vulnerable to stranding and entrapment, and smallmouth bass nests were susceptible to exposure and temperature changes resulting from repeated water level fluctuations. Thus, flow manipulation may be crucial to their survival. The extent to which other species of riverine fish were affected by water level fluctuations depended upon their use of shoreline zones for spawning and rearing young.

  15. Full Focus Needed on Finishing Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant - 12196

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, Suzanne; Biyani, Rabindra; Holmes, Erika [Washington State Department of Ecology, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy's (US DOE's) Hanford Nuclear Site has 177 underground waste storage tanks located 19 to 24 km (12 to 15 miles) from the Columbia River in south-central Washington State. Hanford's tanks now hold about 212,000 cu m (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive and chemically hazardous waste. Sixty-seven tanks have leaked an estimated 3,785 cu m (1 million gallons) of this waste into the surrounding soil. Further releases to soil, groundwater, and the Columbia River are the inevitable result of the tanks continuing to age. The risk from this waste is recognized as a threat to the Northwest by both State and Federal governments. US DOE and Bechtel National, Inc., are building the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to treat and vitrify (immobilize in glass) the waste from Hanford's tanks. As is usual for any groundbreaking project, problems have arisen that must be resolved as they occur if treatment is to take place as specified in the court-enforceable Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) and the Consent Decree, entered into by US DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). At times, US DOE's approach to solving these critical issues seems to have caused undue wastes of time, energy, and, ultimately, public funds. Upon reviewing the history of Hanford's tank waste treatment project, Ecology hopes that constructive criticism of past failures and praise of successes will inspire US DOE to consider changing practices, be more transparent with regulatory agencies and the public, and take a 'lean production' approach to successfully completing this project. All three Tri-Party Agreement agencies share the goal of completing WTP on time, ensuring it is operational and in compliance with safety standards. To do this, Ecology believes US DOE should: - Maintain focus on the primary goal of

  16. Borehole Gravity Meter Surveys at the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Jeffrey D.; Mann, Ethan

    2007-04-06

    Microg-LaCoste (MGL) was contracted by Pacfic Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to record borehole gravity density data in 3 wells at the HanfordWaste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The survey was designed to provide highly accurate density information for use in seismic modeling. The borehole gravity meter (BHGM) tool has a very large depth of investigation (hundreds of feet) compared to other density tools so it is not influenced by casing or near welbore effects, such as washouts.

  17. Hanford Supplemental Treatment: Literature and Modeling Review of SRS HLW Salt Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A. S.; Flach, G. P.; Martino, C. J.; Zamecnik, J. R.; Harris, M. K.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Calloway, T. B.

    2005-03-23

    In order to accelerate waste treatment and disposal of Hanford tank waste by 2028, the Department of Energy (DOE) and CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CHG), Inc. are evaluating alternative technologies which will be used in conjunction with the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) to safely pretreat and immobilize the tank waste. Several technologies (Bulk Vitrification and Steam Reforming) are currently being evaluated for immobilizing the pretreated waste. Since the WTP does not have sufficient capacity to pretreat all the waste going to supplemental treatment by the 2028 milestone, two technologies (Selective Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization) are being considered for pretreatment of salt waste. The scope of this task was to: (1) evaluate the recent Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 41 dissolution campaign and other literature to provide a more complete understanding of selective dissolution, (2) provide an update on the progress of salt dissolution and modeling activities at SRS, (3) investigate SRS experience and outside literature sources on industrial equipment and experimental results of previous fractional crystallization processes, and (4) evaluate recent Hanford AP104 boildown experiments and modeling results and recommend enhancements to the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) to improve its predictive capabilities. This report provides a summary of this work and suggested recommendations.

  18. K-Basins Sludge Treatment and Packaging at the Hanford Site - 13585

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogwell, Thomas W. [Fogwell Consulting, P.O. Box 20211, Piedmont, CA 94620 (United States); Honeyman, James O. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, P.O. Box 1600 H7-30, Richland, WA (United States); Stegen, Gary [Lucas Engineering and Management Services, Inc., 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Suite 102, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Highly radioactive sludge resulting from the storage of degraded spent nuclear fuel has been consolidated in Engineered Containers (ECs) in the 105-K West Storage Basin located on the Hanford site near the Columbia River in Washington State. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is proceeding with a project to retrieve the sludge, place it in Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) and store those filled containers within the T Plant Canyon facility on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (Phase 1). Retrieval and transfer of the sludge material will enable removal of the 105-K West Basin and allow remediation of the subsurface contamination plumes under the basin. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plans to treat and dispose of this K Basins sludge (Phase 2) as Remote Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) located in New Mexico. The K Basin sludge currently contains uranium metal which reacts with water present in the stored slurry, generating hydrogen and other byproducts. The established transportation and disposal requirements require the transformation of the K Basins sludge to a chemically stable, liquid-free, packaged waste form. The Treatment and Packaging Project includes removal of the containerised sludge from T Plant, the treatment of the sludge as required, and packaging of all the sludge into a form that is certifiable for transportation to and disposal at WIPP. Completion of this scope will require construction and operation of a Sludge Treatment and Packaging Facility (STPF), which could be either a completely new facility or a modification of an existing Hanford Site facility. A Technology Evaluation and Alternatives Analysis (TEAA) for the STP Phase 2 was completed in 2011. A Request for Technology Information (RFI) had been issued in October 2009 to solicit candidate technologies for use in Phase 2. The RFI also included a preliminary definition of Phase 2 functions and requirements. Potentially

  19. K-Basins Sludge Treatment and Packaging at the Hanford Site - 13585

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogwell, Thomas W.; Honeyman, James O.; Stegen, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Highly radioactive sludge resulting from the storage of degraded spent nuclear fuel has been consolidated in Engineered Containers (ECs) in the 105-K West Storage Basin located on the Hanford site near the Columbia River in Washington State. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is proceeding with a project to retrieve the sludge, place it in Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) and store those filled containers within the T Plant Canyon facility on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (Phase 1). Retrieval and transfer of the sludge material will enable removal of the 105-K West Basin and allow remediation of the subsurface contamination plumes under the basin. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plans to treat and dispose of this K Basins sludge (Phase 2) as Remote Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) located in New Mexico. The K Basin sludge currently contains uranium metal which reacts with water present in the stored slurry, generating hydrogen and other byproducts. The established transportation and disposal requirements require the transformation of the K Basins sludge to a chemically stable, liquid-free, packaged waste form. The Treatment and Packaging Project includes removal of the containerised sludge from T Plant, the treatment of the sludge as required, and packaging of all the sludge into a form that is certifiable for transportation to and disposal at WIPP. Completion of this scope will require construction and operation of a Sludge Treatment and Packaging Facility (STPF), which could be either a completely new facility or a modification of an existing Hanford Site facility. A Technology Evaluation and Alternatives Analysis (TEAA) for the STP Phase 2 was completed in 2011. A Request for Technology Information (RFI) had been issued in October 2009 to solicit candidate technologies for use in Phase 2. The RFI also included a preliminary definition of Phase 2 functions and requirements. Potentially

  20. Recent Improvements In Interface Management For Hanfords Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant - 13263

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arm, Stuart T.; Pell, Michael J.; Van Meighem, Jeffery S.; Duncan, Garth M.; Harrington, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which comprises both the Hanford Site tank farms operations and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities by 2047. The WTP is currently being designed and constructed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) for DOE-ORP. BNI relies on a number of technical services from other Hanford contractors for WTP's construction and commissioning. These same services will be required of the future WTP operations contractor. The WTP interface management process has recently been improved through changes in organization and technical issue management documented in an Interface Management Plan. Ten of the thirteen active WTP Interface Control Documents (ICDs) have been revised in 2012 using the improved process with the remaining three in progress. The value of the process improvements is reflected by the ability to issue these documents on schedule

  1. Locating Ground-Water Discharge in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.R.; Geist, D.R.; Saldi, K.; Hartwig, D.; Cooper, T.

    1997-01-01

    A bottom-contacting probe for measuring electrical conductivity at the sediment-water interface was used to scan the bed of the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford Site in southeast Washington State during a 10-day investigation. Four river-sections, each about a kilometer in length, were scanned for variations in electrical conductivity. The probe was towed along the riverbed at a speed of 1 m/s and is position was recorded using a Global Positioning System. The bottom tows revealed several areas of elevated electrical conductivity. Where these anomalies were relatively easy to access, piezometers were driven into the riverbed and porewater electrical conductivity ranged from 111 to 150 uS/cm. The piezometers, placed in electrical conductivity ''hotspots'' yielded chemical or isotopic data consistent with previous analyses of water taken from monitoring wells and visible shoreline seeps. Tritium, nitrate, and chromium exceeded water quality standards in some porewaters. The highest tritium and nitrate levels were found near the Old Hanford Townsite at 120,000 pCi/L (+ 5,880 pCi/L total propagated analytical uncertainty) and ug/L (+ 5,880 ug/L), respectively. The maximum chromium (total and hexavalent) levels were found near 100-H reactor area where unfiltered porewater total chromium was 1,900 ug/L (+ 798 ug/L) and hexavalent chromium was 20 ug/L. The electrical conductivity probe provided rapid, cost-effective reconnaissance for ground-water discharge areas when used in combination with conventional piezometers. It may be possible to obtain quantitative estimates of both natural and contaminated ground-water discharge in the Hanford Reach with more extensive surveys of river bottom

  2. Water Monitoring Report for the 200 W Area Tree Windbreak, Hanford Site Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Carr, Jennifer S.; Goreham, John O.; Strickland, Christopher E.

    2002-01-01

    Water inputs to the vadose zone from irrigation of a tree windbreak in the 200 W Area of the Hanford Site were monitored during the summer of 2002. Water flux and soil-water contents were measured within the windbreak and at two locations just east of the windbreak to assess the impact of the irrigation on the vadose zone and to assist in optimizing the irrigation applications. In May 2002, instrumentation was placed in auger holes and backfilled with local soil. Sensors were connected to a data acquisition system (DAS), and the data were telemetered to the laboratory via digital modem in late June 2002. Data files and graphics were made web accessible for instantaneous retrieval. Precipitation, drip irrigation, deep-water flux, soil-water content, and soil-water pressures have been monitored on a nearly continuous basis from the tree-line site since June 26, 2002.

  3. Ground-water hydrology and radioactive waste disposal at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, A.G.

    1979-02-01

    This paper is a summary of the hydrologic activities conducted at the Hanford Site as a part of the environmental protection effort. The Site encompasses 1,480 square kilometers in the arid, southeastern part of Washington State. Precipitation averages about 160 millimeters per year with a negligible amount, if any, recharging the water table, which is from 50 to 100 meters below the ground surface. An unconfined aquifer occurs in the upper and middle Ringold Formations. The lower Ringold Formation along with interbed and interflow zones in the Saddle Mountain and Wanapum basalts forms a confined aquifer system. A potential exists for the interconnection of the unconfined and confined aquifer systems, especially near Gable Mountain where the anticlinal ridge was eroded by the catastrophic floods of the ancestral Columbia River system. Liquid wastes from chemical processing operations have resulted in large quantities of processing and cooling water disposed to ground via ponds, cribs, and ditches. The ground-water hydrology program at Hanford is designed: (1) to define and quantify the ground-water flow systems, (2) to evaluate the impact of the liquid waste discharges on these flow systems, and (3) to predict the impact on the ground-water systems of changes in system inputs. This work is conducted through a drilling, sampling, testing, and modeling program

  4. Characterization and anion exchange removal of uranium from Hanford ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Weiss, R.L.; Kimura, R.T.; Law, A.G.; Routson, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    In February 1985, uranium concentrations increased abruptly to 0.1 kgU/m/sup 3/ in ground waters underlying a retired liquid waste disposal facility in the United States Department of Energy-Richland Operations Hanford Site. Characterization tests showed the uranium was present as an anionic carbonate complex not sorbable by Hanford sediments. The uranium was mobilized by flow from a perched zone of water caused by recent nearby cooling water disposal above an impermeable sediment layer. In a unique demonstration of the concept of ''as low as reasonably achievable,'' efforts were immediately undertaken to minimize the spread of the plume and to reduce the amount of uranium in the ground water. An anion exchange-based uranium removal process flowsheet was rapidly developed and implemented. Operational for six months, the process has treated over 30,000 m/sup 3/ of ground water and collected 94% of the uranium while producing a treated effluent that meets criteria for discharge to the soil column

  5. Water Treatment Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This team researches and designs desalination, water treatment, and wastewater treatment systems. These systems remediate water containing hazardous c hemicals and...

  6. Initial Selection of Supplemental Treatment Technologies for Hanford's Low-Activity Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Richard E.; Powell, Roger W.; Hamilton, Dennis W.; Kitchen, William A.; Mauss, Billie M.; Brouns, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years (DOE 2002). A key element of the accelerated cleanup plan was a strategic initiative for acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (ETP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization''. The plan identified specific technologies to be evaluated for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). The objective was to complete required testing and evaluation that would ''...bring an appropriate combination of the above technologies to deployment to supplement LAW treatment and immobilization in the WTP to achieve the completion of tank waste treatment by 2028''. In concert with this acceleration plan, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology have proposed to accelerate from 2012 to 2005 the Hanford Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone (M-62-08) associated with a final decision on treatment of the balance of tank waste that is beyond the capacity of the currently designed WTP

  7. Improved Management of the Technical Interfaces Between the Hanford Tank Farm Operator and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant - 13383

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Garth M. [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Saunders, Scott A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is constructing the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford site in Washington to treat and immobilize approximately 114 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (after all retrievals are accomplished). In order for the WTP to be designed and operated successfully, close coordination between the WTP engineering, procurement, and construction contractor, Bechtel National, Inc. and the tank farms operating contractor (TOC), Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, is necessary. To develop optimal solutions for DOE and for the treatment of the waste, it is important to deal with the fact that two different prime contractors, with somewhat differing contracts, are tasked with retrieving and delivering the waste and for treating and immobilizing that waste. The WTP and the TOC have over the years cooperated to manage the technical interface. To manage what is becoming a much more complicated interface as the WTP design progresses and new technical issues have been identified, an organizational change was made by WTP and TOC in November of 2011. This organizational change created a co-located integrated project team (IPT) to deal with mutual and interface issues. The Technical Organization within the One System IPT includes employees from both TOC and WTP. This team has worked on a variety of technical issues of mutual interest and concern. Technical issues currently being addressed include: - The waste acceptance criteria; - Waste feed delivery and the associated data quality objectives (DQO); - Evaluation of the effects of performing a riser cut on a single shell tank on WTP operations; - The disposition of secondary waste from both TOC and WTP; - The close coordination of the TOC double shell tank mixing and sampling program and the Large Scale Integrated Test (LSIT) program for pulse jet mixers at WTP along with the associated responses to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation

  8. Improved Management of the Technical Interfaces Between the Hanford Tank Farm Operator and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant - 13383

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Garth M.; Saunders, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is constructing the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford site in Washington to treat and immobilize approximately 114 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (after all retrievals are accomplished). In order for the WTP to be designed and operated successfully, close coordination between the WTP engineering, procurement, and construction contractor, Bechtel National, Inc. and the tank farms operating contractor (TOC), Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, is necessary. To develop optimal solutions for DOE and for the treatment of the waste, it is important to deal with the fact that two different prime contractors, with somewhat differing contracts, are tasked with retrieving and delivering the waste and for treating and immobilizing that waste. The WTP and the TOC have over the years cooperated to manage the technical interface. To manage what is becoming a much more complicated interface as the WTP design progresses and new technical issues have been identified, an organizational change was made by WTP and TOC in November of 2011. This organizational change created a co-located integrated project team (IPT) to deal with mutual and interface issues. The Technical Organization within the One System IPT includes employees from both TOC and WTP. This team has worked on a variety of technical issues of mutual interest and concern. Technical issues currently being addressed include: - The waste acceptance criteria; - Waste feed delivery and the associated data quality objectives (DQO); - Evaluation of the effects of performing a riser cut on a single shell tank on WTP operations; - The disposition of secondary waste from both TOC and WTP; - The close coordination of the TOC double shell tank mixing and sampling program and the Large Scale Integrated Test (LSIT) program for pulse jet mixers at WTP along with the associated responses to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation

  9. 129I, 60Co, and 106Ru measurements on water samples from the Hanford project environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, F.P.; Rieck, H.G. Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Groundwater flow and contamination patterns beneath the Hanford project reservation have been studied since the early days of the project. The measurement of radioactive materials at concentrations much below those required for radiation protection are useful for tracing groundwater movement and detection of potential contamination problems before they are apt to occur. Groundwater samples from a number of wells on or near the Hanford reservation have been analyzed for 129 I by neutron activation analysis and for gamma radioactivity by low-level coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry. The major radionuclides in addition to natural radioactivity detected in the underground waters by gamma-ray spectrometry were 106 Ru and 60 Co. Local river and rain water samples were also analyzed for 129 I and long-lived radionuclides. Special sample collection methods were developed to prevent contamination of the water samples during collection. Anions travel farther than cations in underground water systems since soils are primarily cation exchangers and retain the cations. Anion exchange techniques were used in the field and the laboratory to recover the desired radionuclides. Sample sizes ranged up to several thousand liters. This paper discusses the sample collection methods,analysis methods, and results obtained. The methods used were found to provide high sensitivity for groundwater studies. (auth)

  10. Natural groundwater recharge and water balance at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Gee, G.W.; Kanyid, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present water-balance data collected in 1988 and 1989 from the 300 Area Buried Waste Test Facility and Grass Site, and the 200 East Area closed-bottom lysimeter. This report is an annual update of previous recharge status reports by Gee, Rockhold, and Downs, and Gee. Data from several other lysimeter sites are included for comparison. 43 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs

  11. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: decontamination and treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.R.; McMurray, B.J.; Jech, J.J.; Breitenstein, B.D.; Quigley, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    An injured worker, contaminated with over 6 mCi of americium-241, required special treatment and housing for 4 months. This paper is a description of the design and management of the facility in which most of the treatment and housing occurred. The problems associated with contamination control, waste handling, supplies, and radiological concerns during the two-stage transfer of the patient from a controlled situation to his normal living environment are discussed in detail

  12. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  13. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter: Summary of 2017 experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-11

    A full-scale, transparent mock-up of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Project High Level Waste glass melter riser and pour spout has been constructed to allow for testing with visual feedback of particle settling, accumulation, and resuspension when operating with a controlled fraction of crystals in the glass melt. Room temperature operation with silicone oil and magnetite particles simulating molten glass and spinel crystals, respectively, allows for direct observation of flow patterns and settling patterns. The fluid and particle mixture is recycled within the system for each test.

  14. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Annual progress report for 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.H.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes progress during 1987 of five Hanford Site ground water monitoring projects. Four of these projects are being conducted according to regulations based on the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the state Hazardous Waste Management Act. The fifth project is being conducted according to regulations based on the state Solid Waste Management Act. The five projects discussed herein are: 300 Area Process Trenches; 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins; 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds; Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill; Solid Waste Landfill. For each of the projects, there are included, as applicable, discussions of monitoring well installations, water-table measurements, background and/or downgradient water quality and results of chemical analysis, and extent and rate of movement of contaminant plumes. 14 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs

  15. External quality control in ground-water sampling and analysis at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.H.; Juracich, S.P.

    1991-11-01

    At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site, external Quality Control (QC) for ground-water monitoring is extensive and has included routine submittal of intra- and interlaboratory duplicate samples, blind samples, and several kinds of blank samples. Examination of the resulting QC data for nine of the constituents found in ground water at the Hanford Site shows that the quality of analysis has generally been within the expectations of precision and accuracy that have been established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The constituents subjected to review were nitrate, chromium, sodium, fluoride, carbon tetrachloride, tritium, ammonium, trichloroethylene, and cyanide. Of these, the fluoride measurements were notable exceptions and were poor by EPA standards. The review has shown that interlaboratory analysis of duplicate samples yields the most useful QC data for evaluating laboratory performance in determining commonly encountered constituents. For rarely encountered constituents, interlaboratory comparisons may be augmented with blind samples (synthetic samples of known composition). Intralaboratory comparisons, blanks, and spikes should be generally restricted to studies of suspected or known sample contamination and to studies of the adequacy of sampling and analytical procedures

  16. Recent Improvements in Interface Management for Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13263

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arm, Stuart T.; Van Meighem, Jeffery S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Duncan, Garth M.; Pell, Michael J. [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Harrington, Christopher C. [Department of Energy - Office of River Protection, 2440 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which includes the Hanford Site tank farms operations and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities by 2047. The WTP is currently being designed and constructed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) for DOE-ORP. BNI relies on a number of technical services from other Hanford contractors for WTP's construction and commissioning. These same services will be required of the future WTP operations contractor. Partly in response to a DNFSB recommendation, the WTP interface management process managing these technical services has recently been improved through changes in organization and issue management. The changes are documented in an Interface Management Plan. The organizational improvement is embodied in the One System Integrated Project Team that was formed by integrating WTP and tank farms staff representing interfacing functional areas into a single organization. A number of improvements were made to the issue management process but most notable was the formal appointment of technical, regulatory and safety subject matter experts to ensure accurate identification of issues and open items. Ten of the thirteen active WTP Interface Control Documents have been revised in 2012 using the improved process with the remaining three in progress. The value of the process improvements is reflected by the ability to issue these documents on schedule and accurately identify technical, regulatory and safety issues and open items. (authors)

  17. Treatment of Bottled Liquid Waste During Remediation of the Hanford 618-10 Burial Ground - 13001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulk, Darrin E.; Pearson, Chris M.; Vedder, Barry L.; Martin, David W.

    2013-01-01

    A problematic waste form encountered during remediation of the Hanford Site 618-10 burial ground consists of bottled aqueous waste potentially contaminated with regulated metals. The liquid waste requires stabilization prior to landfill disposal. Prior remediation activities at other Hanford burial grounds resulted in a standard process for sampling and analyzing liquid waste using manual methods. Due to the highly dispersible characteristics of alpha contamination, and the potential for shock sensitive chemicals, a different method for bottle processing was needed for the 618-10 burial ground. Discussions with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to development of a modified approach. The modified approach involves treatment of liquid waste in bottles, up to one gallon per bottle, in a tray or box within the excavation of the remediation site. Bottles are placed in the box, covered with soil and fixative, crushed, and mixed with a Portland cement grout. The potential hazards of the liquid waste preclude sampling prior to treatment. Post treatment verification sampling is performed to demonstrate compliance with land disposal restrictions and disposal facility acceptance criteria. (authors)

  18. Treatment of Bottled Liquid Waste During Remediation of the Hanford 618-10 Burial Ground - 13001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulk, Darrin E.; Pearson, Chris M.; Vedder, Barry L.; Martin, David W. [Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A problematic waste form encountered during remediation of the Hanford Site 618-10 burial ground consists of bottled aqueous waste potentially contaminated with regulated metals. The liquid waste requires stabilization prior to landfill disposal. Prior remediation activities at other Hanford burial grounds resulted in a standard process for sampling and analyzing liquid waste using manual methods. Due to the highly dispersible characteristics of alpha contamination, and the potential for shock sensitive chemicals, a different method for bottle processing was needed for the 618-10 burial ground. Discussions with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to development of a modified approach. The modified approach involves treatment of liquid waste in bottles, up to one gallon per bottle, in a tray or box within the excavation of the remediation site. Bottles are placed in the box, covered with soil and fixative, crushed, and mixed with a Portland cement grout. The potential hazards of the liquid waste preclude sampling prior to treatment. Post treatment verification sampling is performed to demonstrate compliance with land disposal restrictions and disposal facility acceptance criteria. (authors)

  19. Technetium Incorporation in Glass for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Kim, Dong Sang

    2015-01-14

    A priority of the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) is to dispose of nuclear wastes accumulated in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington State. These nuclear wastes date from the Manhattan Project of World War II and from plutonium production during the Cold War. The DOE plans to separate high-level radioactive wastes from low activity wastes and to treat each of the waste streams by vitrification (immobilization of the nuclides in glass) for disposal. The immobilized low-activity waste will be disposed of here at Hanford and the immobilized high-level waste at the national geologic repository. Included in the inventory of highly radioactive wastes is large volumes of 99Tc (~9 × 10E2 TBq or ~2.5 × 104 Ci or ~1500 kg). A problem facing safe disposal of Tc-bearing wastes is the processing of waste feed into in a chemically durable waste form. Technetium incorporates poorly into silicate glass in traditional glass melting. It readily evaporates during melting of glass feeds and out of the molten glass, leading to a spectrum of high-to-low retention (ca. 20 to 80%) in the cooled glass product. DOE-ORP currently has a program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Rutgers University and in the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at Washington State University that seeks to understand aspects of Tc retention by means of studying Tc partitioning, molten salt formation, volatilization pathways, and cold cap chemistry. Another problem involves the stability of Tc in glass in both the national geologic repository and on-site disposal after it has been immobilized. The major environmental concern with 99Tc is its high mobility in addition to a long half-life (2.1×105 yrs). The pertechnetate ion (TcO4-) is highly soluble in water and does not adsorb well onto the surface of minerals and so migrates nearly at the same velocity as groundwater

  20. Water Quality Sampling Locations Along the Shoreline of the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Robert E.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2009-12-14

    As environmental monitoring evolved on the Hanford Site, several different conventions were used to name or describe location information for various sampling sites along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These methods range from handwritten descriptions in field notebooks to the use of modern electronic surveying equipment, such as Global Positioning System receivers. These diverse methods resulted in inconsistent archiving of analytical results in various electronic databases and published reports because of multiple names being used for the same site and inaccurate position data. This document provides listings of sampling sites that are associated with groundwater and river water sampling. The report identifies names and locations for sites associated with sampling: (a) near-river groundwater using aquifer sampling tubes; (b) riverbank springs and springs areas; (c) pore water collected from riverbed sediment; and (d) Columbia River water. Included in the listings are historical names used for a particular site and the best available geographic coordinates for the site, as of 2009. In an effort to create more consistency in the descriptive names used for water quality sampling sites, a naming convention is proposed in this document. The convention assumes that a unique identifier is assigned to each site that is monitored and that this identifier serves electronic database management requirements. The descriptive name is assigned for the convenience of the subsequent data user. As the historical database is used more intensively, this document may be revised as a consequence of discovering potential errors and also because of a need to gain consensus on the proposed naming convention for some water quality monitoring sites.

  1. Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Waste Feed Qualification Program Development Approach - 13114

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markillie, Jeffrey R.; Arakali, Aruna V.; Benson, Peter A.; Halverson, Thomas G. [Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Adamson, Duane J.; Herman, Connie C.; Peeler, David K. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is a nuclear waste treatment facility being designed and constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel National, Inc. and subcontractor URS Corporation (under contract DE-AC27-01RV14136 [1]) to process and vitrify radioactive waste that is currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. A wide range of planning is in progress to prepare for safe start-up, commissioning, and operation. The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the WTP design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring acceptance requirements can be met before the transfer of waste. The WTP Project has partnered with Savannah River National Laboratory to develop the waste feed qualification program. The results of waste feed qualification activities will be implemented using a batch processing methodology, and will establish an acceptable range of operator controllable parameters needed to treat the staged waste. Waste feed qualification program development is being implemented in three separate phases. Phase 1 required identification of analytical methods and gaps. This activity has been completed, and provides the foundation for a technically defensible approach for waste feed qualification. Phase 2 of the program development is in progress. The activities in this phase include the closure of analytical methodology gaps identified during Phase 1, design and fabrication of laboratory-scale test apparatus, and determination of the waste feed qualification sample volume. Phase 3 will demonstrate waste feed qualification testing in support of Cold Commissioning. (authors)

  2. Performance Enhancements to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low-Activity Waste Vitrification System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W. F.; Gerdes, K.; Holton, L. K.; Pegg, I.L.; Bowan, B.W.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) is constructing a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) for the treatment and vitrification of underground tank wastes stored at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The WTP comprises four major facilities: a pretreatment facility to separate the tank waste into high level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) process streams, a HLW vitrification facility to immobilize the HLW fraction; a LAW vitrification facility to immobilize the LAW fraction, and an analytical laboratory to support the operations of all four treatment facilities. DOE has established strategic objectives to optimize the performance of the WTP facilities and the LAW and HLW waste forms to reduce the overall schedule and cost for treatment and vitrification of the Hanford tank wastes. This strategy has been implemented by establishing performance expectations in the WTP contract for the facilities and waste forms. In addition, DOE, as owner-operator of the WTP facilities, continues to evaluate 1) the design, to determine the potential for performance above the requirements specified in the WTP contract; and 2) improvements in production of the LAW and HLW waste forms. This paper reports recent progress directed at improving production of the LAW waste form. DOE's initial assessment, which is based on the work reported in this paper, is that the treatment rate of the WTP LAW vitrification facility can be increased by a factor of 2 to 4 with a combination of revised glass formulations, modest increases in melter glass operating temperatures, and a second-generation LAW melter with a larger surface area. Implementing these improvements in the LAW waste immobilization capability can benefit the LAW treatment mission by reducing the cost of waste treatment. (authors)

  3. Hydrogeologic controls on ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River near the Hanford Townsite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luttrell, S.P.; Newcomer, D.R.; Teel, S.S.; Vermeul, V.R.

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River in the Hanford Townsite vicinity. The primary objectives of the work are to: describe the hydrogeologic setting and controls on ground-water movement and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; understand the river/aquifer relationship and its effects on contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; quantify the ground-water and contaminant mass discharge to the Columbia River; and provide data that may be useful for a three-dimensional model of ground-water flow and contaminant transport in the Hanford Townsite study area. The majority of ground-water contamination occurs within the unconfined aquifer; therefore, ground-water and contaminant discharge from the unconfined aquifer is the emphasis of this study. The period of study is primarily from June 1990 through March 1992

  4. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  5. Removal of 137-Cs from Dissolved Hanford Tank Saltcake by Treatment with IE-911

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office plans to accelerate the cleanup of the Hanford Site. Testing new technology for the accelerated cleanup will require dissolved saltcake from single-shell tanks. However, the 137Cs will need to be removed from the saltcake to alleviate radiation hazards. A saltcake composite constructed from archived samples from Hanford Site single-shell tanks 241-S-101, 241-S-109, 241-S-110, 241-S-111, 241-U-106, and 241-U-109 was dissolved in water, adjusted to 5 M Na, and transferred from the 222-S Laboratory to the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL). At the RPL, the approximately 5.5 liters of solution was passed through a 0.2-micron polyethersulfone filter, collected, and homogenized. The filtered solution then was passed through an ion exchange column containing approximately 150 mL IONSIV(reg s ign) IE-911, an engineered form of crystalline silicotitanate available from UOP, at approximately 200 mL/hour in a continuous operation until all of the feed solution had been run through the column. An analysis of the 137Cs concentrations in the initial feed solution and combined column effluent indicates that > 99.999 percent of the Cs in the feed solution was removed by this operation

  6. Geohydrology and ground-water quality beneath the 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Bond, F.W.

    1979-06-01

    Ground water enters the 300 Area from the northwest, west, and southwest. However, throughout most of the 300 Area, the flow is to the east and southeast. Ground water flows to the northeast only in the southern portion of the 300 Area. Variations in level of the Columbia River affected the ground-water system by altering the level and shape of the 300 Area watertable. Large quantities of process waste water, when warmed during summer months by solar radiation or cooled during winter months by ambient air temperature, influenced the temperature of the ground water. Leaking pipes and the intentional discharge of waste water (or withdrawal of ground water) affected the ground-water system in the 300 Area. Water quality tests of Hanford ground water in and adjacent to the 300 Area showed that in the area of the Process Water Trenches and Sanitary Leaching Trenches, calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate ions are more dilute, and nitrate and chloride ions are more concentrated than in surrounding areas. Fluoride, uranium, and beta emitters are more concentrated in ground water along the bank of the Columbia River in the central and southern portions of the 300 Area and near the 340 Building. Test wells and routine ground-water sampling are adequate to point out contamination. The variable Thickness Transient (VTT) Model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer underlying the 300 Area has been set up, calibrated, and verified. The Multicomponent Mass Transfer (MMT) Model of distribution of contaminants in the saturated regime under the 300 Area has been set up, calibrated, and tested

  7. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, William R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  8. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  9. One System Integrated Project Team Progress in Coordinating Hanford Tank Farms and the Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarek, Raymond J.; Harp, Ben J.; Duncan, Garth M.

    2013-01-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed at the Hanford Site in late 2011 as a way to improve coordination and itegration between the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) on interfaces between the two projects, and to eliminate duplication and exploit opportunities for synergy. The IPT is composed of jointly staffed groups that work on technical issues of mutal interest, front-end design and project definition, nuclear safety, plant engineering system integration, commissioning, planning and scheduling, and environmental, safety, health and quality (ESH&Q) areas. In the past year important progress has been made in a number of areas as the organization has matured and additional opportunities have been identified. Areas covered in this paper include: Support for development of the Office of Envirnmental Management (EM) framework document to progress the Office of River Protection's (ORP) River Protection Project (RPP) mission; Stewardship of the RPP flowsheet; Collaboration with Savannah River Site (SRS), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Operations programs integration; and, Further development of the waste acceptance criteria

  10. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford Facilities: Progress report, July 1--September 30, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, completion/inspection reports, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled, completed, or logged during this period. Volume 2 can be found on microfiche in the back pocket of Volume 1. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality

  11. Ground-water surveillance at the Hanford Site for CY 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, P.A.; Prater, L.S.; Rieger, J.T.

    1983-06-01

    Operations at the Hanford Site since 1944 have resulted in the discharge of large volumes of process cooling water and other waste waters to the ground. These effluents, which have reached the unconfined ground water, contain low levels of radioactive and chemical substances. The movement of these constituents in the unconfined ground water is monitored as part of the Ground-Water Surveillance Program. During 1982, 324 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and chemical constituents. Tritium are the primary ones used to monitor the movement of the ground water. This report describes recent changes in the configuration of the tritium and nitrate plumes. The tritium plume continues to show increasing concentrations near the Columbia River. While it is mapped as having reached the Columbia River, its contribution to the river has not been distinguished from other sources at this time. The general plume configuration is much the same as in 1978, 1979, 1980, and 1981. The size of the nitrate plume appears stable. Concentrations of nitrate in the vicinity of the 100-H Area continue to be high as a result of past leaks from an evaporation facility

  12. The influence of small mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-09-01

    The amount and rate at which water may penetrate a protective barrier and come into contact with buried radioactive waste is a major concern. Because burrowing animals eventually will reside on the surface of any protective barrier, the effect these burrow systems may have on the loss or retention of water needs to be determined. The first section of this document summarizes the known literature relative to small mammals and the effects that burrowing activities have on water distribution, infiltration, and the overall impact of burrows on the ecosystem. Topics that are summarized include burrow air pressures, airflow, burrow humidity, microtopography, mounding, infiltration, climate, soil evaporation, and discussions of large pores relative to water distribution. The second section of this document provides the results of the study that was conducted at the Hanford Site to determine what effect small mammal burrows have on water storage. This Biointrusion task is identified in the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Plan in support of protective barriers. This particular animal intrusion task is one part of the overall animal intrusion task identified in Animal Intrusion Test Plan

  13. Field Soil Water Retention of the Prototype Hanford Barrier and Its Variability with Space and Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.

    2015-08-14

    Engineered surface barriers are used to isolate underlying contaminants from water, plants, animals, and humans. To understand the flow processes within a barrier and the barrier’s ability to store and release water, the field hydraulic properties of the barrier need to be known. In situ measurement of soil hydraulic properties and their variation over time is challenging because most measurement methods are destructive. A multiyear test of the Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) has yielded in situ soil water content and pressure data for a nine-year period. The upper 2 m layer of the PHB is a silt loam. Within this layer, water content and water pressure were monitored at multiple depths at 12 water balance stations using a neutron probe and heat dissipation units. Valid monitoring data from 1995 to 2003 for 4 depths at 12 monitoring stations were used to determine the field water retention of the silt loam layer. The data covered a wide range of wetness, from near saturation to the permanent wilt point, and each retention curve contained 51 to 96 data points. The data were described well with the commonly used van Genuchten water retention model. It was found that the spatial variation of the saturated and residual water content and the pore size distribution parameter were relatively small, while that of the van Genuchten alpha was relatively large. The effects of spatial variability of the retention properties appeared to be larger than the combined effects of added 15% w/w pea gravel and plant roots on the properties. Neither of the primary hydrological processes nor time had a detectible effect on the water retention of the silt loam barrier.

  14. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS/ PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns

  15. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS & PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-07-21

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns.

  16. Cesium Ion Exchange Program at the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHARLES, NASH

    2004-01-01

    The River Protection Project - Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant will use cesium ion exchange to remove 137Cs from Low Activity Waste down to 0.3 Ci/m3 in the Immobilized LAW, ILAW product. The project baseline for cesium ion exchange is the elutable SuperLig, R, 644, SL-644, resin registered trademark of IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT or the Department of Energy approved equivalent. SL-644 is solely available through IBC Advanced Technologies. To provide an alternative to this sole-source resin supply, the RPP--WTP initiated a three-stage process for selection and qualification of an alternative ion exchange resin for cesium removal in the RPPWTP. It was recommended that resorcinol formaldehyde RF be pursued as a potential alternative to SL-644

  17. Ground water flow velocity in the bank of the Columbia River, Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, S.

    1995-12-01

    To properly characterize the transport of contaminants from the sediments beneath the Hanford Site into the Columbia River, a suite of In Situ Permeable Flow Sensors was deployed to accurately characterize the hydrologic regime in the banks of the river. The three dimensional flow velocity was recorded on an hourly basis from mid May to mid July, 1994 and for one week in September. The first data collection interval coincided with the seasonal high water level in the river while the second interval reflected conditions during relatively low seasonal river stage. Two flow sensors located approximately 50 feet from the river recorded flow directions which correlated very well with river stage, both on seasonal and diurnal time scales. During time intervals characterized by falling river stage, the flow sensors recorded flow toward the river while flow away from the river was recorded during times of rising river stage. The flow sensor near the river in the Hanford Formation recorded a component of flow oriented vertically downward, probably reflecting the details of the hydrostratigraphy in close proximity to the probe. The flow sensor near the river in the Ringold Formation recorded an upward component of flow which dominated the horizontal components most of the time. The upward flow in the Ringold probably reflects regional groundwater flow into the river. The magnitudes of the flow velocities recorded by the flow sensors were lower than expected, probably as a result of drilling induced disturbance of the hydraulic properties of the sediments around the probes. The probes were installed with resonant sonic drilling which may have compacted the sediments immediately surrounding the probes, thereby reducing the hydraulic conductivity adjacent to the probes and diverting the groundwater flow away from the sensors

  18. Ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site, January-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, C.S.; Rieger, J.T.; Raymond, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    This program is designed to evaluate existing and potential pathways of exposure to radioactivity and hazardous chemicals from site operations. This document contains an evaluation of data collected during CY 1984. During 1984, 339 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. Two of these constituents, specifically, tritium and nitrate, have been selected for detailed discussion in this report. Tritium and nitrate in the primary plumes originating from the 200 Areas continue to move generally eastward toward the Columbia River in the direction of ground-water flow. The movement within these plumes is indicated by changes in trends within the analytical data from the monitoring wells. No discernible impact on ground water has yet been observed from the start-up of the PUREX plant in December 1983. The shape of the present tritium plume is similar to those described in previous ground-water monitoring reports, although slight changes on the outer edges have been noted. Radiological impacts from two potential pathways for radionuclide transport in ground water to the environment are discussed in this report. The pathways are: (1) human consumption of ground water from onsite wells, and (2) seepage of ground water into the Columbia River. Concentrations of tritium in spring samples that were collected and analyzed in 1983, and in wells sampled adjacent to the Columbia River in 1984 confirmed that constituents in the ground water are entering the river via springs and subsurface flow. The primary areas where radionuclides enter the Columbia River via ground-water flow are the 100-N and 300 Areas and the shoreline adjacent to the Hanford Townsite. 44 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Organic Tank Safety Project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water content of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241-U-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy''s Hanford Site. Because of water''s importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (P H2O ) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, P H2O is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site''s environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. Webb et al. identified Tank U-105 as a Conditionally Safe saltcake tank. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that is currently safe based on waste classification criteria but could, if dried, be classified as open-quotes Unsafe.close quotes To provide information on the behavior of organic-bearing wastes, the Westinghouse Hanford Company provided us with four waste samples taken from Tank 241-U-105 (U-105) to determine the effect of P H2O on their equilibrium water content

  20. Mine water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komissarov, S V

    1980-10-01

    This article discusses composition of chemical compounds dissolved or suspended in mine waters in various coal basins of the USSR: Moscow basin, Kuzbass, Pechora, Kizelovsk, Karaganda, Donetsk and Chelyabinsk basins. Percentage of suspended materials in water depending on water source (water from water drainage system of dust suppression system) is evaluated. Pollution of mine waters with oils and coli bacteria is also described. Recommendations on construction, capacity of water settling tanks, and methods of mine water treatment are presented. In mines where coal seams 2 m or thicker are mined a system of two settling tanks should be used: in the upper one large grains are settled, in the lower one finer grains. The upper tank should be large enough to store mine water discharged during one month, and the lower one to store water discharged over two months. Salty waters from coal mines mining thin coal seams should be treated in a system of water reservoirs from which water evaporates (if climatic conditions permit). Mine waters from mines with thin coal seams but without high salt content can be treated in a system of long channels with water plants, which increase amount of oxygen in treated water. System of biological treatment of waste waters from mine wash-houses and baths is also described. Influence of temperature, sunshine and season of the year on efficiency of mine water treatment is also assessed. (In Russian)

  1. Pore Water Extraction Test Near 241-SX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlein, Susan J.; Parker, Danny L.; Tabor, Cynthia L.; Holm, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    A proof-of-principle test is underway near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. The test will evaluate a potential remediation technology that will use tank farm-deployable equipment to remove contaminated pore water from vadose zone soils. The test system was designed and built to address the constraints of working within a tank farm. Due to radioactive soil contamination and limitations in drilling near tanks, small-diameter direct push drilling techniques applicable to tank farms are being utilized for well placement. To address space and weight limitations in working around tanks and obstacles within tank farms, the above ground portions of the test system have been constructed to allow deployment flexibility. The test system utilizes low vacuum over a sealed well screen to establish flow into an extraction well. Extracted pore water is collected in a well sump,and then pumped to the surface using a small-diameter bladder pump.If pore water extraction using this system can be successfully demonstrated, it may be possible to target local contamination in the vadose zone around underground storage tanks. It is anticipated that the results of this proof-of-principle test will support future decision making regarding interim and final actions for soil contamination within the tank farms

  2. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  3. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, 'operating' treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  4. HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASSES FOR HANFORD'S WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PROJECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Bowan, B.W.; Joseph, I.; Gan, H.; Kot, W.K.; Matlack, K.S.; Pegg, I.L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of glass formulation development and melter testing to identify high waste loading glasses to treat high-Al high level waste (HLW) at Hanford. Previous glass formulations developed for this HLW had high waste loadings but their processing rates were lower that desired. The present work was aimed at improving the glass processing rate while maintaining high waste loadings. Glass formulations were designed, prepared at crucible-scale and characterized to determine their properties relevant to processing and product quality. Glass formulations that met these requirements were screened for melt rates using small-scale tests. The small-scale melt rate screening included vertical gradient furnace (VGF) and direct feed consumption (DFC) melter tests. Based on the results of these tests, modified glass formulations were developed and selected for larger scale melter tests to determine their processing rate. Melter tests were conducted on the DuraMelter 100 (DMIOO) with a melt surface area of 0.11 m 2 and the DuraMelter 1200 (DMI200) HLW Pilot Melter with a melt surface area of 1.2 m 2 . The newly developed glass formulations had waste loadings as high as 50 wt%, with corresponding Al 2 O 3 concentration in the glass of 26.63 wt%. The new glass formulations showed glass production rates as high as 1900 kg/(m 2 .day) under nominal melter operating conditions. The demonstrated glass production rates are much higher than the current requirement of 800 kg/(m 2 .day) and anticipated future enhanced Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) requirement of 1000 kg/(m 2 .day).

  5. A Brief Review of Filtration Studies for Waste Treatment at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2010-12-01

    This document completes the requirements of Milestone 1-2, PNNL Draft Literature Review, discussed in the scope of work outlined in the EM-31 Support Project task plan WP-2.3.6-2010-1. The focus of task WP 2.3.6 is to improve the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) understanding of filtration operations for high-level waste (HLW) to enhance filtration and cleaning efficiencies, thereby increasing process throughput and reducing the sodium demand (through acid neutralization). Developing the processes for fulfilling the cleaning/backpulsing requirements will result in more efficient operations for both the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), thereby increasing throughput by limiting cleaning cycles. The purpose of this document is to summarize Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL’s) literature review of historical filtration testing at the laboratory and of testing found in peer-reviewed journals. Eventually, the contents of this document will be merged with a literature review by SRS to produce a summary report for DOE of the results of previous filtration testing at the laboratories and the types of testing that still need to be completed to address the questions about improved filtration performance at WTP and SRS. To this end, this report presents 1) a review of the current state of crossflow filtration knowledge available in the peer-reviewed literature, 2) a detailed review of PNNL-related filtration studies specific to the Hanford site, and 3) an overview of current waste filtration models developed by PNNL and suggested avenues for future model development.

  6. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

  7. RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Annual progress report for 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruland, R.M.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-04-01

    This report describes the progress during 1988 of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects covering 16 hazardous waste facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility (the Solid Waste Landfill). Each of the projects is being conducted according to federal regulations based on the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the State of Washington Administrative Code. 21 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs

  8. Cost/benefit analysis comparing ex situ treatment technologies for removing carbon tetrachloride from Hanford groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truex, M.J.; Brown, D.R.; Elliott, D.B.

    1993-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a cost/benefit and performance analysis to compare ex situ technologies that can be used to destroy the carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) in the ground water of Hanford's 200 West Area. The objective of this work was to provide a direct quantitative and qualitative comparison of competing technologies. The technologies examined included a biological system, the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System II (TEES II), and a UV/oxidation system. The factors examined included key system operation parameters, impact on inorganic contaminants in the ground water, and secondary waste production. The cost effectiveness of these destruction technologies was also compared to the cost for an air stripping/granular activated carbon (AS/GAC) system. While the AS/GAC system appeared to be more cost effective at many levels than the CCl 4 destruction technologies, the secondary waste produced by this system may lead to significant cost and/or regulatory problems. The factors with the greatest influence on cost for each destruction technology are as follows: nutrient requirements for both of the biological systems, electricity requirements and the type of unit operations for the TEES II process, and electricity requirements for UV/oxidation

  9. The Hanford Site solid waste treatment project; Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility will provide treatment and temporary storage (consisting of in-process storage) for radioactive and radioactive/hazardous mixed waste. This facility must be constructed and operated in compliance with all appropriate US Department of Energy (DOE) orders and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The WRAP Facility will examine and certify, segregate/sort, and treat for disposal suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes in drums and boxes placed in 20-yr retrievable storage since 1970; low-level radioactive mixed waste (RMW) generated and placed into storage at the Hanford Site since 1987; designated remote-handled wastes; and newly generated TRU and RMW wastes from high-level waste (HLW) recovery and processing operations. In order to accelerated the WRAP Project, a partitioning of the facility functions was done in two phases as a means to expedite those parts of the WRAP duties that were well understood and used established technology, while allowing more time to better define the processing functions needed for the remainder of WRAP. The WRAP Module 1 phase one, is to provide the necessary nondestructive examination and nondestructive assay services, as well as all transuranic package transporter (TRUPACT-2) shipping for both WRAP Project phases, with heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; change rooms; and administrative services. Phase two of the project, WRAP Module 2, will provide all necessary waste treatment facilities for disposal of solid wastes. 1 tab

  10. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) MANAGEMENT OF THE HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT and IMMOBILIZATION PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHRADER, T.A.

    2005-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of River Protection is currently overseeing the construction of the new Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (more commonly referred to as the Waste Treatment Plant). In December 2000, a contract was awarded to Bechtel National, Inc. for the design, construction, and commissioning of the $5.8 billion facility to treat and vitrify a significant portion of the waste currently stored in large underground tanks on the Hanford Site. As the owner, the Office of River Protection has developed an organization to oversee the design, construction, and commissioning of the facility. A Federal Project Director is responsible for all aspects of the project, including safety, design, construction, commissioning; and the baseline (scope, cost, and schedule). The Project Director reports to the Manager of the Office of River Protection and recommends changes to the contract requirements, safety basis documents, or the baseline. Approximately 30 engineers, scientists, and other support personnel have been assigned to a unique organization that supports the Federal Project Director in providing oversight of each phase of the project (i.e., design, construction, and commissioning). The organization includes an Engineering Division, a Programs and Projects Division, a Safety Authorization Basis Team, and an Operations and Commissioning Team. This organization is unique within the Department of Energy and provides a focused team to resolve issues of safety, cost, schedule, technical design changes, and construction. This paper will describe this team and show how the Office of River Protection utilizes this oversight team to manage this complex, accelerated project. The size and technical complexity of the facility poses unique challenges for safety, permitting, commissioning, engineering, and baseline control. A robust training and qualification program has been developed that will insure the Departmental personnel working closely

  11. Dose calculations for the concrete water tunnels at 190-C Area, Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.

    1997-01-01

    The RESRAD-BUILD code was used to calculate the radiological dose from the contaminated concrete water tunnels at the 190-C Area at the Hanford Site. Two exposure scenarios, recreationist and maintenance worker, were considered. A residential scenario was not considered because the material was assumed to be left intact (i.e., the concrete would not be rubbleized because the location would not be suitable for construction of a house). The recreationist was assumed to use the tunnel for 8 hours per day for 1 week as an overnight shelter. The maintenance worker was assumed to spend 20 hours per year working in the tunnel. Six exposure pathways were considered in calculating the dose. Three external exposure pathways involved penetrating radiation emitted directly from the contaminated tunnel floor, emitted from radioactive particulates deposited on the tunnel floor, and resulting from submersion in airborne radioactive particulates. Three internal exposure pathways involved inhalation of airborne radioactive particulates; inadvertent direct ingestion of removable, contaminated material on the tunnel floor; and inadvertent indirect ingestion of airborne particulates deposited on the tunnel floor. The gradual removal of surface contamination over time and the ingrowth of decay products were considered in calculating the dose at different times. The maximum doses were estimated to be 1.5 mrem/yr for the recreationist and 0.34 mrem/yr for the maintenance worker

  12. Organic tank safety project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water contents of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241-BY-108

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1997-02-01

    Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Because of water's importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (P H2O ) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, P H2O is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site's environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, Webb et al. determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that satisfies the waste classification criteria based on water content alone or a combination of water content and either total organic carbon (TOC) content or waste energetics. To provide information on the behavior of saltcake wastes, two waste samples taken from Tank 241-BY-108 (BY-108) were selected for study, even though BY-108 is not on the Organic Tanks Watch List because of their ready availability and their similarity to some of the organic-bearing saltcakes

  13. Aerosol Formation from High-Pressure Sprays for Supporting the Safety Analysis for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13183

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Schonewill, P.P.; Bontha, J.R.; Blanchard, J.; Kurath, D.E.; Daniel, R.C.; Song, C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being designed and built to pretreat and vitrify waste currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford. One of the postulated events in the hazard analysis for the WTP is a breach in process piping that produces a pressurized spray with small droplets that can be transported into ventilation systems. Literature correlations are currently used for estimating the generation rate and size distribution of aerosol droplets in postulated releases. These correlations, however, are based on results obtained from small engineered nozzles using Newtonian liquids that do not contain slurry particles and thus do not represent the fluids and breaches in the WTP. A test program was developed to measure the generation rate, and the release fraction which is the ratio of generation rate to spray flow rate, of droplets suspended in a test chamber and droplet size distribution from prototypic sprays. A novel test method was developed to allow measurement of sprays from small to large breaches and also includes the effect of aerosol generation from splatter when the spray impacts on walls. Results show that the release fraction decreases with increasing orifice area, though with a weaker dependence on orifice area than the currently-used correlation. A comparison of water sprays to slurry sprays with 8 to 20 wt% gibbsite or boehmite particles shows that the presence of slurry particles depresses the release fraction compared to water for droplets above 10 μm and increases the release fraction below this droplet size. (authors)

  14. The integrated criticality safety evaluation for the Hanford tank waste treatment and immobilization plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losey, D. C.; Miles, R. E.; Perks, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) has been developed as a single, integrated evaluation with a scope that covers all of the planned WTP operations. This integrated approach is atypical, as the scopes of criticality evaluations are usually more narrowly defined. Several adjustments were made in developing the WTP CSER, but the primary changes were to provide introductory overview for the criticality safety control strategy and to provide in-depth analysis of the underlying physical and chemical mechanisms that contribute to ensuring safety. The integrated approach for the CSER allowed a more consistent evaluation of safety and avoided redundancies that occur when evaluation is distributed over multiple documents. While the approach used with the WTP CSER necessitated more coordination and teamwork, it has yielded a report is that more integrated and concise than is typical. The integrated approach with the CSER produced a simple criticality control scheme that uses relatively few controls. (authors)

  15. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  16. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  17. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  18. UNSAT-H, an unsaturated soil water flow code for use at the Hanford site: code documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, M.J.; Gee, G.W.

    1985-10-01

    The unsaturated soil moisture flow code, UNSAT-H, which was developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for assessing water movement at waste sites on the Hanford site, is documented in this report. This code is used in simulating the water dynamics of arid sites under consideration for waste disposal. The results of an example simulation of constant infiltration show excellent agreement with an analytical solution and another numerical solution, thus providing some verification of the UNSAT-H code. Areas of the code are identified for future work and include runoff, snowmelt, long-term climate and plant models, and parameter measurement. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Hanford Site storm water comprehensive site compliance evaluation report for the reporting period July 1, 1996 through June 30, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    On September 9, 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued General Permit No. WA-R-00-OOOF, Authorization to Discharge Under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity to the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). RL submitted a Notice of Intent to comply with this permit to EPA in conformance with the General Permit requirements on October 1, 1992. On February 14, 1994, EPA issued a Storm Water General Permit Coverage Notice and assigned WA-R-00-Al7F as the Hanford Site's National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) storm water permit number. The Hanford Site Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) (WHC 1996a) was certified by J. E Rasmussen, Director Environmental Assurance, RL, on September 24, 1996, in compliance with Part IV.B(i) of the General Permit. As required by General Permit No. WA-R-00-OOOF (WA-R-00-Al7F), Section IV, Part D, Section 4.c, an annual report must be developed by RL and retained on site to verify that the requirements listed in the General Permit are being implemented. The previous Hanford Site Storm Plater Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation Report (WHC 1996b) addressed the period from July 1995 through June 1996. This document fulfills the requirement to prepare an annual report and contains the results of inspections of the storm water outfalls listed in the SWPPP (WHC 1996a). This report also describes the methods used to conduct the 1100 Storm Plater Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation (SWCSCE) as required in Part IV, Section D.4.c in the General Permit; summarizes the results of the compliance evaluation; and documents significant leaks and spills. The reporting year for this SWCSCE report is July 1, 1996 through June 30, 1997

  20. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs

  1. Hanford spent fuel inventory baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsman, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    This document compiles technical data on irradiated fuel stored at the Hanford Site in support of the Hanford SNF Management Environmental Impact Statement. Fuel included is from the Defense Production Reactors (N Reactor and the single-pass reactors; B, C, D, DR, F, H, KE and KW), the Hanford Fast Flux Test Facility Reactor, the Shipping port Pressurized Water Reactor, and small amounts of miscellaneous fuel from several commercial, research, and experimental reactors

  2. Tissue radionuclide concentrations in water birds and upland birds on the Hanford Site (USA) from 1971-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delistraty, Damon; Van Verst, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Historical operations at the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA) have released a wide array of non-radionuclide and radionuclide contaminants into the environment. As a result, there is a need to characterize contaminant effects on site biota. Within this framework, the main purpose of our study was to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in bird tissue, obtained from the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The database was sorted by avian group (water bird vs. upland bird), radionuclide (over 20 analytes), tissue (muscle, bone, liver), location (onsite vs. offsite), and time period (1971-1990 vs. 1991-2009). Onsite median concentrations in water birds were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in onsite upland birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990) and Sr-90 in bone (1991-2009), perhaps due to behavioral, habitat, or trophic species differences. Onsite median concentrations in water birds were higher (borderline significance with Bonferroni P = 0.05) than those in offsite birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990). Onsite median concentrations in the earlier time period were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in the later time period for Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Sr-90 in water bird muscle and for Cs-137 in upland bird muscle tissue. Median concentrations of Sr-90 in bone were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in muscle for both avian groups and both locations. Over the time period, 1971-2009, onsite median internal dose was estimated for each radionuclide in water bird and upland bird tissues. However, a meaningful dose comparison between bird groups was not possible, due to a dissimilar radionuclide inventory, mismatch of time periods for input radionuclides, and lack of an external dose estimate. Despite these limitations, our results contribute toward ongoing efforts to characterize ecological risk at the Hanford Site. - Highlights: → Radionuclides evaluated in bird tissues on the Hanford Site

  3. Tissue radionuclide concentrations in water birds and upland birds on the Hanford Site (USA) from 1971-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delistraty, Damon, E-mail: DDEL461@ecy.wa.gov [Washington State Department of Ecology, N. 4601 Monroe Street, Spokane, WA 99205-1295 (United States); Van Verst, Scott [Washington State Department of Health, Olympia, WA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Historical operations at the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA) have released a wide array of non-radionuclide and radionuclide contaminants into the environment. As a result, there is a need to characterize contaminant effects on site biota. Within this framework, the main purpose of our study was to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in bird tissue, obtained from the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The database was sorted by avian group (water bird vs. upland bird), radionuclide (over 20 analytes), tissue (muscle, bone, liver), location (onsite vs. offsite), and time period (1971-1990 vs. 1991-2009). Onsite median concentrations in water birds were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in onsite upland birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990) and Sr-90 in bone (1991-2009), perhaps due to behavioral, habitat, or trophic species differences. Onsite median concentrations in water birds were higher (borderline significance with Bonferroni P = 0.05) than those in offsite birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990). Onsite median concentrations in the earlier time period were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in the later time period for Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Sr-90 in water bird muscle and for Cs-137 in upland bird muscle tissue. Median concentrations of Sr-90 in bone were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in muscle for both avian groups and both locations. Over the time period, 1971-2009, onsite median internal dose was estimated for each radionuclide in water bird and upland bird tissues. However, a meaningful dose comparison between bird groups was not possible, due to a dissimilar radionuclide inventory, mismatch of time periods for input radionuclides, and lack of an external dose estimate. Despite these limitations, our results contribute toward ongoing efforts to characterize ecological risk at the Hanford Site. - Highlights: > Radionuclides evaluated in bird tissues on the Hanford Site

  4. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs

  5. Development of a three-dimensional ground-water model of the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system: FY 1995 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.; Freshley, M.D.; Williams, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of ground-water flow was developed for the uppermost unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. Development of the model is supported by the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is responsible for monitoring the sitewide movement of contaminants in ground water beneath the Hanford Site. Two objectives of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project are to (1) identify and quantify existing, emerging, or potential ground-water quality problems, and (2) assess the potential for contaminants to migrate from the Hanford Site through the ground-water pathway. Numerical models of the ground-water flow system are important tools for estimating future aquifer conditions and predicting the movement of contaminants through ground water. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project has supported development and maintenance of a two-dimensional model of the unconfined aquifer. This report describes upgrade of the two-dimensional model to a three-dimensional model. The numerical model is based on a three-dimensional conceptual model that will be continually refined and updated as additional information becomes available. This report presents a description of the three-dimensional conceptual model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer system and then discusses the cur-rent state of the three-dimensional numerical model

  6. Waste Water Treatment Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    A wastewater treatment plant to treat both the sanitary and industrial effluent originated from process, utilities and off site units of the refinery is described. The purpose is to obtain at the end of the treatment plant, a water quality that is in compliance with contractual requirements and relevant environmental regulations. first treatment (pretreatment). Primary de-oiling, Equalization, Neutralization, Secondary de-oiling. Second treatment (Biological), The mechanism of BOD removal, Biological flocculation, Nutrient requirements, Nitrification, De-nitrification, Effect of temperature, Effect of ph, Toxicity

  7. HANFORD GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, B; THOMPSON, M; WILDE, R.; FORD, B.; GERBER, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    By 1990 nearly 50 years of producing plutonium put approximately 1.70E + 12 liters (450 billion gallons) of liquid wastes into the soil of the 1,518-square kilometer (586-square mile) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. The liquid releases consisted of chemicals used in laboratory experiments, manufacturing and rinsing uranium fuel, dissolving that fuel after irradiation in Hanford's nuclear reactors, and in liquefying plutonium scraps needed to feed other plutonium-processing operations. Chemicals were also added to the water used to cool Hanford's reactors to prevent corrosion in the reactor tubes. In addition, water and acid rinses were used to clean plutonium deposits from piping in Hanford's large radiochemical facilities. All of these chemicals became contaminated with radionuclides. As Hanford raced to help win World War II, and then raced to produce materials for the Cold War, these radioactive liquid wastes were released to the Site's sandy soils. Early scientific experiments seemed to show that the most highly radioactive components of these liquids would bind to the soil just below the surface of the land, thus posing no threat to groundwater. Other experiments predicted that the water containing most radionuclides would take hundreds of years to seep into groundwater, decaying (or losing) most of its radioactivity before reaching the groundwater or subsequently flowing into the Columbia River, although it was known that some contaminants like tritium would move quickly. Evidence today, however, shows that many contaminants have reached the Site's groundwater and the Columbia River, with more on its way. Over 259 square kilometers (100 square miles) of groundwater at Hanford have contaminant levels above drinking-water standards. Also key to successfully cleaning up the Site is providing information resources and public-involvement opportunities to Hanford's stakeholders. This large, passionate, diverse, and

  8. Medicine Of Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jeong Rae

    1987-02-01

    This book deals with the medicine of water handling, which includes medicine for dispersion and cohesion, zeta-potential, congelation with Shalze Hardy's law, inorganic coagulants, inorganic high molecule coagulants, aid coagulant such as fly ash and sodium hydroxide, and effect of aluminum and iron on cohesion of clay suspension, organic coagulants like history of organic coagulants, a polyelectrolyte, coagulants for cation, and organic polymer coagulant, heavy metal and cyan exfoliants, application of drugs of water treatment.

  9. Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming As A Supplementary Treatment For Hanford's Low Activity Waste And Secondary Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides

  10. Quality assurance project plan for ground water monitoring activities managed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPP) applies specifically to the field activities and laboratory analysis performed for all RCRA groundwater projects conducted by Hanford Technical Services. This QAPP is generic in approach and shall be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual groundwater monitoring plans

  11. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress Report for the Period April 1 to June 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the progress of 13 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1989. These projects are for the 300 area process trenches (300 area), 183-H solar evaporation basins (100-H area), 200 areas low-level burial grounds, nonradioactive dangerous waste landfill (southeast of the 200 areas), 1301-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 1324-N surface impoundment and 1324-NA percolation pond (100-N area), 1325-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 216-A-10 crib (200-east area), 216-A-29 ditch (200-east area), 216-A-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-3 pond (east of the 200-east area), 2101-M pond (200-east area), grout treatment facility (200-east area).

  12. Glass Formulation For The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant (WTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Jain, V.

    2009-01-01

    A computational method for formulating Hanford HLW glasses was developed that is based on empirical glass composition-property models, accounts for all associated uncertainties, and can be solved in Excel R in minutes. Calculations for all waste form processing and compliance requirements included. Limited experimental validation performed.

  13. GLASS FORMULATION FOR THE HANFORD TANK WASTE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION PLANT (WTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; VIENNA JD; KIM DS; JAIN V

    2009-05-27

    A computational method for formulating Hanford HLW glasses was developed that is based on empirical glass composition-property models, accounts for all associated uncertainties, and can be solved in Excel{sup R} in minutes. Calculations for all waste form processing and compliance requirements included. Limited experimental validation performed.

  14. Electrocoagulation in Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Xu; Qu, Jiuhui

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water where sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminum or iron cations) into solution. At the cathode, gas evolves (usually as hydrogen bubbles) accompanying electrolytic reactions. EC needs simple equipments and is designable for virtually any size. It is cost effective and easily operable. Specially, the recent technical improvements combined with a growing need for small-scale water treatment facilities have led to a revaluation of EC. In this chapter, the basic principle of EC was introduced first. Following that, reactions at the electrodes and electrode assignment were reviewed; electrode passivation process and activation method were presented; comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was performed; typical design of the EC reactors was also described; and factors affecting electrocoagulation including current density, effect of conductivity, temperature, and pH were introduced in details. Finally, application of EC in water treatment was given in details.

  15. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harp, Benton J.; Kacich, Richard M.; Skwarek, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank

  16. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton J. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-20

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank

  17. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval and Delivery of Hanford Tank Wastes for Vitrification in the Waste Treatment Plant - 13234

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harp, Benton J.; Kacich, Richard M.; Skwarek, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety-conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank

  18. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval and Delivery of Hanford Tank Wastes for Vitrification in the Waste Treatment Plant - 13234

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton J. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Post Office Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety-conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines

  19. STATUS and DIRECTION OF THE BULK VITRIFICATION PROGRAM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAYMOND, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) is managing a program at the Hanford site that will retrieve and treat more than 200 million liters (53 million gal.) of radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks. The waste was generated over the past 50 years as part of the nation's defense programs. The project baseline calls for the waste to be retrieved from the tanks and partitioned to separate the highly radioactive constituents from the large volumes of chemical waste. These highly radioactive components will be vitrified into glass logs in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), temporarily stored on the Hanford Site, and ultimately disposed of as high-level waste in the offsite national repository. The less radioactive chemical waste, referred to as low-activity waste (LAW), is also planned to be vitrified by the WTP, and then disposed of in approved onsite trenches. However, additional treatment capacity is required in order to complete the pretreatment and immobilization of the tank waste by 2028, which represents a Tri-Party Agreement milestone. To help ensure that the treatment milestones will be met, the Supplemental Treatment Program was undertaken. The program, managed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., involves several sub-projects each intended to supplement part of the treatment of waste being designed into the WTP. This includes the testing, evaluation, design, and deployment of supplemental LAW treatment and immobilization technologies, retrieval and treatment of mixed TRU waste stored in the Hanford Tanks, and supplemental pre-treatment. Applying one or more supplemental treatment technologies to the LAW has several advantages, including providing additional processing capacity, reducing the planned loading on the WTP, and reducing the need for double-shell tank space for interim storage of LAW. In fiscal year 2003, three potential supplemental treatment technologies were evaluated including grout, steam reforming and bulk vitrification using AMEC

  20. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  1. Ion exchange removal of strontium from simulated and actual N-Springs well water at the Hanford 100-N Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Kafka, T.M.; White, L.R.

    1996-06-01

    Experimental ion exchange studies are being conducted by the Pacific Northwest national Laboratory (PNNL) under the Efficient Separations and Processing (ESP) Crosscutting Program to evaluate newly emerging materials and technologies for removing cesium, strontium, technetium, and transuranic elements from simulated and actual wastes at Hanford. Previous work focused on applications to treat high-level alkaline tank wastes, but many of the technologies can also be applied in process and ground-water remediation. Ultimately, each process must be evaluated in terms of life-cycle costs, removal efficiency, process chemical consumption and recycle, stability of materials exposed to chemicals and radiation, compatibility with other process streams, secondary waste generation, process and maintenance costs, and final material disposal. This report assesses the performance of the 3M-designed Process Absorber Development Unit (PADU) and the AlliedSignal-produced sodium nonatitanate (NaTi) material in trace quantities of strontium from simulated and actual Hanford N-Springs ground water. The experimental objective was to determine the strontium-loading breakthrough profile of a proprietary 3M-engineered material in either disk or cartridge forms

  2. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford's underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford's organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes' future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as at sign ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures

  3. Removal of radionuclides from the water-soluble fraction of Hanford nuclear defense wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; Schulz, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    The current Hanford Waste Management Program has operated since 1968 to remove the bulk of the long-lived heat emitters /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs from stored high-level wastes. The liquid waste remaining after removal of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs is returned to underground tanks for eventual evaporation to damp solid salt cake. Approximately 95,000 m/sup 3/ of salt cake and 49,000 m/sup 3/ of ''sludge'' will eventually accumulate in approximately 50 underground single-shell tanks. One alternative for long-term management of high-level Hanford wastes involves retrieval, after a yet-to-be determined interim storage time, conversion to more immobile forms, and terminal storage in a suitable geologic repository. Another alternative for long-term management of salt cake and residual liquid involves removing most of the long-lived radionuclides and many of the shorter-lived ones from these wastes. This paper describes conditions and results of recent hot cell tests of the complete Hanford Radionuclide Removal Process. These advanced tests, made with actual residual liquid containing large concentrations of ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) and other organic compounds, provided a rigorous and convincing proof of the process flowsheet. 16 refs

  4. Reengineering Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badalamente, R.V.; Carson, M.L.; Rhoads, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is in the process of reengineering its Hanford Site operations. There is a need to fundamentally rethink and redesign environmental restoration and waste management processes to achieve dramatic improvements in the quality, cost-effectiveness, and timeliness of the environmental services and products that make cleanup possible. Hanford is facing the challenge of reengineering in a complex environment in which major processes cuts across multiple government and contractor organizations and a variety of stakeholders and regulators have a great influence on cleanup activities. By doing the upfront work necessary to allow effective reengineering, Hanford is increasing the probability of its success.

  5. Reengineering Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalamente, R.V.; Carson, M.L.; Rhoads, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is in the process of reengineering its Hanford Site operations. There is a need to fundamentally rethink and redesign environmental restoration and waste management processes to achieve dramatic improvements in the quality, cost-effectiveness, and timeliness of the environmental services and products that make cleanup possible. Hanford is facing the challenge of reengineering in a complex environment in which major processes cuts across multiple government and contractor organizations and a variety of stakeholders and regulators have a great influence on cleanup activities. By doing the upfront work necessary to allow effective reengineering, Hanford is increasing the probability of its success

  6. Radioactive Waste Evaporation: Current Methodologies Employed for the Development, Design, and Operation of Waste Evaporators at the Savannah River Site and Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calloway, T.B.

    2003-01-01

    Evaporation of High level and Low Activity (HLW and LAW) radioactive wastes for the purposes of radionuclide separation and volume reduction has been conducted at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites for more than forty years. Additionally, the Savannah River Site (SRS) has used evaporators in preparing HLW for immobilization into a borosilicate glass matrix. This paper will discuss the methodologies, results, and achievements of the SRTC evaporator development program that was conducted in support of the SRS and Hanford WTP evaporator processes. The cross pollination and application of waste treatment technologies and methods between the Savannah River and Hanford Sites will be highlighted. The cross pollination of technologies and methods is expected to benefit the Department of Energy's Mission Acceleration efforts by reducing the overall cost and time for the development of the baseline waste treatment processes

  7. Axial Dispersion during Hanford Saltcake Washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Geeting, John GH; Lessor, Delbert L.; Barton, William B.

    2006-01-01

    Clean up of Hanford salt cake wastes begins with dissolution retrieval of the sodium rich salts that make up the dominant majority of mass in the tanks. Water moving through the porous salt cake dissolves the soluble components and also displaces the soluble radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs and 99TcO4- ). The separation that occurs from this displacement, known as Selective dissolution, is an important component in Hanford?s pretreatment of low activity wastes for subsequent Supplemental treatment. This paper describes lab scale testing conducted to evaluate Selective dissolution of cesium from non-radioactive Hanford tank 241-S-112 salt cake simulant containing the primary chemicals found the actual tank. An modified axial dispersion model with increasing axial dispersion was developed to predict cesium removal. The model recognizes that water dissolves the salt cake during washing, which causes an increase in the axial dispersion during the wash. This model was subsequently compared with on-line cesium measurements from the retrieval of tank 241-S-112. The model had remarkably good agreement with both the lab scale and full scale data

  8. Application of DOE prescribed guides to the evaluation of Hanford's Mixed Low Level Solid Waste Treatment Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, B.F.; Nash, C.R.

    1994-10-01

    A recent Westinghouse Hanford Company report (WHC-SD-W100-ES-008, February, 1994), compared a Vitrification process to the WRAP-2A Grout/PE process for the treatment of Mixed Low Level Waste (MLLW). This comparison applied a limited scope numerical evaluation to compare technology complexity of the two processes, but focused primarily on capital and operating costs. The work reported here is supplementary to WHC-SD-Wl00-ES-008. It provides a record of the application of the more formal DOE-prescribed criteria (Treatment Selection Guides for Federal Facility Compliance Act Draft Site Treatment Plans) to the Vitrification and Grout/PE processes previously evaluated. Results of the evaluation favored the Grout/PE process by a weighted score of 83 to 78 over the Plasma arc vitrification process

  9. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  10. Assessment of Westinghouse Hanford Company methods for estimating radionuclide release from ground disposal of waste water at the N Reactor sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of an independent assessment by Golder Associates, Inc. of the methods used by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and its predecessors to estimate the annual offsite release of radionuclides from ground disposal of cooling and other process waters from the N Reactor at the Hanford Site. This assessment was performed by evaluating the present and past disposal practices and radionuclide migration data within the context of the hydrology, geology, and physical layout of the N Reactor disposal site. The conclusions and recommendations are based upon the available data and simple analytical calculations. Recommendations are provided for conducting more refined analyses and for continued field data collection in support of estimating annual offsite releases. Recommendations are also provided for simple operational and structural measures that should reduce the quantities of radionuclides leaving the site. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  11. Groundwater remediation at the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, W.

    1993-01-01

    Ion exchange resin and adsorption technology has been used successfully to treat diversified types of toxic waste water for many years. Even though the Hanford Site presents many unique problems, the author believes these technologies can remediate the groundwater at this site. However, treatment of the sludge in tanks generally is beyond the pale of these technologies except for the possibility of experimental studies being performed at the University of Idaho (Troescher)

  12. Evaporation Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Effluent Management Facility Core Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Mcclane, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator, in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF), and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator, so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would reduce the need for closely integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Long-term implementation of this option after WTP start-up would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other operational complexities such a recycle stream presents. In order to accurately plan for the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to accurately account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, and determine the distribution of key regulatory-impacting constituents. The LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in the glass waste form, and represent a materials corrosion concern, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components will accumulate in the Melter Condensate

  13. Process Testing Results and Scaling for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Pretreatment Engineering Platform - 10173

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, Dean E.; Daniel, Richard C.; Baldwin, David L.; Rapko, Brian M.; Barnes, Steven M.; Gilbert, Robert A.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Huckaby, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy-Office of River Protections Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being designed and built to pretreat and then vitrify a large portion of the wastes in Hanfords 177 underground waste storage tanks at Richland, Washington. In support of this effort, engineering-scale tests at the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) have been completed to confirm the process design and provide improved projections of system capacity. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale facility designed, constructed, and operated to test the integrated leaching and ultrafiltration processes being deployed at the WTP. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes with prototypic equipment and control strategies and non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. The testing approach used a nonradioactive aqueous slurry simulant to demonstrate the unit operations of caustic and oxidative leaching, cross-flow ultrafiltration solids concentration, and solids washing. Parallel tests conducted at the laboratory scale with identical simulants provided results that allow scale-up factors to be developed between the laboratory and PEP performance. This paper presents the scale-up factors determined between the laboratory and engineering-scale results and presents arguments that extend these results to the full-scale process.

  14. Hanford groundwater scenario studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, R.C.; Gephart, R.E.; Deju, R.A.; Cole, C.R.; Ahlstrom, S.W.

    1977-05-01

    This report documents the results of two Hanford groundwater scenario studies. The first study examines the hydrologic impact of increased groundwater recharge resulting from agricultural development in the Cold Creek Valley located west of the Hanford Reservation. The second study involves recovering liquid radioactive waste which has leaked into the groundwater flow system from a hypothetical buried tank containing high-level radioactive waste. The predictive and control capacity of the onsite Hanford modeling technology is used to evaluate both scenarios. The results of the first study indicate that Cold Creek Valley irrigationis unlikely to cause significant changes in the water table underlying the high-level waste areas or in the movement of radionuclides already in the groundwater. The hypothetical tank leak study showed that an active response (in this case waste recovery) can be modeled and is a possible alternative to passive monitoring of radionuclide movement in the unlikely event that high-level waste is introduced into the groundwater

  15. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford Facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989 - Volume 1 - Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, completion/inspection reports, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled, completed, or logged during this period. Volume 2 can be found on microfiche in the back pocket of Volume 1. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality.

  16. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-06-05

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU.

  17. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE, IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT, HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-01-01

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU

  18. Movement of Radioactive Effluents in Natural Waters at Hanford; Le Mouvement des Effluents Radioactifs dans les Eaux Naturelles a Hanford; 0414 0412 0418 0416 0414 ; Movimiento de los Efluentes Radiactivos en Aguas Naturales en Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honstead, J. F.; Foster, R. F.; Bierschenk, W. H. [Hanford Laboratories Operation, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1960-07-01

    The Hanford plant is located in a semi-arid region on a very thick bed of unconsolidated water-deposited sediments resting on the basalt bedrock. This material may be considered in two geologic units, the lower bed being much less permeable than the upper. The Columbia River flows through the plant area and it is first used for human consumption about 55 km downstream from the last reactor plant. Low-level effluent from the reactors is discharged into the Columbia River after a one-to-three hours' hold-up period in retention basins. More than 60 radioisotopes have been identified in the effluent, nearly all of very short half-life. Depletion of various radioisotopes in river water by mechanisms other than decay is observed. This averages about 40% in the 55 km between the reactors and Pasco and is ascribed to biological assimilation and sedimentation processes. Low-level waste solutions from chemical processing plants are discharged into the ground where they seep through 70 to 120 m of sediments before reaching the local water table. Most of the radioactive material is immobilized by adsorption or other reactions during passage through the soil. The water and the few contaminants that reach the water-table move with the ground water towards the Columbia River. The rate and direction of travel are determined by the form of the water-table surface and the hydraulic characteristics of the transmitting aquifers. The local water-table configuration has been radically affected by the disposal of large volumes of water. From the gradient and the measured permeabilities of the aquifers an average 'travel time' for water of 180 years is estimated. Is is recognized that the maximum velocity may be several times the average. However, the effect of adsorption or other reactions is to greatly slow down the movement of dissolved material relative to the rate of movement of the water. No movement of fission products from the disposal sites to the river has been detected. (author

  19. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.; Allen, C.R.; Kruger, O.L.; Weber, E.T.

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to immobilize pretreated Hanford high-level waste and transuranic waste in borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters. Testing is being conducted in the HWVP Technology Development Project to ensure that adapted technologies are applicable to the candidate Hanford wastes and to generate information for waste form qualification. Empirical modeling is being conducted to define a glass composition range consistent with process and waste form qualification requirements. Laboratory studies are conducted to determine process stream properties, characterize the redox chemistry of the melter feed as a basis for controlling melt foaming and evaluate zeolite sorption materials for process waste treatment. Pilot-scale tests have been performed with simulated melter feed to access filtration for solids removal from process wastes, evaluate vitrification process performance and assess offgas equipment performance. Process equipment construction materials are being selected based on literature review, corrosion testing, and performance in pilot-scale testing. 3 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Estimation of natural ground water recharge for the performance assessment of a low-level waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kincaid, C.T.; Gee, G.W.

    1995-03-01

    In 1994, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated the Recharge Task, under the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project, to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Recharge Task was established to address the issue of ground water recharge in and around the LLW facility and throughout the Hanford Site as it affects the unconfined aquifer under the facility. The objectives of this report are to summarize the current knowledge of natural ground water recharge at the Hanford Site and to outline the work that must be completed in order to provide defensible estimates of recharge for use in the performance assessment of this LLW disposal facility. Recharge studies at the Hanford Site indicate that recharge rates are highly variable, ranging from nearly zero to greater than 100 mm/yr depending on precipitation, vegetative cover, and soil types. Coarse-textured soils without plants yielded the greatest recharge. Finer-textured soils, with or without plants, yielded the least. Lysimeters provided accurate, short-term measurements of recharge as well as water-balance data for the soil-atmosphere interface and root zone. Tracers provided estimates of longer-term average recharge rates in undisturbed settings. Numerical models demonstrated the sensitivity of recharge rates to different processes and forecast recharge rates for different conditions. All of these tools (lysimetry, tracers, and numerical models) are considered vital to the development of defensible estimates of natural ground water recharge rates for the performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility at the Hanford Site

  1. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DADO MA

    2008-07-31

    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

  2. Development Of A Macro-Batch Qualification Strategy For The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, Connie C.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has evaluated the existing waste feed qualification strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) based on experience from the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) waste qualification program. The current waste qualification programs for each of the sites are discussed in the report to provide a baseline for comparison. Recommendations on strategies are then provided that could be implemented at Hanford based on the successful Macrobatch qualification strategy utilized at SRS to reduce the risk of processing upsets or the production of a staged waste campaign that does not meet the processing requirements of the WTP. Considerations included the baseline WTP process, as well as options involving Direct High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) processing, and the potential use of a Tank Waste Characterization and Staging Facility (TWCSF). The main objectives of the Hanford waste feed qualification program are to demonstrate compliance with the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), determine waste processability, and demonstrate unit operations at a laboratory scale. Risks to acceptability and successful implementation of this program, as compared to the DWPF Macro-Batch qualification strategy, include: Limitations of mixing/blending capability of the Hanford Tank Farm; The complexity of unit operations (i.e., multiple chemical and mechanical separations processes) involved in the WTP pretreatment qualification process; The need to account for effects of blending of LAW and HLW streams, as well as a recycle stream, within the PT unit operations; and The reliance on only a single set of unit operations demonstrations with the radioactive qualification sample. This later limitation is further complicated because of the 180-day completion requirement for all of the necessary waste feed qualification steps. The primary recommendations/changes include the

  3. Closed recirculation-Water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Hamza B.; Ben Ali, Salah; Saad, Mohamed A.; Traish, Massud R.

    2005-01-01

    This water treatment is a practical work applied in the center, for a closed recirculation-water system. The system had experienced a serious corrosion problem, due to the use of inadequate water. This work includes chemical preparation for the system. Water treatment, special additives, and follow-up, which resulted in the stability of the case. This work can be applied specially for closed recirculation warm, normal, and chilled water. (author)

  4. Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment Alternatives March 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WODRICH, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently planning to retrieve, pretreat, immobilize and safely dispose of 53 million gallons of highly radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford Site. The DOE plan is a two-phased approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste. Phase 1 is a proof-of-concept/commercial demonstration-scale effort whose objectives are to: demonstrate, the technical and business viability of using privatized facilities to treat Hanford tank waste; define and maintain required levels of radiological, nuclear, process and occupational safety; maintain environmental protection and compliance; and substantially reduce life-cycle costs and time required to treat Hanford tank waste. The Phase 1 effort consists of Part A and Part B. On September 25, 1996 (Reference 1), DOE signed a contract with BNFL, Inc. (BNFL) to commence with Phase 1, Part A. In August 1998, BNFL was authorized to proceed with Phase I, Part 6-1, a 24-month design phase that will-provide sufficient engineering and financial maturity to establish fixed-unit prices and financing terms for tank waste processing services in privately-owned and -operated facilities. By August 2000, DOE will decide whether to authorize BNFL to proceed with construction and operation of the proposed processing facilities, or pursue a different path. To support of the decision, DOE is evaluating alternatives to potentially enhance the BNFL tank waste processing contract, as well as, developing an alternate path forward should DOE decide to not continue the BNFL contract. The decision on whether to continue with the current privatization strategy (BNFL contract) or to pursue an alternate can not be made until the evaluation process leading up to the decision on whether to authorize BNFL to proceed with construction and operation (known as the Part 8-2 decision) is completed. The evaluation process includes reviewing and evaluating the information BNFL is

  5. Biosorption treatment of brackish water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizwan, M.; Ali, M.; Tariq, M.I.; Rehman, F.U.; Karim, A.; Makshoof, M.; Farooq, R.

    2010-01-01

    Biosorptivity of different agricultural wastes have been evaluated for the treatment of brackish water and a new method, based on the principle of bio-sorption has been described. Wastes of the Saccharum officinarum, Moringa oleifera, Triticum aestivcum and Oryza sativa have been used in raw forms as well as after converting them into ash and activated carbon as biosorbents for treatment of brackish water in this study. Samples of brackish water have been analyzed before and after treatment for quality control parameters of water. A significant Improvement has been observed in quality control parameters of water after treatment. pH of the water samples slightly increased from 7.68 to 7.97 with different treatments. A substantial decrease in conductivity,. TDS, TH, concentrations of cations and anions was observed in the samples of brackish water after treatment with different biosorbents. (author)

  6. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES--INTEGRATED LIFE-CYCLE OPTIMIZATION INITIATIVES FOR THE HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT--WASTE TREATMENT PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auclair, K. D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the ongoing integrated life-cycle optimization efforts to achieve both design flexibility and design stability for activities associated with the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford. Design flexibility is required to support the Department of Energy Office of River Protection Balance of Mission objectives, and design stability to meet the Waste Treatment Plant construction and commissioning requirements in order to produce first glass in 2007. The Waste Treatment Plant is a large complex project that is driven by both technology and contractual requirements. It is also part of a larger overall mission, as a component of the River Protection Project, which is driven by programmatic requirements and regulatory, legal, and fiscal constraints. These issues are further complicated by the fact that both of the major contractors involved have a different contract type with DOE, and neither has a contract with the other. This combination of technical and programmatic drivers, constraints, and requirements will continue to provide challenges and opportunities for improvement and optimization. The Bechtel National, Inc. team is under contract to engineer, procure, construct, commission and test the Waste Treatment Plant on or ahead of schedule, at or under cost, and with a throughput capacity equal to or better than specified. The Department of Energy is tasked with the long term mission of waste retrieval, treatment, and disposal. While each mission is a compliment and inextricably linked to one another, they are also at opposite ends of the spectrum, in terms of expectations of one another. These mission requirements, that are seemingly in opposition to one another, pose the single largest challenge and opportunity for optimization: one of balance. While it is recognized that design maturation and optimization are the normal responsibility of any engineering firm responsible for any given project, the aspects of integrating requirements and the management

  7. Annual Hanford Site environmental permitting status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The information contained and/or referenced in this Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report (Status Report) addresses the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) of 1971 and Condition II.W. of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 Permit, Dangerous Waste Portion (DW Portion). Condition II.W. of the RCRA Permit specifies the Permittees are responsible for all other applicable federal, state, and local permits for the development and operation of the Hanford Facility. Condition II.W. of the RCRA Permit specifies that the Permittees are to use their best efforts to obtain such permits. For the purposes of permit condition, 'best efforts' means submittal of documentation and/or approval(s) in accordance with schedules specified in applicable regulations, or as determined through negotiations with the applicable regulatory agencies. This Status Report includes information on all existing and anticipated environmental permitting. Environmental permitting required by RCRA, the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of 1984, and non-RCRA permitting (solid waste handling, Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Clean Water Act Amendments of 1987, Washington State waste discharge, and onsite sewage system) is addressed. Information on RCRA and non-RCRA is current as of July 31, 1998. For the purposes of RCRA and the State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act of 1976 [as administered through the Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Active Code (WAC) 173-303], the Hanford Facility is considered a single facility. As such, the Hanford Facility has been issued one US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/State Identification Number (WA7890008967). This EPA/State identification number encompasses over 60 treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) units. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) has been delegated authority by the EPA to administer the RCRA, including mixed waste authority. The RCRA permitting approach for

  8. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site Facilities: Progress report for the period April 1--June 30, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume set of documents that describes the progress of 10 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1988. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled during this period in the 100-N Area and near the 216-A-36B Crib

  9. Water curative treatment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridrihsons, J.

    2011-01-01

    The device is made of two water containers (water that is intended to be activated) which are connected with a glass pipe in lower parts. In these containers disinfectant ultraviolet radiance “U” type luminescent light bulbs are placed which are connected to a mono-phase electrical power network from the shell surface spiral steel wire electrodes through a voltage duplicator. In water such harmless chemical composition coagulator is placed which automatically in the lower part of the connecting glass pipe creates residue hydra-gate that separates fractions of anion and cation. The lower parts of the containers are equipped with coal filter taps; mixing the anion and cation in equal proportions allows collecting single fractions of activated water selectively and gain drinking water which is refined from residues and processed antibacterially. (author)

  10. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Woodruff, R.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Site Environmental Report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations. The report also highlights major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet reporting requirements and Guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) an to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to (a) describe the Hanford Site and its mission, (b) summarize the status in 1993 of compliance with environmental regulations, (c) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site, (d) discuss estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1993 Hanford activities, (e) present information on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance, including ground-water protection and monitoring, (f) discuss activities to ensure quality. More detailed information can be found in the body of the report, the appendixes, and the cited references.

  11. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Site Environmental Report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations. The report also highlights major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet reporting requirements and Guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) an to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to (a) describe the Hanford Site and its mission, (b) summarize the status in 1993 of compliance with environmental regulations, (c) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site, (d) discuss estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1993 Hanford activities, (e) present information on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance, including ground-water protection and monitoring, (f) discuss activities to ensure quality. More detailed information can be found in the body of the report, the appendixes, and the cited references

  12. Comparison Of Vented And Absolute Pressure Transducers For Water-Level Monitoring In Hanford Site Central Plateau Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcdonald, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, absolute pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-level measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and absolute pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The

  13. Hanford recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  14. Defining an optimum pumping-time requirement for sampling ground-water wells on the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharnhorst, N.L.

    1982-04-01

    The objective was to determine the optimum time period necessary to pump water from a well before a representative sample of the ground water can be obtained. It was assumed that a representative sample has been collected if the concentration of chemical parameters is the same in a number of samples taken consecutively, so that the concentration of parameters does not vary with time of collection. Ground-water samples used in this project were obtained by pumping selected wells on the Hanford Site. At each well, samples were taken at two minute intervals, and on each sample various chemical analyses were performed. Samples were checked for pH, sulfate, iron, specific conductivity, chloride, nitrate and alkalinity. The data showed that pH, alkalinity, sulfate and specific conductivity levels stabilized almost immediately after pumping of the well began. In many wells, the chloride and nitrate levels were unstable throughout the 38-minute sampling period. Iron levels, however, did not behave in either fashion. The concentration of iron in the samples was high when pumping began but dropped rapidly as pumping continued. The best explanation for this is that iron is flushed from the sides of the casing into the well when pumping begins. After several minutes of pumping, most of the dissolved iron is washed from the well casing and the iron concentration reaches a stable plateau representative of the iron concentration in the ground water.Since iron concentration takes longest to stabilize, the optimum pumping time for a well is based on the iron stabilization time for that well

  15. Crossflow Ultra-filter Module Draining and Flush Testing for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - Lessons Learned in De-clogging Crossflow Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townson, P.S.; Brackenbury, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes test work conducted in order to study crossflow ultra-filter module draining and flushing for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. The objective of the testing was to demonstrate that the current design, with a flush tank at elevation 29.9 m (98'-00'') has enough pressure head to drain (to a minimum elevation ∼1.5 m [∼5'-00'']) and clean out the ultra-filter tube side. Without demonstrating this, a potential failure of the flush system could cause immovable solids to plug the tubular membranes of the filters causing serious adverse impacts to plant availability and/or throughput, and could permit deleterious flammable gas accumulations. In conjunction with the water flush, the plant also utilizes air purging to prevent build up of flammable gases. Two filter configurations were investigated, one being the baseline horizontal layout and one being an alternative vertical layout. The slurry used in the tests was a non radioactive simulant (kaolin-bentonite clay), and it mimicked the rheological properties of the real waste slurry. The filter modules were full scale items, being 2.44 m (8') in length and containing 241 by 1.3 cm (1/2'') id sintered stainless steel filter tubes. (authors)

  16. Evaluation of the 183-D Water Filtration Facility for Bat Roosts and Development of a Mitigation Strategy, 100-D Area, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C. T.; Gano, K. A.; Lucas, J. G.

    2011-03-07

    The 183-D Water Filtration Facility is located in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site, north of Richland, Washington. It was used to provide filtered water for cooling the 105-D Reactor and supplying fire-protection and drinking water for all facilities in the 100-D Area. The facility has been inactive since the 1980s and is now scheduled for demolition. Therefore, an evaluation was conducted to determine if any part of the facility was being used as roosting habitat by bats.

  17. 1995 project of the year Hanford Environmental compliance project nomination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.R.

    1996-02-01

    The completion of the Hanford Environmental Compliance (HEC) Project in December 1995 brought to a successful close a long line of major contributions to environmental cleanup. Not since the early days of the Hanford Site during and shortly after World War 11 had such a large group of diverse construction activities, with a common goal, been performed at Hanford. Key to this success was the unique combination of 14 subprojects under the HEC Project which afforded the flexibility to address evolving subproject requirements. This strategy resulted in the accomplishment of the HEC Project stakeholders` objectives on an aggressive schedule, at a $33 million cost savings to the customer. The primary objectives of the HEC Project were to upgrade selected Hanford Site facilities and systems to bring them into compliance with current environmental standards and regulations. The HEC Project contributed significantly towards the Hanford site compliance with Clean Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements. It provided, in part, those construction activities required to comply with those requirements in the areas of liquid and solid waste treatment and disposal, waste characterization, and groundwater monitoring.

  18. 1995 project of the year Hanford Environmental compliance project nomination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.R.

    1996-02-01

    The completion of the Hanford Environmental Compliance (HEC) Project in December 1995 brought to a successful close a long line of major contributions to environmental cleanup. Not since the early days of the Hanford Site during and shortly after World War 11 had such a large group of diverse construction activities, with a common goal, been performed at Hanford. Key to this success was the unique combination of 14 subprojects under the HEC Project which afforded the flexibility to address evolving subproject requirements. This strategy resulted in the accomplishment of the HEC Project stakeholders' objectives on an aggressive schedule, at a $33 million cost savings to the customer. The primary objectives of the HEC Project were to upgrade selected Hanford Site facilities and systems to bring them into compliance with current environmental standards and regulations. The HEC Project contributed significantly towards the Hanford site compliance with Clean Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements. It provided, in part, those construction activities required to comply with those requirements in the areas of liquid and solid waste treatment and disposal, waste characterization, and groundwater monitoring

  19. Hanford 100-N Area Tracer Study Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, S.P.; Bedi, G.S.; Martinez, P.; Ervin, K.

    1996-09-01

    This document provides an engineering tracer study final report for the determination of contact time for the disinfection process at Group A Nontransient Noncommunity water treatment plant for the 100- N Water Plant (located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington). The purpose of this study is to determine the actual detention time within the plant clearwell, and the disinfection contact time at several clearwell effluent flow rates

  20. Contaminated water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for processing of a liquid ("contaminant liquid") containing water and containing urine and/or other contaminants in a two step process. Urine, or a contaminated liquid similar to and/or containing urine and thus having a relatively high salt and urea content is passed through an activated carbon filter to provide a resulting liquid, to remove most of the organic molecules. The resulting liquid is passed through a semipermeable membrane from a membrane first side to a membrane second side, where a fortified drink having a lower water concentration (higher osmotic potential) than the resulting liquid is positioned. Osmotic pressure differential causes the water, but not most of the remaining inorganic (salts) contaminant(s) to pass through the membrane to the fortified drink. Optionally, the resulting liquid is allowed to precipitate additional organic molecules before passage through the membrane.

  1. Mine water treatment in Donbass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarenkov, P A; Anisimov, V M; Krol, V A

    1980-10-01

    About 2,000,000 m$SUP$3 of mine water are discharged by coal mines yearly to surface waters in the Donbass. Mine water in the region is rich in mineral salts and suspended matter (coal and rock particles). The DonUGI Institute developed a system of mine water treatment which permits the percentage of suspended matter to be reduced to 1.5 mg/l. The treated mine water can be used in fire fighting and in dust suppression systems in coal mines. A scheme of the water treatment system is shown. It consists of the following stages: reservoir of untreated mine water, chamber where mine water is mixed with reagents, primary sedimentation tanks, sand filters, and chlorination. Aluminium sulphate is used as a coagulation agent. To intensify coagulation polyacrylamide is added. Technical specifications of surface structures in which water treatment is carried out are discussed. Standardized mine water treatment systems with capacities of 600 m$SUP$3/h, with 900, 1200, 1500, 1800 and 2100 m$SUP$3/h capacities are used. (In Russian)

  2. Fluor Hanford Project Focused Progress at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HANSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    Fluor Hanford is making significant progress in accelerating cleanup at the Hanford site. This progress consistently aligns with a new strategic vision established by the U.S. Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office (RL)

  3. Mobile hot cell transition design phase study for radioactive waste treatment on the Hanford reservation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation site, 4 caissons in under ground storage contain approximately 23 cubic meters of Transuranic (TRU) waste, in over 5,000 small packages. The retrieval of these wastes presents a number of very difficult issues, including the configuration of the vaults, approximately 50,000 curies of activity, high dose rates, and damaged/degraded waste packages. The waste will require remote retrieval and processing sufficient to produce certifiable RH-TRU waste packages. This RH-TRU will be packaged for staging on site until certification by CCP is completed to authorize shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The project has introduced AREVA' s innovative Hot Mobile Cell (HMC) technology to perform size reduction, sorting, characterization, and packaging of the RH waste stream at the point of generation, the retrieval site in the field. This approach minimizes dose and hazard exposure to workers that is usually associated with this operation. The HMC can also be used to provide employee protection, weather protection, and capacity improvements similar to those realized in general burial ground. AREVA TA and his partner AFS will provide this technology based on the existing HMCs developed and operated in France: - ERFB (Bituminized Waste Drum Retrieval Facility): ERFB was built specifically for retrieving the bituminized waste drums (approximately 6,000 stored in trenches in the North zone on the Marcoule site (in operation since 2001). - ERCF (Waste Drum Recovery and Packaging Facility): The ERCF was built specifically to retrieve bituminized waste drums stored in 35 pits located in the south area on Marcoule site (in operation) - FOSSEA (Legacy Waste Removal and Trench Cleanup): The FOSSEA project consists of the retrieval of waste stored on the Basic Nuclear Facility. Waste from the 56 trenches will be inspected, characterised, and if necessary processed or repackaged, and

  4. Implementation of Recommendations from the One System Comparative Evaluation of the Hanford Tank Farms and Waste Treatment Plant Safety Bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, Richard L.; Niemi, Belinda J.; Paik, Ingle K.; Buczek, Jeffrey A.; Lietzow, J.; McCoy, F.; Beranek, F.; Gupta, M.

    2013-01-01

    A Comparative Evaluation was conducted for One System Integrated Project Team to compare the safety bases for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project (WTP) and Tank Operations Contract (TOC) (i.e., Tank Farms) by an Expert Review Team. The evaluation had an overarching purpose to facilitate effective integration between WTP and TOC safety bases. It was to provide One System management with an objective evaluation of identified differences in safety basis process requirements, guidance, direction, procedures, and products (including safety controls, key safety basis inputs and assumptions, and consequence calculation methodologies) between WTP and TOC. The evaluation identified 25 recommendations (Opportunities for Integration). The resolution of these recommendations resulted in 16 implementation plans. The completion of these implementation plans will help ensure consistent safety bases for WTP and TOC along with consistent safety basis processes. procedures, and analyses. and should increase the likelihood of a successful startup of the WTP. This early integration will result in long-term cost savings and significant operational improvements. In addition, the implementation plans lead to the development of eight new safety analysis methodologies that can be used at other U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) complex sites where URS Corporation is involved

  5. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter. Preliminary settling and resuspension testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    The full-scale, room-temperature Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) High-Level Waste (HLW) melter riser test system was successfully operated with silicone oil and magnetite particles at a loading of 0.1 vol %. Design and construction of the system and instrumentation, and the selection and preparation of simulant materials, are briefly reviewed. Three experiments were completed. A prototypic pour rate was maintained, based on the volumetric flow rate. Settling and accumulation of magnetite particles were observed at the bottom of the riser and along the bottom of the throat after each experiment. The height of the accumulated layer at the bottom of the riser, after the first pouring experiment, approximated the expected level given the solids loading of 0.1 vol %. More detailed observations of particle resuspension and settling were made during and after the third pouring experiment. The accumulated layer of particles at the bottom of the riser appeared to be unaffected after a pouring cycle of approximately 15 minutes at the prototypic flow rate. The accumulated layer of particles along the bottom of the throat was somewhat reduced after the same pouring cycle. Review of the time-lapse recording showed that some of the settling particles flow from the riser into the throat. This may result in a thicker than expected settled layer in the throat.

  6. Bench scale experiments for the remediation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, Michael [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-11

    The Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The plan for disposition of this stream during baseline operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. The primary reason to recycle this stream is so that the semi-volatile 99Tc isotope eventually becomes incorporated into the glass. This stream also contains non-radioactive salt components that are problematic in the melter, so diversion of this stream to another process would eliminate recycling of these salts and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. This diversion from recycling this stream within WTP would have the effect of decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The concept being tested here involves removing the 99Tc so that the decontaminated aqueous stream, with the problematic salts, can be disposed elsewhere.

  7. CY2000 Hanford Site Mixed Waste Land Disposal Restrictions Report Vol. 1 Storage Report and Vol 2: Characterization and Treatment Report [SEC 1 thru SEC 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    This volume presents information about the storage and minimization of mixed waste and potential sources for the generation of additional mixed waste. This information is presented in accordance with Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1996) Milestone M-26-01K. It is Volume 1 of a two-volume report on the status of Hanford Site land-disposal-restricted mixed waste, other mixed waste, and other waste that the parties have agreed to include in this report. This volume also contains the approval page for both volumes and assumptions, accomplishments, and some other information that also pertains to waste characterization and treatment, which are addressed in Volume 2. Appendix A lists the land disposal restriction (LDR) reporting requirements and explains where they are addressed in this report. The reporting period for this document is from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2000

  8. Water treatments of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, John; Moore Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses and reviews nine water technologies. They are solar desalination, synthetic aquaporin membranes, microbial fuel cell and desalination, forward osmosis, resource recovery and brine managment, 'Smart' water grids, micropollutant treatment, the Cities of the Future program and high retention membrane bioreactors.

  9. Membrane technology water treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruzdev, E. N.; Starikov, E.N.

    2009-01-01

    The suggested technical solution, in contrast with the traditional treatment methods using pressure filtration and sorption cleaning, can be applied with minimal used for equipment, stable production and the use of reagents, prevention of the formation of waste water with high mineral content and avoid the need for neutralization of the main stream of waste water

  10. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  11. Scale-Up Information for Gas-Phase Ammonia Treatment of Uranium in the Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhong, Lirong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomle, Jonathan N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Uranium is present in the vadose zone at the Hanford Central Plateau and is of concern for protection of groundwater. The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau identified gas-phase treatment and geochemical manipulation as potentially effective treatment approaches for uranium and technetium in the Hanford Central Plateau vadose zone. Based on laboratory evaluation, use of ammonia vapor was selected as the most promising uranium treatment candidate for further development and field testing. While laboratory tests have shown that ammonia treatment effectively reduces the mobility of uranium, additional information is needed to enable deployment of this technology for remediation. Of importance for field applications are aspects of the technology associated with effective distribution of ammonia to a targeted treatment zone, understanding the fate of injected ammonia and its impact on subsurface conditions, and identifying effective monitoring approaches. In addition, information is needed to select equipment and operational parameters for a field design. As part of development efforts for the ammonia technology for remediation of vadose zone uranium contamination, field scale-up issues were identified and have been addressed through a series of laboratory and modeling efforts. This report presents a conceptual description for field application of the ammonia treatment process, engineering calculations to support treatment design, ammonia transport information, field application monitoring approaches, and a discussion of processes affecting the fate of ammonia in the subsurface. The report compiles this information from previous publications and from recent research and development activities. The intent of this report is to provide technical information about these scale-up elements to support the design and operation of a field test for the ammonia treatment technology.

  12. Deploying in situ bioremediation at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truex, M.J.; Johnson, C.D.; Newcomer, D.R.; Doremus, L.A.; Hooker, B.S.; Peyton, B.M.; Skeen, R.S.; Chilakapati, A.

    1994-11-01

    An innovative in-situ bioremediation technology was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to destroy nitrate and carbon tetrachloride (CC1 4 ) in the Hanford ground water. The goal of this in-situ treatment process is to stimulate native microorganisms to degrade nitrate and CCl 4 . Nutrient solutions are distributed in the contaminated aquifer to create a biological treatment zone. This technology is being demonstrated at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site to provide the design, operating, and cost information needed to assess its effectiveness in contaminated ground water. The process design and field operations for demonstration of this technology are influenced by the physical, chemical, and microbiological properties observed at the site. A description of the technology is presented including the well network design, nutrient injection equipment, and means for controlling the hydraulics and microbial reactions of the treatment process

  13. Conceptual design of a regional water quality screening model. [RFF; Reach; HANFORD; ARQUAL; SEAS; NASQUAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M J

    1981-01-01

    This water quality assessment methodology is intended to predict concentrations at future times and to estimate the impacts on water quality of energy-related activities (including industrial boilers). Estimates of impacts on water quality at future times are based on incremental changes in pollutant inputs to the body water. Important features of the model are: use of measured concentrations to account for existing conditions; consideration of incremental changes in pollutant loads; emphasis on the energy sector and industrial boilers; analysis restricted to streams only; no attempt to fully account for pollutant behavior; and flexible design, so that future improvements can be incorporated. The basic approach is very similar to the one used by Argonne's ARQUAL model but will allow more complex pollutant behavior and more flexibility in use. (PSB)

  14. Sludge pumping in water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Manuel, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    In water treatment processes is frequent to separate residual solids, with sludge shape, and minimize its volume in a later management. the technologies to applicate include pumping across pipelines, even to long distance. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), the management of these sludges is very important because their characteristics affect load losses calculation. Pumping sludge can modify its behavior and pumping frequency can concern treatment process. This paper explains advantages and disadvantages of different pumps to realize transportation sludge operations. (Author) 11 refs.

  15. High Throughput Plasma Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujovic, Selman; Foster, John

    2016-10-01

    The troublesome emergence of new classes of micro-pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors, poses challenges for conventional water treatment systems. In an effort to address these contaminants and to support water reuse in drought stricken regions, new technologies must be introduced. The interaction of water with plasma rapidly mineralizes organics by inducing advanced oxidation in addition to other chemical, physical and radiative processes. The primary barrier to the implementation of plasma-based water treatment is process volume scale up. In this work, we investigate a potentially scalable, high throughput plasma water reactor that utilizes a packed bed dielectric barrier-like geometry to maximize the plasma-water interface. Here, the water serves as the dielectric medium. High-speed imaging and emission spectroscopy are used to characterize the reactor discharges. Changes in methylene blue concentration and basic water parameters are mapped as a function of plasma treatment time. Experimental results are compared to electrostatic and plasma chemistry computations, which will provide insight into the reactor's operation so that efficiency can be assessed. Supported by NSF (CBET 1336375).

  16. Preparation and evaporation of Hanford Waste treatment plant direct feed low activity waste effluent management facility simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Howe, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-07

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream involves concentrating the condensate in a new evaporator at the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and returning it to the LAW melter. The LMOGC stream will contain components, e.g. halides and sulfates, that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in glass waste forms, and present a material corrosion concern. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components are expected to accumulate in the LMOGC stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfates in the glass and is a key objective of this program. In order to determine the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, determine the formation and distribution of key regulatoryimpacting constituents, and generate an aqueous stream that can be used in testing of the subsequent immobilization step. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of the LMOGC stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to (1) prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter Off-gas Condensate expected during DFLAW operations, (2) demonstrate evaporation in order to predict the final composition of the effluents from the EMF

  17. Risk management program for the 283-W water treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    This Risk Management (RM) Program covers the 283-W Water Treatment Facility (283W Facility), located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. A RM Program is necessary for this facility because it stores chlorine, a listed substance, in excess of or has the potential to exceed the threshold quantities defined in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 68 (EPA, 1998). The RM Program contains data that will be used to prepare a RM Plan, which is required by 40 CFR 68. The RM Plan is a summary of the RM Program information, contained within this document, and will be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ultimately for distribution to the public. The RM Plan will be prepared and submitted separately from this document

  18. MINERALIZING, STEAM REFORMING TREATMENT OF HANFORD LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE (a.k.a. INEEL/EXT-05-02526)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. L. Olson; N. R. Soelberg; D. W. Marshall; G. L. Anderson

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization''. The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 2-5, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.4 hours of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process achieved

  19. The Successful Utilization Of Commercial Treatment Capabilities To Disposition Hanford's No-Path-Forward Suspect Transuranic Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackford, L.T.; Catlow, R.L.; West, L.D.; Collins, M.S.; Romine, L.D.; Moak, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) has adopted the 2015 Vision for Cleanup of the Hanford Site. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company's (CHPRC) Waste and Fuels Management Project (W and FMP) and their partners support this mission by providing centralized waste management services for the Hanford Site waste generating organizations. At the time of the CHPRC contract award (August 2008) slightly more than 9,000 cubic meters (m 3 ) of legacy waste was defined as ''no-path-forward waste.'' A significant portion of this waste (7,650 m 3 ) comprised wastes with up to 50 grams of special nuclear materials (SNM) in oversized packages recovered during retrieval operations and large glove boxes removed from Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Through a collaborative effort between the DOE, CHPRC, and Perma-Fix Environmental Services, Inc. (PESI), pathways for these problematic wastes were developed and are currently being implemented.

  20. Waste water treatment by flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Badulescu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The flotation is succesfully applied as a cleaning method of waste water refineries, textile fabrics (tissues, food industry, paper plants, oils plants, etc. In the flotation process with the released air, first of all, the water is saturated with air compressed at pressures between 0,3 – 3 bar, followed by the relaxed phenomenon of the air-water solution in a flotation cell with slowly flowing. The supersaturation could be applied in the waste water treatment. In this case the waste water, which is in the atmospheric equilibrum, is introduced in a closed space where the depression is 0,3 – 0,5 bar. Our paper presents the hypobaric flotation cell and the technological flow of cleaning of domestic waste waters

  1. Site-Specific Seismic Site Response Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, Alan C.; Reidel, Steve P.

    2005-02-24

    This interim report documents the collection of site-specific geologic and geophysical data characterizing the Waste Treatment Plant site and the modeling of the site-specific structure response to earthquake ground motions.

  2. Hanford Site Storm Water Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation Report - July 1, 1997 Through June 30, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landon, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    On September 9, 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued General Permit No. WA-R-00-000F, ''Authorization to Discharge Under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity'' (EPA 1992) to the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). As required by General Permit, Section IV, Part D, Section 4.c (EPA 1992), an annual report must be developed by RL and retained onsite to verify that the requirements listed in the General Permit are implemented. This document fulfills the requirement to prepare an annual report. This report also describes the methods used to conduct the Storm Water Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation (SWCSCE) as required in the General Permit, Part IV, Section D.4.c (EPA 1992); identifies the pollution prevention team (PPT) (Appendix A); summarizes the results of the compliance evaluation (Appendix B); and documents significant leaks and spills (Appendix C)

  3. Delisting strategy for the Hanford Site 242-A Evaporator PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This document describes the strategy that the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office intends to use in preparing the delisting petition for the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility. Because the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility will not be operational until 1994, the delisting petition will be structured as an up-front petition based on the ''multiple waste treatment facility'' approach outline in the 1985 US Environmental Protection Agency's Petitions to Delist Hazardous Waste. The 242-A evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility effluent characterization data will not be available to support the delisting petition, because the delisting petition will be submitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency before start-up of the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility. Therefore, the delisting petition will be based on data collected during the pilot plant testing for the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility. This pilot plant testing will be conducted on synthetic waste. The composition of the synthetic waste will be based on: (1) constituents of regulatory concern, and (2) on process knowledge. The pilot plant testing will be performed to determine the removal efficiencies of the process equipment at concentrations greater than reasonably could be expected in the actual waste. This strategy document also describes the logic used to develop the synthetic waste, to develop the pilot plant testing program, and to prepare the delisting petition. This strategy document also described how full-scale operating data will be collected during initial operation of the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility to verify information presented in the delisting petition

  4. DESIGN OF THE DEMOSNTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAN BEEK JE

    2008-01-01

    In June 2004, the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) was initiated with the intent to design, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat low-activity tank waste from Hanford Tank 241-S-109. The DBVS facility uses In-Container Vitrification(trademark) (ICV(trademark)) at the core of the treatment process. The basic process steps combine liquid low-activity waste (LAW) and glassformers; dry the mixture; and then vitrify the mixture in a batch feed-while-melt process in a refractory lined steel container. Off-gases are processed through a state-of-the-art air pollution control system including sintered-metal filtration, thermal oxidation, acid gas scrubbing, and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and high-efficiency gas adsorber (HEGA) filtration. Testing has focused on development and validation of the waste dryer, ICV, and sintered-metal filters (SMFs) equipment, operations enhancements, and glass formulation. With a parallel testing and design process, testing has allowed improvements to the DBVS equipment configuration and operating methodology, since its original inception. Design improvements include optimization of refractory panels in the ICV, simplifying glassformer addition equipment, increasing the number of waste feed chutes to the ICV, and adding capability for remote clean-out of piping, In addition, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has provided an independent review of the entire DBVS process. While the review did not find any fatal flaws, some technical issues were identified that required a re-evaluation of the DBVS design and subsequent changes to the design. A 100 percent design package for the pilot plant will be completed and submitted to DOE for review in early 2008 that incorporates process improvements substantiated through testing and reviews. This paper provides a description of the bulk vitrification process and a discussion of major equipment design changes that have occurred based on full

  5. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter: Summary of FY2016 experiements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Fowley, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Miller, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Five experiments were completed with the full-scale, room temperature Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) high-level waste (HLW) melter riser test system to observe particle flow and settling in support of a crystal tolerant approach to melter operation. A prototypic pour rate was maintained based on the volumetric flow rate. Accumulation of particles was observed at the bottom of the riser and along the bottom of the throat after each experiment. Measurements of the accumulated layer thicknesses showed that the settled particles at the bottom of the riser did not vary in thickness during pouring cycles or idle periods. Some of the settled particles at the bottom of the throat were re-suspended during subsequent pouring cycles, and settled back to approximately the same thickness after each idle period. The cause of the consistency of the accumulated layer thicknesses is not year clear, but was hypothesized to be related to particle flow back to the feed tank. Additional experiments reinforced the observation of particle flow along a considerable portion of the throat during idle periods. Limitations of the system are noted in this report and may be addressed via future modifications. Follow-on experiments will be designed to evaluate the impact of pouring rate on particle re-suspension, the influence of feed tank agitation on particle accumulation, and the effect of changes in air lance positioning on the accumulation and re-suspension of particles at the bottom of the riser. A method for sampling the accumulated particles will be developed to support particle size distribution analyses. Thicker accumulated layers will be intentionally formed via direct addition of particles to select areas of the system to better understand the ability to continue pouring and re-suspend particles. Results from the room temperature system will be correlated with observations and data from the Research Scale Melter (RSM) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  6. Experimental Challenges and Successes in Measuring Aerosol Concentrations at Prototypic Spray Conditions Encountered at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13327

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bontha, J.R.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Kurath, D.E.; Adkins, H.E.; Enderlin, C.W.; Blanchard, J.; Daniel, R.C.; Song, C.; Schonewill, P.P.; Mahoney, L.A.; Buchmiller, W.C.; Boeringa, G.; Jenks, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    To date, majority of the work done on measuring aerosol releases from failure of process piping was done using simple Newtonian fluids and small engineered-nozzles that do not accurately represent the fluids and breaches postulated during accident analysis at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). In addition, the majority of the work conducted in this area relies on in-spray measurements that neglect the effect of splatter and do not yield any information regarding aerosol generation rates from this additional mechanism. In order to estimate aerosol generation rates as well as reduce the uncertainties in estimating the aerosol release fractions over a broad range of breaches, fluid properties and operating conditions encountered at the WTP, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has designed, commissioned, and tested two experimental test stands. The first test stand, referred to as the large-scale test stand, was designed specifically to measure aerosol concentrations and release fractions under prototypic conditions of flow and pressure for a range of breaches postulated in the hazard analysis for 0.076 m (3-inch) process pipes. However, the size of the large-scale test stand, anticipated fluid loss during a breach, experimental risks, and costs associated with hazardous chemical simulant testing limited the large-scale test stand utility to water and a few non-hazardous physical simulants that did not fully span the particle size and rheological properties of the fluids encountered at the WTP. Overcoming these limitations and extending the range of simulants used, required designing and building a smaller test stand, which was installed and operated in a fume hood. This paper presents some of the features of both test stands, the experimental challenges encountered, and successes in measuring aerosol concentration in both test stands over a range of test conditions. (authors)

  7. Environmental status of the Hanford Reservation for CY-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1975-09-01

    Environmental data collected at the Hanford Reservation during 1974 showed continued compliance of Hanford operations with all applicable State and Federal regulations. Data are presented on levels of radioactivity in samples of surface air, drinking water, Columbia River water and other surface waters, soil, and tissues of wild animals and water fowl collected at various locations

  8. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC - 106 Newberry St. SW, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNL), LLC, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  9. Citrus processing waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawash, S; Hafez, A J; El-Diwani, G

    1988-02-01

    The process utilizes biological treatment to decompose organic matter and decreases the COD to a value of 230 ppm, using 161 of air per 1 of treated waste water for a contact time of 2.5 h. Ozone is used subsequently for further purification of the waste water by destroying refractory organics. This reduces the COD to a value of 40 ppm, and consequently also lowers the BOD. Ozone also effectively removed the yellow-brown colour due to humic substances in dissolved or colloidal form; their oxidation leaves the water sparkling. Iron and manganese are also eliminated.

  10. Maximizing Production Capacity from an Ultrafiltration Process at the Hanford Department of Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foust, Henry C.; Holton, Langdon K.; Demick, Laurence E.

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Energy has contracted Bechtel National, Inc. to design, construct and commission a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to treat radioactive slurry currently stored in underground waste storage tanks. A critical element of the waste treatment capacity for the WTP is the proper operation of an ultrafiltration process (UFP). The UFP separates supernate solution from radioactive solids. The solution and solid phases are separately immobilized. An oversight review of the UFP design and operation has identified several methods to improve the capacity of the ultrafiltration process, which will also improve the capacity of the WTP. Areas explored were the basis of design, an analysis of the WTP capacity, process chemistry within the UFP, and UFP process control. This article discusses some of the findings of this oversight review in terms of sodium and solid production, which supports the treatment of low activity waste (LAW) associated with the facility, and solid production, which supports the treatment of high level waste (HLW) associated with the facility

  11. Use of induced polarization to characterize the hydrogeologic framework of the zone of surface‐water/groundwater exchange at the Hanford 300 Area, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Mwakanyamale, Kisa; Lane, John W.; Ward, Andy; Versteeg, Roelof J.

    2010-01-01

    An extensive continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI) survey was conducted along the Columbia River corridor adjacent to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford 300 Area, WA, in order to improve the conceptual model for exchange between surface water and U‐contaminated groundwater. The primary objective was to determine spatial variability in the depth to the Hanford‐Ringold (H‐R) contact, an important lithologic boundary that limits vertical transport of groundwater along the river corridor. Resistivity and induced polarization (IP) measurements were performed along six survey lines parallel to the shore (each greater than 2.5 km in length), with a measurement recorded every 0.5–3.0 m depending on survey speed, resulting in approximately 65,000 measurements. The H‐R contact was clearly resolved in images of the normalized chargeability along the river corridor due to the large contrast in surface area (hence polarizability) of the granular material between the two lithologic units. Cross sections of the lithologic structure along the river corridor reveal a large variation in the thickness of the overlying Hanford unit (the aquifer through which contaminated groundwater discharges to the river) and clearly identify locations along the river corridor where the underlying Ringold unit is exposed to the riverbed. Knowing the distribution of the Hanford and Ringold units along the river corridor substantially improves the conceptual model for the hydrogeologic framework regulating U exchange between groundwater and Columbia River water relative to current models based on projections of data from boreholes on land into the river.

  12. Radionuclide releases to the atmosphere from Hanford Operations, 1944--1972. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeb, C.M.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of radionuclide emissions since 1944 from the Hanford Site. The first step in determining dose is to estimate the amount and timing of radionuclide releases to air and water. This report provides the air release information.

  13. CFD in drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wols, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrodynamic processes largely determine the efficacy of drinking water treatment systems, in particular disinfection systems. A lack of understanding of the hydrodynamics has resulted in suboptimal designs of these systems. The formation of unwanted disinfection-by-products and the energy

  14. Security of water treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsha, C.A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh at Johnstown, Johnstowne, PA (United States)

    2002-06-15

    The safety of the nation's water supply is at risk. Although harm may or may not be done to water sources, the fear is definitely a factor. No matter what size system supplies water, the community will expect increased security. Decisions must be made as to how much will be spent on security and what measures will be taken with the money. Small systems often have a difficult time in finding a direction to focus on. Physical and electronic protection is less involved because of the scale of service. Biological contamination is difficult to prevent if the assailants are determined. Small-scale water storage and low magnitudes of flow increase a contamination threat. Large systems have a size advantage when dealing with biological contamination because of the dilution factor, but physical and electronic protection is more involved. Large-scale systems are more likely to overlook components. A balance is maintained through anything dealing with the public. Having greater assurance that water quality will be maintained comes at the cost of knowing less about how water is protected and treated, and being banned from public land within watersheds that supply drinking water. Whether good or bad ideas are being implemented, security of water treatment facilities is changing. (author)

  15. Security of water treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsha, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The safety of the nation's water supply is at risk. Although harm may or may not be done to water sources, the fear is definitely a factor. No matter what size system supplies water, the community will expect increased security. Decisions must be made as to how much will be spent on security and what measures will be taken with the money. Small systems often have a difficult time in finding a direction to focus on. Physical and electronic protection is less involved because of the scale of service. Biological contamination is difficult to prevent if the assailants are determined. Small-scale water storage and low magnitudes of flow increase a contamination threat. Large systems have a size advantage when dealing with biological contamination because of the dilution factor, but physical and electronic protection is more involved. Large-scale systems are more likely to overlook components. A balance is maintained through anything dealing with the public. Having greater assurance that water quality will be maintained comes at the cost of knowing less about how water is protected and treated, and being banned from public land within watersheds that supply drinking water. Whether good or bad ideas are being implemented, security of water treatment facilities is changing. (author)

  16. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  17. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Technetium Decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Melter Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  18. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Decontamination of Cs, Sr, and Actinides from Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-06

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also substantially decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  19. Formulation and preparation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant direct feed low activity waste Effluent Management Facility core simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  20. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, William R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  1. Field-Derived Hydraulic Properties for Perched-Water Aquifer Wells 299-E33-350 and 299-E33-351, Hanford Site B-Complex Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2014-07-01

    During February and March 2014, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted hydraulic (slug) tests at 200-DV-1 Operable Unit wells 299-E33-350 (C8914) and 299-E33-351 (C8915) as part of B-Complex Area Perched-Water characterization activities at the Hanford Site 200-East Area. During the construction/completion phase of each well, two overlapping depth intervals were tested within the unconfined perched-water aquifer contained in the silty-sand subunit of the Cold Creek Unit. The purpose of the slug-test characterization was to provide estimates of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity for the perched-water aquifer at these selected well locations.

  2. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, N.P.; Triner, G.C.

    1991-09-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages the Hanford Site solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites, radioactive solid waste storage areas and hazardous waste treatment, storage, and/or disposal facilities. This manual defines the criteria that must be met by waste generators for solid waste to be accepted by Westinghouse Hanford Company for treatment, storage and/or disposal facilities. It is to be used by all waste generators preparing radioactive solid waste for storage or disposal at the Hanford Site facilities and for all Hanford Site generators of hazardous waste. This manual is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved with approval and acceptance of solid waste. The criteria in this manual represent a compilation of state and federal regulations; US Department of Energy orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to management of solid waste. Where appropriate, these requirements are included in the manual by reference. It is the intent of this manual to provide guidance to the waste generator in meeting the applicable requirements

  3. TREATMENT TESTS FOR EX SITU REMOVAL OF CHROMATE & NITRATE & URANIUM (VI) FROM HANFORD (100-HR-3) GROUNDWATER FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECK MA; DUNCAN JB

    1994-01-03

    This report describes batch and ion exchange column laboratory scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and uranium (present as uranium [VI]) from contaminated Hanford site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include: chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium; and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan. The method suggested for future study is anion exchange.

  4. Water Supply Treatment Sustainability of Panching Water Supply Treatment Process - Water Footprint Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Edriyana A.; Malek, Marlinda Abdul; Moni, Syazwan N.; Zulkifli, Nabil F.; Hadi, Iqmal H.

    2018-03-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is scarce and overexploited. The purpose of this study is to determine the water footprint of Water Supply Treatment Process (WSTP) at Panching Water Treatment Plant (WTP) as well as to identify the sustainability of the Sg. Kuantan as an intake resource due to the effect of land use development. The total water footprint (WF) will be calculated by using WF accounting manual. The results obtained shows that the water intake resource is still available but it is believed that it will not be able to cope with the increasing WF. The increment of water demand percentage by 1.8% from 2015 to 2016 has increased 11 times higher of the water footprint percentage, 19.9%. This result shows that the water consumption during the water supply treatment process is two times higher than the demand thus it shows the inefficient of the water management

  5. Degradation of dome cutting minerals in Hanford waste-13100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.; Huber, Heinz J.; Cooke, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    At the Hanford Tank Farms, recent changes in retrieval technology require cutting new risers in several single-shell tanks. The Hanford Tank Farm Operator is using water jet technology with abrasive silicate minerals such as garnet or olivine to cut through the concrete and rebar dome. The abrasiveness of these minerals, which become part of the high-level waste stream, may enhance the erosion of waste processing equipment. However, garnet and olivine are not thermodynamically stable in Hanford waste, slowly degrading over time. How likely these materials are to dissolve completely in the waste before the waste is processed in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant can be evaluated using theoretical analysis for olivine and collected direct experimental evidence for garnet. Based on an extensive literature study, a large number of primary silicates decompose into sodalite and cancrinite when exposed to Hanford waste. Given sufficient time, the sodalite also degrades into cancrinite. Even though cancrinite has not been directly added to any Hanford tanks during process times, it is the most common silicate observed in current Hanford waste. By analogy, olivine and garnet are expected to ultimately also decompose into cancrinite. Garnet used in a concrete cutting demonstration was immersed in a simulated supernate representing the estimated composition of the liquid retrieving waste from Hanford tank 241-C-107 at both ambient and elevated temperatures. This simulant was amended with extra NaOH to determine if adding caustic would help enhance the degradation rate of garnet. The results showed that the garnet degradation rate was highest at the highest NaOH concentration and temperature. At the end of 12 weeks, however, the garnet grains were mostly intact, even when immersed in 2 molar NaOH at 80 deg C. Cancrinite was identified as the degradation product on the surface of the garnet grains. In the case of olivine, the rate of degradation in the high-pH regimes

  6. Degradation of Dome Cutting Minerals in Hanford Waste - 13100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.; Cooke, Gary A.; Huber, Heinz J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O. Box 850, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    At the Hanford Tank Farms, recent changes in retrieval technology require cutting new risers in several single-shell tanks. The Hanford Tank Farm Operator is using water jet technology with abrasive silicate minerals such as garnet or olivine to cut through the concrete and rebar dome. The abrasiveness of these minerals, which become part of the high-level waste stream, may enhance the erosion of waste processing equipment. However, garnet and olivine are not thermodynamically stable in Hanford waste, slowly degrading over time. How likely these materials are to dissolve completely in the waste before the waste is processed in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant can be evaluated using theoretical analysis for olivine and collected direct experimental evidence for garnet. Based on an extensive literature study, a large number of primary silicates decompose into sodalite and cancrinite when exposed to Hanford waste. Given sufficient time, the sodalite also degrades into cancrinite. Even though cancrinite has not been directly added to any Hanford tanks during process times, it is the most common silicate observed in current Hanford waste. By analogy, olivine and garnet are expected to ultimately also decompose into cancrinite. Garnet used in a concrete cutting demonstration was immersed in a simulated supernate representing the estimated composition of the liquid retrieving waste from Hanford tank 241-C-107 at both ambient and elevated temperatures. This simulant was amended with extra NaOH to determine if adding caustic would help enhance the degradation rate of garnet. The results showed that the garnet degradation rate was highest at the highest NaOH concentration and temperature. At the end of 12 weeks, however, the garnet grains were mostly intact, even when immersed in 2 molar NaOH at 80 deg. C. Cancrinite was identified as the degradation product on the surface of the garnet grains. In the case of olivine, the rate of degradation in the high

  7. Application for approval of derived authorized limits for the release of the 190-C trenches and 105-C process water tunnels at the Hanford Site: Volume 2 - source term development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Winslow, S.L.; Moeller, M.P.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    As part of environmental restoration activities at the Hanford Site, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. is conducting a series of evaluations to determine appropriate release conditions for specific facilities following the completion of decontamination and decommissioning projects. The release conditions, with respect to the residual volumetric radioactive contamination, are termed authorized limits. This report presents the summary of the supporting information and the final application for approval of derived authorized limits for the release of the 190-C trenches and the 105-C process water tunnels. This document contains two volumes; this volume (Vol. 2) contains the radiological characterization data, spreadsheet analyses, and radiological source terms

  8. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides an existing and future land use plan for the Hanford Site. The HSDP is updated annually in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B, Site Development Planning, to reflect the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  9. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Well subject area of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) manages data relevant to wells, boreholes and test pits constructed at the Hanford Site for soil sampling, geologic analysis and/or ground-water monitoring, and sampling for hydrochemical and radiological analysis. Data stored in the Well subject area include information relevant to the construction of the wells and boreholes, structural modifications to existing wells and boreholes, the location of wells, boreholes and test pits, and the association of wells, boreholes and test pits with organization entities such as waste sites. Data resulting from ground-water sampling performed at wells are stored in tables in the Ground-Water subject area. Geologic data collected during drilling, including particle sizing and interpretative geologic summaries, are stored in tables in the Geologic subject area. Data from soil samples taken during the drilling or excavation and sent for chemical and/or radiological analysis are stored in the Soil subject area

  11. Environmental surveillance at Hanford for CY 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.R.; Blumer, P.J.

    1978-04-01

    Environmental data collected during 1977 show continued compliance by Hanford with all applicable state and federal regulations. Data were collected for most environmental media including air, Columbia River water, external radiation, foodstuffs (milk, beef, eggs, poultry, and produce) and wildlife (deer, fish, game birds, and oysters from Willapa Bay), as well as soil and vegetation samples. In general, offsite levels of radionuclides attributable to Hanford operations during 1977 were indistinguishable from background levels

  12. US DOE Initiated Performance Enhancements to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low-activity Waste Vitrification (LAW) System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, William F.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Holton, Langdon K.; Pegg, Ian L.; Bowen, Brad W.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) is constructing a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) for the treatment and vitrification of underground tank wastes stored at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The WTP comprises four major facilities: a pretreatment facility to separate the tank waste into high level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) process streams, a HLW vitrification facility to immobilize the HLW fraction; a LAW vitrification facility to immobilize the LAW fraction, and an analytical laboratory to support the operations of all four treatment facilities. DOE has established strategic objectives to optimize the performance of the WTP facilities and the LAW and HLW waste forms to reduce the overall schedule and cost for treatment and vitrification of the Hanford tank wastes. This strategy has been implemented by establishing performance expectations in the WTP contract for the facilities and waste forms. In addition, DOE, as owner-operator of the WTP facilities, continues to evaluate (1) the design, to determine the potential for performance above the requirements specified in the WTP contract; and (2) improvements in production of the LAW and HLW waste forms. This paper reports recent progress directed at improving production of the LAW waste form. DOE's initial assessment, which is based on the work reported in this paper, is that the capacity of the WTP LAW vitrification facility can be increased by a factor of 2 to 4 with a combination of revised glass formulations, modest increases in melter glass operating temperatures, and a second-generation LAW melter with a larger surface area. Implementing these improvements in the LAW waste immobilization capability can benefit the LAW treatment mission by reducing both processing time and cost

  13. Decommissioning of a RCRA Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility: A case study of the 216-A-29 ditch at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Hayward, W.M.

    1991-09-01

    The 216-A-29 ditch is located in the central portion of the Hanford Site with Operable Unit 200-PO-5. The ditch is classified under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 as a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Facility and as such, is to be removed from service in support of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Tri-Party Agreement (Ecology et al. 1989) Milestone M-17-10, which states ''cease all liquid discharges to hazardous land disposal units unless such units have been clean closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976''. The 216-A-29 ditch is one stream feeding the 216-B-3 Pond system, and its removal from service was necessary to support the closure strategy for the 216-B-3 Pond system. Interim stabilization of the 216-A-29 ditch is the first step required to comply with the Tri-Party Agreement (Ecology et al. 1989) and the eventual decommissioning of the entire B Pond system. Interim stabilization was required to maintain the 216-A-29 ditch in a stable configuration until closure actions have been determined and initiated. 4 refs., 3 figs

  14. 1988 Hanford riverbank springs characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    This reports presents the results of a special study undertaken to characterize the riverbank springs (i.e., ground-water seepage) entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. Radiological and nonradiological analyses were performed. River water samples were also analyzed from upstream and downstream of the Site as well as from the immediate vicinity of the springs. In addition, irrigation return water and spring water entering the river along the shoreline opposite Hanford were analyzed. Hanford-origin contaminants were detected in spring water entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. The type and concentrations of contaminants in the spring water were similar to those known to exist in the ground water near the river. The location and extent of the contaminated discharges compared favorably with recent ground-water reports and predictions. Spring discharge volumes remain very small relative to the flow of the Columbia. Downstream river sampling demonstrates the impact of ground-water discharges to be minimal, and negligible in most cases. Radionuclide concentrations were below US Department of Energy Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) with the exception 90 Sr near the 100-N Area. Tritium, while below the DCG, was detected at concentrations above the US Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards in several springs. All other radionuclide concentrations were below drinking water standards. Nonradiological contaminants were generally undetectable in the spring water. River water contaminant concentrations, outside of the immediate discharge zones, were below drinking water standards in all cases. 19 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  15. Master schedule for CY-1979 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Houston, J.R.; Eddy, P.A.

    1978-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site, as conducted by the Environmental Evaluation Section of Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy (DOE), is given. Modifications to the schedule are made during the year and special areas of study, usually of short duration, are not scheduled. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, and to monitor Hanford operations for compliance with applicable environmental criteria and Washington State Water Quality Standards. Air quality data are obtained in a separate program administered by the Hanford Environmental Health Foundation. The collection schedule for potable water is shown but it is not part of the routine environmental surveillance program. Water quality data for Hanford Site potable water systems are published each year by the Hanford Environmental Health Foundation. The data collected are available in routine reports issued by the Environmental Evaluations staff. Groundwater data and evaluation are reported in the series, ''Radiological Status of the Groundwater Beneath the Hanford Project for...,'' the latest issue being PNL-2624 for CY-1977. Data from locations within the plant boundaries are presented in the annual ''Environmental Status of the Hanford Site for...'' report series, the most recent report being PNL-2677 for 1977. Data from offsite locations are presented in the annual ''Environmental Surveillance at Hanford for...'' series of reports, the latest being PNL-2614 for 1977

  16. Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Renyuan; Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits and it is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will highly

  17. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline

  18. Radioactive Demonstration Of Final Mineralized Waste Forms For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste By Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Using The Bench Scale Reformer Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as 137 Cs, 129 I, 99 Tc, Cl, F, and SO 4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form

  19. Study of Hanford as a nuclear energy center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, H.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the possible construction of a large nuclear park involving several reactors at Hanford. Savings resulted from continuity of construction, standardization, modularization, fuel cycle treatment, etc. The planning involved consideration of energy transmission cost (0.3 to 0.4 mills/KW-hr) but with present transmission systems upgraded to 500 or 1100 KV. Water resources were adequate, but there was some question of how close the reactors could be to each other in view of the large waste heat effluents from each. Earthquake and other common mode failure possibilities were considered. Due to further questions about safeguards of plutonium materials and nuclear waste transportation, more work is being done on the Hanford nuclear park concept. (U.S.)

  20. Hanford protective barriers program: Status of asphalt barrier studies - FY 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gee, G.W.

    1989-11-01

    The Hanford Protective Barrier Program is evaluating alternate barriers to provide a means of meeting stringent water infiltration requirements. One type of alternate barrier being considered is an asphalt-based layer, 1.3 to 15 cm thick. Evaluations of these barriers were initiated in FY 1988, and, based on laboratory studies, two asphalt formulations were selected for further testing in small-tube lysimeters: a hot rubberized asphalt and an admixture of cationic asphalt emulsion and concrete sand containing 24 wt% residual asphalt. Eight lysimeters containing asphalt seals were installed as part of the Small Tube Lysimeter Test Facility on the Hanford Site. Two control lysimeters containing Hanford sand with a surface gravel treatment were also installed for comparison. 5 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  1. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMakin, A.H.; Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. Progress is discussed

  2. Membrane technology revolutionizes water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderer, P A; Paris, S

    2007-01-01

    Membranes play a crucial role in living cells, plants and animals. They not only serve as barriers between the inside and outside world of cells and organs. More importantly, they are means of selective transport of materials and host for biochemical conversion. Natural membrane systems have demonstrated efficiency and reliability for millions of years and it is remarkable that most of these systems are small, efficient and highly reliable even under rapidly changing ambient conditions. Thus, it appears to be advisable for technology developers to keep a close eye on Mother Nature. By doing so it is most likely that ideas for novel technical solutions are born. Following the concept of natural systems it is hypothesized that the Millennium Development Goals can be best met when counting on small water and wastewater treatment systems. The core of such systems could be membranes in which chemical reactions are integrated allowing recovery and direct utilization of valuable substances.

  3. Quality assurance in Hanford site defense waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtasek, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses quality assurance as an integral part of conducting waste management operations. The storage, treatment, and disposal of radioactive and non- radioactive hazardous wastes at Hanford are described. The author reports that quality assurance programs provide confidence that storage, treatment, and disposal facilities and systems perform as intended. Examples of how quality assurance is applied to Hanford defense waste operations are presented

  4. Innovative Use of Cr(VI) Plume Depictions and Pump-and-Treat Capture Analysis to Estimate Risks of Contaminant Discharge to Surface Water at Hanford Reactor Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Chuck W.; Hanson, James P.; Ivarson, Kristine A.; Tonkin, M.

    2015-01-14

    The Hanford Site nuclear reactor operations required large quantities of high-quality cooling water, which was treated with chemicals including sodium dichromate dihydrate for corrosion control. Cooling water leakage, as well as intentional discharge of cooling water to ground during upset conditions, produced extensive groundwater recharge mounds consisting largely of contaminated cooling water and resulted in wide distribution of hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) contamination in the unconfined aquifer. The 2013 Cr(VI) groundwater plumes in the 100 Areas cover approximately 6 km2 (1500 acres), primarily in the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 groundwater operable units (OUs). The Columbia River is a groundwater discharge boundary; where the plumes are adjacent to the Columbia River there remains a potential to discharge Cr(VI) to the river at concentrations above water quality criteria. The pump-and-treat systems along the River Corridor are operating with two main goals: 1) protection of the Columbia River, and 2) recovery of contaminant mass. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the pump-and-treat systems was needed to determine if the Columbia River was protected from contamination, and also to determine where additional system modifications may be needed. In response to this need, a technique for assessing the river protection was developed which takes into consideration seasonal migration of the plume and hydraulic performance of the operating well fields. Groundwater contaminant plume maps are generated across the Hanford Site on an annual basis. The assessment technique overlays the annual plume and the capture efficiency maps for the various pump and treat systems. The river protection analysis technique was prepared for use at the Hanford site and is described in detail in M.J. Tonkin, 2013. Interpolated capture frequency maps, based on mapping dynamic water level observed in observation wells and derived water levels in the vicinity of extraction and injection wells

  5. Water purification by corona-above-water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pemen, A.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Hoeben, W.F.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced oxidation technologies (AOT), such as non-thermal plasmas, are considered to be very promising for the purpose of water treatment. The goal of this study is to test the feasibility of "Corona-above-water" technology for the treatment of drinking water. Experiments have been performed on the

  6. Hanford Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, R.K.; Hanf, R.W.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1993-06-01

    This report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations at the Hanford Site. The following sections: describe the Hanford Site and its mission; summarize the status in 1992 of compliance with environmental regulations; describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; discuss public dose estimates from 1992 Hanford activities; present information on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance, including ground-water protection and monitoring, and discuss activities to ensure quality

  7. Hanford Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, R.K.; Hanf, R.W.; Lundgren, R.E. [eds.

    1993-06-01

    This report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations at the Hanford Site. The following sections: describe the Hanford Site and its mission; summarize the status in 1992 of compliance with environmental regulations; describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; discuss public dose estimates from 1992 Hanford activities; present information on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance, including ground-water protection and monitoring, and discuss activities to ensure quality.

  8. Economics of mine water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáček, Jaroslav; Vidlář, Jiří; Štěrba, Jiří; Heviánková, Silvie; Vaněk, Michal; Barták, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Mine water poses a significant problem in lignite coal mining. The drainage of mine water is the fundamental prerequisite of mining operations. Under the legislation of the Czech Republic, mine water that discharges into surface watercourse is subject to the permission of the state administration body in the water management sector. The permission also stipulates the limits for mine water pollution. Therefore, mine water has to be purified prior to discharge. Although all...

  9. Researchers take up environmental challenge at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illman, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford nuclear site, built to produce plutonium for the nation's first atomic weapons, occupies 560 square miles of desert in southeastern Washington State. Only 29 months after ground was broken at the site in March 1943, the Hanford project delivered the plutonium used in the bomb that was dropped on Nagasaki, Japan, at the end of World War II. Secrecy surrounding the nuclear weapons program continued through the Cold War years, concealing the fact that for decades, hazardous and radioactive wastes were discharged to the ground, water, and air at Hanford. Only in 1986 were documents finally declassified--tens of thousands of them--describing the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Hanford facilities, allowing a picture to be pieced together of the environmental cost there of the nuclear weapons buildup. That cost may never be completely tallied. But Westinghouse Hanford, Co., the principal operations contractor on the site, and Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute for the Department of Energy (DOE), have now begun working together to develop new technologies that are needed to address the short-term and long-term challenges of environmental restoration at Hanford. The paper discusses the problems and possible solutions that are being investigated

  10. Water bath and air bath calorimeter qualification for measuring 3013 containers of plutonium oxide at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WELSH, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present qualification data generated from water and air-bath calorimeters measuring radioactive decay heat from plutonium oxide in DOE STD-3013-2000 (3013) containers at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Published data concerning air and water bath calorimeters and especially 3013-qualified calorimeters is minimal at best. This paper will address the data from the measurement/qualification test plan, the heat standards used, and the calorimeter precision and accuracy results. The 3013 package is physically larger than earlier plutonium oxide storage containers, thereby necessitating a larger measurement chamber. To accommodate the measurements of the 3013 containers at PFP, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supplied a water bath dual-chambered unit and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provided two air-bath calorimeters. Both types of Calorimeters were installed in the analytical laboratory at PFP. The larger 3013 containers presented a new set of potential measurement problems: longer counting times, heat conductivity through a much larger container mass and wall thickness, and larger amounts of copper shot to assist sample thermal conductivity. These potential problems were addressed and included in the measurement/qualification test plan

  11. Master schedule for CY-1980 Hanford Environmental Surveillance Routine Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Houston, J.R.; Eddy, P.A.

    1979-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site is presented. The enviromental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in Manual Chapter 0513, and to monitor Hanford operations for compliance with applicable environmental criteria given in Manual Chapter 0524 and Washington State Water Quality Standards. Data are reported on the following topics: air; Columbia River; sanitary water; surface water; ground water; foodstuffs; wildlife; soil and vegetation; external radiation measurement; portable instrument surveys; and surveillance of waste disposal sites;

  12. Waste water treatment today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The papers discuss waste water treatment in the legislation of the EC, the German state, the Laender and communities, as well as water protection by preventing waste production and pollutant emissions. (EF) [de

  13. Hanford site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A synopsis is given of the detailed characterization of the existing environment at Hanford. The following aspects are covered: demography, land use, meteorology, geology, hydrology, and seismology. It is concluded that Hanford is one of the most extensively characterized nuclear sites

  14. Hanford defense waste studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Zimmerman, M.G.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    PNL is assisting Rockwell Hanford Operations to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement for the management of Hanford defense nuclear waste. The Ecological Sciences Department is leading the task of calculation of public radiation doses from a large matrix of potential routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to the environment

  15. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1992-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides a land use plan for the Hanford Site and presents a picture of what is currently known and anticipated in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B. Site Development Planning. The HSDP wig be updated annually as future decisions further shape the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  16. Environmental Solutions, A Summary of Contributions for FY04: PNNL Contributions to Fluor Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassbender, Linda L.

    2005-03-08

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory managed a variety of technical and scientific efforts to support Fluor Hanford's work in cleaning up the Hanford Site. Work done for other Hanford contractors, the Waste Treatment Plant, and directly for the U.S. Department of Energy is summarized in the other booklets in this series.

  17. MWH's water treatment: principles and design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crittenden, John C

    2012-01-01

    ... with additional worked problems and new treatment approaches. It covers both the principles and theory of water treatment as well as the practical considerations of plant design and distribution...

  18. Sustainable treatment of municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Augusto; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    The main goal of the EU FP6 NEPTUNE program is to develop new and improve existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling technologies for municipal waste water, in accordance with the concepts behind the EU Water Framework Directive. As part of this work, the project.......e. heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors) in the waste water. As a novel approach, the potential ecotoxicity and human toxicity impacts from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impacts from pathogens will be included. In total, more that 20 different waste water and sludge...... treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the first LCA results from running existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology on some of the waste water treatment technologies. Keywords: Sustainability, LCA, micropollutants, waste water treatment technologies....

  19. Solar based water treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Hyder, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In developing countries, the quality of drinking water is so poor that reports of 80% diseases from water-related causes is no surprise (Tebbet, 90). Frequently, there are reports in press of outbreak of epidemics in cities due to the unhygienic drinking-water. The state of affairs in the rural areas can be well imagined, where majority of the people live with no piped water. This paper describes the solar-based methods of removing organic pollutants from waste-water (also called Advanced Oxidation Technologies) and solar desalination. Experimental results of a simple solar water-sterilization technique have been discussed, along with suggestions to enhance the performance of this technique. (author)

  20. Hanford Site environmental surveillance data report for calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-07-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site collects data that provides a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford operations. Data are also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River Water and Sediment. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory publishes an annual environmental report for the Hanford Site each calendar year. The Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995 describes the Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, and environmental monitoring activities and results. The report includes a summary of offsite and onsite environmental monitoring data collected during 1995 by PNNL's Environmental Monitoring Program. Appendix A of that report contains data summaries created from raw surface, river monitoring data, and chemical air data. This volume contains the actual raw data used to create the summaries. The data volume also includes Hanford Site drinking water radiological data

  1. Hanford Site surface environmental surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and the surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is a multimedia environmental monitoring program conducted to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemical contaminants in the environment and assess the integrated effects of these contaminants on the environment and the public. The monitoring program includes sampling air, surface water, sediments, soil, natural vegetation, agricultural products, fish, and wildlife. Functional elements inherent in the operation of the SESP include project management, quality assurance/control, training, records management, environmental sampling network design and implementation, sample collection, sample analysis, data management, data review and evaluation, exposure assessment, and reporting. The SESP focuses on those contaminant/media combinations calculated to have the highest potential for contributing to off-site exposure. Results of the SESP indicate that contaminant concentrations in the Hanford environs are very low, generally below environmental standards, at or below analytical detection levels, and indicative of environmental levels. However, areas of elevated contaminant concentrations have been identified at Hanford. The extent of these areas is generally limited to past operating areas and waste disposal sites

  2. Cost effective water treatment program in Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, C.; Prasada Rao, G.

    2002-01-01

    Water treatment technology is in a state of continuous evolution. The increasing urgency to conserve water and reduce pollution has in recent years produced an enormous demand for new chemical treatment programs and technologies. Heavy water plant (Manuguru) uses water as raw material (about 3000 m 3 /hr) and its treatment and management has benefited the plant in a significant way. It is a fact that if the water treatment is not proper, it can result in deposit formation and corrosion of metals, which can finally leads to production losses. Therefore, before selecting treatment program, complying w.r.t. quality requirements, safety and pollution aspects cost effectiveness shall be examined. The areas where significant benefits are derived, are raw water treatment using polyelectrolyte instead of inorganic coagulant (alum), change over of regenerant of cation exchangers from hydrochloric acid to sulfuric acid and in-house development of cooling water treatment formulation. The advantages and cost effectiveness of these treatments are discussed in detail. Further these treatments has helped the plant in achieving zero discharge and indirectly increased cost reduction of final product (heavy water); the dosage of 3 ppm of polyelectrolyte can replace 90 ppm alum at turbidity level of 300 NTU of raw water which has resulted in cost saving of Rs. 15-20 lakhs in a year beside other advantages; the change over of regenerant from HCl to H 2 SO 4 will result in cost saving of at least Rs.1.4 crore a year besides other advantages; the change over to proprietary formulation to in-house formulation in cooling water treatment has resulted in a saving about Rs.11 lakhs a year. To achieve the above objectives in a sustainable way the performance results are being monitored. (author)

  3. Hanford waste tank cone penetrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seda, R.Y.

    1995-12-01

    A new tool is being developed to characterize tank waste at the Hanford Reservation. This tool, known as the cone penetrometer, is capable of obtaining chemical and physical properties in situ. For the past 50 years, this tool has been used extensively in soil applications and now has been modified for usage in Hanford Underground Storage tanks. These modifications include development of new ''waste'' data models as well as hardware design changes to accommodate the hazardous and radioactive environment of the tanks. The modified cone penetrometer is scheduled to be deployed at Hanford by Fall 1996. At Hanford, the cone penetrometer will be used as an instrumented pipe which measures chemical and physical properties as it pushes through tank waste. Physical data, such as tank waste stratification and mechanical properties, is obtained through three sensors measuring tip pressure, sleeve friction and pore pressure. Chemical data, such as chemical speciation, is measured using a Raman spectroscopy sensor. The sensor package contains other instrumentation as well, including a tip and side temperature sensor, tank bottom detection and an inclinometer. Once the cone penetrometer has reached the bottom of the tank, a moisture probe will be inserted into the pipe. This probe is used to measure waste moisture content, water level, waste surface moisture and tank temperature. This paper discusses the development of this new measurement system. Data from the cone penetrometer will aid in the selection of sampling tools, waste tank retrieval process, and addressing various tank safety issues. This paper will explore various waste models as well as the challenges associated with tank environment

  4. Environmental monitoring at Hanford for 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquish, R.E.; Mitchell, P.J.

    1988-05-01

    Envoronmental monitoring activities performed on the Hanford Site for 1987 are discussed in this report. Samples of environmental media were collected to determine radionuclide and chemical concentrations at locations in the geographical area. Results are discussed in detail in subsequent sections of this report. Surveillance of radioactivity in the Hanford vicinity during 1987 indicated concentrations well below applicable DOE and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. Radioactive materials released from Hanford operations were generally indistinguishable above background in the offsite environment. Continued influence from the 1986 reactor accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the USSR was not apparent this year. Chemical concentrations in air were below applicable standards established by the EPA and the State of Washington. Chemicals detected in the ground water beneath the Site can be attributed to both Site operations and natural background levels. Several chemicals regulated by the EPA and the State of Washington exceeded EPA drinking water standards (DWS). 106 refs., 71 figs., 110 tabs

  5. Westinghouse Hanford Company package testing capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummer, J.H.; Mercado, M.S.

    1993-07-01

    The Department of Energy's Hanford Site is a 1,450-km 2 (560-mi 2 ) installation located in southeastern Washington State. Established in 1943 as a plutonium production facility, Hanford's role has evolved into one of environmental restoration and remediation. Many of these environmental restoration and remediation activities involve transportation of radioactive/hazardous materials. Packagings used for the transportation of radioactive/hazardous materials must be capable of meeting certain normal transport and hypothetical accident performance criteria. Evaluations of performance to these criteria typically involve a combination of analysis and testing. Required tests may include the free drop, puncture, penetration, compression, thermal, heat, cold, vibration, water spray, water immersion, reduced pressure, and increased pressure tests. The purpose of this paper is to outline the Hanford capabilities for performing each of these tests

  6. Environmental surveillance at Hanford for CY-1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.R.; Blumer, P.J.

    1980-04-01

    Environmental data were collected for most environmental media including air, Columbia River water, external radiation, foodstuffs (milk, beef, eggs, poultry, and produce) and wildlife (deer, fish, and game birds), as well as soil and vegetation samples. In general, offsite levels of radionuclides attributable to Hanford operations during 1979 were indistinguishable from background levels. The data are summarized in the following highlights. Air quality measurements of NO 2 in the vicinity of the Hanford Site and releases of SO 2 onsite were well within the applicable federal and state standards. Particulate air concentrations exceed the standards primarily because of agricultural activities in the area. Discharges of waste water from Hanford facilities in the Columbia River under the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit were all within the parameter limits on the permit

  7. Effluent and water treatment at AERE Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    The treatment of liquid wastes at Harwell is based on two main principles: separation of surface water, domestic sewage, trade wastes and radioactive effluents at source, and a system of holding tanks which are sampled so that the appropriate treatment can be given to any batch. All discharges are subject to independent monitoring by the authorising departments and the Thames Water Inspectors. (author)

  8. Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Ostrom, Michael J.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.

    2012-01-01

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W PandT) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012

  9. Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-14

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W P&T) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012.

  10. Grey water treatment systems: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to discern a treatment for grey water by examining grey water characteristics, reuse standards, technology performance and costs. The review reveals that the systems for treating grey water, whatever its quality, should consist of processes that are able to trap pollutants with a

  11. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  12. Chemistry of application of calcination/dissolution to the Hanford tank waste inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Elcan, T.D.; Hey, B.E.

    1994-05-01

    Approximately 330,000 metric tons of sodium-rich radioactive waste originating from separation of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel are stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Fractionation of the waste into low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) streams is envisioned via partial water dissolution and limited radionuclide extraction operations. Under optimum conditions, LLW would contain most of the chemical bulk while HLW would contain virtually all of the transuranic and fission product activity. Calcination at around 850 C, followed by water dissolution, has been proposed as an alternative initial treatment of Hanford Site waste to improve waste dissolution and the envisioned LLW/HLW split. Results of literature and laboratory studies are reported on the application of calcination/dissolution (C/D) to the fractionation of the Hanford Site tank waste inventory. Both simulated and genuine Hanford Site waste materials were used in the lab tests. To evaluation confirmed that C/D processing reduced the amount of several components from the waste. The C/D dissolutions of aluminum and chromium allow redistribution of these waste components from the HLW to the LLW fraction. Comparisons of simple water-washing with C/D processing of genuine Hanford Site waste are also reported based on material (radionuclide and chemical) distributions to solution and solid residue phases. The lab results show that C/D processing yielded superior dissolution of aluminum and chromium sludges compared to simple water dissolution. 57 refs., 26 figs., 18 tabs

  13. Chemistry of application of calcination/dissolution to the Hanford tank waste inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H.; Elcan, T.D.; Hey, B.E.

    1994-05-01

    Approximately 330,000 metric tons of sodium-rich radioactive waste originating from separation of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel are stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Fractionation of the waste into low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) streams is envisioned via partial water dissolution and limited radionuclide extraction operations. Under optimum conditions, LLW would contain most of the chemical bulk while HLW would contain virtually all of the transuranic and fission product activity. Calcination at around 850 C, followed by water dissolution, has been proposed as an alternative initial treatment of Hanford Site waste to improve waste dissolution and the envisioned LLW/HLW split. Results of literature and laboratory studies are reported on the application of calcination/dissolution (C/D) to the fractionation of the Hanford Site tank waste inventory. Both simulated and genuine Hanford Site waste materials were used in the lab tests. To evaluation confirmed that C/D processing reduced the amount of several components from the waste. The C/D dissolutions of aluminum and chromium allow redistribution of these waste components from the HLW to the LLW fraction. Comparisons of simple water-washing with C/D processing of genuine Hanford Site waste are also reported based on material (radionuclide and chemical) distributions to solution and solid residue phases. The lab results show that C/D processing yielded superior dissolution of aluminum and chromium sludges compared to simple water dissolution. 57 refs., 26 figs., 18 tabs.

  14. Hanford Site Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Yancey, E.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  15. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J.; Yancey, E.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs

  16. Master schedule for CY-1983 Hanford environmental surveillance routine sampling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.; Dirkes, R.L.

    1982-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford environmental surveillance and ground-water monitoring programs at the Hanford Site is presented. The purpose of the programs is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. Radiological monitoring data are reported for air (particulate filter and gases/vapor), Columbia River water, sanitary water, onsite pond water, foodstuffs (whole milk, leafy vegetables, fruit, wheat/alfalfa, beef, poultry/eggs), wildlife, soil and vegetation, and direct radiation. Information is also given for on site radiation control audit surveys (roadway, railway, aerial, and waste disposal sites, and the Hanford ground-water monitoring program

  17. Hydrogeologic model for the old Hanford townsite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, Q.; Csun, C.

    1994-01-01

    The Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state produced the country's first plutonium during WW II, and production continued through the end of the cold war. This plutonium production generated significant volumes of chemical and radioactive wastes, some of which were discharged directly to the local sediments as wastewater. Artifical recharge is still the dominating influence on the uppermost and unconfined aquifer over much of the Hanford site. Groundwater from a portion of this aquifer, which is in excess of drinking water standards for tritium, discharges to the Columbia River in the vicinity of the old Hanford townsite. The Hanford site lies within the Pasco basin, which is a structural basin in the Columbia Plateau. Columbia River basalt is overlain by the fluvial and lacustrian Ringold formation. The Ringold is unconformably overlain by the informal Hanford formation. Relatively impermeable basalt outcrops and subcrops along a northwest-southeast-trending anticline across the study area. Hanford sediments include both fluvial and glacial flood deposits lying on an irregular surface of basalt and sedimentary rocks. The coarser flood deposits have very high hydraulic conductivity and probably are the most important conduit for contaminant transport within the aquifer. A finite element model (CFEST-SC) is being used to study the effect of changing river stage on baseflow to the Columbia River near the old Hanford townsite. A steady-state version of the model produces calculated head within 1 m of observed values. Transient flow and solute transport results are expected to help further define the relationship between the contaminated aquifer and the Columbia River

  18. Environmental monitoring at Hanford for 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Carlile, J.M.V.; Dirkes, R.L.; Jaquish, R.E.; Trevathan, M.S.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1985-05-01

    Environmental surveillance activities performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Hanford Site for 1984 are discussed in this report. Samples of environmental media were collected in support of the Hanford Environmental Monitoring Program to determine radionuclide concentrations in the Hanford environs. Radiological impacts in terms of radiation dose equivalents as a result of Hanford operations are also discussed. Gross beta radioactivity concentrations in airborne particulates at all sampling locations were lower in 1984 than during 1983 as a result of declining levels of worldwide fallout. Slightly higher levels of 85 Kr and 129 I were noted at several onsite and offsite locations. The sampling location in close proximity to the PUREX plant also detected increased 3 H. Very low levels of radionuclides were detected in samples of Columbia River water during 1984. An extensive groundwater monitoring program was performed for the Hanford Site during 1984. The 3 H and nitrate plumes continued to move slowly toward the Columbia River. All 3 H results were within applicable concentration guides. Samples of deer, rabbits, game birds, waterfowl and fish were collected onsite or in the Columbia River at locations where the potential for radionuclide uptake was most likely, or at the nearest locations where wildlife samples were available. Radioisotope levels were measured. Dose rates from external penetrating radiation measured in the vicinity of residential areas were similar to those observed in the previous years, and no contribution from Hanford activities could be identified. An assessment of the 1984 potential radiological impacts attributable to the Hanford operations indicated that measured and calculated radiation doses to the public continued to be low, and well below applicable regulatory limits. 21 refs., 48 figs., 83 tabs

  19. Fission product iodine during early Hanford-Site operations: Its production and behavior during fuel processing, off-gas treatment and release to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, L.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate the radiological dose impact that Hanford Site operations may have made on the local and regional population. This impact is estimated by examining operations involving radioactive materials that were conducted at the Hanford Site from the startup of the first reactor in 1944 to the present. HEDR Project work is divided among several technical tasks. One of these tasks, Source Terms, is designed to develop quantitative estimates of all significant emissions of radionuclides by Hanford Site operations since 1944. Radiation doses can be estimated from these emissions by accounting for specific radionuclide transport conditions and population demography. This document provides technical information to assist in the evaluation of iodine releases. 115 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Fission product iodine during early Hanford-Site operations: Its production and behavior during fuel processing, off-gas treatment and release to the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, L.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate the radiological dose impact that Hanford Site operations may have made on the local and regional population. This impact is estimated by examining operations involving radioactive materials that were conducted at the Hanford Site from the startup of the first reactor in 1944 to the present. HEDR Project work is divided among several technical tasks. One of these tasks, Source Terms, is designed to develop quantitative estimates of all significant emissions of radionuclides by Hanford Site operations since 1944. Radiation doses can be estimated from these emissions by accounting for specific radionuclide transport conditions and population demography. This document provides technical information to assist in the evaluation of iodine releases. 115 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Water treatment process for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwan, M.A.; Khattab, M.S.; Hanna, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    Water treatment for purification is very important in reactor cooling systems as well as in many industrial applications. Since impurities in water are main source of problems, it is necessary to achieve and maintain high purity of water before utilization in reactor cooling systems. The present work investigate water treatment process for nuclear reactor utilization. Analysis of output water chemistry proved that demineralizing process is an appropriate method. Extensive experiments were conducted to determine economical concentration of the regenerates to obtain the optimum quantity of pure water which reached to 15 cubic meter instead of 10 cubic-meter per regeneration. Running cost is consequently decreased by about 30 %. output water chemistry agree with the recommended specifications for reactor utilization. The radionuclides produced in the primary cooling water due to reactor operation are determined. It is found that 70% of radioactive contaminants are retained by purification through resin of reactor filter. Decontamination factor and filter efficiency are also determined.5 fig., 3 tab

  2. Water Supply Treatment Sustainability of Semambu Water Supply Treatment Process - Water Footprint Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Edriyana A.; Malek, Marlinda Abdul; Moni, Syazwan N.; Hadi, Iqmal H.; Zulkifli, Nabil F.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the assessment by using Water Footprint (WF) approach was conducted to assess water consumption within the water supply treatment process (WSTP) services of Semambu Water Treatment Plant (WTP). Identification of the type of WF at each stage of WSTP was carried out and later the WF accounting for the period 2010 – 2016 was calculated. Several factors that might influence the accounting such as population, and land use. The increasing value of total WF per year was due to the increasing water demand from population and land use activities. However, the pattern of rainfall intensity from the monsoonal changes was not majorly affected the total amount of WF per year. As a conclusion, if the value of WF per year keeps increasing due to unregulated development in addition to the occurrences of climate changing, the intake river water will be insufficient and may lead to water scarcity. The findings in this study suggest actions to reduce the WF will likely have a great impact on freshwater resources availability and sustainability.

  3. Tritium monitoring in groundwater and evaluation of model predictions for the Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Bergeron, M.P.; Cole, C.R.; Freshley, M.D.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1997-08-01

    The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) disposal site, also known as the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS), receives treated effluent containing tritium, which is allowed to infiltrate through the soil column to the water table. Tritium was first detected in groundwater monitoring wells around the facility in July 1996. The SALDS groundwater monitoring plan requires revision of a predictive groundwater model and reevaluation of the monitoring well network one year from the first detection of tritium in groundwater. This document is written primarily to satisfy these requirements and to report on analytical results for tritium in the SALDS groundwater monitoring network through April 1997. The document also recommends an approach to continued groundwater monitoring for tritium at the SALDS. Comparison of numerical groundwater models applied over the last several years indicate that earlier predictions, which show tritium from the SALDS approaching the Columbia River, were too simplified or overly robust in source assumptions. The most recent modeling indicates that concentrations of tritium above 500 pCi/L will extend, at most, no further than ∼1.5 km from the facility, using the most reasonable projections of ETF operation. This extent encompasses only the wells in the current SALDS tritium-tracking network

  4. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.; Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, P.O. Box 1600, MSIN R4-41, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

  5. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.; Ostrom, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

  6. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Ostrom, Michael J.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.

    2013-01-11

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE’s mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team’s successful integration of the project’s core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE’s mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification, which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award.

  7. Water treatment for 500 MWe PHWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasist, Sudheer; Sharma, M.C.; Agarwal, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    Large quantities of treated water is required for power generation. For a typical 500 MWe PHWR inland station with cooling towers, raw water at the rate of 6000 m 3 /hr is required. Impurities in cooling water give rise to the problems of corrosion, scaling, microbiological contamination, fouling, silical deposition etc. These problems lead to increased maintenance cost, reduced heat transfer efficiency, and possible production cut backs or shutdowns. The problems in coastal based power plants are more serious because of the highly corrosive nature of sea water used for cooling. An overview of the cooling water systems and water treatment method is enumerated. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig

  8. A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

    This information pamphlet is for teachers, students, or the general public concerned with the types of waste water treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating wastes. Present day pollution control methods utilizing primary and secondary waste treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks are described,…

  9. Hanford Site Infrastructure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Infrastructure Plan (HIP) has been prepared as an overview of the facilities, utilities, systems, and services that support all activities on the Hanford Site. Its purpose is three-fold: to examine in detail the existing condition of the Hanford Site's aging utility systems, transportation systems, Site services and general-purpose facilities; to evaluate the ability of these systems to meet present and forecasted Site missions; to identify maintenance and upgrade projects necessary to ensure continued safe and cost-effective support to Hanford Site programs well into the twenty-first century. The HIP is intended to be a dynamic document that will be updated accordingly as Site activities, conditions, and requirements change. 35 figs., 25 tabs

  10. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures

  11. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

  12. Hanford Facility Annual Dangerous Waste Report Calendar Year 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FR-EEMAN, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Hanford CY 2002 dangerous waste generation and management forms. The Hanford Facility Annual Dangerous Waste Report (ADWR) is prepared to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative Code Sections 173-303-220, Generator Reporting, and 173-303-390, Facility Reporting. In addition, the ADWR is required to meet Hanford Facility RCRA Permit Condition I.E.22, Annual Reporting. The ADWR provides summary information on dangerous waste generation and management activities for the Calendar Year for the Hanford Facility EPA ID number assigned to the Department of Energy for RCRA regulated waste, as well as Washington State only designated waste and radioactive mixed waste. The Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) database is utilized to collect and compile the large array of data needed for preparation of this report. Information includes details of waste generated on the Hanford Facility, waste generated offsite and sent to Hanford for management, and other waste management activities conducted at Hanford, including treatment, storage, and disposal. Report details consist of waste descriptions and weights, waste codes and designations, and waste handling codes. In addition, for waste shipped to Hanford for treatment and/or disposal, information on manifest numbers, the waste transporter, the waste receiving facility, and the original waste generators are included. In addition to paper copies, electronic copies of the report are also transmitted to the regulatory agency

  13. Environmental surveillance at Hanford for CY-1975 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Fix, J.J.; Speer, D.R.

    1976-04-01

    This document contains detailed data collected by the Hanford Environmental Surveillance program during 1975. Environmental Surveillance responsibilities at Hanford are divided between Hanford Environmental Health Foundation (HEHF) and Battelle-Northwest (BNW). HEHF is responsible for measuring all nonradiological air quality and sanitary water parameters of interest. BNW is responsible for measuring radiological parameters in all environmental media of significance and for measuring both radiological and nonradiological parameters of Columbia River water and ground water. A brief description of the method and location of sample collection during 1975 is included. Data are tabulated on the content of specific radionuclides in surface air. Columbia River water, drinking water, ground water, foods, fish, and wild animals. Data are also included on content of NO 2 and SO 2 in air, nitrates in Columbia River water, ground water, and drinking water, and water quality of samples of Columbia River water collected at various sampling locations

  14. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act

  15. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

  16. Hanford Facility contingency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, L.N.; Miskho, A.G.; Brunke, R.C.

    1993-10-01

    The Hanford Facility Contingency Plan, together with each TSD unit-specific contingency plan, meets the WAC 173-303 requirements for a contingency plan. This plan includes descriptions of responses to a nonradiological hazardous materials spill or release at Hanford Facility locations not covered by TSD unit-specific contingency plans or building emergency plans. This plan includes descriptions of responses for spills or releases as a result of transportation activities, movement of materials, packaging, and storage of hazardous materials

  17. Hanford work faces change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article is a discussion of DOE efforts in the awarding of a large engineering-construction contract at the Hanford Reservation. Though the announced winner was a group lead by J. A. Jones Construction/Duke Engineering Services, the incumbent (ICF-Kaiser Engineers) protested the announced award. The protest was dismissed by the GAO, but DOE officials still reopened the bidding. There was also a short note regarding the award of the ERMC at Hanford

  18. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Data Report for Calendar Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2009-08-11

    Environmental surveillance on and around the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. The environmental surveillance data collected for this report provide a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford Site operations. Data were also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River water, sediment, and wildlife. These data are included in this appendix. This report is the first of two appendices that support "Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2008" (PNNL-18427), which describes the Hanford Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, Hanford Site cleanup and remediation efforts, and environmental monitoring activities and results.

  19. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Data Report for Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2008-10-13

    Environmental surveillance on and around the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. The environmental surveillance data collected for this report provide a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford Site operations. Data were also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River water, sediment, and wildlife. These data are included in this appendix. This report is the first of two appendices that support "Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2007" (PNNL-17603), which describes the Hanford Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, Hanford Site cleanup and remediation efforts, and environmental monitoring activities and results.

  20. Water treatment process for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwan, M.A.; Khattab, M.S.; Hanna, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    Water treatment for purification is very important in reactor cooling systems as well as in many industrial applications. Since impurities in water are main source of problems, it is necessary to achieve and maintain high purity of water before utilization in reactor cooling systems. The present work investigates water treatment process for nuclear reactor utilization. Analysis of outwater chemistry proved that demineralizing process is an appropriate method. Extensive experiments were conducted to determine economical concentration of the regenerants to obtain the optimum quantity of pure water which reached to 15 cubic-meter instead of 10 cubic-meter per regeneration. Running cost is consequently decreased by about 30%. Output water chemistry agrees with the recommended specifications for reactor utilization. The radionuclides produced in the primary cooling water due to reactor operation are determined. It is found that 70% of radioactive contaminants are retained by purification through resin of reactor filter. Decontamination factor and filter efficiency are also determined

  1. Westinghouse Hanford Company environmental surveillance annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Johnson, A.R.; McKinney, S.M.; Perkins, C.J.; Webb, C.R.

    1992-07-01

    This document presents the results of near-facility operational environmental monitoring in 1991 of the 100, 200/600, and 300/400 Areas of the Hanford Site, in south-central Washington State, as performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. These activities are conducted to assess and to control the impacts of operations on the workers and the local environment and to monitor diffuse sources. Surveillance activities include sampling and analyses of ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sediments, soil, and biota. Also, external radiation measurements and radiological surveys are taken at waste disposal sites, radiologically controlled areas, and roads

  2. Managing risk at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesser, W.A.; Stillwell, W.G.; Rutherford, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Clearly, there is sufficient motivation from Washington for the Hanford community to pay particular attention to the risks associated with the substantial volumes of radiological, hazardous, and mixed waste at Hanford. But there is also another reason for emphasizing risk: Hanford leaders have come to realize that their decisions must consider risk and risk reduction if those decisions are to be technically sound, financially affordable, and publicly acceptable. The 560-square miles of desert land is worth only a few thousand dollars an acre (if that) -- hardly enough to justify the almost two billion dollars that will be spent at Hanford this year. The benefit of cleaning up the Hanford Site is not the land but the reduction of potential risk to the public and the environment for future generations. If risk reduction is our ultimate goal, decisions about priority of effort and resource allocation must consider those risks, now and in the future. The purpose of this paper is to describe how Hanford is addressing the issues of risk assessment, risk management, and risk-based decision making and to share some of our experiences in these areas

  3. Waste water treatment in surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navasardyants, M A; Esipov, V Z; Ryzhkov, Yu A

    1981-01-01

    This paper evaluates problems associated with waste water from coal surface mines of the Kemerovougol' association in the Kuzbass. Waste water treatment in the Kuzbass is of major importance as the region is supplied with water from only one river, the Tom river. Water influx to Kemerovougol' surface mines in a year amounts to 136 million m/sup 3/. The water is used during technological processes, for fire fighting, and spraying to prevent dusting; the rest, about 82.1 million m/sup 3/, is discharged into surface waters. Of this amount, 25.1 million m/sup 3/ is heavily polluted water, 46.6 million m3 are polluted but within limits, and 10.4 million m/sup 3/ are characterized as relatively clean. Waste water is polluted with: suspended matters, oils and oil products, nitrates, nitrides and chlorides. Suspended matter content sometimes reaches 4,000 and 5,000 mg/l, and oil product content in water amounts to 2.17 mg/l. Water treatment in surface mines is two-staged: sumps and sedimentation tanks are used. Water with suspended matter content of 50 to 100 mg/l in winter and summer, and 200 to 250 mg/l in spring and autumn is reduced in sumps to 25 to 30 mg/l in summer and winter and to 40 to 50 mg/l in autumn and spring. During the first stage water treatment efficiency ranges from 50 to 80%. During the second stage water is collected in sedimentation tanks. It is noted that so-called secondary pollution is one of the causes of the relatively high level of suspended matter in discharged water. Water discharged from sedimentation tanks carries clay and loam particles from the bottom and walls of water tanks and channels.

  4. Setting and stiffening of cementitious components in Cast Stone waste form for disposal of secondary wastes from the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Chun, Jaehun, E-mail: jaehun.chun@pnnl.gov; Um, Wooyong; Sundaram, S.K.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2013-04-01

    Cast Stone is a cementitious waste form, a viable option to immobilize secondary nuclear liquid wastes generated from the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. However, no study has been performed to understand the flow and stiffening behavior, which is essential to ensure proper workability and is important to safety in a nuclear waste field-scale application. X-ray diffraction, rheology, and ultrasonic wave reflection methods were used to understand the specific phase formation and stiffening of Cast Stone. Our results showed a good correlation between rheological properties of the fresh mixture and phase formation in Cast Stone. Secondary gypsum formation was observed with low concentration simulants, and the formation of gypsum was suppressed in high concentration simulants. A threshold concentration for the drastic change in stiffening was found at 1.56 M Na concentration. It was found that the stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. Highlights: • A combination of XRD, UWR, and rheology gives a better understanding of Cast Stone. • Stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. • A drastic change in stiffening of Cast Stone was found at 1.56 M Na concentration.

  5. Investigation of variable compositions on the removal of technetium from Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, John M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-29

    The Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the offgas system. The plan for disposition of this stream during baseline operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. The primary reason to recycle this stream is so that the semi-volatile 99Tc isotope eventually becomes incorporated into the glass. This stream also contains non-radioactive salt components that are problematic in the melter, so diversion of this stream to another process would eliminate recycling of these salts and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. This diversion from recycling this stream within WTP would have the effect of decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The concept being tested here involves removing the 99Tc so that the decontaminated aqueous stream, with the problematic salts, can be disposed elsewhere.

  6. Environmental surveillance at Hanford for CY-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.; Blumer, P.J.; Hoenes, G.R.; Bramson, P.E.

    1977-04-01

    Environmental data collected during 1976 show continued compliance by Hanford with all applicable state and federal regulations. Data were collected for most environmental media including air, Columbia River water, external radiation, foodstuffs (milk, meat, eggs, poultry, and produce), and wildlife (deer, fish, game birds, and oysters from Willapa Bay), as well as a few soil and vegetation samples. The data are summarized

  7. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is a consolidated set of automated resources that effectively manage the data gathered during environmental monitoring and restoration of the Hanford Site. The HEIS includes an integrated database that provides consistent and current data to all users and promotes sharing of data by the entire user community. Data stored in the HEIS are collected under several regulatory programs. Currently these include the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); and the Ground-Water Environmental Surveillance Project, managed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The HEIS is an information system with an inclusive database. The manual, the HEIS User's Manual, describes the facilities available to the scientist, engineer, or manager who uses the system for environmental monitoring, assessment, and restoration planning; and to the regulator who is responsible for reviewing Hanford Site operations against regulatory requirements and guidelines

  8. Assessment of groundwater management at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the groundwater management and environmental monitoring programs at the Hanford reservation was initiated in 1973. A large number of recommendations made as a result of this review are summarized. The purpose of the Hanford Hydrology Program is to maintain a groundwater surveillance network to assess contamination of the natural water system. Potential groundwater contamination is primarily a function of waste management decisions. The review revealed that although the hydrology program would greatly benefit from additional improvements, it is adequate to predict levels of contaminants present in the groundwater system. Studies are presently underway to refine advanced mathematical models to use results of the hydrologic investigation in forecasting the response of the system to different long-term management decisions. No information was found which indicates that a hazard through the groundwater pathway presently exists as a result of waste operations at Hanford. (CH)

  9. Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In south-central Washington State, the Columbia River flows through the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. A primary objective of the Hanford Site cleanup mission is protection of the Columbia River, through remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater that resulted from its weapons production mission. Within the Columbia River system, surface water, sediment, and biota samples related to potential Hanford Site hazardous substance releases have been collected since the start of Hanford operations. The impacts of Hanford Site hazardous substance releases to the Columbia River in areas upstream, within, and downstream of the Hanford Site boundary have been previously investigated as mandated by the U.S. Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act. The impacts are now being assessed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 via a remedial investigation. The Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River has been developed and issued to initiate the remedial investigation. The work plan establishes a phased approach to characterize contaminants, assess current risks, and determine whether or not there is a need for any cleanup actions. Field investigation activities began in October 2008 and are anticipated to continue into Fall 2009 over a 120 mile stretch of the Columbia River. Information gained from performing this remedial investigation will ultimately be used to help make final regulatory decisions for cleaning up Hanford Site contamination that exists in and along the Columbia River. (authors)

  10. Chemical Industry Waste water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, F.A.; Doma, H.S.; El-Shafai, S.A.; Abdel-HaJim, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    Treatment of chemical industrial wastewater from building and construction chemicals factory and plastic shoes manufacturing factory was investigated. The two factories discharge their wastewater into the public sewerage network. The results showed the wastewater discharged from the building and construction chemicals factory was highly contaminated with organic compounds. The average values of COD and BOD were 2912 and 150 mg O 2 /l. Phenol concentration up to 0.3 mg/l was detected. Chemical treatment using lime aided with ferric chloride proved to be effective and produced an effluent characteristics in compliance with Egyptian permissible limits. With respect to the other factory, industrial wastewater was mixed with domestic wastewater in order to lower the organic load. The COD, BOD values after mixing reached 5239 and 2615 mg O 2 /l. The average concentration of phenol was 0.5 mg/l. Biological treatment using activated sludge or rotating biological contactor (RBe) proved to be an effective treatment system in terms of producing an effluent characteristic within the permissible limits set by the law

  11. Environmental surveillance at Hanford for CY-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1975-04-01

    During 1974, the work at Hanford included N Reactor operation, nuclear fuel fabrication, liquid waste solidification, continued construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility, continued construction of Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) No. 2 power reactor, Arid Lands Ecology studies, as well as continued use of a variety of research and laboratory facilities. Environmental data collected during 1974 showed continued compliance of Hanford operations with all applicable state and federal regulations. Levels of radioactivity in the atmosphere from Hanford operations at all offsite sampling locations were indistinguishable from levels due to natural causes and fallout from nuclear detonations in the atmosphere. Air quality measurements of NO 2 in the Hanford environs recorded a maximum yearly average concentration of 0.006 ppM or 12 percent of the ambient air standard. There was no indication that Hanford operations contributed significantly to these levels. All SO 2 results were less than the detection limit of 0.005 ppM or 25 percent of the ambient air quality standard. Routine radiological, chemical, biological, and physical analyses of Columbia River water upstream and downstream of the Hanford Reservation operations with the possible exception of water temperature. Levels of radioactivity were similar at both locations and were due to natural and fallout radioactivity. Estimates are included of the radiation dose to the human population within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the site during 1974. Methods used in calculations of the annual dose and 50-year dose commitment from radioactive effluents are discussed. (U.S.)

  12. Progress of Nanocomposite Membranes for Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ursino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of membrane-based technologies has been applied for water treatment applications; however, the limitations of conventional polymeric membranes have led to the addition of inorganic fillers to enhance their performance. In recent years, nanocomposite membranes have greatly attracted the attention of scientists for water treatment applications such as wastewater treatment, water purification, removal of microorganisms, chemical compounds, heavy metals, etc. The incorporation of different nanofillers, such as carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide, graphene oxide, silver and copper nanoparticles, titanium dioxide, 2D materials, and some other novel nano-scale materials into polymeric membranes have provided great advances, e.g., enhancing on hydrophilicity, suppressing the accumulation of pollutants and foulants, enhancing rejection efficiencies and improving mechanical properties and thermal stabilities. Thereby, the aim of this work is to provide up-to-date information related to those novel nanocomposite membranes and their contribution for water treatment applications.

  13. Progress of Nanocomposite Membranes for Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursino, Claudia; Castro-Muñoz, Roberto; Drioli, Enrico; Gzara, Lassaad; Albeirutty, Mohammad H; Figoli, Alberto

    2018-04-03

    The use of membrane-based technologies has been applied for water treatment applications; however, the limitations of conventional polymeric membranes have led to the addition of inorganic fillers to enhance their performance. In recent years, nanocomposite membranes have greatly attracted the attention of scientists for water treatment applications such as wastewater treatment, water purification, removal of microorganisms, chemical compounds, heavy metals, etc. The incorporation of different nanofillers, such as carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide, graphene oxide, silver and copper nanoparticles, titanium dioxide, 2D materials, and some other novel nano-scale materials into polymeric membranes have provided great advances, e.g., enhancing on hydrophilicity, suppressing the accumulation of pollutants and foulants, enhancing rejection efficiencies and improving mechanical properties and thermal stabilities. Thereby, the aim of this work is to provide up-to-date information related to those novel nanocomposite membranes and their contribution for water treatment applications.

  14. A review of water treatment membrane nanotechnologies

    KAUST Repository

    Pendergast, MaryTheresa M.; Hoek, Eric M.V.

    2011-01-01

    readiness was based on known or anticipated material costs, scalability (for large scale water treatment applications), and compatibility with existing manufacturing infrastructure. Overall, bio-inspired membranes are farthest from commercial reality

  15. Nanotechnology for water treatment and purification

    CERN Document Server

    Apblett, Allen

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the latest progress in the application of nanotechnology for water treatment and purification. Leaders in the field present both the fundamental science and a comprehensive overview of the diverse range of tools and technologies that have been developed in this critical area. Expert chapters present the unique physicochemical and surface properties of nanoparticles and the advantages that these provide for engineering applications that ensure a supply of safe drinking water for our growing population. Application areas include generating fresh water from seawater, preventing contamination of the environment, and creating effective and efficient methods for remediation of polluted waters. The chapter authors are leading world-wide experts in the field with either academic or industrial experience, ensuring that this comprehensive volume presents the state-of-the-art in the integration of nanotechnology with water treatment and purification. Covers both wastewater and drinking water treatmen...

  16. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, and 59 Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs

  17. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ({sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 59}Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs.

  18. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products (/sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 54/Mn, and /sup 59/Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs.

  19. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, and 59 Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs

  20. Sewage water treatment by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamma, M.; Al-Adawi, M.A.; Othman, I.

    1999-06-01

    Irradiation of the outlet wastewater from Adra Plant shows that radiation sensitivity for the total count of the microorganism, fungi, and pathogenic microorganism were 0.328, 0.327, 0.305 kGy respectively at 3.4 kGy/h. No Ascaris Lumbricoides eggs were found. These results show that radiation technology in wastewater treatment at Adra Plant for reuse in irrigation safely from microbial point of view can be applied. (author)

  1. Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOMAN, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    The information contained in, and/or referenced in, this Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report addresses Permit Condition II.W (Other Permits and/or Approvals) of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA7890008967). Condition II.W specifies that the Permittees are responsible for obtaining all other applicable federal, state, and local permits authorizing the development and operation of the Hanford Facility. This status report also addresses Permit Condition I.E.22, as interpreted in Section 12.1.25 of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, General Information Portion (DOE/RL-91-28, Rev. 4), that states this report will be prepared annually and a copy of this report will be placed in the Facility Operating Record, General Information file by October 1 of each year

  2. Overview of Chromium Remediation Technology Evaluations At The Hanford Site, Richland Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, J. G.; Hanson, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    This paper will present an overview of the different technologies and the results to date for optimizing and improving the remediation of Cr+6 in the soil and groundwater at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site, par of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)nuclear weapons complex, encompasses approximately 586 square miles in southeast Washington State. The Columbia River flows through the site (Hanford Reach.) Reactors were located along the Hanford Reach as part of the production process. Sodium dichromate was used as a corrosion inhibitor in the cooling water for the reactors. As a result chromium (Cr+6) is present in the soil and groundwater. Since the mid 90's interim groundwater pump and treat systems have been in place to try and contain or mitigate the migration of contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River. The primary concern being the protection of aquatic spawning habitat for salmon and other species. In order to improve the effectiveness of the remedial actions a number of different technologies have been evaluated and/or deployed. These include, permeable reactive barriers, in-situ bio-stimulation, in-situ chemical reduction, zero-valent iron injection and evaluation of improved above ground treatment technologies. An overview of the technologies and results to date are presented.

  3. Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludge: Results of FY 1997 studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Burgeson, I.E.; Wagner, M.J.; Liu, J.; Chen, Y.L.

    1997-08-01

    The current plan for remediating the Hanford tank farms consists of waste retrieval, pretreatment, treatment (immobilization), and disposal. The tank wastes will be partitioned into high-level and low-level fractions. The HLW will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass matrix; the resulting glass canisters will then be disposed of in a geologic repository. Because of the expected high cost of HLW vitrification and geologic disposal, pretreatment processes will be implemented to reduce the volume of immobilized high-level waste (IHLW). Caustic leaching (sometimes referred to as enhanced sludge washing or ESW) represents the baseline method for pretreating Hanford tank sludges. Caustic leaching is expected to remove a large fraction of the Al, which is present in large quantities in Hanford tank sludges. A significant portion of the P is also expected to be removed from the sludge by metathesis of water-insoluble metal phosphates to insoluble hydroxides and soluble Na 3 PO 4 . Similar metathesis reactions can occur for insoluble sulfate salts, allowing the removal of sulfate from the HLW stream. This report describes the sludge washing and caustic leaching tests performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 1996. The sludges used in this study were taken from Hanford tanks AN-104, BY-108, S-101, and S-111

  4. Waste water treatment in Bukkerup (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Overgaard, Morten; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    In connection to the new waste water plan of Tølløse municipal the technical and environmental board has suggested that Bukkerup get a sewer system which brings the waste water to the treatment plant for Tysinge. All though the residents would like to list alternative suggestions which improve...... the local water environment but is still competitive.In this report the alternatives are listed, e.i. root system plants, sand filters and mini treatment plants.The conclusion is that root system plants and a combination of root system plants and sand filters are better that the sewer system....

  5. Physical water treatment against calcification and rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, A.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to Germany, where the installation of small-sized, decentralised plants is still prefered, water supply companies in countries such as Denmark have already for some time successfully been using physical water treatment systems. Although the health and environmental benefits of this non-chemical method of water treatment are undisputed and its proper application is also economically beneficial, there is still a widerspread lack of information as to where such plants can be used. Consequently, older methods are often resorted to combatting calcification and rust. (orig.) [de

  6. Water (electrolyte) balance after abdominal therapeutic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cionini, L; Becciolini, A; Giannardi, G [Florence Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia

    1976-07-01

    Total body water, plasma volume and Na space have been studied in 34 patients receiving external radiotherapy on the pelvic region. Determinations were made on the same patients before, and half-way treatment; in a few cases, some determinations were also repeated after the end of treatment. The results failed to show any appreciable modification of the different parameters studied.

  7. TANK FARM RETRIEVAL LESSONS LEARNED AT THE HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DODD RA

    2008-01-01

    One of the environmental remediation challenges facing the nation is the retrieval and permanent disposal of approximately 90 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State and stores roughly 60 percent of this waste. An estimated 53 million gallons of high-level, transuranic, and low-level radioactive waste is stored underground in 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 newer double-shell tanks (DSTs) at the Hanford Site. These SSTs range in size from 55,000 gallons to 1,000,000 gallon capacity. Approximately 30 million gallons of this waste is stored in SSTs. The SSTs were constructed between 1943 and 1964 and all have exceeded the nominal 20-year design life. Sixty-seven SSTs are known or suspected to have leaked an estimated 1,000,000 gallons of waste to the surrounding soil. The risk of additional SST leakage has been greatly reduced by removing more than 3 million gallons of interstitial liquids and supernatant and transferring this waste to the DST system. Retrieval of SST saltcake and sludge waste is underway to further reduce risks and stage feed materials for the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant. Regulatory requirements for SST waste retrieval and tank farm closure are established in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO), better known as the TriParty Agreement, or TPA. The HFFACO was signed by the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), and U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and requires retrieval of as much waste as technically possible, with waste residues not to exceed 360 fe in 530,000 gallon or larger tanks; 30 fe in 55,000 gallon or smaller tanks; or the limit of waste retrieval technology, whichever is less. If residual waste volume requirements cannot be achieved, then HFFACO Appendix H provisions can be invoked to request Ecology and EPA approval of an

  8. Treatment of water closet flush water for recycle and reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Results from the operation of a 37.8 m/sup 3//d extended aeration and sand filtration system in the closed-loop treatment of water closet flush water are presented. The system has operated for four and one-half years at 95 percent recycle. During this period over 30,000 m/sup 3/ of flush water was treated and reused. Water inputs into the recycle system resulted from liquid human wastes plus wastage form potable water uses. Wasted potable water inputs were from wash basins, water fountains and custodial services. Operation of both the biological treatment unit and the pressure sand filter followed acceptable conventional practice. Variations in nitrogen (ammonia, nitrite and nitrate), pH and alkalinity that were observed could be accounted for through fundamental biological, chemical and physical relationships. The pH throughout the entire recycle system varied between 5.5 and 8.4. Recycled water pH rose from a preflush pH of approximately 7.0 to a pH of 8.4 immediately after flushing. The biological unit lowered the pH and functioned between pH values of 5.5 and 7.0. A slight rise in pH between the biological unit (through storage and filtration) and water closets was observed. The predominate biomass in the biological unit was fungi. Biological solids were threadlike; however, they readily separated by gravity settling. Wastage of biological solids from the biological unit in the recycle-reuse system was the same experienced for a comparable biological unit used to treat water closet wastewater that was not recycled. Results from this study have conclusively demonstrated on a full-scale basis the acceptability of using biological oxidation and sand filtration as a treatment train in the reuse of water closet wastewater with a recycle ratio of 20.

  9. Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Renyuan

    2015-08-26

    The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits and it is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will highly hinge upon the further development of nanomaterial sciences. The concept of rational design emphasizes ‘design-for-purpose’ and it necessitates a scientifically clear problem definition to initiate the nanomaterial design. The field of rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment has experienced a significant growth in the past decade and is poised to make its contribution in creating advanced next-generation water treatment technologies in the years to come. Within the water treatment context, this review offers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the latest progress of the rational design, synthesis and applications of nanomaterials in adsorption, chemical oxidation and reduction reactions, membrane-based separation, oil/water separation, and synergistic multifunctional all-in-one nanomaterials/nanodevices. Special attention is paid on chemical concepts of the nanomaterial designs throughout the review.

  10. Review of Hanford international activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panther, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    Hanford initiated a review of international activities to collect, review, and summarize information on international environmental restoration and waste management initiatives considered for use at Hanford. This effort focused on Hanford activities and accomplishments, especially international technical exchanges and/or the implementation of foreign-developed technologies

  11. Zoujiashan uranium waste water treatment optimizaiton design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lianjun

    2014-01-01

    Optimization design follows the decontamination triage, comprehensive management, such as wastewater treatment principle and from easy to difficult. increasing the slurry treatment, optimization design containing ρ (U) > defines I mg/L wastewater for higher uranium concentration wastewater, whereas low uranium concentration wastewater. Through the optimization design, solve the problem of water turbidity 721-15 wastewater treatment station of the lack of capacity and mine. (author)

  12. A new approach for water treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Principe, R

    1999-01-01

    A quantity of up to 4000 m3/h of water is used at CERN for cooling purposes: experiments, magnets and radio frequency cavities are refrigerated by closed circuits filled with deionized water; other utilities, such as air-conditioning, use chilled/hot water, also in closed circuits. All these methods all employ a cold source, the primary supply of water, coming from the cooling towers. About 500 kCHF are spent every year on water treatment in order to keep the water within these networks in operational conditions. In the line of further rationalization of resources, the next generation of contracts with the water treatment industry will aim for improved performance and better monitoring of quality related parameters in this context. The author will provide a concise report based upon an examination of the state of the installations and of the philosophy followed up until now for water treatment. Furthermore, he/she will propose a new approach from both a technical and contractual point of view, in preparation ...

  13. HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TRANSURANIC (TRU) TANK WASTE IDENTIFICATION and PLANNING FOR REVRIEVAL TREATMENT and EVENTUAL DISPOSAL AT WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.; TEDESCHI, R.; JOHNSON, M.E.; JENNINGS, M

    2006-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Manford Group, Inc. (CHG) conducts business to achieve the goals of the Office of River Protection (ORP) at Hanford. As an employee owned company, CHG employees have a strong motivation to develop innovative solutions to enhance project and company performance while ensuring protection of human health and the environment. CHG is responsible to manage and perform work required to safely store, enhance readiness for waste feed delivery, and prepare for treated waste receipts for the approximately 53 million gallons of legacy mixed radioactive waste currently at the Hanford Site tank farms. Safety and environmental awareness is integrated into all activities and work is accomplished in a manner that achieves high levels of quality while protecting the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public. This paper focuses on the innovative strategy to identify, retrieve, treat, and dispose of Hanford Transuranic (TRU) tank waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

  14. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS ASSESSMENT OF THE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AT TARGU-MURES WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIA DIANA HERTIA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the technological process of obtaining drinking water at Targu-Mures water treatment plant. The assessment was performed before changing the technological process and four months were chosen to be analized during 2008: January, April, July and October for its efficiency analysis on treatment steps. Mures River is the water source for the water treatment plant, being characterized by unsteady flow and quality parameters with possible important variability in a very short period of time. The treatment technological process is the classic one, represented by coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection, but also prechlorination was constantly applied as additional treatment during 2008. Results showed that for the measured parameters, raw water at the water treatment plant fits into class A3 for surface waters, framing dictated by the bacterial load. The treatment processes efficiency is based on the performance calculation for sedimentation, filtration, global and for disinfection, a better conformation degree of technological steps standing out in January in comparison to the other three analyzed months. A variable non-compliance of turbidity and residual chlorine levels in the disinfected water was observed constantly. Previous treatment steps managed to maintain a low level of oxidisability, chlorine consumption and residual chlorine levels being also low. 12% samples were found inconsistent with the national legislation in terms of bacteriological quality. Measures for the water treatment plant retechnologization are taken primarily for hyperchlorination elimination, which currently constitutes a discomfort factor (taste, smell, and a generating factor of chlorination by-products.

  15. FLUOR HANFORD (FH) MAKES CLEANUP A REALITY IN NEARLY 11 YEARS AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER, M.S.

    2007-05-24

    For nearly 11 years, Fluor Hanford has been busy cleaning up the legacy of nuclear weapons production at one of the Department of Energy's (DOE'S) major sites in the United States. As prime nuclear waste cleanup contractor at the vast Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state, Fluor Hanford has changed the face of cleanup. Fluor beginning on October 1, 1996, Hanford Site cleanup was primarily a ''paper exercise.'' The Tri-Party Agreement, officially called the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order - the edict governing cleanup among the DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington state - was just seven years old. Milestones mandated in the agreement up until then had required mainly waste characterization, reporting, and planning, with actual waste remediation activities off in the future. Real work, accessing waste ''in the field'' - or more literally in huge underground tanks, decaying spent fuel POO{approx}{approx}S, groundwater, hundreds of contaminated facilities, solid waste burial grounds, and liquid waste disposal sites -began in earnest under Fluor Hanford. The fruits of labors initiated, completed and/or underway by Fluor Hanford can today be seen across the site. Spent nuclear fuel is buttoned up in secure, dry containers stored away from regional water resources, reactive plutonium scraps are packaged in approved containers, transuranic (TRU) solid waste is being retrieved from burial trenches and shipped offsite for permanent disposal, contaminated facilities are being demolished, contaminated groundwater is being pumped out of aquifers at record rates, and many other inventive solutions are being applied to Hanford's most intransigent nuclear wastes. (TRU) waste contains more than 100 nanocuries per gram, and contains isotopes higher than uranium on the Periodic Table of the Elements. (A nanocurie is one-billionth of a curie.) At the same time, Fluor Hanford

  16. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poloski, A. P.

    2004-01-01

    This project has two primary objectives. The first is to understand the physical properties and behavior of the Hanford transuranic (TRU) tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging, and transportation for disposal at WIPP. The second primary objective is to develop a fundamental understanding of these sludge suspensions by correlating the macroscopic properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of this research effort will enhance the existing understanding of agglomeration phenomena and the properties of complex colloidal suspensions. In addition, the knowledge gained and capabilities developed during this effort will aid in the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites. These objectives will be accomplished by: (1) characterizing the TRU sludges contained in the Hanford tanks that are intended for shipment to WIPP; (2) determining the physical behavior of the Hanford TRU tank sludges under conditions that might exist during treatment and packaging; (3) and modeling the retrieval, treatment, and packaging operations that will be performed at Hanford to dispose of TRU tank sludges

  17. Process for the treatment of salt water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, R J

    1966-06-12

    A procedure is described for the treatment of salty or brackish water for the production of steam, which is directly utilized afterward, either in a condensed form as sweet water or deoxidized for injection into oil formations for raising the temperature thereof and other uses. The water-purification treatment is continuous, and is of the type in which the salty or brackish water is passed in direct heat exchange relationship with the steam produced for preheating the water up to a temperature where some of the dissolved ions of calcium and magnesium are precipitated in the form of insoluble salts. In the passage of the preheated water being purified, a zone is created for the completion of the reaction. A part of the water is retained in this reaction zone while the other part is being passed in indirect heat exchange relationship with a heating means, for converting this part of the water into steam. All of the steam obtained in the latter described heat exchange is utilized in the water purification, and/or added to the produced steam, as first noted.

  18. Nanotechnology-based water treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Ahlawat, Wandit; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Heydarifard, Solmaz; Nazhad, Mousa M; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2014-02-01

    The most important component for living beings on the earth is access to clean and safe drinking water. Globally, water scarcity is pervasive even in water-rich areas as immense pressure has been created by the burgeoning human population, industrialization, civilization, environmental changes and agricultural activities. The problem of access to safe water is inevitable and requires tremendous research to devise new, cheaper technologies for purification of water, while taking into account energy requirements and environmental impact. This review highlights nanotechnology-based water treatment technologies being developed and used to improve desalination of sea and brackish water, safe reuse of wastewater, disinfection and decontamination of water, i.e., biosorption and nanoadsorption for contaminant removal, nanophotocatalysis for chemical degradation of contaminants, nanosensors for contaminant detection, different membrane technologies including reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, electro-dialysis etc. This review also deals with the fate and transport of engineered nanomaterials in water and wastewater treatment systems along with the risks associated with nanomaterials.

  19. Innovations in nanotechnology for water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehrke I

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ilka Gehrke, Andreas Geiser, Annette Somborn-SchulzFraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology UMSICHT, Oberhausen, GermanyAbstract: Important challenges in the global water situation, mainly resulting from worldwide population growth and climate change, require novel innovative water technologies in order to ensure a supply of drinking water and reduce global water pollution. Against this background, the adaptation of highly advanced nanotechnology to traditional process engineering offers new opportunities in technological developments for advanced water and wastewater technology processes. Here, an overview of recent advances in nanotechnologies for water and wastewater treatment processes is provided, including nanobased materials, such as nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, and photocatalysts. The beneficial properties of these materials as well as technical barriers when compared with conventional processes are reported. The state of commercialization is presented and an outlook on further research opportunities is given for each type of nanobased material and process. In addition to the promising technological enhancements, the limitations of nanotechnology for water applications, such as laws and regulations as well as potential health risks, are summarized. The legal framework according to nanoengineered materials and processes that are used for water and wastewater treatment is considered for European countries and for the USA.Keywords: nanotechnology, water technology, nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, photocatalysis

  20. Hanford Site environmental report for calendar year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, R.K.; Hanf, R.W.; Hefty, M.G.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Hanford Site Environmental Report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations. The report also highlights major environmental programs and efforts. The following sections: describe the Hanford Site and its new mission; summarize the status in 1990 of compliance with environmental regulations; describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; present information on environmental surveillance and the ground-water protection and monitoring program; and discuss activities to ensure quality

  1. Hanford Site environmental report for calendar year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, R.K.; Hanf, R.W.; Lundgren, R.E. (eds.)

    1992-06-01

    This report of the Hanford Reservation is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations. The report also highlights major environmental programs and efforts. The following sections: describe the Hanford Site and its mission; summarize the status in 1991 of compliance with environmental regulations; describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; present information on environmental surveillance and the ground-water protection and monitoring program; and discuss activities to ensure quality.

  2. Hanford Site environmental report for calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The Hanford Site Environmental Report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations. It also highlights environmental programs and efforts. It is written to meet reporting requirements and guidelines of DOE and to meet the needs of the public. Individual sections are designed to describe the Hanford Site and its mission, summarize the status in 1995 of compliance, describe the environmental programs, discuss estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1995 Hanford activities, present information on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance (including ground- water protection and monitoring), and discuss activities to ensure quality.

  3. Hanford Site environmental report for calendar year 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, R.K.; Hanf, R.W.; Hefty, M.G.; Lundgren, R.E. (eds.)

    1991-12-20

    The Hanford Site Environmental Report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations. The report also highlights major environmental programs and efforts. The following sections: describe the Hanford Site and its new mission; summarize the status in 1990 of compliance with environmental regulations; describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; present information on environmental surveillance and the ground-water protection and monitoring program; and discuss activities to ensure quality.

  4. Hanford Site environmental report for calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.

    1996-06-01

    The Hanford Site Environmental Report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations. It also highlights environmental programs and efforts. It is written to meet reporting requirements and guidelines of DOE and to meet the needs of the public. Individual sections are designed to describe the Hanford Site and its mission, summarize the status in 1995 of compliance, describe the environmental programs, discuss estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1995 Hanford activities, present information on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance (including ground- water protection and monitoring), and discuss activities to ensure quality

  5. Hanford Site environmental report for calendar year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, R.K.; Hanf, R.W.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1992-06-01

    This report of the Hanford Reservation is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations. The report also highlights major environmental programs and efforts. The following sections: describe the Hanford Site and its mission; summarize the status in 1991 of compliance with environmental regulations; describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; present information on environmental surveillance and the ground-water protection and monitoring program; and discuss activities to ensure quality

  6. Hanford spent nuclear fuel project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, N.H.

    1997-08-19

    Twenty one hundred metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are currently stored in the Hanford Site K Basins near the Columbia River. The deteriorating conditions of the fuel and the basins provide engineering and management challenges to assure safe current and future storage. DE and S Hanford, Inc., part of the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. lead team on the Project Hanford Management Contract, is constructing facilities and systems to move the fuel from current pool storage to a dry interim storage facility away from the Columbia River, and to treat and dispose of K Basins sludge, debris and water. The process starts in K Basins where fuel elements will be removed from existing canisters, washed, and separated from sludge and scrap fuel pieces. Fuel elements will be placed in baskets and loaded into Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and into transportation casks. The MCO and cask will be transported to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, where free water within the MCO will be removed under vacuum at slightly elevated temperatures. The MCOs will be sealed and transported via the transport cask to the Canister Storage Building.

  7. Subproject plan for demonstration of 3M technology for treatment of N Basin water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastino, J.C.

    1996-02-01

    A dissolved radionuclides removal demonstration is being conducted at the 105-N Basin as part of the 100-N Area Projects' policy of aggressively integrating innovative technologies to achieve more cost effective, faster, and/or safer deactivation operations. This subproject plan demonstrates new technology (marketed by the 3M trademark Company) that absorbs specific ions from water. The demonstration will take place at the spent fuel basin at the N Reactor facility. The 105-N Basin contains 1 million gal of water consisting of approximately 32 Ci of dissolved 90 Sr at a concentration of 8.4 uCi/L and 7.3 Ci of dissolved 137 Cs at a concentration of 1.92 uCi/L. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement [Ecology et al. 1990]) Milestone M-16-01E-T2 requires the initiation of pretreatment and removal of all N Reactor fuel storage basin waters by September 30, 1996, pursuant to the N Reactor Deactivation Program Plan (WHC 1993). 105-N Basin dewatering is on the critical path for overall deactivation of N Reactor by March 1997. The 105-N Basin Deactivation Program Plan (BHI 1995) includes removing debris, hardware, algae and sediment from the basin, followed by pretreatment (filtration) and removal of the 1005-N Basin water. Final water removal is currently scheduled for September 30, 1996. The recommended method of the 105-N Basin water is the treatment of the water at the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) in the 200 East Area. The demonstration of the 3M technology could be a feasible treatment alternative to the ETF if the ETF is not available to meet the project schedule or if additional pretreatment is needed to reduce the inventory of radioactive species to be handled at the ETF. Demonstration of this technology could be of value for other fuel basins at the Hanford Site and possibly other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites and non- DOE nuclear power plants

  8. Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121

  9. Preliminary engineering assessment of treatment alternatives for groundwater from the Hanford 200 Area 200-BP-5 plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of the Preliminary Engineering Assessment of Treatment Alternatives (PEATA), an engineering evaluation of potential treatment alternatives for groundwater extracted from the 200-BP-5 Area's 216-BY Cribs and 216-B-5 Reverse Well plumes. The primary objective of the PEATA was to identify treatment technologies that are worth further consideration (i.e., treatability testing or a more refined engineering evaluation). It will also provide a basis for evaluating the results of the treatability testing that is currently being conducted on the presumptive remedy of ion exchange with disposal of spent resin and will serve as a guide for selection of other technologies for additional testing. Because there are little data or past experience with groundwater similar to the BY-Crib and B-5 Reverse Well Plumes, treatment efficiencies cannot be predicted with certainty and rigorous treatment system designs and costs cannot be developed. This applies to all alternatives, including the presumptive remedy of ion exchange. The approach for this study was to develop conceptual designs and approximate costs for the treatment technologies that were most likely to be effective on the BY-Crib and B-5 Reverse Well groundwater

  10. Hanford Area 2000 Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Douglas B.; Scott, Michael J.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office, Surface Environmental Surveillance Project, to provide demographic data required for ongoing environmental assessments and safety analyses at the DOE Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This document includes 2000 Census estimates for the resident population within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the Hanford Site. Population distributions are reported relative to five reference points centered on meteorological stations within major operating areas of the Hanford Site - the 100 F, 100 K, 200, 300, and 400 Areas. These data are presented in both graphical and tabular format, and are provided for total populations residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the reference points, as well as for Native American, Hispanic and Latino, total minority, and low-income populations

  11. HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU CLEANUP COMPLETION STRATEGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the ∼200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were signed by the

  12. Numerical modeling of ground-water flow systems in the vicinity of the reference repository location, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.; Beyeler, W.; Logsdon, M.; Coleman, N.; Brinster, K.

    1989-04-01

    This report documents south-central Washington State's Pasco Basin ground-water modeling studies. This work was done to support the NRC's review of hydrogeologic studies under the Department of Energy's (DOE) Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The report provides a brief overview of the geology, hydrology, and hydrochemistry of the Pasco Basin as a basis for the evaluation of previous conceptual and numerical ground-water flow models of the region. Numerical models were developed to test new conceptual models of the site and to provide a means of evaluating the Department of Energy's performance assessments and proposed hydrologic testing. Regional ground-water flow modeling of an area larger than the Pasco Basin revealed that current concepts on the existence and behavior of a hydrologic barrier west of the proposed repository location are inconsistent with available data. This modeling also demonstrated that the measured pattern of hydraulic heads cannot be produced with a model that (1) has uniform layer properties over the entire domain; (2) has zones of large conductivity associated with anticlinal structures; or (3) includes recharge from the industrial disposal ponds. Adequate representation of the measured hydraulic heads was obtained with a model that contained regions of larger hydraulic conductivity that corresponded to the presence of sedimentary interbeds. In addition, a detailed model of a region smaller than the Pasco Basin was constructed to provide the NRC staff with the ability to analyze proposed Department of Energy hydrologic tests. 62 refs., 145 figs., 18 tabs

  13. Experimental data and analysis to support the design of an ion-exchange process for the treatment of Hanford tank waste supernatant liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.E.; Bray, L.A.; Brooks, K.P.; Brown, G.N.; Bryan, S.A.; Carlson, C.D.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Kim, A.Y.

    1994-12-01

    Hanford's 177 underground storage tanks contain a mixture of sludge, salt cake, and alkaline supernatant liquids. Disposal options for these wastes are high-level waste (HLW) glass for disposal in a repository or low-level waste (LLW) glass for onsite disposal. Systems-engineering studies show that economic and environmental considerations preclude disposal of these wastes without further treatment. Difficulties inherent in transportation and disposal of relatively large volumes of HLW make it impossible to vitrify all of the tank waste as HLW. Potential environmental impacts make direct disposal of all of the tank waste as LLW glass unacceptable. Although the pretreatment and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include retrieval of the aqueous liquids, dissolution of the salt cakes, and washing of the sludges to remove soluble components. Most of the cesium is expected to be in the aqueous liquids, which are the focus of this report on cesium removal by ion exchange. The main objectives of the ion-exchange process are removing cesium from the bulk of the tank waste (i.e., decontamination) and concentrating the separated cesium for vitrification. Because exact requirements for removal of 137 Cs have not yet been defined, a range of removal requirements will be considered. This study addresses requirements to achieve 137 Cs levels in LLW glass between (1) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Class C (10 CFR 61) limit of 4600 Ci/m 3 and (2) 1/10th of the NRC Class A limit of 1 Ci/m 3 i.e., 0.1/m 3 . The required degrees of separation of cesium from other waste components is a complex function involving interactions between the design of the vitrification process, waste form considerations, and other HLW stream components that are to be vitrified

  14. Waste water treatment plant city of Kraljevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinović Dragan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In all countries, in the fight for the preservation of environmental protection, water pollution, waste water is one of the very serious and complex environmental problems. Waste waters pollute rivers, lakes, sea and ground water and promote the development of micro-organisms that consume oxygen, which leads to the death of fish and the occurrence of pathogenic microbes. Water pollution and determination of its numerous microbiological contamination, physical agents and various chemical substances, is becoming an increasing health and general social problem. Purification of industrial and municipal waste water before discharge into waterways is of great importance for the contamination of the water ecosystems and the protection of human health. To present the results of purification of industrial and municipal wastewater in the city center Kraljevo system for wastewater treatment. The investigated physical and chemical parameters were performed before and after the city's system for wastewater treatment. The results indicate that the effect of purification present the physical and chemical parameters in waste water ranges from 0 - 19%.

  15. Modification of water treatment plant at Heavy Water Plant (Kota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajpati, C.R.; Shrivastava, C.S.; Shrivastava, D.C.; Shrivastava, J.; Vithal, G.K.; Bhowmick, A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy Water Production by GS process viz. H 2 S - H 2 O bi-thermal exchange process requires a huge quantity of demineralized (DM) water as a source of deuterium. Since the deuterium recovery of GS process is only 18-19%, the water treatment plant (WTP) was designed and commissioned at Heavy Water Plant (Kota) to produce demineralized water at the rate of 680 m 3 /hr. The WTP was commissioned in 1980 and till 2005; the plant was producing DM water of required quality. It was having three streams of strong cation resin, atmospheric degasser and strong anion exchange resin with co-current regeneration. In 2001 a new concept of layered bed resin was developed and engineered for water treatment plant. The concept was attractive in terms of saving of chemicals and thus preservation of environment. Being an ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 plant, the modification of WTP was executed in 2005 during major turn around. After modification, a substantial amount of acid and alkali is saved

  16. Hanford Waste Simulants Created to Support the Research and Development on the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibling, R.E.

    2001-07-26

    The development of nonradioactive waste simulants to support the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant bench and pilot-scale testing is crucial to the design of the facility. The report documents the simulants development to support the SRTC programs and the strategies used to produce the simulants.

  17. Advances In Hexavalent Chromium Removal At Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neshem, D.O.; Riddelle, J.

    2012-01-01

    At the Hanford Site, chromium was used as a corrosion inhibitor in the reactor cooling water and was introduced into the groundwater as a result of planned and unplanned discharges from reactors during plutonium production since 1944. Beginning in 1995, groundwater treatment methods were evaluated leading to the use of pump and treat facilities with ion exchange using Dowex 21 K, a regenerable strong base anion exchange resin. This required regeneration of the resin, which is currently performed offsite. Resin was installed in a 4 vessel train, with resin removal required from the lead vessel approximately once a month. In 2007, there were 8 trains (32 vessels) in operation. In 2008, DOE recognized that regulatory agreements would require significant expansion in the groundwater chromium treatment capacity. Previous experience from one of the DOE project managers led to identification of a possible alternative resin, and the contractor was requested to evaluate alternative resins for both cost and programmatic risk reductions. Testing was performed onsite in 2009 and 2010, using a variety of potential resins in two separate facilities with groundwater from specific remediation sites to demonstrate resin performance in the specific groundwater chemistry at each site. The testing demonstrated that a weak base anion single-use resin, ResinTech SIR-700, was effective at removing chromium, had a significantly higher capacity, could be disposed of efficiently on site, and would eliminate the complexities and programmatic risks from sampling, packaging, transportation and return of resin for regeneration. This resin was installed in Hanford's newest groundwater treatment facility, called 100-DX, which began operations in November, 2010, and used in a sister facility, 100-HX, which started up in September of 2011. This increased chromium treatment capacity to 25 trains (100 vessels). The resin is also being tested in existing facilities that utilize Dowex 21 K for

  18. Application of graphene oxide in water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongchen

    2017-11-01

    Graphene oxide has good hydrophilicity and has been tried to use it into thin films for water treatment in recent years. In this paper, the preparation methods of graphene oxide membrane are reviewed, including vacuum suction filtration, spray coating, spin coating, dip coating and the layer by layer method. Secondly, the mechanism of mass transfer of graphene membrane is introduced in detail. The application of the graphene oxide membrane, modified graphene oxide membrane and graphene hybrid membranes were discussed in RO, vaporization, nanofiltration and other aspects. Finally, the development and application of graphene membrane in water treatment were discussed.

  19. Residual water treatment for gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, L.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of residual water by means of gamma radiation for its use in agricultural irrigation is evaluated. Measurements of physical, chemical, biological and microbiological contamination indicators were performed. For that, samples from the treatment center of residual water of San Juan de Miraflores were irradiated up to a 52.5 kGy dose. The study concludes that gamma radiation is effective to remove parasites and bacteria, but not for removal of the organic and inorganic matter. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  20. Moisture movement in soils on the Hanford Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.; Sloughter, J.P.; Veatch, M.D.

    1971-01-01

    Methods being studied are as follows: the thermodynamic method based on water potential and thermocouple psychrometers; the tracer method using atmospheric tritium; the annual water balance based on the annual heat balance; the field lysimeter using thermocouple psychrometers; the influence of soil breathing as a result of changes in barometric pressure; and the influence of soil stratification. Progress to date has involved the installation of thermocouple psychrometers from the surface to the water table 310 feet below. These instruments are in the process of equilibration. Isothermal methods of analyzing water potential must be extended to include nonisothermal conditions which are dominant at the Hanford Reservation. Tracer techniques using tritium analyses of soil samples have successfully demonstrated that archaic water exists in virgin soil at the Hanford Reservation from a depth of approximately 7 meters to the water table, indicating that percolation has been limited to lesser depths. The annual heat balance indicates that quantities of water many times greater than the annual average precipitation of 16 centimeters can be evaporated from the soils at the Hanford Reservation during a normal summer. This indicates that the critical precipitation (P/sub c/) value may be greater than 30 to 50 centimeters of water. More precise values of the Bowen's ratio for the Hanford Reservation are required to refine this computation. The field lysimeter is perhaps the most direct method of determining the critical precipitation values for the Hanford Reservation but as yet has not been used

  1. Catalog of borehole lithologic logs from the 600 Area, Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.; Lillie, J.T.

    1982-03-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) geoscientists are studying the Hanford Site subsurface environment to assure safe management operations, disposal, and storage of radioactive waste. As part of this effort, geoscientists have collected geotechnical data from about 3000 boreholes drilled on the Hanford Site since the early 1900s. These boreholes have been used for subsurface geologic, hydrologic, and engineering investigation, water supply, ground-water monitoring, and natural gas production. This report is a catalog of all obtainable (about 800) lithologic logs from boreholes in a portion of the Hanford Site known as the 600 Area

  2. Drainage treatment technology for water pollution prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebise, Sen' ichi

    1988-03-01

    Drainage is purified either at terminal treatment plants or by septic tanks for sewage. At terminal treatment plants, sewage is purified by activated sludge prosessing or by biological treatment equipment. By the normal activated sludge processing, only 20 - 30 % of nitrogen and phosphur can be removed. To solve this problem, many advanced processing systems have been employed, representative systems being coagulating sedimentation, rapid filtration, recirculating nitro-denitrification, etc. The coagulating sedimentation is a treatment process in which such metallic salt coagulations as aluminum, iron, etc. are injected and mixed with sewage, and then phosphur and the like are sedimented in the form of grains. The rapid filtration requires no large space, and can reliably remove suspended matter. For large scale septic tank processing system, advance treatment processing is supplemented to improve the quality of treated water. Among other systems of sewage purification are oxidized channel, oxidized pond, soil treatment, etc. (2 figs, 2 refs)

  3. Calcination/dissolution testing for Hanford Site tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colby, S.A.; Delegard, C.H.; McLaughlin, D.F.; Danielson, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Thermal treatment by calcination offers several benefits for the treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes, including the destruction of organics and ferrocyanides and an hydroxide fusion that permits the bulk of the mostly soluble nonradioactive constituents to be easily separated from the insoluble transuranic residue. Critical design parameters were tested, including: (1) calciner equipment design, (2) hydroxide fusion chemistry, and (3) equipment corrosion. A 2 gal/minute pilot plant processed a simulated Tank 101-SY waste and produced a free flowing 700 C molten calcine with an average calciner retention time of 20 minutes and >95% organic, nitrate, and nitrite destruction. Laboratory experiments using actual radioactive tank waste and the simulated waste pilot experiments indicate that 98 wt% of the calcine produced is soluble in water, leaving an insoluble transuranic fraction. All of the Hanford Site tank wastes can benefit from calcination/dissolution processing, contingent upon blending various tank waste types to ensure a target of 70 wt% sodium hydroxide/nitrate/nitrite fluxing agent. Finally, corrosion testing indicates that a jacketed nickel liner cooled to below 400 C would corrode <2 mil/year (0.05 mm/year) from molten calcine attack

  4. Removing Phosphate from Hanford High-Phosphate Tank Wastes: FY 2010 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Qafoku, Odeta; Felmy, Andrew R.; Carter, Jennifer C.; MacFarlan, Paul J.

    2010-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for environmental remediation at the Hanford Site in Washington State, a former nuclear weapons production site. Retrieving, processing, immobilizing, and disposing of the 2.2 × 105 m3 of radioactive wastes stored in the Hanford underground storage tanks dominates the overall environmental remediation effort at Hanford. The cornerstone of the tank waste remediation effort is the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). As currently designed, the capability of the WTP to treat and immobilize the Hanford tank wastes in the expected lifetime of the plant is questionable. For this reason, DOE has been pursuing supplemental treatment options for selected wastes. If implemented, these supplemental treatments will route certain waste components to processing and disposition pathways outside of WTP and thus will accelerate the overall Hanford tank waste remediation mission.

  5. Strontium-90 migration in Hanford sediments, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steefel, C.I.; Yang, L.; Carroll, S.A.; Roberts, S.; Zachara, J.M.; Yabusaki, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Strontium-90 is an important risk-driving contaminant at the Hanford site in eastern Washington, USA. Disposal operations at the Hanford 100-N area released millions of liters of reactor cooling water containing high concentrations of strontium-90 into the vadose zone immediately adjacent to the Columbia River. The effectiveness of pump-and-treat methods for remediation have been questioned, largely because the strontium is strongly sorbed on subsurface sediments via ion exchange reactions and co-precipitation in carbonates. In addition, groundwater monitoring wells show a fluctuating seasonal behavior in which high strontium-90 concentrations correlate with high Columbia River stage, even while average concentrations remain approximately constant. A series of fully saturated reactive transport column experiments have been conducted to investigate the important controls on strontium migration in Hanford groundwater [1]. The experiments were designed to investigate the multicomponent cation exchange behavior of strontium in competition with the cations Na + , Ca +2 , and Mg +2 , the concentration of which differs between river water and groundwater. Reactive transport modeling of the experiments indicates that the Sr +2 selectivity coefficient becomes larger with increasing NaNO 3 concentration, a behavior also shown by the divalent cations Ca +2 and Mg +2 . A new set of column experiments investigates the effect of wetting and drying cycles on strontium- 90 sorption and migration by considering episodic flow in Hanford sediments. In addition, the effect of fluctuating aquifer chemistry as a result of changes in the Columbia River stage on Sr +2 sorption is addressed. Modeling of multicomponent reactive transport under variably saturated conditions is used to interpret the results of the episodic flow/chemistry experiments. [1] Experimental and modeling studies of the migration behavior of strontium in Hanford sediments, USA. C

  6. DOE wants Hanford change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Nine months ago, Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary promised local officials running the agency's huge Hanford, Washington, weapon complex more control in directing its projected $57-billion waste cleanup. Earlier this month, she returned to the site for a follow-on open-quotes summit,close quotes this time ordering teamwork with contractors, regulators and local activities

  7. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location

  8. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities were built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Areas to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive constituents. This paper focuses on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location

  9. Hanford environmental dose reconstruction project - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipler, D.B.; Napier, B.A.; Farris, W.T.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project was initiated because of public interest in the historical releases of radioactive materials from the Hanford Site, located in southcentral Washington State. By 1986, over 38,000 pages of environmental monitoring documentation from the early years of Hanford operations had been released. Special committees reviewing the documents recommended initiation of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, which began in October 1987, and is conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. The technical approach taken was to reconstruct releases of radioactive materials based on facility operating information; develop and/or adapt transport, pathway, and dose models and computer codes; reconstruct environmental, meterological, and hydrological monitoring information; reconstruct demographic, agricultural, and lifestyle characteristics; apply statistical methods to all forms of uncertainty in the information, parameters, and models; and perform scientific investigation that were technically defensible. The geographic area for the study includes ∼2 x 10 5 km 2 (75,000 mi 2 ) in eastern Washington, western Idaho, and northeastern Oregon (essentially the Mid-columbia Basin of the Pacific Northwest). Three exposure pathways were considered: the atmosphere, the Columbia River, and ground water

  10. Listed waste history at Hanford facility TSD units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskho, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    This document was prepared to close out an occurrence report that Westinghouse Hanford Company issued on December 29, 1994. Occurrence Report RL-WHC-GENERAL-1994-0020 was issued because knowledge became available that could have impacted start up of a Hanford Site facility. The knowledge pertained to how certain wastes on the Hanford Site were treated, stored, or disposed of. This document consolidates the research performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company regarding listed waste management at onsite laboratories that transfer waste to the Double-Shell Tank System. Liquid and solid (non-liquid) dangerous wastes and mixed wastes at the Hanford Site are generated from various Site operations. These wastes may be sampled and characterized at onsite laboratories to meet waste management requirements. In some cases, the wastes that are generated in the field or in the laboratory from the analysis of samples require further management on the Hanford Site and are aggregated together in centralized tank storage facilities. The process knowledge presented herein documents the basis for designation and management of 242-A Evaporator Process Condensate, a waste stream derived from the treatment of the centralized tank storage facility waste (the Double-Shell Tank System). This document will not be updated as clean up of the Hanford Site progresses

  11. Managing peatland vegetation for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson, Jonathan P; Bell, Michael; Brazier, Richard E; Grand-Clement, Emilie; Graham, Nigel J D; Freeman, Chris; Smith, David; Templeton, Michael R; Clark, Joanna M

    2016-11-18

    Peatland ecosystem services include drinking water provision, flood mitigation, habitat provision and carbon sequestration. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal is a key treatment process for the supply of potable water downstream from peat-dominated catchments. A transition from peat-forming Sphagnum moss to vascular plants has been observed in peatlands degraded by (a) land management, (b) atmospheric deposition and (c) climate change. Here within we show that the presence of vascular plants with higher annual above-ground biomass production leads to a seasonal addition of labile plant material into the peatland ecosystem as litter recalcitrance is lower. The net effect will be a smaller litter carbon pool due to higher rates of decomposition, and a greater seasonal pattern of DOC flux. Conventional water treatment involving coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation may be impeded by vascular plant-derived DOC. It has been shown that vascular plant-derived DOC is more difficult to remove via these methods than DOC derived from Sphagnum, whilst also being less susceptible to microbial mineralisation before reaching the treatment works. These results provide evidence that practices aimed at re-establishing Sphagnum moss on degraded peatlands could reduce costs and improve efficacy at water treatment works, offering an alternative to 'end-of-pipe' solutions through management of ecosystem service provision.

  12. WATER MICROPOLLUTANTS: CLASSIFICATION AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Patiño

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the different kinds of emerging contaminants, their origin and use, and their presence in the Spanish waters, both in surface and groundwater. Micropollutants are compounds of different origin and chemical nature which had been unnoticed (due to their low concentration and don’t have specific regulation. They are divided into six major groups, and many of them behave as endocrine disruptors causing large negative effects on human health and environment. They are in waters because the waste water treatment plants are not designed for their removal, so they are being discharged. Different alternatives for their removal are discussed - physico- chemical, biological and hybrid treatment technologies -. Among the physicochemical process, the advance oxidation processes (AOPs are very promising.

  13. Cellulose Nanomaterials in Water Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles François; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials’ potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials’ beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization. PMID:25837659

  14. Cellulose nanomaterials in water treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles-François; Wiesner, Mark R

    2015-05-05

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials' potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials' beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization.

  15. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included

  16. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

  17. Magnetic Field Water Treatment Section - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopec, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: In the last year the activity of the team was focused on industrial implementing of methods developed, as well as on designing and implementing devices for magnetohydrodynamic water treatment and water filtration in the magnetic field. - Phase 1 of research for Ostrowiec Steelworks in Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski (IFJ N-3454 Research) on the possibilities of implementation of the methods of magnetohydrodynamic water treatment in water and sewage circuits, as well as of the method of filtration in the magnetic field were completed. In this part of research, phase analyses of deposits from water and sewage circuits were carried out. In the rolling mill circuit of Ostrowiec Steelworks, a magnetic filter with a capacity of 200 m 3 /h, designed in the Institute of Nuclear Physics was installed and tested. Implementation of this filter is predicted for the year 1999. - Research for the Kozienice Power Station in Swierze Gorne (IFJ N-3450 Research) on determination of the phase composition of total suspended solids in water-steam circuits was completed. - A preliminary evaluation was completed on economic effects of implementation of the prototype magnetic filter FM-500 which has been operational since 1993 in the circuit of turbine condensate cleaning in the 225 MW unit in the power station in Polaniec. (author)

  18. Treatment of Oil & Gas Produced Water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Production of oil and gas reserves in the New Mexico Four Corners Region results in large volumes of "produced water". The common method for handling the produced water from well production is re-injection in regulatory permitted salt water disposal wells. This is expensive (%7E $5/bbl.) and does not recycle water, an ever increasingly valuable commodity. Previously, Sandia National Laboratories and several NM small business tested pressure driven membrane-filtration techniques to remove the high TDS (total dissolved solids) from a Four Corners Coal Bed Methane produced water. Treatment effectiveness was less than optimal due to problems with pre-treatment. Inadequate pre-treatment allowed hydrocarbons, wax and biological growth to foul the membranes. Recently, an innovative pre-treatment scheme using ozone and hydrogen peroxide was pilot tested. Results showed complete removal of hydrocarbons and the majority of organic constituents from a gas well production water. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report was made possible through funding from the New Mexico Small Business Administration (NMSBA) Program at Sandia National Laboratories. Special thanks to Juan Martinez and Genaro Montoya for guidance and support from project inception to completion. Also, special thanks to Frank McDonald, the small businesses team POC, for laying the ground work for the entire project; Teresa McCown, the gas well owner and very knowledgeable- fantastic site host; Lea and Tim Phillips for their tremendous knowledge and passion in the oil & gas industry.; and Frank Miller and Steve Addleman for providing a pilot scale version of their proprietary process to facilitate the pilot testing.

  19. Master schedule for CY-1984 Hanford environmental surveillance routine sampling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Price, K.R.; Eddy, P.A.; Carlile, J.M.V.

    1983-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford environmental surveillance and ground-water Monitoring Programs at the Hanford Site. The purpose is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. The routine sampling schedule provided herein does not include samples that are planned to be collected during FY-1984 in support of special studies, special contractor support programs, or for quality control purposes

  20. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of the 1984 United States Code (USC). The report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site and consists of waste disposal units, including (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structure, (5) RCRA treatment and storage units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of this report, the listing of sites is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of HSWA. In support of the Hanford RCRA permit, a field was added to designate whether the waste management unit is a solid waste management unit (SWMU). As SWMUs are identified, they will added to the Hanford Waste Information Data System (WIDS), which is the database supporting this report, and added to the report at its next annual update. A quality review of the WIDS was conducted this past year. The review included checking all data against their reference and making appropriate changes, updating the data elements using the most recent references, marking duplicate units for deletion, and addition additional information. 6 refs

  1. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of the 1984 United States Code (USC). The report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site and consists of waste disposal units, including (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structures, (5) RCRA treatment and storage units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of this report, the listing of sites is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of HSWA. In support of the Hanford RCRA permit, a field was added to designate whether the waste management unit is a solid waste management unit (SWMU). As SWMUs are identified, they will added to the Hanford Waste Information Data System (WIDS), which is the database supporting this report, and added to the report at its next annual update. A quality review of the WIDS was conducted this past year. The review included checking all data against their reference and making appropriate changes, updating the data elements using the most recent references, marking duplicate units for deletion, and adding additional information. 6 refs

  2. Master schedule for CY-1981 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.

    1980-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site is provided. Questions about specific entries should be referred to the authors since modifications to the schedule are made during the year and special areas of study, usually of short duration, are not scheduled. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in Manual Chapter 0513, and to monitor Hanford operations for compliance with applicable environmental criteria given in Manual Chapter 0524 and Washington State Water Quality Standards. Air quality data obtained in a separate program are also reported. The collection schedule for potable water is shown but it is not part of the routine environmental surveillance program. Schedules are presented for the following subjects: air, Columbia River, sanitary water, surface water, ground water, foodstuffs, wildlife, soil and vegetation, external radiation measurement, portable instrument surveys, and surveillance of waste disposal sites

  3. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-01-01

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  4. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  5. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMakin, A.H., Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction MDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in envirorunental pathways. epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering. radiation dosimetry. and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed members representing the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms; Environmental Transport; Environmental Monitoring Data Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture; and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates

  6. Produced water treatment methods for SAGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnich, K. [Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Produced water treatment methods for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes were presented. Lime softening is used to remove sludge before weak acid cation processes. However, the process is not reliable in cold climates, and disposal of the sludge is now posing environmental problems in Alberta. High pH MVC evaporation processes use sodium hydroxide (NaOH) additions to prevent silica scaling. However the process produces silica wastes that are difficult to dispose of. The sorption slurry process was designed to reduce the use of caustic soda and develop a cost-effective method of disposing evaporator concentrates. The method produces 98 per cent steam quality for SAGD injection. Silica is sorbed onto crystals in order to prevent silica scaling. The evaporator concentrate from the process is suitable for on- and off-site deep well disposal. The ceramic membrane process was designed to reduce the consumption of chemicals and improve the reliability of water treatment processes. The ion exchange desilication process uses 80 per cent less power and produces 80 per cent fewer CO{sub 2} emissions than MVC evaporators. A comparative operating cost evaluation of various electric supply configurations and produced water treatment processes was also included, as well as an analysis of produced water chemistry. tabs., figs.

  7. [Maintenance and monitoring of water treatment system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoriero, G; Pozzoni, P; Tentori, F; Scaravilli, P; Locatelli, F

    2005-01-01

    Water treatment systems must be submitted to maintenance, disinfections and monitoring periodically. The aim of this review is to analyze how these processes must complement each other in order to preserve the efficiency of the system and optimize the dialysis fluid quality. The correct working of the preparatory process (pre-treatment) and the final phase of depuration (reverse osmosis) of the system need a periodic preventive maintenance and the regular substitution of worn or exhausted components (i.e. the salt of softeners' brine tank, cartridge filters, activated carbon of carbon tanks) by a competent and trained staff. The membranes of reverse osmosis and the water distribution system, including dialysis machine connections, should be submitted to dis-infections at least monthly. For this purpose it is possible to use chemical and physical agents according to manufacturer' recommendations. Each dialysis unit should predispose a monitoring program designed to check the effectiveness of technical working, maintenance and disinfections and the achievement of chemical and microbiological standards taken as a reference. Generally, the correct composition of purified water is monitored by continuous measuring of conductivity, controlling bacteriological cultures and endotoxin levels (monthly) and checking water contaminants (every 6-12 months). During pre-treatment, water hardness (after softeners) and total chlorine (after chlorine tank) should be checked periodically. Recently the Italian Society of Nephrology has developed clinical guidelines for water and dialysis solutions aimed at suggesting rational procedures for production and monitoring of dialysis fluids. It is hopeful that the application of these guidelines will lead to a positive cultural change and to an improvement in dialysis fluid quality.

  8. Linking water treatment practices and fish welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zubiaurre, Claire; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Peracetic acids can be used as sanitizers to control water quality in aquaculture systems. As an alternative to formalin, chloramine-T or copper sulphate, PAA has strong anti-microbial effects, degrades quickly and is relatively safe to use. Its mode of action and associated rapid decay can make....... Supportive enzymatic, biochemical and physiological biomarkers can be used along with gill and epidermal histological measures to evaluate the effects on water treatment regimens. The ultimate goal is to define the therapeutic window where fish welfare is not compromised.PAA is among the few disinfectants...

  9. Water Treatment Systems for Long Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    FLynn, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Space exploration will require new life support systems to support the crew on journeys lasting from a few days to several weeks, or longer. These systems should also be designed to reduce the mass required to keep humans alive in space. Water accounts for about 80 percent of the daily mass intake required to keep a person alive. As a result, recycling water offers a high return on investment for space life support. Water recycling can also increase mission safety by providing an emergency supply of drinking water, where another supply is exhausted or contaminated. These technologies also increase safety by providing a lightweight backup to stored supplies, and they allow astronauts to meet daily drinking water requirements by recycling the water contained in their own urine. They also convert urine into concentrated brine that is biologically stable and nonthreatening, and can be safely stored onboard. This approach eliminates the need to have a dedicated vent to dump urine overboard. These needs are met by a system that provides a contaminant treatment pouch, referred to as a urine cell or contaminant cell, that converts urine or another liquid containing contaminants into a fortified drink, engineered to meet human hydration, electrolyte, and caloric requirements, using a variant of forward osmosis (FO) to draw water from a urine container into the concentrated fortified drink as part of a recycling stage. An activated carbon pretreatment removes most organic molecules. Salinity of the initial liquid mix (urine plus other) is synergistically used to enhance the precipitation of organic molecules so that activated carbon can remove most of the organics. A functional osmotic bag is then used to remove inorganic contaminants. If a contaminant is processed for which the saline content is different than optimal for precipitating organic molecules, the saline content of the liquid should be adjusted toward the optimal value for that contaminant. A first urine

  10. Radiation treatment of polluted water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    Strategies to tackle environmental pollution have been receiving increasing attention throughout the world in recent years. Radiation processing using electron beam accelerators and gamma irradiators has shown very promising results in this area. Radiation processing in wastewater treatment is an additive-free process that uses the short lived reactive species formed during the radiolysis of water for efficient decomposition of pollutants therein. The rapid growth of the global population, together with the increased development of agriculture and industry, have led to the generation of large quantities of polluted industrial and municipal wastewater. The recognition that these polluted waters may pose a serious threat to humans has led technologists to look for cost effective technologies for their treatment. A variety of methods based on biological, chemical, photochemical and electrochemical processes are being explored for decomposing the chemical and biological contaminants present in the wastewaters. Studies in recent years have demonstrated the effectiveness of ionizing radiation such as, gamma rays and electron beams or in combination with other treatments, in the decomposition of refractory organic compounds in aqueous solutions and in the effective removal or inactivation of various microorganisms and parasites. The application of electron beam processing for drinking water, wastewater and groundwater treatment offers the promise of a cost effective process. The installation of the first full scale electron beam plant in Daegu, Republic of Korea, to treat 10 000 m 3 day -1 textile wastewater has demonstrated that the process is a cost effective technology when compared to conventional treatment. The regular operation of this facility provides operational data on reliability and additional data for a detailed economic evaluation. The IAEA has been supporting activities in this area by organizing advisory group meetings, consultants meetings, symposia and

  11. Treatment of cyanide-contained Waste Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheglov, M.Y.

    1999-01-01

    This work contains results of theoretical and experimental investigations of possibility to apply industrial ionites of different kinds for recovering complex cyanide of some d-elements (Cu, Zn, an dso on) and free CN-ions with purpose to develop technology and unit for plating plant waste water treatment. Finally, on basis of experimental data about equilibrium kinetic and dynamic characteristic of the sorption in model solutions, strong base anionite in CN- and OH-forms was chosen. This anionite has the best values of operational sorption uptake. Recommendations of using the anionite have been developed for real cyanide-contained wastewater treatment

  12. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Phuong Thao; Dang, Vu Chi

    2018-03-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine drainage treatment in Hongai coal mines. In addition, selection and criteria for the design of the treatment systems have been presented.

  13. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Phuong Thao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine drainage treatment in Hongai coal mines. In addition, selection and criteria for the design of the treatment systems have been presented.

  14. Hanford well custodians. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, A.L.; Underwood, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Program recognized the need to integrate monitoring well activities in a centralized manner. A key factor to Hanford Site well integration was the need to clearly identify a responsible party for each of the wells. WHC was asked to identify all wells on site, the program(s) using each well, and the program ultimately responsible for the well. This report lists the custodian and user(s) for each Hanford well and supplies a comprehensive list of all decommissioned and orphaned wells on the Hanford Site. This is the first update to the original report released in December 1993

  15. Reinventing government: Reinventing Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayeda, J.T.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1943 as one of the three original Manhattan Project locations involved in the development of atomic weapons. It continued as a defense production center until 1988, when its mission changed to environmental restoration and remediation. The Hanford Site is changing its business strategy and in doing so, is reinventing government. This new development has been significantly influenced by a number of external sources. These include: the change in mission, reduced security requirements, new found partnerships, fiscal budgets, the Tri-Party agreement and stakeholder involvement. Tight budgets and the high cost of cleanup require that the site develop and implement innovative cost saving approaches to its mission. Costeffective progress is necessary to help assure continued funding by Congress

  16. Hanford process review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This report is a summary of past incidents at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide the major, significant, nuclear-safety-related incidents which incurred at the Hanford Site in a single document for ease of historical research. It should be noted that the last major accident occurred in 1980. This document is a summary of reports released and available to the public in the DOE Headquarters and Richland public reading rooms. This document provides no new information that has not previously been reported. This report is not intended to cover all instances of radioactivity release or contamination, which are already the subject of other major reviews, several of which are referenced in Section 1.3

  17. Treatment of oily water by flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz O, H.B.

    2002-01-01

    The operation of the nuclear power plants such as Laguna Verde (CLV) with nuclear reactors of the boiling water type (BWR) produce radioactive waste solids, liquids and gaseous which require of a special treatment in their operation and arrangement. Such is the case of the liquid wastes from CLV which are a mixture of water and synthetic oils coming from leaks and spilling by pressure of maintenance of electro-mechanical equipment associated to the performance of the nuclear power plant. This mixture of water and spent oils is pretreated by means of sedimentation, centrifugation and evaporation. However the realized efforts by the CLV, the spent oil obtained from the pretreatment contains concentrations of radioactive material higher than the tolerance limits established in the normative in force in radiological safety (0.37 Bq m L -1 for 60 Co and 54 Mn). In this context it was necessary to design an efficient treatment system and economically profitable which separates the oil, the heavy metals and the leftovers of radioactive material that could be present in water, with the purpose of fulfil with the Mexican Official Standards corresponding for its unload or even it can reuse it in the wash process of treated oil. The treatment system of oily water waste consists of: a) Coagulation-flocculation, b) Flotation system with modified air dissolved (DAFm). The proposed flotation process allows to reach a higher separation efficiencies of: Concentration of greases and oils: 94.11 %; Turbidity: 98.6 %; 60 Co: 82.3 % ; Co: 94.8 % and Cr: 99.9 % (Author)

  18. Hanford Tank Cleanup Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriochoa, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

  19. STUDY ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is more and more used as an alternative source of energy, considering the fact that it is obtained from waste materials and it can be easily used in cities and rural communities for many uses, between which, as a fuel for households. Biogas has many energy utilisations, depending on the nature of the biogas source and the local demand. Generally, biogas can be used for heat production by direct combustion, electricity production by fuel cells or micro-turbines, Combined Hest and Power generation or as vehicle fuel. In this paper we search for another uses of biogas and Anaerobe Digestion substrate, such as: waste water treatment plants and agricultural wastewater treatment, which are very important in urban and rural communities, solid waste treatment plants, industrial biogas plants, landfill gas recovery plants. These uses of biogas are very important, because the gas emissions and leaching to ground water from landfill sites are serious threats for the environment, which increase more and more bigger during the constant growth of some human communities. That is why, in the developed European countries, the sewage sludge is treated by anaerobe digestion, depending on national laws. In Romania, in the last years more efforts were destined to use anaerobe digestion for treating waste waters and management of waste in general. This paper can be placed in this trend of searching new ways of using with maximum efficiency the waste resulted in big communities.

  20. Energy requirements for waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svardal, K; Kroiss, H

    2011-01-01

    The actual mathematical models describing global climate closely link the detected increase in global temperature to anthropogenic activity. The only energy source we can rely on in a long perspective is solar irradiation which is in the order of 10,000 kW/inhabitant. The actual primary power consumption (mainly based on fossil resources) in the developed countries is in the range of 5 to 10 kW/inhabitant. The total power contained in our nutrition is in the range of 0.11 kW/inhabitant. The organic pollution of domestic waste water corresponds to approximately 0.018 kW/inhabitant. The nutrients contained in the waste water can also be converted into energy equivalents replacing market fertiliser production. This energy equivalent is in the range of 0.009 kW/inhabitant. Hence waste water will never be a relevant source of energy as long as our primary energy consumption is in the range of several kW/inhabitant. The annual mean primary power demand of conventional municipal waste water treatment with nutrient removal is in the range of 0.003-0.015 kW/inhabitant. In principle it is already possible to reduce this value for external energy supply to zero. Such plants should be connected to an electrical grid in order to keep investment costs low. Peak energy demand will be supported from the grid and surplus electric energy from the plant can be is fed to the grid. Zero 'carbon footprint' will not be affected by this solution. Energy minimisation must never negatively affect treatment efficiency because water quality conservation is more important for sustainable development than the possible reduction in energy demand. This argument is strongly supported by economical considerations as the fixed costs for waste water infrastructure are dominant.

  1. Hanford phosphate precipitation filtration process evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.; McCabe, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this filter study was to evaluate cross-flow filtration as effective solid-liquid separation technology for treating Hanford wastes, outline operating conditions for equipment, examine the expected filter flow rates, and determine proper cleaning. A proposed Hanford waste pre-treatment process uses sodium hydroxide at high temperature to remove aluminum from sludge. This process also dissolves phosphates. Upon cooling to 40 degrees centigrade the phosphates form a Na7(PO4)2F9H2O precipitate which must be removed prior to further treatment. Filter studies were conducted with a phosphate slurry simulant to evaluate whether 0.5 micron cross-flow sintered metal Mott filters can separate the phosphate precipitate from the wash solutions. The simulant was recirculated through the filters at room temperature and filtration performance data was collected

  2. Water Supply and Treatment Equipment. Change Notice 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-05

    Coagulation Filtration Total Dissolved Solids Water Quality Conductivity Potable water Turbidity Water Treatment/Purification Disinfection ...microorganisms (pathogenic) found in the raw water . The preferred Army field method of water disinfection is chlorination. Filtration Filtration...senses. It looks, tastes, and smells good and is neither too hot nor too cold. Potable water Water that is safe for drinking . Reverse osmosis

  3. Characterization plan for Hanford spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrefah, J.; Thornton, T.A.; Thomas, L.E.; Berting, F.M.; Marschman, S.C.

    1994-12-01

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Hanford Site Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) was terminated in 1972. Since that time a significant quantity of N Reactor and Single-Pass Reactor SNF has been stored in the 100 Area K-East (KE) and K-West (KW) reactor basins. Approximately 80% of all US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned SNF resides at Hanford, the largest portion of which is in the water-filled KE and KW reactor basins. The basins were not designed for long-term storage of the SNF and it has become a priority to move the SNF to a more suitable location. As part of the project plan, SNF inventories will be chemically and physically characterized to provide information that will be used to resolve safety and technical issues for development of an environmentally benign and efficient extended interim storage and final disposition strategy for this defense production-reactor SNF

  4. Radioactive contamination in the environs of the Hanford Works for the period April - May - June, 1948

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singlevich, W.

    1948-10-15

    This report summarizes the radioactive contamination measured at the Hanford Works and immediate plant areas for the quarter April, May, and June, 1948. Topics discussed are: Meteorology; airborne contamination; contamination in the Columbia and Yakima Rivers; and contamination in rain, drinking water, vegetation, and in Hanford Wastes.

  5. A review of water treatment membrane nanotechnologies

    KAUST Repository

    Pendergast, MaryTheresa M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is being used to enhance conventional ceramic and polymeric water treatment membrane materials through various avenues. Among the numerous concepts proposed, the most promising to date include zeolitic and catalytic nanoparticle coated ceramic membranes, hybrid inorganic-organic nanocomposite membranes, and bio-inspired membranes such as hybrid protein-polymer biomimetic membranes, aligned nanotube membranes, and isoporous block copolymer membranes. A semi-quantitative ranking system was proposed considering projected performance enhancement (over state-of-the-art analogs) and state of commercial readiness. Performance enhancement was based on water permeability, solute selectivity, and operational robustness, while commercial readiness was based on known or anticipated material costs, scalability (for large scale water treatment applications), and compatibility with existing manufacturing infrastructure. Overall, bio-inspired membranes are farthest from commercial reality, but offer the most promise for performance enhancements; however, nanocomposite membranes offering significant performance enhancements are already commercially available. Zeolitic and catalytic membranes appear reasonably far from commercial reality and offer small to moderate performance enhancements. The ranking of each membrane nanotechnology is discussed along with the key commercialization hurdles for each membrane nanotechnology. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FOR TANK WASTE PRETREATMENT AT THE DOE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAMILTON, D.W.

    2006-01-03

    Radioactive wastes from one hundred seventy-seven underground storage tanks in the 200 Area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State will be retrieved, treated and stored either on site or at an approved off-site repository. DOE is currently planning to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, which would be treated and permanently disposed in separate facilities. A significant volume of the wastes in the Hanford tanks is currently classified as medium Curie waste, which will require separation and treatment at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). Because of the specific challenges associated with treating this waste stream, DOE EM-21 funded a project to investigate the feasibility of using fractional crystallization as a supplemental pretreatment technology. The two process requirements for fractional crystallization to be successfully applied to Hanford waste include: (1) evaporation of water from the aqueous solution to enrich the activity of soluble {sup 137}Cs, resulting in a higher activity stream to be sent to the WTP, and (2) separation of the crystalline salts that are enriched in sodium, carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate and sufficiently depleted in {sup 137}Cs, to produce a second stream to be sent to Bulk Vitrification. Phase I of this project has just been completed by COGEMA/Georgia Institute of Technology. The purpose of this report is to document an independent expert review of the Phase I results with recommendations for future testing. A team of experts with significant experience at both the Hanford and Savannah River Sites was convened to conduct the review at Richland, Washington the week of November 14, 2005.

  7. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FOR TANK WASTE PRETREATMENT AT THE DOE HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAMILTON, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive wastes from one hundred seventy-seven underground storage tanks in the 200 Area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State will be retrieved, treated and stored either on site or at an approved off-site repository. DOE is currently planning to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, which would be treated and permanently disposed in separate facilities. A significant volume of the wastes in the Hanford tanks is currently classified as medium Curie waste, which will require separation and treatment at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). Because of the specific challenges associated with treating this waste stream, DOE EM-21 funded a project to investigate the feasibility of using fractional crystallization as a supplemental pretreatment technology. The two process requirements for fractional crystallization to be successfully applied to Hanford waste include: (1) evaporation of water from the aqueous solution to enrich the activity of soluble 137 Cs, resulting in a higher activity stream to be sent to the WTP, and (2) separation of the crystalline salts that are enriched in sodium, carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate and sufficiently depleted in 137 Cs, to produce a second stream to be sent to Bulk Vitrification. Phase I of this project has just been completed by COGEMA/Georgia Institute of Technology. The purpose of this report is to document an independent expert review of the Phase I results with recommendations for future testing. A team of experts with significant experience at both the Hanford and Savannah River Sites was convened to conduct the review at Richland, Washington the week of November 14, 2005

  8. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford site facilities: Progress report for the period January 1 to March 31, 1988: Volume 4, Appendix A (contd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    This appendix is one of nine volumes, and presents data describing wells completed at the Hanford Site during the fourth quarter of calendar year 1987 (October through December). The data in this volume of Appendix A cover the following wells: 299-E33-30; 299-E34-2; 299-E34-3; 299-E34-4; 299-E34-5; 299-E34-6. The data are presented in the following order: Well Completion Report/Title III Inspection List, Inspection Plan, As-Built Diagram, Logging Charts, and Drill Logs.

  9. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford site facilities: Progress report for the period January 1 to March 31, 1988: Volume 7, Appendix B (contd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    This appendix is one of nine volumes, and presents data describing wwlls completed at the Hanford Site during the fourth quarter of calendar year 1987 (October through December). The data in this volume of Appendix B cover the following wells: 299-W10-14; 299-W15-15; 299-W15-16; 299-W15-17; 299-W15-18. The data are presented in the following order: Well Completion Report/Title III Inspection List, Inspection Plan, As-Built Diagram, Logging Charts, and Drill Logs.

  10. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford site facilities: Progress report for the period January 1 to March 31, 1988: Volume 5, Appendix B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-05-01

    This appendix is one of nine volumes, and presents data describing wells completed at the Hanford Site during the fourth quarter of calendar year 1987 (October through December). The data in this volume of Appendix B cover the following wells: 299-W6-2; 299-W7-1; 299-W7-2; 299-W7-3; 299-W7-4. The data are presented in the following order: Well Completion Report/Title III Inspection List, Inspection Plan, As-Built Diagram, Logging Charts, and Drill Logs.

  11. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford site facilities: Progress report for the period, January 1-March 31, 1988: Volume 6, Appendix (contd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    This appendix is one of nine volumes, and presents data describing wells completed at the Hanford Site during the fourth quarter of calendar year 1987 (October through December). The data in this volume of Appendix B cover the following wells: 299-W7-5; 299-W7-6; 299-W8-1; 299-W9-1; 299-W10-13. The data are presented in the following order: Well Completion Report/Title III Inspection List, Inspection Plan, As-Built Diagram, Logging Charts, and Drill Logs

  12. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Progress report, January 1-March 31, 1988: Volume 3, Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    This appendix is one of nine volumes, and presents data describing wells completed at the Hanford Site during the fourth quarter of calendar year 1987 (October through December). The data in this volume of Appendix A cover the following wells: 299-E32-2; 299-E32-3; 299-E32-4; 299-E33-28; 299-E33-29. The data are presented in the following order: Well Completion Report/Title III Inspection List, Inspection Plan, As-Built Diagram, Logging Charts, and Drill Logs

  13. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford site facilities: Progress report for the period, January 1-March 31, 1988: Volume 6, Appendix B (contd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    This appendix is one of nine volumes, and presents data describing wells completed at the Hanford Site during the fourth quarter of calendar year 1987 (October through December). The data in this volume of Appendix B cover the following wells: 299-W7-5; 299-W7-6; 299-W8-1; 299-W9-1; 299-W10-13. The data are presented in the following order: Well Completion Report/Title III Inspection List, Inspection Plan, As-Built Diagram, Logging Charts, and Drill Logs.

  14. Mortality studies of Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1986-04-01

    Radiation exposures at Hanford have been deliberately limited as a protection to the worker. This means that if current estimates of radiation risks, which have been determined by national and international groups, are correct, it's highly unlikely that noticeable radiation-induced health effects will be identified among Hanford workers. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  15. Expediting Groundwater Sampling at Hanford and Making It Safer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, Carl W. Jr.; Carr, Jennifer S.; Hildebrand, R. Douglas; Schatz, Aaron L.; Conley, S. F.; Brown, W. L.

    2013-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) manages the groundwater monitoring programs at the Department of Energy's 586-square-mile Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. Each year, more than 1,500 wells are accessed for a variety of reasons

  16. Supercritical water oxidation treatment of textile sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Shuzhong; Li, Yanhui; Lu, Jinling; Chen, Senlin; Luo, XingQi

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we studied the supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of the textile sludge, the hydrothermal conversion of typical textile compounds and the corrosion properties of stainless steel 316. Moreover, the influence mechanisms of NaOH during these related processes were explored. The results show that decomposition efficiency for organic matter in liquid phase of the textile sludge was improved with the increment of reaction temperature or oxidation coefficient. However, the organic substance in solid phase can be oxidized completely in supercritical water. Serious coking occurred during the high pressure water at 250-450°C for the Reactive Orange 7, while at 300 and 350°C for the polyvinyl alcohol. The addition of NaOH not only accelerated the destruction of organic contaminants in the SCWO reactor, but effectively inhibited the dehydration conversion of textile compounds during the preheating process, which was favorable for the treatment system of textile sludge. The corrosion experiment results indicate that the stainless steel 316 could be competent for the body materials of the reactor and the heat exchangers. Furthermore, there was prominent enhancement of sodium hydroxide for the corrosion resistance of 316 in subcritical water. On the contrary the effect was almost none during SCWO.

  17. Treatment of waste waters with peat moss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coupal, B; Lalancette, J M

    1976-01-01

    Waste waters containing heavy metals such as Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Ni, Cr/sup 6 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Ag, Pb, Sb or cyanide, phosphates and organic matters such as oil, detergents and dyes can be treated efficiently after a crude settling by contacting with peat moss. Chromium, as Cr/sup 6 +/, can be eliminated in one step from a starting solution of low turbidity to give effluent containing less than 10 ppb of Cr/sup 6 +/ and less than 40 ppb of Cr/sup 3 +/. The characteristics and performances of a contacting machine of 20,000 gal/day capacity for the treatment of industrial waste waters are reported.

  18. Environmental monitoring at Hanford by the state of Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, A.W.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Social and Health Services' Office of Radiation Protection (ORP), Washington State's radiation control agency, has a mandate to protect the public from radiation. In 1985, ORP was instructed by the legislature to establish a statewide environmental radiological base line, beginning with Hanford, to verify federal environmental programs, and to enforce federal and state Clean Air Acts. The primary mission of the agency is to protect public health by active involvement in Hanford monitoring and oversight. The state's program was designed not to duplicate but to supplement existing programs and to identify any sampling gaps or problems. Split, side-by-side, and independent samples are collected, with analysis performed by the state's own laboratory. Media sampled have included surface and drinking water, seep and ground water, fruits and vegetables, milk, soils, and air particulates; ambient radiation levels have been determined. Special activities have included split sampling of river seeps with multiple agencies, preliminary dose assessment of early Hanford releases, investigations of 129 I in the environment and in Franklin County drinking water, verification of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) data on erroneous alarms at the Hanford Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant, split sampling with a DOE headquarters survey, and participation in several General Accounting Office investigations and a National Academy of Sciences review. The independence of ORP programs guarantees that the public has access to environmental data on the activities of DOE and its contractors. We will describe the interrelationship of ORP and Hanford programs and present results of ORP activities

  19. Treatment of some power plant waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konecny, C.; Vanura, P.; Franta, P.; Marhol, M.; Tejnecky, M.; Fidler, J.

    1987-01-01

    Major results are summed up obtained in 1986 in the development of techniques for the treatment of coolant in the fuel transport and storage tank, of reserve coolant in the primary circuit and of waste water from the special nuclear power plant laundries, containing new washing agent Alfa-DES. A service test of the filter filled with Czechoslovak-made cation exchanger Ostion KSN in the boric acid concentrate filter station showed that the filter can be used in some technological circuits of nuclear power plants. New decontamination agents are also listed introduced in production in Czechoslovakia for meeting the needs of nuclear power plants. (author). 6 refs

  20. Preliminary assessment of blending Hanford tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Kurath, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    A parametric study of blending Hanford tank wastes identified possible benefits from blending wastes prior to immobilization as a high level or low level waste form. Track Radioactive Components data were used as the basis for the single-shell tank (SST) waste composition, while analytical data were used for the double-shell tank (DST) composition. Limiting components were determined using the existing feed criteria for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). Results have shown that blending can significantly increase waste loading and that the baseline quantities of immobilized waste projected for the sludge-wash pretreatment case may have been drastically underestimated, because critical components were not considered. Alternatively, the results suggest further review of the grout feed specifications and the solubility of minor components in HWVP borosilicate glass. Future immobilized waste estimates might be decreased substantially upon a thorough review of the appropriate feed specifications

  1. Preliminary assessment of blending Hanford tank wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Kurath, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    A parametric study of blending Hanford tank wastes identified possible benefits from blending wastes prior to immobilization as a high level or low level waste form. Track Radioactive Components data were used as the basis for the single-shell tank (SST) waste composition, while analytical data were used for the double-shell tank (DST) composition. Limiting components were determined using the existing feed criteria for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). Results have shown that blending can significantly increase waste loading and that the baseline quantities of immobilized waste projected for the sludge-wash pretreatment case may have been drastically underestimated, because critical components were not considered. Alternatively, the results suggest further review of the grout feed specifications and the solubility of minor components in HWVP borosilicate glass. Future immobilized waste estimates might be decreased substantially upon a thorough review of the appropriate feed specifications.

  2. Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The information contained in, and/or referenced in, this Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report addresses Permit Condition II.W (Other Permits and/or Approvals) of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA7890008967). Condition II.W specifies that the Permittees are responsible for obtaining all other applicable federal, state, and local permits authorizing the development and operation of the Hanford Facility. Condition II.W further specifies that the Permittees are to use their best efforts to obtain such permits. For the purposes of this Permit Condition, ''best efforts'' mean submittal of documentation and/or approval(s) in accordance with schedules specified in applicable regulations, or as determined through negotiations with the applicable regulatory agencies

  3. Integrated modeling of ozonation for optimization of drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, A.W.C.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water treatment plants automation becomes more sophisticated, more on-line monitoring systems become available and integration of modeling environments with control systems becomes easier. This gives possibilities for model-based optimization. In operation of drinking water treatment

  4. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System's tank waste retrieval Program

  5. Assessment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride as a ballast water treatment method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, Cees; Buma, Anita; Peperzak, Louis

    Ballast water-mediated transfer of aquatic invasive species is considered a major threat to marine biodiversity, marine industry and human health. A ballast water treatment is needed to comply with International Maritime Organization (IMO) ballast water discharge regulations. Didecyldimethylammonium

  6. Assessment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride as a ballast water treatment method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, C.; Peperzak, L.; Buma, A.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ballast water-mediated transfer of aquatic invasive species is considered a major threat to marine biodiversity, marine industry and human health. A ballast water treatment is needed to comply with International Maritime Organization (IMO) ballast water discharge regulations. Didecyldimethylammonium

  7. 1996 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-26-OIF. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal-restricted mixed waste management at the Hanford Site.

  8. 1999 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restriction for mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLACK, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-011. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility

  9. 1996 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-26-OIF. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal-restricted mixed waste management at the Hanford Site

  10. 1999 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restriction for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLACK, D.G.

    1999-03-25

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-011. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility.

  11. Evaluation of Water Treatment Problems: Case Study of Maiduguri Water Treatment Plant (MWTP and Maiduguri Environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Idris

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Water remains the most useful universal solvent to human being and other animals, because of its derivative importance. However, effort to improve on raw water treatment would continue to be a subject of concern, because the process procedures are been violated or not properly upheld. This study was carried out in order to identify peculiar problems associate with water treatment at the Maiduguri Water Treatment Plant (MWTP. This research study was based on prompt time-schedules and plant site-visits, interviewed questions were made and accessing the technology adopted in the process stages. Analytical data were obtained through the use of sampling bottles, camera, record sheets and other necessary laboratory equipment. The analysis showed that treated water contained excess chlorine and aluminum with 1.10mg/l and 0.68mg/l respectively. From this study, the following are the root causes: poor facility lay out, poor organizational and functional structures, wear of pump impellers and surface deterioration in the transmission line, lack of calibration test, constant head system not operation properly, lack of jar test conduction, improper maintenance of filter system, and the use of chemical coagulant. Inferences were made at the end of the research to enhance process efficiency, healthier and more economical treatment MWTP.

  12. Integrated oil sands tailings pond water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Z. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed research currently being conducted to treat oil sands tailings pond water (TPW). The treatment of TPW is challenged by the high level of naphthenic acids (NAs), the slow settling rate of fine particulate materials, and the complex chemistry of the water. The treatment process consisted of bioflocculation, sludge blanket assisted clarification, ozonation, and oil sands coke assisted hybrid biodegradation. The aggregation and adsorption process bound small particles and cells together while also ensuring the passive uptake of pollutants using microbial masses. The mixed liquor then passed through a sludge blanket to ensure enhanced particle capture. An ozonation process was used to increase the biodegradability of the TPW as well as to increase the biodegradability of the residual NAs after ozonation. The process used a hybrid bioreactor that consisted of both suspended and fixed microbial communities. The coke served as a biofilm carrier for the waste. Further studies are being conducted to investigate the efficiency and capability of the process. tabs., figs.

  13. Glass forms for immobilization of Hanford wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; Dressen, A.L.; Hobbick, C.W.; Babad, H.

    1975-03-01

    Approximately 140 million liters of solid salt cake (mainly NaNO 3 ), produced by evaporation of aged alkaline high-level liquid wastes, will be stored in underground tanks when the present Hanford Waste Management Program is completed in the early 1980's. At this time also, large volumes of various other solid radioactive wastes (sludges, excavated Pu-contaminated soil, and doubly encapsulated 137 CsCl and 90 SrF 2 ) will be stored on the Hanford Reservation. All these solid wastes can be converted to immobile silicate and aluminosilicate glasses of low water leachability by melting them at 1100 0 to 1400 0 C with appropriate amounts of basalt (or sand) and other glass-formers such as B 2 O 3 or CaO. Reviewed in this paper are formulations and other melt conditions used successfully in batch tests to make glasses from actual and synthetic wastes; leachability and other properties of these glasses show them to be satisfactory vehicles for immobilization of the Hanford wastes. (U.S.)

  14. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  15. Surface-water surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995)

  16. Neutron Measurements At Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrady, Matthew M.; Berg, Randal K.; Scherpelz, Robert I.; Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted neutron measurements at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The measurements were performed to evaluate the performance of the Hanford Standard Dosimeter (HSD) and the 8816 TLD component of the Hanford Combination Neutron Dosimeter (HCND) in the neutron fields responsible for worker neutron exposures. For this study, TEPC detectors and multisphere spectrometers were used to measure neutron dose equivalent rate, and multispheres were used to measure average neutron energy. Water-filled phantoms holding Hanford dosimeters were positioned at each measurement location. The phantoms were positioned in the same location where a multisphere measurement was taken and TEPCs were also positioned there. Plant survey meters were also used to measure neutron dose rates at all locations. Three measurement locations were chose near the HC-9B glovebox in room 228A of Building 234-5. The multisphere spectrometers measured average neutron energies in the range of 337 to 555 keV at these locations. Personal dose equivalent, Hp(10)n, as measured by the multisphere and TEPC, ranged from 2.7 to 9.7 mrem/h in the three locations. Effective dose assuming a rotational geometry (EROT) was substantially lower than Hp(10), ranging from 1.3 to 3.6 mrem/h. These values were lower than the reported values from dosimeters exposed on a rotating phantom. Effective dose assuming an AP geometry (EAP) was also substantially lower than Hp(10), ranging from 2.3 to 6.5 mrem/h. These values were lower than the reported values from the dosimeters on slab phantoms. Since the effective dose values were lower than reported values from dosimeters, the dosimeters were shown to be conservative estimates of the protection quantities.

  17. Hanford prototype-barrier status report: FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.; Ward, A.L.; Gilmore, B.G.; Ligotke, M.W.; Link, S.O.

    1995-11-01

    Surface barriers (or covers) have been proposed for use at the Hanford Site as a means to isolate certain waste sites that, for reasons of cost or worker safety or both, may not be exhumed. Surface barriers are intende to isolated the wastes from the accessible environment and to provide long-term protection to future populations that might use the Hanford Site. Currently, no ''proven'' long-term barrier system is available. For this reason, the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface-Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Designs have been proposed to meet the most stringent needs for long-term waste disposal. The objective of the current barrier design is to use natural materials to develop a protective barrier system that isolates wastes for at least 1000 years by limiting water, plant, animal, and human intrusion; and minimizing erosion. The design criteria for water drainage has been set at 0.5 mm/yr. While other design criteria are more qualitative, it is clear that waste isolation for an extended time is the prime objective of the design. Constructibility and performance. are issues that can be tested and dealt with by evaluating prototype designs prior to extensive construction and deployment of covers for waste sites at Hanford

  18. Hanford Site environmental surveillance data report for calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-07-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site collects data that provides a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford operations. Data are also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River Water and Sediment. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory publishes an annual environmental report for the Hanford Site each calendar year. The Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995 describes the Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, and environmental monitoring activities and results. The report includes a summary of offsite and onsite environmental monitoring data collected during 1995 by PNNL`s Environmental Monitoring Program. Appendix A of that report contains data summaries created from raw surface, river monitoring data, and chemical air data. This volume contains the actual raw data used to create the summaries. The data volume also includes Hanford Site drinking water radiological data.

  19. Environmental surveillance at Hanford for CY-1974 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.; Blumer, P.J.

    1975-04-01

    Data collected by the Hanford Environmental Surveillance program during 1974 are presented in tables. Data are included on radiological parameters measured in the atmosphere, Columbia River water, drinking water; radionuclides in soil and vegetation, fish and wildlife, and selected foodstuffs; measurements of external radiation doses; and nonradiological parameters measured in the atmosphere, drinking water, and Columbia River water. Methods of sample collection are described briefly. (U.S.)

  20. Hanford inventory program user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkelman, K.C.

    1994-01-01

    Provides users with instructions and information about accessing and operating the Hanford Inventory Program (HIP) system. The Hanford Inventory Program is an integrated control system that provides a single source for the management and control of equipment, parts, and material warehoused by Westinghouse Hanford Company in various site-wide locations. The inventory is comprised of spare parts and equipment, shop stock, special tools, essential materials, and convenience storage items. The HIP replaced the following systems; ACA, ASP, PICS, FSP, WSR, STP, and RBO. In addition, HIP manages the catalog maintenance function for the General Supplies inventory stocked in the 1164 building and managed by WIMS

  1. Discussing simply waste water treatment in building green mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yousheng

    2010-01-01

    Analysis simplfy it is important and necessary that uran ore enterprise build the green mine .According to focusing on waste water treatment in building green mine of some uran ore enterprise,analysis the problem in treating mine water, technics waste water, tailings water before remoulding the system of waster water treatment, evaluate the advanced technics, satisfy ability, steady effect, reach the mark of discharge. According to the experimental unit of building the green mine,some uran ore enterprise make the waster water reaching the mark of discharge after remoulding the system of waster water treatment.It provides valuable experienceto uran ore enterprise in building green mine. (authors)

  2. Sample preparation for semivolatile organics analysis of Hanford single-shell tank waste with high nitrate/nitrite and water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromatt, R.W.; Hoppe, E.W.; Steele, M.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes research work carried out to solve sample preparation problems associated with applying gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS) to the analysis of single shell tank (SST) samples from Hanford for semivolatile organic compounds. Poor performance was found when applying the procedures based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Contract Laboratory Program, Statement of Work (CLP SOW). Analysis work was carried out on simulated drainable liquid modeled after the SST core samples which had evidenced analysis problems. Some work was also conducted on true SST samples. It was found that the pH range was too broad in the original procedure. It was also found that by decreasing the amount of methanol used in the extraction process, problems associated with the formation of an azeotrope phase could be avoided. The authors suggest a new procedure, whose eventual application to a wide array of SST samples will lend itself to better quality control limits

  3. Efficiencies and Optimization of Weak Base Anion Ion-Exchange Resin for Groundwater Hexavalent Chromium Removal at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesham, Dean O.; Ivarson, Kristine A.; Hanson, James P.; Miller, Charles W.; Meyers, P.; Jaschke, Naomi M.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) contractor, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, has successfully converted a series of groundwater treatment facilities to use a new treatment resin that is delivering more than $3 million in annual cost savings and efficiency in treating groundwater contamination at the DOE Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. During the production era, the nuclear reactors at the Hanford Site required a continuous supply of high-quality cooling water during operations. Cooling water consumption ranged from about 151,417 to 378,541 L/min (40,000 to 100,000 gal/min) per reactor, depending on specific operating conditions. Water from the Columbia River was filtered and treated chemically prior to use as cooling water, including the addition of sodium dichromate as a corrosion inhibitor. Hexavalent chromium was the primary component of the sodium dichromate and was introduced into the groundwater at the Hanford Site as a result of planned and unplanned discharges from the reactors starting in 1944. Groundwater contamination by hexavalent chromium and other contaminants related to nuclear reactor operations resulted in the need for groundwater remedial actions within the Hanford Site reactor areas. Beginning in 1995, groundwater treatment methods were evaluated, leading to the use of pump-and-treat facilities with ion exchange using Dowex 21K, a regenerable, strong-base anion exchange resin. This required regeneration of the resin, which was performed offsite. In 2008, DOE recognized that regulatory agreements would require significant expansion for the groundwater chromium treatment capacity. As a result, CH2M HILL performed testing at the Hanford Site in 2009 and 2010 to demonstrate resin performance in the specific groundwater chemistry at different waste sites. The testing demonstrated that a weak-base anion, single-use resin, specifically ResinTech SIR-700 ®, was effective at removing chromium, had a significantly higher

  4. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    OpenAIRE

    Tervahauta, Taina; Bryant, Isaac; Leal, Lucía; Buisman, Cees; Zeeman, Grietje

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP), UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD) mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased...

  5. Overview of the spent nuclear fuel project at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily, J.L.

    1995-02-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project's mission at Hanford is to open-quotes Provide safe, economic and environmentally sound management of Hanford spent nuclear fuel in a manner which stages it to final disposition.close quotes The inventory of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Hanford Site covers a wide variety of fuel types (production reactor to space reactor) in many facilities (reactor fuel basins to hot cells) at locations all over the Site. The 2,129 metric tons of Hanford SNF represents about 80% of the total US Department of Energy (DOE) inventory. About 98.5% of the Hanford SNF is 2,100 metric tons of metallic uranium production reactor fuel currently stored in the 1950s vintage K Basins in the 100 Area. This fuel has been slowly corroding, generating sludge and contaminating the basin water. This condition, coupled with aging facilities with seismic vulnerabilities, has been identified by several groups, including stakeholders, as being one of the most urgent safety and environmental concerns at the Hanford Site. As a direct result of these concerns, the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project was recently formed to address spent fuel issues at Hanford. The Project has developed the K Basins Path Forward to remove fuel from the basins and place it in dry interim storage. Alternatives that addressed the requirements were developed and analyzed. The result is a two-phased approach allowing the early removal of fuel from the K Basins followed by its stabilization and interim storage consistent with the national program

  6. The micro-electrolysis technique in waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiti Zhou; Weihen Yang; Fenglin Yang; Xuemin Xiang; Yulu Wang

    1997-01-01

    The micro-electrolysis is one of the efficient methods to treat some kinds of waste water. The experiments have shown its high efficiency in sewage treatment and some kinds of industrial waste water. It is suitable for pre-treatment of high concentrated waste water and deep treatment of waste water for reuse purpose. The disadvantage of micro-electrolysis is its high energy consumption in case of high electrolyte concentration. (author) 2 figs., 11 tabs., 2 refs

  7. The micro-electrolysis technique in waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiti Zhou; Weihen Yang; Fenglin Yang; Xuemin Xiang; Yulu Wang [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China)

    1997-12-31

    The micro-electrolysis is one of the efficient methods to treat some kinds of waste water. The experiments have shown its high efficiency in sewage treatment and some kinds of industrial waste water. It is suitable for pre-treatment of high concentrated waste water and deep treatment of waste water for reuse purpose. The disadvantage of micro-electrolysis is its high energy consumption in case of high electrolyte concentration. (author) 2 figs., 11 tabs., 2 refs.

  8. Advanced water treatment as a tool in water scarcity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoes, Poul

    2000-01-01

    of water. In the former case, the water is lost by evaporation and polluted. In the latter case, the water is not lost but heavily polluted. With increasing scarcity, the value of water and the need for controls increase. In this situation, water reuse becomes an option that has been considered exotic......The water resource is under increasing pressure, both from the increase in population and from the wish to improve the living standards of the individual. Water scarcity is defined as the situation where demand is greater than the resource. Water scarcity has two distinctly different dimensions......: water availability and water applicability. The availability is a question of quantitative demand relative to resource. The applicability is a question of quality suitability for the intended use of the water. There is a significant difference in this regard with respect to rural versus urban use...

  9. Evaluation of appropriate technologies for grey water treatments and reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    As water is becoming a rare resource, the onsite reuse and recycling of grey water is practiced in many countries as a sustainable solution to reduce the overall urban water demand. However, the lack of appropriate water quality standards or guidelines has hampered the appropriate grey water reuses. Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water treatment and reuse scheme is proposed and the treatment alternatives for grey water reuse are evaluated according to the grey water characteristics, the proposed standards and economical feasibility.

  10. Introduction to the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report discusses the Site mission and provides general information about the site. The U.S. DOE has established a new mission for Hanford including: Management of stored wastes, environmental restoration, research and development, and development of new technologies. The Hanford Reservation is located in south central Washington State just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. The approximately 1,450 square kilometers which comprises the Hanford Site, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas within the site which have historically been used for the production of nuclear materials, radioactive waste storage, and radioactive waste disposal.

  11. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, TM; Hanf, RW; Dirkes, RL

    2000-01-01

    This Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to: (1) describe the Hanford Site and its mission; (2) summarize the status of compliance with environmental regulations; (3) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; (4) discuss the estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1999 Hanford Site activities; (5) present the effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, groundwater protection and monitoring information; and (6) discuss the activities to ensure quality

  12. Introduction to the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report discusses the Site mission and provides general information about the site. The U.S. DOE has established a new mission for Hanford including: Management of stored wastes, environmental restoration, research and development, and development of new technologies. The Hanford Reservation is located in south central Washington State just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. The approximately 1,450 square kilometers which comprises the Hanford Site, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas within the site which have historically been used for the production of nuclear materials, radioactive waste storage, and radioactive waste disposal

  13. Hanford Facility RCRA permit handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Purpose of this Hanford Facility (HF) RCRA Permit Handbook is to provide, in one document, information to be used for clarification of permit conditions and guidance for implementing the HF RCRA Permit.

  14. Hanford Surplus Facilities Program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.C.; Wahlen, R.K.; Winship, R.A.

    1989-09-01

    The Hanford Surplus Facilities Program is responsible for the safe and cost-effective surveillance, maintenance, and decommissioning of surplus facilities at the Hanford Site. The management of these facilities requires a surveillance and maintenance program to keep them in a safe condition and development of a plan for ultimate disposition. Criteria used to evaluate each factor relative to decommissioning are based on the guidelines presented by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office, Defense Facilities Decommissioning Program Office, and are consistent with the Westinghouse Hanford Company commitment to decommission the Hanford Site retired facilities in the safest and most cost-effective way achievable. This document outlines the plan for managing these facilities to the end of disposition

  15. Mortality studies of Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1986-03-01

    The relationships of cancer mortality with radiation exposure as influenced by age, sex, follow-up time length of employment, and job category are discussed in relation to workers at the Hanford facilities

  16. Hanford Waste Management Plan, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP) is to provide an integrated plan for the safe storage, interim management, and disposal of existing waste sites and current and future waste streams at the Hanford Site. The emphasis of this plan is, however, on the disposal of Hanford Site waste. The plans presented in the HWMP are consistent with the preferred alternative which is based on consideration of comments received from the public and agencies on the draft Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (HDW-EIS). Low-level waste was not included in the draft HDW-EIS whereas it is included in this plan. The preferred alternative includes disposal of double-shell tank waste, retrievably stored and newly generated TRU waste, one pre-1970 TRU solid waste site near the Columbia River and encapsulated cesium and strontium waste

  17. Hanford site waste tank characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the on-going work in the characterization of the Hanford-Site high-level waste tanks. The waste in these tanks was produced as part of the nuclear weapons materials processing mission that occupied the Hanford Site for the first 40 years of its existence. Detailed and defensible characterization of the tank wastes is required to guide retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal technology development, to address waste stability and reactivity concerns, and to satisfy the compliance criteria for the various regulatory agencies overseeing activities at the Hanford Site. The resulting Tank Characterization Reports fulfill these needs, as well as satisfy the tank waste characterization milestones in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order

  18. Hanford Site 1998 Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RL Dirkes; RW Hanf; TM Poston

    1999-09-21

    This Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to: describe the Hanford Site and its mission; summarize the status of compliance with environmental regulations; describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; discuss the estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1998 Hanford Site activities; present the effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, and groundwater protection and monitoring information; and discuss the activities to ensure quality.

  19. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TM Poston; RW Hanf; RL Dirkes

    2000-09-28

    This Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to: (1) describe the Hanford Site and its mission; (2) summarize the status of compliance with environmental regulations; (3) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; (4) discuss the estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1999 Hanford Site activities; (5) present the effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, groundwater protection and monitoring information; and (6) discuss the activities to ensure quality.

  20. FINAL FRONTIER AT HANFORD TACKLING THE CENTRAL PLATEAU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GERBER MS

    2008-01-01

    The large land area in the center of the vast Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State is known as 'the plateau'--aptly named because its surface elevations are 250-300 feet above the groundwater table. By contrast, areas on the 585-square mile Site that border the Columbia River sit just 30-80 feet above the water table. The Central Plateau, which covers an ellipse of approximately 70 square miles, contains Hanford's radiochemical reprocessing areas--the 200 East and 200 West Areas--and includes the most highly radioactive waste and contaminated facilities on the Site. Five 'canyons' where chemical processes were used to separate out plutonium (Pu), 884 identified soil waste sites (including approximately 50 miles of solid waste burial trenches), more than 900 structures, and all of Hanford's liquid waste storage tanks reside in the Central Plateau. (Notes: Canyons is a nickname given by Hanford workers to the chemical reprocessing facilities. The 177, underground waste tanks at Hanford comprise a separate work scope and are not under Fluor's management). Fluor Hanford, a DOE prime cleanup contractor at the Site for the past 12 years, has moved aggressively to investigate Central Plateau waste sites in the last few years, digging more than 500 boreholes, test pits, direct soil 'pushes' or drive points; logging geophysical data sets; and performing electrical-resistivity scans (a non-intrusive technique that maps patterns of sub-surface soil conductivity). The goal is to identify areas of contamination areas in soil and solid waste sites, so that cost-effective and appropriate decisions on remediation can be made. In 2007, Fluor developed a new work plan for DOE that added 238 soil waste-site characterization activities in the Central Plateau during fiscal years (FYs) 2007-2010. This number represents a 50 percent increase over similar work previously done in central Hanford. Work Plans are among the required steps in the Comprehensive

  1. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates):Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates

  2. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disselkamp, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  3. HANFORD WASTE MINERALOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-29

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

  4. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-18

    This report lists the observed mineral phase phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  5. Hanford Waste Mineralogy Reference Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disselkamp, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

  6. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs

  7. Water treatment for fossil fuel power generation - technology status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This technology status report focuses on the use of water treatment technology in fossil fuel power plants. The use of polymeric ion exchange resins for deionization of water, the currently preferred use of ion exchange for economically treating water containing low dissolved salts, the use of low pressure high-flux membranes, membrane microfiltration, and reverse osmosis are discussed. Details are given of the benefits of the technologies, water use at power plants, the current status of water treatment technologies, and the potential for future developments, along with power plant market trends and potentials, worldwide developments, and UK capabilities in water treatment plant design and manufacturing

  8. Consequence ranking of radionuclides in Hanford tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmittroth, F.A.; De Lorenzo, T.H.

    1995-09-01

    Radionuclides in the Hanford tank waste are ranked relative to their consequences for the Low-Level Tank Waste program. The ranking identifies key radionuclides where further study is merited. In addition to potential consequences for intrude and drinking-water scenarios supporting low-level waste activities, a ranking based on shielding criteria is provided. The radionuclide production inventories are based on a new and independent ORIGEN2 calculation representing the operation of all Hanford single-pass reactors and the N Reactor

  9. Protective barrier systems for final disposal of Hanford Waste Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Hartley, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    A protecting barrier system is being developed for potential application in the final disposal of defense wastes at the Hanford Site. The functional requirements for the protective barrier are control of water infiltration, wind erosion, and plant and animal intrusion into the waste zone. The barrier must also be able to function without maintenance for the required time period (up to 10,000 yr). This paper summarizes the progress made and future plans in this effort to design and test protective barriers at the Hanford Site

  10. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  11. Hanford Federal Facility state of Washington leased land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This report was prepared to provide information concerning past solid and hazardous waste management practices for all leased land at the US DOE Hanford Reservation. This report contains sections including land description; land usage; ground water, air and soil monitoring data; and land uses after 1963. Numerous appendices are included which provide documentation of lease agreements and amendments, environmental assessments, and site surveys

  12. Hanford Federal Facility state of Washington leased land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This report was prepared to provide information concerning past solid and hazardous waste management practices for all leased land at the US DOE Hanford Reservation. This report contains sections including land description; land usage; ground water, air and soil monitoring data; and land uses after 1963. Numerous appendices are included which provide documentation of lease agreements and amendments, environmental assessments, and site surveys.

  13. Packaging design criteria for the Hanford Ecorok Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Ecorok Packaging (HEP) will be used to ship contaminated water purification filters from K Basins to the Central Waste Complex. This packaging design criteria documents the design of the HEP, its intended use, and the transportation safety criteria it is required to meet. This information will serve as a basis for the safety analysis report for packaging

  14. Integrated environmental monitoring program at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaquish, R.E.

    1990-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site, north of Richland, Washington, has a mission of defense production, waste management, environmental restoration, advanced reactor design, and research development. Environmental programs at Hanford are conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The WHC environmental programs include the compliance and surveillance activities associated with site operations and waste management. The PNL environmental programs address the site-wide and the of-site areas. They include the environmental surveillance and the associated support activities, such as dose calculations, and also the monitoring of environmental conditions to comply with federal and state environmental regulations on wildlife and cultural resources. These are called ''independent environmental programs'' in that they are conducted completely separate from site operations. The Environmental Surveillance and Oversight Program consists of the following projects: surface environmental surveillance; ground-water surveillance; wildlife resources monitoring; cultural resources; dose overview; radiation standards and calibrations; meteorological and climatological services; emergency preparedness

  15. Public health aspects of waste-water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, E.

    1975-01-01

    Among the bacteria, viruses and parasites which may be found in waste-water and polluted waters, those that are pathogenic to man are briefly described. The efficiency of different conventional waste-water treatments in removing the pathogens is reviewed, as well as additional factors of importance for the presence of micro-organisms in recipient waters. It is concluded that at present for treated waters no conventional treatment results in an effluent free from pathogens if they are present in the original waste-water. This is also true for sludges apart from pasteurization. The importance to public health of the presence of pathogens in recipient waters is briefly discussed. (author)

  16. Fixed-biofilm reactors applied to waste water treatment and aquacultural water recirculating systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovendeur, J.

    1989-01-01

    Fixed-biofilm waste water treatment may be regarded as one of the oldest engineered biological waste water treatment methods. With the recent introduction of modern packing materials, this type of reactor has received a renewed impuls for implementation in a wide field of water treatment.

    In

  17. The beneficial usage of water treatment sludge as pottery product ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disposal of sludge from water treatment operations has become a major problem in Malaysia. The problem becomes acute because of scarcity of space for installation of sludge treatment facilities and disposal of treated sludge. Traditionally, treated sludge from water treatment plant will be sent to landfill for disposal.

  18. Carbon tetrachloride contamination, 200 West Area, Hanford Site: Arid Site Integrated Demonstration for remediation of volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Rohay, V.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Arid State Integrated Demonstration is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program targeted at the acquisition, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic and associated contaminants in soils and ground waters. Several DOE laboratories, universities, and industry will participate in the program. Candidate technologies will be demonstrated in the areas of site characterization; performance prediction, monitoring, and evaluations; contaminant extraction and ex situ treatment; in situ remediations; and site closure and monitoring. The performance of these demonstrated technologies will be compared to baseline technologies and documented to promote the transfer of new technologies to industry for use at DOE facilities. The initial host site is the Hanford Site's 200 West Area. The location of the demonstration contains primarily carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), chloroform, and a variety of associated mixed waste contaminants. Chemical processes used to recover and purify plutonium at Hanford's plutonium finishing plant (Z Plant) resulted in the production of actinide-bearing waste liquid. Both aqueous and organic liquid wastes were generated, and were routinely discharged to subsurface disposal facilities. The primary radionuclide in the waste streams was plutonium, and the primary organic was CCl 4 . This paper contains brief descriptions of the principal CCl 4 waste disposal facilities in Hanford's 200 West Area, associated hydrogeology, existing information on the extent of soil and ground-water contamination, and a conceptual outline of suspected subsurface CCl 4 distributions

  19. Waste water treatment of hydrometallurgical mill in mine No. 754

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yiqun

    1997-01-01

    The author briefly introduces some measures to waste water treatment of hydrometallurgical mill of Uranium Mine No. 754. It is shown in practice that making rational use of waste water is advantageous to production, reducing qcost and lightening environment pollution

  20. Biological treatment of drinking water by chitosan based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABI

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... method. A membrane filtration technique is used for the treatment of water to remove or kill ... The characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was done by dynamic ... water and just 3% is available for drinking, agriculture,.

  1. Pretreatment of Hanford purex plant first-cycle waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, M.W.; Gerboth, D.M.; Peters, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    A process has been developed to pretreat neutralized, first-cycle high-level waste from the fuels reprocessing facility (PUREX Plant) at the Hanford Site. The process separates solids from the supernate liquid, which contains soluble salts. The solids, including most of the fission products and transuranic elements, may then be vitrified for disposal, while the low-level supernate stream may be processed into a less expensive grout waste form. The process also includes ion exchange treatment of the separated supernate stream to remove radiocesium. A flow sheet based on these operations was completed to support a planned demonstration of the process in the Hanford site B Plant canyon facility

  2. Peracids in water treatment:a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Luukkonen, T. (Tero); Pehkonen, S. O. (Simo O.)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Peracids have gained interest in the water treatment over the last few decades. Peracetic acid (CH₃CO₃H) has already become an accepted alternative disinfectant in wastewater disinfection whereas performic acid (CHO₃H) has been studied much less, although it is also already commercially available. Additionally, peracids have been studied for drinking water disinfection, oxidation of aqueous (micro)pollutants, sludge treatment, and ballast water treatment, to name just a few exampl...

  3. Women and the Hanford Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Michele

    2014-03-01

    When we study the technical and scientific history of the Manhattan Project, women's history is sometimes left out. At Hanford, a Site whose past is rich with hard science and heavy construction, it is doubly easy to leave out women's history. After all, at the World War II Hanford Engineer Works - the earliest name for the Hanford Site - only nine percent of the employees were women. None of them were involved in construction, and only one woman was actually involved in the physics and operations of a major facility - Dr. Leona Woods Marshall. She was a physicist present at the startup of B-Reactor, the world's first full-scale nuclear reactor - now a National Historic Landmark. Because her presence was so unique, a special bathroom had to be built for her in B-Reactor. At World War II Hanford, only two women were listed among the nearly 200 members of the top supervisory staff of the prime contractor, and only one regularly attended the staff meetings of the Site commander, Colonel Franklin Matthias. Overall, women comprised less than one percent of the managerial and supervisory staff of the Hanford Engineer Works, most of them were in nursing or on the Recreation Office staff. Almost all of the professional women at Hanford were nurses, and most of the other women of the Hanford Engineer Works were secretaries, clerks, food-service workers, laboratory technicians, messengers, barracks workers, and other support service employees. The one World War II recruiting film made to attract women workers to the Site, that has survived in Site archives, is entitled ``A Day in the Life of a Typical Hanford Girl.'' These historical facts are not mentioned to criticize the past - for it is never wise to apply the standards of one era to another. The Hanford Engineer Works was a 1940s organization, and it functioned by the standards of the 1940s. Just as we cannot criticize the use of asbestos in constructing Hanford (although we may wish they hadn't used so much of it), we

  4. The effects of high-Ca hardness water treatment for secondary cooling water in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, T. J.; Park, Y. C.; Hwang, S. R.; Lim, I. C.; Choi, H. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Water-quality control of the second cooling system in HANARO has been altered from low Ca-hardness treatment to high Ca-hardness treatment since March, 2001. High Ca-hardness water treatment in HANARO is to maintain the calcium hardness around 12 by minimizing the blowdown of secondary cooling water. This paper describes the effect of cost reduction after change of water-quility treatment method. The result shows that the cost of the water could be reduced by 25% using the pond water in KAERI. The amount and cost for the chemical agent could be reduced by 40% and 10% respectively

  5. Ozone destruction of Hanford Site tank waste organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colby, S.A.

    1993-04-01

    Ozone processing is one of several technologies being developed to meet the intent of the Secretary of the US Department of Energy, Decision on the Programmatic Approach and Near-Term Actions for Management and Disposal of Hanford Tank Waste Decision Statement, dated December 20, 1991, which emphasizes the need to resolve tank safety issues by destroying or modifying the constituents (e.g., organics) that cause safety concerns. As a result, the major tank treatment objectives on the Hanford Site are to resolve the tank safety issues regarding organic compounds (and accompanying flammable gas generation), which all potentially can react to evolve heat and gases. This report contains scoping test results of an alkaline ozone oxidation process to destroy organic compounds found in the Hanford Site's radioactive waste storage tanks

  6. Estimate of Hanford Waste Rheology and Settling Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poloski, Adam P.; Wells, Beric E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Hall, Mark N.; Thomson, Scott L.; Smith, Gary Lynn; Johnson, Michael E.; Meacham, Joseph E.; Knight, Mark A.; Thien, Michael G.; Davis, Jim J.; Onishi, Yasuo

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will process and treat radioactive waste that is stored in tanks at the Hanford Site. Piping, pumps, and mixing vessels have been selected to transport, store, and mix the high-level waste slurries in the WTP. This report addresses the analyses performed by the Rheology Working Group (RWG) and Risk Assessment Working Group composed of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PNNL, Bechtel National Inc. (BNI), CH2M HILL, DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) and Yasuo Onishi Consulting, LLC staff on data obtained from documented Hanford waste analyses to determine a best-estimate of the rheology of the Hanford tank wastes and their settling behavior. The actual testing activities were performed and reported separately in referenced documentation. Because of this, many of the required topics below do not apply and are so noted

  7. CO{sub 2} pellet decontamination technology at Westinghouse Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, T.L.; Aldrich, L.K. II; Bowman, E.V. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Experimentation and testing with CO{sub 2} pellet decontamination technology is being conducted at Westinghosue Hanford Company (WHC), Richland, Washington. There are 1,100 known existing waste sites at Hanford. The sites specified by federal and state agencies are currently being studied to determine the appropriate cleanup methods best for each site. These sites are contaminated and work on them is in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). There are also 63 treatment, storage, and disposal units, for example: groups of waste tanks or drums. In 1992, there were 100 planned activities scheduled to bring these units into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance or close them after waste removal. Ninety-six of these were completed. The remaining four were delayed or are being negotiated with regulatory agencies. As a result of past defense program activities at Hanford a tremendous volume of materials and equipment have accumulated and require remediation.

  8. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary wastes; conserve resources; and prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all Site activities. The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program plan reflects national and DOE waste minimization and pollution prevention goals and policies, and represents an ongoing effort to make WMin/P2 part of the Site operating philosophy. In accordance with these policies, a hierarchical approach to environmental management has been adopted and is applied to all types of polluting and waste generating activities. Pollution prevention and waste minimization through source reduction are first priority in the Hanford WMin/P2 program, followed by environmentally safe recycling. Treatment to reduce the quantity, toxicity, and/or mobility will be considered only when prevention or recycling are not possible or practical. Environmentally safe disposal is the last option

  9. Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaolei; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Li, Qilin

    2013-08-01

    Providing clean and affordable water to meet human needs is a grand challenge of the 21st century. Worldwide, water supply struggles to keep up with the fast growing demand, which is exacerbated by population growth, global climate change, and water quality deterioration. The need for technological innovation to enable integrated water management cannot be overstated. Nanotechnology holds great potential in advancing water and wastewater treatment to improve treatment efficiency as well as to augment water supply through safe use of unconventional water sources. Here we review recent development in nanotechnology for water and wastewater treatment. The discussion covers candidate nanomaterials, properties and mechanisms that enable the applications, advantages and limitations as compared to existing processes, and barriers and research needs for commercialization. By tracing these technological advances to the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, the present review outlines the opportunities and limitations to further capitalize on these unique properties for sustainable water management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PHOSPHATE CHEMICALS FOR BUILDING POTABLE WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buildings can contribute significant quantities of trace metal contamination to drinking water, particularly lead, copper and zinc. Discolored water may also result in corroded galvanized and steel plumbing and after prolonged stagnation times. To protect human health as well as ...

  11. availability analysis of chemicals for water treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    In most countries, chemicals are generally recognized as being vital in the production of potable water and will ... industries and water utility ventures are being started in Nigeria ... are being dumped into rivers thereby polluting them the more.

  12. Data Summary Report for teh Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulstrom, L.

    2011-02-07

    This data summary report summarizes the investigation results to evaluate the nature and distribution of Hanford Site-related contaminants present in the Columbia River. As detailed in DOE/RL-2008-11, more than 2,000 environmental samples were collected from the Columbia River between 2008 and 2010. These samples consisted of island soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater upwelling (pore water, surface water, and sediment), and fish tissue.

  13. Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Dresel, P. Evan; Lindberg, Jon W.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Thornton, Edward C.

    2000-01-01

    Groundwater is monitored at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of state and federal regulations, including the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980; and Washington Administrative Code. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The U.S. Department of Energy manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project. This document is an integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project. It documents well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; includes other, established monitoring plans by reference; and appends a master well/constituent/ frequency matrix for the entire site. The objectives of monitoring fall into three general categories: plume and trend tracking, treatment/ storage/disposal unit monitoring, and remediation performance monitoring. Criteria for selecting Atomic Energy Act of 1954 monitoring networks include locations of wells in relation to known plumes or contaminant sources, well depth and construction, historical data, proximity to the Columbia River, water supplies, or other areas of special interest, and well use for other programs. Constituent lists were chosen based on known plumes and waste histories, historical groundwater data, and, in some cases, statistical modeling. Sampling frequencies were based on regulatory requirements, variability of historical data, and proximity to key areas. For sitewide plumes, most wells are sampled every 3 years. Wells monitoring specific waste sites or in areas of high variability will be sampled more frequently

  14. Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomer, D.R.; Thornton, E.C.; Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    Groundwater is monitored at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of state and federal regulations, including the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980; and Washington Administrative Code. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The US Department of Energy manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project. This document is an integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project. It documents well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; includes other, established monitoring plans by reference; and appends a master well/constituent/frequency matrix for the entire site. The objectives of monitoring fall into three general categories plume and trend tracking, treatment/storage/disposal unit monitoring, and remediation performance monitoring. Criteria for selecting Atomic Energy Act of 1954 monitoring networks include locations of wells in relation to known plumes or contaminant sources, well depth and construction, historical data, proximity to the Columbia River, water supplies, or other areas of special interest, and well use for other programs. Constituent lists were chosen based on known plumes and waste histories, historical groundwater data, and, in some cases, statistical modeling. Sampling frequencies were based on regulatory requirements, variability of historical data, and proximity to key areas. For sitewide plumes, most wells are sampled every 3 years. Wells monitoring specific waste sites or in areas of high variability will be sampled more frequently

  15. Successful treatment with supercritical water oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.

    1994-01-01

    Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) operates in a totally enclosed system. It uses water at high temperatures and high pressure to chemically change wastes. Oily substances become soluble and complex hydrocarbons are converted into water and carbon dioxide. Research and development on SCWO is described

  16. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Bryant, I.M.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were

  17. Effect of magnetic treatment of water on chemical properties of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed effect of magnetic treatment of water on chemical properties of water, sodium adsorption ratio, electrical conductivity (EC) of the water and the lifespan of the magnetic effect on water. Magnetic flux densities used for treating the water were 124, 319, 443 and 719 gauss. All the cations (Calcium, Sodium, ...

  18. 77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental... review of the uncovered finished water reservoir requirement in the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water... uncovered finished water reservoir requirement and the agency's Six Year Review process. EPA also plans to...

  19. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-01-01

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System

  20. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.