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Sample records for hanford supplemental treatment

  1. Initial Selection of Supplemental Treatment Technologies for Hanford's Low-Activity Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Richard E.; Powell, Roger W.; Hamilton, Dennis W.; Kitchen, William A.; Mauss, Billie M.; Brouns, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years (DOE 2002). A key element of the accelerated cleanup plan was a strategic initiative for acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (ETP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization''. The plan identified specific technologies to be evaluated for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). The objective was to complete required testing and evaluation that would ''...bring an appropriate combination of the above technologies to deployment to supplement LAW treatment and immobilization in the WTP to achieve the completion of tank waste treatment by 2028''. In concert with this acceleration plan, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology have proposed to accelerate from 2012 to 2005 the Hanford Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone (M-62-08) associated with a final decision on treatment of the balance of tank waste that is beyond the capacity of the currently designed WTP

  2. Hanford Supplemental Treatment: Literature and Modeling Review of SRS HLW Salt Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A. S.; Flach, G. P.; Martino, C. J.; Zamecnik, J. R.; Harris, M. K.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Calloway, T. B.

    2005-03-23

    In order to accelerate waste treatment and disposal of Hanford tank waste by 2028, the Department of Energy (DOE) and CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CHG), Inc. are evaluating alternative technologies which will be used in conjunction with the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) to safely pretreat and immobilize the tank waste. Several technologies (Bulk Vitrification and Steam Reforming) are currently being evaluated for immobilizing the pretreated waste. Since the WTP does not have sufficient capacity to pretreat all the waste going to supplemental treatment by the 2028 milestone, two technologies (Selective Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization) are being considered for pretreatment of salt waste. The scope of this task was to: (1) evaluate the recent Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 41 dissolution campaign and other literature to provide a more complete understanding of selective dissolution, (2) provide an update on the progress of salt dissolution and modeling activities at SRS, (3) investigate SRS experience and outside literature sources on industrial equipment and experimental results of previous fractional crystallization processes, and (4) evaluate recent Hanford AP104 boildown experiments and modeling results and recommend enhancements to the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) to improve its predictive capabilities. This report provides a summary of this work and suggested recommendations.

  3. STATUS and DIRECTION OF THE BULK VITRIFICATION PROGRAM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAYMOND, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) is managing a program at the Hanford site that will retrieve and treat more than 200 million liters (53 million gal.) of radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks. The waste was generated over the past 50 years as part of the nation's defense programs. The project baseline calls for the waste to be retrieved from the tanks and partitioned to separate the highly radioactive constituents from the large volumes of chemical waste. These highly radioactive components will be vitrified into glass logs in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), temporarily stored on the Hanford Site, and ultimately disposed of as high-level waste in the offsite national repository. The less radioactive chemical waste, referred to as low-activity waste (LAW), is also planned to be vitrified by the WTP, and then disposed of in approved onsite trenches. However, additional treatment capacity is required in order to complete the pretreatment and immobilization of the tank waste by 2028, which represents a Tri-Party Agreement milestone. To help ensure that the treatment milestones will be met, the Supplemental Treatment Program was undertaken. The program, managed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., involves several sub-projects each intended to supplement part of the treatment of waste being designed into the WTP. This includes the testing, evaluation, design, and deployment of supplemental LAW treatment and immobilization technologies, retrieval and treatment of mixed TRU waste stored in the Hanford Tanks, and supplemental pre-treatment. Applying one or more supplemental treatment technologies to the LAW has several advantages, including providing additional processing capacity, reducing the planned loading on the WTP, and reducing the need for double-shell tank space for interim storage of LAW. In fiscal year 2003, three potential supplemental treatment technologies were evaluated including grout, steam reforming and bulk vitrification using AMEC

  4. DESIGN OF THE DEMOSNTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAN BEEK JE

    2008-01-01

    In June 2004, the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) was initiated with the intent to design, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat low-activity tank waste from Hanford Tank 241-S-109. The DBVS facility uses In-Container Vitrification(trademark) (ICV(trademark)) at the core of the treatment process. The basic process steps combine liquid low-activity waste (LAW) and glassformers; dry the mixture; and then vitrify the mixture in a batch feed-while-melt process in a refractory lined steel container. Off-gases are processed through a state-of-the-art air pollution control system including sintered-metal filtration, thermal oxidation, acid gas scrubbing, and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and high-efficiency gas adsorber (HEGA) filtration. Testing has focused on development and validation of the waste dryer, ICV, and sintered-metal filters (SMFs) equipment, operations enhancements, and glass formulation. With a parallel testing and design process, testing has allowed improvements to the DBVS equipment configuration and operating methodology, since its original inception. Design improvements include optimization of refractory panels in the ICV, simplifying glassformer addition equipment, increasing the number of waste feed chutes to the ICV, and adding capability for remote clean-out of piping, In addition, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has provided an independent review of the entire DBVS process. While the review did not find any fatal flaws, some technical issues were identified that required a re-evaluation of the DBVS design and subsequent changes to the design. A 100 percent design package for the pilot plant will be completed and submitted to DOE for review in early 2008 that incorporates process improvements substantiated through testing and reviews. This paper provides a description of the bulk vitrification process and a discussion of major equipment design changes that have occurred based on full

  5. Environmental monitoring at Hanford for 1984. Supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Carlile, J.M.V.; Dirkes, R.L.; Jaquish, R.E.; Trevathan, M.S.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    A range fire started on private land on August 10, 1984, and burned northward onto the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Environmental monitoring results from air samples collected during and after the fire indicated that no radioactive materials different from normal levels were present in the air

  6. 120-D-1 (100-D) Ponds supplemental information to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.; Zoric, J.P.

    1997-06-01

    This document is a supplement to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan and provides the unit-specific information needed to fully comply with the Washington Administrative Code 173-303 for contingency plans. The 100-D ponds are unlined surface impoundments that were mainly used to dispose of nondangerous wastewater, The ponds are designated as a single treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit because of potential corrosive characteristics of the wastewater. No waste is currently present at the 100-D Ponds

  7. Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste thermal treatment initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.; Riddelle, J.G.

    1993-03-01

    This paper is a progress report of current Westinghouse Hanford Company engineering activities related to the implementation of a program for the thermal treatment of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste. Topics discussed include a site-specific engineering study, the review of private sector capability in thermal treatment, and thermal treatment of some of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste at other US Department of Energy sites

  8. DEWATERING TREATMENT SCALE-UP TESTING RESULTS OF HANFORD TANK WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEDESCHI AR

    2008-01-01

    This report documents CH2M HILL Hanford Group Inc. (CH2M HILL) 2007 dryer testing results in Richland, WA at the AMEC Nuclear Ltd., GeoMelt Division (AMEC) Horn Rapids Test Site. It provides a discussion of scope and results to qualify the dryer system as a viable unit-operation in the continuing evaluation of the bulk vitrification process. A 10,000 liter (L) dryer/mixer was tested for supplemental treatment of Hanford tank low-activity wastes, drying and mixing a simulated non-radioactive salt solution with glass forming minerals. Testing validated the full scale equipment for producing dried product similar to smaller scale tests, and qualified the dryer system for a subsequent integrated dryer/vitrification test using the same simulant and glass formers. The dryer system is planned for installation at the Hanford tank farms to dry/mix radioactive waste for final treatment evaluation of the supplemental bulk vitrification process

  9. Analysis of Hanford Cast Stone Supplemental LAW using Composition Adjusted SRS Tank 50 Salt Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Ramsey, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-04-25

    Vitrification is the primary disposition path for Low Activity Waste (LAW) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. A cementitious waste form is one of the alternatives being considered for the supplemental immobilization of the LAW that will not be treated by the primary vitrification facility. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has been directed to generate and collect data on cementitious or pozzolanic waste forms such as Cast Stone.

  10. Plans and Progress on Hanford MLLW Treatment and Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, K. M.; Blackford, L. T.; Nester, D. E.; Connolly, R. R.; McKenney, D. E.; Moy, S. K.

    2003-01-01

    Mixed low-level waste (MLLW) contains both low-level radioactive materials and low-level hazardous chemicals. The hazardous component of mixed waste has characteristics identified by any or all of the following statutes: the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), as amended; the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976; and Washington State dangerous waste regulations. The Fluor Hanford Waste Management Project (WMP) is responsible for storing, treating, and disposing of solid MLLW, which includes organic and inorganic solids, organics and inorganic lab packs, debris, lead, mercury, long-length equipment, spent melters, and remote-handled (RH) and oversized MLLW. Hanford has 7,000 cubic meters, or about 25%, of the MLLW in storage at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Hanford plans to receive 57,000 cubic meters from on-site generators, or about 50% of DOE's newly generated MLLW. In addition, the Hanford Environment Restoration Program and off-site generators having approved Federal Facility Consent Agreement site treatment plans will most likely send 200 cubic meters of waste to be treated and returned to the generators. Volumes of off-site waste receipts will be affected when the MLLW Record of Decision is issued as part of the process for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The WMP objective relative to MLLW is to treat and dispose of ∼8000 cubic meters of existing inventory and newly-generated waste by September 30, 2006

  11. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS/ PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns

  12. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS & PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-07-21

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns.

  13. SUPPLEMENTAL COLUMBIA RIVER PROTECTION ACTIVITIES AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE 2008 TECHNICAL REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B; Dawn S. Kaback, D; Eugene L. LeBoeuf, E; Joe Rossabi, J; Karen L. Skubal, K; David L. Cocke, D; Paul C. Deutsch, P

    2008-09-30

    Beginning in 2006, the US Department of Energy (DOE) supported nine applied research projects to improve the protection of the Columbia River and mitigate the impacts of Hanford Site groundwater. These projects were funded through a supplemental Congressional budget allocation, and are now in various stages of completion in accordance with the research plans. The DOE Office of Environmental Management Groundwater and Soil Cleanup Technologies (EM-22) sponsored a technical peer review meeting for these projects in Richland WA, July 28-31, 2008. The overall objective of the peer review is to provide information to support DOE decisions about the status and potential future application of the various technologies. The charge for the peer review panel was to develop recommendations for each of the nine 'technologies'. Team members for the July 2008 review were Brian Looney, Gene LeBoeuf, Dawn Kaback, Karen Skubal, Joe Rossabi, Paul Deutsch, and David Cocke. Previous project reviews were held in May 2007 and March-May of 2006. The team used the following four rating categories for projects: (a) Incorporate the technology/strategy in ongoing and future EM activities; (b) Finish existing scope of applied research and determine potential for EM activities when research program is finished; (c) Discontinue current development activities and do not incorporate technology/strategy into ongoing and future EM activities unless a significant and compelling change in potential viability is documented; and (d) Supplement original funded work to obtain the data needed to support a DOE decision to incorporate the technology into ongoing and future EM activities. The supplemental funding portfolio included two projects that addressed strontium, five projects that addressed chromium, one project that addressed uranium and one project that addressed carbon tetrachloride. The projects ranged from in situ treatment methods for immobilizing contaminants using chemical

  14. Hydrothermal treatment of Hanford waste constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Orco, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    The destruction of nitrates, organics, and ferrocyanides contained in underground storage tanks at the Department of Energy Hanford site in Washington state would significantly reduce the volume, hazard, and toxicity of the waste, while meeting pretreatment requirements for vitrification and grouting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of supercritical water oxidation for the destruction of nitrates organics, and ferrocyanides. Laboratory studies were performed studying oxidation/reduction reactions of nitrate with a simple organic compound, methanol, and with ammonia. Additional studies examined the reaction of nitrate with ferrocyanide. When reacted with methanol above 500 degrees C, greater than 99% of the nitrate was destroyed at the shortest residence times (< 6 seconds). At the same conditions, greater than 80% of the methanol was converted to bicarbonate and carbon dioxide. Studies involving the reaction of nitrate and nitrite with ammonia indicated that the reaction proceeds to completion in short residence times at temperatures above the critical point of water (374.2 degrees C). Ferrocyanide to also reacted rapidly with nitrate above the critical point, to produce carbon dioxide and ammonia

  15. Full Focus Needed on Finishing Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant - 12196

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, Suzanne; Biyani, Rabindra; Holmes, Erika [Washington State Department of Ecology, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy's (US DOE's) Hanford Nuclear Site has 177 underground waste storage tanks located 19 to 24 km (12 to 15 miles) from the Columbia River in south-central Washington State. Hanford's tanks now hold about 212,000 cu m (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive and chemically hazardous waste. Sixty-seven tanks have leaked an estimated 3,785 cu m (1 million gallons) of this waste into the surrounding soil. Further releases to soil, groundwater, and the Columbia River are the inevitable result of the tanks continuing to age. The risk from this waste is recognized as a threat to the Northwest by both State and Federal governments. US DOE and Bechtel National, Inc., are building the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to treat and vitrify (immobilize in glass) the waste from Hanford's tanks. As is usual for any groundbreaking project, problems have arisen that must be resolved as they occur if treatment is to take place as specified in the court-enforceable Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) and the Consent Decree, entered into by US DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). At times, US DOE's approach to solving these critical issues seems to have caused undue wastes of time, energy, and, ultimately, public funds. Upon reviewing the history of Hanford's tank waste treatment project, Ecology hopes that constructive criticism of past failures and praise of successes will inspire US DOE to consider changing practices, be more transparent with regulatory agencies and the public, and take a 'lean production' approach to successfully completing this project. All three Tri-Party Agreement agencies share the goal of completing WTP on time, ensuring it is operational and in compliance with safety standards. To do this, Ecology believes US DOE should: - Maintain focus on the primary goal of

  16. Hanford Site waste treatment/storage/disposal integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998 Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. began the integration of all low-level waste, mixed waste, and TRU waste-generating activities across the Hanford site. With seven contractors, dozens of generating units, and hundreds of waste streams, integration was necessary to provide acute waste forecasting and planning for future treatment activities. This integration effort provides disposition maps that account for waste from generation, through processing, treatment and final waste disposal. The integration effort covers generating facilities from the present through the life-cycle, including transition and deactivation. The effort is patterned after the very successful DOE Complex EM Integration effort. Although still in the preliminary stages, the comprehensive onsite integration effort has already reaped benefits. These include identifying significant waste streams that had not been forecast, identifying opportunities for consolidating activities and services to accelerate schedule or save money; and identifying waste streams which currently have no path forward in the planning baseline. Consolidation/integration of planned activities may also provide opportunities for pollution prevention and/or avoidance of secondary waste generation. A workshop was held to review the waste disposition maps, and to identify opportunities with potential cost or schedule savings. Another workshop may be held to follow up on some of the long-term integration opportunities. A change to the Hanford waste forecast data call would help to align the Solid Waste Forecast with the new disposition maps

  17. Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application - Supplemental Information (Supplement 1, Volumes 1 thru 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CURN, B.L.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61), Subpart H: ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,'' and with the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246247, Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. The federal regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from Department of Energy facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1998 from Hanford Site point sources was 1.3 E-02 mrem (1.3 E-04 mSv). which is 0.13 percent of the federal standard. Chapter 246-247 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Department of Energy Hanford Site sources. The state has adopted into these regulations the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE. The EDE to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 was 2.5 E-02 mrem (2.S E-04 mSv). This dose added to the dose from point sources gives a total for all sources of 3.8 E-02 mrem/yr (3.8 E-04 mSv) EDE. which is 0.38 percent of the 10 mrem/yr standard. An unplanned release on August 26, 1998, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site resulted in a potential dose of 4.1 E-02 mrem to a hypothetical individual at the nearest point of public access to that area. This hypothetical individual was not the MEI since the wind direction on the day of the release was away from the MEI residence. The potential dose from the unplanned event

  18. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Supplemental Information to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan (DOE/RL-93-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edens, V.G.

    1998-05-01

    This document is a unit-specific contingency plan for the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility and is intended to be used as a supplement to DOE/RL-93-75, Hanford Facility Contingency Plan (DOE-RL 1993). This unit-specific plan is to be used to demonstrate compliance with the contingency plan requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303 for certain Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) waste management units.The LSFF occupied the former ventilation supply fan room and was established to provide a means of investigating fire and safety aspects associated with large sodium or other metal alkali fires. The unit was used to conduct experiments for studying the behavior of molten alkali metals and alkali metal fires. This unit had also been used for the storage and treatment of alkali metal dangerous waste. Additionally, the Fusion Safety Support Studies programs sponsored intermediate-size safety reaction tests in the LSFF with lithium and lithium-lead compounds. The LSFF, which is a RCRA site, was partially clean closed in 1995 and is documented in 'Transfer of the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility to Bechtel Hanford, Inc.' (BHI 1998). In summary, the 105-DR supply fan room (1720-DR) has been demolished, and a majority of the surrounding soils were clean-closed. The 117-DR Filter Building, 116-DR Exhaust Stack, 119- DR Sampling Building, and associated ducting/tunnels were not covered under this closure

  19. Hanford Tank Waste - Near Source Treatment of Low Activity Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, William Gene

    2013-01-01

    Abstract only. Treatment and disposition of Hanford Site waste as currently planned consists of 100+ waste retrievals, waste delivery through up to 8+ miles of dedicated, in-ground piping, centralized mixing and blending operations- all leading to pre-treatment combination and separation processes followed by vitrification at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The sequential nature of Tank Farm and WTP operations requires nominally 15-20 years of continuous operations before all waste can be retrieved from many Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). Also, the infrastructure necessary to mobilize and deliver the waste requires significant investment beyond that required for the WTP. Treating waste as closely as possible to individual tanks or groups- as allowed by the waste characteristics- is being investigated to determine the potential to 1) defer, reduce, and/or eliminate infrastructure requirements, and 2) significantly mitigate project risk by reducing the potential and impact of single point failures. The inventory of Hanford waste slated for processing and disposition as LAW is currently managed as high-level waste (HLW), i.e., the separation of fission products and other radionuclides has not commenced. A significant inventory of this waste (over 20M gallons) is in the form of precipitated saltcake maintained in single shell tanks, many of which are identified as potential leaking tanks. Retrieval and transport (as a liquid) must be staged within the waste feed delivery capability established by site infrastructure and WTP. Near Source treatment, if employed, would provide for the separation and stabilization processing necessary for waste located in remote farms (wherein most of the leaking tanks reside) significantly earlier than currently projected. Near Source treatment is intended to address the currently accepted site risk and also provides means to mitigate future issues likely to be faced over the coming decades. This paper

  20. SUPPLEMENTAL COLUMBIA RIVER PROTECTION ACTIVITIES AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE: 2006 TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B; Dawn Kaback; Gene Leboeuf; Jason Mulvihill-Kuntz; Lynn Lefkoff

    2006-01-01

    Prompted by a $10 million Congressional allocation to identify supplemental actions to protect the Columbia River from groundwater contamination beneath the Hanford Reservation, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Clean-up Technology identified twenty-three potential technical projects and then down-selected ten of these for further evaluation. An independent expert peer review was conducted for the ten down-selected proposals. The review panel consisted of twenty-three recognized subject matter experts that broadly represented academia, industry, and federal laboratories. Of the initial ten proposals reviewed, one was given unconditional support, six were given conditional support, and three were not supported as proposed. Three additional proposals were then submitted by DOE for review--these proposals were structured, in part, to respond to the initial round of technical peer review comments. Peer reviews of these additional proposals provided conditional support. For those proposals that received conditional support, DOE requested specific implementation and work plans and assessed whether the plans adequately addressed the technical conditions identified by the review panel. The final list of technology proposals receiving support, or conditional support, primarily focused on understanding and reducing the potential impacts of uranium, chromium, and strontium from facilities adjacent to the Columbia River, with a secondary focus on understanding and limiting the future Columbia River impacts from the large carbon tetrachloride groundwater plume underlying and downgradient of the Hanford Central Plateau facilities. The results and recommendations of the peer reviews informed the final DOE project selections and supported implementation of the selected projects to protect the Columbia River and address groundwater contamination at Hanford

  1. SUPPLEMENTAL COLUMBIA RIVER PROTECTION ACTIVITIES AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE: 2006 TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B; Dawn Kaback; Gene Leboeuf; Jason Mulvihill-Kuntz; Lynn Lefkoff

    2006-12-20

    Prompted by a $10 million Congressional allocation to identify supplemental actions to protect the Columbia River from groundwater contamination beneath the Hanford Reservation, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Clean-up Technology identified twenty-three potential technical projects and then down-selected ten of these for further evaluation. An independent expert peer review was conducted for the ten down-selected proposals. The review panel consisted of twenty-three recognized subject matter experts that broadly represented academia, industry, and federal laboratories. Of the initial ten proposals reviewed, one was given unconditional support, six were given conditional support, and three were not supported as proposed. Three additional proposals were then submitted by DOE for review--these proposals were structured, in part, to respond to the initial round of technical peer review comments. Peer reviews of these additional proposals provided conditional support. For those proposals that received conditional support, DOE requested specific implementation and work plans and assessed whether the plans adequately addressed the technical conditions identified by the review panel. The final list of technology proposals receiving support, or conditional support, primarily focused on understanding and reducing the potential impacts of uranium, chromium, and strontium from facilities adjacent to the Columbia River, with a secondary focus on understanding and limiting the future Columbia River impacts from the large carbon tetrachloride groundwater plume underlying and downgradient of the Hanford Central Plateau facilities. The results and recommendations of the peer reviews informed the final DOE project selections and supported implementation of the selected projects to protect the Columbia River and address groundwater contamination at Hanford.

  2. Supplemental Groundwater Remediation Technologies to Protect the Columbia River at Hanford, WA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.M.; Petersen, Scott W.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Michael J.; Amonette, James E.; Long, Philip E.

    2007-01-01

    Nine projects have been recently selected by the US Department of Energy (EM-22) to address groundwater contaminant migration at the Hanford Site. This paper summarizes the background and objectives of these projects. Five of the selected projects are targeted at hexavalent chromium contamination in Hanford 100 Area groundwater. These projects represent an integrated approach towards identifying the source of hexavalent chromium contamination in the Hanford 100-D Area and treating the groundwater contamination. Currently, there is no effective method to stop strontium-90 associated with the riparian zone sediments from leaching into the river. Phytoremediation may be a possible way to treat this contamination. Its use at the 100-N Area will be investigated. Another technology currently being tested for strontium-90 contamination at the 100-N Area involves injection (through wells) of a calcium-citrate-phosphate solution, which will precipitate apatite, a natural calcium-phosphate mineral. Apatite will adsorb the strontium-90, and then incorporate it as part of the apatite structure, isolating the strontium-90 contamination from entering the river. This EM-22 funded apatite project will develop a strategy for infiltrating the apatite solution from ground surface or a shallow trench to provide treatment over the upper portion of the contaminated zone, which is unsaturated during low river stage.

  3. 202-S Hexone Facility supplemental information to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingle, S.J.

    1996-03-01

    This document is a unit-specific contingency plan for the 202-S Hexone Facility and is intended to be used as a supplement to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan. This unit-specific plan is to be used to demonstrate compliance with the contingency plan requirements of WAC 173-303 for certain Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) waste management units. The 202-S Hexone Facility is not used to process radioactive or nonradioactive hazardous material. Radioactive, dangerous waste material is contained in two underground storage tanks, 276-S-141 and 276-S-142. These tanks do not present a significant hazard to adjacent facilities, personnel, or the environment. Currently, dangerous waste management activities are not being applied at the tanks. It is unlikely that any incidents presenting hazards to public health or the environment would occur at the 202-S Hexone Facility

  4. Hanford facilities tracer study report (315 Water Treatment Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambalam, T.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results and findings of a tracer study to determine contact time for the disinfection process of 315 Water Treatment Facility that supplies sanitary water for the 300 Area. The study utilized fluoride as the tracer and contact times were determined for two flow rates. Interpolation of data and short circuiting effects are also discussed. The 315 Water Treatment Facility supplies sanitary water for the 300 Area to various process and domestic users. The Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR), outlined in the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments enacted by the EPA in 1989 and regulated by the Washington State Department of Health (DOH) in Section 246-290-600 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), stipulates filtration and disinfection requirements for public water systems under the direct influence of surface water. The SWTR disinfection guidelines require that each treatment system achieves predetermined inactivation ratios. The inactivation by disinfection is approximated with a measure called CxT, where C is the disinfectant residual concentration and T is the effective contact time of the water with the disinfectant. The CxT calculations for the Hanford water treatment plants were derived from the total volume of the contact basin(s). In the absence of empirical data to support CxT calculations, the DOH determined that the CxT values used in the monthly reports for the water treatment plants on the Hanford site were invalid and required the performance of a tracer study at each plant. In response to that determination, a tracer study will be performed to determine the actual contact times of the facilities for the CxT calculations

  5. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental treatment. 141.809... treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing or new aircraft... the manufacturer's plans and specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and...

  6. Foaming in Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant LAW Evaporation Processes - FY01 Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calloway, T.B.

    2002-01-01

    The LAW evaporation processes currently being designed for the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant are subject to foaming. Experimental simulant studies have been conducted in an effort to achieve an effective antifoam agent suitable to mitigate such foaming

  7. Supplemental Immobilization of Hanford Low-Activity Waste: Cast Stone Screening Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lindberg, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heasler, Patrick G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mercier, Theresa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cozzi, Alex [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, William E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eibling, Russell E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reigel, Marissa M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Swanberg, David J. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2013-09-30

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the wastes and immobilize them in a glass waste form. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) containing most of the radioactivity and a larger volume of low-activity waste (LAW) containing most of the nonradioactive chemicals. The HLW will be converted to glass in the HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. At least a portion (~35%) of the LAW will be converted to glass in the LAW vitrification facility and will be disposed of onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize the wastes destined for each facility. However, a second LAW immobilization facility will be needed for the expected volume of LAW requiring immobilization. A cementitious waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with the waste acceptance criteria for the disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. Further, the waste form must be tested to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support risk assessment and performance assessment (PA) analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the waste disposal in the IDF

  8. Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming As A Supplementary Treatment For Hanford's Low Activity Waste And Secondary Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides

  9. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  10. Hanford wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamness, M.A.; Merz, J.K.

    1993-08-01

    Records describing wells located on or near the Hanford Site have been maintained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the operating contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company. In support of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, portions of the data contained in these records have been compiled into the following report, which is intended to be used by those needing a condensed, tabular summary of well location and basic construction information. The wells listed in this report were constructed over a period of time spanning almost 70 years. Data included in this report were retrieved from the Hanford Envirorunental Information System (HEIS) database and supplemented with information not yet entered into HEIS. While considerable effort has been made to obtain the most accurate and complete tabulations possible of the Hanford Site wells, omissions and errors may exist. This document does not include data on lithologic logs, ground-water analyses, or specific well completion details

  11. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993

  12. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993.

  13. Modeling Hydrogen Generation Rates in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Sherwood, David J.; Stock, Leon M.

    2004-03-29

    This presentation describes a project in which Hanford Site and Environmental Management Science Program investigators addressed issues concerning hydrogen generation rates in the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant. The hydrogen generation rates of radioactive wastes must be estimated to provide for safe operations. While an existing model satisfactorily predicts rates for quiescent wastes in Hanford underground storage tanks, pretreatment operations will alter the conditions and chemical composition of these wastes. Review of the treatment process flowsheet identified specific issues requiring study to ascertain whether the model would provide conservative values for waste streams in the plant. These include effects of adding hydroxide ion, alpha radiolysis, saturation with air (oxygen) from pulse-jet mixing, treatment with potassium permanganate, organic compounds from degraded ion exchange resins and addition of glass-former chemicals. The effects were systematically investigated through literature review, technical analyses and experimental work.

  14. Non-Thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    DOE proposes to transport contact-handled LLMW from the Hanford Site to the Allied Technology Group (ATG) Mixed Waste Facility (MWF) in Richland, Washington, for non-thermal treatment and to return the treated waste to the Hanford Site for eventual land disposal. Over a 3-year period the waste would be staged to the ATG MWF, and treated waste would be returned to the Hanford Site. The ATG MWF would be located on an 18 hectare (ha) (45 acre [at]) ATG Site adjacent to ATG's licensed low-level waste processing facility at 2025 Battelle Boulevard. The ATG MWF is located approximately 0.8 kilometers (km) (0.5 miles [mi]) south of Horn Rapids Road and 1.6 km (1 mi) west of Stevens Drive. The property is located within the Horn Rapids triangle in northern Richland (Figure 2.1). The ATG MWF is to be located on the existing ATG Site, near the DOE Hanford Site, in an industrial area in the City of Richland. The effects of siting, construction, and overall operation of the MWF have been evaluated in a separate State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) EIS (City of Richland 1998). The proposed action includes transporting the LLMW from the Hanford Site to the ATG Facility, non-thermal treatment of the LLMW at the ATG MWF, and transporting the waste from ATG back to the Hanford Site. Impacts fi-om waste treatment operations would be bounded by the ATG SEPA EIS, which included an evaluation of the impacts associated with operating the non-thermal portion of the MWF at maximum design capacity (8,500 metric tons per year) (City of Richland 1998). Up to 50 employees would be required for non-thermal treatment portion of the MWF. This includes 40 employees that would perform waste treatment operations and 10 support staff. Similar numbers were projected for the thermal treatment portion of the MWF (City of Richland 1998).

  15. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization

  16. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization.

  17. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pierce, E. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Herman, C. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brown, C. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, N. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neeway, J. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Valenta, M. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, G. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Swanberg, D. J. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Robbins, R. A. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Thompson, L. E. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  18. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  19. Removing Phosphate from Hanford High-Phosphate Tank Wastes: FY 2010 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Qafoku, Odeta; Felmy, Andrew R.; Carter, Jennifer C.; MacFarlan, Paul J.

    2010-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for environmental remediation at the Hanford Site in Washington State, a former nuclear weapons production site. Retrieving, processing, immobilizing, and disposing of the 2.2 × 105 m3 of radioactive wastes stored in the Hanford underground storage tanks dominates the overall environmental remediation effort at Hanford. The cornerstone of the tank waste remediation effort is the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). As currently designed, the capability of the WTP to treat and immobilize the Hanford tank wastes in the expected lifetime of the plant is questionable. For this reason, DOE has been pursuing supplemental treatment options for selected wastes. If implemented, these supplemental treatments will route certain waste components to processing and disposition pathways outside of WTP and thus will accelerate the overall Hanford tank waste remediation mission.

  20. Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill supplemental information to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan (DOE/RL-93-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingle, S.J.

    1996-05-01

    This document is a unit-specific contingency plan for the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and is intended to be used as a supplement to DOE/RL-93-75, 'Hanford Facility Contingency Plan.' This unit-specific plan is to be used to demonstrate compliance with the contingency plan requirements of the Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 173-303 for certain Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 waste management units. The Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (located approximately 3.5 miles southeast of the 200 East Area at the Hanford Site) was used for disposal of nonradioactive dangerous waste from January 1975 to May 1985. Currently, there are no dangerous waste streams disposed in the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. Dangerous waste management activities are no longer required at the landfill. The landfill does not present a significant hazard to adjacent units, personnel, or the environment. It is unlikely that incidents presenting hazards to public health or the environment would occur at the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill

  1. Vitamin supplementation in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah E; Roffman, Joshua L

    2014-07-01

    This article reviews the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. It describes the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, and reviews the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. There is mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. There is a need for larger randomized controlled trials, and further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products, are recommended.

  2. Electrometallurgical treatment of metallic spent nuclear fuel stored at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.; Gay, E.C.

    1996-01-01

    The major component of the DOE spent nuclear fuel inventory is the metallic fuel stored at the Hanford site in the southeastern part of the state of Washington. Most of this fuel was discharged from the N-Reactor; a small part of the inventory is fuel from the early Hanford production reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plans to remove these fuels from the spent fuel storage pools in which they are presently stored, dry them, and place them in interim storage at a location at the Hanford site that is far removed from the Columbia River. It is not yet certain that these fuels will be acceptable for disposal in a mined geologic repository without further treatment, due to their potential pyrophoric character. A practical method for treatment of the Hanford metallic spent fuel, based on an electrorefining process, has been developed and has been demonstrated with unirradiated N-Reactor fuel and with simulated single-pass reactor (SPR) spent fuel. The process can be operated with any desired throughput rates; being a batch process, it is simply a matter of setting the size of the electrorefiner modules and the number of such modules. A single module, prototypic of a production-scale module, has been fabricated and testing is in progress at a throughput rate of 150 kg (heavy metal) per day. The envisioned production version would incorporate additional anode baskets and cathode tubes and provide a throughput rate of 333 kgHM/day. A system with four of these modules would permit treatment of Hanford metallic fuels at a rate of at least 250 metric tons per year

  3. 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad supplemental information to the Hanford facility contingency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, N.C.

    1996-12-01

    The 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad stores waste oils primarily contaminated with lead generated while draining equipment within the building of residual lubricating oils. Waste oils are packaged and stored in fifty-five gallon drums, or other containers permitted by the Site Specific Waste Management Instruction. Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) manual BHI-EE-02, Environmental Requirements Procedures, references this document. This document is to be used to demonstrate compliance with the contingency plan requirements in Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations, for certain Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) waste management units (units). Refer to BHI-EE-02, for additional information

  4. Treatment option evaluation for liquid effluent secondary streams on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.; Triplett, M.B.; Fow, C.L.; White, M.K.

    1988-08-01

    This study, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), examines the range of secondary waste types and volumes likely to result from treatment of contaminated liquid effluents. Alternatives for treatment of these effluents were considered, taking into account the implementation of the ''best-available technology'' as assumed in current and ongoing engineering studies for treating the various liquid effluent waste streams. These treatment alternatives, and potential variations in the operating schedules for Hanford Site facilities generating contaminated liquid effluents, were evaluated to project an estimated range for the volume of each of the various secondary waste streams that are likely to be generated. The conclusions and recommendations were developed, based on these estimates. 23 refs., 34 figs., 16 tabs

  5. Borehole Gravity Meter Surveys at the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Jeffrey D.; Mann, Ethan

    2007-04-06

    Microg-LaCoste (MGL) was contracted by Pacfic Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to record borehole gravity density data in 3 wells at the HanfordWaste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The survey was designed to provide highly accurate density information for use in seismic modeling. The borehole gravity meter (BHGM) tool has a very large depth of investigation (hundreds of feet) compared to other density tools so it is not influenced by casing or near welbore effects, such as washouts.

  6. Vitamin Supplementation in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah E.; Roffman, Joshua L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we review the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. We first describe the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, then review the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. We then describe mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. We highlight the need for larger, randomized controlled trials, and recommend further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products. PMID:24846474

  7. Recent Improvements In Interface Management For Hanfords Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant - 13263

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arm, Stuart T.; Pell, Michael J.; Van Meighem, Jeffery S.; Duncan, Garth M.; Harrington, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which comprises both the Hanford Site tank farms operations and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities by 2047. The WTP is currently being designed and constructed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) for DOE-ORP. BNI relies on a number of technical services from other Hanford contractors for WTP's construction and commissioning. These same services will be required of the future WTP operations contractor. The WTP interface management process has recently been improved through changes in organization and technical issue management documented in an Interface Management Plan. Ten of the thirteen active WTP Interface Control Documents (ICDs) have been revised in 2012 using the improved process with the remaining three in progress. The value of the process improvements is reflected by the ability to issue these documents on schedule

  8. 216-A-29 Ditch supplemental information to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan (DOE/RL-93-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingle, S.J.

    1996-05-01

    This document is a unit-specific contingency plan for the 216-A-29 Ditch and is intended to be used as a supplement to DOE/RL-93-75, Hanford Facility Contingency Plan (DOE-RL 1993). This unit-specific plan is to be used to demonstrate compliance with the contingency plan requirements of the Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 173- 303 for certain Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 waste management units. The 216-A-29 Ditch is a surface impoundment that received nonregulated process and cooling water and other dangerous wastes primarily from operations of the Plutonium/Uranium Extraction Plant. Active between 1955 and 1991, the ditch has been physically isolated and will be closed. Because it is no longer receiving discharges, waste management activities are no longer required at the unit. The ditch does not present a significant hazard to adjacent units, personnel, or the environment. It is unlikely that any incidents presenting hazards to public health or the environment would occur at the 216-A-29 Ditch

  9. 216-U-12 Crib supplemental information to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan (DOE/RL-93-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingle, S.J.

    1996-05-01

    This document is a unit-specific contingency plan for the 216-U-12 Crib and is intended to be used as a supplement to DOE/RL-93-75, Hanford Facility Contingency Plan (DOE-RL 1993). This unit-specific plan is to be used to demonstrate compliance with the contingency plan requirements of the Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 173- 303 for certain Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 waste management units. The 216-U-12 Crib is a landfill that received waste from the 291-U-1 Stack, 244-WR Vault, 244-U via tank C-5, and the UO 3 Plant. The crib pipeline was cut and permanently capped in 1988, and the crib has been backfilled. The unit will be closed under final facility standards. Waste management activities are no longer required at the unit. The crib does not present a significant hazard to adjacent units, personnel, or the environment. It is unlikely that any incidents presenting hazards to public health or the environment would occur at the 216-U-12 Crib

  10. 216-A-36B Crib supplemental information to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan (DOE/RL-93-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingle, S.J.

    1996-05-01

    This document is a unit-specific contingency plan for the 216-A-36B Crib and is intended to be used as a supplement to DOE/RL-93-75, Hanford Facility Contingency Plan (DOE-RL 1993). This unit-specific plan is to be used to demonstrate compliance with the contingency plan requirements of the Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 173- 303 for certain Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 waste management units. The 216-A-36B Crib is a landfill that received ammonia scrubber waste from the 202-A Building (Plutonium/Uranium Extraction Plant) between 1966 and 1972. In 1982, the unit was reactivated to receive additional waste from Plutonium/Uranium Extraction operations. Discharges ceased in 1987, and the crib will be closed under final facility standards. Because the crib is not receiving discharges, waste management activities are no longer required. The crib does not present a significant hazard to adjacent units, personnel, or the environment. There is little likelihood that any incidents presenting hazards to public health or the environment would occur at the 216-A-36B Crib

  11. Evaluation of the Hanford 200 West Groundwater Treatment System: Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jackson, Dennis G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dickson, John O. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eddy-Dilek, Carol A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-12

    A fluidized bed reactor (FBR) in the 200W water treatment facility at Hanford is removing nitrate from groundwater as part of the overall pump-treat-reinject process. Control of the FBR bed solids has proven challenging, impacting equipment, increasing operations and maintenance (O&M), and limiting the throughput of the facility. In response to the operational challenges, the Department of Energy Richland Office (DOE-RL) commissioned a technical assistance team to facilitate a system engineering evaluation and provide focused support recommendations to the Hanford Team. The DOE Environmental Management (EM) technical assistance process is structured to identify and triage technologies and strategies that address the target problem(s). The process encourages brainstorming and dialog and allows rapid identification and prioritization of possible options. Recognizing that continuous operation of a large-scale FBR is complex, requiring careful attention to system monitoring data and changing conditions, the technical assistance process focused on explicit identification of the available control parameters (“knobs”), how these parameters interact and impact the FBR system, and how these can be adjusted under different scenarios to achieve operational goals. The technical assistance triage process was performed in collaboration with the Hanford team.

  12. Supplemental Immobilization of Hanford Low-Activity Waste: Cast Stone Augmented Formulation Matrix Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, A.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Hansen, E.; Roberts, K.

    2015-01-01

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in Washington State. The HLW will be vitrified in the HLW facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. A portion (~35%) of the LAW will be vitrified in the LAW vitrification facility for disposal onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize all of the wastes destined for those facilities. However, a second facility will be needed for the expected volume of LAW requiring immobilization. Cast Stone, a cementitious waste form, is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with the waste acceptance criteria for the disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. A testing program was developed in fiscal year (FY) 2012 describing in detail the work needed to develop and qualify Cast Stone as a waste form for the solidification of Hanford LAW. A statistically designed test matrix was used to evaluate the effects of key parameters on the properties of the Cast Stone as it is initially prepared and after curing. For the processing properties, the water-to-dry-blend mix ratio was the most significant parameter in affecting the range of values observed for each property. The single shell tank (SST) Blend simulant also showed differences in measured properties compared to the other three simulants tested. A review of the testing matrix and results indicated that an additional set of tests would be beneficial to improve the understanding of the impacts noted in the

  13. Supplemental Immobilization of Hanford Low-Activity Waste: Cast Stone Augmented Formulation Matrix Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hansen, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Roberts, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-20

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in Washington State. The HLW will be vitrified in the HLW facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. A portion (~35%) of the LAW will be vitrified in the LAW vitrification facility for disposal onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize all of the wastes destined for those facilities. However, a second facility will be needed for the expected volume of LAW requiring immobilization. Cast Stone, a cementitious waste form, is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with the waste acceptance criteria for the disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. A testing program was developed in fiscal year (FY) 2012 describing in detail the work needed to develop and qualify Cast Stone as a waste form for the solidification of Hanford LAW. A statistically designed test matrix was used to evaluate the effects of key parameters on the properties of the Cast Stone as it is initially prepared and after curing. For the processing properties, the water-to-dry-blend mix ratio was the most significant parameter in affecting the range of values observed for each property. The single shell tank (SST) Blend simulant also showed differences in measured properties compared to the other three simulants tested. A review of the testing matrix and results indicated that an additional set of tests would be beneficial to improve the understanding of the impacts noted in the Screening

  14. Improved Management of the Technical Interfaces Between the Hanford Tank Farm Operator and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant - 13383

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Garth M. [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Saunders, Scott A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is constructing the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford site in Washington to treat and immobilize approximately 114 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (after all retrievals are accomplished). In order for the WTP to be designed and operated successfully, close coordination between the WTP engineering, procurement, and construction contractor, Bechtel National, Inc. and the tank farms operating contractor (TOC), Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, is necessary. To develop optimal solutions for DOE and for the treatment of the waste, it is important to deal with the fact that two different prime contractors, with somewhat differing contracts, are tasked with retrieving and delivering the waste and for treating and immobilizing that waste. The WTP and the TOC have over the years cooperated to manage the technical interface. To manage what is becoming a much more complicated interface as the WTP design progresses and new technical issues have been identified, an organizational change was made by WTP and TOC in November of 2011. This organizational change created a co-located integrated project team (IPT) to deal with mutual and interface issues. The Technical Organization within the One System IPT includes employees from both TOC and WTP. This team has worked on a variety of technical issues of mutual interest and concern. Technical issues currently being addressed include: - The waste acceptance criteria; - Waste feed delivery and the associated data quality objectives (DQO); - Evaluation of the effects of performing a riser cut on a single shell tank on WTP operations; - The disposition of secondary waste from both TOC and WTP; - The close coordination of the TOC double shell tank mixing and sampling program and the Large Scale Integrated Test (LSIT) program for pulse jet mixers at WTP along with the associated responses to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation

  15. Improved Management of the Technical Interfaces Between the Hanford Tank Farm Operator and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant - 13383

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Garth M.; Saunders, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is constructing the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford site in Washington to treat and immobilize approximately 114 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (after all retrievals are accomplished). In order for the WTP to be designed and operated successfully, close coordination between the WTP engineering, procurement, and construction contractor, Bechtel National, Inc. and the tank farms operating contractor (TOC), Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, is necessary. To develop optimal solutions for DOE and for the treatment of the waste, it is important to deal with the fact that two different prime contractors, with somewhat differing contracts, are tasked with retrieving and delivering the waste and for treating and immobilizing that waste. The WTP and the TOC have over the years cooperated to manage the technical interface. To manage what is becoming a much more complicated interface as the WTP design progresses and new technical issues have been identified, an organizational change was made by WTP and TOC in November of 2011. This organizational change created a co-located integrated project team (IPT) to deal with mutual and interface issues. The Technical Organization within the One System IPT includes employees from both TOC and WTP. This team has worked on a variety of technical issues of mutual interest and concern. Technical issues currently being addressed include: - The waste acceptance criteria; - Waste feed delivery and the associated data quality objectives (DQO); - Evaluation of the effects of performing a riser cut on a single shell tank on WTP operations; - The disposition of secondary waste from both TOC and WTP; - The close coordination of the TOC double shell tank mixing and sampling program and the Large Scale Integrated Test (LSIT) program for pulse jet mixers at WTP along with the associated responses to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation

  16. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: decontamination and treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.R.; McMurray, B.J.; Jech, J.J.; Breitenstein, B.D.; Quigley, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    An injured worker, contaminated with over 6 mCi of americium-241, required special treatment and housing for 4 months. This paper is a description of the design and management of the facility in which most of the treatment and housing occurred. The problems associated with contamination control, waste handling, supplies, and radiological concerns during the two-stage transfer of the patient from a controlled situation to his normal living environment are discussed in detail

  17. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, William R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  18. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  19. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter: Summary of 2017 experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-11

    A full-scale, transparent mock-up of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Project High Level Waste glass melter riser and pour spout has been constructed to allow for testing with visual feedback of particle settling, accumulation, and resuspension when operating with a controlled fraction of crystals in the glass melt. Room temperature operation with silicone oil and magnetite particles simulating molten glass and spinel crystals, respectively, allows for direct observation of flow patterns and settling patterns. The fluid and particle mixture is recycled within the system for each test.

  20. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC - 106 Newberry St. SW, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNL), LLC, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  1. Recent Improvements in Interface Management for Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13263

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arm, Stuart T.; Van Meighem, Jeffery S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Duncan, Garth M.; Pell, Michael J. [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Harrington, Christopher C. [Department of Energy - Office of River Protection, 2440 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which includes the Hanford Site tank farms operations and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities by 2047. The WTP is currently being designed and constructed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) for DOE-ORP. BNI relies on a number of technical services from other Hanford contractors for WTP's construction and commissioning. These same services will be required of the future WTP operations contractor. Partly in response to a DNFSB recommendation, the WTP interface management process managing these technical services has recently been improved through changes in organization and issue management. The changes are documented in an Interface Management Plan. The organizational improvement is embodied in the One System Integrated Project Team that was formed by integrating WTP and tank farms staff representing interfacing functional areas into a single organization. A number of improvements were made to the issue management process but most notable was the formal appointment of technical, regulatory and safety subject matter experts to ensure accurate identification of issues and open items. Ten of the thirteen active WTP Interface Control Documents have been revised in 2012 using the improved process with the remaining three in progress. The value of the process improvements is reflected by the ability to issue these documents on schedule and accurately identify technical, regulatory and safety issues and open items. (authors)

  2. Treatment of Bottled Liquid Waste During Remediation of the Hanford 618-10 Burial Ground - 13001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulk, Darrin E.; Pearson, Chris M.; Vedder, Barry L.; Martin, David W.

    2013-01-01

    A problematic waste form encountered during remediation of the Hanford Site 618-10 burial ground consists of bottled aqueous waste potentially contaminated with regulated metals. The liquid waste requires stabilization prior to landfill disposal. Prior remediation activities at other Hanford burial grounds resulted in a standard process for sampling and analyzing liquid waste using manual methods. Due to the highly dispersible characteristics of alpha contamination, and the potential for shock sensitive chemicals, a different method for bottle processing was needed for the 618-10 burial ground. Discussions with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to development of a modified approach. The modified approach involves treatment of liquid waste in bottles, up to one gallon per bottle, in a tray or box within the excavation of the remediation site. Bottles are placed in the box, covered with soil and fixative, crushed, and mixed with a Portland cement grout. The potential hazards of the liquid waste preclude sampling prior to treatment. Post treatment verification sampling is performed to demonstrate compliance with land disposal restrictions and disposal facility acceptance criteria. (authors)

  3. Treatment of Bottled Liquid Waste During Remediation of the Hanford 618-10 Burial Ground - 13001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulk, Darrin E.; Pearson, Chris M.; Vedder, Barry L.; Martin, David W. [Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A problematic waste form encountered during remediation of the Hanford Site 618-10 burial ground consists of bottled aqueous waste potentially contaminated with regulated metals. The liquid waste requires stabilization prior to landfill disposal. Prior remediation activities at other Hanford burial grounds resulted in a standard process for sampling and analyzing liquid waste using manual methods. Due to the highly dispersible characteristics of alpha contamination, and the potential for shock sensitive chemicals, a different method for bottle processing was needed for the 618-10 burial ground. Discussions with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to development of a modified approach. The modified approach involves treatment of liquid waste in bottles, up to one gallon per bottle, in a tray or box within the excavation of the remediation site. Bottles are placed in the box, covered with soil and fixative, crushed, and mixed with a Portland cement grout. The potential hazards of the liquid waste preclude sampling prior to treatment. Post treatment verification sampling is performed to demonstrate compliance with land disposal restrictions and disposal facility acceptance criteria. (authors)

  4. Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Waste Feed Qualification Program Development Approach - 13114

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markillie, Jeffrey R.; Arakali, Aruna V.; Benson, Peter A.; Halverson, Thomas G. [Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Adamson, Duane J.; Herman, Connie C.; Peeler, David K. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is a nuclear waste treatment facility being designed and constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel National, Inc. and subcontractor URS Corporation (under contract DE-AC27-01RV14136 [1]) to process and vitrify radioactive waste that is currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. A wide range of planning is in progress to prepare for safe start-up, commissioning, and operation. The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the WTP design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring acceptance requirements can be met before the transfer of waste. The WTP Project has partnered with Savannah River National Laboratory to develop the waste feed qualification program. The results of waste feed qualification activities will be implemented using a batch processing methodology, and will establish an acceptable range of operator controllable parameters needed to treat the staged waste. Waste feed qualification program development is being implemented in three separate phases. Phase 1 required identification of analytical methods and gaps. This activity has been completed, and provides the foundation for a technically defensible approach for waste feed qualification. Phase 2 of the program development is in progress. The activities in this phase include the closure of analytical methodology gaps identified during Phase 1, design and fabrication of laboratory-scale test apparatus, and determination of the waste feed qualification sample volume. Phase 3 will demonstrate waste feed qualification testing in support of Cold Commissioning. (authors)

  5. Performance Enhancements to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low-Activity Waste Vitrification System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W. F.; Gerdes, K.; Holton, L. K.; Pegg, I.L.; Bowan, B.W.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) is constructing a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) for the treatment and vitrification of underground tank wastes stored at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The WTP comprises four major facilities: a pretreatment facility to separate the tank waste into high level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) process streams, a HLW vitrification facility to immobilize the HLW fraction; a LAW vitrification facility to immobilize the LAW fraction, and an analytical laboratory to support the operations of all four treatment facilities. DOE has established strategic objectives to optimize the performance of the WTP facilities and the LAW and HLW waste forms to reduce the overall schedule and cost for treatment and vitrification of the Hanford tank wastes. This strategy has been implemented by establishing performance expectations in the WTP contract for the facilities and waste forms. In addition, DOE, as owner-operator of the WTP facilities, continues to evaluate 1) the design, to determine the potential for performance above the requirements specified in the WTP contract; and 2) improvements in production of the LAW and HLW waste forms. This paper reports recent progress directed at improving production of the LAW waste form. DOE's initial assessment, which is based on the work reported in this paper, is that the treatment rate of the WTP LAW vitrification facility can be increased by a factor of 2 to 4 with a combination of revised glass formulations, modest increases in melter glass operating temperatures, and a second-generation LAW melter with a larger surface area. Implementing these improvements in the LAW waste immobilization capability can benefit the LAW treatment mission by reducing the cost of waste treatment. (authors)

  6. MINERALIZING, STEAM REFORMING TREATMENT OF HANFORD LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE (a.k.a. INEEL/EXT-05-02526)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. L. Olson; N. R. Soelberg; D. W. Marshall; G. L. Anderson

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization''. The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 2-5, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.4 hours of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process achieved

  7. One System Integrated Project Team Progress in Coordinating Hanford Tank Farms and the Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarek, Raymond J.; Harp, Ben J.; Duncan, Garth M.

    2013-01-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed at the Hanford Site in late 2011 as a way to improve coordination and itegration between the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) on interfaces between the two projects, and to eliminate duplication and exploit opportunities for synergy. The IPT is composed of jointly staffed groups that work on technical issues of mutal interest, front-end design and project definition, nuclear safety, plant engineering system integration, commissioning, planning and scheduling, and environmental, safety, health and quality (ESH&Q) areas. In the past year important progress has been made in a number of areas as the organization has matured and additional opportunities have been identified. Areas covered in this paper include: Support for development of the Office of Envirnmental Management (EM) framework document to progress the Office of River Protection's (ORP) River Protection Project (RPP) mission; Stewardship of the RPP flowsheet; Collaboration with Savannah River Site (SRS), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Operations programs integration; and, Further development of the waste acceptance criteria

  8. Supplemental report on population estimates for Hanford high-level defense waste draft programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yandon, K.E.; Landstrom, D.K.

    1980-06-01

    Current and revised population projections based on those previously published in the document Population Distribution in 90-mile Radius of Hanford Meteorological Station and Projections to Year 2300 by Compass Sector and 10 Mile Radii are presented. In addition, there was a need to extend the population estimates out to 1000 and 10,000 years into the future to permit estimation of population radiation doses from accidents affecting the Hanford Facilities directly related to the defense high-level waste disposal alternatives. The methodology used in making the estimates is presented along with the detailed population matrix data required for performing the dose calculations. Although the near-term overall population projections are probably reasonably correct, no claim is made for the accuracy of the detailed data within each individual sector. Long-term estimates are made using reasonable assumptions about the growth potential and possibilities in the Hanford area. No claim of accuracy of these figures is made since they are so highly dependent on actions and conditions that are not predictable. For example, if a major climate change were to occur, the entire Hanford area might be uninhabited at 10,000 years in the future. To provide conservative dose estimates, it was assumed that the Hanford population will experience reasonable and continuous growth throughout the 10,000 year period

  9. Cesium Ion Exchange Program at the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHARLES, NASH

    2004-01-01

    The River Protection Project - Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant will use cesium ion exchange to remove 137Cs from Low Activity Waste down to 0.3 Ci/m3 in the Immobilized LAW, ILAW product. The project baseline for cesium ion exchange is the elutable SuperLig, R, 644, SL-644, resin registered trademark of IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT or the Department of Energy approved equivalent. SL-644 is solely available through IBC Advanced Technologies. To provide an alternative to this sole-source resin supply, the RPP--WTP initiated a three-stage process for selection and qualification of an alternative ion exchange resin for cesium removal in the RPPWTP. It was recommended that resorcinol formaldehyde RF be pursued as a potential alternative to SL-644

  10. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  11. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, 'operating' treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  12. HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASSES FOR HANFORD'S WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PROJECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Bowan, B.W.; Joseph, I.; Gan, H.; Kot, W.K.; Matlack, K.S.; Pegg, I.L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of glass formulation development and melter testing to identify high waste loading glasses to treat high-Al high level waste (HLW) at Hanford. Previous glass formulations developed for this HLW had high waste loadings but their processing rates were lower that desired. The present work was aimed at improving the glass processing rate while maintaining high waste loadings. Glass formulations were designed, prepared at crucible-scale and characterized to determine their properties relevant to processing and product quality. Glass formulations that met these requirements were screened for melt rates using small-scale tests. The small-scale melt rate screening included vertical gradient furnace (VGF) and direct feed consumption (DFC) melter tests. Based on the results of these tests, modified glass formulations were developed and selected for larger scale melter tests to determine their processing rate. Melter tests were conducted on the DuraMelter 100 (DMIOO) with a melt surface area of 0.11 m 2 and the DuraMelter 1200 (DMI200) HLW Pilot Melter with a melt surface area of 1.2 m 2 . The newly developed glass formulations had waste loadings as high as 50 wt%, with corresponding Al 2 O 3 concentration in the glass of 26.63 wt%. The new glass formulations showed glass production rates as high as 1900 kg/(m 2 .day) under nominal melter operating conditions. The demonstrated glass production rates are much higher than the current requirement of 800 kg/(m 2 .day) and anticipated future enhanced Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) requirement of 1000 kg/(m 2 .day).

  13. A Brief Review of Filtration Studies for Waste Treatment at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2010-12-01

    This document completes the requirements of Milestone 1-2, PNNL Draft Literature Review, discussed in the scope of work outlined in the EM-31 Support Project task plan WP-2.3.6-2010-1. The focus of task WP 2.3.6 is to improve the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) understanding of filtration operations for high-level waste (HLW) to enhance filtration and cleaning efficiencies, thereby increasing process throughput and reducing the sodium demand (through acid neutralization). Developing the processes for fulfilling the cleaning/backpulsing requirements will result in more efficient operations for both the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), thereby increasing throughput by limiting cleaning cycles. The purpose of this document is to summarize Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL’s) literature review of historical filtration testing at the laboratory and of testing found in peer-reviewed journals. Eventually, the contents of this document will be merged with a literature review by SRS to produce a summary report for DOE of the results of previous filtration testing at the laboratories and the types of testing that still need to be completed to address the questions about improved filtration performance at WTP and SRS. To this end, this report presents 1) a review of the current state of crossflow filtration knowledge available in the peer-reviewed literature, 2) a detailed review of PNNL-related filtration studies specific to the Hanford site, and 3) an overview of current waste filtration models developed by PNNL and suggested avenues for future model development.

  14. Effects of nutritional supplementation for HIV patients starting antiretroviral treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mette Frahm; Abdissa, Alemseged; Kæstel, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effects of lipid based nutritional supplements with either whey or soy protein in patients with HIV during the first three months of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and to explore effects of timing by comparing supplementation at the start of ART and after three months....../µL (−2 to 53 cells/µL) were CD4. Effects of the soy containing supplement on immune recovery were not significant. The effects of the two supplements, however, were not significantly different in direct comparison. Exploratory analysis showed that relatively more lean body mass was gained by patients...... with undetectable viral load at three months. Patients receiving delayed supplementation had higher weight gain but lower gains in functional outcomes. Conclusions: Lipid based nutritional supplements improved gain of weight, lean body mass, and grip strength in patients with HIV starting ART. Supplements...

  15. Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application Supplemental Information [Sec 1 Thru 5] Vol 1 Thru 3 Appendices A Thru C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CURN, B.L.

    2000-05-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61), Subpart H: ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,'' and with the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246247, Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. The federal regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from Department of Energy facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1998 from Hanford Site point sources was 1.3 E-02 mrem (1.3 E-04 mSv). which is 0.13 percent of the federal standard. Chapter 246-247 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Department of Energy Hanford Site sources. The state has adopted into these regulations the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE. The EDE to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 was 2.5 E-02 mrem (2.S E-04 mSv). This dose added to the dose from point sources gives a total for all sources of 3.8 E-02 mrem/yr (3.8 E-04 mSv) EDE. which is 0.38 percent of the 10 mrem/yr standard. An unplanned release on August 26, 1998, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site resulted in a potential dose of 4.1 E-02 mrem to a hypothetical individual at the nearest point of public access to that area. This hypothetical individual was not the MEI since the wind direction on the day of the release was away from the MEI residence. The potential dose from

  16. The Hanford Site solid waste treatment project; Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility will provide treatment and temporary storage (consisting of in-process storage) for radioactive and radioactive/hazardous mixed waste. This facility must be constructed and operated in compliance with all appropriate US Department of Energy (DOE) orders and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The WRAP Facility will examine and certify, segregate/sort, and treat for disposal suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes in drums and boxes placed in 20-yr retrievable storage since 1970; low-level radioactive mixed waste (RMW) generated and placed into storage at the Hanford Site since 1987; designated remote-handled wastes; and newly generated TRU and RMW wastes from high-level waste (HLW) recovery and processing operations. In order to accelerated the WRAP Project, a partitioning of the facility functions was done in two phases as a means to expedite those parts of the WRAP duties that were well understood and used established technology, while allowing more time to better define the processing functions needed for the remainder of WRAP. The WRAP Module 1 phase one, is to provide the necessary nondestructive examination and nondestructive assay services, as well as all transuranic package transporter (TRUPACT-2) shipping for both WRAP Project phases, with heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; change rooms; and administrative services. Phase two of the project, WRAP Module 2, will provide all necessary waste treatment facilities for disposal of solid wastes. 1 tab

  17. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) MANAGEMENT OF THE HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT and IMMOBILIZATION PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHRADER, T.A.

    2005-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of River Protection is currently overseeing the construction of the new Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (more commonly referred to as the Waste Treatment Plant). In December 2000, a contract was awarded to Bechtel National, Inc. for the design, construction, and commissioning of the $5.8 billion facility to treat and vitrify a significant portion of the waste currently stored in large underground tanks on the Hanford Site. As the owner, the Office of River Protection has developed an organization to oversee the design, construction, and commissioning of the facility. A Federal Project Director is responsible for all aspects of the project, including safety, design, construction, commissioning; and the baseline (scope, cost, and schedule). The Project Director reports to the Manager of the Office of River Protection and recommends changes to the contract requirements, safety basis documents, or the baseline. Approximately 30 engineers, scientists, and other support personnel have been assigned to a unique organization that supports the Federal Project Director in providing oversight of each phase of the project (i.e., design, construction, and commissioning). The organization includes an Engineering Division, a Programs and Projects Division, a Safety Authorization Basis Team, and an Operations and Commissioning Team. This organization is unique within the Department of Energy and provides a focused team to resolve issues of safety, cost, schedule, technical design changes, and construction. This paper will describe this team and show how the Office of River Protection utilizes this oversight team to manage this complex, accelerated project. The size and technical complexity of the facility poses unique challenges for safety, permitting, commissioning, engineering, and baseline control. A robust training and qualification program has been developed that will insure the Departmental personnel working closely

  18. 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility Supplemental Information to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan (DOE/RL-93-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edens, V.G.

    1998-03-01

    The 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility located at the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site started receiving part of the N Reactor liquid radioactive effluent flow in 1983. In September 1985, the 1325-N Facility became the primary liquid waste disposal system for the N Reactor. The facility is located approximately 60 feet above and 2000 feet east of the shore of the Columbia River. Waste stream discharges were ceased in April 1991.Specific information on types of waste discharged to 1325-N are contained within the Part A, Form 3, Permit application of this unit

  19. The integrated criticality safety evaluation for the Hanford tank waste treatment and immobilization plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losey, D. C.; Miles, R. E.; Perks, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) has been developed as a single, integrated evaluation with a scope that covers all of the planned WTP operations. This integrated approach is atypical, as the scopes of criticality evaluations are usually more narrowly defined. Several adjustments were made in developing the WTP CSER, but the primary changes were to provide introductory overview for the criticality safety control strategy and to provide in-depth analysis of the underlying physical and chemical mechanisms that contribute to ensuring safety. The integrated approach for the CSER allowed a more consistent evaluation of safety and avoided redundancies that occur when evaluation is distributed over multiple documents. While the approach used with the WTP CSER necessitated more coordination and teamwork, it has yielded a report is that more integrated and concise than is typical. The integrated approach with the CSER produced a simple criticality control scheme that uses relatively few controls. (authors)

  20. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline

  1. Radioactive Demonstration Of Final Mineralized Waste Forms For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste By Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Using The Bench Scale Reformer Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as 137 Cs, 129 I, 99 Tc, Cl, F, and SO 4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form

  2. Dietary Supplements and Cancer Treatment: A Risky Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some patients with cancer turn to dietary supplements advertised as having anticancer effects or being supportive of general health. But these biologically active compounds may interact dangerously with chemotherapy, radiation, or other cancer treatments.

  3. Axial Dispersion during Hanford Saltcake Washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Geeting, John GH; Lessor, Delbert L.; Barton, William B.

    2006-01-01

    Clean up of Hanford salt cake wastes begins with dissolution retrieval of the sodium rich salts that make up the dominant majority of mass in the tanks. Water moving through the porous salt cake dissolves the soluble components and also displaces the soluble radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs and 99TcO4- ). The separation that occurs from this displacement, known as Selective dissolution, is an important component in Hanford?s pretreatment of low activity wastes for subsequent Supplemental treatment. This paper describes lab scale testing conducted to evaluate Selective dissolution of cesium from non-radioactive Hanford tank 241-S-112 salt cake simulant containing the primary chemicals found the actual tank. An modified axial dispersion model with increasing axial dispersion was developed to predict cesium removal. The model recognizes that water dissolves the salt cake during washing, which causes an increase in the axial dispersion during the wash. This model was subsequently compared with on-line cesium measurements from the retrieval of tank 241-S-112. The model had remarkably good agreement with both the lab scale and full scale data

  4. K-Basins Sludge Treatment and Packaging at the Hanford Site - 13585

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogwell, Thomas W. [Fogwell Consulting, P.O. Box 20211, Piedmont, CA 94620 (United States); Honeyman, James O. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, P.O. Box 1600 H7-30, Richland, WA (United States); Stegen, Gary [Lucas Engineering and Management Services, Inc., 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Suite 102, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Highly radioactive sludge resulting from the storage of degraded spent nuclear fuel has been consolidated in Engineered Containers (ECs) in the 105-K West Storage Basin located on the Hanford site near the Columbia River in Washington State. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is proceeding with a project to retrieve the sludge, place it in Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) and store those filled containers within the T Plant Canyon facility on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (Phase 1). Retrieval and transfer of the sludge material will enable removal of the 105-K West Basin and allow remediation of the subsurface contamination plumes under the basin. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plans to treat and dispose of this K Basins sludge (Phase 2) as Remote Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) located in New Mexico. The K Basin sludge currently contains uranium metal which reacts with water present in the stored slurry, generating hydrogen and other byproducts. The established transportation and disposal requirements require the transformation of the K Basins sludge to a chemically stable, liquid-free, packaged waste form. The Treatment and Packaging Project includes removal of the containerised sludge from T Plant, the treatment of the sludge as required, and packaging of all the sludge into a form that is certifiable for transportation to and disposal at WIPP. Completion of this scope will require construction and operation of a Sludge Treatment and Packaging Facility (STPF), which could be either a completely new facility or a modification of an existing Hanford Site facility. A Technology Evaluation and Alternatives Analysis (TEAA) for the STP Phase 2 was completed in 2011. A Request for Technology Information (RFI) had been issued in October 2009 to solicit candidate technologies for use in Phase 2. The RFI also included a preliminary definition of Phase 2 functions and requirements. Potentially

  5. K-Basins Sludge Treatment and Packaging at the Hanford Site - 13585

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogwell, Thomas W.; Honeyman, James O.; Stegen, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Highly radioactive sludge resulting from the storage of degraded spent nuclear fuel has been consolidated in Engineered Containers (ECs) in the 105-K West Storage Basin located on the Hanford site near the Columbia River in Washington State. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is proceeding with a project to retrieve the sludge, place it in Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) and store those filled containers within the T Plant Canyon facility on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (Phase 1). Retrieval and transfer of the sludge material will enable removal of the 105-K West Basin and allow remediation of the subsurface contamination plumes under the basin. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plans to treat and dispose of this K Basins sludge (Phase 2) as Remote Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) located in New Mexico. The K Basin sludge currently contains uranium metal which reacts with water present in the stored slurry, generating hydrogen and other byproducts. The established transportation and disposal requirements require the transformation of the K Basins sludge to a chemically stable, liquid-free, packaged waste form. The Treatment and Packaging Project includes removal of the containerised sludge from T Plant, the treatment of the sludge as required, and packaging of all the sludge into a form that is certifiable for transportation to and disposal at WIPP. Completion of this scope will require construction and operation of a Sludge Treatment and Packaging Facility (STPF), which could be either a completely new facility or a modification of an existing Hanford Site facility. A Technology Evaluation and Alternatives Analysis (TEAA) for the STP Phase 2 was completed in 2011. A Request for Technology Information (RFI) had been issued in October 2009 to solicit candidate technologies for use in Phase 2. The RFI also included a preliminary definition of Phase 2 functions and requirements. Potentially

  6. Technetium Incorporation in Glass for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Kim, Dong Sang

    2015-01-14

    A priority of the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) is to dispose of nuclear wastes accumulated in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington State. These nuclear wastes date from the Manhattan Project of World War II and from plutonium production during the Cold War. The DOE plans to separate high-level radioactive wastes from low activity wastes and to treat each of the waste streams by vitrification (immobilization of the nuclides in glass) for disposal. The immobilized low-activity waste will be disposed of here at Hanford and the immobilized high-level waste at the national geologic repository. Included in the inventory of highly radioactive wastes is large volumes of 99Tc (~9 × 10E2 TBq or ~2.5 × 104 Ci or ~1500 kg). A problem facing safe disposal of Tc-bearing wastes is the processing of waste feed into in a chemically durable waste form. Technetium incorporates poorly into silicate glass in traditional glass melting. It readily evaporates during melting of glass feeds and out of the molten glass, leading to a spectrum of high-to-low retention (ca. 20 to 80%) in the cooled glass product. DOE-ORP currently has a program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Rutgers University and in the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at Washington State University that seeks to understand aspects of Tc retention by means of studying Tc partitioning, molten salt formation, volatilization pathways, and cold cap chemistry. Another problem involves the stability of Tc in glass in both the national geologic repository and on-site disposal after it has been immobilized. The major environmental concern with 99Tc is its high mobility in addition to a long half-life (2.1×105 yrs). The pertechnetate ion (TcO4-) is highly soluble in water and does not adsorb well onto the surface of minerals and so migrates nearly at the same velocity as groundwater

  7. Glass Formulation For The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant (WTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Jain, V.

    2009-01-01

    A computational method for formulating Hanford HLW glasses was developed that is based on empirical glass composition-property models, accounts for all associated uncertainties, and can be solved in Excel R in minutes. Calculations for all waste form processing and compliance requirements included. Limited experimental validation performed.

  8. GLASS FORMULATION FOR THE HANFORD TANK WASTE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION PLANT (WTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; VIENNA JD; KIM DS; JAIN V

    2009-05-27

    A computational method for formulating Hanford HLW glasses was developed that is based on empirical glass composition-property models, accounts for all associated uncertainties, and can be solved in Excel{sup R} in minutes. Calculations for all waste form processing and compliance requirements included. Limited experimental validation performed.

  9. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harp, Benton J.; Kacich, Richard M.; Skwarek, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank

  10. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton J. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-20

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank

  11. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval and Delivery of Hanford Tank Wastes for Vitrification in the Waste Treatment Plant - 13234

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harp, Benton J.; Kacich, Richard M.; Skwarek, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety-conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank

  12. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval and Delivery of Hanford Tank Wastes for Vitrification in the Waste Treatment Plant - 13234

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton J. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Post Office Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety-conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines

  13. Hanford wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGhan, V.L.; Myers, D.A.; Damschen, D.W.

    1976-03-01

    The Hanford Reservation contains about 2100 wells constructed from pre-Hanford Works to the present. As of Jan. 1976, about 1800 wells still exist, 850 of which were drilled to the groundwater table; 700 still contain water. This report provides the most complete documentation of these wells and supersedes all previous compilations, including BNWL-1739

  14. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  15. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, William R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  16. 241-CX-70, 241-CX-71, and 241-CX-72 underground storage tanks at the strontium semiworks facility supplemental information to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingle, S.J.

    1996-03-01

    This document is a unit-specific contingency plan for the underground storage tanks at the Strontium Semiworks Facility and is intended to be used as a supplement to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan. This unit-specific plan is to be used to demonstrate compliance with the contingency plan requirements of WAC 173-303 for certain Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) waste management units. Radioactive material is contained in three underground storage tanks: 241-CX-70, 241-CX-71, and 241-CX-72. Tank 241-CX-70 has been emptied, except for residual quantities of waste, and has been classified as an elementary neutralization tank under the RCRA. Tanks 241-CX-71 and 241-CX-72 contain radioactive and Washington State-only dangerous waste material, but do not present a significant hazard to adjacent facilities, personnel, or the environment. Currently, dangerous waste management activities are not being applied at the tanks. It is unlikely that any incidents presenting hazards to public health or the environment would occur at the Strontium Semiworks Facility

  17. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  18. Evidence for supplemental treatments in androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famenini, Shannon; Goh, Carolyn

    2014-07-01

    Currently, topical minoxidil and finasteride are the only treatments that have been FDA approved for the treatment of female pattern hair loss and androgenetic alopecia. Given the incomplete efficacy and sife effect profile of these medications, some patients utilize alternative treatments to help improve this condition. In this review, we illustrate the scientific evidence underlying the efficacy of these alternative approaches, including biotin, caffeine, melatonin, a marine extract, and zinc.

  19. Reengineering Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badalamente, R.V.; Carson, M.L.; Rhoads, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is in the process of reengineering its Hanford Site operations. There is a need to fundamentally rethink and redesign environmental restoration and waste management processes to achieve dramatic improvements in the quality, cost-effectiveness, and timeliness of the environmental services and products that make cleanup possible. Hanford is facing the challenge of reengineering in a complex environment in which major processes cuts across multiple government and contractor organizations and a variety of stakeholders and regulators have a great influence on cleanup activities. By doing the upfront work necessary to allow effective reengineering, Hanford is increasing the probability of its success.

  20. Reengineering Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalamente, R.V.; Carson, M.L.; Rhoads, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is in the process of reengineering its Hanford Site operations. There is a need to fundamentally rethink and redesign environmental restoration and waste management processes to achieve dramatic improvements in the quality, cost-effectiveness, and timeliness of the environmental services and products that make cleanup possible. Hanford is facing the challenge of reengineering in a complex environment in which major processes cuts across multiple government and contractor organizations and a variety of stakeholders and regulators have a great influence on cleanup activities. By doing the upfront work necessary to allow effective reengineering, Hanford is increasing the probability of its success

  1. Radioactive Waste Evaporation: Current Methodologies Employed for the Development, Design, and Operation of Waste Evaporators at the Savannah River Site and Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calloway, T.B.

    2003-01-01

    Evaporation of High level and Low Activity (HLW and LAW) radioactive wastes for the purposes of radionuclide separation and volume reduction has been conducted at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites for more than forty years. Additionally, the Savannah River Site (SRS) has used evaporators in preparing HLW for immobilization into a borosilicate glass matrix. This paper will discuss the methodologies, results, and achievements of the SRTC evaporator development program that was conducted in support of the SRS and Hanford WTP evaporator processes. The cross pollination and application of waste treatment technologies and methods between the Savannah River and Hanford Sites will be highlighted. The cross pollination of technologies and methods is expected to benefit the Department of Energy's Mission Acceleration efforts by reducing the overall cost and time for the development of the baseline waste treatment processes

  2. Application of DOE prescribed guides to the evaluation of Hanford's Mixed Low Level Solid Waste Treatment Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, B.F.; Nash, C.R.

    1994-10-01

    A recent Westinghouse Hanford Company report (WHC-SD-W100-ES-008, February, 1994), compared a Vitrification process to the WRAP-2A Grout/PE process for the treatment of Mixed Low Level Waste (MLLW). This comparison applied a limited scope numerical evaluation to compare technology complexity of the two processes, but focused primarily on capital and operating costs. The work reported here is supplementary to WHC-SD-Wl00-ES-008. It provides a record of the application of the more formal DOE-prescribed criteria (Treatment Selection Guides for Federal Facility Compliance Act Draft Site Treatment Plans) to the Vitrification and Grout/PE processes previously evaluated. Results of the evaluation favored the Grout/PE process by a weighted score of 83 to 78 over the Plasma arc vitrification process

  3. Effect of protein supplementation and urea treatment on utilization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Authorised User

    Abstract. Six Red Maasai sheep were used to investigate the effects of urea treatment and cotton seed cake supplementation of maize stover on intake, digestibility and rumen fermentation parameters. The basal feeds were Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay (H), untreated maize (Zea mays) stover (US) and treated maize.

  4. Evaporation Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Effluent Management Facility Core Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Mcclane, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator, in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF), and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator, so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would reduce the need for closely integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Long-term implementation of this option after WTP start-up would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other operational complexities such a recycle stream presents. In order to accurately plan for the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to accurately account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, and determine the distribution of key regulatory-impacting constituents. The LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in the glass waste form, and represent a materials corrosion concern, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components will accumulate in the Melter Condensate

  5. Process Testing Results and Scaling for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Pretreatment Engineering Platform - 10173

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, Dean E.; Daniel, Richard C.; Baldwin, David L.; Rapko, Brian M.; Barnes, Steven M.; Gilbert, Robert A.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Huckaby, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy-Office of River Protections Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being designed and built to pretreat and then vitrify a large portion of the wastes in Hanfords 177 underground waste storage tanks at Richland, Washington. In support of this effort, engineering-scale tests at the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) have been completed to confirm the process design and provide improved projections of system capacity. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale facility designed, constructed, and operated to test the integrated leaching and ultrafiltration processes being deployed at the WTP. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes with prototypic equipment and control strategies and non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. The testing approach used a nonradioactive aqueous slurry simulant to demonstrate the unit operations of caustic and oxidative leaching, cross-flow ultrafiltration solids concentration, and solids washing. Parallel tests conducted at the laboratory scale with identical simulants provided results that allow scale-up factors to be developed between the laboratory and PEP performance. This paper presents the scale-up factors determined between the laboratory and engineering-scale results and presents arguments that extend these results to the full-scale process.

  6. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-06-05

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU.

  7. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE, IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT, HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-01-01

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU

  8. Review of nutritional supplements for the treatment of bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Dunlop, Boadie W

    2014-05-01

    Many patients view psychotropics with skepticism and fear and view nutritional supplements as more consistent with their values and beliefs. The purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the evidence base for nutritional supplements in the treatment of bipolar depression (BD). A literature search for all randomized, controlled clinical trials using nutritional supplements in the treatment of BD was conducted via PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE computerized database. The studies were organized into essential nutrients/minerals, nonessential nutrients, and combinations of nutritional products. Among essential nutrients/minerals, omega-3-fatty acids (O3FAs) have the strongest evidence of efficacy for bipolar depression, although some studies failed to find positive effects from O3FAs. Weak evidence supports efficacy of vitamin C whereas no data support the usefulness of folic acid and choline. Among nonessential nutrients, cytidine is the least supported treatment. Studies of N-acetylcysteine have not resolved its efficacy in treating acute depressive episodes relative to placebo. However, one study demonstrates its potential to improve depressive symptoms over time and the other, though nonsignificant, suggests it has a prophylactic effect. Studies of inositol have been mostly negative, except for 1 study. Those that were negative were underpowered but demonstrated numerically positive effects for inositol. There is no evidence that citicholine is efficacious for uncomplicated BD depression, though it may have value for comorbid substance abuse among BD patients. Finally, combination O3FA-cytidine lacks evidence of efficacy. The findings of this review do not support the routine use of nutritional supplements in the treatment or prophylaxis of BD depression. Studies with more rigorous designs are required before definitive conclusions can be made. Despite the inadequacy of the existing data, clinicians should remain open to the value of nutritional supplements: after

  9. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.; Allen, C.R.; Kruger, O.L.; Weber, E.T.

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to immobilize pretreated Hanford high-level waste and transuranic waste in borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters. Testing is being conducted in the HWVP Technology Development Project to ensure that adapted technologies are applicable to the candidate Hanford wastes and to generate information for waste form qualification. Empirical modeling is being conducted to define a glass composition range consistent with process and waste form qualification requirements. Laboratory studies are conducted to determine process stream properties, characterize the redox chemistry of the melter feed as a basis for controlling melt foaming and evaluate zeolite sorption materials for process waste treatment. Pilot-scale tests have been performed with simulated melter feed to access filtration for solids removal from process wastes, evaluate vitrification process performance and assess offgas equipment performance. Process equipment construction materials are being selected based on literature review, corrosion testing, and performance in pilot-scale testing. 3 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Removal of 137-Cs from Dissolved Hanford Tank Saltcake by Treatment with IE-911

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office plans to accelerate the cleanup of the Hanford Site. Testing new technology for the accelerated cleanup will require dissolved saltcake from single-shell tanks. However, the 137Cs will need to be removed from the saltcake to alleviate radiation hazards. A saltcake composite constructed from archived samples from Hanford Site single-shell tanks 241-S-101, 241-S-109, 241-S-110, 241-S-111, 241-U-106, and 241-U-109 was dissolved in water, adjusted to 5 M Na, and transferred from the 222-S Laboratory to the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL). At the RPL, the approximately 5.5 liters of solution was passed through a 0.2-micron polyethersulfone filter, collected, and homogenized. The filtered solution then was passed through an ion exchange column containing approximately 150 mL IONSIV(reg s ign) IE-911, an engineered form of crystalline silicotitanate available from UOP, at approximately 200 mL/hour in a continuous operation until all of the feed solution had been run through the column. An analysis of the 137Cs concentrations in the initial feed solution and combined column effluent indicates that > 99.999 percent of the Cs in the feed solution was removed by this operation

  11. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DADO MA

    2008-07-31

    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

  12. Development Of A Macro-Batch Qualification Strategy For The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, Connie C.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has evaluated the existing waste feed qualification strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) based on experience from the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) waste qualification program. The current waste qualification programs for each of the sites are discussed in the report to provide a baseline for comparison. Recommendations on strategies are then provided that could be implemented at Hanford based on the successful Macrobatch qualification strategy utilized at SRS to reduce the risk of processing upsets or the production of a staged waste campaign that does not meet the processing requirements of the WTP. Considerations included the baseline WTP process, as well as options involving Direct High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) processing, and the potential use of a Tank Waste Characterization and Staging Facility (TWCSF). The main objectives of the Hanford waste feed qualification program are to demonstrate compliance with the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), determine waste processability, and demonstrate unit operations at a laboratory scale. Risks to acceptability and successful implementation of this program, as compared to the DWPF Macro-Batch qualification strategy, include: Limitations of mixing/blending capability of the Hanford Tank Farm; The complexity of unit operations (i.e., multiple chemical and mechanical separations processes) involved in the WTP pretreatment qualification process; The need to account for effects of blending of LAW and HLW streams, as well as a recycle stream, within the PT unit operations; and The reliance on only a single set of unit operations demonstrations with the radioactive qualification sample. This later limitation is further complicated because of the 180-day completion requirement for all of the necessary waste feed qualification steps. The primary recommendations/changes include the

  13. Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment Alternatives March 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WODRICH, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently planning to retrieve, pretreat, immobilize and safely dispose of 53 million gallons of highly radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford Site. The DOE plan is a two-phased approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste. Phase 1 is a proof-of-concept/commercial demonstration-scale effort whose objectives are to: demonstrate, the technical and business viability of using privatized facilities to treat Hanford tank waste; define and maintain required levels of radiological, nuclear, process and occupational safety; maintain environmental protection and compliance; and substantially reduce life-cycle costs and time required to treat Hanford tank waste. The Phase 1 effort consists of Part A and Part B. On September 25, 1996 (Reference 1), DOE signed a contract with BNFL, Inc. (BNFL) to commence with Phase 1, Part A. In August 1998, BNFL was authorized to proceed with Phase I, Part 6-1, a 24-month design phase that will-provide sufficient engineering and financial maturity to establish fixed-unit prices and financing terms for tank waste processing services in privately-owned and -operated facilities. By August 2000, DOE will decide whether to authorize BNFL to proceed with construction and operation of the proposed processing facilities, or pursue a different path. To support of the decision, DOE is evaluating alternatives to potentially enhance the BNFL tank waste processing contract, as well as, developing an alternate path forward should DOE decide to not continue the BNFL contract. The decision on whether to continue with the current privatization strategy (BNFL contract) or to pursue an alternate can not be made until the evaluation process leading up to the decision on whether to authorize BNFL to proceed with construction and operation (known as the Part 8-2 decision) is completed. The evaluation process includes reviewing and evaluating the information BNFL is

  14. A systems engineering analysis to examine the economic impact for treatment of tritiated water in the Hanford KE-Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas, A.; Clark, L.; Schmidt, A.

    1995-02-01

    Federal and state agencies have established a Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to address some key environmental issues faced at the Hanford Site. Under the TPA, the Department of Energy is currently under a consent order to reduce the tritium concentration in the spent fuel storage basin for KE-Reactor from 3.0 μCi/L to 0.3 μCi/L in the KE spent fuel storage basin, starting in 1996. The 100KE and 100KW Area fuel storage basins (K-Basins) at Hanford were built in the early 1950s to receive and provide temporary storage for irradiated fuel from the now shutdown KE and KW production reactors. In 1977, the KE-Basin began to leak at a rate of 13.5 gpm (51 L/min.), but, decreased to 0.03 to 0.05 gpm (0. 13 to 0.19 L/min.) by 1980. In 1993, the leak increased to a rate of 0.42 gpm (1.6 L/min.). This engineering analysis examines the relative costs to reduce the tritium concentration KE-Basin water using a polyphosphazene polymer membrane under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The estimated cost of using the membrane to reduce the tritium concentration is compared to three no-treatment alternatives that include: (1) disposing of the tritium-contaminated water directly to the Columbia River, (2) disposing of the contaminated water to the soil at the on-site Effluent Treatment Facility, and (3) disposing of the contaminated water by evaporation using solar evaporation ponds

  15. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES--INTEGRATED LIFE-CYCLE OPTIMIZATION INITIATIVES FOR THE HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT--WASTE TREATMENT PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auclair, K. D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the ongoing integrated life-cycle optimization efforts to achieve both design flexibility and design stability for activities associated with the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford. Design flexibility is required to support the Department of Energy Office of River Protection Balance of Mission objectives, and design stability to meet the Waste Treatment Plant construction and commissioning requirements in order to produce first glass in 2007. The Waste Treatment Plant is a large complex project that is driven by both technology and contractual requirements. It is also part of a larger overall mission, as a component of the River Protection Project, which is driven by programmatic requirements and regulatory, legal, and fiscal constraints. These issues are further complicated by the fact that both of the major contractors involved have a different contract type with DOE, and neither has a contract with the other. This combination of technical and programmatic drivers, constraints, and requirements will continue to provide challenges and opportunities for improvement and optimization. The Bechtel National, Inc. team is under contract to engineer, procure, construct, commission and test the Waste Treatment Plant on or ahead of schedule, at or under cost, and with a throughput capacity equal to or better than specified. The Department of Energy is tasked with the long term mission of waste retrieval, treatment, and disposal. While each mission is a compliment and inextricably linked to one another, they are also at opposite ends of the spectrum, in terms of expectations of one another. These mission requirements, that are seemingly in opposition to one another, pose the single largest challenge and opportunity for optimization: one of balance. While it is recognized that design maturation and optimization are the normal responsibility of any engineering firm responsible for any given project, the aspects of integrating requirements and the management

  16. Cost/benefit analysis comparing ex situ treatment technologies for removing carbon tetrachloride from Hanford groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truex, M.J.; Brown, D.R.; Elliott, D.B.

    1993-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a cost/benefit and performance analysis to compare ex situ technologies that can be used to destroy the carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) in the ground water of Hanford's 200 West Area. The objective of this work was to provide a direct quantitative and qualitative comparison of competing technologies. The technologies examined included a biological system, the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System II (TEES II), and a UV/oxidation system. The factors examined included key system operation parameters, impact on inorganic contaminants in the ground water, and secondary waste production. The cost effectiveness of these destruction technologies was also compared to the cost for an air stripping/granular activated carbon (AS/GAC) system. While the AS/GAC system appeared to be more cost effective at many levels than the CCl 4 destruction technologies, the secondary waste produced by this system may lead to significant cost and/or regulatory problems. The factors with the greatest influence on cost for each destruction technology are as follows: nutrient requirements for both of the biological systems, electricity requirements and the type of unit operations for the TEES II process, and electricity requirements for UV/oxidation

  17. Hanford recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  18. Nutrient supplementation approaches in the treatment of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucklidge, Julia J; Johnstone, Jeanette; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2009-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic, debilitating psychiatric illness that often co-occurs with other common psychiatric problems. Although empirical evidence supports pharmacological and behavioral treatments, side effects, concerns regarding safety and fears about long-term use all contribute to families searching for alternative methods of treating the symptoms of ADHD. This review presents the published evidence on supplementation, including single ingredients (e.g., minerals, vitamins, amino acids and essential fatty acids), botanicals and multi-ingredient formulas in the treatment of ADHD symptoms. In most cases, evidence is sparse, mixed and lacking information. Of those supplements where we found published studies, the evidence is best for zinc (two positive randomized, controlled trials); there is mixed evidence for carnitine, pycnogenol and essential fatty acids, and more research is needed before drawing conclusions about vitamins, magnesium, iron, SAM-e, tryptophan and Ginkgo biloba with ginseng. To date, there is no evidence to support the use of St John's wort, tyrosine or phenylalanine in the treatment of ADHD symptoms. Multi-ingredient approaches are an intriguing yet under-researched area; we discuss the benefits of this approach considering the heterogeneous nature of ADHD.

  19. Fluor Hanford Project Focused Progress at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HANSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    Fluor Hanford is making significant progress in accelerating cleanup at the Hanford site. This progress consistently aligns with a new strategic vision established by the U.S. Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office (RL)

  20. Mobile hot cell transition design phase study for radioactive waste treatment on the Hanford reservation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation site, 4 caissons in under ground storage contain approximately 23 cubic meters of Transuranic (TRU) waste, in over 5,000 small packages. The retrieval of these wastes presents a number of very difficult issues, including the configuration of the vaults, approximately 50,000 curies of activity, high dose rates, and damaged/degraded waste packages. The waste will require remote retrieval and processing sufficient to produce certifiable RH-TRU waste packages. This RH-TRU will be packaged for staging on site until certification by CCP is completed to authorize shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The project has introduced AREVA' s innovative Hot Mobile Cell (HMC) technology to perform size reduction, sorting, characterization, and packaging of the RH waste stream at the point of generation, the retrieval site in the field. This approach minimizes dose and hazard exposure to workers that is usually associated with this operation. The HMC can also be used to provide employee protection, weather protection, and capacity improvements similar to those realized in general burial ground. AREVA TA and his partner AFS will provide this technology based on the existing HMCs developed and operated in France: - ERFB (Bituminized Waste Drum Retrieval Facility): ERFB was built specifically for retrieving the bituminized waste drums (approximately 6,000 stored in trenches in the North zone on the Marcoule site (in operation since 2001). - ERCF (Waste Drum Recovery and Packaging Facility): The ERCF was built specifically to retrieve bituminized waste drums stored in 35 pits located in the south area on Marcoule site (in operation) - FOSSEA (Legacy Waste Removal and Trench Cleanup): The FOSSEA project consists of the retrieval of waste stored on the Basic Nuclear Facility. Waste from the 56 trenches will be inspected, characterised, and if necessary processed or repackaged, and

  1. Implementation of Recommendations from the One System Comparative Evaluation of the Hanford Tank Farms and Waste Treatment Plant Safety Bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, Richard L.; Niemi, Belinda J.; Paik, Ingle K.; Buczek, Jeffrey A.; Lietzow, J.; McCoy, F.; Beranek, F.; Gupta, M.

    2013-01-01

    A Comparative Evaluation was conducted for One System Integrated Project Team to compare the safety bases for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project (WTP) and Tank Operations Contract (TOC) (i.e., Tank Farms) by an Expert Review Team. The evaluation had an overarching purpose to facilitate effective integration between WTP and TOC safety bases. It was to provide One System management with an objective evaluation of identified differences in safety basis process requirements, guidance, direction, procedures, and products (including safety controls, key safety basis inputs and assumptions, and consequence calculation methodologies) between WTP and TOC. The evaluation identified 25 recommendations (Opportunities for Integration). The resolution of these recommendations resulted in 16 implementation plans. The completion of these implementation plans will help ensure consistent safety bases for WTP and TOC along with consistent safety basis processes. procedures, and analyses. and should increase the likelihood of a successful startup of the WTP. This early integration will result in long-term cost savings and significant operational improvements. In addition, the implementation plans lead to the development of eight new safety analysis methodologies that can be used at other U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) complex sites where URS Corporation is involved

  2. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter. Preliminary settling and resuspension testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    The full-scale, room-temperature Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) High-Level Waste (HLW) melter riser test system was successfully operated with silicone oil and magnetite particles at a loading of 0.1 vol %. Design and construction of the system and instrumentation, and the selection and preparation of simulant materials, are briefly reviewed. Three experiments were completed. A prototypic pour rate was maintained, based on the volumetric flow rate. Settling and accumulation of magnetite particles were observed at the bottom of the riser and along the bottom of the throat after each experiment. The height of the accumulated layer at the bottom of the riser, after the first pouring experiment, approximated the expected level given the solids loading of 0.1 vol %. More detailed observations of particle resuspension and settling were made during and after the third pouring experiment. The accumulated layer of particles at the bottom of the riser appeared to be unaffected after a pouring cycle of approximately 15 minutes at the prototypic flow rate. The accumulated layer of particles along the bottom of the throat was somewhat reduced after the same pouring cycle. Review of the time-lapse recording showed that some of the settling particles flow from the riser into the throat. This may result in a thicker than expected settled layer in the throat.

  3. Bench scale experiments for the remediation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, Michael [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-11

    The Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The plan for disposition of this stream during baseline operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. The primary reason to recycle this stream is so that the semi-volatile 99Tc isotope eventually becomes incorporated into the glass. This stream also contains non-radioactive salt components that are problematic in the melter, so diversion of this stream to another process would eliminate recycling of these salts and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. This diversion from recycling this stream within WTP would have the effect of decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The concept being tested here involves removing the 99Tc so that the decontaminated aqueous stream, with the problematic salts, can be disposed elsewhere.

  4. CY2000 Hanford Site Mixed Waste Land Disposal Restrictions Report Vol. 1 Storage Report and Vol 2: Characterization and Treatment Report [SEC 1 thru SEC 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    This volume presents information about the storage and minimization of mixed waste and potential sources for the generation of additional mixed waste. This information is presented in accordance with Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1996) Milestone M-26-01K. It is Volume 1 of a two-volume report on the status of Hanford Site land-disposal-restricted mixed waste, other mixed waste, and other waste that the parties have agreed to include in this report. This volume also contains the approval page for both volumes and assumptions, accomplishments, and some other information that also pertains to waste characterization and treatment, which are addressed in Volume 2. Appendix A lists the land disposal restriction (LDR) reporting requirements and explains where they are addressed in this report. The reporting period for this document is from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2000

  5. Zinc Supplementation in Treatment of Children With Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Naziri, Mahdyieh; Taherahmadi, Hassan; Kahbazi, Manijeh; Tabaei, Aram

    2016-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is very common in children. Precocious diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important because of the permanent disease complications. Zinc increases the response to treatment in many infections. In this study, we explored the effect of zinc in treating UTI. Two hundred children with UTI were divided into 2 groups of 100 who were comparable in terms of age, sex, urine laboratory profiles, and clinical signs and symptoms. The control group received a standard treatment protocol for UTI and the intervention group received oral zinc sulfate syrup plus routine treatment of UTI. A faster recovery was observed in the patients receiving zinc, but abdominal pain was exacerbated by zinc and lasted longer. Three months after the treatment, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the time of fever stop and negative urine culture. In children with UTI, zinc supplementation has a positive effect in ameliorating severe dysuria and urinary frequency while the use of this medication is not recommended in the presence of abdominal pain.

  6. BJR supplements and radiotherapy treatment planning data - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    Scientific community has depended on the BJR Supplements on central axis depth dose data published from time to time. There have been five supplements since 1953 when Supplement No. 5 was first published on the subject. The frequent revisions, addition of new data and updating with the technological advancements are special features of these supplements. The most recent supplement is numbered 25 and has been brought out in 1996. A review of the data in respect of cobalt-60, MV X-rays and electron beams as described in the supplements is the subject matter of this write-up. (author)

  7. Scale-Up Information for Gas-Phase Ammonia Treatment of Uranium in the Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhong, Lirong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomle, Jonathan N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Uranium is present in the vadose zone at the Hanford Central Plateau and is of concern for protection of groundwater. The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau identified gas-phase treatment and geochemical manipulation as potentially effective treatment approaches for uranium and technetium in the Hanford Central Plateau vadose zone. Based on laboratory evaluation, use of ammonia vapor was selected as the most promising uranium treatment candidate for further development and field testing. While laboratory tests have shown that ammonia treatment effectively reduces the mobility of uranium, additional information is needed to enable deployment of this technology for remediation. Of importance for field applications are aspects of the technology associated with effective distribution of ammonia to a targeted treatment zone, understanding the fate of injected ammonia and its impact on subsurface conditions, and identifying effective monitoring approaches. In addition, information is needed to select equipment and operational parameters for a field design. As part of development efforts for the ammonia technology for remediation of vadose zone uranium contamination, field scale-up issues were identified and have been addressed through a series of laboratory and modeling efforts. This report presents a conceptual description for field application of the ammonia treatment process, engineering calculations to support treatment design, ammonia transport information, field application monitoring approaches, and a discussion of processes affecting the fate of ammonia in the subsurface. The report compiles this information from previous publications and from recent research and development activities. The intent of this report is to provide technical information about these scale-up elements to support the design and operation of a field test for the ammonia treatment technology.

  8. Preparation and evaporation of Hanford Waste treatment plant direct feed low activity waste effluent management facility simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Howe, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-07

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream involves concentrating the condensate in a new evaporator at the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and returning it to the LAW melter. The LMOGC stream will contain components, e.g. halides and sulfates, that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in glass waste forms, and present a material corrosion concern. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components are expected to accumulate in the LMOGC stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfates in the glass and is a key objective of this program. In order to determine the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, determine the formation and distribution of key regulatoryimpacting constituents, and generate an aqueous stream that can be used in testing of the subsequent immobilization step. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of the LMOGC stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to (1) prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter Off-gas Condensate expected during DFLAW operations, (2) demonstrate evaporation in order to predict the final composition of the effluents from the EMF

  9. Project Work Plan: Hanford 100-D Area Treatability Demonstration - In Situ Biostimulation for Reducing Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.

    2006-05-31

    This work plan supports a new, integrated approach to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the Hanford 100 Areas. This new approach will provide supplemental treatment upgradient of the ISRM barrier by directly treating chromium and other oxidizing species in groundwater (i.e., nitrate and dissolved oxygen), thereby increasing the longevity of the ISRM barrier and protecting the ecological receptors and human health at the river boundary.

  10. The Successful Utilization Of Commercial Treatment Capabilities To Disposition Hanford's No-Path-Forward Suspect Transuranic Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackford, L.T.; Catlow, R.L.; West, L.D.; Collins, M.S.; Romine, L.D.; Moak, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) has adopted the 2015 Vision for Cleanup of the Hanford Site. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company's (CHPRC) Waste and Fuels Management Project (W and FMP) and their partners support this mission by providing centralized waste management services for the Hanford Site waste generating organizations. At the time of the CHPRC contract award (August 2008) slightly more than 9,000 cubic meters (m 3 ) of legacy waste was defined as ''no-path-forward waste.'' A significant portion of this waste (7,650 m 3 ) comprised wastes with up to 50 grams of special nuclear materials (SNM) in oversized packages recovered during retrieval operations and large glove boxes removed from Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Through a collaborative effort between the DOE, CHPRC, and Perma-Fix Environmental Services, Inc. (PESI), pathways for these problematic wastes were developed and are currently being implemented.

  11. Site-Specific Seismic Site Response Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, Alan C.; Reidel, Steve P.

    2005-02-24

    This interim report documents the collection of site-specific geologic and geophysical data characterizing the Waste Treatment Plant site and the modeling of the site-specific structure response to earthquake ground motions.

  12. Delisting strategy for the Hanford Site 242-A Evaporator PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This document describes the strategy that the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office intends to use in preparing the delisting petition for the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility. Because the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility will not be operational until 1994, the delisting petition will be structured as an up-front petition based on the ''multiple waste treatment facility'' approach outline in the 1985 US Environmental Protection Agency's Petitions to Delist Hazardous Waste. The 242-A evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility effluent characterization data will not be available to support the delisting petition, because the delisting petition will be submitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency before start-up of the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility. Therefore, the delisting petition will be based on data collected during the pilot plant testing for the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility. This pilot plant testing will be conducted on synthetic waste. The composition of the synthetic waste will be based on: (1) constituents of regulatory concern, and (2) on process knowledge. The pilot plant testing will be performed to determine the removal efficiencies of the process equipment at concentrations greater than reasonably could be expected in the actual waste. This strategy document also describes the logic used to develop the synthetic waste, to develop the pilot plant testing program, and to prepare the delisting petition. This strategy document also described how full-scale operating data will be collected during initial operation of the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility to verify information presented in the delisting petition

  13. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter: Summary of FY2016 experiements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Fowley, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Miller, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Five experiments were completed with the full-scale, room temperature Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) high-level waste (HLW) melter riser test system to observe particle flow and settling in support of a crystal tolerant approach to melter operation. A prototypic pour rate was maintained based on the volumetric flow rate. Accumulation of particles was observed at the bottom of the riser and along the bottom of the throat after each experiment. Measurements of the accumulated layer thicknesses showed that the settled particles at the bottom of the riser did not vary in thickness during pouring cycles or idle periods. Some of the settled particles at the bottom of the throat were re-suspended during subsequent pouring cycles, and settled back to approximately the same thickness after each idle period. The cause of the consistency of the accumulated layer thicknesses is not year clear, but was hypothesized to be related to particle flow back to the feed tank. Additional experiments reinforced the observation of particle flow along a considerable portion of the throat during idle periods. Limitations of the system are noted in this report and may be addressed via future modifications. Follow-on experiments will be designed to evaluate the impact of pouring rate on particle re-suspension, the influence of feed tank agitation on particle accumulation, and the effect of changes in air lance positioning on the accumulation and re-suspension of particles at the bottom of the riser. A method for sampling the accumulated particles will be developed to support particle size distribution analyses. Thicker accumulated layers will be intentionally formed via direct addition of particles to select areas of the system to better understand the ability to continue pouring and re-suspend particles. Results from the room temperature system will be correlated with observations and data from the Research Scale Melter (RSM) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  14. Maximizing Production Capacity from an Ultrafiltration Process at the Hanford Department of Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foust, Henry C.; Holton, Langdon K.; Demick, Laurence E.

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Energy has contracted Bechtel National, Inc. to design, construct and commission a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to treat radioactive slurry currently stored in underground waste storage tanks. A critical element of the waste treatment capacity for the WTP is the proper operation of an ultrafiltration process (UFP). The UFP separates supernate solution from radioactive solids. The solution and solid phases are separately immobilized. An oversight review of the UFP design and operation has identified several methods to improve the capacity of the ultrafiltration process, which will also improve the capacity of the WTP. Areas explored were the basis of design, an analysis of the WTP capacity, process chemistry within the UFP, and UFP process control. This article discusses some of the findings of this oversight review in terms of sodium and solid production, which supports the treatment of low activity waste (LAW) associated with the facility, and solid production, which supports the treatment of high level waste (HLW) associated with the facility

  15. Radioactive demonstration of final mineralized waste forms for Hanford waste treatment plant secondary waste (WTP-SW) by fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) using the bench scale reformer platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jantzen, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as 137Cs, 129I, 99Tc, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW.

  16. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Technetium Decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Melter Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  17. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Decontamination of Cs, Sr, and Actinides from Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-06

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also substantially decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  18. Formulation and preparation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant direct feed low activity waste Effluent Management Facility core simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  19. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, N.P.; Triner, G.C.

    1991-09-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages the Hanford Site solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites, radioactive solid waste storage areas and hazardous waste treatment, storage, and/or disposal facilities. This manual defines the criteria that must be met by waste generators for solid waste to be accepted by Westinghouse Hanford Company for treatment, storage and/or disposal facilities. It is to be used by all waste generators preparing radioactive solid waste for storage or disposal at the Hanford Site facilities and for all Hanford Site generators of hazardous waste. This manual is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved with approval and acceptance of solid waste. The criteria in this manual represent a compilation of state and federal regulations; US Department of Energy orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to management of solid waste. Where appropriate, these requirements are included in the manual by reference. It is the intent of this manual to provide guidance to the waste generator in meeting the applicable requirements

  20. TREATMENT TESTS FOR EX SITU REMOVAL OF CHROMATE & NITRATE & URANIUM (VI) FROM HANFORD (100-HR-3) GROUNDWATER FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECK MA; DUNCAN JB

    1994-01-03

    This report describes batch and ion exchange column laboratory scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and uranium (present as uranium [VI]) from contaminated Hanford site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include: chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium; and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan. The method suggested for future study is anion exchange.

  1. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides an existing and future land use plan for the Hanford Site. The HSDP is updated annually in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B, Site Development Planning, to reflect the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  2. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  3. US DOE Initiated Performance Enhancements to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low-activity Waste Vitrification (LAW) System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, William F.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Holton, Langdon K.; Pegg, Ian L.; Bowen, Brad W.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) is constructing a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) for the treatment and vitrification of underground tank wastes stored at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The WTP comprises four major facilities: a pretreatment facility to separate the tank waste into high level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) process streams, a HLW vitrification facility to immobilize the HLW fraction; a LAW vitrification facility to immobilize the LAW fraction, and an analytical laboratory to support the operations of all four treatment facilities. DOE has established strategic objectives to optimize the performance of the WTP facilities and the LAW and HLW waste forms to reduce the overall schedule and cost for treatment and vitrification of the Hanford tank wastes. This strategy has been implemented by establishing performance expectations in the WTP contract for the facilities and waste forms. In addition, DOE, as owner-operator of the WTP facilities, continues to evaluate (1) the design, to determine the potential for performance above the requirements specified in the WTP contract; and (2) improvements in production of the LAW and HLW waste forms. This paper reports recent progress directed at improving production of the LAW waste form. DOE's initial assessment, which is based on the work reported in this paper, is that the capacity of the WTP LAW vitrification facility can be increased by a factor of 2 to 4 with a combination of revised glass formulations, modest increases in melter glass operating temperatures, and a second-generation LAW melter with a larger surface area. Implementing these improvements in the LAW waste immobilization capability can benefit the LAW treatment mission by reducing both processing time and cost

  4. Aerosol Formation from High-Pressure Sprays for Supporting the Safety Analysis for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13183

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Schonewill, P.P.; Bontha, J.R.; Blanchard, J.; Kurath, D.E.; Daniel, R.C.; Song, C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being designed and built to pretreat and vitrify waste currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford. One of the postulated events in the hazard analysis for the WTP is a breach in process piping that produces a pressurized spray with small droplets that can be transported into ventilation systems. Literature correlations are currently used for estimating the generation rate and size distribution of aerosol droplets in postulated releases. These correlations, however, are based on results obtained from small engineered nozzles using Newtonian liquids that do not contain slurry particles and thus do not represent the fluids and breaches in the WTP. A test program was developed to measure the generation rate, and the release fraction which is the ratio of generation rate to spray flow rate, of droplets suspended in a test chamber and droplet size distribution from prototypic sprays. A novel test method was developed to allow measurement of sprays from small to large breaches and also includes the effect of aerosol generation from splatter when the spray impacts on walls. Results show that the release fraction decreases with increasing orifice area, though with a weaker dependence on orifice area than the currently-used correlation. A comparison of water sprays to slurry sprays with 8 to 20 wt% gibbsite or boehmite particles shows that the presence of slurry particles depresses the release fraction compared to water for droplets above 10 μm and increases the release fraction below this droplet size. (authors)

  5. Decommissioning of a RCRA Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility: A case study of the 216-A-29 ditch at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Hayward, W.M.

    1991-09-01

    The 216-A-29 ditch is located in the central portion of the Hanford Site with Operable Unit 200-PO-5. The ditch is classified under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 as a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Facility and as such, is to be removed from service in support of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Tri-Party Agreement (Ecology et al. 1989) Milestone M-17-10, which states ''cease all liquid discharges to hazardous land disposal units unless such units have been clean closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976''. The 216-A-29 ditch is one stream feeding the 216-B-3 Pond system, and its removal from service was necessary to support the closure strategy for the 216-B-3 Pond system. Interim stabilization of the 216-A-29 ditch is the first step required to comply with the Tri-Party Agreement (Ecology et al. 1989) and the eventual decommissioning of the entire B Pond system. Interim stabilization was required to maintain the 216-A-29 ditch in a stable configuration until closure actions have been determined and initiated. 4 refs., 3 figs

  6. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2, Chapter 3.0, Waste characteristics supplemental information; Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains supplemental information concerning waste characteristics for numerous nonradioactive waste materials. Uniform hazardous waste manifests are included for routine as well as nonroutine waste streams. The manifests contain the following information: waste disposal analysis; general instructions; waste destination; and transportation representatives

  7. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2, Chapter 3.0, Waste characteristics supplemental information; Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains supplemental information concerning waste characteristics for numerous nonradioactive waste materials. Uniform hazardous waste manifests are included for routine as well as nonroutine waste streams. The manifests contain the following information: waste disposal analysis; general instructions; waste destination; and transportation representatives

  8. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2, Chapter 3.0, Waste characteristics supplemental information; Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains supplemental information concerning waste characteristics for numerous nonradioactive waste materials. Uniform hazardous waste manifests are included for routine as well as nonroutine waste streams. The manifests contain the following information: waste disposal analysis; general instructions; waste destination; and transportation representatives

  9. Herbal Supplement in a Buffer for Dry Eye Syndrome Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Chang; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Wang, Tsung-Jen; Drew, Victor J; Tseng, Ching-Li; Fang, Hsu-Wei; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2017-08-03

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is one of the most common types of ocular diseases. There is a major need to treat DES in a simple yet efficient way. Artificial tears (AT) are the most commonly used agents for treating DES, but are not very effective. Herbal extractions of ferulic acid (FA), an anti-oxidant agent, and kaempferol (KM), an anti-inflammatory reagent, were added to buffer solution (BS) to replace ATs for DES treatment. The cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects were examined in vitro by co-culture with human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) to obtain the optimal concentration of KM and FA for treating HCECs. Physical properties of BS, such as pH value, osmolality, and refractive index were also examined. Then, rabbits with DES were used for therapeutic evaluation. Tear production, corneal damage, and ocular irritation in rabbits' eyes were examined. The non-toxic concentrations of KM and FA for HCEC cultivation over 3 days were 1 µM and 100 µM, respectively. Live/dead stain results also show non-toxicity of KM and FA for treating HCECs. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HCECs in inflammatory conditions treated with 100 µM FA and 1 µM KM (FA100/KM1) showed lower IL-1B , IL-6 , IL-8 , and TNFα expression when examined by real-time PCR. The BS with FA100/KM1 had neutral pH, and a similar osmolality and refractive index to human tears. Topical delivery of BS + FA100/KM1 showed no irritation to rabbit eyes. The corneal thickness in the BS + FA100/KM1 treated group was comparable to normal eyes. Results of DES rabbits treated with BS + FA100/KM1 showed less corneal epithelial damage and higher tear volume than the normal group. In conclusion, we showed that the combination of FA (100 µM) and KM (1 µM) towards treating inflamed HCECs had an anti-inflammatory effect, and it is effective in treating DES rabbits when BS is added in combination with these two herbal supplements and used as a topical eye drop.

  10. Herbal Supplement in a Buffer for Dry Eye Syndrome Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chang Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye syndrome (DES is one of the most common types of ocular diseases. There is a major need to treat DES in a simple yet efficient way. Artificial tears (AT are the most commonly used agents for treating DES, but are not very effective. Herbal extractions of ferulic acid (FA, an anti-oxidant agent, and kaempferol (KM, an anti-inflammatory reagent, were added to buffer solution (BS to replace ATs for DES treatment. The cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects were examined in vitro by co-culture with human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs to obtain the optimal concentration of KM and FA for treating HCECs. Physical properties of BS, such as pH value, osmolality, and refractive index were also examined. Then, rabbits with DES were used for therapeutic evaluation. Tear production, corneal damage, and ocular irritation in rabbits’ eyes were examined. The non-toxic concentrations of KM and FA for HCEC cultivation over 3 days were 1 µM and 100 µM, respectively. Live/dead stain results also show non-toxicity of KM and FA for treating HCECs. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HCECs in inflammatory conditions treated with 100 µM FA and 1 µM KM (FA100/KM1 showed lower IL-1B, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα expression when examined by real-time PCR. The BS with FA100/KM1 had neutral pH, and a similar osmolality and refractive index to human tears. Topical delivery of BS + FA100/KM1 showed no irritation to rabbit eyes. The corneal thickness in the BS + FA100/KM1 treated group was comparable to normal eyes. Results of DES rabbits treated with BS + FA100/KM1 showed less corneal epithelial damage and higher tear volume than the normal group. In conclusion, we showed that the combination of FA (100 µM and KM (1 µM towards treating inflamed HCECs had an anti-inflammatory effect, and it is effective in treating DES rabbits when BS is added in combination with these two herbal supplements and used as a topical eye drop.

  11. Total embolization of the main splenic artery as a supplemental treatment modality for hypersplenism

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xin-Hong; Li, Wen-Tao; Peng, Wei-Jun; Li, Guo-Dong; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Xu, Li-Chao

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the safety and feasibility of total embolization of the main splenic artery as a supplemental treatment modality for hypersplenism with thrombocytopenia or leukocytopenia accompanying liver cirrhosis.

  12. Quality assurance in Hanford site defense waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtasek, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses quality assurance as an integral part of conducting waste management operations. The storage, treatment, and disposal of radioactive and non- radioactive hazardous wastes at Hanford are described. The author reports that quality assurance programs provide confidence that storage, treatment, and disposal facilities and systems perform as intended. Examples of how quality assurance is applied to Hanford defense waste operations are presented

  13. The influence of small-mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities that were conducted in support of the long-term surface barrier development program by Westinghouse Hanford Company to determine the degree that small-mammal burrow systems affect the loss or retention of water in the soils at the Hanford Site in Washington state. An animal intrusion lysimeter facility was constructed, consisting of two outer boxes buried at grade, which served as receptacles for six animal intrusion lysimeters. Small burrowing animals common the Hanford Site were introduced over a 3- to 4-month period. Supplemental precipitation was added monthly to three of the lysimeters with a rainfall simulator (rainulator). Information collected from the five tests indicated that (1) during summer months, water was lost in all the lysimeters, including the supplemental precipitation added with the rainulator; and (2) during winter months, all lysimeters gained water. The data indicate little difference in the amount of water stored between control and animal lysimeters. The overall water loss was attributed to surface evaporation, a process that occurred equally in control and treatment lysimeters. Other causes of water loss are a result of (1) constant soil turnover and subsequent drying, and (2) burrow ventilation effects. This suggests that burrow systems will not contribute to any significant water storage at depth and, in fact, may enhance the removal of water from the soil

  14. Hanford site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A synopsis is given of the detailed characterization of the existing environment at Hanford. The following aspects are covered: demography, land use, meteorology, geology, hydrology, and seismology. It is concluded that Hanford is one of the most extensively characterized nuclear sites

  15. Hanford defense waste studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Zimmerman, M.G.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    PNL is assisting Rockwell Hanford Operations to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement for the management of Hanford defense nuclear waste. The Ecological Sciences Department is leading the task of calculation of public radiation doses from a large matrix of potential routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to the environment

  16. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1992-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides a land use plan for the Hanford Site and presents a picture of what is currently known and anticipated in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B. Site Development Planning. The HSDP wig be updated annually as future decisions further shape the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  17. Is there a place for nutritional supplements in the treatment of idiopathic male infertility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Arcaniolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Infertility affects 15% of couples in fertile age. Male factor is a cause of infertility in almost half of cases, mainly due to oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT. The purpose of this study is to review the effects of nutritional supplements as medical treatment for idiopathic male infertility. Material and methods: A Pub Med and Medline review of the published studies utilizing nutritional supplements for the treatment of male infertility has been performed. Results: Clinical trials on Vitamin E, Vitamin A, Vitamin C. Arginine, Carnitine, N-Acetyl-Carnitine, Glutathione, Coenzyme Q10, Selenium and Zinc were reviewed. Although there is a wide variability in selected population, dose regimen and final outcomes, nutritional supplements both alone and in combination seems to be able to improve semen parameters (sperm count, sperm motility and morphology and pregnancy rate in infertile men. Conclusions: There are rising evidences from published randomized trials and systematic review suggesting that nutritional supplementation may improve semen parameters and the likelihood of pregnancy in men affected by OAT. This improvement, however, is not consistent and there is a wide variation in the treatment regimens used. Well designed and adequately powered RCTs are needed to better clarify the role of nutritional supplements as treatment for male infertility.

  18. Environmental Solutions, A Summary of Contributions for FY04: PNNL Contributions to Fluor Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassbender, Linda L.

    2005-03-08

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory managed a variety of technical and scientific efforts to support Fluor Hanford's work in cleaning up the Hanford Site. Work done for other Hanford contractors, the Waste Treatment Plant, and directly for the U.S. Department of Energy is summarized in the other booklets in this series.

  19. Treatment of petroleum drill cuttings using bioaugmentation and biostimulation supplemented with phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogbara, Reginald B; Ogar, Innocent; Okparanma, Reuben N; Ayotamuno, Josiah M

    2016-07-28

    This study sought to compare the effectiveness of bioaugmentation and biostimulation, as well as the combination of both techniques, supplemented with phytoremediation, in the decontamination of petroleum drill cuttings. Drill cuttings with relatively low concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and metals were mixed with soil in the ratio 5:1 and treated with three different combinations of the bioremediation options. Option A entailed bioaugmentation supplemented with phytoremediation. Option B had the combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation supplemented with phytoremediation. While biostimulation supplemented with phytoremediation was deployed in option C. Option O containing the drill cuttings-soil mixture without treatment served as untreated control. Fertilizer application, tillage and watering were used for biostimulation treatment, while spent mushroom substrate (Pleurotus ostreatus) and elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) were employed for bioaugmentation and phytoremediation treatment, respectively. The drill cuttings-soil mixtures were monitored for TPH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, metal concentrations, and fungal counts, over time. After 56 days of treatment, there was a decline in the initial TPH concentration of 4,114 mg kg(-1) by 5.5%, 68.3%, 75.6% and 48% in options O, A, B and C, respectively. Generally, higher TPH loss resulted from the phytoremediation treatment stage. The treated options also showed slight reductions in metal concentrations ranging from 0% to 16% of the initial low concentrations. The results highlight the effectiveness of bioaugmentation supplemented with phytoremediation. The combination of bioaugmentation and biostimulation supplemented with phytoremediation, however, may prove better in decontaminating petroleum drill cuttings to environmentally benign levels.

  20. Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Ostrom, Michael J.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.

    2012-01-01

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W PandT) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012

  1. Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-14

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W P&T) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012.

  2. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included

  3. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

  4. Hanford Site Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Yancey, E.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  5. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J.; Yancey, E.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs

  6. Hanford 100-D Area Biostimulation Treatability Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Elmore, Rebecca P.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Sklarew, Deborah S.; Johnson, Christian D.; Oostrom, Martinus; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Brockman, Fred J.; Bilskis, Christina L.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Peterson, John E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Gasperikova, E.; Ajo-Franklin, J.

    2009-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a treatability test designed to demonstrate that in situ biostimulation can be applied to help meet cleanup goals in the Hanford Site 100-D Area. In situ biostimulation has been extensively researched and applied for aquifer remediation over the last 20 years for various contaminants. In situ biostimulation, in the context of this project, is the process of amending an aquifer with a substrate that induces growth and/or activity of indigenous bacteria for the purpose of inducing a desired reaction. For application at the 100-D Area, the purpose of biostimulation is to induce reduction of chromate, nitrate, and oxygen to remove these compounds from the groundwater. The in situ biostimulation technology is intended to provide supplemental treatment upgradient of the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) barrier previously installed in the Hanford 100-D Area and thereby increase the longevity of the ISRM barrier. Substrates for the treatability test were selected to provide information about two general approaches for establishing and maintaining an in situ permeable reactive barrier based on biological reactions, i.e., a biobarrier. These approaches included 1) use of a soluble (miscible) substrate that is relatively easy to distribute over a large areal extent, is inexpensive, and is expected to have moderate longevity; and 2) use of an immiscible substrate that can be distributed over a reasonable areal extent at a moderate cost and is expected to have increased longevity.

  7. Resource book: Decommissioning of contaminated facilities at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    In 1942 Hanford was commissioned as a site for the production of weapons-grade plutonium. The years since have seen the construction and operation of several generations of plutonium-producing reactors, plants for the chemical processing of irradiated fuel elements, plutonium and uranium processing and fabrication plants, and other facilities. There has also been a diversification of the Hanford site with the building of new laboratories, a fission product encapsulation plant, improved high-level waste management facilities, the Fast Flux test facility, commercial power reactors and commercial solid waste disposal facilities. Obsolescence and changing requirements will result in the deactivation or retirement of buildings, waste storage tanks, waste burial grounds and liquid waste disposal sites which have become contaminated with varying levels of radionuclides. This manual was established as a written repository of information pertinent to decommissioning planning and operations at Hanford. The Resource Book contains, in several volumes, descriptive information of the Hanford Site and general discussions of several classes of contaminated facilities found at Hanford. Supplementing these discussions are appendices containing data sheets on individual contaminated facilities and sites at Hanford. Twelve appendices are provided, corresponding to the twelve classes into which the contaminated facilities at Hanford have been organized. Within each appendix are individual data sheets containing administrative, geographical, physical, radiological, functional and decommissioning information on each facility within the class. 68 refs., 54 figs., 18 tabs

  8. Resource book: Decommissioning of contaminated facilities at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    In 1942 Hanford was commissioned as a site for the production of weapons-grade plutonium. The years since have seen the construction and operation of several generations of plutonium-producing reactors, plants for the chemical processing of irradiated fuel elements, plutonium and uranium processing and fabrication plants, and other facilities. There has also been a diversification of the Hanford site with the building of new laboratories, a fission product encapsulation plant, improved high-level waste management facilities, the Fast Flux test facility, commercial power reactors and commercial solid waste disposal facilities. Obsolescence and changing requirements will result in the deactivation or retirement of buildings, waste storage tanks, waste burial grounds and liquid waste disposal sites which have become contaminated with varying levels of radionuclides. This manual was established as a written repository of information pertinent to decommissioning planning and operations at Hanford. The Resource Book contains, in several volumes, descriptive information of the Hanford Site and general discussions of several classes of contaminated facilities found at Hanford. Supplementing these discussions are appendices containing data sheets on individual contaminated facilities and sites at Hanford. Twelve appendices are provided, corresponding to the twelve classes into which the contaminated facilities at Hanford have been organized. Within each appendix are individual data sheets containing administrative, geographical, physical, radiological, functional and decommissioning information on each facility within the class. 49 refs., 44 figs., 14 tabs

  9. Fission product iodine during early Hanford-Site operations: Its production and behavior during fuel processing, off-gas treatment and release to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, L.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate the radiological dose impact that Hanford Site operations may have made on the local and regional population. This impact is estimated by examining operations involving radioactive materials that were conducted at the Hanford Site from the startup of the first reactor in 1944 to the present. HEDR Project work is divided among several technical tasks. One of these tasks, Source Terms, is designed to develop quantitative estimates of all significant emissions of radionuclides by Hanford Site operations since 1944. Radiation doses can be estimated from these emissions by accounting for specific radionuclide transport conditions and population demography. This document provides technical information to assist in the evaluation of iodine releases. 115 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Fission product iodine during early Hanford-Site operations: Its production and behavior during fuel processing, off-gas treatment and release to the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, L.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate the radiological dose impact that Hanford Site operations may have made on the local and regional population. This impact is estimated by examining operations involving radioactive materials that were conducted at the Hanford Site from the startup of the first reactor in 1944 to the present. HEDR Project work is divided among several technical tasks. One of these tasks, Source Terms, is designed to develop quantitative estimates of all significant emissions of radionuclides by Hanford Site operations since 1944. Radiation doses can be estimated from these emissions by accounting for specific radionuclide transport conditions and population demography. This document provides technical information to assist in the evaluation of iodine releases. 115 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.; Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, P.O. Box 1600, MSIN R4-41, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

  12. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.; Ostrom, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

  13. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Ostrom, Michael J.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.

    2013-01-11

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE’s mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team’s successful integration of the project’s core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE’s mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification, which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award.

  14. Hanford Site Infrastructure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Infrastructure Plan (HIP) has been prepared as an overview of the facilities, utilities, systems, and services that support all activities on the Hanford Site. Its purpose is three-fold: to examine in detail the existing condition of the Hanford Site's aging utility systems, transportation systems, Site services and general-purpose facilities; to evaluate the ability of these systems to meet present and forecasted Site missions; to identify maintenance and upgrade projects necessary to ensure continued safe and cost-effective support to Hanford Site programs well into the twenty-first century. The HIP is intended to be a dynamic document that will be updated accordingly as Site activities, conditions, and requirements change. 35 figs., 25 tabs

  15. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures

  16. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

  17. Hanford Facility Annual Dangerous Waste Report Calendar Year 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FR-EEMAN, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Hanford CY 2002 dangerous waste generation and management forms. The Hanford Facility Annual Dangerous Waste Report (ADWR) is prepared to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative Code Sections 173-303-220, Generator Reporting, and 173-303-390, Facility Reporting. In addition, the ADWR is required to meet Hanford Facility RCRA Permit Condition I.E.22, Annual Reporting. The ADWR provides summary information on dangerous waste generation and management activities for the Calendar Year for the Hanford Facility EPA ID number assigned to the Department of Energy for RCRA regulated waste, as well as Washington State only designated waste and radioactive mixed waste. The Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) database is utilized to collect and compile the large array of data needed for preparation of this report. Information includes details of waste generated on the Hanford Facility, waste generated offsite and sent to Hanford for management, and other waste management activities conducted at Hanford, including treatment, storage, and disposal. Report details consist of waste descriptions and weights, waste codes and designations, and waste handling codes. In addition, for waste shipped to Hanford for treatment and/or disposal, information on manifest numbers, the waste transporter, the waste receiving facility, and the original waste generators are included. In addition to paper copies, electronic copies of the report are also transmitted to the regulatory agency

  18. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act

  19. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

  20. Hanford Facility contingency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, L.N.; Miskho, A.G.; Brunke, R.C.

    1993-10-01

    The Hanford Facility Contingency Plan, together with each TSD unit-specific contingency plan, meets the WAC 173-303 requirements for a contingency plan. This plan includes descriptions of responses to a nonradiological hazardous materials spill or release at Hanford Facility locations not covered by TSD unit-specific contingency plans or building emergency plans. This plan includes descriptions of responses for spills or releases as a result of transportation activities, movement of materials, packaging, and storage of hazardous materials

  1. Hanford work faces change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article is a discussion of DOE efforts in the awarding of a large engineering-construction contract at the Hanford Reservation. Though the announced winner was a group lead by J. A. Jones Construction/Duke Engineering Services, the incumbent (ICF-Kaiser Engineers) protested the announced award. The protest was dismissed by the GAO, but DOE officials still reopened the bidding. There was also a short note regarding the award of the ERMC at Hanford

  2. Managing risk at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesser, W.A.; Stillwell, W.G.; Rutherford, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Clearly, there is sufficient motivation from Washington for the Hanford community to pay particular attention to the risks associated with the substantial volumes of radiological, hazardous, and mixed waste at Hanford. But there is also another reason for emphasizing risk: Hanford leaders have come to realize that their decisions must consider risk and risk reduction if those decisions are to be technically sound, financially affordable, and publicly acceptable. The 560-square miles of desert land is worth only a few thousand dollars an acre (if that) -- hardly enough to justify the almost two billion dollars that will be spent at Hanford this year. The benefit of cleaning up the Hanford Site is not the land but the reduction of potential risk to the public and the environment for future generations. If risk reduction is our ultimate goal, decisions about priority of effort and resource allocation must consider those risks, now and in the future. The purpose of this paper is to describe how Hanford is addressing the issues of risk assessment, risk management, and risk-based decision making and to share some of our experiences in these areas

  3. Setting and stiffening of cementitious components in Cast Stone waste form for disposal of secondary wastes from the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Chun, Jaehun, E-mail: jaehun.chun@pnnl.gov; Um, Wooyong; Sundaram, S.K.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2013-04-01

    Cast Stone is a cementitious waste form, a viable option to immobilize secondary nuclear liquid wastes generated from the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. However, no study has been performed to understand the flow and stiffening behavior, which is essential to ensure proper workability and is important to safety in a nuclear waste field-scale application. X-ray diffraction, rheology, and ultrasonic wave reflection methods were used to understand the specific phase formation and stiffening of Cast Stone. Our results showed a good correlation between rheological properties of the fresh mixture and phase formation in Cast Stone. Secondary gypsum formation was observed with low concentration simulants, and the formation of gypsum was suppressed in high concentration simulants. A threshold concentration for the drastic change in stiffening was found at 1.56 M Na concentration. It was found that the stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. Highlights: • A combination of XRD, UWR, and rheology gives a better understanding of Cast Stone. • Stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. • A drastic change in stiffening of Cast Stone was found at 1.56 M Na concentration.

  4. Investigation of variable compositions on the removal of technetium from Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, John M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-29

    The Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the offgas system. The plan for disposition of this stream during baseline operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. The primary reason to recycle this stream is so that the semi-volatile 99Tc isotope eventually becomes incorporated into the glass. This stream also contains non-radioactive salt components that are problematic in the melter, so diversion of this stream to another process would eliminate recycling of these salts and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. This diversion from recycling this stream within WTP would have the effect of decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The concept being tested here involves removing the 99Tc so that the decontaminated aqueous stream, with the problematic salts, can be disposed elsewhere.

  5. Crossflow Ultra-filter Module Draining and Flush Testing for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - Lessons Learned in De-clogging Crossflow Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townson, P.S.; Brackenbury, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes test work conducted in order to study crossflow ultra-filter module draining and flushing for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. The objective of the testing was to demonstrate that the current design, with a flush tank at elevation 29.9 m (98'-00'') has enough pressure head to drain (to a minimum elevation ∼1.5 m [∼5'-00'']) and clean out the ultra-filter tube side. Without demonstrating this, a potential failure of the flush system could cause immovable solids to plug the tubular membranes of the filters causing serious adverse impacts to plant availability and/or throughput, and could permit deleterious flammable gas accumulations. In conjunction with the water flush, the plant also utilizes air purging to prevent build up of flammable gases. Two filter configurations were investigated, one being the baseline horizontal layout and one being an alternative vertical layout. The slurry used in the tests was a non radioactive simulant (kaolin-bentonite clay), and it mimicked the rheological properties of the real waste slurry. The filter modules were full scale items, being 2.44 m (8') in length and containing 241 by 1.3 cm (1/2'') id sintered stainless steel filter tubes. (authors)

  6. Dietary Chromium Supplementation for Targeted Treatment of Diabetes Patients with Comorbid Depression and Binge Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownley, Kimberly A.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.; Young, Laura; Cefalu, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary chromium supplementation for the treatment of diabetes remains controversial. The prevailing view that chromium supplementation for glucose regulation is unjustified has been based upon prior studies showing mixed, modest-sized effects in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Based on chromium's potential to improve insulin, dopamine, and serotonin function, we hypothesize that chromium has a greater glucoregulatory effect in individuals who have concurrent disturbances in dopamine and serotonin function – that is, complex patients with comorbid diabetes, depression, and binge eating. We propose, as suggested by the collective data to date, the need to go beyond the “one size fits all” approach to chromium supplementation and put forth a series of experiments designed to link physiological and neurobehavioral processes in the chromium response phenotype. PMID:25838140

  7. HANFORD GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, B; THOMPSON, M; WILDE, R.; FORD, B.; GERBER, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    By 1990 nearly 50 years of producing plutonium put approximately 1.70E + 12 liters (450 billion gallons) of liquid wastes into the soil of the 1,518-square kilometer (586-square mile) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. The liquid releases consisted of chemicals used in laboratory experiments, manufacturing and rinsing uranium fuel, dissolving that fuel after irradiation in Hanford's nuclear reactors, and in liquefying plutonium scraps needed to feed other plutonium-processing operations. Chemicals were also added to the water used to cool Hanford's reactors to prevent corrosion in the reactor tubes. In addition, water and acid rinses were used to clean plutonium deposits from piping in Hanford's large radiochemical facilities. All of these chemicals became contaminated with radionuclides. As Hanford raced to help win World War II, and then raced to produce materials for the Cold War, these radioactive liquid wastes were released to the Site's sandy soils. Early scientific experiments seemed to show that the most highly radioactive components of these liquids would bind to the soil just below the surface of the land, thus posing no threat to groundwater. Other experiments predicted that the water containing most radionuclides would take hundreds of years to seep into groundwater, decaying (or losing) most of its radioactivity before reaching the groundwater or subsequently flowing into the Columbia River, although it was known that some contaminants like tritium would move quickly. Evidence today, however, shows that many contaminants have reached the Site's groundwater and the Columbia River, with more on its way. Over 259 square kilometers (100 square miles) of groundwater at Hanford have contaminant levels above drinking-water standards. Also key to successfully cleaning up the Site is providing information resources and public-involvement opportunities to Hanford's stakeholders. This large, passionate, diverse, and

  8. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, and 59 Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs

  9. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ({sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 59}Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs.

  10. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products (/sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 54/Mn, and /sup 59/Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs.

  11. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, and 59 Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs

  12. Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOMAN, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    The information contained in, and/or referenced in, this Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report addresses Permit Condition II.W (Other Permits and/or Approvals) of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA7890008967). Condition II.W specifies that the Permittees are responsible for obtaining all other applicable federal, state, and local permits authorizing the development and operation of the Hanford Facility. This status report also addresses Permit Condition I.E.22, as interpreted in Section 12.1.25 of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, General Information Portion (DOE/RL-91-28, Rev. 4), that states this report will be prepared annually and a copy of this report will be placed in the Facility Operating Record, General Information file by October 1 of each year

  13. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FOR TANK WASTE PRETREATMENT AT THE DOE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAMILTON, D.W.

    2006-01-03

    Radioactive wastes from one hundred seventy-seven underground storage tanks in the 200 Area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State will be retrieved, treated and stored either on site or at an approved off-site repository. DOE is currently planning to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, which would be treated and permanently disposed in separate facilities. A significant volume of the wastes in the Hanford tanks is currently classified as medium Curie waste, which will require separation and treatment at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). Because of the specific challenges associated with treating this waste stream, DOE EM-21 funded a project to investigate the feasibility of using fractional crystallization as a supplemental pretreatment technology. The two process requirements for fractional crystallization to be successfully applied to Hanford waste include: (1) evaporation of water from the aqueous solution to enrich the activity of soluble {sup 137}Cs, resulting in a higher activity stream to be sent to the WTP, and (2) separation of the crystalline salts that are enriched in sodium, carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate and sufficiently depleted in {sup 137}Cs, to produce a second stream to be sent to Bulk Vitrification. Phase I of this project has just been completed by COGEMA/Georgia Institute of Technology. The purpose of this report is to document an independent expert review of the Phase I results with recommendations for future testing. A team of experts with significant experience at both the Hanford and Savannah River Sites was convened to conduct the review at Richland, Washington the week of November 14, 2005.

  14. Report for Treating Hanford LAW and WTP SW Simulants: Pilot Plant Mineralizing Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Arlin

    2012-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for managing the disposal of radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Washington State. The Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant (WPT) will separate the waste into a small volume of high level waste (HLW), containing most of the radioactive constituents, and a larger volume of low activity waste (LAW), containing most of the non-radioactive chemical and hazardous constituents. The HLW and LAW will be converted into immobilized waste forms for disposal. Currently there is inadequate LAW vitrification capacity planned at the WTP to complete the mission within the required timeframe. Therefore additional LAW capacity is required. One candidate supplemental treatment technology is the fluidized bed steam reformer process (FBSR). This report describes the demonstration testing of the FBSR process using a mineralizing flowsheet for treating simulated Hanford LAW and secondary waste from the WTP (WTP SW). The FBSR testing project produced leach-resistant solid products and environmentally compliant gaseous effluents. The solid products incorporated normally soluble ions into an alkali alumino-silicate (NaS) mineral matrix. Gaseous emissions were found to be within regulatory limits. Cesium and rhenium were captured in the mineralized products with system removal efficiencies of 99.999% and 99.998 respectively. The durability and leach performance of the FBSR granular solid were superior to the low activity reference material (LMR) glass standards. Normalized product consistency test (PCT) release rates for constituents of concern were approximately 2 orders of magnitude less than that of sodium in the Hanford glass [standard].

  15. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FOR TANK WASTE PRETREATMENT AT THE DOE HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAMILTON, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive wastes from one hundred seventy-seven underground storage tanks in the 200 Area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State will be retrieved, treated and stored either on site or at an approved off-site repository. DOE is currently planning to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, which would be treated and permanently disposed in separate facilities. A significant volume of the wastes in the Hanford tanks is currently classified as medium Curie waste, which will require separation and treatment at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). Because of the specific challenges associated with treating this waste stream, DOE EM-21 funded a project to investigate the feasibility of using fractional crystallization as a supplemental pretreatment technology. The two process requirements for fractional crystallization to be successfully applied to Hanford waste include: (1) evaporation of water from the aqueous solution to enrich the activity of soluble 137 Cs, resulting in a higher activity stream to be sent to the WTP, and (2) separation of the crystalline salts that are enriched in sodium, carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate and sufficiently depleted in 137 Cs, to produce a second stream to be sent to Bulk Vitrification. Phase I of this project has just been completed by COGEMA/Georgia Institute of Technology. The purpose of this report is to document an independent expert review of the Phase I results with recommendations for future testing. A team of experts with significant experience at both the Hanford and Savannah River Sites was convened to conduct the review at Richland, Washington the week of November 14, 2005

  16. Report for Treating Hanford LAW and WTP SW Simulants: Pilot Plant Mineralizing Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlin Olson

    2012-02-28

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for managing the disposal of radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Washington State. The Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant (WPT) will separate the waste into a small volume of high level waste (HLW), containing most of the radioactive constituents, and a larger volume of low activity waste (LAW), containing most of the non-radioactive chemical and hazardous constituents. The HLW and LAW will be converted into immobilized waste forms for disposal. Currently there is inadequate LAW vitrification capacity planned at the WTP to complete the mission within the required timeframe. Therefore additional LAW capacity is required. One candidate supplemental treatment technology is the fluidized bed steam reformer process (FBSR). This report describes the demonstration testing of the FBSR process using a mineralizing flowsheet for treating simulated Hanford LAW and secondary waste from the WTP (WTP SW). The FBSR testing project produced leach-resistant solid products and environmentally compliant gaseous effluents. The solid products incorporated normally soluble ions into an alkali alumino-silicate (NaS) mineral matrix. Gaseous emissions were found to be within regulatory limits. Cesium and rhenium were captured in the mineralized products with system removal efficiencies of 99.999% and 99.998 respectively. The durability and leach performance of the FBSR granular solid were superior to the low activity reference material (LMR) glass standards. Normalized product consistency test (PCT) release rates for constituents of concern were approximately 2 orders of magnitude less than that of sodium in the Hanford glass [standard].

  17. Maternal supplementation for prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in exclusively breastfed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Linda L

    2011-06-01

    Current research links newborn and infant vitamin D deficiency with various clinical outcomes, including rickets, failure to thrive, type 1 diabetes, and other immune-related diseases. Breastfed infants are often at a greater risk of developing deficiency due to their mothers' low vitamin D status. Human milk reflects the vitamin D status of the mother and often contains inadequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for infant nutrition. In 2008 the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended 400 IU of vitamin D supplementation of all infants. However, research has indicated low levels of compliance of vitamin D supplementation of breastfed infants and a high incidence of vitamin D deficiency in the United States. Many breastfeeding advocates believe that the AAP's recommendations undermine breastfeeding, implying that human milk is inadequate for infant nutrition. Lactating mothers are also reluctant to add any supplements to their breastmilk. The literature review will examine the effectiveness and safety of maternal vitamin D supplementation for prevention and/or treatment of vitamin D deficiency in breastfed infants and lactating mothers. This method of prevention and intervention provides pediatric providers and certified lactation consultants with an alternative approach for education, counseling, promotion of breastfeeding, and treatment to improve maternal and infant health.

  18. Effect of Antioxidant Mineral Elements Supplementation in the Treatment of Hypertension in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. The current work was designed with the aim of investigating the potentials of antioxidants copper, manganese, and zinc in the treatment of hypertension in Wistar rats. The rats were fed 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and treatment with supplements in the presence of the challenging agent for additional 4 weeks. The supplementation significantly decreased the blood pressure as compared with hypertensive control. The result also indicated significant decreased in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, insulin and increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total antioxidant activities, and nitric oxide of the supplemented groups relative to the hypertensive control. The average percentage protection against atherogenesis indicated 47.13 ± 9.60% for all the supplemented groups. The mean arterial blood pressure showed significant positive correlation with glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, insulin resistance and malondialdehyde while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total antioxidant activities showed negative correlation. The result therefore indicated strong relationship between oxidative stress and hypertension and underscores the role of antioxidant minerals in reducing oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance associated with hypertension.

  19. Review of Hanford international activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panther, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    Hanford initiated a review of international activities to collect, review, and summarize information on international environmental restoration and waste management initiatives considered for use at Hanford. This effort focused on Hanford activities and accomplishments, especially international technical exchanges and/or the implementation of foreign-developed technologies

  20. HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TRANSURANIC (TRU) TANK WASTE IDENTIFICATION and PLANNING FOR REVRIEVAL TREATMENT and EVENTUAL DISPOSAL AT WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.; TEDESCHI, R.; JOHNSON, M.E.; JENNINGS, M

    2006-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Manford Group, Inc. (CHG) conducts business to achieve the goals of the Office of River Protection (ORP) at Hanford. As an employee owned company, CHG employees have a strong motivation to develop innovative solutions to enhance project and company performance while ensuring protection of human health and the environment. CHG is responsible to manage and perform work required to safely store, enhance readiness for waste feed delivery, and prepare for treated waste receipts for the approximately 53 million gallons of legacy mixed radioactive waste currently at the Hanford Site tank farms. Safety and environmental awareness is integrated into all activities and work is accomplished in a manner that achieves high levels of quality while protecting the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public. This paper focuses on the innovative strategy to identify, retrieve, treat, and dispose of Hanford Transuranic (TRU) tank waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

  1. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poloski, A. P.

    2004-01-01

    This project has two primary objectives. The first is to understand the physical properties and behavior of the Hanford transuranic (TRU) tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging, and transportation for disposal at WIPP. The second primary objective is to develop a fundamental understanding of these sludge suspensions by correlating the macroscopic properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of this research effort will enhance the existing understanding of agglomeration phenomena and the properties of complex colloidal suspensions. In addition, the knowledge gained and capabilities developed during this effort will aid in the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites. These objectives will be accomplished by: (1) characterizing the TRU sludges contained in the Hanford tanks that are intended for shipment to WIPP; (2) determining the physical behavior of the Hanford TRU tank sludges under conditions that might exist during treatment and packaging; (3) and modeling the retrieval, treatment, and packaging operations that will be performed at Hanford to dispose of TRU tank sludges

  2. Preliminary engineering assessment of treatment alternatives for groundwater from the Hanford 200 Area 200-BP-5 plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of the Preliminary Engineering Assessment of Treatment Alternatives (PEATA), an engineering evaluation of potential treatment alternatives for groundwater extracted from the 200-BP-5 Area's 216-BY Cribs and 216-B-5 Reverse Well plumes. The primary objective of the PEATA was to identify treatment technologies that are worth further consideration (i.e., treatability testing or a more refined engineering evaluation). It will also provide a basis for evaluating the results of the treatability testing that is currently being conducted on the presumptive remedy of ion exchange with disposal of spent resin and will serve as a guide for selection of other technologies for additional testing. Because there are little data or past experience with groundwater similar to the BY-Crib and B-5 Reverse Well Plumes, treatment efficiencies cannot be predicted with certainty and rigorous treatment system designs and costs cannot be developed. This applies to all alternatives, including the presumptive remedy of ion exchange. The approach for this study was to develop conceptual designs and approximate costs for the treatment technologies that were most likely to be effective on the BY-Crib and B-5 Reverse Well groundwater

  3. Hanford groundwater scenario studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, R.C.; Gephart, R.E.; Deju, R.A.; Cole, C.R.; Ahlstrom, S.W.

    1977-05-01

    This report documents the results of two Hanford groundwater scenario studies. The first study examines the hydrologic impact of increased groundwater recharge resulting from agricultural development in the Cold Creek Valley located west of the Hanford Reservation. The second study involves recovering liquid radioactive waste which has leaked into the groundwater flow system from a hypothetical buried tank containing high-level radioactive waste. The predictive and control capacity of the onsite Hanford modeling technology is used to evaluate both scenarios. The results of the first study indicate that Cold Creek Valley irrigationis unlikely to cause significant changes in the water table underlying the high-level waste areas or in the movement of radionuclides already in the groundwater. The hypothetical tank leak study showed that an active response (in this case waste recovery) can be modeled and is a possible alternative to passive monitoring of radionuclide movement in the unlikely event that high-level waste is introduced into the groundwater

  4. Hanford Area 2000 Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Douglas B.; Scott, Michael J.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office, Surface Environmental Surveillance Project, to provide demographic data required for ongoing environmental assessments and safety analyses at the DOE Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This document includes 2000 Census estimates for the resident population within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the Hanford Site. Population distributions are reported relative to five reference points centered on meteorological stations within major operating areas of the Hanford Site - the 100 F, 100 K, 200, 300, and 400 Areas. These data are presented in both graphical and tabular format, and are provided for total populations residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the reference points, as well as for Native American, Hispanic and Latino, total minority, and low-income populations

  5. HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU CLEANUP COMPLETION STRATEGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the ∼200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were signed by the

  6. Experimental data and analysis to support the design of an ion-exchange process for the treatment of Hanford tank waste supernatant liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.E.; Bray, L.A.; Brooks, K.P.; Brown, G.N.; Bryan, S.A.; Carlson, C.D.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Kim, A.Y.

    1994-12-01

    Hanford's 177 underground storage tanks contain a mixture of sludge, salt cake, and alkaline supernatant liquids. Disposal options for these wastes are high-level waste (HLW) glass for disposal in a repository or low-level waste (LLW) glass for onsite disposal. Systems-engineering studies show that economic and environmental considerations preclude disposal of these wastes without further treatment. Difficulties inherent in transportation and disposal of relatively large volumes of HLW make it impossible to vitrify all of the tank waste as HLW. Potential environmental impacts make direct disposal of all of the tank waste as LLW glass unacceptable. Although the pretreatment and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include retrieval of the aqueous liquids, dissolution of the salt cakes, and washing of the sludges to remove soluble components. Most of the cesium is expected to be in the aqueous liquids, which are the focus of this report on cesium removal by ion exchange. The main objectives of the ion-exchange process are removing cesium from the bulk of the tank waste (i.e., decontamination) and concentrating the separated cesium for vitrification. Because exact requirements for removal of 137 Cs have not yet been defined, a range of removal requirements will be considered. This study addresses requirements to achieve 137 Cs levels in LLW glass between (1) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Class C (10 CFR 61) limit of 4600 Ci/m 3 and (2) 1/10th of the NRC Class A limit of 1 Ci/m 3 i.e., 0.1/m 3 . The required degrees of separation of cesium from other waste components is a complex function involving interactions between the design of the vitrification process, waste form considerations, and other HLW stream components that are to be vitrified

  7. Experimental Challenges and Successes in Measuring Aerosol Concentrations at Prototypic Spray Conditions Encountered at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13327

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bontha, J.R.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Kurath, D.E.; Adkins, H.E.; Enderlin, C.W.; Blanchard, J.; Daniel, R.C.; Song, C.; Schonewill, P.P.; Mahoney, L.A.; Buchmiller, W.C.; Boeringa, G.; Jenks, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    To date, majority of the work done on measuring aerosol releases from failure of process piping was done using simple Newtonian fluids and small engineered-nozzles that do not accurately represent the fluids and breaches postulated during accident analysis at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). In addition, the majority of the work conducted in this area relies on in-spray measurements that neglect the effect of splatter and do not yield any information regarding aerosol generation rates from this additional mechanism. In order to estimate aerosol generation rates as well as reduce the uncertainties in estimating the aerosol release fractions over a broad range of breaches, fluid properties and operating conditions encountered at the WTP, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has designed, commissioned, and tested two experimental test stands. The first test stand, referred to as the large-scale test stand, was designed specifically to measure aerosol concentrations and release fractions under prototypic conditions of flow and pressure for a range of breaches postulated in the hazard analysis for 0.076 m (3-inch) process pipes. However, the size of the large-scale test stand, anticipated fluid loss during a breach, experimental risks, and costs associated with hazardous chemical simulant testing limited the large-scale test stand utility to water and a few non-hazardous physical simulants that did not fully span the particle size and rheological properties of the fluids encountered at the WTP. Overcoming these limitations and extending the range of simulants used, required designing and building a smaller test stand, which was installed and operated in a fume hood. This paper presents some of the features of both test stands, the experimental challenges encountered, and successes in measuring aerosol concentration in both test stands over a range of test conditions. (authors)

  8. TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, A.A.; Thorson, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

  9. Hanford Waste Simulants Created to Support the Research and Development on the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibling, R.E.

    2001-07-26

    The development of nonradioactive waste simulants to support the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant bench and pilot-scale testing is crucial to the design of the facility. The report documents the simulants development to support the SRTC programs and the strategies used to produce the simulants.

  10. Vitamin C supplementation improve the sputum conversion culture rate in pulmonary tuberculosis treatment while rifampicin susceptible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, L.; Siregar, Y.; Kusumawati, L.

    2018-03-01

    The failure of first-line tuberculosis treatment greatly affects multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis. In vitro study of vitamin C induces the death of M. tuberculosis bacteria and accelerates healing of tuberculosis, so the multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis can be avoided. This research aimed to identify the effect of vitamin C as a supportive treatment on the sputum conversion rate. The randomizedand double group with a parallel design by matching pair method was used to collect samples. The first group was treated with standard tuberculosis treatment, and the other was given vitamin C supplementation. Vitamin C plasma level analyzation was performed before and after two months of treatment. Sputum conversion was evaluated every week for eight weeks. The comparison of vitamin C plasma level in pre and post-treatment group was significant (p=0.03) but not in the other group. There was no significant difference in vitamin C plasma level between two groups (p=0.21). The proportion of sputum conversion rate in both group in the first week was 0% vs. 9.6% (p=0.83) and the last week of study was 83.9% vs. 100% (p=0.02). In conclusion, vitamin C supplementation has effects in improving the healing process of tuberculosis patients as indicated by higher in sputum conversion rate.

  11. DOE wants Hanford change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Nine months ago, Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary promised local officials running the agency's huge Hanford, Washington, weapon complex more control in directing its projected $57-billion waste cleanup. Earlier this month, she returned to the site for a follow-on open-quotes summit,close quotes this time ordering teamwork with contractors, regulators and local activities

  12. Listed waste history at Hanford facility TSD units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskho, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    This document was prepared to close out an occurrence report that Westinghouse Hanford Company issued on December 29, 1994. Occurrence Report RL-WHC-GENERAL-1994-0020 was issued because knowledge became available that could have impacted start up of a Hanford Site facility. The knowledge pertained to how certain wastes on the Hanford Site were treated, stored, or disposed of. This document consolidates the research performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company regarding listed waste management at onsite laboratories that transfer waste to the Double-Shell Tank System. Liquid and solid (non-liquid) dangerous wastes and mixed wastes at the Hanford Site are generated from various Site operations. These wastes may be sampled and characterized at onsite laboratories to meet waste management requirements. In some cases, the wastes that are generated in the field or in the laboratory from the analysis of samples require further management on the Hanford Site and are aggregated together in centralized tank storage facilities. The process knowledge presented herein documents the basis for designation and management of 242-A Evaporator Process Condensate, a waste stream derived from the treatment of the centralized tank storage facility waste (the Double-Shell Tank System). This document will not be updated as clean up of the Hanford Site progresses

  13. Herbs and natural supplements in the prevention and treatment of delayed-onset muscle soreness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Meamarbashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:  Unaccustomed and intense eccentric exercise is a common cause of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS. There are multiple remedies for the treatment of DOMS, but its clinical and laboratory pieces of evidence are scarce. Currently, the treatments proposed for DOMS are numerous and include pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies, stretching, massage, nutritional supplements, and other alternatives. To find a holistic treatment with effective pain relief and minimum side effects, complementary and alternative medicine, including herbal therapies, plays a main role.Methods: In this review, the existing published studies investigating the efficacy of herbal and natural supplementation therapies for the prevention or treatment of side effects, symptoms, and signs of DOMS are summarized.Results: Previous studies have documented the efficacy of herbal therapies to treat pain, inflammation, as well as laboratory and clinical side effects of DOMS.Conclusion: The use of herbs in DOMS seems safer and has lower side effects than pharmacotherapy. However, the potential for side effects and drug interactions should be considered.

  14. Prevention and treatment of erectile dysfunction using lifestyle changes and dietary supplements: what works and what is worthless, part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyad, Mark A; Barada, James H; Lue, Tom F; Mulhall, John P; Goldstein, Irwin; Fawzy, Ahmed

    2004-05-01

    It seems naïve to believe that some plants or herbs do not contain specific compounds that could benefit patients with ED. Many supplements have not been investigated in a laboratory or clinical research setting before commercial sale, however,which creates a complex situation. If efficacy is or is not demonstrated through adequate research, then the benefit or lack thereof cannot be mentioned on the label. Furthermore, clinicians and the public cannot be made aware of which compounds or supplements are effective because no general standards for sale exist under the current guidelines. Dietary supplements have received a tremendous amount of publicity. The large and growing market for ED treatment seems to have contributed partly to the promotion of numerous supplements and their apparent benefits. Whether these dietary supplements have merit is questionable. Some supplements may produce results opposite to those advertised. Other supplements may be enjoying the benefits of the placebo effect. Because a placebo response of 25% to 50% has been recorded in clinical trials with effective agents, it is understandable that some supplements enjoy financial success despite the limited research espousing their use. If one to two of four individuals or one of three individuals who try a dietary supplement gain some benefit for their ED, the market for these supplements will remain extraordinary. On a larger scale, of 100,000 men who try a supplement, approximately 25,000 to 50,000 will claim some success. The challenge for clinicians is to discuss the placebo response properly and the need for good research before any intervention, especially supplements, can be advocated for general use. Table 2 summarizes some popular ED supplements and general conclusions that can be drawn from clinical investigations. Some dietary supplements may have an active ingredient that benefits patients with certain types of ED. An exciting area of future dietary supplement research is the

  15. Role of magnesium supplementation in the treatment of depression: A randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K Tarleton

    Full Text Available Current treatment options for depression are limited by efficacy, cost, availability, side effects, and acceptability to patients. Several studies have looked at the association between magnesium and depression, yet its role in symptom management is unclear. The objective of this trial was to test whether supplementation with over-the-counter magnesium chloride improves symptoms of depression. An open-label, blocked, randomized, cross-over trial was carried out in outpatient primary care clinics on 126 adults (mean age 52; 38% male diagnosed with and currently experiencing mild-to-moderate symptoms with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9 scores of 5-19. The intervention was 6 weeks of active treatment (248 mg of elemental magnesium per day compared to 6 weeks of control (no treatment. Assessments of depression symptoms were completed at bi-weekly phone calls. The primary outcome was the net difference in the change in depression symptoms from baseline to the end of each treatment period. Secondary outcomes included changes in anxiety symptoms as well as adherence to the supplement regimen, appearance of adverse effects, and intention to use magnesium supplements in the future. Between June 2015 and May 2016, 112 participants provided analyzable data. Consumption of magnesium chloride for 6 weeks resulted in a clinically significant net improvement in PHQ-9 scores of -6.0 points (CI -7.9, -4.2; P<0.001 and net improvement in Generalized Anxiety Disorders-7 scores of -4.5 points (CI -6.6, -2.4; P<0.001. Average adherence was 83% by pill count. The supplements were well tolerated and 61% of participants reported they would use magnesium in the future. Similar effects were observed regardless of age, gender, baseline severity of depression, baseline magnesium level, or use of antidepressant treatments. Effects were observed within two weeks. Magnesium is effective for mild-to-moderate depression in adults. It works quickly and is well tolerated

  16. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of the 1984 United States Code (USC). The report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site and consists of waste disposal units, including (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structure, (5) RCRA treatment and storage units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of this report, the listing of sites is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of HSWA. In support of the Hanford RCRA permit, a field was added to designate whether the waste management unit is a solid waste management unit (SWMU). As SWMUs are identified, they will added to the Hanford Waste Information Data System (WIDS), which is the database supporting this report, and added to the report at its next annual update. A quality review of the WIDS was conducted this past year. The review included checking all data against their reference and making appropriate changes, updating the data elements using the most recent references, marking duplicate units for deletion, and addition additional information. 6 refs

  17. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of the 1984 United States Code (USC). The report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site and consists of waste disposal units, including (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structures, (5) RCRA treatment and storage units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of this report, the listing of sites is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of HSWA. In support of the Hanford RCRA permit, a field was added to designate whether the waste management unit is a solid waste management unit (SWMU). As SWMUs are identified, they will added to the Hanford Waste Information Data System (WIDS), which is the database supporting this report, and added to the report at its next annual update. A quality review of the WIDS was conducted this past year. The review included checking all data against their reference and making appropriate changes, updating the data elements using the most recent references, marking duplicate units for deletion, and adding additional information. 6 refs

  18. Tritium monitoring in groundwater and evaluation of model predictions for the Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Bergeron, M.P.; Cole, C.R.; Freshley, M.D.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1997-08-01

    The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) disposal site, also known as the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS), receives treated effluent containing tritium, which is allowed to infiltrate through the soil column to the water table. Tritium was first detected in groundwater monitoring wells around the facility in July 1996. The SALDS groundwater monitoring plan requires revision of a predictive groundwater model and reevaluation of the monitoring well network one year from the first detection of tritium in groundwater. This document is written primarily to satisfy these requirements and to report on analytical results for tritium in the SALDS groundwater monitoring network through April 1997. The document also recommends an approach to continued groundwater monitoring for tritium at the SALDS. Comparison of numerical groundwater models applied over the last several years indicate that earlier predictions, which show tritium from the SALDS approaching the Columbia River, were too simplified or overly robust in source assumptions. The most recent modeling indicates that concentrations of tritium above 500 pCi/L will extend, at most, no further than ∼1.5 km from the facility, using the most reasonable projections of ETF operation. This extent encompasses only the wells in the current SALDS tritium-tracking network

  19. Maternal Choline Supplementation: A Potential Prenatal Treatment for Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupp, Barbara J; Powers, Brian E; Velazquez, Ramon; Ash, Jessica A; Kelley, Christy M; Alldred, Melissa J; Strawderman, Myla; Caudill, Marie A; Mufson, Elliott J; Ginsberg, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    Although Down syndrome (DS) can be diagnosed prenatally, currently there are no effective treatments to lessen the intellectual disability (ID) which is a hallmark of this disorder. Furthermore, starting as early as the third decade of life, DS individuals exhibit the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with subsequent dementia, adding substantial emotional and financial burden to their families and society at large. A potential therapeutic strategy emerging from the study of trisomic mouse models of DS is to supplement the maternal diet with additional choline during pregnancy and lactation. Studies demonstrate that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) markedly improves spatial cognition and attentional function, as well as normalizes adult hippocampal neurogenesis and offers protection to basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. These effects on neurogenesis and BFCNs correlate significantly with spatial cognition, suggesting functional relationships. In this review, we highlight some of these provocative findings, which suggest that supplementing the maternal diet with additional choline may serve as an effective and safe prenatal strategy for improving cognitive, affective, and neural functioning in DS. In light of growing evidence that all pregnancies would benefit from increased maternal choline intake, this type of recommendation could be given to all pregnant women, thereby providing a very early intervention for individuals with DS, and include babies born to mothers unaware that they are carrying a fetus with DS.

  20. Effect of Supplemental Vitamin E for the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekelle, Paul G; Morton, Sally C; Jungvig, Lara K; Udani, Jay; Spar, Myles; Tu, Wenli; Suttorp, Marika J; Coulter, Ian; Newberry, Sydne J; Hardy, Mary

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate and synthesize the evidence on the effect of supplements of vitamin E on the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. DESIGN Systematic review of placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials; meta-analysis where justified. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Eighty-four eligible trials were identified. For the outcomes of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction, and blood lipids, neither supplements of vitamin E alone nor vitamin E given with other agents yielded a statistically significant beneficial or adverse pooled relative risk (for example, pooled relative risk of vitamin E alone = 0.96 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84 to 1.10]; 0.97 [95% CI, 0.80 to 1.90]; and 0.72 [95% CI, 0.51 to 1.02] for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and nonfatal myocardial infarction, respectively. CONCLUSIONS There is good evidence that vitamin E supplementation does not beneficially or adversely affect cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:15061748

  1. Impact of probiotic supplements on microbiome diversity following antibiotic treatment of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazul, Hannah; Kanda, L Leann; Gondek, David

    2016-01-01

    Shifts in microbial populations of the intestinal tract have been associated with a multitude of nutritional, autoimmune, and infectious diseases. The limited diversity following antibiotic treatments creates a window for opportunistic pathogens, diarrhea, and inflammation as the microbiome repopulates. Depending on the antibiotics used, microbial diversity can take weeks to months to recover. To alleviate this loss of diversity in the intestinal microbiota, supplementation with probiotics has become increasingly popular. However, our understanding of the purported health benefits of these probiotic bacteria and their ability to shape the microbiome is significantly lacking. This study examined the impact of probiotics concurrent with antibiotic treatment or during the recovery phase following antibiotic treatment of mice. We found that probiotics did not appear to colonize the intestine themselves or shift the overall diversity of the intestinal microbiota. However, the probiotic supplementation did significantly change the types of bacteria which were present. In particular, during the recovery phase the probiotic caused a suppression of Enterobacteriaceae outgrowth (Shigella and Escherichia) while promoting a blooming of Firmicutes, particularly from the Anaerotruncus genus. These results indicate that probiotics have a significant capacity to remodel the microbiome of an individual recovering from antibiotic therapy.

  2. Hanford spent fuel inventory baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsman, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    This document compiles technical data on irradiated fuel stored at the Hanford Site in support of the Hanford SNF Management Environmental Impact Statement. Fuel included is from the Defense Production Reactors (N Reactor and the single-pass reactors; B, C, D, DR, F, H, KE and KW), the Hanford Fast Flux Test Facility Reactor, the Shipping port Pressurized Water Reactor, and small amounts of miscellaneous fuel from several commercial, research, and experimental reactors

  3. Annual Hanford Site environmental permitting status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The information contained and/or referenced in this Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report (Status Report) addresses the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) of 1971 and Condition II.W. of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 Permit, Dangerous Waste Portion (DW Portion). Condition II.W. of the RCRA Permit specifies the Permittees are responsible for all other applicable federal, state, and local permits for the development and operation of the Hanford Facility. Condition II.W. of the RCRA Permit specifies that the Permittees are to use their best efforts to obtain such permits. For the purposes of permit condition, 'best efforts' means submittal of documentation and/or approval(s) in accordance with schedules specified in applicable regulations, or as determined through negotiations with the applicable regulatory agencies. This Status Report includes information on all existing and anticipated environmental permitting. Environmental permitting required by RCRA, the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of 1984, and non-RCRA permitting (solid waste handling, Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Clean Water Act Amendments of 1987, Washington State waste discharge, and onsite sewage system) is addressed. Information on RCRA and non-RCRA is current as of July 31, 1998. For the purposes of RCRA and the State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act of 1976 [as administered through the Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Active Code (WAC) 173-303], the Hanford Facility is considered a single facility. As such, the Hanford Facility has been issued one US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/State Identification Number (WA7890008967). This EPA/State identification number encompasses over 60 treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) units. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) has been delegated authority by the EPA to administer the RCRA, including mixed waste authority. The RCRA permitting approach for

  4. Environmental monitoring at Hanford by the state of Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, A.W.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Social and Health Services' Office of Radiation Protection (ORP), Washington State's radiation control agency, has a mandate to protect the public from radiation. In 1985, ORP was instructed by the legislature to establish a statewide environmental radiological base line, beginning with Hanford, to verify federal environmental programs, and to enforce federal and state Clean Air Acts. The primary mission of the agency is to protect public health by active involvement in Hanford monitoring and oversight. The state's program was designed not to duplicate but to supplement existing programs and to identify any sampling gaps or problems. Split, side-by-side, and independent samples are collected, with analysis performed by the state's own laboratory. Media sampled have included surface and drinking water, seep and ground water, fruits and vegetables, milk, soils, and air particulates; ambient radiation levels have been determined. Special activities have included split sampling of river seeps with multiple agencies, preliminary dose assessment of early Hanford releases, investigations of 129 I in the environment and in Franklin County drinking water, verification of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) data on erroneous alarms at the Hanford Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant, split sampling with a DOE headquarters survey, and participation in several General Accounting Office investigations and a National Academy of Sciences review. The independence of ORP programs guarantees that the public has access to environmental data on the activities of DOE and its contractors. We will describe the interrelationship of ORP and Hanford programs and present results of ORP activities

  5. Hanford well custodians. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, A.L.; Underwood, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Program recognized the need to integrate monitoring well activities in a centralized manner. A key factor to Hanford Site well integration was the need to clearly identify a responsible party for each of the wells. WHC was asked to identify all wells on site, the program(s) using each well, and the program ultimately responsible for the well. This report lists the custodian and user(s) for each Hanford well and supplies a comprehensive list of all decommissioned and orphaned wells on the Hanford Site. This is the first update to the original report released in December 1993

  6. Reinventing government: Reinventing Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayeda, J.T.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1943 as one of the three original Manhattan Project locations involved in the development of atomic weapons. It continued as a defense production center until 1988, when its mission changed to environmental restoration and remediation. The Hanford Site is changing its business strategy and in doing so, is reinventing government. This new development has been significantly influenced by a number of external sources. These include: the change in mission, reduced security requirements, new found partnerships, fiscal budgets, the Tri-Party agreement and stakeholder involvement. Tight budgets and the high cost of cleanup require that the site develop and implement innovative cost saving approaches to its mission. Costeffective progress is necessary to help assure continued funding by Congress

  7. Hanford process review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This report is a summary of past incidents at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide the major, significant, nuclear-safety-related incidents which incurred at the Hanford Site in a single document for ease of historical research. It should be noted that the last major accident occurred in 1980. This document is a summary of reports released and available to the public in the DOE Headquarters and Richland public reading rooms. This document provides no new information that has not previously been reported. This report is not intended to cover all instances of radioactivity release or contamination, which are already the subject of other major reviews, several of which are referenced in Section 1.3

  8. Hanford Tank Cleanup Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriochoa, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

  9. Hanford phosphate precipitation filtration process evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.; McCabe, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this filter study was to evaluate cross-flow filtration as effective solid-liquid separation technology for treating Hanford wastes, outline operating conditions for equipment, examine the expected filter flow rates, and determine proper cleaning. A proposed Hanford waste pre-treatment process uses sodium hydroxide at high temperature to remove aluminum from sludge. This process also dissolves phosphates. Upon cooling to 40 degrees centigrade the phosphates form a Na7(PO4)2F9H2O precipitate which must be removed prior to further treatment. Filter studies were conducted with a phosphate slurry simulant to evaluate whether 0.5 micron cross-flow sintered metal Mott filters can separate the phosphate precipitate from the wash solutions. The simulant was recirculated through the filters at room temperature and filtration performance data was collected

  10. Groundwater remediation at the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, W.

    1993-01-01

    Ion exchange resin and adsorption technology has been used successfully to treat diversified types of toxic waste water for many years. Even though the Hanford Site presents many unique problems, the author believes these technologies can remediate the groundwater at this site. However, treatment of the sludge in tanks generally is beyond the pale of these technologies except for the possibility of experimental studies being performed at the University of Idaho (Troescher)

  11. Overview of the closure approach for the Hanford Site single-shell tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.H.

    1991-09-01

    The disposal of chemical and radioactive waste stored within the single-shell tanks (SST) represents one of the most significant waste management problems at the Hanford Site. A comprehensive program has been established to obtain analytical data regarding the chemical and radiological constituents within these tanks. This information will be used to support the development of a supplemental environmental impact statement (SEIS) and ultimately to aid in the selection of a final disposal option. This paper discusses some of the technical options and major regulatory issues associated with SST waste retrieval and in situ waste treatment and disposal. Certain closure options and treatment technologies will require further development before they can be implemented or accepted as being useful. In addition, continued negotiations with the regulatory authorities will be required to determine the preferred closure option and the regulatory pathway to accommodate such closure

  12. n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for the Treatment of Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbell, Penny A; Maguire, Maureen G; Pistilli, Maxwell; Ying, Gui-shuang; Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta B; Hardten, David R; Lin, Meng C; Shtein, Roni M

    2018-05-03

    change, 0.0 points; 95% CI, -0.2 to 0.1), corneal staining score (0.1 point; 95% CI, -0.2 to 0.4), tear break-up time (0.2 seconds; 95% CI, -0.1 to 0.5), and result on Schirmer's test (0.0 mm; 95% CI, -0.8 to 0.9). At 12 months, the rate of adherence to treatment in the active supplement group was 85.2%, according to the level of n-3 fatty acids in red cells. Rates of adverse events were similar in the two trial groups. Among patients with dry eye disease, those who were randomly assigned to receive supplements containing 3000 mg of n-3 fatty acids for 12 months did not have significantly better outcomes than those who were assigned to receive placebo. (Funded by the National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health; DREAM ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02128763 .).

  13. Low intensity behavioral treatment supplementing preschool services for young children with autism spectrum disorders and severe to mild intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Mulders, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment (on average 6.5 h per week) supplementing preschool services in 3-6-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder and severe to mild intellectual disability. Treatment was implemented in preschools (i.e., daycare centers)

  14. Mortality studies of Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1986-04-01

    Radiation exposures at Hanford have been deliberately limited as a protection to the worker. This means that if current estimates of radiation risks, which have been determined by national and international groups, are correct, it's highly unlikely that noticeable radiation-induced health effects will be identified among Hanford workers. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  15. Preliminary assessment of blending Hanford tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Kurath, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    A parametric study of blending Hanford tank wastes identified possible benefits from blending wastes prior to immobilization as a high level or low level waste form. Track Radioactive Components data were used as the basis for the single-shell tank (SST) waste composition, while analytical data were used for the double-shell tank (DST) composition. Limiting components were determined using the existing feed criteria for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). Results have shown that blending can significantly increase waste loading and that the baseline quantities of immobilized waste projected for the sludge-wash pretreatment case may have been drastically underestimated, because critical components were not considered. Alternatively, the results suggest further review of the grout feed specifications and the solubility of minor components in HWVP borosilicate glass. Future immobilized waste estimates might be decreased substantially upon a thorough review of the appropriate feed specifications

  16. Preliminary assessment of blending Hanford tank wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Kurath, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    A parametric study of blending Hanford tank wastes identified possible benefits from blending wastes prior to immobilization as a high level or low level waste form. Track Radioactive Components data were used as the basis for the single-shell tank (SST) waste composition, while analytical data were used for the double-shell tank (DST) composition. Limiting components were determined using the existing feed criteria for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). Results have shown that blending can significantly increase waste loading and that the baseline quantities of immobilized waste projected for the sludge-wash pretreatment case may have been drastically underestimated, because critical components were not considered. Alternatively, the results suggest further review of the grout feed specifications and the solubility of minor components in HWVP borosilicate glass. Future immobilized waste estimates might be decreased substantially upon a thorough review of the appropriate feed specifications.

  17. Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The information contained in, and/or referenced in, this Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report addresses Permit Condition II.W (Other Permits and/or Approvals) of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA7890008967). Condition II.W specifies that the Permittees are responsible for obtaining all other applicable federal, state, and local permits authorizing the development and operation of the Hanford Facility. Condition II.W further specifies that the Permittees are to use their best efforts to obtain such permits. For the purposes of this Permit Condition, ''best efforts'' mean submittal of documentation and/or approval(s) in accordance with schedules specified in applicable regulations, or as determined through negotiations with the applicable regulatory agencies

  18. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System's tank waste retrieval Program

  19. 1996 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-26-OIF. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal-restricted mixed waste management at the Hanford Site.

  20. 1999 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restriction for mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLACK, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-011. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility

  1. 1996 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-26-OIF. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal-restricted mixed waste management at the Hanford Site

  2. 1999 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restriction for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLACK, D.G.

    1999-03-25

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-011. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility.

  3. Treatment Of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients With A Supplemented Low Protein Diet And A Supplemented Very Low Protein Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SV Subhramanyam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary results of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease were inconclusive and did confuse a lot of physicians about the dietary approach to CKD management. The study design was flawed and thus compromised the results and conclusions. Re-analysis of the MDRD study however clearly showed the benefits of dietary protein restriction and also more importantly an additional benefit by ketoanalogue supplementation in delaying progression of CKD. Despite the obvious benefits of protein restriction, concern has been raised recently especially patients on very low dietary protein (very-low-protein diets; VLPDs, which could lead to deterioration in the nutritional status of CKD patients. To address this particular issue of whether a sVLPD diet induces malnutrition the present study has been taken up 132 adult patients with Stage 3 to Stage 5 (Predialysis were initiated on a protein restricted ketoanalogue supplemented diet after informed consent and the necessary Institutional Ethics Committee approvals. Based on their affordability, 92 patients randomly were assigned to the sLPD group whereby they received 0.6 G/Kg BW of dietary proteins supplemented by ketoanalogues at a dosage of one tablet per 10 Kg body weight. 40 patients received 0.3 G/Kg BW supplemented by ketoanalogues at a dose of one tablet per 5 Kg body weight. Renolog® tablets manufactured by La Renon Healthcare Ltd, Ahmebabad, India were prescribed as the ketoanalogue supplements. Renal, Metabolic, Nutritional parameters and Anthropometric analysis were done in both groups at the start of the study and at the end of 6 months of follow up. The mean blood urea in the SLPD group showed a decrease from 81.17+_ 00 mg/dl to 74.45+_30.75 mg/dl (p0.05 at the end of six months indicating an improvement in renal function . The serum creatinine also showed a decrease from 3.52+_00 mg/dl to 3.30 +_1.63 mg/dl(p>0.05 in the SLPD group and a decrease from 3.74+_00 mg/dl to 3.55+_1.67

  4. Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danch, D.A.; Gay, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system

  5. Cost-effectiveness of vitamin D and calcium supplementation in the treatment of elderly women and men with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Ben Sedrine, Wafa; Bruyère, Olivier; Evers, Silvia M; Rabenda, Véronique; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2015-02-01

    The supplementation with vitamin D and calcium has been recommended for elderly, specifically those with increased risk of fractures older than 65 years. This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of vitamin D and calcium supplementation in elderly women and men with osteoporosis and therefore to assess if this recommendation is justified in terms of cost-effectiveness. A validated model for economic evaluations in osteoporosis was used to estimate the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained of vitamin D/calcium supplementation compared with no treatment. The model was populated with cost and epidemiological data from a Belgian health-care perspective. Analyses were conducted in women and men with a diagnosis of osteoporosis (i.e. bone mineral density T-score ≤-2.5). A literature search was conducted to describe the efficacy of vitamin D and calcium in terms of fracture risk reduction. The cost per QALY gained of vitamin D/calcium supplementation was estimated at €40 578 and €23 477 in women and men aged 60 years, respectively. These values decreased to €7912 and €10 250 at the age of 70 years and vitamin D and calcium supplementation was cost-saving at the age of 80 years, meaning that treatment cost was less than the costs of treating osteoporotic fractures of the no-treatment group. This study suggests that vitamin D and calcium supplementation is cost-effective for women and men with osteoporosis aged over 60 years. From an economic perspective, vitamin D and calcium should therefore be administrated in these populations including those also taking other osteoporotic treatments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Hanford inventory program user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkelman, K.C.

    1994-01-01

    Provides users with instructions and information about accessing and operating the Hanford Inventory Program (HIP) system. The Hanford Inventory Program is an integrated control system that provides a single source for the management and control of equipment, parts, and material warehoused by Westinghouse Hanford Company in various site-wide locations. The inventory is comprised of spare parts and equipment, shop stock, special tools, essential materials, and convenience storage items. The HIP replaced the following systems; ACA, ASP, PICS, FSP, WSR, STP, and RBO. In addition, HIP manages the catalog maintenance function for the General Supplies inventory stocked in the 1164 building and managed by WIMS

  7. Evaluation Of Supplemental Pre-Treatment Development Requirements To Meet TRL 6: Rotary Microfiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    In spring 2011, the Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) for the Supplemental Treatment Project (RPP-PLAN-49827, Rev. 0), Technology Maturation Plan for the Treatment Project (T4S01) was developed. This plan contains all identified actions required to reach technical maturity for a field-deployable waste feed pretreatment system. The supplemental pretreatment system has a filtration and a Cs-removal component. Subsequent to issuance of the TMP, rotary microfiltration (RMF) has been identified as the prime filtration technology for this application. The prime Cs-removal technology is small column ion exchange (ScIX) using spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) as the exchange resin. During fiscal year 2011 (FY2011) some of the tasks identified in the TMP have been completed. As of September 2011, the conceptual design package has been submitted to DOE as part of the critical decision (CD-1) process. This document describes the remaining tasks identified in the TMP to reach technical maturity and evaluates the validity of the proposed tests to fill the gaps as previously identified in the TMP. The potential vulnerabilities are presented and the completed list of criteria for the DOE guide DOE G 413.3-4 different technology readiness levels are added in an attachment. This evaluation has been conducted from a technology development perspective - all programmatic and manufacturing aspects were excluded from this exercise. Compliance with the DOE G 413.3-4 programmatic and manufacturing requirements will be addressed directly by the Treatment Project during the course of engineering design. The results of this evaluation show that completion of the proposed development tasks in the TMP are sufficient to reach TRL 6 from a technological point of view. The tasks involve actual waste tests using the current baseline configuration (2nd generation disks, 40 psi differential pressure, 30 C feed temperature) and three different simulants - the PEP, an AP-Farm and an S

  8. The role of food supplements in the treatment of the infertile man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comhaire, Frank H; Mahmoud, Ahmed

    2003-01-01

    Recently, concerns have been raised about the presumptive increased risk of serious undesirable side effects in children born after IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). These treatments must, therefore, be reserved as the ultimate option after evidence-based and cause-directed treatment of the male patient with deficient semen has been exhausted. The present authors found that sperm quality and function improved with the intake of complementary food supplementation using a combination of zinc and folic acid, or the antioxidant astaxanthin (Astacarox), or an energy-providing combination containing (actyl)-carnitine (Proxeed). Also, double blind trials showed that the latter two substances increase spontaneous or intrauterine insemination- (IUI-) assisted conception rates. Extracts of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol), which inhibits the cyclo-oxygenase enzyme, reducing prostaglandin production and inflammatory reaction, and extracts of the Peruvian plant Lepidium meyenii were shown to improve sperm morphology and concentration, respectively, in uncontrolled trials. Linseed (flaxseed) oil contains alfa-linolenic acid and lignans. The former corrects the deficient intake of omega-3 essential fatty acids, which is correlated with impaired sperm motility among subfertile men. Lignans are precursors of enterolacton, which inhibits aromatase and reduces the ratio of 16-OH over 2-OH oestrogen metabolites. The resulting reduction in oestrogen load may favourably influence Sertoli cell function.

  9. Supplemental Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization Through a Collateral Omental Artery: Treatment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Do Yun; Lee, Jong Tae; Park, Sung Il; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Suh, Sang-Hyun; Park, Sang Joon

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of supplemental transcatheter arterialchemoembolization (TACE) through the extrahepatic collateral omentalartery (OA) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: We studied 21 patients with extrahepatic collaterals of the OA, among 1,512 patients with HCC who had undergone angiography. HCCs supplied by collateral OAs were located at: segment IV in seven, segment V in five, segment III in three, segment VI in three and segment VIII in three patients (Couinaud classification of segments). On preoperative CT scans, every HCC was abutting the liver surface. Adjacent omental infiltration or engorgement was noted in 11 patients. Celiac and hepatic arteriograms showed hypertrophy of the feeding OA in all patients. TACE of the OA was performed in 19 patients with an emulsion of iodized oil and doxorubicin hydrochloride.Embolization with gelatin sponge particles was added in five patients. Results: Collaterals of the OA to the HCC were found on the first to seventeenth sessions of TACE. On follow-up CT scans, five patients showed complete uptake of iodized oil in the tumor. Partial uptake of iodized oil was noted in 13 patients and no uptake in one patient. There was no serious complication that related to the omental embolization, such as omental or bowel ischemia. The cumulative survival rates from the time of the TACE of the OA were 81% at 6 months and 68% at 12 months. Conclusion: TACE of the OA is safe and has a potential therapeutic effect in the treatment of HCC

  10. The determination of the penetrating radiation dose at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, L.A.

    1989-09-01

    Most of the thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and other devices that have been used to measure environmental radiation on the Hanford Site have measured natural background levels of radiation. Measurements of offsite environmental radiation near the boundary of the Hanford Site have often indicated higher doses than onsite measurements have. However, the converse has been found when radiation measurements from the cities and communities of southeastern Washington were compared with onsite measurements. The historical trends described for environmental TLD data have been better defined in this study by compiling the TLD data for selected locations over a 6-year period (1983 to 1988). The ongoing Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program also provides radionuclide concentrations in soil based on samples collected by technicians at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sent to a commercial laboratory for analyses. As part of the study described in this report, a portable gamma spectroscopy system was used in the field to identify concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the soil at various locations on the Hanford Site and in the surrounding area. This work began in 1986. Supplemental radiation measurements were made with a microprocessor-based survey meter and large NaI detector. 20 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Use of Dietary Supplements in Patients Seeking Treatment at a Periodontal Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy E. Ward

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplement use may modify the risk of periodontal disease but effects on wound healing after periodontal procedures are less clear. This study characterized dietary supplement use by male and female patients (n = 376 attending a periodontal clinic—information that is essential for evidence-based intervention studies that may improve patient outcomes after periodontal procedures. Calcium, vitamin D, multivitamin and vitamin C were most commonly used. A greater (p ≤ 0.05 number of males took no supplements compared to females, and more (p ≤ 0.05 females than males took ≥ four supplements. Females took more (p ≤ 0.05 calcium, vitamin D, fish oil, green tea, magnesium, omega 3,6,9 and B vitamin complex. Younger patients (31–50 years had the highest (p ≤ 0.05 frequency of no supplement use compared to older age groups. Patients over age 50 had a higher (p ≤ 0.05 frequency of using ≥ four supplements including calcium and vitamin D. Supplement use was lower (p ≤ 0.05 in smokers, particularly for calcium, fish oil, green tea and vitamin D. In conclusion, females, older individuals and non-smokers have higher supplement use. Future dietary intervention studies can focus on supplements with known biological activities—anti-inflammatory, antioxidant or osteogenic activity—that may enhance wound healing after reconstructive periodontal procedures.

  12. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Woodruff, R.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Site Environmental Report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations. The report also highlights major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet reporting requirements and Guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) an to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to (a) describe the Hanford Site and its mission, (b) summarize the status in 1993 of compliance with environmental regulations, (c) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site, (d) discuss estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1993 Hanford activities, (e) present information on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance, including ground-water protection and monitoring, (f) discuss activities to ensure quality. More detailed information can be found in the body of the report, the appendixes, and the cited references.

  13. Introduction to the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report discusses the Site mission and provides general information about the site. The U.S. DOE has established a new mission for Hanford including: Management of stored wastes, environmental restoration, research and development, and development of new technologies. The Hanford Reservation is located in south central Washington State just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. The approximately 1,450 square kilometers which comprises the Hanford Site, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas within the site which have historically been used for the production of nuclear materials, radioactive waste storage, and radioactive waste disposal.

  14. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Site Environmental Report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations. The report also highlights major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet reporting requirements and Guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) an to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to (a) describe the Hanford Site and its mission, (b) summarize the status in 1993 of compliance with environmental regulations, (c) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site, (d) discuss estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1993 Hanford activities, (e) present information on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance, including ground-water protection and monitoring, (f) discuss activities to ensure quality. More detailed information can be found in the body of the report, the appendixes, and the cited references

  15. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, TM; Hanf, RW; Dirkes, RL

    2000-01-01

    This Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to: (1) describe the Hanford Site and its mission; (2) summarize the status of compliance with environmental regulations; (3) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; (4) discuss the estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1999 Hanford Site activities; (5) present the effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, groundwater protection and monitoring information; and (6) discuss the activities to ensure quality

  16. Introduction to the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report discusses the Site mission and provides general information about the site. The U.S. DOE has established a new mission for Hanford including: Management of stored wastes, environmental restoration, research and development, and development of new technologies. The Hanford Reservation is located in south central Washington State just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. The approximately 1,450 square kilometers which comprises the Hanford Site, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas within the site which have historically been used for the production of nuclear materials, radioactive waste storage, and radioactive waste disposal

  17. Hanford Facility RCRA permit handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Purpose of this Hanford Facility (HF) RCRA Permit Handbook is to provide, in one document, information to be used for clarification of permit conditions and guidance for implementing the HF RCRA Permit.

  18. Hanford Surplus Facilities Program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.C.; Wahlen, R.K.; Winship, R.A.

    1989-09-01

    The Hanford Surplus Facilities Program is responsible for the safe and cost-effective surveillance, maintenance, and decommissioning of surplus facilities at the Hanford Site. The management of these facilities requires a surveillance and maintenance program to keep them in a safe condition and development of a plan for ultimate disposition. Criteria used to evaluate each factor relative to decommissioning are based on the guidelines presented by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office, Defense Facilities Decommissioning Program Office, and are consistent with the Westinghouse Hanford Company commitment to decommission the Hanford Site retired facilities in the safest and most cost-effective way achievable. This document outlines the plan for managing these facilities to the end of disposition

  19. Mortality studies of Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1986-03-01

    The relationships of cancer mortality with radiation exposure as influenced by age, sex, follow-up time length of employment, and job category are discussed in relation to workers at the Hanford facilities

  20. Hanford Waste Management Plan, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP) is to provide an integrated plan for the safe storage, interim management, and disposal of existing waste sites and current and future waste streams at the Hanford Site. The emphasis of this plan is, however, on the disposal of Hanford Site waste. The plans presented in the HWMP are consistent with the preferred alternative which is based on consideration of comments received from the public and agencies on the draft Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (HDW-EIS). Low-level waste was not included in the draft HDW-EIS whereas it is included in this plan. The preferred alternative includes disposal of double-shell tank waste, retrievably stored and newly generated TRU waste, one pre-1970 TRU solid waste site near the Columbia River and encapsulated cesium and strontium waste

  1. Hanford site waste tank characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the on-going work in the characterization of the Hanford-Site high-level waste tanks. The waste in these tanks was produced as part of the nuclear weapons materials processing mission that occupied the Hanford Site for the first 40 years of its existence. Detailed and defensible characterization of the tank wastes is required to guide retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal technology development, to address waste stability and reactivity concerns, and to satisfy the compliance criteria for the various regulatory agencies overseeing activities at the Hanford Site. The resulting Tank Characterization Reports fulfill these needs, as well as satisfy the tank waste characterization milestones in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order

  2. Hanford Site 1998 Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RL Dirkes; RW Hanf; TM Poston

    1999-09-21

    This Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to: describe the Hanford Site and its mission; summarize the status of compliance with environmental regulations; describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; discuss the estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1998 Hanford Site activities; present the effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, and groundwater protection and monitoring information; and discuss the activities to ensure quality.

  3. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TM Poston; RW Hanf; RL Dirkes

    2000-09-28

    This Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to: (1) describe the Hanford Site and its mission; (2) summarize the status of compliance with environmental regulations; (3) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; (4) discuss the estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1999 Hanford Site activities; (5) present the effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, groundwater protection and monitoring information; and (6) discuss the activities to ensure quality.

  4. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates):Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates

  5. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disselkamp, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  6. HANFORD WASTE MINERALOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-29

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

  7. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-18

    This report lists the observed mineral phase phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  8. Hanford Waste Mineralogy Reference Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disselkamp, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

  9. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs

  10. Nutritional supplement during the treatment with ionizing radiations in patients with head and neck tumors in advanced stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chon Rivas, Ivonne; Roca Muchuli, Carlos; Vilau Prieto, Luis; Rubio Hernandez, Maria C.; Rodriguez Diaz, Ronald; Leon, Roberto; Rodriguez Abascal, Alicia; Mederos, Nuria

    2005-01-01

    Malnutrition in the patient with advanced cancer favors immunosuppression and implies a low Karnofsky index, poor tolerance and response to the onco specific curative or palliative treatments, high susceptibility to infections and, as a result, a decline of the quality of life. Patients with head and neck tumors in advanced stages (III-IV) are one of the groups of high risk for malnutrition due to the reduction of the intake of nutrients, anorexia, alterations of the deglutition mechanism, and mechanical obstruction of the upper digestive tract, among other causes.Numerous studies show the convenience of the nutritional supplement in these patients during the onco specific treatment. A prospective study that included 15 patients with head and neck neoplasia in advanced stages, and with clinical signs of malnutrition, was conducted in order to evaluate the necessary calorie-energy supplement. All of them were administered an oral nutritional supplement (Adn-22 %) during the radiation treatment to assess the possibility of improving their tolerance and response to the treatment. Of the 15 studied cases, 13 presented complications in connection with the treatment, but most them were mild, and they did not affect in a significant way the time of duration and the total dose of treatment. There was a favorable response in relation to the tumor

  11. Trends in Vitamin A, C, D, E, K Supplement Prescriptions From Military Treatment Facilities: 2007 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Travis Y; Bolin, Jeremy T; Attipoe, Selasi; Jones, Donnamaria R; Stephens, Mark B; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-07-01

    Although prior studies have examined the prevalence of dietary supplement use among various populations, data on single vitamins prescribed by health care providers are limited. This study examined trends in single-vitamin supplement (A, C, D, E, K) prescriptions by providers from military treatment facilities from 2007 to 2011. We examined prescription data from the Department of Defense Pharmacy Data Transaction Service to determine trends in the aforementioned single-vitamin supplement prescriptions. Prescription rates per 1,000 active duty personnel were estimated using population data retrieved from the Defense Medical Epidemiology Database (i.e., [number of prescriptions/population size] × 1,000). Across the 5-year period, the number of vitamin D prescriptions per 1,000 active duty personnel increased 454%. In contrast, the number of vitamin A, vitamin E, and vitamin K prescriptions per 1,000 active duty personnel decreased by 32%, 53%, and 29% respectively. Vitamin C prescriptions remained relatively constant. Across all age groups, total single-vitamin supplement prescriptions increased by 180%. Together, prescriptions examined in this study increased steadily from 2007 to 2011, primarily because of the increase in vitamin D prescriptions. The exhibited trend reflects the current general-population pattern of dietary supplement use, with large increases in vitamin D and declines in vitamin E. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. Children and adolescents with severe mental illness need vitamin D supplementation regardless of disease or treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnot, Olivier; Inaoui, Rachida; Raffin-Viard, Marie; Bodeau, Nicolas; Coussieu, Christiane; Cohen, David

    2011-04-01

    To protect against osteoporosis, keeping the vitamin D blood level (25[OH]D; VDBL) above 30 ng/mL is recommended. It is established that regular intake of vitamin D, calcium intake, and physical exercise contribute to maximizing bone mineral mass during childhood and adolescence. Recent articles suggest that patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics have low VDBL and may have a higher risk of hip fractures in their later years than the general population. To evaluate whether adolescent psychiatric inpatient VDBL is lower than the 30-ng/mL optimal threshold and to document low-VDBL risk factors. We determined the VDBL of all consecutive inpatients from three adolescents units in 2009 (N = 136). Univariate analyses explored the influence on VDBL of (1) well-documented risk factors (e.g., age, gender, ethnic origin, body mass index, or season) and (2) suspected risk factors (e.g., disease type or antipsychotic treatment). All but six patients had a VDBL vitamin D supplementation.

  13. 1995 project of the year Hanford Environmental compliance project nomination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.R.

    1996-02-01

    The completion of the Hanford Environmental Compliance (HEC) Project in December 1995 brought to a successful close a long line of major contributions to environmental cleanup. Not since the early days of the Hanford Site during and shortly after World War 11 had such a large group of diverse construction activities, with a common goal, been performed at Hanford. Key to this success was the unique combination of 14 subprojects under the HEC Project which afforded the flexibility to address evolving subproject requirements. This strategy resulted in the accomplishment of the HEC Project stakeholders` objectives on an aggressive schedule, at a $33 million cost savings to the customer. The primary objectives of the HEC Project were to upgrade selected Hanford Site facilities and systems to bring them into compliance with current environmental standards and regulations. The HEC Project contributed significantly towards the Hanford site compliance with Clean Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements. It provided, in part, those construction activities required to comply with those requirements in the areas of liquid and solid waste treatment and disposal, waste characterization, and groundwater monitoring.

  14. 1995 project of the year Hanford Environmental compliance project nomination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.R.

    1996-02-01

    The completion of the Hanford Environmental Compliance (HEC) Project in December 1995 brought to a successful close a long line of major contributions to environmental cleanup. Not since the early days of the Hanford Site during and shortly after World War 11 had such a large group of diverse construction activities, with a common goal, been performed at Hanford. Key to this success was the unique combination of 14 subprojects under the HEC Project which afforded the flexibility to address evolving subproject requirements. This strategy resulted in the accomplishment of the HEC Project stakeholders' objectives on an aggressive schedule, at a $33 million cost savings to the customer. The primary objectives of the HEC Project were to upgrade selected Hanford Site facilities and systems to bring them into compliance with current environmental standards and regulations. The HEC Project contributed significantly towards the Hanford site compliance with Clean Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements. It provided, in part, those construction activities required to comply with those requirements in the areas of liquid and solid waste treatment and disposal, waste characterization, and groundwater monitoring

  15. Pretreatment of Hanford purex plant first-cycle waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, M.W.; Gerboth, D.M.; Peters, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    A process has been developed to pretreat neutralized, first-cycle high-level waste from the fuels reprocessing facility (PUREX Plant) at the Hanford Site. The process separates solids from the supernate liquid, which contains soluble salts. The solids, including most of the fission products and transuranic elements, may then be vitrified for disposal, while the low-level supernate stream may be processed into a less expensive grout waste form. The process also includes ion exchange treatment of the separated supernate stream to remove radiocesium. A flow sheet based on these operations was completed to support a planned demonstration of the process in the Hanford site B Plant canyon facility

  16. Women and the Hanford Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Michele

    2014-03-01

    When we study the technical and scientific history of the Manhattan Project, women's history is sometimes left out. At Hanford, a Site whose past is rich with hard science and heavy construction, it is doubly easy to leave out women's history. After all, at the World War II Hanford Engineer Works - the earliest name for the Hanford Site - only nine percent of the employees were women. None of them were involved in construction, and only one woman was actually involved in the physics and operations of a major facility - Dr. Leona Woods Marshall. She was a physicist present at the startup of B-Reactor, the world's first full-scale nuclear reactor - now a National Historic Landmark. Because her presence was so unique, a special bathroom had to be built for her in B-Reactor. At World War II Hanford, only two women were listed among the nearly 200 members of the top supervisory staff of the prime contractor, and only one regularly attended the staff meetings of the Site commander, Colonel Franklin Matthias. Overall, women comprised less than one percent of the managerial and supervisory staff of the Hanford Engineer Works, most of them were in nursing or on the Recreation Office staff. Almost all of the professional women at Hanford were nurses, and most of the other women of the Hanford Engineer Works were secretaries, clerks, food-service workers, laboratory technicians, messengers, barracks workers, and other support service employees. The one World War II recruiting film made to attract women workers to the Site, that has survived in Site archives, is entitled ``A Day in the Life of a Typical Hanford Girl.'' These historical facts are not mentioned to criticize the past - for it is never wise to apply the standards of one era to another. The Hanford Engineer Works was a 1940s organization, and it functioned by the standards of the 1940s. Just as we cannot criticize the use of asbestos in constructing Hanford (although we may wish they hadn't used so much of it), we

  17. Ozone destruction of Hanford Site tank waste organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colby, S.A.

    1993-04-01

    Ozone processing is one of several technologies being developed to meet the intent of the Secretary of the US Department of Energy, Decision on the Programmatic Approach and Near-Term Actions for Management and Disposal of Hanford Tank Waste Decision Statement, dated December 20, 1991, which emphasizes the need to resolve tank safety issues by destroying or modifying the constituents (e.g., organics) that cause safety concerns. As a result, the major tank treatment objectives on the Hanford Site are to resolve the tank safety issues regarding organic compounds (and accompanying flammable gas generation), which all potentially can react to evolve heat and gases. This report contains scoping test results of an alkaline ozone oxidation process to destroy organic compounds found in the Hanford Site's radioactive waste storage tanks

  18. Estimate of Hanford Waste Rheology and Settling Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poloski, Adam P.; Wells, Beric E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Hall, Mark N.; Thomson, Scott L.; Smith, Gary Lynn; Johnson, Michael E.; Meacham, Joseph E.; Knight, Mark A.; Thien, Michael G.; Davis, Jim J.; Onishi, Yasuo

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will process and treat radioactive waste that is stored in tanks at the Hanford Site. Piping, pumps, and mixing vessels have been selected to transport, store, and mix the high-level waste slurries in the WTP. This report addresses the analyses performed by the Rheology Working Group (RWG) and Risk Assessment Working Group composed of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PNNL, Bechtel National Inc. (BNI), CH2M HILL, DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) and Yasuo Onishi Consulting, LLC staff on data obtained from documented Hanford waste analyses to determine a best-estimate of the rheology of the Hanford tank wastes and their settling behavior. The actual testing activities were performed and reported separately in referenced documentation. Because of this, many of the required topics below do not apply and are so noted

  19. CO{sub 2} pellet decontamination technology at Westinghouse Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, T.L.; Aldrich, L.K. II; Bowman, E.V. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Experimentation and testing with CO{sub 2} pellet decontamination technology is being conducted at Westinghosue Hanford Company (WHC), Richland, Washington. There are 1,100 known existing waste sites at Hanford. The sites specified by federal and state agencies are currently being studied to determine the appropriate cleanup methods best for each site. These sites are contaminated and work on them is in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). There are also 63 treatment, storage, and disposal units, for example: groups of waste tanks or drums. In 1992, there were 100 planned activities scheduled to bring these units into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance or close them after waste removal. Ninety-six of these were completed. The remaining four were delayed or are being negotiated with regulatory agencies. As a result of past defense program activities at Hanford a tremendous volume of materials and equipment have accumulated and require remediation.

  20. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary wastes; conserve resources; and prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all Site activities. The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program plan reflects national and DOE waste minimization and pollution prevention goals and policies, and represents an ongoing effort to make WMin/P2 part of the Site operating philosophy. In accordance with these policies, a hierarchical approach to environmental management has been adopted and is applied to all types of polluting and waste generating activities. Pollution prevention and waste minimization through source reduction are first priority in the Hanford WMin/P2 program, followed by environmentally safe recycling. Treatment to reduce the quantity, toxicity, and/or mobility will be considered only when prevention or recycling are not possible or practical. Environmentally safe disposal is the last option

  1. Lysine supplementation is not effective for the prevention or treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection in cats: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Sebastiaan; Bunnik, Evelien M

    2015-11-16

    Feline herpesvirus 1 is a highly contagious virus that affects many cats. Virus infection presents with flu-like signs and irritation of ocular and nasal regions. While cats can recover from active infections without medical treatment, examination by a veterinarian is recommended. Lysine supplementation appears to be a popular intervention (recommended by > 90 % of veterinarians in cat hospitals). We investigated the scientific merit of lysine supplementation by systematically reviewing all relevant literature. NCBI's PubMed database was used to search for published work on lysine and feline herpesvirus 1, as well as lysine and human herpesvirus 1. Seven studies on lysine and feline herpesvirus 1 (two in vitro studies and 5 studies with cats), and 10 publications on lysine and human herpesvirus 1 (three in vitro studies and 7 clinical trials) were included for qualitative analysis. There is evidence at multiple levels that lysine supplementation is not effective for the prevention or treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection in cats. Lysine does not have any antiviral properties, but is believed to act by lowering arginine levels. However, lysine does not antagonize arginine in cats, and evidence that low intracellular arginine concentrations would inhibit viral replication is lacking. Furthermore, lowering arginine levels is highly undesirable since cats cannot synthesize this amino acid themselves. Arginine deficiency will result in hyperammonemia, which may be fatal. In vitro studies with feline herpesvirus 1 showed that lysine has no effect on the replication kinetics of the virus. Finally, and most importantly, several clinical studies with cats have shown that lysine is not effective for the prevention or the treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection, and some even reported increased infection frequency and disease severity in cats receiving lysine supplementation. We recommend an immediate stop of lysine supplementation because of the complete lack of

  2. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcomes in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodha, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Aparna; Singh, Varinder

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Micronutrients play an important role in immune function. To our knowledge, there have been no comprehensive studies on the role of micronutrient supplementation in children with tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of micronutrient supplementation in children treated...... with antituberculosis therapy (ATT). DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that used a 2 × 2 factorial design was undertaken at 2 teaching hospitals in Delhi. Children with newly diagnosed intrathoracic tuberculosis were enrolled, and they received ATT together with daily supplementation for 6 mo...

  3. Testing of a Rotary Micro-filter for Hanford Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.; Herman, D.T.; Stefanko, D.B.; Fink, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers are investigating and developing a rotary micro-filter for solid-liquid separation applications with emphasis on deployment in radioactive services. The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Waste Processing employed the SRNL team to evaluate the use of this rotary micro-filter for the Hanford Supplemental Pretreatment process. The authors tested a full-scale, 25-disk filter unit containing 0.5 μ filter media using a Hanford Tank AN-105 simulant at solids loadings of 0.06, 0.29, and 1.29 wt %. Based on recommendations from prior tests, the authors modified the filter unit by replacing the primary mechanical seal with an air seal. They also replaced the bushing with alternate materials of construction aimed at extended mean time between maintenance events. The testing provides the following conclusions. - The rotary filter produces a higher flux than the crossflow filter for the Hanford simulant. The gain in performance is less than previously seen for Savannah River Site simulants. - Filtrate clarity proved excellent with turbidity of <4 NTU (nephelometric turbidity units) in all samples. - Inspection of the primary mechanical seal faces after ∼140 hours of operation showed an expected minimal amount of initial wear, no passing of process fluid through the seal faces, and very little change in the air channeling grooves on the stationary face. - Some polishing of surfaces occurred at the bottom of the shaft bushing. The authors recommend improving the shaft bushing by holding it in place with a locking ring and incorporating grooves to provide additional cooling. - The authors recommend that Hanford test other pore size media to determine the optimum pore size for Hanford waste. - During final facility operation, the filter should be rinsed with filtrate or dilute caustic and drained prior to an extended shutdown to prevent the formation of a layer of settled solids on top of the filter disks. (authors)

  4. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria with in which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP

  5. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria within which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP.

  6. Association between the clinical classification of hypothyroidism and reduced TSH in LT4 supplemental replacement treatment for pregnancy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lyu; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Ye, Hongying; Zhu, Xiaoming; Li, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the effects of levothyroxine (LT4) supplemental replacement treatment for pregnancy and analyze the associations between the clinical classification of hypothyroidism and reduced thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in LT4 therapy. Totally, 195 pregnant women with hypothyroidism receiving routine prenatal care were enrolled. They were categorized into three groups: overt hypothyroidism (OH), subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) with negative thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb), and SCH with positive TPOAb. The association between the clinical classification and reduced TSH in LT4 supplemental replacement treatment was assessed. The results indicated that reduced TSH was significantly different among the groups according to the clinical classifications (p = 0.043). The result was also significantly different between patients with OH and patients with SCH and negative TPOAb (p = 0.036). Similar result was reported for the comparison between patients with OH and patients with SCH and positive TPOAb (p = 0.016). Multiple variable analyses showed that LT4 supplementation, gestational age and the variable of clinical classifications were associated with reduced TSH independently. Our data suggested that the therapeutic effect of substitutive treatment with LT4 was significantly associated with different clinical classifications of hypothyroidism in pregnancy and the treatment should begin as soon as possible after diagnosis.

  7. Setting and Stiffening of Cementitious Components in Cast Stone Waste Form for Disposal of Secondary Wastes from the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Chun, Jaehun; Um, Wooyong; Sundaram, S. K.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2013-04-01

    Cast stone is a cementitious waste form, a viable option to immobilize secondary nuclear liquid wastes generated from Hanford vitrification plant. While the strength and radioactive technetium leaching of different waste form candidates have been reported, no study has been performed to understand the flow and stiffening behavior of Cast Stone, which is essential to ensure the proper workability, especially considering necessary safety as a nuclear waste form in a field scale application. The rheological and ultrasonic wave reflection (UWR) measurements were used to understand the setting and stiffening Cast Stone batches. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to find the correlation between specific phase formation and the stiffening of the paste. Our results showed good correlation between rheological properties of the fresh Cast Stone mixture and phase formation during hydration of Cast Stone. Secondary gypsum formation originating from blast furnace slag was observed in Cast Stone made with low concentration simulants. The formation of gypsum was suppressed in high concentration simulants. It was found that the stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. A threshold concentration for the drastic change in stiffening was found at 1.56 M Na concentration.

  8. Hanford Site peak gust wind speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1998-01-01

    Peak gust wind data collected at the Hanford Site since 1945 are analyzed to estimate maximum wind speeds for use in structural design. The results are compared with design wind speeds proposed for the Hanford Site. These comparisons indicate that design wind speeds contained in a January 1998 advisory changing DOE-STD-1020-94 are excessive for the Hanford Site and that the design wind speeds in effect prior to the changes are still appropriate for the Hanford Site

  9. Hanford Site Waste Managements Units reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of the 1984 United States Code (USC 1984). This report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site, including a description of the units and the waste they contain. Waste management units in this report include: (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structures, (5) RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of this report, the listing of sites is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of HSWA. The information in this report is extracted from the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The WIDS provides additional information concerning the waste management units contained in this report and is maintained current with changes to these units. This report is updated annually if determined necessary per the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1990). This report identifies 1,414 waste management units. Of these, 1,015 units are identified as solid waste management units (SWMU), and 342 are RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal units. The remaining 399 are comprised mainly of one-time spills to the environment, sanitary waste disposal facilities (i.e., septic tanks), and surplus facilities awaiting decontamination and decommissioning

  10. FY 2001 Hanford Waste Management Strategic Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COLLINS, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    We are pleased to present the 2001 Hanford Waste Management Program Strategic Plan. This plan supports the newly developed U. S. Department of Energy Site outcomes strategy. The 2001 Plan reflects current and projected needs for Waste Management Program services in support of Hanford Site cleanup, and updates the objectives and actions using new waste stream oriented logic for the strategic goals: (1) waste treatment/processing, storage, and disposal; (2) interfaces; and (3) program excellence. Overall direction for the Program is provided by the Waste Management Division, Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, U. S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is the operating contractor for the program. This Plan documents proactive strategies for planning and budgeting, with a major focus on helping meet regulatory commitments in a timely and efficient manner and concurrently assisting us in completing programs cheaper, better and quicker. Newly developed waste stream oriented logic was incorporated to clarify Site outcomes. External drivers, technology inputs, treatment/processing, storage and disposal strategies, and stream specific strategies are included for the six major waste types addressed in this Plan (low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, contact-handled transuranic waste, remote-handled transuranic waste, liquid waste, and cesium/strontium capsules). The key elements of the strategy are identification and quantification of the needs for waste management services, assessment of capabilities, and development of cost-effective actions to meet the needs and to continuously improve performance. Accomplishment of specific actions as set forth in the Plan depends on continued availability of the required resources and funding. The primary objectives of Plan are: (1) enhance the Waste Management Program to improve flexibility, become more holistic especially by implementing new

  11. Hanford Sitewide Groundwater Remediation Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knepp, A.J.; Isaacs, J.D.

    1997-09-01

    This document fulfills the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-13-81, to develop a concise statement of strategy that describe show the Hanford Site groundwater remediation will be accomplished. The strategy addresses objectives and goals, prioritization of activities, and technical approaches for groundwater cleanup. The strategy establishes that the overall goal of groundwater remediation on the Hanford Site is to restore groundwater to its beneficial uses in terms of protecting human health and the environment, and its use as a natural resource. The Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group established two categories for groundwater commensurate with various proposed landuses: (1) restricted use or access to groundwater in the Central Plateau and in a buffer zone surrounding it and (2) unrestricted use or access to groundwater for all other areas. In recognition of the Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group and public values, the strategy establishes that the sitewide approach to groundwater cleanup is to remediate the major plumes found in the reactor areas that enter the Columbia River and to contain the spread and reduce the mass of the major plumes found in the Central Plateau

  12. The Hanford Site focus, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.M.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes what the Hanford Site will look like in the next two years. We offer thumbnail sketches of Hanford Site programs and the needs we are meeting through our efforts. We describe our goals, some recent accomplishments, the work we will do in fiscal year (FY) 1994, the major activities the FY 1995 budget request covers, and the economic picture in the next few years. The Hanford Site budget shows the type of work being planned. US Department of Energy (DOE) sites like the Hanford Site use documents called Activity Data Sheets to meet this need. These are building blocks that are included in the budget. Each Activity Data Sheet is a concise (usually 4 or 5 pages) summary of a piece of work funded by the DOE's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management budget. Each sheet describes a waste management or environmental restoration need over a 5-year period; related regulatory requirements and agreements; and the cost, milestones, and steps proposed to meet the need. The Hanford Site is complex and has a huge budget, and its Activity Data Sheets run to literally thousands of pages. This report summarizes the Activity Data Sheets in a less detailed and much more reader-friendly fashion

  13. Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The September 1985 Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP) is the third revision of this document. In the future, the HWMP will be updated on an annual basis or as major changes in disposal planning at Hanford Site require. The most significant changes in the program since the last release of this document in December 1984 include: (1) Based on studies done in support of the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (HDW-EIS), the size of the protective barriers covering contaminated soil sites, solid waste burial sites, and single-shell tanks has been increased to provide a barrier that extends 30 m beyond the waste zone. (2) As a result of extensive laboratory development and plant testing, removal of transuranic (TRU) elements from PUREX cladding removal waste (CRW) has been initiated in PUREX. (3) The level of capital support in years beyond those for which specific budget projections have been prepared (i.e., fiscal year 1992 and later) has been increased to maintain Hanford Site capability to support potential future missions, such as the extension of N Reactor/PUREX operations. The costs for disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes are identified in four major areas in the HWMP: waste storage and surveillance, technology development, disposal operations, and capital expenditures

  14. Differential turbidity at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laulainen, N.S.; Kleckner, E.W.; Michalsky, J.J.; Stokes, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments continued in FY 1979 to examine differential turbidity effects on insolation as measured at the earth's surface. These experiments are primarily intended to provide means for interpreting insolation-data assessment studies. These data are also valuable for inferring aerosol radiative or optical effects, which is an important consideration in evaluating inadvertent climate modification and visibility degradation as a result of aerosols. The experiments are characterized by frequent, nearly simultaneous observations at the Rattlesnake Mountain Observatory (RMO) and the Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS) and take advantage of the nearly 1-km altitude difference between these two observing sites. This study indicated that nearly simultaneous measurements of the direct solar beam from stationary sites that are separated in altitude can be used to monitor the incremental optical depth arising from aerosols in the intervening layer. Once appropriate calbiration procedures have been established for the MASP unit, the direct solar data can be used to document on a routine basis aerosol variations in the first kilometer between HMS and RMO

  15. Hanford gas dispersion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, R.K.; Travis, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis was performed to verify the design of a waste gas exhauster for use in support of rotary core sampling activities at the Westinghouse Hanford Waste Tank Farm. The exhauster was designed to remove waste gases from waste storage tanks during the rotary core drilling process of the solid materials in the tank. Some of the waste gases potentially are very hazardous and must be monitored during the exhauster's operation. If the toxic gas concentrations in specific areas near the exhauster exceed minimum Threshold Limit Values (TLVs), personnel must be excluded from the area. The exhauster stack height is of interest because an increase in stack height will alter the gas concentrations at the critical locations. The exhaust stack is currently ∼4.6 m (15 ft) high. An equipment operator will be located within a 6.1 m (20 ft) radius of the exhaust stack, and his/her head will be at an elevation 3.7 m (12 ft) above ground level (AGL). Therefore, the maximum exhaust gas concentrations at this location must be below the TLV for the toxic gases. Also, the gas concentrations must be within the TLV at a 61 m (200 ft) radius from the stack. If the calculated gas concentrations are above the TLV, where the operator is working below the stack at the 61 m (200 ft) radius location, the stack height may need to be increased

  16. 1976 Hanford americium accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heid, K.R.; Breitenstein, B.D.; Palmer, H.E.; McMurray, B.J.; Wald, N.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the 2.5-year medical course of a 64-year-old Hanford nuclear chemical operator who was involved in an accident in an americium recovery facility in August 1976. He was heavily externally contaminated with americium, sustained a substantial internal deposition of this isotope, and was burned with concentrated nitric acid and injured by flying debris about the face and neck. The medical care given the patient, including the decontamination efforts and clinical laboratory studies, are discussed. In-vivo measurements were used to estimate the dose rates and the accumulated doses to body organs. Urinary and fecal excreta were collected and analyzed for americium content. Interpretation of these data was complicated by the fact that the intake resulted both from inhalation and from solubilization of the americium embedded in facial tissues. A total of 1100 μCi was excreted in urine and feces during the first 2 years following the accident. The long-term use of diethylenetriaminepentate (DTPA), used principally as the zinc salt, is discussed including the method, route of administration, and effectiveness. To date, the patient has apparently experienced no complications attributable to this extensive course of therapy, even though he has been given approximately 560 grams of DTPA. 4 figures, 1 table

  17. Supplemented Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) improves performance measures in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Benjamin A; Brown, David F M; Sinclair, Julia; Chang, Yuchiao; Carignan, Sarah; McIntyre, Joyce; Biddinger, Paul D

    2012-03-01

    Emergency Department (ED) crowding is well recognized, and multiple studies have demonstrated its negative effect on patient care. This study aimed to assess the effect of an intervention, Supplemented Triage and Rapid Treatment (START), on standard ED performance measures. The START program complemented standard ED triage with a team of clinicians who initiated the diagnostic work-up and selectively accelerated disposition in a subset of patients. This retrospective before-after study compared performance measures over two 3-month periods (September-November 2007 and 2008) in an urban, academic tertiary care ED. Data from an electronic patient tracking system were queried over 12,936 patients pre-intervention, and 14,220 patients post-intervention. Primary outcomes included: 1) overall length of stay (LOS), 2) LOS for discharged and admitted patients, and 3) the percentage of patients who left without complete assessment (LWCA). In the post-intervention period, patient volume increased 9% and boarder hours decreased by 1.3%. Median overall ED LOS decreased by 29 min (8%, 361 min pre-intervention, 332 min post-intervention; p < 0.001). Median LOS for discharged patients decreased by 23 min (7%, 318 min pre-intervention, 295 min post-intervention; p < 0.001), and by 31 min (7%, 431 min pre-intervention, 400 min post-intervention) for admitted patients. LWCA was decreased by 1.7% (4.1% pre-intervention, 2.4% post-intervention; p < 0.001). In this study, a comprehensive screening and clinical care program was associated with a significant decrease in overall ED LOS, LOS for discharged and admitted patients, and rate of LWCA, despite an increase in ED patient volume. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A natural pharma standard supplement formulation to control treatment-related toxicity and oxidative stress in genitourinary cancer: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledda, A; Belcaro, G; Dugall, M; Luzzi, R; Hosoi, M; Feragalli, B; Cotellese, R; Cosentino, V; Cosentino, M; Eggenhoffner, R; Pellizzato, M; Fratter, A; Giacomelli, L

    2017-09-01

    Oncological treatments are associated with toxicities that may decrease compliance to treatment in most genitourinary cancer patients. Supplementation with pharmaceutical-standardized supplement may be a supplementary method to control the side effects after chemo- and radiotherapy and the increased oxidative stress associated to treatments. This registry study evaluated a natural combination of supplements containing curcumin, cordyceps, and astaxanthin (Oncotris™) used as supplementary management in genitourinary cancer patients who had undergone oncological therapy. Patients with genitourinary cancers (prostate or bladder malignancies) who had undergone and completed cancer treatments (radiotherapy, chemotherapy or intravesical immunotherapy with increased oxidative stress and residual symptoms) were recruited in this registry, supplement study. Registry subjects (n = 61) freely decided to follow either a standard management (SM) (control group = 35) or SM plus oral daily supplementation (supplement group = 26). Evaluation of severity of treatment-related residual side effects, blood count test, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and plasma free radicals (oxidative stress) were performed at inclusion and at the end of the observational period (6 weeks). Two patients dropped out during the registry. Therefore, the analysis included 59 participants: 26 individuals in the supplementation group and 33 in the control group. In the supplement group, the intensity of signs and symptoms (treatment-related) and residual side effects significantly decreased at 6 weeks: minimal changes were observed in controls. Supplementation with Oncotris™ was associated with a significant improvement in blood cell count and with a decreased level of plasmatic PSA and oxidative stress. Naturally-derived supplements, specifically Oncotris™ (patent pending), could support the body to overcome the treatment-related toxicities - and the relative oxidative stress in cancer patients.

  19. COMPENDIUM OF COMPLETED TESTING IN SUPPORT OF ROTARY MICROFILTRATION AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE AND HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUBER HJ

    2011-05-24

    This report presents a chronological summary of previous technology development efforts concerning the rotary microfiltration (RMF) unit from SpinTek{trademark}. Rotary microfiltration has been developed for high radiation application over the last decades as one of the optional filtration techniques for supplemental treatment. Supplemental treatment includes a near- or in-tank solids separation and subsequent cesium removal unit, followed by an immobilization technique; this includes options such as steam reforming, bulk vitrification or cast stone (grout). The main difference between RMF and standard cross flow filtration (CFF) is the disconnection of filtrate flux from feed velocity; i.e., filtrate flux is only dependent on transmembrane pressure, filter fouling and temperature. These efforts have been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Cleanup Technologies since the 1990s by their Environmental Management Program (currently EM-31). In order to appropriately address future testing needs, a compilation of the relevant previous testing reports was essential. This compendium does not intend to cover all of the presentations/reports that were produced over the last decades but focuses on those of relevance for developing an RMF unit fit for deployment at the Hanford site. The report is split into three parts: (1) an introductory overview, (2) Figure 1 graphically covering the main development steps and its key players and (3) a more detailed table of the citations and brief descriptions of results and recommendations.

  20. Compendium Of Completed Testing In Support Of Rotary Microfiltration At Savannah River Site And Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a chronological summary of previous technology development efforts concerning the rotary microfiltration (RMF) unit from SpinTek(trademark). Rotary microfiltration has been developed for high radiation application over the last decades as one of the optional filtration techniques for supplemental treatment. Supplemental treatment includes a near- or in-tank solids separation and subsequent cesium removal unit, followed by an immobilization technique; this includes options such as steam reforming, bulk vitrification or cast stone (grout). The main difference between RMF and standard cross flow filtration (CFF) is the disconnection of filtrate flux from feed velocity; i.e., filtrate flux is only dependent on transmembrane pressure, filter fouling and temperature. These efforts have been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Cleanup Technologies since the 1990s by their Environmental Management Program (currently EM-31). In order to appropriately address future testing needs, a compilation of the relevant previous testing reports was essential. This compendium does not intend to cover all of the presentations/reports that were produced over the last decades but focuses on those of relevance for developing an RMF unit fit for deployment at the Hanford site. The report is split into three parts: (1) an introductory overview, (2) Figure 1 graphically covering the main development steps and its key players and (3) a more detailed table of the citations and brief descriptions of results and recommendations.

  1. Hanford Site sustainable development initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, C.T.

    1994-05-01

    Since the days of the Manhattan Project of World War II, the economic well being of the Tri-Cities (Pasco, Kennewick, and Richland) of Washington State has been tied to the US Department of Energy missions at the nearby Hanford Site. As missions at the Site changed, so did the economic vitality of the region. The Hanford Site is now poised to complete its final mission, that of environmental restoration. When restoration is completed, the Site may be closed and the effect on the local economy will be devastating if action is not taken now. To that end, economic diversification and transition are being planned. To facilitate the process, the Hanford Site will become a sustainable development demonstration project

  2. FLUOR HANFORD SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARVIN, L. J.; JENSEN, M. A.

    2004-04-13

    This document summarizes safety management programs used within the scope of the ''Project Hanford Management Contract''. The document has been developed to meet the format and content requirements of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses''. This document provides summary descriptions of Fluor Hanford safety management programs, which Fluor Hanford nuclear facilities may reference and incorporate into their safety basis when producing facility- or activity-specific documented safety analyses (DSA). Facility- or activity-specific DSAs will identify any variances to the safety management programs described in this document and any specific attributes of these safety management programs that are important for controlling potentially hazardous conditions. In addition, facility- or activity-specific DSAs may identify unique additions to the safety management programs that are needed to control potentially hazardous conditions.

  3. Technetium Inventory, Distribution, and Speciation in Hanford Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-05-02

    The purpose of this report is three fold: 1) assemble the available information regarding technetium (Tc) inventory, distribution between phases, and speciation in Hanford’s 177 storage tanks into a single, detailed, comprehensive assessment; 2) discuss the fate (distribution/speciation) of Tc once retrieved from the storage tanks and processed into a final waste form; and 3) discuss/document in less detail the available data on the inventory of Tc in other "pools" such as the vadose zone below inactive cribs and trenches, below single-shell tanks (SSTs) that have leaked, and in the groundwater below the Hanford Site. A thorough understanding of the inventory for mobile contaminants is key to any performance or risk assessment for Hanford Site facilities because potential groundwater and river contamination levels are proportional to the amount of contaminants disposed at the Hanford Site. Because the majority of the total 99Tc produced at Hanford (~32,600 Ci) is currently stored in Hanford’s 177 tanks (~26,500 Ci), there is a critical need for knowledge of the fate of this 99Tc as it is removed from the tanks and processed into a final solid waste form. Current flow sheets for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant process show most of the 99Tc will be immobilized as low-activity waste glass that will remain on the Hanford Site and disposed at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); only a small fraction will be shipped to a geologic repository with the immobilized high-level waste. Past performance assessment studies, which focused on groundwater protection, have shown that 99Tc would be the primary dose contributor to the IDF performance.

  4. HANFORD SITE RIVER CORRIDOR CLEANUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAZZELL, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the third generation of closure contracts, including the River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at Hanford. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made on cleaning up the river shore that bordes Hanford. However, the most important cleanup challenges lie ahead. In March 2005, DOE awarded the Hanford River Corridor Closure Contract to Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), a limited liability company owned by Washington Group International, Bechtel National and CH2M HILL. It is a single-purpose company whose goal is to safely and efficiently accelerate cleanup in the 544 km 2 Hanford river corridor and reduce or eliminate future obligations to DOE for maintaining long-term stewardship over the site. The RCC Contract is a cost-plus-incentive-fee closure contract, which incentivizes the contractor to reduce cost and accelerate the schedule. At $1.9 billion and seven years, WCH has accelerated cleaning up Hanford's river corridor significantly compared to the $3.2 billion and 10 years originally estimated by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Predictable funding is one of the key features of the new contract, with funding set by contract at $183 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and peaking at $387 million in FY2012. Another feature of the contract allows for Washington Closure to perform up to 40% of the value of the contract and subcontract the balance. One of the major challenges in the next few years will be to identify and qualify sufficient subcontractors to meet the goal

  5. The Evidence for Dietary Interventions and Nutritional Supplements as Treatment Options in Multiple Sclerosis: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mische, Leah J; Mowry, Ellen M

    2018-03-17

    This review aims to critically evaluate published studies examining diets and nutritional supplements (excepting vitamin D) for the impact on prevention and prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a negative relationship between the Mediterranean diet and vascular disease, and vascular co-morbidities are associated with a worse MS prognosis. Low-fat, fish-based diets, sodium-restricted diets, calorie restriction, the paleo diet, and gluten-free diets have been examined, mostly in observational studies; results are inconclusive. With regard to nutritional supplements, pilot data show a possible benefit of biotin with respect to disability worsening in people with progressive MS (PMS). The best designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for PUFA supplementation have not shown significant impact, but several weaker RCTs have. Many other nutritional supplements have been tested, including several anti-oxidants. While some early studies show positive results, no result has been definitive. Unfortunately, there is no strong evidence for a direct benefit of any given dietary intervention on MS risk or prognosis. However, due to its relationship with vascular co-morbidities, the Mediterranean diet has the strongest rationale for employment in PwMS. Higher-quality clinical trials are needed to ascertain the possible benefits of nutritional supplements.

  6. Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    From 1975 to 1991 the Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites (HPADS) were used for demolition events. These demolition events were a form of thermal treatment for spent or abandoned chemical waste. Because the HPADS will no longer be used for this thermal activity, the sites will be closed. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and 40 CFR 270.1. Closure also will satisfy closure requirements of WAC 173-303-680 and for the thermal treatment closure requirements of 40 CFR 265.381. This closure plan presents a description of the HPADS, the history of the waste treated, and the approach that will be followed to close the HPADS. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of WAC 173-303 or of this closure plan. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge where appropriate. Only dangerous constituents derived from HPADS operations will be addressed in this closure plan in accordance with WAC 173-303-610(2)(b)(i). The HPADS are actually two distinct soil closure areas within the Hanford Patrol Academy training area

  7. Rethinking the Hanford Tank Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F. L.; Clark, D. E.; Morcos, N.

    2002-01-01

    The program to treat and dispose of the highly radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site has been studied. A strategy/management approach to achieve an acceptable (technically sound) end state for these wastes has been developed in this study. This approach is based on assessment of the actual risks and costs to the public, workers, and the environment associated with the wastes and storage tanks. Close attention should be given to the technical merits of available waste treatment and stabilization methodologies, and application of realistic risk reduction goals and methodologies to establish appropriate tank farm cleanup milestones. Increased research and development to reduce the mass of non-radioactive materials in the tanks requiring sophisticated treatment is highly desirable. The actual cleanup activities and milestones, while maintaining acceptable safety standards, could be more focused on a risk-to-benefit cost effectiveness, as agreed to by the involved stakeholders and in accordance with existing regulatory requirements. If existing safety standards can be maintained at significant cost savings under alternative plans but with a change in the Tri-Party Agreement (a regulatory requirement), those plans should be carried out. The proposed strategy would also take advantage of the lessons learned from the activities and efforts in the first phase of the two-phased cleanup of the Hanford waste tank farms

  8. Investigation of groundwater seepage from the Hanford shoreline of the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, W.D.; Carlile, J.M.V.

    1984-11-01

    Groundwater discharges to the Columbia River are evaluated by the Hanford Environmental Surveillance and Groundwater Surveillance Programs via monitoring of the Columbia River and Hanford groundwater. Both programs concluded that Hanford groundwater has not adversely affected Columbia River water quality. This report supplements the above programs by investigating the general characteristics of groundwater entering the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Specific objectives of the investigation were to identify general shoreline areas where Hanford-related materials were entering the river, and to evaluate qualitatively the physical characteristics and relative magnitudes of those discharges. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved visual inspection of Columbia River shoreline, within the Hanford Site, for indications of groundwater seepage. As a result of that inspection, 115 springs suspected of discharging groundwater were recorded. During Phase 2, water samples were collected from these springs and analyzed for Hanford-related materials known to be present in the groundwater. The specific materials used as indicators for the majority of samples were tritium or uranium and nitrate. The magnitude and distribution of concentrations measured in the spring samples were consistent with concentrations of these materials measured in groundwater near the sampled spring locations. Water samples were also collected from the Columbia River to investigate the localized effects of groundwater discharges occurring above and below river level. These samples were collected within 2 to 4 m of the Hanford shoreline and analyzed for tritium, nitrate, and uranium. Elevated concentrations were measured in river samples collected near areas where groundwater and spring concentrations were elevated. All concentrations were below applicable DOE Concentration Guides. 8 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  9. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from released to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; and, environmental pathways and dose estimates

  10. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories under contract with the Centers for Disease Control. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption, and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates

  11. Disposal of Hanford defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, R.A.; Burnham, J.B.; Nelson, I.C.

    1986-01-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the disposal of Hanford Defense Waste is scheduled to be released near the end of March, 1986. This EIS will evaluate the impacts of alternatives for disposal of high-level, tank, and transuranic wastes which are now stored at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site or will be produced there in the future. In addition to releasing the EIS, the Department of Energy is conducting an extensive public participation process aimed at providing information to the public and receiving comments on the EIS

  12. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals ... this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements Side Effects and Drug ...

  13. Hanford Site technical baseline database. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    This report lists the Hanford specific files (Table 1) that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. Table 2 includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 0 of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. This information is being managed and maintained on the Hanford RDD-100 System, which uses the capabilities of RDD-100, a systems engineering software system of Ascent Logic Corporation (ALC). This revision of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database uses RDD-100 version 3.0.2.2 (see Table 3). Directories reflect those controlled by the Hanford RDD-100 System Administrator. Table 4 provides information regarding the platform. A cassette tape containing the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database is available

  14. Exercise and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation for the Treatment of Hepatic Steatosis in Hyperphagic OLETF Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Borengasser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. This study examined if exercise and omega-3 fatty acid (n3PUFA supplementation is an effective treatment for hepatic steatosis in obese, hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats. Methods. Male OLETF rats were divided into 4 groups (n=8/group: (1 remained sedentary (SED, (2 access to running wheels; (EX (3 a diet supplemented with 3% of energy from fish oil (n3PUFA-SED; and (4 n3PUFA supplementation plus EX (n3PUFA+EX. The 8 week treatments began at 13 weeks, when hepatic steatosis is present in OLETF-SED rats. Results. EX alone lowered hepatic triglyceride (TAG while, in contrast, n3PUFAs failed to lower hepatic TAG and blunted the ability of EX to decrease hepatic TAG levels in n3PUFAs+EX. Insulin sensitivity was improved in EX animals, to a lesser extent in n3PUFA+EX rats, and did not differ between n3PUFA-SED and SED rats. Only the EX group displayed higher complete hepatic fatty acid oxidation (FAO to CO2 and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 activity. EX also lowered hepatic fatty acid synthase protein while both EX and n3PUFA+EX decreased stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 protein. Conclusions. Exercise lowers hepatic steatosis through increased complete hepatic FAO, insulin sensitivity, and reduced expression of de novo fatty acid synthesis proteins while n3PUFAs had no effect.

  15. Hanford land disposal restrictions plan for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    Since the early 1940s, the Hanford Site has been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act. The State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) to bring Hanford Site Operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement was amended to require development of the Hanford Land Disposal Restrictions Plan for Mixed Wastes (this plan) to comply with land disposal restrictions requirements for radioactive mixed waste. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the this plan provides, the following sections: Waste Characterization Plan, Storage Report, Treatment Report, Treatment Plan, Waste Minimization Plan, a schedule, depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with land disposal restriction requirements, and a process for establishing interim milestones. 34 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs

  16. Hanford Site physical separations CERCLA treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This test plan describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct a physical separations soil treatability test in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site, Washington. The objective of this test is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems as a means of concentrating chemical and radioactive contaminants into fine soil fractions and thereby minimizing waste volumes. If successful the technology could be applied to clean up millions of cubic meters of contaminated soils in waste sites at Hanford and other sites. It is not the intent of this test to remove contaminated materials from the fine soils. Physical separation is a simple and comparatively low cost technology to potentially achieve a significant reduction in the volume of contaminated soils. Organic contaminants are expected to be insignificant for the 300-FF-I Operable Unit test, and further removal of metals and radioactive contaminants from the fine fraction of soils will require secondary treatment such as chemical extraction, electromagnetic separation, or other technologies. Additional investigations/testing are recommended to assess the economic and technical feasibility of applying secondary treatment technologies, but are not within the scope of this test. This plan provides guidance and specifications for the treatability test to be conducted as a service contract. More detailed instructions and procedures will be provided as part of the vendors (sellers) proposal. The procedures will be approved by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and finalized by the seller prior to initiating the test

  17. Hanford land disposal restrictions plan for mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    Since the early 1940s, the Hanford Site has been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act. The State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) to bring Hanford Site Operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement was amended to require development of the Hanford Land Disposal Restrictions Plan for Mixed Wastes (this plan) to comply with land disposal restrictions requirements for radioactive mixed waste. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the this plan provides, the following sections: Waste Characterization Plan, Storage Report, Treatment Report, Treatment Plan, Waste Minimization Plan, a schedule, depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with land disposal restriction requirements, and a process for establishing interim milestones. 34 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs.

  18. HIGH ALUMINUM HLW GLASSES FOR HANFORD'S WTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Joseph, I.; Bowman, B.W.; Gan, H.; Kot, W.; Matlack, K.S.; Pegg, I.L

    2009-01-01

    The world's largest radioactive waste vitrification facility is now under construction at the United State Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is designed to treat nearly 53 million gallons of mixed hazardous and radioactive waste now residing in 177 underground storage tanks. This multi-decade processing campaign will be one of the most complex ever undertaken because of the wide chemical and physical variability of the waste compositions generated during the cold war era that are stored at Hanford. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated a program to improve the long-term operating efficiency of the WTP vitrification plants with the objective of reducing the overall cost of tank waste treatment and disposal and shortening the duration of plant operations. Due to the size, complexity and duration of the WTP mission, the lifecycle operating and waste disposal costs are substantial. As a result, gains in High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) waste loadings, as well as increases in glass production rate, which can reduce mission duration and glass volumes for disposal, can yield substantial overall cost savings. EnergySolutions and its long-term research partner, the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of the Catholic University of America, have been involved in a multi-year ORP program directed at optimizing various aspects of the HLW and LAW vitrification flow sheets. A number of Hanford HLW streams contain high concentrations of aluminum, which is challenging with respect to both waste loading and processing rate. Therefore, a key focus area of the ORP vitrification process optimization program at EnergySolutions and VSL has been development of HLW glass compositions that can accommodate high Al 2 O 3 concentrations while maintaining high processing rates in the Joule Heated Ceramic Melters (JHCMs) used for waste vitrification at the WTP. This paper, reviews the

  19. Successful treatment of refractory TAFRO syndrome with elevated vascular endothelial growth factor using thyroxine supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Satoko; Ono, Kazuo; Nohgawa, Masaharu

    2018-04-01

    Although the clinical significance of hypothyroidism in TAFRO syndrome is unknown, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels decreased with improvements in the condition of our refractory TAFRO cases after thyroxine supplement therapy. Our results indicate that elevated VEGF levels are a potential factor in the pathogenesis and anasarca of TAFRO syndrome with hypothyroidism.

  20. Hanford Site environmental management specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grygiel, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) uses this Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification (Specification) to document top-level mission requirements and planning assumptions for the prime contractors involved in Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. This Specification describes at a top level the activities, facilities, and infrastructure necessary to accomplish the cleanup of the Hanford Site and assigns this scope to Site contractors and their respective projects. This Specification also references the key National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), and safety documentation necessary to accurately describe the cleanup at a summary level. The information contained in this document reflects RL's application of values, priorities, and critical success factors expressed by those involved with and affected by the Hanford Site project. The prime contractors and their projects develop complete baselines and work plans to implement this Specification. These lower-level documents and the data that support them, together with this Specification, represent the full set of requirements applicable to the contractors and their projects. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this Specification to the other basic Site documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this specification represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents

  1. Hanford Site Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Plan (HWMP) was prepared in accordance with the outline and format described in the US Department of Energy Orders. The HWMP presents the actions, schedules, and projected costs associated with the management and disposal of Hanford defense wastes, both radioactive and hazardous. The HWMP addresses the Waste Management Program. It does not include the Environmental Restoration Program, itself divided into the Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Program and the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. The executive summary provides the basis for the plans, schedules, and costs within the scope of the Waste Management Program at Hanford. It summarizes fiscal year (FY) 1988 including the principal issues and the degree to which planned activities were accomplished. It further provides a forecast of FY 1989 including significant milestones. Section 1 provides general information for the Hanford Site including the organization and administration associated with the Waste Management Program and a description of the Site focusing on waste management operations. Section 2 and Section 3 describe radioactive and mixed waste management operations and hazardous waste management, respectively. Each section includes descriptions of the waste management systems and facilities, the characteristics of the wastes managed, and a discussion of the future direction of operations

  2. Differential turbidity measurements at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laulainen, N.S.; Bates, J.A.; Kleckner, E.W.; Michalsky, J.J.; Schrotke, P.M.; Thorp, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment to exmine differential turbidity effects on measured insolation between the Rattlesnake Observatory and the Hanford Meteorological Station was conducted during summer 1977. Several types of solar radiation instruments were used, including pyranometers, multiwavelength sunphotometers, and an active cavity radiometer. Preliminary results show dramatic temporal variability of aerosol loading at HMS and significant insolation and turbidity differences between the Observatory and HMS

  3. Hanford Site environmental management specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.

    1998-06-10

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) uses this Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification (Specification) to document top-level mission requirements and planning assumptions for the prime contractors involved in Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. This Specification describes at a top level the activities, facilities, and infrastructure necessary to accomplish the cleanup of the Hanford Site and assigns this scope to Site contractors and their respective projects. This Specification also references the key National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), and safety documentation necessary to accurately describe the cleanup at a summary level. The information contained in this document reflects RL`s application of values, priorities, and critical success factors expressed by those involved with and affected by the Hanford Site project. The prime contractors and their projects develop complete baselines and work plans to implement this Specification. These lower-level documents and the data that support them, together with this Specification, represent the full set of requirements applicable to the contractors and their projects. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this Specification to the other basic Site documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this specification represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents.

  4. Mortality of Hanford radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of occupational exposure to low level ionizing radiation at the Hanford plant in southeastern Washington were investigated. Death rates were related to exposure status. To provide perspective, the rates were also compared with the death rates of the US population

  5. Hanford site operator changes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is a brief discussion of management changes at the Westinghouse Hanford Corporation. A. LeMar Trego has relieved Thomas Anderson as president of WHC. This was in response to recent shortcomings in Westinghouse's management of the environmental restoration and their failure to receive a $10M performance bonus

  6. TRACKING CLEAN UP AT HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNELL, C.W.

    2005-01-01

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA), is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), The Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for cleaning up the Hanford Site. Established in the 1940s to produce material for nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford is often referred to as the world's large environmental cleanup project. The Site covers more than 580 square miles in a relatively remote region of southeastern Washington state in the US. The production of nuclear materials at Hanford has left a legacy of tremendous proportions in terms of hazardous and radioactive waste. From a waste-management point of view, the task is enormous: 1700 waste sites; 450 billion gallons of liquid waste; 70 billion gallons of contaminated groundwater; 53 million gallons of tank waste; 9 reactors; 5 million cubic yards of contaminated soil; 22 thousand drums of mixed waste; 2.3 tons of spent nuclear fuel; and 17.8 metric tons of plutonium-bearing material and this is just a partial listing. The agreement requires that DOE provide the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to the lead regulatory agency to help guide then in making decisions. The agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in it, or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The Action Plan that supports the TPA requires that Ecology and EPA have access to all data that is relevant to work performed, or to be performed, under the Agreement. Further, the Action Plan specifies two additional requirements: (1) that EPA, Ecology and their respective contractor staffs have access to all the information electronically, and (2) that the databases are accessible to, and used by, all personnel doing TPA

  7. N-Acetyl Cysteine and Vitamin D Supplementation in Treatment Resistant Obsessive- compulsive Disorder Patients: a General Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Michele, Flavia; Siracusano, Alberto; Talamo, Alessandra; Niolu, Cinzia

    2018-04-17

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling mental illness for which pharmacological and psychosocial interventions are all too often inadequate. This demonstrates the need for more targeted therapeutics. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have implicated dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of OCD. Moreover there are studies suggesting that neuroimmune abnormalities may play an important role in the pathogenesis of OCD. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a safe and readily available agent that would modify the synaptic release of glutamate in subcortical brain regions via modulation of the cysteine-glutamate antiporter. The modulation of inflammatory pathways may also play a role in the benefits seen following NAC treatment. Therefore NAC can be considered a neuroprotective agent. This paper explores the role of NAC in the treatment of OCD conditions refractory to first-line pharmacological interventions, reviewing the clinical studies published in the last decade. The possible benefit mechanisms of NAC for this disorder will be discussed, as well as the role of vitamin D supplementation, given its specific property of stimulating the formation of glutathione in the brain. Nutraceutical supplementation in treatment resistance OCD may be important not only for improving obsessive-compulsive symptomatology, but also from a psychological perspective, given its better acceptance by the patients compared to pharmacological treatment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Hanford Central Waste Complex: Radioactive mixed waste storage facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Site is owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland. The Hanford Site manages and produces dangerous waste and mixed waste (containing both radioactive and dangerous components). The dangerous waste is regulated in accordance with the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act of 1976. The radioactive component of mixed waste is interpreted by the US Department of Energy to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the nonradioactive dangerous component of mixed waste is interpreted to be regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and Washington Administrative Code 173--303. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland and serves as co-operator of the Hanford Central Waste Complex. The Hanford Central Waste Complex is an existing and planned series of treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that will centralize the management of solid waste operations at a single location on the Hanford facility. The Hanford Central Waste Complex units include the Radioactive Mixed Waste Storage Facility, the unit addressed by this permit application, and the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility. The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility is covered in a separate permit application submittal

  9. Hanford Site waste management units report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of the 1984. This report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site, including a description of the units and the waste they contain. Waste management units in the report include: (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structures, (5) RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of the units report, the list of units is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of the 1984. In Sections 3.0 through 6.0 of this report, the four aggregate areas are subdivided into their operable units. The operable units are further divided into two parts: (1) those waste management units assigned to the operable unit that will be remediated as part of the Environmental Restoration Remedial Actions (ERRA) Program, and (2) those waste management units located within the operable unit boundaries but not assigned to the ERRA program. Only some operable unit sections contain the second part

  10. Hanford site transuranic waste certification plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A, ''Radioactive Waste Management, and the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant' (DOE 1996d) (WIPP WAC). The WIPP WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WIPP WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their management of TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WIPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter41 (TRUPACT-11). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-I1 requirements in the ''Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package'' (NRC 1997) (TRUPACT-I1 SARP)

  11. Selenium supplementation of Portuguese wheat cultivars through foliar treatment in actual field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catarina Galinha; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Maria do Carmo Freitas; Jose Coutinho; Benvindo Macas; Ana Sofia Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element essential to the well-being and health quality of humankind. Plant-derived foodstuffs, namely cereals, are the major dietary sources of Se in most countries throughout the world, even if Se contents are strongly dependent upon the corresponding levels in cereal-growing soils. Therefore, wheat is one of the staple crops that appears as an obvious candidate for Se biofortification, considering its gross-tonnage production and nutritional relevance worldwide. The present paper focuses on the ability of bread and durum wheat-Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum durum Desf., respectively-to accumulate Se after supplementation via a foliar-addition procedure. Two of the most representative wheat cultivars in Portugal - Jordao (bread) and Marialva (durum) - have been selected for supplementation trials, following the same agronomic practices and field schedules as the regular (non-supplemented) crops of those varieties (sowing: November 2010; harvesting: July 2011). Foliar additions were performed at the booting and grain-filling stages, using sodium selenate and sodium selenite solutions at three different Se concentrations-equivalent to field supplementation rates of 4, 20 and 100 g of Se per ha-with and without potassium iodide. Selenium contents in wheat grains obtained under foliar application are compared to data from regular wheat samples (field blanks) grown at the same soil/season, yet devoid of any Se supplementation. Total Se in all field samples was determined by cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA), via the short-lived nuclide 77m Se (half-life time: 17.5 s), in the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI; CTN-IST, Sacavem). Quality control of the analytical procedure was asserted through concurrent analyses of NIST-SRM R 1567a (Wheat Flour). Results show that foliar additions can increase Se contents in mature grains up to 15 and 40 times for Marialva and Jordao, respectively, when compared to non-supplemented crops. Jordao and

  12. Review of technologies for the pretreatment of retrieved single-shell tank waste at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.

    1992-08-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to identify and evaluate innovative processes that could be used to pretreat mixed waste retrieved from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) on the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site. The information was collected as part of the Single Shell Tank Waste Treatment project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The project is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company under their SST Disposal Program

  13. Alternatives to land disposal of solid radioactive mixed wastes on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, P.H.

    1992-03-01

    This report is a detailed description of the generation and management of land disposal restricted mixed waste generated, treated, and stored at the Hanford Site. This report discusses the land disposal restricted waste (mixed waste) managed at the Hanford Site by point of generation and current storage locations. The waste is separated into groups on the future treatment of the waste before disposal. This grouping resulted in the definition of 16 groups or streams of land disposal restricted waste

  14. Electrochemical organic destruction in support of Hanford tank waste pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, W.E.; Surma, J.E.; Gervais, K.L.; Buehler, M.F.; Pillay, G.; Schmidt, A.J.

    1994-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, has 177 underground storage tanks that contain approximately 61 million gallons of radioactive waste. The current cleanup strategy is to retrieve the waste and separate components into high-level and low-level waste. However, many of the tanks contain organic compounds that create concerns associated with tank safety and efficiency of anticipated separation processes. Therefore, a need exists for technologies that can safely and efficiently destroy organic compounds. Laboratory-scale studies conducted during FY 93 have shown proof-of-principle for electrochemical destruction of organics. Electrochemical oxidation is an inherently safe technology and shows promise for treating Hanford complexant concentrate aqueous/ slurry waste. Therefore, in support of Hanford tank waste pretreatment needs, the development of electrochemical organic destruction (ECOD) technology has been undertaken. The primary objective of this work is to develop an electrochemical treatment process for destroying organic compounds, including tank waste complexants. Electroanalytical analyses and bench-scale flow cell testing will be conducted to evaluate the effect of anode material and process operating conditions on the rate of organic destruction. Cyclic voltammetry will be used to identify oxygen overpotentials for the anode materials and provide insight into reaction steps for the electrochemical oxidation of complexants. In addition, a bench-scale flow cell evaluation will be conducted to evaluate the influence of process operating conditions and anode materials on the rate and efficiency of organic destruction using the nonradioactive a Hanford tank waste simulant

  15. Degradation of dome cutting minerals in Hanford waste-13100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.; Huber, Heinz J.; Cooke, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    At the Hanford Tank Farms, recent changes in retrieval technology require cutting new risers in several single-shell tanks. The Hanford Tank Farm Operator is using water jet technology with abrasive silicate minerals such as garnet or olivine to cut through the concrete and rebar dome. The abrasiveness of these minerals, which become part of the high-level waste stream, may enhance the erosion of waste processing equipment. However, garnet and olivine are not thermodynamically stable in Hanford waste, slowly degrading over time. How likely these materials are to dissolve completely in the waste before the waste is processed in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant can be evaluated using theoretical analysis for olivine and collected direct experimental evidence for garnet. Based on an extensive literature study, a large number of primary silicates decompose into sodalite and cancrinite when exposed to Hanford waste. Given sufficient time, the sodalite also degrades into cancrinite. Even though cancrinite has not been directly added to any Hanford tanks during process times, it is the most common silicate observed in current Hanford waste. By analogy, olivine and garnet are expected to ultimately also decompose into cancrinite. Garnet used in a concrete cutting demonstration was immersed in a simulated supernate representing the estimated composition of the liquid retrieving waste from Hanford tank 241-C-107 at both ambient and elevated temperatures. This simulant was amended with extra NaOH to determine if adding caustic would help enhance the degradation rate of garnet. The results showed that the garnet degradation rate was highest at the highest NaOH concentration and temperature. At the end of 12 weeks, however, the garnet grains were mostly intact, even when immersed in 2 molar NaOH at 80 deg C. Cancrinite was identified as the degradation product on the surface of the garnet grains. In the case of olivine, the rate of degradation in the high-pH regimes

  16. Degradation of Dome Cutting Minerals in Hanford Waste - 13100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.; Cooke, Gary A.; Huber, Heinz J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O. Box 850, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    At the Hanford Tank Farms, recent changes in retrieval technology require cutting new risers in several single-shell tanks. The Hanford Tank Farm Operator is using water jet technology with abrasive silicate minerals such as garnet or olivine to cut through the concrete and rebar dome. The abrasiveness of these minerals, which become part of the high-level waste stream, may enhance the erosion of waste processing equipment. However, garnet and olivine are not thermodynamically stable in Hanford waste, slowly degrading over time. How likely these materials are to dissolve completely in the waste before the waste is processed in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant can be evaluated using theoretical analysis for olivine and collected direct experimental evidence for garnet. Based on an extensive literature study, a large number of primary silicates decompose into sodalite and cancrinite when exposed to Hanford waste. Given sufficient time, the sodalite also degrades into cancrinite. Even though cancrinite has not been directly added to any Hanford tanks during process times, it is the most common silicate observed in current Hanford waste. By analogy, olivine and garnet are expected to ultimately also decompose into cancrinite. Garnet used in a concrete cutting demonstration was immersed in a simulated supernate representing the estimated composition of the liquid retrieving waste from Hanford tank 241-C-107 at both ambient and elevated temperatures. This simulant was amended with extra NaOH to determine if adding caustic would help enhance the degradation rate of garnet. The results showed that the garnet degradation rate was highest at the highest NaOH concentration and temperature. At the end of 12 weeks, however, the garnet grains were mostly intact, even when immersed in 2 molar NaOH at 80 deg. C. Cancrinite was identified as the degradation product on the surface of the garnet grains. In the case of olivine, the rate of degradation in the high

  17. Raptors of the Hanford Site and nearby areas of southcentral Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Rogers, L.E.

    1981-05-01

    This report is concerned with the birds of prey which use the Hanford Site not only during the nesting season but throughout the year. An ecological treatment of five nesting owls (great horned, long-eared, short-eared, barn and burrowing) and five nesting hawks (marsh hawk, red-tailed hawk, Swainson's hawk, prairie falcon and American kestrel) is provided and supportive information on non-nesting species is presented. Factors which control raptor densities and population dynamics throughout all seasons of the year are discussed. Information is also provided for raptors from other areas of southcentral Washington in order to yield a comprehensive picture of how the Hanford Site fits in with regional bird of prey populations. The following were the objectives of this study: (1) to determine the numbers of birds of prey nesting on the Hanford Site, (2) to document the reproductive chronology of each nesting raptor species, (3) to provide analyses of food habits of birds of prey on the Hanford Site coupled with prey abundance data, (4) to determine the productivity of the dominant large birds of prey on the Hanford Site, (5) to determine the distribution and land use patterns of all raptors on the Hanford Site, (6) to determine the kinds and relative abundance of non-nesting raptors on the Hanford Site and adjacent areas of southcentral Washington (7) to document present land use practices on the Hanford Site and their effects on raptors, (8) to document radionuclide levels in birds of prey on the Hanford Site, and (9) to determine the role of birds of prey in radioecological monitoring

  18. Raptors of the Hanford Site and nearby areas of southcentral Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Rogers, L.E.

    1981-05-01

    This report is concerned with the birds of prey which use the Hanford Site not only during the nesting season but throughout the year. An ecological treatment of five nesting owls (great horned, long-eared, short-eared, barn and burrowing) and five nesting hawks (marsh hawk, red-tailed hawk, Swainson's hawk, prairie falcon and American kestrel) is provided and supportive information on non-nesting species is presented. Factors which control raptor densities and population dynamics throughout all seasons of the year are discussed. Information is also provided for raptors from other areas of southcentral Washington in order to yield a comprehensive picture of how the Hanford Site fits in with regional bird of prey populations. The following were the objectives of this study: (1) to determine the numbers of birds of prey nesting on the Hanford Site, (2) to document the reproductive chronology of each nesting raptor species, (3) to provide analyses of food habits of birds of prey on the Hanford Site coupled with prey abundance data, (4) to determine the productivity of the dominant large birds of prey on the Hanford Site, (5) to determine the distribution and land use patterns of all raptors on the Hanford Site, (6) to determine the kinds and relative abundance of non-nesting raptors on the Hanford Site and adjacent areas of southcentral Washington (7) to document present land use practices on the Hanford Site and their effects on raptors, (8) to document radionuclide levels in birds of prey on the Hanford Site, and (9) to determine the role of birds of prey in radioecological monitoring.

  19. Deploying in situ bioremediation at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truex, M.J.; Johnson, C.D.; Newcomer, D.R.; Doremus, L.A.; Hooker, B.S.; Peyton, B.M.; Skeen, R.S.; Chilakapati, A.

    1994-11-01

    An innovative in-situ bioremediation technology was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to destroy nitrate and carbon tetrachloride (CC1 4 ) in the Hanford ground water. The goal of this in-situ treatment process is to stimulate native microorganisms to degrade nitrate and CCl 4 . Nutrient solutions are distributed in the contaminated aquifer to create a biological treatment zone. This technology is being demonstrated at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site to provide the design, operating, and cost information needed to assess its effectiveness in contaminated ground water. The process design and field operations for demonstration of this technology are influenced by the physical, chemical, and microbiological properties observed at the site. A description of the technology is presented including the well network design, nutrient injection equipment, and means for controlling the hydraulics and microbial reactions of the treatment process

  20. Treatment of an adrenomyeloneuropathy patient with Lorenzo's oil and supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid-A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Jacobus J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a case report of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN, the adult variant of adrenoleukodystryphy (ALD. The diagnoses in the patient, aged 34, was confirmed via increased serum very long chain fatty acid concentration (VLCFA. Treatment started with the cholesterol lowering drug, atorvastatin, followed by add-on therapy with Lorenzo's oil (LO and finally supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of the AMN patient before DHA treatment, already showed abnormal white matter in the brain. Although the MRI showed no neurological improvement after 6 months of DHA treatment, no selective progression of demyelination was detected in the AMN patient. Contrary to what was expected, LO failed to sustain or normalize the VLCFA levels or improve clinical symptoms. It was however, shown that DHA supplementation in addition to LO, increased DHA levels in both plasma and red blood cells (RBC. Additionally, the study showed evidence that the elongase activity in the elongation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA might have been significantly compromised, due to the increased DHA levels.

  1. Hanford/Rocky Flats collaboration on development of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction to treat mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, D.W.; Biyani, R.K.; Brown, C.M.; Teter, W.L.

    1995-11-01

    Proposals for demonstration work under the Department of Energy's Mixed Waste Focus Area, during the 1996 through 1997 fiscal years included two applications of supercritical carbon dioxide to mixed waste pretreatment. These proposals included task RF15MW58 of Rocky Flats and task RL46MW59 of Hanford. Analysis of compatibilities in wastes and work scopes yielded an expectation of substantial collaboration between sites whereby Hanford waste streams may undergo demonstration testing at Rocky Flats, thereby eliminating the need for test facilities at Hanford. This form of collaboration is premised the continued deployment at Rocky Flats and the capability for Hanford samples to be treated at Rocky Flats. The recent creation of a thermal treatment contract for a facility near Hanford may alleviate the need to conduct organic extraction upon Rocky Flats wastes by providing a cost effective thermal treatment alternative, however, some waste streams at Hanford will continue to require organic extraction. Final site waste stream treatment locations are not within the scope of this document

  2. Hanford/Rocky Flats collaboration on development of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction to treat mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W.; Biyani, R.K. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Brown, C.M.; Teter, W.L. [Kaiser-Hill Co., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Proposals for demonstration work under the Department of Energy`s Mixed Waste Focus Area, during the 1996 through 1997 fiscal years included two applications of supercritical carbon dioxide to mixed waste pretreatment. These proposals included task RF15MW58 of Rocky Flats and task RL46MW59 of Hanford. Analysis of compatibilities in wastes and work scopes yielded an expectation of substantial collaboration between sites whereby Hanford waste streams may undergo demonstration testing at Rocky Flats, thereby eliminating the need for test facilities at Hanford. This form of collaboration is premised the continued deployment at Rocky Flats and the capability for Hanford samples to be treated at Rocky Flats. The recent creation of a thermal treatment contract for a facility near Hanford may alleviate the need to conduct organic extraction upon Rocky Flats wastes by providing a cost effective thermal treatment alternative, however, some waste streams at Hanford will continue to require organic extraction. Final site waste stream treatment locations are not within the scope of this document.

  3. Appendix F: Supplemental Risk Management Program Guidance for Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detail for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), including publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and other industrial treatment systems, on complying with part 68 with respect to chlorine, ammonia (anhydrous and aqueous), sulfur dioxide, and digester gas.

  4. History of Hanford Site Defense Production (Brief)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GERBER, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper acquaints the audience with the history of the Hanford Site, America's first full-scale defense plutonium production site. The paper includes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War II construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), a brief production spurt from 1984-86, the end of the Cold War, and the beginning of the waste cleanup mission. The paper also delineates historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, past efforts to chemically treat, ''fractionate,'' and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes, and resulting major waste legacies that remain today. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history

  5. Historical genesis of Hanford Site wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper acquaints the audience with historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, and with the generation of the major waste streams of concern in Hanford Site clean-up today. The paper also describes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War 11 construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), and some past suggestions and efforts to chemically treat, open-quotes fractionate,close quotes and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes. Recent events, including the designation of the Hanford Site as the open-quotes flagshipclose quotes of Department of Energy (DOE) waste remediation efforts and the signing of the landmark Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), have generated new interest in Hanford's history. Clean-up milestones dictated in this agreement demand information about how, when, in what quantities and mixtures, and under what conditions, Hanford Site wastes were generated and released. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. The earliest, 1940s knowledge base, assumptions and calculations about radioactive and chemical discharges, as discussed in the memos, correspondence and reports of the original Hanford Site (then Hanford Engineer Works) builders and operators, are reviewed. The growth of knowledge, research efforts, and subsequent changes in Site waste disposal policies and practices are traced. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history

  6. Potential radiation doses from 1994 Hanford Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldat, J.K.; Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the potential radiation doses to the public from releases originating at the Hanford Site. Members of the public are potentially exposed to low-levels of radiation from these effluents through a variety of pathways. The potential radiation doses to the public were calculated for the hypothetical MEI and for the general public residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the Hanford Site.

  7. Potential radiation doses from 1994 Hanford Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldat, J.K.; Antonio, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the potential radiation doses to the public from releases originating at the Hanford Site. Members of the public are potentially exposed to low-levels of radiation from these effluents through a variety of pathways. The potential radiation doses to the public were calculated for the hypothetical MEI and for the general public residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the Hanford Site

  8. Oral Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Acute Diarrhea in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Lamberti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence supporting the impact of therapeutic zinc supplementation on the duration and severity of diarrhea among children under five is largely derived from studies conducted in South Asia. China experiences a substantial portion of the global burden of diarrhea, but the impact of zinc treatment among children under five has not been well documented by previously published systematic reviews on the topic. We therefore conducted a systematic literature review, which included an exhaustive search of the Chinese literature, in an effort to update previously published estimates of the effect of therapeutic zinc. We conducted systematic literature searches in various databases, including the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, and abstracted relevant data from studies meeting our inclusion and exclusion criteria. We used STATA 12.0 to pool select outcomes and to generate estimates of percentage difference and relative risk comparing outcomes between zinc and control groups. We identified 89 Chinese and 15 non-Chinese studies for the review, including studies in 10 countries from all WHO geographic regions, and analyzed a total of 18,822 diarrhea cases (9469 zinc and 9353 control. None of the included Chinese studies had previously been included in published pooled effect estimates. Chinese and non-Chinese studies reported the effect of therapeutic zinc supplementation on decreased episode duration, stool output, stool frequency, hospitalization duration and proportion of episodes lasting beyond three and seven days. Pooling Chinese and non-Chinese studies yielded an overall 26% (95% CI: 20%−32% reduction in the estimated relative risk of diarrhea lasting beyond three days among zinc-treated children. Studies conducted in and outside China report reductions in morbidity as a result of oral therapeutic zinc supplementation for acute diarrhea among children under five years of age. The WHO recommendation for zinc treatment of diarrhea

  9. Treatment patterns of youth with bipolar disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, Gabriela Kattan; Cui, Lihong; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries; Angst, Jules

    2015-02-01

    Despite growing evidence that bipolar disorder often emerges in adolescence, there are limited data regarding treatment patterns of youth with bipolar disorder in community samples. Our objective was to present the prevalence and clinical correlates of treatment utilization for a nationally representative sample of US adolescents with bipolar disorder. Analyses are based on data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement, a face-to-face survey of 10,123 adolescents (ages 13-18) identified in household and school settings. We found that of adolescents meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I or II disorder (N = 250), 49 % were treated for depression or mania, 13 % were treated for conditions other than depression or mania, and 38 % did not report receiving treatment. Treatment for depression or mania was associated with increased rates of suicide attempts, as well as greater role disability and more comorbid alcohol use relative to those who had not received treatment. Treated adolescents had triple the rate of ADHD and double the rates of behavior disorders than those without treatment. Our findings demonstrate that a substantial proportion of youth with bipolar disorder do not receive treatment, and of those who do, many receive treatment for comorbid conditions rather than for their mood-related symptoms. Treatment was more common among youth with severe manifestations and consequences of bipolar disorder and those with behavior problems. These trends highlight the need to identify barriers to treatment for adolescents with bipolar disorder and demonstrate that those in treatment are not representative of youth with bipolar disorder in the general population.

  10. Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge using reactor waste to obtain acceptable fertilizer or animal supplement feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivinski, H.D.

    1976-01-01

    This document is a report of the Beneficial Uses Program. This program consists of a number of activities at Sandia Laboratories to develop the necessary technology for cost-beneficial use of a maximum amount of radioactive waste. Major activity is currently concentrated in the Waste Resources Utilization Program which has as its objective the use of cesium-134/137 as a gamma radiation source, coupled with modest heating, to treat sewage sludge to rid it of pathogenic organisms so that it may safely be used as a fertilizer or a feed supplement for ruminant animals. (author)

  11. Vitamin D supplementation for treatment of seasonal affective symptoms in healthcare professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tenna Bloch; Pareek, Manan; Hansen, Jens Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) have been associated with a higher likelihood of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and poor mental well-being, yet firm evidence for either remains lacking. Thus, vitamin D supplementation may alleviate symptoms associated with SAD. METHODS...... for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Seasonal Affective Disorders (SIGH-SAD). The secondary outcome was World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) of the healthcare professionals during the winter period and the exploratory outcome measures were weight, waist circumference, blood pressure...

  12. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  13. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betsch, M.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-26

    The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) is a pro- active way to look at a waste generating activity and identify opportunities to minimize wastes through a cost benefit analysis. Hanford`s PPOA process is based upon the graded approach developed by the Kansas City Plant. Hanford further streamlined the process while building in more flexibility for the individual users. One of the most challenging aspects for implementing the PPOA process at Hanford is one overall mission which is environmental restoration, Now that the facilities are no longer in production, each has a different non- routine activity making it difficult to quantify the inputs and outputs of the activity under consideration.

  14. HANFORD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY NEEDS STATEMENTS 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WIBLE, R.A.

    2002-04-01

    This document: (a) provides a comprehensive listing of the Hanford sites science and technology needs for fiscal year (FY) 2002; and (b) identifies partnering and commercialization opportunities within industry, other federal and state agencies, and the academic community. These needs were prepared by the Hanford projects (within the Project Hanford Management Contract, the Environmental Restoration Contract and the River Protection Project) and subsequently reviewed and endorsed by the Hanford Site Technology Coordination Group (STCG). The STCG reviews included participation of DOE-RL and DOE-ORP Management, site stakeholders, state and federal regulators, and Tribal Nations. These needs are reviewed and updated on an annual basis and given a broad distribution.

  15. Field trip guide to the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, S.P.; Lindsey, K.A.; Fecht, K.R.

    1992-11-01

    This report is designed to provide a guide to the key geologic and hydrologic features of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site located in south-central Washington. The guide is divided into two parts. The first part is a general introduction to the geology of the Hanford Site and its relation to the regional framework of south-central Washington. The second part is a road log that provides directions to important geologic features on the Hanford Site and descriptions of the locality. The exposures described were chosen for their accessibility and importance to the geologic history of the Hanford Site and to understanding the geohydrology of the Site

  16. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities

  17. Mortality of Hanford radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1980-01-01

    Mortality from all causes for white males employed at Hanford for at least two years is 75 percent of that expected on the basis of US vital statistics. Mortality from cancer is 85 percent of that expected. These results are typical of a working population. Neither death from all causes nor death from all cancer types shows a positive correlation with external radiation exposures. Myeloid leukemia, the disease that several studies have found to be associated most strongly with radiation exposure, is not correlated with external radiation exposure of Hanford workers. Two specific cancers, multiple myeloma and to a lesser extent cancer of the pancreas, were found to be positively correlated with radiation exposure. The correlations identified result entirely from a small number of deaths (3 each for multiple myeloma and cancer of the pancreas) with cumulative exposure greater than 15 rem

  18. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMakin, A.H.; Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. Progress is discussed

  19. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs

  20. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Well subject area of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) manages data relevant to wells, boreholes and test pits constructed at the Hanford Site for soil sampling, geologic analysis and/or ground-water monitoring, and sampling for hydrochemical and radiological analysis. Data stored in the Well subject area include information relevant to the construction of the wells and boreholes, structural modifications to existing wells and boreholes, the location of wells, boreholes and test pits, and the association of wells, boreholes and test pits with organization entities such as waste sites. Data resulting from ground-water sampling performed at wells are stored in tables in the Ground-Water subject area. Geologic data collected during drilling, including particle sizing and interpretative geologic summaries, are stored in tables in the Geologic subject area. Data from soil samples taken during the drilling or excavation and sent for chemical and/or radiological analysis are stored in the Soil subject area

  1. Meta-Analysis of the Related Nutritional Supplements Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Methylsulfonylmethane in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimethyl sulphoxide and methylsulfonylmethane are two related nutritional supplements used for symptomatic relief of osteoarthritis (OA. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate their efficacy in reducing pain associated with OA. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs, identified by systematic electronic searches, citation tracking and searches of clinical trial registries, assessing these supplements in osteoarthritis of any joint were considered for inclusion. Meta-analysis, based on difference in mean pain related outcomes between treatment and comparator groups, was carried out based on a random effect model. Seven potential trials were identified of which three RCTs, two DMSO and one MSM (total N=326 patients were eligible for inclusion. All three trials were considered high methodological quality. A significant degree of heterogeneity (χ2=6.28, P=.043 was revealed. Two studies demonstrated statistically significant (but not clinically relevant reduction in pain compared with controls; with one showing no group difference. The meta-analysis confirmed a non significant reduction of pain on visual analogue scale of 6.34 mm (SE = 3.49, 95% CI, −0.49, 13.17. The overall effect size of 1.82 was neither statistically nor clinically significant. Current evidence suggests DMSO and MSM are not clinically effective in the reduction of pain in the treatment of OA. No definitive conclusions can currently be drawn from the data due to the mixed findings and the use of inadequate dosing periods.

  2. Effects of anthelmintic treatment and feed supplementation on grazing Tuli weaner steers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Magaya

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Tuli cattle and the effect of dietary protein supplementation and anthelmintic treatment on productivity in young growing cattle. Forty steers with an average age of 18 months were divided into 4 groups; 1 fenbendazole (slow release bolus and cottonseed meal (FCSM group, 2 fenbendazole (FBZ group, 3 cottonseed meal (CSM group and 4 control (no cottonseed meal and no fenbendazole (control group. Performance parameters measured included wormeggs per gram of faeces (EPG, packed cell volume (PCV, albumin and live-weight gain. Results showed that faecal worm egg counts were lower and PCV was higher in the FCSM and FBZ groups than in the CSM and control groups (P < 0.01. Weight gains were higher in the CSMand FCSM groups than in the FBZ and control groups (P < 0.05. The cost benefits of anthelmintic treatment and dietary supplementation were apparent in this study. The improved growth performance of the FCSM, FBZ and CSM groups reflected a financial gain over the controls on termination of the study. The dominant genera of gastrointestinal nematodes on faecal culture, pasture larval counts and necropsy were Cooperia and Haemonchus. The incidences of Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum and Bunostomum were low.

  3. Hanford waste tank cone penetrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seda, R.Y.

    1995-12-01

    A new tool is being developed to characterize tank waste at the Hanford Reservation. This tool, known as the cone penetrometer, is capable of obtaining chemical and physical properties in situ. For the past 50 years, this tool has been used extensively in soil applications and now has been modified for usage in Hanford Underground Storage tanks. These modifications include development of new ''waste'' data models as well as hardware design changes to accommodate the hazardous and radioactive environment of the tanks. The modified cone penetrometer is scheduled to be deployed at Hanford by Fall 1996. At Hanford, the cone penetrometer will be used as an instrumented pipe which measures chemical and physical properties as it pushes through tank waste. Physical data, such as tank waste stratification and mechanical properties, is obtained through three sensors measuring tip pressure, sleeve friction and pore pressure. Chemical data, such as chemical speciation, is measured using a Raman spectroscopy sensor. The sensor package contains other instrumentation as well, including a tip and side temperature sensor, tank bottom detection and an inclinometer. Once the cone penetrometer has reached the bottom of the tank, a moisture probe will be inserted into the pipe. This probe is used to measure waste moisture content, water level, waste surface moisture and tank temperature. This paper discusses the development of this new measurement system. Data from the cone penetrometer will aid in the selection of sampling tools, waste tank retrieval process, and addressing various tank safety issues. This paper will explore various waste models as well as the challenges associated with tank environment

  4. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Biota subject area of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is to manage the data collected from samples of plants and animals. This includes both samples taken from the plant or animal or samples related to the plant or animal. Related samples include animal feces and animal habitat. Data stored in the Biota subject area include data about the biota samples taken, analysis results counts from population studies, and species distribution maps

  5. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Soil subject area of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is to manage the data acquired from soil samples, both geologic and surface, and sediment samples. Stored in the Soil subject area are data relevant to the soil samples, laboratory analytical results, and field measurements. The two major types of data make up the Soil subject area are data concerning the samples and data about the chemical and/or radiologic analyses of soil samples

  6. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  7. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports

  8. Quality Assurance Program Plan Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VOLKMAN, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (WMH), that implements the requirements of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC), HNF-MP-599, Project Hanford Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) document, and the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement with Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), Sections 6.5 and 7.8. WHM is responsible for the treatment, storage, and disposal of liquid and solid wastes generated at the Hanford Site as well as those wastes received from other US Department of Energy (DOE) and non-DOE sites. WMH operations include the Low-Level Burial Grounds, Central Waste Complex (a mixed-waste storage complex), a nonradioactive dangerous waste storage facility, the Transuranic Storage Facility, T Plant, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facility, 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility, the 242-A Evaporator, 300 Area Treatment Effluent Disposal Facility, the 340 Facility (a radioactive liquid waste handling facility), 222-S Laboratory, the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility, and the Hanford TRU Waste Program

  9. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, John C.

    2010-03-25

    The research described herein was undertaken to provide needed physical property descriptions of the Hanford transuranic tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging and transportation for disposal. The work addressed the development of a fundamental understanding of the types of systems represented by these sludge suspensions through correlation of the macroscopic rheological properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of the work have advanced existing understanding of the sedimentation and aggregation properties of complex colloidal suspensions. Bench scale models were investigated with respect to their structural, colloidal and rheological properties that should be useful for the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites.

  10. [Advances in the research of zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation treatment in patients with severe burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X X; Zhang, M J; Li, X B

    2018-01-20

    Zinc is one of the essential trace elements in human body, which plays an important role in regulating acute inflammatory response, glucose metabolism, anti-oxidation, immune and gastrointestinal function of patients with severe burns. Patients with severe burns may suffer from zinc deficiency because of insufficient amount of zinc intake from the diet and a large amount of zinc lose through wounds and urine. Zinc deficiency may affect their wound healing process and prognosis. This article reviews the characteristics of zinc metabolism in patients with severe burns through dynamic monitoring the plasma and urinary concentration of zinc. An adequate dosage of zinc supplemented to patients with severe burns by an appropriate method can increase the level of zinc in plasma and skin tissue and improve wound healing, as well as reduce the infection rates and mortality. At the same time, it is important to observe the symptoms and signs of nausea, dizziness, leukopenia and arrhythmia in patients with severe burns after supplementing excessive zinc.

  11. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is a consolidated set of automated resources that effectively manage the data gathered during environmental monitoring and restoration of the Hanford Site. HEIS includes an integrated database that provides consistent and current data to all users and promotes sharing of data by the entire user community. HEIS is an information system with an inclusive database. Although the database is the nucleus of the system, HEIS also provides user access software: query-by-form data entry, extraction, and browsing facilities; menu-driven reporting facilities; an ad hoc query facility; and a geographic information system (GIS). These features, with the exception of the GIS, are described in this manual set. Because HEIS contains data from the entire Hanford Site, many varieties of data are included and have.been divided into subject areas. Related subject areas comprise several volumes of the manual set. The manual set includes a data dictionary that lists all of the fields in the HEIS database, with their definitions and a cross reference of their locations in the database; definitions of data qualifiers for analytical results; and a mapping between the HEIS software functions and the keyboard keys for each of the supported terminals or terminal emulators

  12. Hanford Site surface environmental surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and the surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is a multimedia environmental monitoring program conducted to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemical contaminants in the environment and assess the integrated effects of these contaminants on the environment and the public. The monitoring program includes sampling air, surface water, sediments, soil, natural vegetation, agricultural products, fish, and wildlife. Functional elements inherent in the operation of the SESP include project management, quality assurance/control, training, records management, environmental sampling network design and implementation, sample collection, sample analysis, data management, data review and evaluation, exposure assessment, and reporting. The SESP focuses on those contaminant/media combinations calculated to have the highest potential for contributing to off-site exposure. Results of the SESP indicate that contaminant concentrations in the Hanford environs are very low, generally below environmental standards, at or below analytical detection levels, and indicative of environmental levels. However, areas of elevated contaminant concentrations have been identified at Hanford. The extent of these areas is generally limited to past operating areas and waste disposal sites

  13. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs

  14. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...

  15. Hanford Waste Transfer Planning and Control - 13465

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirch, N.W.; Uytioco, E.M.; Jo, J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, Washington (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Hanford tank waste cleanup requires efficient use of double-shell tank space to support single-shell tank retrievals and future waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Every waste transfer, including single-shell tank retrievals and evaporator campaign, is evaluated via the Waste Transfer Compatibility Program for compliance with safety basis, environmental compliance, operational limits and controls to enhance future waste treatment. Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes are stored at the Hanford Site on an interim basis until they can be treated, as necessary, for final disposal. Implementation of the Tank Farms Waste Transfer Compatibility Program helps to ensure continued safe and prudent storage and handling of these wastes within the Tank Farms Facility. The Tank Farms Waste Transfer Compatibility Program is a Safety Management Program that is a formal process for evaluating waste transfers and chemical additions through the preparation of documented Waste Compatibility Assessments (WCA). The primary purpose of the program is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures as the result of waste transfer operations. The program defines a consistent means of evaluating compliance with certain administrative controls, safety, operational, regulatory, and programmatic criteria and specifies considerations necessary to assess waste transfers and chemical additions. Current operations are most limited by staying within compliance with the safety basis controls to prevent flammable gas build up in the tank headspace. The depth of solids, the depth of supernatant, the total waste depth and the waste temperature are monitored and controlled to stay within the Compatibility Program rules. Also, transfer planning includes a preliminary evaluation against the Compatibility Program to assure that operating plans will comply with the Waste Transfer Compatibility Program. (authors)

  16. Effect of forage supplementation and alkali treatment of cocoa pod on the utilization of cocoa pod based diets by ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, O.B.

    1987-01-01

    Two treatment methods - forage supplementation and chemical treatment - both potentially capable of improving cocoa pod utilization by ruminants were evaluated. Forage supplementation, using Gliricidia sepium of cattle fed a 50% cocoa pod diet yielded no positive results. Consumption of Gliricidia was poor and equalled only 0.2 kg/head/d. Feed intake (4.6 versus 4.8 kg dry matter (DM)/d), growth rate (0.37 versus 0.40 kg/d) and feed/gain (12.7 versus 12.0) for control and test cattle were similar (P>0.05). Chemical treatment using cocoa pod ash solutions (PAS) - a caustic material - was more successful. Rumen digestibility (as determined by the nylon bag technique) of cocoa pods treated with PAS, equivalent in alkalinity to 2 (P 2 ), 4 (P 4 ), 6 (P 6 ) and 8% (P 8 ) NaOH, was linearly improved (P 0.05). Dry matter, ADF and NDF degradabilities increased (P 6 and 55, 46 and 42%, respectively, for P 8 treated samples. Dry matter digestibilities of cocoa pod based diets also increased (P 8 treated) in sheep and to 60% in goats. Nevertheless, treatment with P 8 solutions reduced (P 0.75 in sheep and from 48 to 42 g DM/kg W 0.75 in goats. Feed intake, however, was normal for diets containing P 6 treated cocoa pods (67 and 61 g DM/kg W 0.75 ) for sheep and goats, respectively. Cocoa pod ash for treating cocoa pods should therefore not be stronger than the P 6 level which corresponds in alkalinity to 6% NaOH. (author)

  17. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 242-A evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, 'operating' treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the 242-A Evaporator (this document, DOE/RL-90-42)

  18. Hanford 100-N Area Tracer Study Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, S.P.; Bedi, G.S.; Martinez, P.; Ervin, K.

    1996-09-01

    This document provides an engineering tracer study final report for the determination of contact time for the disinfection process at Group A Nontransient Noncommunity water treatment plant for the 100- N Water Plant (located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington). The purpose of this study is to determine the actual detention time within the plant clearwell, and the disinfection contact time at several clearwell effluent flow rates

  19. The Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supplement: 7 Sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Charles; Scudder, Meleney; Kaminer, Yifrah; Kaden, Ron

    This manual, a supplement to "Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1", presents a seven-session cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT7) approach designed especially for adolescent cannabis users. It addresses the implementation and…

  20. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package (TRUPACT-11 SARP). In

  1. Adherence to zinc supplementation guidelines for the treatment of diarrhea among children under–five in Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Lamberti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence on adherence to the recommended dose and duration of zinc supplementation for diarrheal episodes in children under five years of age. In selected districts of Uttar Pradesh, India, we sought to assess adherence to the nationally advised zinc treatment regimen (ie, 10 mg/day for ages 2–6 months and 20 mg/day for ages 7–59 months for 14 days among caregivers of zinc–prescribed children. We identified and conducted follow–up visits to children advised zinc for the treatment of diarrhea. At the initial visit, we collected data on the treatment instructions received from providers. Caregivers were asked to record treatments administered on a pictorial tracking form and were asked to retain all packaging for collection at follow–up. We quantified the average dose and duration of zinc therapy and built logistic regression models to assess the factors associated with caregiver adherence to national guidelines. Caregivers administered zinc for an average of 10.7 days (standard deviation (SD = 3.9 days; median = 13 days, and 47.8% continued treatment for the complete 14 days. Among children receiving zinc syrups and tablets respectively, the age appropriate dose was received by 30.8% and 67.3%. Adherence to age appropriate dose and continuation of zinc for 14 days were highly associated with having received appropriate provider instructions. Our results indicate moderate–to–good adherence to national zinc treatment guidelines for diarrhea among caregivers in rural India. Our findings also highlight the importance of provider guidance in ensuring adherence to zinc dose and duration. Programs aiming to scale–up zinc treatment for childhood diarrhea should train providers to successfully communicate dosing instructions to caregivers, while also addressing the tendency of caregivers to terminate treatment once a child appears to have recovered from an acute diarrheal episode.

  2. The Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Quality Assurance Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted interim groundwater remedial activities on the Hanford Site since the mid-1990s for several groundwater contamination plumes. DOE established the Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Project (Technologies Project) in 2006 to evaluate alternative treatment technologies. The objectives for the technology project are as follows: develop a 300 Area polyphosphate treatability test to immobilize uranium, design and test infiltration of a phosphate/apatite technology for Sr-90 at 100-N, perform carbon tetrachloride and chloroform attenuation parameter studies, perform vadose zone chromium characterization and geochemistry studies, perform in situ biostimulation of chromium studies for a reducing barrier at 100-D, and perform a treatability test for phytoremediation for Sr-90 at 100-N. This document provides the quality assurance guidelines that will be followed by the Technologies Project. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is based on the quality assurance requirements of DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance, and 10 CFR 830, Subpart A--Quality Assurance Requirements as delineated in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory?s Standards-Based Management System. In addition, the technology project is subject to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA/240/B-01/003, QA/R-5). The Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD, DOE/RL-96-68) apply to portions of this project and to the subcontractors. HASQARD requirements are discussed within applicable sections of this plan.

  3. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities

  4. Hanford Site waste management units report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of the 1984. This report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site, including a description of the units and the waste they contain. Waste management units in the report include: (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structures, (5) RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of the units report, the list of units is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of the 1984. In Sections 3.0 through 6.0 of this report, the four aggregate areas are subdivided into their operable units. The operable units are further divided into two parts: (1) those waste management units assigned to the operable unit that will be remediated as part of the Environmental Restoration Remedial Actions (ERRA) Program, and (2) those waste management units located within the operable unit boundaries but not assigned to the ERRA program. Only some operable unit sections contain the second part.Volume two contains Sections 4.0 through 6.0 and the following appendices: Appendix A -- acronyms and definition of terms; Appendix B -- unplanned releases that are not considered to be units; and Appendix C -- operable unit maps

  5. Improvement of Rice Straw for Ruminant Feed Through Unconventional Alkali Treatment and Supplementation of Various Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SNO Suwandyastuti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical treatments were conducted to increase the utilization of rice straw as feed for ruminant animals. Various sources of protein, minerals and energy should be added to improve the nutritive value of feeds. Two experiments were conducted in this study. The objective of the first experiments was to study the effect of chemical treatment on the ruminal fermentation products in cattle. Unconventional alkali treatment made from filtrate of a 10% rice hulls ash solution enriched with urea and minerals (treatment 1 increased volatile fatty acid (VFA production, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and rumen microbial protein synthesis (MPS. The maximum values of NH3-N production and rumen microbial protein synthesis were reached at 4 hours after incubation, while VFA was reached at 6 hours. The second experiment was conducted to study the increase of nutritive value of rice straw previously treated in experiment 1 through supplementation with various protein sources. Protein sources from the residues of vegetative oil production such as coconut, peanut and soybean showed higher responses compared to soy-sauce making residue and tofu making residue. The protein effluent production was highest (2.19 g/d at a VFA/NH3-N ration of 37.74 (r = 0.912. It can be recommended that protein sources from agro-industrial wastes can be used to increase the nutritive value and utilization of rice straw as ruminant feed. (Animal Production 12(2: 82-85 (2010Key Words: rice straw, rumen, fermentation

  6. Effects of supplemental vibrational force on space closure, treatment duration, and occlusal outcome: A multicenter randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBiase, Andrew T; Woodhouse, Neil R; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Johnson, Nicola; Slipper, Carmel; Grant, James; Alsaleh, Maryam; Khaja, Yousef; Cobourne, Martyn T

    2018-04-01

    A multicenter parallel 3-arm randomized clinical trial was carried out in 3 university hospitals in the United Kingdom to investigate the effect of supplemental vibratory force on space closure and treatment outcome with fixed appliances. Eighty-one subjects less than 20 years of age with mandibular incisor irregularity undergoing extraction-based fixed appliance treatment were randomly allocated to supplementary (20 minutes/day) use of an intraoral vibrational device (AcceleDent; OrthoAccel Technologies, Houston, Tex) (n = 29), an identical nonfunctional (sham) device (n = 25), or fixed-appliance only (n = 27). Space closure in the mandibular arch was measured from dental study casts taken at the start of space closure, at the next appointment, and at completion of space closure. Final records were taken at completion of treatment. Data were analyzed blindly on a per-protocol basis with descriptive statistics, 1-way analysis of variance, and linear regression modeling with 95% confidence intervals. Sixty-one subjects remained in the trial at start of space closure, with all 3 groups comparable for baseline characteristics. The overall median rate of initial mandibular arch space closure (primary outcome) was 0.89 mm per month with no difference for either the AcceleDent group (difference, -0.09 mm/month; 95% CI, -0.39 to 0.22 mm/month; P = 0.57) or the sham group (difference, -0.02 mm/month; 95% CI, -0.32 to 0.29 mm/month; P = 0.91) compared with the fixed only group. Similarly, no significant differences were identified between groups for secondary outcomes, including overall treatment duration (median, 18.6 months; P >0.05), number of visits (median, 12; P >0.05), and percentage of improvement in the Peer Assessment Rating (median, 90.0%; P >0.05). Supplemental vibratory force during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances does not affect space closure, treatment duration, total number of visits, or final occlusal outcome. NCT02314975

  7. Vascular Plants of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an updated listing of the vascular plants present on and near the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. This document is an update of a listing of plants prepared by Sackschewdky et al. in 1992. Since that time there has been a significant increase in the botanical knowledge of the Hanford Site. The present listing is based on an examination of herbarium collections held at PNNL, at WSU-Tri Cities, WSU-Pullman, Brigham Young University, and The University of Washington, and on examination of ecological literature derived from the Hanford and Benton county areas over the last 100 years. Based on the most recent analysis, there are approximately 725 different plant species that have been documented on or around the Hanford Site. This represents an approximate 20% increase in the number of species reported within Sackschewsky et al. (1992). This listing directly supports DOE and contractor efforts to assess the potential impacts of Hanford Site operations

  8. Hanford Patrol Academy demolition sites closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    The Hanford Site is owned by the U.S. Government and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites, the unit addressed in this paper. This document consists of a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application, Form 3 (Revision 4), and a closure plan for the site. An explanation of the Part A Form 3 submitted with this closure plan is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. This Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites Closure Plan submittal contains information current as of December 15, 1994.

  9. Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and environmental evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act remedial investigations (RIs) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facility investigations (FIs) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies Site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and environmental risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site

  10. Public involvement in environmental surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanf, R.W. Jr.; Patton, G.W.; Woodruff, R.K.; Poston, T.M.

    1994-08-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site began during the mid-1940s following the construction and start-up of the nation's first plutonium production reactor. Over the past approximately 45 years, surveillance operations on and off the Site have continued, with virtually all sampling being conducted by Hanford Site workers. Recently, the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office directed that public involvement in Hanford environmental surveillance operations be initiated. Accordingly, three special radiological air monitoring stations were constructed offsite, near hanford's perimeter. Each station is managed and operated by two local school teaches. These three stations are the beginning of a community-operated environmental surveillance program that will ultimately involve the public in most surveillance operations around the Site. The program was designed to stimulate interest in Hanford environmental surveillance operations, and to help the public better understand surveillance results. The program has also been used to enhance educational opportunities at local schools

  11. Annual Hanford seismic report - fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartshorn, D.C.; Reidel, S.P.

    1996-12-01

    Seismic monitoring (SM) at the Hanford Site was established in 1969 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under a contract with the US Atomic Energy Commission. Since 1980, the program has been managed by several contractors under the US Department of Energy (USDOE). Effective October 1, 1996, the Seismic Monitoring workscope, personnel, and associated contracts were transferred to the USDOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). SM is tasked to provide an uninterrupted collection and archives of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) located on and encircling the Hanford Site. SM is also tasked to locate and identify sources of seismic activity and monitor changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data compiled are used by SM, Waste Management, and engineering activities at the Hanford Site to evaluate seismic hazards and seismic design for the Site

  12. Hanford Environmental Management Program implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Management Program (HEMP) was established to facilitate compliance with the applicable environmental statues, regulations, and standards on the Hanford Site. The HEMP provides a structured approach to achieve environmental management objectives. The Hanford Environmental Management Program Plan (HEMP Plan) was prepared as a strategic level planning document to describe the program management, technical implementation, verification, and communications activities that guide the HEMP. Four basic program objectives are identified in the HEMP Plan as follows: establish ongoing monitoring to ensure that Hanford Site operations comply with environmental requirements; attain regulatory compliance through the modification of activities; mitigate any environmental consequences; and minimize the environmental impacts of future operations at the Hanford Site. 2 refs., 24 figs., 27 tabs

  13. Hanford Site Risk Assessment Methodology. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and ecological evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial investigations (RI) and the Resource conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) facility investigations (FI) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1994), referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and ecological risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site

  14. [Dietary supplements from ground fish meat with DNA for treatment and prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiarkina, L G; Kas'ianenko, Iu I; Epshteĭn, L M; Iakush, E V

    1998-01-01

    It has been developed a receipt of a new treatment-and-prophylactic products based on fish farce with treatment-and-prophylactic additive--DNA. It is recommended to be produced. As biological active additive keeps its initial pharmacological characteristics under technological processing this product is recommended for rendering general effect and increasing of physical and mental activity of organism.

  15. Handbook supplement to the Alberta private sewage treatment and disposal regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This manual was prepared to assist in the selection and installation of private sewage treatment and disposal systems which are best suited to location, water and soil conditions in a safe and efficient manner. The manual covers piping, frost protection, pumps, septic tanks and sewage holding tanks, soil tests and water softeners, disposal fields, treatment mounds, open discharge, and lagoons.

  16. Pretreatment of Hanford PUREX Plant first-cycle waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, M.W.; Gerboth, D.M.; Peters, B.B.

    1987-04-01

    A process has been developed to pretreat neutralized, first-cycle high-level waste from the fuels reprocessing facility at the Hanford Site. The process separates solids from the supernate liquid, which contains soluble salts. The solids, including most of the fission products and transuranic elements, may then be vitrified for disposal, while the low-level supernate stream may be processed into a less expensive grout waste form. The process also includes ion exchange treatment of the separated supernate stream to remove radiocesium. A flow sheet based on these operations was completed to support a planned demonstration of the process in the Hanford Site B Plant canyon facility. 5 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Extraction of technetium from simulated Hanford tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Vojta, Y.; Takeuchi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic separation systems are being developed for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes. These extraction systems are based on the use of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) for the selective extraction and recovery of long-lived radionuclides, such as 129 I, 75 Se, and 99 Tc, from caustic solutions containing high concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, and carbonate. Because of the high ionic strengths of supernatant liquids in Hanford underground storage tanks, aqueous biphasic systems can be generated by simply adding aqueous PEG solutions directly to the waste solution. In the process, anionic species like I - and TcO 4 - are selectively transferred to the less dense PEG phase. The partition coefficient for a wide range of inorganic cations and anions, such as sodium, potassium, aluminum, nitrate, nitrate, and carbonate, are all less than one. The authors present experimental data on extraction of technetium from several simulated Hanford tank wastes at 25 degree and 50 degree C

  18. Mission analysis report for the Hanford Tanks Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaus, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    This mission analysis report for the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) supports the Hanford Site's Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Retrieval Program in its commitment to remove waste from the SSTs for treatment and final closure of the tanks. The results of the HTI will support the US Department of Energy's (DOE) privatization of retrieval efforts. This report addresses the HTI problem statement: Alternative technologies to past practice sluicing (PPS) have not yet been demonstrated to remove the hard heel from a sluiced tank or to remove waste from a leaking SST. Nor have performance-based criteria for cleanout and closure been demonstrated to the degree necessary to validate them as technically and economically achievable. This report also defines the mission statement and mission boundaries; the known interfaces, both programmatic and project; the mission level requirements; the test and evaluation methodology; and measures of success

  19. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in this report)

  20. Data quality objectives for two risk assessments at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, N.K.; Clark, S.W.; Tranbarger, R.K.; Roeck, F.V.

    1996-01-01

    The opportunity for innovative thinking prevails at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state. Two projects, in particular, challenged risk assessment staff. They are: (1) a combined Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) risk assessment, and (2) developing a risk assessment for a mixed-waste disposal facility. The combined CERCLA/RCRA risk assessment involved establishing data quality objectives (DQO) either to meet clean closure for a RCRA treatment, storage and/or disposal facility (TSD) or (if the former was not possible) to conform to goals established for industrial land use for Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS) sites. Radionuclide analysis was reduced by 60 percent through the DQO process

  1. Study of Hanford as a nuclear energy center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, H.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the possible construction of a large nuclear park involving several reactors at Hanford. Savings resulted from continuity of construction, standardization, modularization, fuel cycle treatment, etc. The planning involved consideration of energy transmission cost (0.3 to 0.4 mills/KW-hr) but with present transmission systems upgraded to 500 or 1100 KV. Water resources were adequate, but there was some question of how close the reactors could be to each other in view of the large waste heat effluents from each. Earthquake and other common mode failure possibilities were considered. Due to further questions about safeguards of plutonium materials and nuclear waste transportation, more work is being done on the Hanford nuclear park concept. (U.S.)

  2. System Planning With The Hanford Waste Operations Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, T.W.; Certa, P.J.; Wells, M.N.

    2010-01-01

    At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, 216 million liters (57 million gallons) of nuclear waste is currently stored in aging underground tanks, threatening the Columbia River. The River Protection Project (RPP), a fully integrated system of waste storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal facilities, is in varying stages of design, construction, operation, and future planning. These facilities face many overlapping technical, regulatory, and financial hurdles to achieve site cleanup and closure. Program execution is ongoing, but completion is currently expected to take approximately 40 more years. Strategic planning for the treatment of Hanford tank waste is by nature a multi-faceted, complex and iterative process. To help manage the planning, a report referred to as the RPP System Plan is prepared to provide a basis for aligning the program scope with the cost and schedule, from upper-tier contracts to individual facility operating plans. The Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS), a dynamic flowsheet simulation and mass balance computer model, is used to simulate the current planned RPP mission, evaluate the impacts of changes to the mission, and assist in planning near-term facility operations. Development of additional modeling tools, including an operations research model and a cost model, will further improve long-term planning confidence. The most recent RPP System Plan, Revision 4, was published in September 2009.

  3. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, general information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The current Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) and a treatment, storage, and/or disposal Unit-Specific Portion, which includes documentation for individual TSD units (e.g., document numbers DOE/RL-89-03 and DOE/RL-90-01). Both portions consist of a Part A division and a Part B division. The Part B division consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion (i.e., this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) is broader in nature and applies to all treatment, storage, and/or disposal units for which final status is sought. Because of its broad nature, the Part A division of the General Information Portion references the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application (document number DOE/RL-88-21), a compilation of all Part A documentation for the Hanford Facility

  4. Hanford Waste Physical and Rheological Properties: Data and Gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Kurath, Dean E.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Onishi, Yasuo; Huckaby, James L.; Cooley, Scott K.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Tingey, Joel M.; Daniel, Richard C.; Anderson, K. K.

    2011-08-01

    The Hanford Site in Washington State manages 177 underground storage tanks containing approximately 250,000 m3 of waste generated during past defense reprocessing and waste management operations. These tanks contain a mixture of sludge, saltcake and supernatant liquids. The insoluble sludge fraction of the waste consists of metal oxides and hydroxides and contains the bulk of many radionuclides such as the transuranic components and 90Sr. The saltcake, generated by extensive evaporation of aqueous solutions, consists primarily of dried sodium salts. The supernates consist of concentrated (5-15 M) aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium salts. The 177 storage tanks include 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double -hell tanks (DSTs). Ultimately the wastes need to be retrieved from the tanks for treatment and disposal. The SSTs contain minimal amounts of liquid wastes, and the Tank Operations Contractor is continuing a program of moving solid wastes from SSTs to interim storage in the DSTs. The Hanford DST system provides the staging location for waste feed delivery to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection’s (ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP is being designed and constructed to pretreat and then vitrify a large portion of the wastes in Hanford’s 177 underground waste storage tanks.

  5. The Hanford Site: An anthology of early histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1993-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Memories of War: Pearl Harbor and the Genesis of the Hanford Site; safety has always been promoted at the Hanford Site; women have an important place in Hanford Site history; the boom and bust cycle: A 50-year historical overview of the economic impacts of Hanford Site Operations on the Tri-Cities, Washington; Hanford's early reactors were crucial to the sites's history; T-Plant made chemical engineering history; the UO 3 plant has a long history of service. PUREX Plant: the Hanford Site's Historic Workhorse. PUREX Plant Waste Management was a complex challenge; and early Hanford Site codes and jargon

  6. Hanford performance evaluation program for Hanford site analytical services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markel, L.P.

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 830.120, Quality Assurance Requirements, states that it is the responsibility of DOE contractors to ensure that ''quality is achieved and maintained by those who have been assigned the responsibility for performing the work.'' Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) is designed to meet the needs of the Richland Operations Office (RL) for maintaining a consistent level of quality for the analytical chemistry services provided by contractor and commmercial analytical laboratory operations. Therefore, services supporting Hanford environmental monitoring, environmental restoration, and waste management analytical services shall meet appropriate quality standards. This performance evaluation program will monitor the quality standards of all analytical laboratories supporting the Hanforad Site including on-site and off-site laboratories. The monitoring and evaluation of laboratory performance can be completed by the use of several tools. This program will discuss the tools that will be utilized for laboratory performance evaluations. Revision 0 will primarily focus on presently available programs using readily available performance evaluation materials provided by DOE, EPA or commercial sources. Discussion of project specific PE materials and evaluations will be described in section 9.0 and Appendix A

  7. Waste minimization -- Hanford`s strategy for sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merry, D.S.

    1998-01-30

    The Hanford Site cleanup activity is an immense and challenging undertaking, which includes characterization and decommissioning of 149 single-shell storage tanks, treating waste stored in 28 double-shell tanks, safely disposing of over 2,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel stored onsite, removing thousands of structures, and dealing with significant solid waste, groundwater, and land restoration issues. The Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program supports the Hanford Site mission to safely clean up and manage legacy waste and to develop and deploy science and technology in many ways. Once such way is through implementing and documenting over 231 waste reduction projects during the past five years, resulting in over $93 million in cost savings/avoidances. These savings/avoidances allowed other high priority cleanup work to be performed. Another way is by exceeding the Secretary of Energy`s waste reduction goals over two years ahead of schedule, thus reducing the amount of waste to be stored, treated and disposed. Six key elements are the foundation for these sustained P2/WMin results.

  8. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses the procedures that establish the configuration control processes for the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) software. The procedures also provide the charter and function of the HEIS Configuration Control Board (CCB) for maintaining software. The software configuration control items covered under these procedures include the HEIS software and database structure. The configuration control processes include both administrative and audit functions. The administrative role includes maintaining the overall change schedule, ensuring consistency of proposed changes, negotiating change plan adjustments, setting priorities, and tracking the status of changes. The configuration control process audits to ensure that changes are performed to applicable standards

  9. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreck, R.I.

    1994-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) Subject Area manuals are designed as reference guides, that is, each chapter provides the information needed to make best use of each subject area, its tables, and reporting capabilities. Each subject area is documented in a chapter in one of the subject area manuals. Because these are reference manuals, most of the information is also available in the online help system as well. See Section 5.4.2 of the HEIS User's Guide (DOE-RL 1994a) for a detailed description of the online help

  10. FY2000 Hanford Technology Deployment Accomplishments Fact Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WIBLE, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Cleaning up the Hanford Site is one of the top priorities for the U. S. Department of Energy. The department is continually looking for ways to expedite cleanup and reduce costs. During Fiscal Year (FY) 2000. Hanford Site staff deployed 24 new technologies, which produced an estimated lifecycle cost savings of 479 million dollars. This is a clear indicator of the impacts new technology has had and will have on the cleanup efforts. The Hanford Site cleanup is focused on the following: Restoring the Columbia River Corridor; Building and operating the tank waste treatment complex to complete the cleanup of highly radioactive tank waste at Hanford; and Transitioning the Central Plateau. Applying innovative science and technology from national laboratories, universities, and private industry is critical to our complex cleanup mission. The 24 new technologies deployed in FY 2000 are significantly higher than our goal of 14 technological deployments. Eleven of these technologies supported restoring the Columbia River Corridor, and seven were involved with the remediation of radioactive tank waste. These deployments produced valuable information to determine the effectiveness of the new technologies in the field and the efficiencies gained over existing cleanup methods. In several cases, the technology deployed presented a solution to a problem where a clear path of remediation had not yet been determined. New and innovative technologies will play a significant role in the cleanup of the Hanford Site and enable remediation to be done more efficiently. Technology is being developed at a staggering pace. This requires excellent communication throughout the scientific and industry arenas. To effect this communication, we have implemented a technology needs process in conjunction with the multi-year work planning process. Through the combination of these two processes, technology developments and deployments address the near-term technology needs and enable us to plan for the

  11. Advances In Hexavalent Chromium Removal At Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neshem, D.O.; Riddelle, J.

    2012-01-01

    At the Hanford Site, chromium was used as a corrosion inhibitor in the reactor cooling water and was introduced into the groundwater as a result of planned and unplanned discharges from reactors during plutonium production since 1944. Beginning in 1995, groundwater treatment methods were evaluated leading to the use of pump and treat facilities with ion exchange using Dowex 21 K, a regenerable strong base anion exchange resin. This required regeneration of the resin, which is currently performed offsite. Resin was installed in a 4 vessel train, with resin removal required from the lead vessel approximately once a month. In 2007, there were 8 trains (32 vessels) in operation. In 2008, DOE recognized that regulatory agreements would require significant expansion in the groundwater chromium treatment capacity. Previous experience from one of the DOE project managers led to identification of a possible alternative resin, and the contractor was requested to evaluate alternative resins for both cost and programmatic risk reductions. Testing was performed onsite in 2009 and 2010, using a variety of potential resins in two separate facilities with groundwater from specific remediation sites to demonstrate resin performance in the specific groundwater chemistry at each site. The testing demonstrated that a weak base anion single-use resin, ResinTech SIR-700, was effective at removing chromium, had a significantly higher capacity, could be disposed of efficiently on site, and would eliminate the complexities and programmatic risks from sampling, packaging, transportation and return of resin for regeneration. This resin was installed in Hanford's newest groundwater treatment facility, called 100-DX, which began operations in November, 2010, and used in a sister facility, 100-HX, which started up in September of 2011. This increased chromium treatment capacity to 25 trains (100 vessels). The resin is also being tested in existing facilities that utilize Dowex 21 K for

  12. Influence of radiation treatment on pharmaceuticals and adjuvants: A literature study. Pt. 9. Supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemann, L.; Schuettler, C.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    Sterilization of medical aid articles (e.g. catheters, one-way syringes) with ionizing radiation is a successful practice in many countries. During recent years, the results from numerous experiments of radiosterillization of pharmaceuticals and adjuvants have likewise been published. Experience has shown that radiation treatment, in many cases, is leading to transformations of the irradiated substances. In the present part IX of the bibliographic study on the influence of radiation treatment on pharmaceuticals and adjuvants the results of experiments on ca. 80 substances from 36 different sources have been evaluated. In all parts of the study results of about 560 experiments on 360 substances from 176 different sources are present. (orig.)

  13. Safety evaluation report related to the construction of Skagit/Hanford Nuclear Project, Units 1 and 2. Docket Nos. STN 50-522 and 50-523

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    Supplement 3 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by Puget Sound Power and Light Company on behalf of itself, the Pacific Power and Light Company, The Washington Water Power Company, and the Portland General Electric Company for construction permits to build the Skagit/Hanford Nuclear Project has been issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement is an evaluation of the site relocation amendment to the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. The proposed site has been relocated from Skagit County, Washington, to the Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation

  14. Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Daly, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of the Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 200 Areas (which refers to the 200 East Area, 200 West Area, and 200 Area Corridor, located between the 200 East and 200 West Areas) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.lB (DOE 1991a) by performing the following: Establishing a land-use plan and setting land-use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities. Coordinating existing, 5-year, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans. Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities. Identifying site development issues that need further analysis. Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development. Coordinate DOE plans with other agencies [(i.e., Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Being a support document to the Hanford Site Development Plan (DOE-RL 1990a) (parent document) and providing technical site information relative to the 200 Areas.

  15. Cancer mortality in Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Gilbert, E.S.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1978-01-01

    Personnel and radiation exposure data for past and present employees of the Hanford plant have been collected and analysed for a possible relationship of exposure to mortality. The occurrence of death in workers was established by the Social Security Administration and the cause of death obtained from death certificates. Mortality from all causes, all cancer cases and specific cancer types was related to the population at risk. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated for white males, using age- and calendar year-specific mortality rates for the U.S. population in the calculation of expected deaths. This analysis showed a substantial 'healthy worker effect' and no significantly high standardized mortality ratios for specific disease categories. A test for association of mortality with levels of radiation exposure revealed no correlation for all causes and all cancer. In carrying out this test, adjustment was made for age and calendar year of death, length of employment and occupational category. A statistically significant test for trend was obtained for multiple myeloma and carcinoma of the pancreas. However, in view of the absence of such a correlation for diseases more commonly associated with radiation exposure such as myeloid leukaemia, as well as the small number of deaths in higher exposure groups, the results cannot be considered definitive. Any conclusions based on these associations should be viewed in relation to the results of other studies. These results are compared with those of other investigators who have analysed the Hanford data. (author)

  16. Hanford transuranic storage corrosion review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.L.; Divine, J.R.

    1980-12-01

    The rate of atmospheric corrosion of the transuranic (TRU) waste drums at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Project, near Richland, Washington, was evaluated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The rate of corrosion is principally contingent upon the effects of humidity, airborne pollutants, and temperature. Results of the study indicate that actual penetration of barrels due to atmospheric corrosion will probably not occur within the 20-year specified recovery period. Several other US burial sites were surveyed, and it appears that there is sufficient uncertainty in the available data to prevent a clearcut statement of the corrosion rate at a specific site. Laboratory and site tests are recommended before any definite conclusions can be made. The corrosion potential at the Hanford TRU waste site could be reduced by a combination of changes in drum materials (for example, using galvanized barrels instead of the currently used mild steel barrels), environmental exposure conditions (for example, covering the barrels in one of numerous possible ways), and storage conditions

  17. Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, C.A.; Daly, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of the Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 200 Areas (which refers to the 200 East Area, 200 West Area, and 200 Area Corridor, located between the 200 East and 200 West Areas) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.lB (DOE 1991a) by performing the following: Establishing a land-use plan and setting land-use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities. Coordinating existing, 5-year, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans. Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities. Identifying site development issues that need further analysis. Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development. Coordinate DOE plans with other agencies [(i.e., Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Being a support document to the Hanford Site Development Plan (DOE-RL 1990a) (parent document) and providing technical site information relative to the 200 Areas

  18. The effect of vitamin C and E supplementation in the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria infects a number of people in Sub-Saharan Africa and is gradually becoming endemic in this region. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of malaria on antioxidant status and also to ascertain whether antioxidant vitamins could be useful in the treatment of malaria. The study group comprised of 40 patients ...

  19. Efficacy of resveratrol to supplement oral nifedipine treatment in pregnancy-induced preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ding

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Preeclampsia (PE is a complication affecting pregnant women worldwide, which usually manifests as severe maternal hypertension. Resveratrol (RESV, a naturally existing polyphenol, is known to exhibit beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease including hypertension. We evaluated the outcome of treatment combining oral nifedipine (NIFE and RESV against PE. Design and methods: Using a randomized group assignment, 400 PE patients were enrolled and received oral treatments of either NIFE + RESV or NIFE + placebo. Primary endpoints were defined as time to control blood pressure and time before a new hypertensive crisis. Secondary endpoints were defined as the number of doses needed to control blood pressure, maternal and neonatal adverse effects. Results: Compared with the NIFE + placebo group, the time needed to control blood pressure was significantly reduced in NIFE + RESV group, while time before a new hypertensive crisis was greatly delayed in NIFE + RESV group. The number of treatment doses needed to control blood pressure was also categorically lower in NIFE + RESV group. No differences in maternal or neonatal adverse effects were observed between the two treatment groups. Conclusion: Our data support the potential of RESV as a safe and effective adjuvant of oral NIFE to attenuate hypertensive symptoms among PE patients.

  20. An Integrated Biological Control System At Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.R.; Caudill, J.G.; Giddings, R.F.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Roos, R.C.; Wilde, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 1999 an integrated biological control system was instituted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Successes and changes to the program needed to be communicated to a large and diverse mix of organizations and individuals. Efforts at communication are directed toward the following: Hanford Contractors (Liquid or Tank Waste, Solid Waste, Environmental Restoration, Science and Technology, Site Infrastructure), General Hanford Employees, and Hanford Advisory Board (Native American Tribes, Environmental Groups, Local Citizens, Washington State and Oregon State regulatory agencies). Communication was done through direct interface meetings, individual communication, where appropriate, and broadly sharing program reports. The objectives of the communication efforts was to have the program well coordinated with Hanford contractors, and to have the program understood well enough that all stakeholders would have confidence in the work performed by the program to reduce or elimate spread of radioactive contamination by biotic vectors. Communication of successes and changes to an integrated biological control system instituted in 1999 at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site have required regular interfaces with not only a diverse group of Hanford contractors (i.e., those responsible for liquid or tank waste, solid wastes, environmental restoration, science and technology, and site infrastructure), and general Hanford employees, but also with a consortium of designated stake holders organized as the Hanford Advisory Board (i.e., Native American tribes, various environmental groups, local citizens, Washington state and Oregon regulatory agencies, etc.). Direct interface meetings, individual communication where appropriate, and transparency of the biological control program were the methods and outcome of this effort.

  1. AN INTEGRATED BIOLOGICAL CONTROL SYSTEM AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON AR; CAUDILL JG; GIDDINGS RF; RODRIGUEZ JM; ROOS RC; WILDE JW

    2010-02-11

    In 1999 an integrated biological control system was instituted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Successes and changes to the program needed to be communicated to a large and diverse mix of organizations and individuals. Efforts at communication are directed toward the following: Hanford Contractors (Liquid or Tank Waste, Solid Waste, Environmental Restoration, Science and Technology, Site Infrastructure), General Hanford Employees, and Hanford Advisory Board (Native American Tribes, Environmental Groups, Local Citizens, Washington State and Oregon State regulatory agencies). Communication was done through direct interface meetings, individual communication, where appropriate, and broadly sharing program reports. The objectives of the communication efforts was to have the program well coordinated with Hanford contractors, and to have the program understood well enough that all stakeholders would have confidence in the work performed by the program to reduce or elimated spread of radioactive contamination by biotic vectors. Communication of successes and changes to an integrated biological control system instituted in 1999 at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site have required regular interfaces with not only a diverse group of Hanford contractors (i.e., those responsible for liquid or tank waste, solid wastes, environmental restoration, science and technology, and site infrastructure), and general Hanford employees, but also with a consortium of designated stake holders organized as the Hanford Advisory Board (i.e., Native American tribes, various environmental groups, local citizens, Washington state and Oregon regulatory agencies, etc.). Direct interface meetings, individual communication where appropriate, and transparency of the biological control program were the methods and outcome of this effort.

  2. Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan progress report, 1994. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report tracks progress made during 1994 against the goals stated in DOE/RL-92-62, Executive Summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan. The Executive Summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, Executive Summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by WAC 173-307, ''Plans,'' for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement RCW 70.95C, ''Waste Reduction,'' an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the in-process reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material. The Hanford Site is voluntarily complying with this state regulatory-mandated program. All treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities are exempt from participating; the Hanford Site is classified as a TSD

  3. Managing Hanford Site solid waste through strict acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Pierce, R.D.; Willis, N.P.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, strict management programs have been implemented for the management of these wastes. Solid waste management is accomplished through a systems performance approach to waste management that used best-demonstrated available technology (BDAT) and best management practices. The solid waste program at the Hanford Site strives to integrate all aspects of management relative to the treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) of solid waste. Often there are many competing and important needs. It is a difficult task to balance these needs in a manner that is both equitable and productive. Management science is used to help the process of making decisions. Tools used to support the decision making process include five-year planning, cost estimating, resource allocation, performance assessment, waste volume forecasts, input/output models, and waste acceptance criteria. The purpose of this document is to describe how one of these tools, waste acceptance criteria, has helped the Hanford Site manage solid wastes

  4. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2000 on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. The most extensive contaminant plumes are tritium, iodine-129, and nitrate, which all had multiple sources and are very mobile in groundwater. Carbon tetrachloride and associated organic constituents form a relatively large plume beneath the central part of the Site. Hexavalent chromium is present in smaller plumes beneath the reactor areas along the river and beneath the central part of the site. Strontium-90 exceeds standards beneath each of the reactor areas, and technetium-99 and uranium are present in the 200 Areas. RCRA groundwater monitoring continued during fiscal year 2000. Vadose zone monitoring, characterization, remediation, and several technical demonstrations were conducted in fiscal year 2000. Soil gas monitoring at the 618-11 burial ground provided a preliminary indication of the location of tritium in the vadose zone and in groundwater. Groundwater modeling efforts focused on 1) identifying and characterizing major uncertainties in the current conceptual model and 2) performing a transient inverse calibration of the existing site-wide model. Specific model applications were conducted in support of the Hanford Site carbon tetrachloride Innovative Treatment Remediation Technology; to support the performance assessment of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Facility; and in development of the System Assessment Capability, which is intended to predict cumulative site-wide effects from all significant Hanford Site contaminants.

  5. Restart oversight assessment of Hanford 242-A evaporator: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes a January 17--28, 1994, oversight assessment of restart activities for the 242-A Evaporator at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site about 25 miles northeast of Hanford, Washington. The assessment was conducted by qualified staff and consultants from the DOE Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). Its focus was the readiness of the facility for the resumption of safe operations, in particular those operations involved in the treatment and disposal of condensate from the evaporation of liquid radioactive waste, a key element of the tank waste remediation project administered by the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). Overall, the assessment yielded eight programmatic concerns, supported by 38 individual findings. Of the concerns, four have already been closed, and the other four have been resolved. Results pointed up strengths in management and engineering design, as well as effective support of facility training programs by the management and operating contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). Weaknesses were evident, however, in conduct of operations, maintenance, and radiological practices. Furthermore, problems in the submittal and approval of Compliance Schedule Approvals--that is, WHC documentation of the status of compliance with DOE orders--were indicative of a programmatic breakdown in the DOE Order compliance process. According to the results of this assessment, there are no safety and health issues that would preclude or delay restart of the evaporator

  6. Hanford's self-assessment of the solid waste forecast process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauth, J.; Skumanich, M.; Morgan, J.

    1996-01-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1995 the forecast process used at Hanford to project future solid waste volumes was evaluated. Data on current and future solid waste generation are used by Hanford site planners to determine near-term and long-term planning needs. Generators who plan to ship their waste to Hanford's Solid Waste Program for treatment, storage, and disposal provide volume information on the types of waste that could be potentially generated, waste characteristics, and container types. Generators also provide limited radionuclide data and supporting assumptions. A self-assessment of the forecast process identified many effective working elements, including a well-established and systematic process for data collection, analysis and reporting; sufficient resources to obtain the necessary information; and dedicated support and analytic staff. Several areas for improvement were identified, including the need to improve confidence in the forecast data, integrate forecast data with other site-level and national data calls, enhance the electronic data collection system, and streamline the forecast process

  7. Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan progress report, 1994. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report tracks progress made during 1994 against the goals stated in DOE/RL-92-62, Executive Summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan. The Executive Summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, Executive Summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by WAC 173-307, ``Plans,`` for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement RCW 70.95C, ``Waste Reduction,`` an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the in-process reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material. The Hanford Site is voluntarily complying with this state regulatory-mandated program. All treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities are exempt from participating; the Hanford Site is classified as a TSD.

  8. Overview of the Hanford risk management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    The Project Hanford Management Contract called for the enhancement of site-wide decision processes, and development of a Hanford Risk Management Plan to adopt or develop a risk management system for the Hanford Site. This Plan provides a consistent foundation for Site issues and addresses site-wide management of risks of all types. It supports the Department of Energy planning and sitewide decision making policy. Added to this requirement is a risk performance report to characterize the risk management accomplishments. This paper presents the development of risk management within the context of work planning and performance. Also discussed are four risk elements which add value to the context

  9. Hanford's Radioactive Mixed Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Radioactive Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, is located in the Hanford Site Low-Level Burial Grounds and is designated as Trench 31 in the 218-W-5 Burial Ground. Trench 31 is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act compliant landfill and will receive wastes generated from both remediation and waste management activities. On December 30, 1994, Westinghouse Hanford Company declared readiness to operate Trench 31, which is the Hanford Site's (and the Department of Energy complex's) first facility for disposal of low-level radioactive mixed wastes

  10. TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL LESSONS LEARNED AT THE HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DODD, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    One of the environmental remediation challenges facing the nation is the retrieval and permanent disposal of approximately 90 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State and stores roughly 60% of this waste. An estimated 53 million gallons of high-level, transuranic, and low-level radioactive waste is stored underground in 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 newer double-shell tanks (DSTs) at the Hanford Site. These SSTs range in size from 55,000 gallons to 1,000,000 gallon capacity. Approximately 30 million gallons of this waste is stored in SSTs. The SSTs were constructed between 1943 and 1964 and all have exceeded the nominal 20-year design life. Sixty-seven SSTs are known or suspected to have leaked an estimated 1,000,000 gallons of waste. The risk of additional SST leakage has been greatly reduced by removing more than 3 million gallons of interstitial liquids and supernatant and transferring the waste to the DST system since 1997 as part of the interim stabilization program. Retrieval of SST saltcake and sludge waste is underway to further reduce risks and stage feed materials for the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant. This paper presents lessons learned from retrieval of tank waste at the Hanford Site and discusses how this information is used to optimize retrieval system efficiency, improve overall cost effectiveness of retrieval operations, and ensure that HFFACO requirements are met

  11. Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval And Transfer System Preliminary Design Hazard Analysis Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.R.; Meichle, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

  12. Hanford Tanks 241-C-202 and 241-C-203 Residual Waste Contaminant Release Models and Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Arey, Bruce W.

    2007-09-13

    As directed by Congress, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of River Protection in 1998 to manage DOE's largest, most complex environmental cleanup project – retrieval of radioactive waste from Hanford tanks for treatment and eventual disposal. Sixty percent by volume of the nation's high-level radioactive waste is stored at Hanford in aging deteriorating tanks. If not cleaned up, this waste is a threat to the Columbia River and the Pacific Northwest. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., is the Office of River Protection's prime contractor responsible for the storage, retrieval, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. As part of this effort, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop release models for key contaminants that are present in residual sludge remaining after closure of Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 (C-203) and 241-C-204 (C-204). The release models were developed from data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of samples from these two tanks. These release models are being developed to support the tank closure risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., for DOE.

  13. Hanford high-level waste melter system evaluation data packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.L.; Shafer, P.J.; Lamar, D.A.; Merrill, R.A.; Grunewald, W.; Roth, G.; Tobie, W.

    1996-03-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System is selecting a reference melter system for the Hanford High-Level Waste vitrification plant. A melter evaluation was conducted in FY 1994 to narrow down the long list of potential melter technologies to a few for testing. A formal evaluation was performed by a Melter Selection Working Group (MSWG), which met in June and August 1994. At the June meeting, MSWG evaluated 15 technologies and selected six for more thorough evaluation at the Aug. meeting. All 6 were variations of joule-heated or induction-heated melters. Between the June and August meetings, Hanford site staff and consultants compiled data packages for each of the six melter technologies as well as variants of the baseline technologies. Information was solicited from melter candidate vendors to supplement existing information. This document contains the data packages compiled to provide background information to MSWG in support of the evaluation of the six technologies. (A separate evaluation was performed by Fluor Daniel, Inc. to identify balance of plant impacts if a given melter system was selected.)

  14. Energy supplementation in Santa Inês sheep subjected to estrus induction treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Silva Venturi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 20% increase in dietary energy during short-term estrus induction treatment on the reproductive parameters of Santa Inês ewes. Females (n=43 were allocated into two experimental groups according to the amount of energy inclusion in the diet: maintenance diet or maintenance diet plus 20% energy. Ultrasound examinations were performed in order to detect ovulation. To assess sexual behavior, ewes were teased and further mated. Blood samples were collected for the determination of glucose and insulin concentrations. There was no difference (P>0.05 between groups in the following categories: ovulation rate (80.00% vs. 60.00%, largest follicle diameter (6.00 ± 0.20 vs. 5.90 ± 0.60, interval from device removal to ovulation (52.80 ± 14.87 vs. 59.01 ± 8.34 hours, animals in estrus (75.00% vs. 65.21%, interval from device removal to estrus (30.00 ± 15.49 vs. 30.00 ± 13.35 hours and conception rate (50.00% vs. 21.73%. There were differences (P<0.05 in the concentrations of insulin and glucose. It can be concluded that the 20% increase in energy in the diet during short-term estrus induction treatment did not affect the reproductive parameters studied.

  15. TESTING OF A ROTARY MICROFILTER TO SUPPORT HANFORD APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M; David Herman, D; David Stefanko, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2008-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers are investigating and developing a rotary microfilter for solid-liquid separation applications at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Because of the success of that work, the Hanford Site is evaluating the use of the rotary microfilter for its Supplemental Pretreatment process. The authors performed rotary filter testing with a full-scale, 25-disk unit with 0.5 (micro) filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation using a Hanford AN-105 simulant at solids loadings of 0.06, 0.29, and 1.29 wt%. The conclusions from this testing are: (1) The filter flux at 0.06 wt% solids reached a near constant value at an average of 0.26 gpm/ft 2 (6.25 gpm total). (2) The filter flux at 0.29 wt% solids reached a near constant value at an average of 0.17 gpm/ft 2 (4 gpm total). (3) The filter flux at 1.29 wt% solids reached a near constant value at an average of 0.10 gpm/ft 2 (2.4 gpm total). (4) Because of differences in solids loadings, a direct comparison between crossflow filter flux and rotary filter flux is not possible. The data show the rotary filter produces a higher flux than the crossflow filter, but the improvement is not as large as seen in previous testing. (5) Filtrate turbidity measured < 4 NTU in all samples collected. (6) During production, the filter should be rinsed with filtrate or dilute caustic and drained prior to an extended shutdown to prevent the formation of a layer of settled solids on top of the filter disks. (7) Inspection of the seal faces after ∼ 140 hours of operation showed an expected amount of initial wear, no passing of process fluid through the seal faces, and very little change in the air channeling grooves on the stationary face. (8) Some polishing was observed at the bottom of the shaft bushing. The authors recommend improving the shaft bushing by holding it in place with a locking ring and incorporated grooves to provide additional cooling. (9) The authors recommend that CH2MHill Hanford

  16. Engaging Foster Parents in Treatment: A Randomized Trial of Supplementing Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Evidence-based Engagement Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsey, Shannon; Pullmann, Michael D.; Berliner, Lucy; Koschmann, Elizabeth; McKay, Mary; Deblinger, Esther

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of supplementing Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen, Mannarino, & Deblinger, 2006) with evidence-based engagement strategies on foster parent and foster youth engagement in treatment, given challenges engaging foster parents in treatment. A randomized controlled trial of TF-CBT standard delivery compared to TF-CBT plus evidence-based engagement strategies was conducted with 47 children and adolescents in foster care and ...

  17. Optimising the physicochemical treatment of textile effluents by supplementing it with biological processes; Optimizacion de la depuracion fisocoquimica en efluentes textiles, completandola con procesos biologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi Rosell, M. [Instituto de Investigacion Textil y Cooperacion Industrial de Tarrasa (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    This article sets out how to increase the elimination of organic material in physicochemical coagulation/flocculation processes. It describes the optimisation of a coagulation/flocculation waste water treatment plant in a flock dyeing factory through increasing the biological activity in the homogenization pond by supplementing it with a percolating filter. Other modifications made subsequently to physicochemical waste water treatment plants for the same purpose are also described. (Author) 9 refs.

  18. Review of the safety and efficacy of vitamin A supplementation in the treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L; Trehan, Indi; Manary, Mark J

    2013-09-12

    World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), high-dose vitamin A (VA) supplements be given on day 1 of admission, and on days 2 and 14 in the case of clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Daily low-dose VA follows, delivered in a premix added to F-75 and F-100. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence for safety and effectiveness of high-dose VA supplementation (VAS) in treatment of children with SAM. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken for all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies from 1950 to 2012. Studies identified for full review were evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology using a set of pre-defined criteria: indirectness; inconsistency; imprecision; and study limitations. A quality rating of high, moderate, or low was then assigned to each study, and only those attaining moderate to high were considered in making recommendations. Of the 2072 abstracts screened, 38 met criteria for full review, and 20 were rated moderate to high quality. Only one study replicated the WHO VA protocol in children with SAM. Indirectness was a critical limitation, as studies were not exclusive to children with SAM. There was inconsistency across trials for definitions of malnutrition, morbidities, and ages studied; and imprecision arising from sub-group analyses and small sample sizes. Evidence showed improved outcomes associated with low-dose compared to high-dose VAS, except in cases presenting with signs of VAD, measles, and severe diarrhea or shigellosis. Adverse outcomes related to respiratory infection, diarrhea, and growth were associated with high-dose VAS in children who were predominantly adequately nourished. No adverse effects of the high dose were found in children with SAM in the trial that replicated the WHO VA guideline. This is the first systematic review of the safety and

  19. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, November 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-12-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, November 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research.

  20. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, March 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-04-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation March 1963. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, operations research and synthesis, programming, and radiation protection operation are discussed.

  1. Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report describes risk assessment methodology associated with the remedial action programs at the Hanford Reservation. Topics addressed include human health evaluation, pollutant and radionuclide transport through the environment, and environmental transport pathways

  2. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, December 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-01-15

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, December 1963. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, and applied mathematics, and programming operations are discussed.

  3. Hanford Environmental Information System Configuration Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) Configuration Management Plan establishes the software and data configuration control requirements for the HEIS and project-related databases maintained within the Environmental Restoration Contractor's data management department

  4. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, October 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-11-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, October 1963. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  5. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, January 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-02-14

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, January 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, applied mathematics, programming operation, and radiation protection are discussed.

  6. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, August 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-09-16

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, August 1963. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  7. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, May 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-06-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, May 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, applied mathematics, programming operation, and radiation protection are discussed.

  8. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, January 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-02-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation January 1963. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, operations research and synthesis, programming, and radiation protection operation are discussed.

  9. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, September 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-10-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, September 1963. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  10. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, July 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-08-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, July 1963. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  11. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, May 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-06-14

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, May 1963. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, and applied mathematics, and programming operation are discussed.

  12. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, February 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-03-16

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, February, 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation process, reactor technology financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations, applied mathematics, programming, and radiation protection are discussed.

  13. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, June 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-07-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, June 1963. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  14. Continuing study of mortality in Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1979-10-01

    The mortality of workers at the Hanford Plant in southeastern Washington who have been exposed to penetrating external ionizing radiation is studied. Deaths are analyzed statistically and compared to standardized mortality ratios. Cancer deaths in particular are examined

  15. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, April 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-05-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, April 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, applied mathematics, programming operation, and radiation protection are discussed.

  16. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, July 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-08-14

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, July 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, applied mathematics, programming operation, and radiation protection are discussed.

  17. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, March 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-04-15

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, March 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, and applied mathematics operation, and programming operations are discussed.

  18. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, April, 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-05-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, April, 1963. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations, applied mathematics operation, programming, and radiation protection operation discussed.

  19. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, August 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-09-15

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, August 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, and applied mathematics, and programming operations are discussed.

  20. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, October 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-11-16

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, October 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, and applied mathematics operations are discussed.

  1. Supplemental Report: Application of Emission Spectroscopy to Monitoring Technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides supplemental information to an earlier report BNF-98-003-0199, ''Evaluation of Emission Spectroscopy for the On-Line Analysis of Technetium''. In this report data is included from real Hanford samples as well as for solutions spiked with technetium. This supplemental work confirms the ability of ICP-ES to monitor technetium as it breaks through an ion exchange process

  2. Progress and future directions for remediation of Hanford facilities and contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClain, L.K.; Nemec, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    A great deal of physical progress is being made in the Hanford Environmental Restoration (ER) Project, which is responsible for the portion of work at Hanford that deals with contaminated soil and groundwater, and with inactive nuclear facilities. This work accounts for 10 to 15 percent of the Hanford site budget. (Other US Department of Energy [DOE] programs and contractors are responsible for the high-level liquid waste in underground storage tanks and the spent nuclear fuel). The project open-quotes closed the circleclose quotes on environmental restoration at Hanford this summer when the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) went into operation and began receiving wastes being excavated from contaminated areas in Hanford's open-quotes 100 Areaclose quotes along the Columbia River. With this milestone event, environmental restoration at Hanford now has a clear path forward: (1) Waste areas along the Columbia River have been identified, volume estimates are being refined, and excavation has started. (2) The million-cubic-yard capacity ERDF is receiving waste from excavation in the 100 Area. (3) Deactivation of the N Reactor will be completed within a year. (4) Numerous other facilities in the 100 Area are being decommissioned, eliminating hazards and reducing the costs of surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M). (5) A demonstration of long-term protective storage for one of the reactor blocks is in progress. (6) A comprehensive groundwater treatment strategy is in place. This paper describes the Hanford ER project, the progress being made, and the management techniques that are making the project successful

  3. Hanford Engineer Works technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1944-05-01

    The uranium metal, as discharged from the piles in the 100 Areas, contains the alpha emitting product, plutonium, in concentration in the neighborhood of 150--250 grams per metric ton, along with similar amounts of beta and gamma fission elements. It is the purpose of the Separations Plant to effect the separation of this product from the uranium metal and fission elements, and to prepare a concentrated, relatively pure solution of plutonium nitrate as the final product of the Hanford Plant. This section of the manual discusses the chemistry of the separations process, describes the buildings and equipment provided for carrying out the various steps in the operation, and presents the detailed operating procedures used. There are included, in many instances, references to other documents presenting a more detailed view of a specific point in the process.

  4. Hanford Nuclear Energy Center study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, H.

    1976-01-01

    Studies of a Nuclear Energy Center (NEC) at Hanford have not revealed any insurmountable technical problems, but problems have been identified that appear to be more difficult to resolve than for dispersed siting. Major technical developments in meteorology, and probably in seismology, are needed before an environmental report or safety analysis report could be prepared for an NEC. It would be helpful in further NEC studies if licensing requirements (and related criteria) were defined for them. An NEC will likely cause a step change in the amount of planning and involvement of regional groups in the energy picture compared to dispersed siting. The tools that must be developed for analysis of NECs will probably be used for evaluating dispersed siting in greater detail. NECs will probably bring about the use of dry or wet/dry cooling before it is required in equivalent amount for dispersed plants

  5. Hanford cultural resources management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatters, J.C. (ed.)

    1989-06-01

    As a federal agency, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by Congress and the President to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historical, and cultural resources on lands it administers, to manage these in a spirit of stewardship for future generations, and to protect and preserve the rights of Native Americans to religious freedom. The purpose of this document is to describe how the DOE-Richland Operations (DOE-RL) will meet those responsibilities on the Hanford Site, pursuant to guidelines for Agency Responsibilities under the Historic Preservation Act (FR 53:31, February 17, 1988). This document is intended for multiple uses. Among other things, the text is designed as a manual for cultural resource managers to follow and as an explanation of the process of cultural resource regulatory compliance for the DOE-RL and Site contractors. 10 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Hanford 300 Area Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, K.S.; Seiler, S.W.; Hail, J.C.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of the Hanford 300 Area Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 300 Area in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.1B (DOE 1991b) by performing the following: (1) Establishing a land use plan, setting land use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities; (2) Coordinating existing, 5-yr, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans; (3) Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities; (4) Identifying site development issues that need further analysis; Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development; and, (6) Integrating DOE plans with local agency plans (i.e., city, country, state, and Tri-Cities Science and Technology Park plans)

  7. Aluminum precipitation from Hanford DSSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgen, D.; Frazier, P.; Staton, G.

    1994-01-01

    A series of pilot scale tests using simulated Double Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) showed that well-settled aluminum precipitate can be produced in Hanford double shell tank (DST) high level waste by slow neutralization with carbon dioxide. This pretreatment could provide an early grout feed and free tank space, as well as facilitate downstream processes such as ion exchange by providing a less caustic feed. A total of eight test runs were completed using a 10-ft tall 3-in i.d. glass column. The 10-ft height corresponds to about one third of the vertical height of a DST, hence providing a reasonable basis for extrapolating the observed precipitate settling and compaction to the actual waste tank environment. Four runs (three with a simplified simulant and one with a chemically complete simulant) produced well settled precipitates averaging 1.5 to 2 feet high. Aluminum gel rather than settled precipitate resulted from one test where neutralization was too rapid

  8. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Tank Characterization Data subject area of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is to manage data acquired from waste tank characterization efforts. Tank samples provide the data stored in this subject area. Also included are data from tank inventories. These data are analyzed to determine disposal requirements, such as suitability for grout or vitrification. The data provide the basis for developing safety analyses and closure plans, and for establishing and verifying compliance with waste acceptance specifications. Two major sources of data make up the tank characterization data subject area: Data from single-shell and double-shell tank core samples -- core sampling analytical results include physical properties, radionuclides, major chemicals, and hazardous components; and data from waste tank supernatant samples. Four types of data are stored in the TCD subject area. Qualifiers for TCD analytical result data are listed in Appendix A. Data loading and verification procedures are described in Appendix B

  9. Hanford Nuclear Energy Center study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, H.

    1976-03-16

    Studies of a Nuclear Energy Center (NEC) at Hanford have not revealed any insurmountable technical problems, but problems have been identified that appear to be more difficult to resolve than for dispersed siting. Major technical developments in meteorology, and probably in seismology, are needed before an environmental report or safety analysis report could be prepared for an NEC. It would be helpful in further NEC studies if licensing requirements (and related criteria) were defined for them. An NEC will likely cause a step change in the amount of planning and involvement of regional groups in the energy picture compared to dispersed siting. The tools that must be developed for analysis of NECs will probably be used for evaluating dispersed siting in greater detail. NECs will probably bring about the use of dry or wet/dry cooling before it is required in equivalent amount for dispersed plants.

  10. Hanford: The evolution of a dinosaur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, J.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how the Westinghouse Hanford Company is reinventing the US DOE's Hanford Site, turning a 1940s-era dinosaur into a 1990s-style business. The major topics covered include the following: breaking the logjam by ending the inefficient cost-plus days; Concentrating resources on resolving urgent safety issues; contract reform with more incentive, greater risk; finally reengineering: the next step

  11. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.M.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doeses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; environmental pathways and dose estimates

  12. Hanford soil partitioning and vapor extraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonge, D.; Hossain, A.; Cameron, R.; Ford, H.; Storey, C.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the testing and results of laboratory experiments conducted to assist the carbon tetrachloride soil vapor extraction project operating in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Vapor-phase adsorption and desorption testing was performed using carbon tetrachloride and Hanford Site soils to estimate vapor-soil partitioning and reasonably achievable carbon tetrachloride soil concentrations during active vapor extractions efforts at the 200 West Area. (CCl 4 is used in Pu recovery from aqueous streams.)

  13. Hanford Site Waste management units report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the operable units in several areas of the Hanford Site Waste Facility. Each operable unit has several waste units (crib, ditch, pond, etc.). The operable units are summarized by describing each was unit. Some of the descriptions are unit name, unit type, waste category start data, site description, etc. The descriptions will vary for each waste unit in each operable unit and area of the Hanford Site

  14. Environmental surveillance at Hanford for CY 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.R.; Blumer, P.J.

    1978-04-01

    Environmental data collected during 1977 show continued compliance by Hanford with all applicable state and federal regulations. Data were collected for most environmental media including air, Columbia River water, external radiation, foodstuffs (milk, beef, eggs, poultry, and produce) and wildlife (deer, fish, game birds, and oysters from Willapa Bay), as well as soil and vegetation samples. In general, offsite levels of radionuclides attributable to Hanford operations during 1977 were indistinguishable from background levels

  15. History of Hanford Site Defense Production (Brief)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER, M S

    2001-02-01

    This paper acquaints the audience with the history of the Hanford Site, America's first full-scale defense plutonium production site. The paper includes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War II construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), a brief production spurt from 1984-86, the end of the Cold War, and the beginning of the waste cleanup mission. The paper also delineates historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, past efforts to chemically treat, ''fractionate,'' and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes, and resulting major waste legacies that remain today. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history.

  16. Researchers take up environmental challenge at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illman, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford nuclear site, built to produce plutonium for the nation's first atomic weapons, occupies 560 square miles of desert in southeastern Washington State. Only 29 months after ground was broken at the site in March 1943, the Hanford project delivered the plutonium used in the bomb that was dropped on Nagasaki, Japan, at the end of World War II. Secrecy surrounding the nuclear weapons program continued through the Cold War years, concealing the fact that for decades, hazardous and radioactive wastes were discharged to the ground, water, and air at Hanford. Only in 1986 were documents finally declassified--tens of thousands of them--describing the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Hanford facilities, allowing a picture to be pieced together of the environmental cost there of the nuclear weapons buildup. That cost may never be completely tallied. But Westinghouse Hanford, Co., the principal operations contractor on the site, and Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute for the Department of Energy (DOE), have now begun working together to develop new technologies that are needed to address the short-term and long-term challenges of environmental restoration at Hanford. The paper discusses the problems and possible solutions that are being investigated

  17. Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has the most diverse and largest amount of highly radioactive waste of any site in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored in large underground tanks since 1944. A Tank Waste Remediation System Program has been established within the DOE to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Waste Management 1993 Symposium Papers and Viewgraphs covered the following topics: Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Overview; Tank Waste Retrieval Issues and Options for their Resolution; Tank Waste Pretreatment - Issues, Alternatives and Strategies for Resolution; Low-Level Waste Disposal - Grout Issue and Alternative Waste Form Technology; A Strategy for Resolving High-Priority Hanford Site Radioactive Waste Storage Tank Safety Issues; Tank Waste Chemistry - A New Understanding of Waste Aging; Recent Results from Characterization of Ferrocyanide Wastes at the Hanford Site; Resolving the Safety Issue for Radioactive Waste Tanks with High Organic Content; Technology to Support Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Objectives

  18. Further analysis of multicentre cystathionine beta synthase deficiency thrombosis data and metabolic pathways suggests potentially better treatment via improved cysteine supplementation, diet, antioxidant supplementation, follow-up and testing for thrombophilic mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vance

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Homozygous or compound heterozygous Cystathionine-beta-synthase deficiency (CBS-- may result in thrombosis. Treatment has included various combinations of: low-methionine diets, cystine (cystine dimer-enriched amino acid supplementation, vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin B12 and betaine. Treatment compliance and outcomes even in the most-developed countries are mostly sub-optimal and variable, and the differing theoretical metabolic ramifications due to differing treatments have not been well addressed. The aim of this work was to further analyse the thrombosis events data of Yap et al (2001/2003, and to compare these with the rate of thrombosis in the general population, and to examine the theoretical significance of the metabolic pathways affected by CBS-- and its treatments, and so find any potential improvements in treatments, considering also less-developed areas. Methods Yap et al’s (2001/2003 data of the thrombosis outcomes of five major (CBS---treating centers: in Dublin, Sydney, Nijmegen, Manchester and London; were statistically compared with outcomes predicted by Mudd et al’s (1985 untreated natural history outcomes, and then Dublin versus the others; these rates were then compared with those of general populations; and treatments were examined regarding their theoretical metabolic ramifications. Results There were less thrombosis outcomes (P<.05 in the treated and followed CBS-- patient groups of each of the five centers, even when considered singly, than that expected in the absence of treatment by reference to the natural history data of Mudd et al (1985, but the reduction was less than half that claimed by Yap et al, and the remaining level of thrombosis is roughly 10 times that of the general population. The thromboses outcome (nil of the Dublin group is better than that of the other four groups, but only at P ~ 0.16 with the other four groups combined, or P = 0.14 to 0.23 singly. Treatment regimens differ, including

  19. NHC's contribution to cleanup of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauve, H.D.

    1998-01-01

    The one billion dollars per year Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC), managed by Fluor Daniel Hanford, calls for cleanup of the Hanford Site for the Department of Energy. Project Hanford comprises four major subprojects, each managed by a different major contractor. Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) is a fifth major subcontractor which provides energy and technology to each of the Hanford projects. NHC draws on the experience and capabilities of its parent companies, COGEMA and SGN, and relies on local support from its sister Company in Richland, COGEMA Engineering Corporation, to bring the best commercial practices and new technology to the Project

  20. Phytoestrogens in menopausal supplements induce ER-dependent cell proliferation and overcome breast cancer treatment in an in vitro breast cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duursen, Majorie B.M. van; Smeets, Evelien E.J.W.; Rijk, Jeroen C.W.; Nijmeijer, Sandra M.; Berg, Martin van den

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer treatment by the aromatase inhibitor Letrozole (LET) or Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Tamoxifen (TAM) can result in the onset of menopausal symptoms. Women often try to relieve these symptoms by taking menopausal supplements containing high levels of phytoestrogens. However, little is known about the potential interaction between these supplements and breast cancer treatment, especially aromatase inhibitors. In this study, interaction of phytoestrogens with the estrogen receptor alpha and TAM action was determined in an ER-reporter gene assay (BG1Luc4E2 cells) and human breast epithelial tumor cells (MCF-7). Potential interactions with aromatase activity and LET were determined in human adrenocorticocarcinoma H295R cells. We also used the previously described H295R/MCF-7 co-culture model to study interactions with steroidogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. In this model, genistein (GEN), 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN) and four commercially available menopausal supplements all induced ER-dependent tumor cell proliferation, which could not be prevented by physiologically relevant LET and 4OH-TAM concentrations. Differences in relative effect potencies between the H295R/MCF-7 co-culture model and ER-activation in BG1Luc4E2 cells, were due to the effects of the phytoestrogens on steroidogenesis. All tested supplements and GEN induced aromatase activity, while 8PN was a strong aromatase inhibitor. Steroidogenic profiles upon GEN and 8PN exposure indicated a strong inhibitory effect on steroidogenesis in H295R cells and H295R/MCF-7 co-cultures. Based on our in vitro data we suggest that menopausal supplement intake during breast cancer treatment should better be avoided, at least until more certainty regarding the safety of supplemental use in breast cancer patients can be provided. - Highlights: • Supplements containing phytoestrogens are commonly used by women with breast cancer. • Phytoestrogens alter steroidogenesis in a co-culture breast

  1. Phytoestrogens in menopausal supplements induce ER-dependent cell proliferation and overcome breast cancer treatment in an in vitro breast cancer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duursen, Majorie B.M. van, E-mail: M.vanDuursen@uu.nl [Endocrine Toxicology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, PO Box 80177, 3508 TD, Utrecht (Netherlands); Smeets, Evelien E.J.W. [Endocrine Toxicology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, PO Box 80177, 3508 TD, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rijk, Jeroen C.W. [RIKILT - Institute for Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE, Wageningen (Netherlands); Nijmeijer, Sandra M.; Berg, Martin van den [Endocrine Toxicology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, PO Box 80177, 3508 TD, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-06-01

    Breast cancer treatment by the aromatase inhibitor Letrozole (LET) or Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Tamoxifen (TAM) can result in the onset of menopausal symptoms. Women often try to relieve these symptoms by taking menopausal supplements containing high levels of phytoestrogens. However, little is known about the potential interaction between these supplements and breast cancer treatment, especially aromatase inhibitors. In this study, interaction of phytoestrogens with the estrogen receptor alpha and TAM action was determined in an ER-reporter gene assay (BG1Luc4E2 cells) and human breast epithelial tumor cells (MCF-7). Potential interactions with aromatase activity and LET were determined in human adrenocorticocarcinoma H295R cells. We also used the previously described H295R/MCF-7 co-culture model to study interactions with steroidogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. In this model, genistein (GEN), 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN) and four commercially available menopausal supplements all induced ER-dependent tumor cell proliferation, which could not be prevented by physiologically relevant LET and 4OH-TAM concentrations. Differences in relative effect potencies between the H295R/MCF-7 co-culture model and ER-activation in BG1Luc4E2 cells, were due to the effects of the phytoestrogens on steroidogenesis. All tested supplements and GEN induced aromatase activity, while 8PN was a strong aromatase inhibitor. Steroidogenic profiles upon GEN and 8PN exposure indicated a strong inhibitory effect on steroidogenesis in H295R cells and H295R/MCF-7 co-cultures. Based on our in vitro data we suggest that menopausal supplement intake during breast cancer treatment should better be avoided, at least until more certainty regarding the safety of supplemental use in breast cancer patients can be provided. - Highlights: • Supplements containing phytoestrogens are commonly used by women with breast cancer. • Phytoestrogens alter steroidogenesis in a co-culture breast

  2. Hanford Site Beryllium Program: Past, Present, and Future - 12428

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Mark [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Garcia, Pete [U.S. Department of Energy - Richland Office, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Goeckner, Julie [U.S. Department of Energy - HQ, EMCBC, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202 (United States); Millikin, Emily [Washington Closure Hanford, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Stoner, Mike [Mission Support Alliance, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a long history of beryllium use because of the element's broad application to many nuclear operations and processes. At the Hanford Site beryllium alloy was used to fabricate parts for reactors, including fuel rods for the N-Reactor during plutonium production. Because of continued confirmed cases of chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and data suggesting CBD occurs at exposures to low-level concentrations, the DOE decided to issue a rule to further protect federal and contractor workers from hazards associated with exposure to beryllium. When the beryllium rule was issued in 1999, each of the Hanford Site contractors developed a Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) and initial site wide beryllium inventories. A new site-wide CBDPP, applicable to all Hanford contractors, was issued in May, 2009. In the spring of 2010 the DOE Headquarters Office of Health, Safety, and Security (HSS) conducted an independent inspection to evaluate the status of implementation of the Hanford Site Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP). The report identified four Findings and 12 cross-cutting Opportunities for Improvement (OFIs). A corrective action plan (CAP) was developed to address the Findings and crosscutting OFIs. The DOE directed affected site contractors to identify dedicated resources to participate in development of the CAP, along with involving stakeholders. The CAP included general and contractor-specific recommendations. Following initiation of actions to implement the approved CAP, it became apparent that additional definition of product deliverables was necessary to assure that expectations were adequately addressed and CAP actions could be closed. Consequently, a supplement to the original CAP was prepared and transmitted to DOE-HQ for approval. Development of the supplemental CAP was an eight month effort. From the onset a core group of CAP development members were identified to develop a mechanism

  3. Clinical Usefulness of Oral Supplementation with Alpha-Lipoic Acid, Curcumin Phytosome, and B-Group Vitamins in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Undergoing Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Pajardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the clinical usefulness of oral supplementation with a combination product containing alpha-lipoic acid, curcumin phytosome, and B-group vitamins in 180 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS, scheduled to undergo surgical decompression of the median nerve. Patients in Group A (n=60 served as controls and did not receive any treatment either before or after surgery. Patients in Group B (n=60 received oral supplementation twice a day for 3 months both before and after surgery (totaling 6 months of supplementation. Patients in Group C (n=60 received oral supplementation twice a day for 3 months before surgery only. Patients in Group B showed significantly lower nocturnal symptoms scores compared with Group A subjects at both 40 days and 3 months after surgery (both P values <0.05. Moreover, patients in Group B had a significantly lower number of positive Phalen’s tests at 3 months compared with the other study groups (P<0.05. We conclude that oral supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid, curcumin phytosome, and B-group vitamins twice a day both before and after surgery is safe and effective in CTS patients scheduled to undergo surgical decompression of the median nerve.

  4. Supplemental design requirements document, Project W026

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidert, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This document supplements and extends the Functional Design Criteria, SP-W026-FDC-001, for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP), Module 1. It provides additional detailed requirements, summarizes key Westinghouse Hanford Company design guidance, and establishes baseline technical agreements to be used in definitive design of the WRAP-1 facility. Revision 3 of the Supplemental Design Requirements Document has been assigned an Impact Level of 3ESQ based on the content of the entire revision. The actual changes made from Revision 2 have an Impact Level of 3S and the basis for these changes was previously reviewed and approved per WHC correspondence No. 9355770

  5. A Proposed Molecular Mechanism of High-Dose Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Prevention and Treatment of Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabul, Piotr; Wozniak, Michal; Slominski, Andrzej T; Preis, Krzysztof; Gorska, Magdalena; Korozan, Marek; Wieruszewski, Jan; Zmijewski, Michal A; Zabul, Ewa; Tuckey, Robert; Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Mickiewicz, Wieslawa; Knap, Narcyz

    2015-06-09

    A randomized prospective clinical study performed on a group of 74 pregnant women (43 presenting with severe preeclampsia) proved that urinary levels of 15-F(2t)-isoprostane were significantly higher in preeclamptic patients relative to the control (3.05 vs. 2.00 ng/mg creatinine). Surprisingly enough, plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in both study groups were below the clinical reference range with no significant difference between the groups. In vitro study performed on isolated placental mitochondria and placental cell line showed that suicidal self-oxidation of cytochrome P450scc may lead to structural disintegration of heme, potentially contributing to enhancement of oxidative stress phenomena in the course of preeclampsia. As placental cytochrome P450scc pleiotropic activity is implicated in the metabolism of free radical mediated arachidonic acid derivatives as well as multiple Vitamin D3 hydroxylations and progesterone synthesis, we propose that Vitamin D3 might act as a competitive inhibitor of placental cytochrome P450scc preventing the production of lipid peroxides or excess progesterone synthesis, both of which may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of preeclampsia. The proposed molecular mechanism is in accord with the preliminary clinical observations on the surprisingly high efficacy of high-dose Vitamin D3 supplementation in prevention and treatment of preeclampsia.

  6. A Proposed Molecular Mechanism of High-Dose Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Prevention and Treatment of Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Zabul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A randomized prospective clinical study performed on a group of 74 pregnant women (43 presenting with severe preeclampsia proved that urinary levels of 15-F2t-isoprostane were significantly higher in preeclamptic patients relative to the control (3.05 vs. 2.00 ng/mg creatinine. Surprisingly enough, plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in both study groups were below the clinical reference range with no significant difference between the groups. In vitro study performed on isolated placental mitochondria and placental cell line showed that suicidal self-oxidation of cytochrome P450scc may lead to structural disintegration of heme, potentially contributing to enhancement of oxidative stress phenomena in the course of preeclampsia. As placental cytochrome P450scc pleiotropic activity is implicated in the metabolism of free radical mediated arachidonic acid derivatives as well as multiple Vitamin D3 hydroxylations and progesterone synthesis, we propose that Vitamin D3 might act as a competitive inhibitor of placental cytochrome P450scc preventing the production of lipid peroxides or excess progesterone synthesis, both of which may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of preeclampsia. The proposed molecular mechanism is in accord with the preliminary clinical observations on the surprisingly high efficacy of high-dose Vitamin D3 supplementation in prevention and treatment of preeclampsia.

  7. Radionuclide releases to the atmosphere from Hanford Operations, 1944--1972. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeb, C.M.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of radionuclide emissions since 1944 from the Hanford Site. The first step in determining dose is to estimate the amount and timing of radionuclide releases to air and water. This report provides the air release information.

  8. TANK FARM RETRIEVAL LESSONS LEARNED AT THE HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DODD RA

    2008-01-01

    One of the environmental remediation challenges facing the nation is the retrieval and permanent disposal of approximately 90 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State and stores roughly 60 percent of this waste. An estimated 53 million gallons of high-level, transuranic, and low-level radioactive waste is stored underground in 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 newer double-shell tanks (DSTs) at the Hanford Site. These SSTs range in size from 55,000 gallons to 1,000,000 gallon capacity. Approximately 30 million gallons of this waste is stored in SSTs. The SSTs were constructed between 1943 and 1964 and all have exceeded the nominal 20-year design life. Sixty-seven SSTs are known or suspected to have leaked an estimated 1,000,000 gallons of waste to the surrounding soil. The risk of additional SST leakage has been greatly reduced by removing more than 3 million gallons of interstitial liquids and supernatant and transferring this waste to the DST system. Retrieval of SST saltcake and sludge waste is underway to further reduce risks and stage feed materials for the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant. Regulatory requirements for SST waste retrieval and tank farm closure are established in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO), better known as the TriParty Agreement, or TPA. The HFFACO was signed by the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), and U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and requires retrieval of as much waste as technically possible, with waste residues not to exceed 360 fe in 530,000 gallon or larger tanks; 30 fe in 55,000 gallon or smaller tanks; or the limit of waste retrieval technology, whichever is less. If residual waste volume requirements cannot be achieved, then HFFACO Appendix H provisions can be invoked to request Ecology and EPA approval of an

  9. HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TANK FARM CLOSURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JARAYSI, M.N.; SMITH, Z.; QUINTERO, R.; BURANDT, M.B.; HEWITT, W.

    2006-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. are responsible for the operations, cleanup, and closure activities at the Hanford Tank Farms. There are 177 tanks overall in the tank farms, 149 single-shell tanks (see Figure 1), and 28 double-shell tanks (see Figure 2). The single-shell tanks were constructed 40 to 60 years ago and all have exceeded their design life. The single-shell tanks do not meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 [1] requirements. Accordingly, radioactive waste is being retrieved from the single-shell tanks and transferred to double-shell tanks for storage prior to treatment through vitrification and disposal. Following retrieval of as much waste as is technically possible from the single-shell tanks, the Office of River Protection plans to close the single-shell tanks in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [2] and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [3] requirements. The double-shell tanks will remain in operation through much of the cleanup mission until sufficient waste has been treated such that the Office of River Protection can commence closing the double-shell tanks. At the current time, however, the focus is on retrieving waste and closing the single-shell tanks. The single-shell tanks are being managed and will be closed in accordance with the pertinent requirements in: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and its Washington State-authorized Dangerous Waste Regulations [4], US DOE Order 435.1 Radioactive Waste Management [5], the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [6], and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 [7]. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, which is commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA, was originally signed by Department of Energy, the State of Washington, and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1989. Meanwhile, the

  10. Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation and Oocyte Aneuploidy in Women Undergoing IVF-ICSI Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaakov Bentov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The age-related reduction in live-birth rate is attributed to a high rate of aneuploidy and follicle depletion. We showed in an animal model that treatment with Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 markedly improved reproductive outcome. The aim of this study was to compare the post-meiotic oocyte aneuploidy rate in in vitro fertilization (IVF and intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI patients treated with CoQ10 or placebo. Methods We conducted a double blind placebo controlled randomized trial that included IVF-ICSI patients 35-43 years of age. The patients were treated with either 600 mg of CoQ10 or an equivalent number of placebo caps. We compared the post-meiotic aneuploidy rate using polar body biopsy (PBBX and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH. According to the power calculation, 27 patients were needed for each arm. Results Owing to safety concerns regarding the effects of polar body biopsy on embryo quality and implantation, the study was terminated before reaching the target number of participants. A total of 39 patients were evaluated and randomized (17 CoQ10, 22 placebo, 27 were given the study medication (12 CoQ10, 15 placebo, and 24 completed an IVF-ICSI cycle including PBBX and embryo transfer (10 CoQ10, 14 placebo. Average age, base line follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, peak estradiol and progesterone serum level, as well as the total number of human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG units–-did not differ between the groups. The rate of aneuploidy was 46.5% in the CoQ10 group compared to 62.8% in the control. Clinical pregnancy rate was 33% for the CoQ10 group and 26.7% for the control group. Conclusion No significant differences in outcome were detected between the CoQ10 and placebo groups. However, the final study was underpowered to detect a difference in the rate of aneuploidy.

  11. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of Hanford LAW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Arlin L.; Nicholas R Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization. The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a highly efficient cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 2-5, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.7 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process achieved

  12. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of Hanford LAW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Arlin L.; Nicholas R Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization.'' The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a highly efficient cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 2–5, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.7 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process

  13. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.B.; King, A.D. Jr.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.

    1996-02-01

    The most promising method for the disposal of highly radioactive nuclear wastes is a vitrification process in which the wastes are incorporated into borosilicate glass logs, the logs are sealed into welded stainless steel canisters, and the canisters are buried in suitably protected burial sites for disposal. The purpose of the research supported by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) project of the Department of Energy through Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and summarized in this report was to gain a basic understanding of the hydrogen generation process and to predict the rate and amount of hydrogen generation during the treatment of HWVP feed simulants with formic acid. The objectives of the study were to determine the key feed components and process variables which enhance or inhibit the.production of hydrogen. Information on the kinetics and stoichiometry of relevant formic acid reactions were sought to provide a basis for viable mechanistic proposals. The chemical reactions were characterized through the production and consumption of the key gaseous products such as H 2 . CO 2 , N 2 0, NO, and NH 3 . For this mason this research program relied heavily on analyses of the gases produced and consumed during reactions of the HWVP feed simulants with formic acid under various conditions. Such analyses, used gas chromatographic equipment and expertise at the University of Georgia for the separation and determination of H 2 , CO, CO 2 , N 2 , N 2 O and NO

  14. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests - 13342

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thien, Mike G.; Barnes, Steve M.

    2013-01-01

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described. (authors)

  15. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests - 13342

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thien, Mike G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O Box 850, Richland WA, 99352 (United States); Barnes, Steve M. [Waste Treatment Plant, 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described. (authors)

  16. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thien, Mike G.; Barnes, Steve M.

    2013-01-01

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described

  17. Projecting future solid waste management requirements on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, S.R.; Stiles, D.L.; Holter, G.M.; Anderson, B.C.

    1990-09-01

    The problem of treating and disposing of hazardous transuranic (TRU), low-level radioactive, and mixed waste has become a major concern of the public and the government. At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington state, the problem is compounded by the need to characterize, retrieve, and treat the solid waste that was generated and stored for retrieval during the past 20 years. This paper discusses the development and application of a Solid Waste Projection Model that uses forecast volumes and characteristics of existing and future solid waste to address the treatment, storage, and disposal requirements at Hanford. The model uses a data-driven, object-oriented approach to assess the storage and treatment throughout requirements for each operation for each of the distinct waste classes and the accompanying cost of the storage and treatment operations. By defining the elements of each alternative for the total waste management system, the same database can be used for numerous analyses performed at different levels of detail. This approach also helps a variety of users with widely varying information requirements to use the model and helps achieve the high degree of flexibility needed to cope with changing regulations and evolving treatment and disposal technologies. 2 figs

  18. Hanford protective barriers program: Status of asphalt barrier studies - FY 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gee, G.W.

    1989-11-01

    The Hanford Protective Barrier Program is evaluating alternate barriers to provide a means of meeting stringent water infiltration requirements. One type of alternate barrier being considered is an asphalt-based layer, 1.3 to 15 cm thick. Evaluations of these barriers were initiated in FY 1988, and, based on laboratory studies, two asphalt formulations were selected for further testing in small-tube lysimeters: a hot rubberized asphalt and an admixture of cationic asphalt emulsion and concrete sand containing 24 wt% residual asphalt. Eight lysimeters containing asphalt seals were installed as part of the Small Tube Lysimeter Test Facility on the Hanford Site. Two control lysimeters containing Hanford sand with a surface gravel treatment were also installed for comparison. 5 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  19. Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Product Acceptance Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.

    1999-01-01

    'The Hanford Site has been used to produce nuclear materials for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste, largely generated during Pu production, exists in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks. These wastes are to be retrieved and separated into low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The DOE is proceeding with an approach to privatize the treatment and immobilization of Handord''s LAW and HLW.'

  20. Qualification of Raman analysis on Hanford tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical characterization is often required for the Hanford tanks in order to support safety assessments, compatibility between tank contents and operations activities such as sluicing and material transfer. Safety drivers include monitoring of organic chemical and oxidizer levels to better assess indicators that may point to problems from such factors as reactivity of tank contents and flammability from gas generation. Monitoring is also being recognized as a useful in support of operations in tank contents retrieval and storage of material before treatment. Important operations aspects which benefit from additional monitoring and characterization include formation of gels, foaming and fouling of transfer lines during material transfer