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Sample records for hanford coarse sandy

  1. Pore-size distribution and compressibility of coarse sandy subsoil with added biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, C. T.; Hansen, E.; Larsen, H. H.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable agricultural production on coarse sandy soil is constrained by the restricted growth of roots, and poor water and nutrient retention. Amending the soil with biochar can reduce these problems, but the processes involved are not known in detail. We investigated in the laboratory...... the effects of two fine-grained gasification biochars made of straw (LTST) and other materials (LTSN) and of one fast pyrolysis straw biochar (FPST) on pore-size distribution and soil compressibility when added to coarse sandy subsoil. Water retention and therefore pore-size distribution were affected...... systematically. All biochars converted drainable pore space with pore diameters in the range 60–300 µm into water-retaining pores of size 0.2–60 µm, which was taken as an estimate of available water capacity (AWC). Effects were linear over the whole range of biochar (0–4% by mass). The effect of LTST and LTSN...

  2. Biochar amendment to coarse sandy subsoil improves root growth and increases water retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben; Petersen, C. T.; Hansen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Crop yields and yield potentials on Danish coarse sandy soils are strongly limited due to restricted root growth and poor water and nutrient retention. We investigated if biochar amendment to subsoil can improve root development in barley and significantly increase soil water retention. Spring...... barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Anakin) was grown in soil columns (diameter: 30 cm) prepared with 25 cm topsoil, 75 cm biochar-amended subsoil, and 30 cm un-amended subsoil lowermost placed on an impervious surface. Low-temperature gasification straw-biochar (at 0, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 wt%) and slow...... pyrolysis hardwood-biochar (at 2 wt%) were investigated. One wt% can be scaled up to 102 Mg/ha of char. After full irrigation and drainage, the in-situ moisture content at 30-80 cm depth increased linearly (R2 = 0.99) with straw-biochar content at a rate corresponding to 0.029 m3/m3/%. The lab determined...

  3. Effects of grazing strategy on limiting nitrate leaching in grazed grass-clover pastures on coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Eriksen, Jørgen; Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    -term mean. The experiment was initiated in a 4-yr-old grass-clover sward in south Denmark. Three treatments were as follows grazing only (G), spring cut followed by grazing (CG) and both spring and autumn cuts with summer grazing (CGC). Nitrate leaching was calculated by extracting water isolates from 80 cm......Urinations of ruminants on grazed pastures increase the risk of nitrate leaching. The study investigated the effect of reducing the length of the grazing season on nitrate leaching from a coarse sandy, irrigated soil during 2006–2007 and 2007–2008. In both years, precipitation was above the long...... depth using ceramic suction cups. Because of considerable variation in measured nitrate concentrations, the 32 installed suction cups per treatment were insufficient to reveal differences between treatments. However, weighted nitrate leaching estimations for G, CG and CGC showed estimated mean nitrate N...

  4. HANFORD GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, B; THOMPSON, M; WILDE, R.; FORD, B.; GERBER, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    By 1990 nearly 50 years of producing plutonium put approximately 1.70E + 12 liters (450 billion gallons) of liquid wastes into the soil of the 1,518-square kilometer (586-square mile) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. The liquid releases consisted of chemicals used in laboratory experiments, manufacturing and rinsing uranium fuel, dissolving that fuel after irradiation in Hanford's nuclear reactors, and in liquefying plutonium scraps needed to feed other plutonium-processing operations. Chemicals were also added to the water used to cool Hanford's reactors to prevent corrosion in the reactor tubes. In addition, water and acid rinses were used to clean plutonium deposits from piping in Hanford's large radiochemical facilities. All of these chemicals became contaminated with radionuclides. As Hanford raced to help win World War II, and then raced to produce materials for the Cold War, these radioactive liquid wastes were released to the Site's sandy soils. Early scientific experiments seemed to show that the most highly radioactive components of these liquids would bind to the soil just below the surface of the land, thus posing no threat to groundwater. Other experiments predicted that the water containing most radionuclides would take hundreds of years to seep into groundwater, decaying (or losing) most of its radioactivity before reaching the groundwater or subsequently flowing into the Columbia River, although it was known that some contaminants like tritium would move quickly. Evidence today, however, shows that many contaminants have reached the Site's groundwater and the Columbia River, with more on its way. Over 259 square kilometers (100 square miles) of groundwater at Hanford have contaminant levels above drinking-water standards. Also key to successfully cleaning up the Site is providing information resources and public-involvement opportunities to Hanford's stakeholders. This large, passionate, diverse, and

  5. Hanford wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGhan, V.L.; Myers, D.A.; Damschen, D.W.

    1976-03-01

    The Hanford Reservation contains about 2100 wells constructed from pre-Hanford Works to the present. As of Jan. 1976, about 1800 wells still exist, 850 of which were drilled to the groundwater table; 700 still contain water. This report provides the most complete documentation of these wells and supersedes all previous compilations, including BNWL-1739

  6. Reengineering Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badalamente, R.V.; Carson, M.L.; Rhoads, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is in the process of reengineering its Hanford Site operations. There is a need to fundamentally rethink and redesign environmental restoration and waste management processes to achieve dramatic improvements in the quality, cost-effectiveness, and timeliness of the environmental services and products that make cleanup possible. Hanford is facing the challenge of reengineering in a complex environment in which major processes cuts across multiple government and contractor organizations and a variety of stakeholders and regulators have a great influence on cleanup activities. By doing the upfront work necessary to allow effective reengineering, Hanford is increasing the probability of its success.

  7. Reengineering Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalamente, R.V.; Carson, M.L.; Rhoads, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is in the process of reengineering its Hanford Site operations. There is a need to fundamentally rethink and redesign environmental restoration and waste management processes to achieve dramatic improvements in the quality, cost-effectiveness, and timeliness of the environmental services and products that make cleanup possible. Hanford is facing the challenge of reengineering in a complex environment in which major processes cuts across multiple government and contractor organizations and a variety of stakeholders and regulators have a great influence on cleanup activities. By doing the upfront work necessary to allow effective reengineering, Hanford is increasing the probability of its success

  8. Hanford wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamness, M.A.; Merz, J.K.

    1993-08-01

    Records describing wells located on or near the Hanford Site have been maintained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the operating contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company. In support of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, portions of the data contained in these records have been compiled into the following report, which is intended to be used by those needing a condensed, tabular summary of well location and basic construction information. The wells listed in this report were constructed over a period of time spanning almost 70 years. Data included in this report were retrieved from the Hanford Envirorunental Information System (HEIS) database and supplemented with information not yet entered into HEIS. While considerable effort has been made to obtain the most accurate and complete tabulations possible of the Hanford Site wells, omissions and errors may exist. This document does not include data on lithologic logs, ground-water analyses, or specific well completion details

  9. Hanford recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  10. Fluor Hanford Project Focused Progress at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HANSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    Fluor Hanford is making significant progress in accelerating cleanup at the Hanford site. This progress consistently aligns with a new strategic vision established by the U.S. Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office (RL)

  11. Microseisms from Superstorm Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufri, Oner; Koper, Keith D.; Burlacu, Relu; de Foy, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    We analyzed and visualized the microseisms generated by Superstorm Sandy as recorded by the Earthscope Transportable Array (TA) during late October through early November of 2012. We applied continuous, frequency-dependent polarization analysis to the data and were able to track the course of Sandy as it approached the Florida coastline and, later, the northeastern coast of the U.S. The energy level of Sandy was roughly comparable to the background microseism level generated by wave-wave interactions in the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans. The maximum microseismic power and degree of polarization were observed across the TA when Sandy sharply changed its direction to the west-northwest (specifically, towards Long Island, New York) on October 29. The westward turn also briefly changed the dominant microseism period from 5 s to 8 s. We identified three other microseismic source regions during the 18 day observation period. In particular, peak-splitting in the double frequency band and the orientation of the 5 s and 8 s polarization vectors revealed two contemporaneous microseism sources, one in the North Atlantic and one in the Northeast Pacific, for the dates of November 3-4. Predictions of microseismic excitation based on ocean wave models showed consistency with the observed microseismic energy generated by Sandy and other storms.

  12. Lectures on coarse geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, John

    2003-01-01

    Coarse geometry is the study of spaces (particularly metric spaces) from a 'large scale' point of view, so that two spaces that look the same from a great distance are actually equivalent. This point of view is effective because it is often true that the relevant geometric properties of metric spaces are determined by their coarse geometry. Two examples of important uses of coarse geometry are Gromov's beautiful notion of a hyperbolic group and Mostow's proof of his famous rigidity theorem. The first few chapters of the book provide a general perspective on coarse structures. Even when only metric coarse structures are in view, the abstract framework brings the same simplification as does the passage from epsilons and deltas to open sets when speaking of continuity. The middle section reviews notions of negative curvature and rigidity. Modern interest in large scale geometry derives in large part from Mostow's rigidity theorem and from Gromov's subsequent 'large scale' rendition of the crucial properties of n...

  13. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides an existing and future land use plan for the Hanford Site. The HSDP is updated annually in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B, Site Development Planning, to reflect the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  14. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  15. HIRENASD coarse unstructured

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unstructured HIRENASD mesh: - coarse size (5.7 million nodes, 14.4 million elements) - for node centered solvers - 01.06.2011 - caution: dimensions in mm

  16. Predictive coarse-graining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schöberl, Markus, E-mail: m.schoeberl@tum.de [Continuum Mechanics Group, Technical University of Munich, Boltzmannstraße 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zabaras, Nicholas [Institute for Advanced Study, Technical University of Munich, Lichtenbergstraße 2a, 85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, 365 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Koutsourelakis, Phaedon-Stelios [Continuum Mechanics Group, Technical University of Munich, Boltzmannstraße 15, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We propose a data-driven, coarse-graining formulation in the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In contrast to existing techniques which are based on a fine-to-coarse map, we adopt the opposite strategy by prescribing a probabilistic coarse-to-fine map. This corresponds to a directed probabilistic model where the coarse variables play the role of latent generators of the fine scale (all-atom) data. From an information-theoretic perspective, the framework proposed provides an improvement upon the relative entropy method and is capable of quantifying the uncertainty due to the information loss that unavoidably takes place during the coarse-graining process. Furthermore, it can be readily extended to a fully Bayesian model where various sources of uncertainties are reflected in the posterior of the model parameters. The latter can be used to produce not only point estimates of fine-scale reconstructions or macroscopic observables, but more importantly, predictive posterior distributions on these quantities. Predictive posterior distributions reflect the confidence of the model as a function of the amount of data and the level of coarse-graining. The issues of model complexity and model selection are seamlessly addressed by employing a hierarchical prior that favors the discovery of sparse solutions, revealing the most prominent features in the coarse-grained model. A flexible and parallelizable Monte Carlo – Expectation–Maximization (MC-EM) scheme is proposed for carrying out inference and learning tasks. A comparative assessment of the proposed methodology is presented for a lattice spin system and the SPC/E water model.

  17. Hanford site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A synopsis is given of the detailed characterization of the existing environment at Hanford. The following aspects are covered: demography, land use, meteorology, geology, hydrology, and seismology. It is concluded that Hanford is one of the most extensively characterized nuclear sites

  18. Hanford defense waste studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Zimmerman, M.G.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    PNL is assisting Rockwell Hanford Operations to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement for the management of Hanford defense nuclear waste. The Ecological Sciences Department is leading the task of calculation of public radiation doses from a large matrix of potential routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to the environment

  19. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1992-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides a land use plan for the Hanford Site and presents a picture of what is currently known and anticipated in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B. Site Development Planning. The HSDP wig be updated annually as future decisions further shape the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  20. Hanford Site Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Yancey, E.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  1. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J.; Yancey, E.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs

  2. Sandy PMO Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 Financial Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Sandy PMO: Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 (Sandy Supplemental Bill) Financial Data. This is the Sandy Supplemental Quarterly Financial Datasets that are...

  3. Recharge at the Hanford Site: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.

    1987-11-01

    A variety of field programs designed to evaluate recharge and other water balance components including precipitation, infiltration, evaporation, and water storage changes, have been carried out at the Hanford Site since 1970. Data from these programs have indicated that a wide range of recharge rates can occur depending upon specific site conditions. Present evidence suggests that minimum recharge occurs where soils are fine-textured and surfaces are vegetated with deep-rooted plants. Maximum recharge occurs where coarse soils or gravels exist at the surface and soils are kept bare. Recharge can occur in areas where shallow-rooted plants dominate the surface, particularly where soils are coarse-textured. Recharge estimates have been made for the site using simulation models. A US Geological Survey model that attempts to account for climate variability, soil storage parameters, and plant factors has calculated recharge values ranging from near zero to an average of about 1 cm/yr for the Hanford Site. UNSAT-H, a deterministic model developed for the site, appears to be the best code available for estimating recharge on a site-specific basis. Appendix I contains precipitation data from January 1979 to June 1987. 42 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs

  4. Hanford Site Infrastructure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Infrastructure Plan (HIP) has been prepared as an overview of the facilities, utilities, systems, and services that support all activities on the Hanford Site. Its purpose is three-fold: to examine in detail the existing condition of the Hanford Site's aging utility systems, transportation systems, Site services and general-purpose facilities; to evaluate the ability of these systems to meet present and forecasted Site missions; to identify maintenance and upgrade projects necessary to ensure continued safe and cost-effective support to Hanford Site programs well into the twenty-first century. The HIP is intended to be a dynamic document that will be updated accordingly as Site activities, conditions, and requirements change. 35 figs., 25 tabs

  5. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures

  6. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

  7. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act

  8. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

  9. Hanford Facility contingency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, L.N.; Miskho, A.G.; Brunke, R.C.

    1993-10-01

    The Hanford Facility Contingency Plan, together with each TSD unit-specific contingency plan, meets the WAC 173-303 requirements for a contingency plan. This plan includes descriptions of responses to a nonradiological hazardous materials spill or release at Hanford Facility locations not covered by TSD unit-specific contingency plans or building emergency plans. This plan includes descriptions of responses for spills or releases as a result of transportation activities, movement of materials, packaging, and storage of hazardous materials

  10. Hanford work faces change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article is a discussion of DOE efforts in the awarding of a large engineering-construction contract at the Hanford Reservation. Though the announced winner was a group lead by J. A. Jones Construction/Duke Engineering Services, the incumbent (ICF-Kaiser Engineers) protested the announced award. The protest was dismissed by the GAO, but DOE officials still reopened the bidding. There was also a short note regarding the award of the ERMC at Hanford

  11. Managing risk at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesser, W.A.; Stillwell, W.G.; Rutherford, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Clearly, there is sufficient motivation from Washington for the Hanford community to pay particular attention to the risks associated with the substantial volumes of radiological, hazardous, and mixed waste at Hanford. But there is also another reason for emphasizing risk: Hanford leaders have come to realize that their decisions must consider risk and risk reduction if those decisions are to be technically sound, financially affordable, and publicly acceptable. The 560-square miles of desert land is worth only a few thousand dollars an acre (if that) -- hardly enough to justify the almost two billion dollars that will be spent at Hanford this year. The benefit of cleaning up the Hanford Site is not the land but the reduction of potential risk to the public and the environment for future generations. If risk reduction is our ultimate goal, decisions about priority of effort and resource allocation must consider those risks, now and in the future. The purpose of this paper is to describe how Hanford is addressing the issues of risk assessment, risk management, and risk-based decision making and to share some of our experiences in these areas

  12. Hurricane Sandy Poster (October 29, 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Sandy poster. Multi-spectral image from Suomi-NPP shows Hurricane Sandy approaching the New Jersey Coast on October 29, 2012. Poster size is approximately...

  13. Review of Hanford international activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panther, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    Hanford initiated a review of international activities to collect, review, and summarize information on international environmental restoration and waste management initiatives considered for use at Hanford. This effort focused on Hanford activities and accomplishments, especially international technical exchanges and/or the implementation of foreign-developed technologies

  14. Coarse mesh code development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberoth, J.

    1975-06-15

    The numerical solution of the neutron diffusion equation plays a very important role in the analysis of nuclear reactors. A wide variety of numerical procedures has been proposed, at which most of the frequently used numerical methods are fundamentally based on the finite- difference approximation where the partial derivatives are approximated by the finite difference. For complex geometries, typical of the practical reactor problems, the computational accuracy of the finite-difference method is seriously affected by the size of the mesh width relative to the neutron diffusion length and by the heterogeneity of the medium. Thus, a very large number of mesh points are generally required to obtain a reasonably accurate approximate solution of the multi-dimensional diffusion equation. Since the computation time is approximately proportional to the number of mesh points, a detailed multidimensional analysis, based on the conventional finite-difference method, is still expensive even with modern large-scale computers. Accordingly, there is a strong incentive to develop alternatives that can reduce the number of mesh-points and still retain accuracy. One of the promising alternatives is the finite element method, which consists of the expansion of the neutron flux by piecewise polynomials. One of the advantages of this procedure is its flexibility in selecting the locations of the mesh points and the degree of the expansion polynomial. The small number of mesh points of the coarse grid enables to store the results of several of the least outer iterations and to calculate well extrapolated values of them by comfortable formalisms. This holds especially if only one energy distribution of fission neutrons is assumed for all fission processes in the reactor, because the whole information of an outer iteration is contained in a field of fission rates which has the size of all mesh points of the coarse grid.

  15. Hanford groundwater scenario studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, R.C.; Gephart, R.E.; Deju, R.A.; Cole, C.R.; Ahlstrom, S.W.

    1977-05-01

    This report documents the results of two Hanford groundwater scenario studies. The first study examines the hydrologic impact of increased groundwater recharge resulting from agricultural development in the Cold Creek Valley located west of the Hanford Reservation. The second study involves recovering liquid radioactive waste which has leaked into the groundwater flow system from a hypothetical buried tank containing high-level radioactive waste. The predictive and control capacity of the onsite Hanford modeling technology is used to evaluate both scenarios. The results of the first study indicate that Cold Creek Valley irrigationis unlikely to cause significant changes in the water table underlying the high-level waste areas or in the movement of radionuclides already in the groundwater. The hypothetical tank leak study showed that an active response (in this case waste recovery) can be modeled and is a possible alternative to passive monitoring of radionuclide movement in the unlikely event that high-level waste is introduced into the groundwater

  16. Hanford Area 2000 Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Douglas B.; Scott, Michael J.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office, Surface Environmental Surveillance Project, to provide demographic data required for ongoing environmental assessments and safety analyses at the DOE Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This document includes 2000 Census estimates for the resident population within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the Hanford Site. Population distributions are reported relative to five reference points centered on meteorological stations within major operating areas of the Hanford Site - the 100 F, 100 K, 200, 300, and 400 Areas. These data are presented in both graphical and tabular format, and are provided for total populations residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the reference points, as well as for Native American, Hispanic and Latino, total minority, and low-income populations

  17. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.; Allen, C.R.; Kruger, O.L.; Weber, E.T.

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to immobilize pretreated Hanford high-level waste and transuranic waste in borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters. Testing is being conducted in the HWVP Technology Development Project to ensure that adapted technologies are applicable to the candidate Hanford wastes and to generate information for waste form qualification. Empirical modeling is being conducted to define a glass composition range consistent with process and waste form qualification requirements. Laboratory studies are conducted to determine process stream properties, characterize the redox chemistry of the melter feed as a basis for controlling melt foaming and evaluate zeolite sorption materials for process waste treatment. Pilot-scale tests have been performed with simulated melter feed to access filtration for solids removal from process wastes, evaluate vitrification process performance and assess offgas equipment performance. Process equipment construction materials are being selected based on literature review, corrosion testing, and performance in pilot-scale testing. 3 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Science and Sandy: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, K.

    2013-12-01

    Following Hurricane Sandy's impact on the mid-Atlantic region, President Obama established a Task Force to '...ensure that the Federal Government continues to provide appropriate resources to support affected State, local, and tribal communities to improve the region's resilience, health, and prosperity by building for the future.' The author was detailed from NOAA to the Task Force between January and June 2013. As the Task Force and others began to take stock of the region's needs and develop plans to address them, many diverse approaches emerged from different areas of expertise including: infrastructure, management and construction, housing, public health, and others. Decision making in this environment was complex with many interests and variables to consider and balance. Although often relevant, science and technical expertise was not always at the forefront of this process. This talk describes the author's experience with the Sandy Task Force focusing on organizing scientific expertise to support the work of the Task Force. This includes a description of federal activity supporting Sandy recovery efforts, the role of the Task Force, and lessons learned from developing a science support function within the Task Force.

  19. DOE wants Hanford change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Nine months ago, Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary promised local officials running the agency's huge Hanford, Washington, weapon complex more control in directing its projected $57-billion waste cleanup. Earlier this month, she returned to the site for a follow-on open-quotes summit,close quotes this time ordering teamwork with contractors, regulators and local activities

  20. Surface barrier research at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.; Ward, A.L.; Fayer, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    At the DOE Hanford Site, a field-scale prototype surface barrier was constructed in 1994 over an existing waste site as a part of a CERCLA treatability test. The above-grade barrier consists of a fine-soil layer overlying coarse layers of sands, gravels, basalt rock (riprap), and a low permeability asphalt layer. Two sideslope configurations, clean-fill gravel on a 10:1 slope and basalt riprap on a 2:1 slope, were built and are being tested. Design considerations included: constructability; drainage and water balance monitoring, wind and water erosion control and monitoring; surface revegetation and biotic intrusion; subsidence and sideslope stability, and durability of the asphalt layer. The barrier is currently in the final year of a three-year test designed to answer specific questions related to stability and long-term performance. One half of the barrier is irrigated such that the total water applied, including precipitation, is 480 mm/yr (three times the long-term annual average). Each year for the past two years, an extreme precipitation event (71 mm in 8 hr) representing a 1,000-yr return storm was applied in late March, when soil water storage was at a maximum. While the protective sideslopes have drained significant amounts of water, the soil cover (2-m of silt-loam soil overlying coarse sand and rock) has never drained. During the past year there was no measurable surface runoff or wind erosion. This is attributed to extensive revegetation of the surface. In addition, the barrier elevation has shown a small increase of 2 to 3 cm that is attributed to a combination of root proliferation and freeze/thaw activity. Testing will continue through September 1997. Performance data from the prototype barrier will be used by DOE in site-closure decisions at Hanford

  1. Milestoning with coarse memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Alexander T.

    2013-04-01

    Milestoning is a method used to calculate the kinetics of molecular processes occurring on timescales inaccessible to traditional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In the method, the phase space of the system is partitioned by milestones (hypersurfaces), trajectories are initialized on each milestone, and short MD simulations are performed to calculate transitions between neighboring milestones. Long trajectories of the system are then reconstructed with a semi-Markov process from the observed statistics of transition. The procedure is typically justified by the assumption that trajectories lose memory between crossing successive milestones. Here we present Milestoning with Coarse Memory (MCM), a generalization of Milestoning that relaxes the memory loss assumption of conventional Milestoning. In the method, milestones are defined and sample transitions are calculated in the standard Milestoning way. Then, after it is clear where trajectories sample milestones, the milestones are broken up into distinct neighborhoods (clusters), and each sample transition is associated with two clusters: the cluster containing the coordinates the trajectory was initialized in, and the cluster (on the terminal milestone) containing trajectory's final coordinates. Long trajectories of the system are then reconstructed with a semi-Markov process in an extended state space built from milestone and cluster indices. To test the method, we apply it to a process that is particularly ill suited for Milestoning: the dynamics of a polymer confined to a narrow cylinder. We show that Milestoning calculations of both the mean first passage time and the mean transit time of reversal—which occurs when the end-to-end vector reverses direction—are significantly improved when MCM is applied. Finally, we note the overhead of performing MCM on top of conventional Milestoning is negligible.

  2. Hanford spent fuel inventory baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsman, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    This document compiles technical data on irradiated fuel stored at the Hanford Site in support of the Hanford SNF Management Environmental Impact Statement. Fuel included is from the Defense Production Reactors (N Reactor and the single-pass reactors; B, C, D, DR, F, H, KE and KW), the Hanford Fast Flux Test Facility Reactor, the Shipping port Pressurized Water Reactor, and small amounts of miscellaneous fuel from several commercial, research, and experimental reactors

  3. Hanford well custodians. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, A.L.; Underwood, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Program recognized the need to integrate monitoring well activities in a centralized manner. A key factor to Hanford Site well integration was the need to clearly identify a responsible party for each of the wells. WHC was asked to identify all wells on site, the program(s) using each well, and the program ultimately responsible for the well. This report lists the custodian and user(s) for each Hanford well and supplies a comprehensive list of all decommissioned and orphaned wells on the Hanford Site. This is the first update to the original report released in December 1993

  4. Reinventing government: Reinventing Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayeda, J.T.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1943 as one of the three original Manhattan Project locations involved in the development of atomic weapons. It continued as a defense production center until 1988, when its mission changed to environmental restoration and remediation. The Hanford Site is changing its business strategy and in doing so, is reinventing government. This new development has been significantly influenced by a number of external sources. These include: the change in mission, reduced security requirements, new found partnerships, fiscal budgets, the Tri-Party agreement and stakeholder involvement. Tight budgets and the high cost of cleanup require that the site develop and implement innovative cost saving approaches to its mission. Costeffective progress is necessary to help assure continued funding by Congress

  5. Hanford process review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This report is a summary of past incidents at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide the major, significant, nuclear-safety-related incidents which incurred at the Hanford Site in a single document for ease of historical research. It should be noted that the last major accident occurred in 1980. This document is a summary of reports released and available to the public in the DOE Headquarters and Richland public reading rooms. This document provides no new information that has not previously been reported. This report is not intended to cover all instances of radioactivity release or contamination, which are already the subject of other major reviews, several of which are referenced in Section 1.3

  6. Hanford Tank Cleanup Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriochoa, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

  7. The ecology of sandy beaches in Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecology of sandy beaches in Natal. A.H. Dye, A. Mclachlan and T. Wooldridge. Department of Zoology, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth. Data from an ecological survey of four sandy beaches on the. Natal coast of South Africa are presented. Physical para· meters such as beach profile, particle size, moisture, ...

  8. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.; Freeman, H.D.; Baker, E.G.; Riemath, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples

  9. Mortality studies of Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1986-04-01

    Radiation exposures at Hanford have been deliberately limited as a protection to the worker. This means that if current estimates of radiation risks, which have been determined by national and international groups, are correct, it's highly unlikely that noticeable radiation-induced health effects will be identified among Hanford workers. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  10. Straw gasification biochar increases plant available water capacity and plant growth in coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk

    Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types needs further reserach. A pot experiment with spring barley...... the characteristic low compressibility and high friction giving much better conditions for root penetration increasing yield potentials. Furthermore, risk of drought in dry periods, and nutrient losses in wet periods in coarser soil types is also reduced...

  11. IMPLEMENTASI SANDI HILL UNTUK PENYANDIAN CITRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ Siang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hill's code is one of text encoding technique. In this research, Hill's code is extended to image encoding. The image used is BMP 24 bit format. 2x2 and 3x3 matrices is used as a key. The results show that Hill's code is suitable for image whose RGB values vary highly. On the contrary, it is not suitable for less varied RGB images since its original pattern is still persisted in encrypted image. Hill's code for image encoding has also disadvantage in the case that the key matrix is not unique. However, for daily application, with good key matrix, Hill's code can be applied to encode image since it's process only deals with simple matrix operation so it become fast. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sandi Hill merupakan salah satu teknik penyandian teks. Dalam penelitian ini, pemakaian sandi Hill diperluas dari teks ke citra bertipe BMP 24 bit. Matriks yang dipakai berordo 2x2 dan 3x3. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa sandi Hill cocok untuk enkripsi citra dengan variasi nilai RGB antar piksel berdekatan yang tinggi (seperti foto, tapi tidak cocok untuk citra dengan variasi nilai RGB yang rendah (seperti gambar kartun karena pola citra asli masih tampak dalam citra sandi. Sandi Hill juga memiliki kelemahan dalam hal tidak tunggalnya matriks kunci yang dapat dipakai. Akan tetapi untuk pemakaian biasa, dengan pemilihan matriks kunci yang baik, sandi Hill dapat dipakai untuk penyandian karena hanya melibatkan operasi matriks biasa sehingga prosesnya relatif cepat. Kata kunci: Sandi Hill, Citra, Relatif Prima.

  12. Characteristics of a sandy depositional lobe on the outer Mississippi fan from SeaMARC IA sidescan sonar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, David C.; Schwab, William C.; Nelson, C. Hans; Kenyon, Neil H.; Lee, Homa J.

    1992-01-01

    SeaMARC IA sidescan sonar images of the distal reaches of a depositional lobe on the Mississippi Fan show that channelized rather than unconfined transport was the dominant transport mechanism for coarse-grained sediment during the formation of this part of the deep-sea fan. Overbank sheet flow of sands was not an important process in the transport and deposition of the sandy and silty sediment found on this fan. The dendritic distributary pattern and the high order of splaying of the channels, only one of which appears to have been active at a time, suggest that coarse-grained deposits on this fan are laterally discontinuous.

  13. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System's tank waste retrieval Program

  14. Faunistic assemblages of a sublittoral coarse sand habitat of the northwestern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pubill

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The sublittoral megabenthic assemblages of a northwestern Mediterranean coarse sandy beach exploited for the bivalve Callista chione were studied. The spatial and bathymetric variability of its distinctive faunal assemblages was characterised by quantitative sampling performed with a clam dredge. The taxa studied were Mollusca Bivalvia and Gastropoda, Crustacea Decapoda, Echinodermata and Pisces, which accounted for over 99% of the total biomass. Three well-differentiated species assemblages were identified: (1 assemblage MSS (Medium Sand Shallow in medium sand (D50=0.37 mm and shallow waters (mean depth =6.5 m, (2 assemblage CSS (Coarse Sand Shallow in coarse sand (D50=0.62 mm in shallow waters (mean depth =6.7 m, and (3 assemblage CSD (Coarse Sand Deep in coarse sand (D50=0.64 mm in deeper waters (mean depth =16.2 m. Assemblage MSS was characterised by the codominance of the bivalves Mactra stultorum and Acanthocardia tuberculata. C. chione was dominant in both density and biomass in assemblages CSS and CSD. The occurrence of the crab Thia scutellata also characterised assemblage CSS, whereas the occurrence of the sea urchin Echinocardium mediterraneum characterised assemblage CSD. A depth breaking point of around 10 m determined the discontinuity between assemblages CSS and CSD, which was related to the closure depth of the beaches in the study area. Species richness was highest in the coarse sand communities; however, Shannon-Wiener diversity and Pielou equitability indexes were higher in the shallow fine sand community.

  15. Sandy a změna klimatu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecho, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 7 (2013), s. 408-411 ISSN 0042-4544 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : hurricanes * climate change Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.vesmir.cz/clanek/sandy-a-zmena-klimatu

  16. Heterotrophic bacterial populations in tropical sandy beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Distribution pattern of heterotrophic bacterial flora of three sandy beaches of the west coast of India was studied. The population in these beaches was microbiologically different. Population peaks of halotolerant and limnotolerant forms were...

  17. Measurement of biological oxygen demand sandy beaches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements of biological oxygen demand in a sandy beach using conventional .... counting the cells present in a sample of aged seawater and comparing this with .... This activity peaked at 71 % above the undisturbed level after 16 hours.

  18. Strength Characteristics of Reinforced Sandy Soil

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Bannikov; Mahamed Al Fayez

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory tests on determination of reinforced sandy soil strength characteristics (angle of internal friction, specific cohesive force) have been carried out with the help of a specially designed instrument and proposed methodology. Analysis of the obtained results has revealed that cohesive forces are brought about in reinforced sandy soil and an angle of internal soil friction becomes larger in comparison with non-reinforced soil.

  19. Hanford inventory program user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkelman, K.C.

    1994-01-01

    Provides users with instructions and information about accessing and operating the Hanford Inventory Program (HIP) system. The Hanford Inventory Program is an integrated control system that provides a single source for the management and control of equipment, parts, and material warehoused by Westinghouse Hanford Company in various site-wide locations. The inventory is comprised of spare parts and equipment, shop stock, special tools, essential materials, and convenience storage items. The HIP replaced the following systems; ACA, ASP, PICS, FSP, WSR, STP, and RBO. In addition, HIP manages the catalog maintenance function for the General Supplies inventory stocked in the 1164 building and managed by WIMS

  20. Hydrogeologic Model for the Gable Gap Area, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Thorne, Paul D.; Williams, Bruce A.; Last, George V.; Thomas, Gregory S.; Thompson, Michael D.; Ludwig, Jami L.; Lanigan, David C.

    2010-09-30

    Gable Gap is a structural and topographic depression between Gable Mountain and Gable Butte within the central Hanford Site. It has a long and complex geologic history, which includes tectonic uplift synchronous with erosional downcutting associated with the ancestral Columbia River during both Ringold and Cold Creek periods, and by the later Ice Age (mostly glacial Lake Missoula) floods. The gap was subsequently buried and partially backfilled by mostly coarse-grained, Ice Age flood deposits (Hanford formation). Erosional remnants of both the Ringold Formation and Cold Creek unit locally underlie the high-energy flood deposits. A large window exists in the gap where confined basalt aquifers are in contact with the unconfined suprabasalt aquifer. Several paleochannels, of both Hanford and Ringold Formation age, were eroded into the basalt bedrock across Gable Gap. Groundwater from the Central Plateau presently moves through Gable Gap via one or more of these shallow paleochannels. As groundwater levels continue to decline in the region, groundwater flow may eventually be cut off through Gable Gap.

  1. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Woodruff, R.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Site Environmental Report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations. The report also highlights major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet reporting requirements and Guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) an to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to (a) describe the Hanford Site and its mission, (b) summarize the status in 1993 of compliance with environmental regulations, (c) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site, (d) discuss estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1993 Hanford activities, (e) present information on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance, including ground-water protection and monitoring, (f) discuss activities to ensure quality. More detailed information can be found in the body of the report, the appendixes, and the cited references.

  2. Introduction to the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report discusses the Site mission and provides general information about the site. The U.S. DOE has established a new mission for Hanford including: Management of stored wastes, environmental restoration, research and development, and development of new technologies. The Hanford Reservation is located in south central Washington State just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. The approximately 1,450 square kilometers which comprises the Hanford Site, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas within the site which have historically been used for the production of nuclear materials, radioactive waste storage, and radioactive waste disposal.

  3. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Site Environmental Report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations. The report also highlights major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet reporting requirements and Guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) an to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to (a) describe the Hanford Site and its mission, (b) summarize the status in 1993 of compliance with environmental regulations, (c) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site, (d) discuss estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1993 Hanford activities, (e) present information on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance, including ground-water protection and monitoring, (f) discuss activities to ensure quality. More detailed information can be found in the body of the report, the appendixes, and the cited references

  4. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, TM; Hanf, RW; Dirkes, RL

    2000-01-01

    This Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to: (1) describe the Hanford Site and its mission; (2) summarize the status of compliance with environmental regulations; (3) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; (4) discuss the estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1999 Hanford Site activities; (5) present the effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, groundwater protection and monitoring information; and (6) discuss the activities to ensure quality

  5. Introduction to the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report discusses the Site mission and provides general information about the site. The U.S. DOE has established a new mission for Hanford including: Management of stored wastes, environmental restoration, research and development, and development of new technologies. The Hanford Reservation is located in south central Washington State just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. The approximately 1,450 square kilometers which comprises the Hanford Site, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas within the site which have historically been used for the production of nuclear materials, radioactive waste storage, and radioactive waste disposal

  6. Hanford Facility RCRA permit handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Purpose of this Hanford Facility (HF) RCRA Permit Handbook is to provide, in one document, information to be used for clarification of permit conditions and guidance for implementing the HF RCRA Permit.

  7. Hanford Surplus Facilities Program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.C.; Wahlen, R.K.; Winship, R.A.

    1989-09-01

    The Hanford Surplus Facilities Program is responsible for the safe and cost-effective surveillance, maintenance, and decommissioning of surplus facilities at the Hanford Site. The management of these facilities requires a surveillance and maintenance program to keep them in a safe condition and development of a plan for ultimate disposition. Criteria used to evaluate each factor relative to decommissioning are based on the guidelines presented by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office, Defense Facilities Decommissioning Program Office, and are consistent with the Westinghouse Hanford Company commitment to decommission the Hanford Site retired facilities in the safest and most cost-effective way achievable. This document outlines the plan for managing these facilities to the end of disposition

  8. Mortality studies of Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1986-03-01

    The relationships of cancer mortality with radiation exposure as influenced by age, sex, follow-up time length of employment, and job category are discussed in relation to workers at the Hanford facilities

  9. Hanford Waste Management Plan, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP) is to provide an integrated plan for the safe storage, interim management, and disposal of existing waste sites and current and future waste streams at the Hanford Site. The emphasis of this plan is, however, on the disposal of Hanford Site waste. The plans presented in the HWMP are consistent with the preferred alternative which is based on consideration of comments received from the public and agencies on the draft Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (HDW-EIS). Low-level waste was not included in the draft HDW-EIS whereas it is included in this plan. The preferred alternative includes disposal of double-shell tank waste, retrievably stored and newly generated TRU waste, one pre-1970 TRU solid waste site near the Columbia River and encapsulated cesium and strontium waste

  10. Hanford site waste tank characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the on-going work in the characterization of the Hanford-Site high-level waste tanks. The waste in these tanks was produced as part of the nuclear weapons materials processing mission that occupied the Hanford Site for the first 40 years of its existence. Detailed and defensible characterization of the tank wastes is required to guide retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal technology development, to address waste stability and reactivity concerns, and to satisfy the compliance criteria for the various regulatory agencies overseeing activities at the Hanford Site. The resulting Tank Characterization Reports fulfill these needs, as well as satisfy the tank waste characterization milestones in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order

  11. Hanford Site 1998 Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RL Dirkes; RW Hanf; TM Poston

    1999-09-21

    This Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to: describe the Hanford Site and its mission; summarize the status of compliance with environmental regulations; describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; discuss the estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1998 Hanford Site activities; present the effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, and groundwater protection and monitoring information; and discuss the activities to ensure quality.

  12. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TM Poston; RW Hanf; RL Dirkes

    2000-09-28

    This Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to: (1) describe the Hanford Site and its mission; (2) summarize the status of compliance with environmental regulations; (3) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; (4) discuss the estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1999 Hanford Site activities; (5) present the effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, groundwater protection and monitoring information; and (6) discuss the activities to ensure quality.

  13. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates):Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates

  14. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disselkamp, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  15. HANFORD WASTE MINERALOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-29

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

  16. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-18

    This report lists the observed mineral phase phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  17. Hanford Waste Mineralogy Reference Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disselkamp, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

  18. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs

  19. How coarse is too coarse for salmon spawning substrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, J. K.; Riebe, C. S.; Ligon, F. K.; Overstreet, B. T.

    2009-12-01

    Populations of Pacific salmon species have declined sharply in many rivers of the western US. Reversing these declines is a top priority and expense of many river restoration projects. To help restore salmon populations, managers often inject gravel into rivers, to supplement spawning habitat that has been depleted by gravel mining and the effects of dams—which block sediment and thus impair habitat downstream by coarsening the bed where salmon historically spawned. However, there is little quantitative understanding nor a methodology for determining when a river bed has become too coarse for salmon spawning. Hence there is little scientific basis for selecting sites that would optimize the restoration benefits of gravel injection (e.g., sites where flow velocities are suitable but bed materials are too coarse for spawning). To develop a quantitative understanding of what makes river beds too coarse for salmon spawning, we studied redds and spawning use in a series of California and Washington rivers where salmon spawning ability appears to be affected by coarse bed material. Our working hypothesis is that for a given flow condition, there is a maximum “threshold” particle size that a salmon of a given size is able to excavate and/or move as she builds her redd. A second, related hypothesis is that spawning use should decrease and eventually become impossible with increasing percent coverage by immovable particles. To test these hypotheses, we quantified the sizes and spatial distributions of immovably coarse particles in a series of salmon redds in each river during the peak of spawning. We also quantified spawning use and how it relates to percent coverage by immovable particles. Results from our studies of fall-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytsha) in the Feather River suggest that immovable particle size varies as a function of flow velocity over the redd, implying that faster water helps fish move bigger particles. Our Feather River study also

  20. Women and the Hanford Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Michele

    2014-03-01

    When we study the technical and scientific history of the Manhattan Project, women's history is sometimes left out. At Hanford, a Site whose past is rich with hard science and heavy construction, it is doubly easy to leave out women's history. After all, at the World War II Hanford Engineer Works - the earliest name for the Hanford Site - only nine percent of the employees were women. None of them were involved in construction, and only one woman was actually involved in the physics and operations of a major facility - Dr. Leona Woods Marshall. She was a physicist present at the startup of B-Reactor, the world's first full-scale nuclear reactor - now a National Historic Landmark. Because her presence was so unique, a special bathroom had to be built for her in B-Reactor. At World War II Hanford, only two women were listed among the nearly 200 members of the top supervisory staff of the prime contractor, and only one regularly attended the staff meetings of the Site commander, Colonel Franklin Matthias. Overall, women comprised less than one percent of the managerial and supervisory staff of the Hanford Engineer Works, most of them were in nursing or on the Recreation Office staff. Almost all of the professional women at Hanford were nurses, and most of the other women of the Hanford Engineer Works were secretaries, clerks, food-service workers, laboratory technicians, messengers, barracks workers, and other support service employees. The one World War II recruiting film made to attract women workers to the Site, that has survived in Site archives, is entitled ``A Day in the Life of a Typical Hanford Girl.'' These historical facts are not mentioned to criticize the past - for it is never wise to apply the standards of one era to another. The Hanford Engineer Works was a 1940s organization, and it functioned by the standards of the 1940s. Just as we cannot criticize the use of asbestos in constructing Hanford (although we may wish they hadn't used so much of it), we

  1. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria with in which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP

  2. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria within which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP.

  3. Operational Group Sandy technical progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy made US landfall near Atlantic City, NJ on 29 October 2012, causing 72 direct deaths, displacing thousands of individuals from damaged or destroyed dwellings, and leaving over 8.5 million homes without power across the northeast and mid-Atlantic. To coordinate federal rebuilding activities in the affected region, the President established the cabinet-level Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force (Task Force). The Task Force was charged with identifying opportunities for achieving rebuilding success while supporting economic vitality, improving public health and safety, protecting and enhancing natural and manmade infrastructure, bolstering resilience, and ensuring appropriate accountability.

  4. Hanford Site peak gust wind speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1998-01-01

    Peak gust wind data collected at the Hanford Site since 1945 are analyzed to estimate maximum wind speeds for use in structural design. The results are compared with design wind speeds proposed for the Hanford Site. These comparisons indicate that design wind speeds contained in a January 1998 advisory changing DOE-STD-1020-94 are excessive for the Hanford Site and that the design wind speeds in effect prior to the changes are still appropriate for the Hanford Site

  5. Hanford Sitewide Groundwater Remediation Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knepp, A.J.; Isaacs, J.D.

    1997-09-01

    This document fulfills the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-13-81, to develop a concise statement of strategy that describe show the Hanford Site groundwater remediation will be accomplished. The strategy addresses objectives and goals, prioritization of activities, and technical approaches for groundwater cleanup. The strategy establishes that the overall goal of groundwater remediation on the Hanford Site is to restore groundwater to its beneficial uses in terms of protecting human health and the environment, and its use as a natural resource. The Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group established two categories for groundwater commensurate with various proposed landuses: (1) restricted use or access to groundwater in the Central Plateau and in a buffer zone surrounding it and (2) unrestricted use or access to groundwater for all other areas. In recognition of the Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group and public values, the strategy establishes that the sitewide approach to groundwater cleanup is to remediate the major plumes found in the reactor areas that enter the Columbia River and to contain the spread and reduce the mass of the major plumes found in the Central Plateau

  6. The Hanford Site focus, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.M.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes what the Hanford Site will look like in the next two years. We offer thumbnail sketches of Hanford Site programs and the needs we are meeting through our efforts. We describe our goals, some recent accomplishments, the work we will do in fiscal year (FY) 1994, the major activities the FY 1995 budget request covers, and the economic picture in the next few years. The Hanford Site budget shows the type of work being planned. US Department of Energy (DOE) sites like the Hanford Site use documents called Activity Data Sheets to meet this need. These are building blocks that are included in the budget. Each Activity Data Sheet is a concise (usually 4 or 5 pages) summary of a piece of work funded by the DOE's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management budget. Each sheet describes a waste management or environmental restoration need over a 5-year period; related regulatory requirements and agreements; and the cost, milestones, and steps proposed to meet the need. The Hanford Site is complex and has a huge budget, and its Activity Data Sheets run to literally thousands of pages. This report summarizes the Activity Data Sheets in a less detailed and much more reader-friendly fashion

  7. Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The September 1985 Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP) is the third revision of this document. In the future, the HWMP will be updated on an annual basis or as major changes in disposal planning at Hanford Site require. The most significant changes in the program since the last release of this document in December 1984 include: (1) Based on studies done in support of the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (HDW-EIS), the size of the protective barriers covering contaminated soil sites, solid waste burial sites, and single-shell tanks has been increased to provide a barrier that extends 30 m beyond the waste zone. (2) As a result of extensive laboratory development and plant testing, removal of transuranic (TRU) elements from PUREX cladding removal waste (CRW) has been initiated in PUREX. (3) The level of capital support in years beyond those for which specific budget projections have been prepared (i.e., fiscal year 1992 and later) has been increased to maintain Hanford Site capability to support potential future missions, such as the extension of N Reactor/PUREX operations. The costs for disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes are identified in four major areas in the HWMP: waste storage and surveillance, technology development, disposal operations, and capital expenditures

  8. Differential turbidity at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laulainen, N.S.; Kleckner, E.W.; Michalsky, J.J.; Stokes, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments continued in FY 1979 to examine differential turbidity effects on insolation as measured at the earth's surface. These experiments are primarily intended to provide means for interpreting insolation-data assessment studies. These data are also valuable for inferring aerosol radiative or optical effects, which is an important consideration in evaluating inadvertent climate modification and visibility degradation as a result of aerosols. The experiments are characterized by frequent, nearly simultaneous observations at the Rattlesnake Mountain Observatory (RMO) and the Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS) and take advantage of the nearly 1-km altitude difference between these two observing sites. This study indicated that nearly simultaneous measurements of the direct solar beam from stationary sites that are separated in altitude can be used to monitor the incremental optical depth arising from aerosols in the intervening layer. Once appropriate calbiration procedures have been established for the MASP unit, the direct solar data can be used to document on a routine basis aerosol variations in the first kilometer between HMS and RMO

  9. Hanford gas dispersion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, R.K.; Travis, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis was performed to verify the design of a waste gas exhauster for use in support of rotary core sampling activities at the Westinghouse Hanford Waste Tank Farm. The exhauster was designed to remove waste gases from waste storage tanks during the rotary core drilling process of the solid materials in the tank. Some of the waste gases potentially are very hazardous and must be monitored during the exhauster's operation. If the toxic gas concentrations in specific areas near the exhauster exceed minimum Threshold Limit Values (TLVs), personnel must be excluded from the area. The exhauster stack height is of interest because an increase in stack height will alter the gas concentrations at the critical locations. The exhaust stack is currently ∼4.6 m (15 ft) high. An equipment operator will be located within a 6.1 m (20 ft) radius of the exhaust stack, and his/her head will be at an elevation 3.7 m (12 ft) above ground level (AGL). Therefore, the maximum exhaust gas concentrations at this location must be below the TLV for the toxic gases. Also, the gas concentrations must be within the TLV at a 61 m (200 ft) radius from the stack. If the calculated gas concentrations are above the TLV, where the operator is working below the stack at the 61 m (200 ft) radius location, the stack height may need to be increased

  10. 1976 Hanford americium accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heid, K.R.; Breitenstein, B.D.; Palmer, H.E.; McMurray, B.J.; Wald, N.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the 2.5-year medical course of a 64-year-old Hanford nuclear chemical operator who was involved in an accident in an americium recovery facility in August 1976. He was heavily externally contaminated with americium, sustained a substantial internal deposition of this isotope, and was burned with concentrated nitric acid and injured by flying debris about the face and neck. The medical care given the patient, including the decontamination efforts and clinical laboratory studies, are discussed. In-vivo measurements were used to estimate the dose rates and the accumulated doses to body organs. Urinary and fecal excreta were collected and analyzed for americium content. Interpretation of these data was complicated by the fact that the intake resulted both from inhalation and from solubilization of the americium embedded in facial tissues. A total of 1100 μCi was excreted in urine and feces during the first 2 years following the accident. The long-term use of diethylenetriaminepentate (DTPA), used principally as the zinc salt, is discussed including the method, route of administration, and effectiveness. To date, the patient has apparently experienced no complications attributable to this extensive course of therapy, even though he has been given approximately 560 grams of DTPA. 4 figures, 1 table

  11. Sandy Hook : alternative access concept plan and vehicle replacement study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This study addresses two critical issues of concern to the Sandy Hook Unit of Gateway National : Recreational Area: (1) options for alternative access to Sandy Hook during peak summer season, : particularly when the park is closed to private vehicles...

  12. Hanford Site sustainable development initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, C.T.

    1994-05-01

    Since the days of the Manhattan Project of World War II, the economic well being of the Tri-Cities (Pasco, Kennewick, and Richland) of Washington State has been tied to the US Department of Energy missions at the nearby Hanford Site. As missions at the Site changed, so did the economic vitality of the region. The Hanford Site is now poised to complete its final mission, that of environmental restoration. When restoration is completed, the Site may be closed and the effect on the local economy will be devastating if action is not taken now. To that end, economic diversification and transition are being planned. To facilitate the process, the Hanford Site will become a sustainable development demonstration project

  13. FLUOR HANFORD SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARVIN, L. J.; JENSEN, M. A.

    2004-04-13

    This document summarizes safety management programs used within the scope of the ''Project Hanford Management Contract''. The document has been developed to meet the format and content requirements of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses''. This document provides summary descriptions of Fluor Hanford safety management programs, which Fluor Hanford nuclear facilities may reference and incorporate into their safety basis when producing facility- or activity-specific documented safety analyses (DSA). Facility- or activity-specific DSAs will identify any variances to the safety management programs described in this document and any specific attributes of these safety management programs that are important for controlling potentially hazardous conditions. In addition, facility- or activity-specific DSAs may identify unique additions to the safety management programs that are needed to control potentially hazardous conditions.

  14. The ecology of sandy beaches in Transkei

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from an ecological survey of three sandy beaches in. Transkei and from Gulu beach on the eastern Cape coast,. South Africa, are presented. Physical parameters such as beach profile, sand particle size, Eh and carbonate content, as well as abundance, composition, biomass and distribution of the macrofauna and ...

  15. Lessons from Hurricane Sandy for port resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    New York Harbor was directly in the path of the most damaging part of Hurricane Sandy causing significant impact on many of the : facilities of the Port of New York and New Jersey. The U.S. Coast Guard closed the entire Port to all traffic before the...

  16. Transportation during and after Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    "Hurricane Sandy demonstrated the strengths and limits of the transportation infrastructure in New York City and the surrounding region. As a result of the timely and thorough preparations by New York City and the MTA, along with the actions of city ...

  17. Bibliography of sandy beaches and sandy beach organisms on the African continent

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bally, R

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography covers the literature relating to sandy beaches on the African continent and outlying islands. The bibliography lists biological, chemical, geographical and geological references and covers shallow marine sediments, surf zones off...

  18. HANFORD SITE RIVER CORRIDOR CLEANUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAZZELL, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the third generation of closure contracts, including the River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at Hanford. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made on cleaning up the river shore that bordes Hanford. However, the most important cleanup challenges lie ahead. In March 2005, DOE awarded the Hanford River Corridor Closure Contract to Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), a limited liability company owned by Washington Group International, Bechtel National and CH2M HILL. It is a single-purpose company whose goal is to safely and efficiently accelerate cleanup in the 544 km 2 Hanford river corridor and reduce or eliminate future obligations to DOE for maintaining long-term stewardship over the site. The RCC Contract is a cost-plus-incentive-fee closure contract, which incentivizes the contractor to reduce cost and accelerate the schedule. At $1.9 billion and seven years, WCH has accelerated cleaning up Hanford's river corridor significantly compared to the $3.2 billion and 10 years originally estimated by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Predictable funding is one of the key features of the new contract, with funding set by contract at $183 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and peaking at $387 million in FY2012. Another feature of the contract allows for Washington Closure to perform up to 40% of the value of the contract and subcontract the balance. One of the major challenges in the next few years will be to identify and qualify sufficient subcontractors to meet the goal

  19. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from released to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; and, environmental pathways and dose estimates

  20. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories under contract with the Centers for Disease Control. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption, and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates

  1. Disposal of Hanford defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, R.A.; Burnham, J.B.; Nelson, I.C.

    1986-01-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the disposal of Hanford Defense Waste is scheduled to be released near the end of March, 1986. This EIS will evaluate the impacts of alternatives for disposal of high-level, tank, and transuranic wastes which are now stored at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site or will be produced there in the future. In addition to releasing the EIS, the Department of Energy is conducting an extensive public participation process aimed at providing information to the public and receiving comments on the EIS

  2. Hanford Site technical baseline database. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    This report lists the Hanford specific files (Table 1) that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. Table 2 includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 0 of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. This information is being managed and maintained on the Hanford RDD-100 System, which uses the capabilities of RDD-100, a systems engineering software system of Ascent Logic Corporation (ALC). This revision of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database uses RDD-100 version 3.0.2.2 (see Table 3). Directories reflect those controlled by the Hanford RDD-100 System Administrator. Table 4 provides information regarding the platform. A cassette tape containing the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database is available

  3. Coarse-graining complex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibani, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRW) are widely used to coarse-grain the evolution of systems jumping from a metastable sub-set of their configuration space, or trap, to another via rare intermittent events. The multi-scaled behavior typical of complex dynamics is provided by a fat...... macroscopic variables all produce identical long time relaxation behaviors. Hence, CTRW shed no light on the link between microscopic and macroscopic dynamics. We then highlight how a more recent approach, Record Dynamics (RD) provides a viable alternative, based on a very different set of physical ideas......: while CTRW make use of a renewal process involving identical traps of infinite size, RD embodies a dynamical entrenchment into a hierarchy of traps which are finite in size and possess different degrees of meta-stability. We show in particular how RD produces the stretched exponential, power...

  4. Hierarchical coarse-graining transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancaldi, Vera; King, Peter R; Christensen, Kim

    2009-03-01

    We present a hierarchical transform that can be applied to Laplace-like differential equations such as Darcy's equation for single-phase flow in a porous medium. A finite-difference discretization scheme is used to set the equation in the form of an eigenvalue problem. Within the formalism suggested, the pressure field is decomposed into an average value and fluctuations of different kinds and at different scales. The application of the transform to the equation allows us to calculate the unknown pressure with a varying level of detail. A procedure is suggested to localize important features in the pressure field based only on the fine-scale permeability, and hence we develop a form of adaptive coarse graining. The formalism and method are described and demonstrated using two synthetic toy problems.

  5. Hanford Site environmental management specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grygiel, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) uses this Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification (Specification) to document top-level mission requirements and planning assumptions for the prime contractors involved in Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. This Specification describes at a top level the activities, facilities, and infrastructure necessary to accomplish the cleanup of the Hanford Site and assigns this scope to Site contractors and their respective projects. This Specification also references the key National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), and safety documentation necessary to accurately describe the cleanup at a summary level. The information contained in this document reflects RL's application of values, priorities, and critical success factors expressed by those involved with and affected by the Hanford Site project. The prime contractors and their projects develop complete baselines and work plans to implement this Specification. These lower-level documents and the data that support them, together with this Specification, represent the full set of requirements applicable to the contractors and their projects. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this Specification to the other basic Site documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this specification represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents

  6. Hanford Site Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Plan (HWMP) was prepared in accordance with the outline and format described in the US Department of Energy Orders. The HWMP presents the actions, schedules, and projected costs associated with the management and disposal of Hanford defense wastes, both radioactive and hazardous. The HWMP addresses the Waste Management Program. It does not include the Environmental Restoration Program, itself divided into the Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Program and the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. The executive summary provides the basis for the plans, schedules, and costs within the scope of the Waste Management Program at Hanford. It summarizes fiscal year (FY) 1988 including the principal issues and the degree to which planned activities were accomplished. It further provides a forecast of FY 1989 including significant milestones. Section 1 provides general information for the Hanford Site including the organization and administration associated with the Waste Management Program and a description of the Site focusing on waste management operations. Section 2 and Section 3 describe radioactive and mixed waste management operations and hazardous waste management, respectively. Each section includes descriptions of the waste management systems and facilities, the characteristics of the wastes managed, and a discussion of the future direction of operations

  7. Differential turbidity measurements at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laulainen, N.S.; Bates, J.A.; Kleckner, E.W.; Michalsky, J.J.; Schrotke, P.M.; Thorp, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment to exmine differential turbidity effects on measured insolation between the Rattlesnake Observatory and the Hanford Meteorological Station was conducted during summer 1977. Several types of solar radiation instruments were used, including pyranometers, multiwavelength sunphotometers, and an active cavity radiometer. Preliminary results show dramatic temporal variability of aerosol loading at HMS and significant insolation and turbidity differences between the Observatory and HMS

  8. Hanford Site environmental management specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.

    1998-06-10

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) uses this Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification (Specification) to document top-level mission requirements and planning assumptions for the prime contractors involved in Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. This Specification describes at a top level the activities, facilities, and infrastructure necessary to accomplish the cleanup of the Hanford Site and assigns this scope to Site contractors and their respective projects. This Specification also references the key National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), and safety documentation necessary to accurately describe the cleanup at a summary level. The information contained in this document reflects RL`s application of values, priorities, and critical success factors expressed by those involved with and affected by the Hanford Site project. The prime contractors and their projects develop complete baselines and work plans to implement this Specification. These lower-level documents and the data that support them, together with this Specification, represent the full set of requirements applicable to the contractors and their projects. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this Specification to the other basic Site documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this specification represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents.

  9. Mortality of Hanford radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of occupational exposure to low level ionizing radiation at the Hanford plant in southeastern Washington were investigated. Death rates were related to exposure status. To provide perspective, the rates were also compared with the death rates of the US population

  10. Hanford site operator changes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is a brief discussion of management changes at the Westinghouse Hanford Corporation. A. LeMar Trego has relieved Thomas Anderson as president of WHC. This was in response to recent shortcomings in Westinghouse's management of the environmental restoration and their failure to receive a $10M performance bonus

  11. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.

    1991-09-01

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  12. TRACKING CLEAN UP AT HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNELL, C.W.

    2005-01-01

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA), is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), The Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for cleaning up the Hanford Site. Established in the 1940s to produce material for nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford is often referred to as the world's large environmental cleanup project. The Site covers more than 580 square miles in a relatively remote region of southeastern Washington state in the US. The production of nuclear materials at Hanford has left a legacy of tremendous proportions in terms of hazardous and radioactive waste. From a waste-management point of view, the task is enormous: 1700 waste sites; 450 billion gallons of liquid waste; 70 billion gallons of contaminated groundwater; 53 million gallons of tank waste; 9 reactors; 5 million cubic yards of contaminated soil; 22 thousand drums of mixed waste; 2.3 tons of spent nuclear fuel; and 17.8 metric tons of plutonium-bearing material and this is just a partial listing. The agreement requires that DOE provide the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to the lead regulatory agency to help guide then in making decisions. The agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in it, or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The Action Plan that supports the TPA requires that Ecology and EPA have access to all data that is relevant to work performed, or to be performed, under the Agreement. Further, the Action Plan specifies two additional requirements: (1) that EPA, Ecology and their respective contractor staffs have access to all the information electronically, and (2) that the databases are accessible to, and used by, all personnel doing TPA

  13. Responses of soil fungal community to the sandy grassland restoration in Horqin Sandy Land, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Kun; Zuo, Xiao-An; Zhao, Xue-Yong; Li, Yu-Qiang; Zhou, Xin; Lv, Peng; Luo, Yong-Qing; Yun, Jian-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Sandy grassland restoration is a vital process including re-structure of soils, restoration of vegetation, and soil functioning in arid and semi-arid regions. Soil fungal community is a complex and critical component of soil functioning and ecological balance due to its roles in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling following sandy grassland restoration. In this study, soil fungal community and its relationship with environmental factors were examined along a habitat gradient of sandy grassland restoration: mobile dunes (MD), semi-fixed dunes (SFD), fixed dunes (FD), and grassland (G). It was found that species abundance, richness, and diversity of fungal community increased along with the sandy grassland restoration. The sequences analysis suggested that most of the fungal species (68.4 %) belonged to the phylum of Ascomycota. The three predominant fungal species were Pleospora herbarum, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Deconica Montana, accounting for more than one fourth of all the 38 species. Geranomyces variabilis was the subdominant species in MD, Pseudogymnoascus destructans and Mortierella alpine were the subdominant species in SFD, and P. destructans and Fungi incertae sedis were the dominant species in FD and G. The result from redundancy analysis (RDA) and stepwise regression analysis indicated that the vegetation characteristics and soil properties explain a significant proportion of the variation in the fungal community, and aboveground biomass and C:N ratio are the key factors to determine soil fungal community composition during sandy grassland restoration. It was suggested that the restoration of sandy grassland combined with vegetation and soil properties improved the soil fungal diversity. Also, the dominant species was found to be alternative following the restoration of sandy grassland ecosystems.

  14. Rebuilding Emergency Care After Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David C; Smith, Silas W; McStay, Christopher M; Portelli, Ian; Goldfrank, Lewis R; Husk, Gregg; Shah, Nirav R

    2014-04-09

    A freestanding, 911-receiving emergency department was implemented at Bellevue Hospital Center during the recovery efforts after Hurricane Sandy to compensate for the increased volume experienced at nearby hospitals. Because inpatient services at several hospitals remained closed for months, emergency volume increased significantly. Thus, in collaboration with the New York State Department of Health and other partners, the Health and Hospitals Corporation and Bellevue Hospital Center opened a freestanding emergency department without on-site inpatient care. The successful operation of this facility hinged on key partnerships with emergency medical services and nearby hospitals. Also essential was the establishment of an emergency critical care ward and a system to monitor emergency department utilization at affected hospitals. The results of this experience, we believe, can provide a model for future efforts to rebuild emergency care capacity after a natural disaster such as Hurricane Sandy. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-4).

  15. Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1990 highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.

    1991-09-01

    The Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program was jointly developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to design and test an earthen cover system(s) that can be used to inhibit water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion. The joint PNL/WHC program was initiated in FY 1986. To date, research findings support the initial concepts of barrier designs for the Hanford Site. A fine-soil surface is planned to partition surface water into runoff and temporary storage. Transpiration by vegetation that grows in the fine-soil layer will return stored water to the atmosphere as will surface evaporation. A capillary break created by the interface of the fine-soil layer and coarser textured materials below will further limit the downward migration of surface water, making it available over a longer period of time for cycling to the atmosphere. Should water pass the interface, it will drain laterally through a coarse textured sand/gravel layer. Tested barrier designs appear to work adequately to prevent drainage under current and postulated wetter-climate (added precipitation) conditions. Wind and water erosion tasks are developing data to predict the extent of erosion on barrier surfaces. Data collected during the last year confirm the effectiveness of small burrowing animals in removing surface water. Water infiltrating through burrows of larger mammals was subsequently lost by natural processes. Natural analog and climate change studies are under way to provide credibility for modeling the performance of barrier designs over a long period of time and under shifts in climate. 10 refs., 30 figs

  16. Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1990 highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, L.L. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    The Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program was jointly developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to design and test an earthen cover system(s) that can be used to inhibit water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion. The joint PNL/WHC program was initiated in FY 1986. To date, research findings support the initial concepts of barrier designs for the Hanford Site. A fine-soil surface is planned to partition surface water into runoff and temporary storage. Transpiration by vegetation that grows in the fine-soil layer will return stored water to the atmosphere as will surface evaporation. A capillary break created by the interface of the fine-soil layer and coarser textured materials below will further limit the downward migration of surface water, making it available over a longer period of time for cycling to the atmosphere. Should water pass the interface, it will drain laterally through a coarse textured sand/gravel layer. Tested barrier designs appear to work adequately to prevent drainage under current and postulated wetter-climate (added precipitation) conditions. Wind and water erosion tasks are developing data to predict the extent of erosion on barrier surfaces. Data collected during the last year confirm the effectiveness of small burrowing animals in removing surface water. Water infiltrating through burrows of larger mammals was subsequently lost by natural processes. Natural analog and climate change studies are under way to provide credibility for modeling the performance of barrier designs over a long period of time and under shifts in climate. 10 refs., 30 figs.

  17. Coarse graining for synchronization in directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, An; Lü, Linyuan

    2011-05-01

    Coarse-graining model is a promising way to analyze and visualize large-scale networks. The coarse-grained networks are required to preserve statistical properties as well as the dynamic behaviors of the initial networks. Some methods have been proposed and found effective in undirected networks, while the study on coarse-graining directed networks lacks of consideration. In this paper we proposed a path-based coarse-graining (PCG) method to coarse grain the directed networks. Performing the linear stability analysis of synchronization and numerical simulation of the Kuramoto model on four kinds of directed networks, including tree networks and variants of Barabási-Albert networks, Watts-Strogatz networks, and Erdös-Rényi networks, we find our method can effectively preserve the network synchronizability.

  18. Extension of 239+240Pu sediment geochronology to coarse-grained marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven A.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Miselis, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Sediment geochronology of coastal sedimentary environments dominated by sand has been extremely limited because concentrations of natural and bomb-fallout radionuclides are often below the limit of measurement using standard techniques. ICP-MS analyses of 239+240Pu from two sites representative of traditionally challenging (i.e., low concentration) environments provide a "proof of concept" and demonstrate a new application for bomb-fallout radiotracers in the study of sandy shelf-seabed dynamics. A kasten core from the New Zealand shelf in the Southern Hemisphere (low fallout), and a vibracore from the sandy nearshore of North Carolina (low particle surface area) both reveal measurable 239+240Pu activities at depth. In the case of the New Zealand site, independently verified steady-state sedimentation results in a 239+240Pu profile that mimics the expected atmospheric fallout. The depth profile of 239+240Pu in the North Carolina core is more uniform, indicating significant sediment resuspension, which would be expected in this energetic nearshore environment. This study, for the first time, demonstrates the utility of 239+240Pu in the study of sandy environments, significantly extending the application of bomb-fallout isotopes to coarse-grained sediments, which compose the majority of nearshore regions.

  19. History of Hanford Site Defense Production (Brief)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GERBER, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper acquaints the audience with the history of the Hanford Site, America's first full-scale defense plutonium production site. The paper includes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War II construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), a brief production spurt from 1984-86, the end of the Cold War, and the beginning of the waste cleanup mission. The paper also delineates historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, past efforts to chemically treat, ''fractionate,'' and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes, and resulting major waste legacies that remain today. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history

  20. Historical genesis of Hanford Site wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper acquaints the audience with historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, and with the generation of the major waste streams of concern in Hanford Site clean-up today. The paper also describes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War 11 construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), and some past suggestions and efforts to chemically treat, open-quotes fractionate,close quotes and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes. Recent events, including the designation of the Hanford Site as the open-quotes flagshipclose quotes of Department of Energy (DOE) waste remediation efforts and the signing of the landmark Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), have generated new interest in Hanford's history. Clean-up milestones dictated in this agreement demand information about how, when, in what quantities and mixtures, and under what conditions, Hanford Site wastes were generated and released. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. The earliest, 1940s knowledge base, assumptions and calculations about radioactive and chemical discharges, as discussed in the memos, correspondence and reports of the original Hanford Site (then Hanford Engineer Works) builders and operators, are reviewed. The growth of knowledge, research efforts, and subsequent changes in Site waste disposal policies and practices are traced. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history

  1. Potential radiation doses from 1994 Hanford Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldat, J.K.; Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the potential radiation doses to the public from releases originating at the Hanford Site. Members of the public are potentially exposed to low-levels of radiation from these effluents through a variety of pathways. The potential radiation doses to the public were calculated for the hypothetical MEI and for the general public residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the Hanford Site.

  2. Potential radiation doses from 1994 Hanford Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldat, J.K.; Antonio, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the potential radiation doses to the public from releases originating at the Hanford Site. Members of the public are potentially exposed to low-levels of radiation from these effluents through a variety of pathways. The potential radiation doses to the public were calculated for the hypothetical MEI and for the general public residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the Hanford Site

  3. Cone penetrometer testing at the Hanford Site: Final performance evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richterich, L.R.; Cassem, B.R.

    1994-08-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) integrated demonstrations designed to support the testing of emerging environmental characterization and remediation technologies in support of the Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) Programs. The primary objective of the VOC Arid ID at the Hanford Site is to characterize, remediate, and monitor arid and semi-arid sites containing volatile organic compounds with or without associated contamination. The main objective of the Arid Drilling Technology Technical Task Plan is to demonstrate promising subsurface access technologies; this includes using the cone penetrometer (CPT) system for source detection, characterization, monitoring, and remediation in support of environmental activities. The utility of the CPT for performing site characterization work has been the subject of much discussion and speculation at the Hanford Site and other arid sites because of the preponderance of thick units of coarse cobbles and gravel in the subsurface

  4. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  5. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betsch, M.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-26

    The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) is a pro- active way to look at a waste generating activity and identify opportunities to minimize wastes through a cost benefit analysis. Hanford`s PPOA process is based upon the graded approach developed by the Kansas City Plant. Hanford further streamlined the process while building in more flexibility for the individual users. One of the most challenging aspects for implementing the PPOA process at Hanford is one overall mission which is environmental restoration, Now that the facilities are no longer in production, each has a different non- routine activity making it difficult to quantify the inputs and outputs of the activity under consideration.

  6. HANFORD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY NEEDS STATEMENTS 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WIBLE, R.A.

    2002-04-01

    This document: (a) provides a comprehensive listing of the Hanford sites science and technology needs for fiscal year (FY) 2002; and (b) identifies partnering and commercialization opportunities within industry, other federal and state agencies, and the academic community. These needs were prepared by the Hanford projects (within the Project Hanford Management Contract, the Environmental Restoration Contract and the River Protection Project) and subsequently reviewed and endorsed by the Hanford Site Technology Coordination Group (STCG). The STCG reviews included participation of DOE-RL and DOE-ORP Management, site stakeholders, state and federal regulators, and Tribal Nations. These needs are reviewed and updated on an annual basis and given a broad distribution.

  7. Field trip guide to the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, S.P.; Lindsey, K.A.; Fecht, K.R.

    1992-11-01

    This report is designed to provide a guide to the key geologic and hydrologic features of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site located in south-central Washington. The guide is divided into two parts. The first part is a general introduction to the geology of the Hanford Site and its relation to the regional framework of south-central Washington. The second part is a road log that provides directions to important geologic features on the Hanford Site and descriptions of the locality. The exposures described were chosen for their accessibility and importance to the geologic history of the Hanford Site and to understanding the geohydrology of the Site

  8. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities

  9. Mortality of Hanford radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1980-01-01

    Mortality from all causes for white males employed at Hanford for at least two years is 75 percent of that expected on the basis of US vital statistics. Mortality from cancer is 85 percent of that expected. These results are typical of a working population. Neither death from all causes nor death from all cancer types shows a positive correlation with external radiation exposures. Myeloid leukemia, the disease that several studies have found to be associated most strongly with radiation exposure, is not correlated with external radiation exposure of Hanford workers. Two specific cancers, multiple myeloma and to a lesser extent cancer of the pancreas, were found to be positively correlated with radiation exposure. The correlations identified result entirely from a small number of deaths (3 each for multiple myeloma and cancer of the pancreas) with cumulative exposure greater than 15 rem

  10. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMakin, A.H.; Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. Progress is discussed

  11. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs

  12. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Well subject area of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) manages data relevant to wells, boreholes and test pits constructed at the Hanford Site for soil sampling, geologic analysis and/or ground-water monitoring, and sampling for hydrochemical and radiological analysis. Data stored in the Well subject area include information relevant to the construction of the wells and boreholes, structural modifications to existing wells and boreholes, the location of wells, boreholes and test pits, and the association of wells, boreholes and test pits with organization entities such as waste sites. Data resulting from ground-water sampling performed at wells are stored in tables in the Ground-Water subject area. Geologic data collected during drilling, including particle sizing and interpretative geologic summaries, are stored in tables in the Geologic subject area. Data from soil samples taken during the drilling or excavation and sent for chemical and/or radiological analysis are stored in the Soil subject area

  13. Hanford waste tank cone penetrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seda, R.Y.

    1995-12-01

    A new tool is being developed to characterize tank waste at the Hanford Reservation. This tool, known as the cone penetrometer, is capable of obtaining chemical and physical properties in situ. For the past 50 years, this tool has been used extensively in soil applications and now has been modified for usage in Hanford Underground Storage tanks. These modifications include development of new ''waste'' data models as well as hardware design changes to accommodate the hazardous and radioactive environment of the tanks. The modified cone penetrometer is scheduled to be deployed at Hanford by Fall 1996. At Hanford, the cone penetrometer will be used as an instrumented pipe which measures chemical and physical properties as it pushes through tank waste. Physical data, such as tank waste stratification and mechanical properties, is obtained through three sensors measuring tip pressure, sleeve friction and pore pressure. Chemical data, such as chemical speciation, is measured using a Raman spectroscopy sensor. The sensor package contains other instrumentation as well, including a tip and side temperature sensor, tank bottom detection and an inclinometer. Once the cone penetrometer has reached the bottom of the tank, a moisture probe will be inserted into the pipe. This probe is used to measure waste moisture content, water level, waste surface moisture and tank temperature. This paper discusses the development of this new measurement system. Data from the cone penetrometer will aid in the selection of sampling tools, waste tank retrieval process, and addressing various tank safety issues. This paper will explore various waste models as well as the challenges associated with tank environment

  14. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Biota subject area of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is to manage the data collected from samples of plants and animals. This includes both samples taken from the plant or animal or samples related to the plant or animal. Related samples include animal feces and animal habitat. Data stored in the Biota subject area include data about the biota samples taken, analysis results counts from population studies, and species distribution maps

  15. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Soil subject area of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is to manage the data acquired from soil samples, both geologic and surface, and sediment samples. Stored in the Soil subject area are data relevant to the soil samples, laboratory analytical results, and field measurements. The two major types of data make up the Soil subject area are data concerning the samples and data about the chemical and/or radiologic analyses of soil samples

  16. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  17. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports

  18. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is a consolidated set of automated resources that effectively manage the data gathered during environmental monitoring and restoration of the Hanford Site. HEIS includes an integrated database that provides consistent and current data to all users and promotes sharing of data by the entire user community. HEIS is an information system with an inclusive database. Although the database is the nucleus of the system, HEIS also provides user access software: query-by-form data entry, extraction, and browsing facilities; menu-driven reporting facilities; an ad hoc query facility; and a geographic information system (GIS). These features, with the exception of the GIS, are described in this manual set. Because HEIS contains data from the entire Hanford Site, many varieties of data are included and have.been divided into subject areas. Related subject areas comprise several volumes of the manual set. The manual set includes a data dictionary that lists all of the fields in the HEIS database, with their definitions and a cross reference of their locations in the database; definitions of data qualifiers for analytical results; and a mapping between the HEIS software functions and the keyboard keys for each of the supported terminals or terminal emulators

  19. Hanford Site surface environmental surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and the surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is a multimedia environmental monitoring program conducted to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemical contaminants in the environment and assess the integrated effects of these contaminants on the environment and the public. The monitoring program includes sampling air, surface water, sediments, soil, natural vegetation, agricultural products, fish, and wildlife. Functional elements inherent in the operation of the SESP include project management, quality assurance/control, training, records management, environmental sampling network design and implementation, sample collection, sample analysis, data management, data review and evaluation, exposure assessment, and reporting. The SESP focuses on those contaminant/media combinations calculated to have the highest potential for contributing to off-site exposure. Results of the SESP indicate that contaminant concentrations in the Hanford environs are very low, generally below environmental standards, at or below analytical detection levels, and indicative of environmental levels. However, areas of elevated contaminant concentrations have been identified at Hanford. The extent of these areas is generally limited to past operating areas and waste disposal sites

  20. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs

  1. Learning to Play Efficient Coarse Correlated Equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Borowski, Holly P.

    2018-03-10

    The majority of the distributed learning literature focuses on convergence to Nash equilibria. Coarse correlated equilibria, on the other hand, can often characterize more efficient collective behavior than even the best Nash equilibrium. However, there are no existing distributed learning algorithms that converge to specific coarse correlated equilibria. In this paper, we provide one such algorithm, which guarantees that the agents’ collective joint strategy will constitute an efficient coarse correlated equilibrium with high probability. The key to attaining efficient correlated behavior through distributed learning involves incorporating a common random signal into the learning environment.

  2. Epidemic gasoline exposures following Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong K; Takematsu, Mai; Biary, Rana; Williams, Nicholas; Hoffman, Robert S; Smith, Silas W

    2013-12-01

    Major adverse climatic events (MACEs) in heavily-populated areas can inflict severe damage to infrastructure, disrupting essential municipal and commercial services. Compromised health care delivery systems and limited utilities such as electricity, heating, potable water, sanitation, and housing, place populations in disaster areas at risk of toxic exposures. Hurricane Sandy made landfall on October 29, 2012 and caused severe infrastructure damage in heavily-populated areas. The prolonged electrical outage and damage to oil refineries caused a gasoline shortage and rationing unseen in the USA since the 1970s. This study explored gasoline exposures and clinical outcomes in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Prospectively collected, regional poison control center (PCC) data regarding gasoline exposure cases from October 29, 2012 (hurricane landfall) through November 28, 2012 were reviewed and compared to the previous four years. The trends of gasoline exposures, exposure type, severity of clinical outcome, and hospital referral rates were assessed. Two-hundred and eighty-three gasoline exposures were identified, representing an 18 to 283-fold increase over the previous four years. The leading exposure route was siphoning (53.4%). Men comprised 83.0% of exposures; 91.9% were older than 20 years of age. Of 273 home-based calls, 88.7% were managed on site. Asymptomatic exposures occurred in 61.5% of the cases. However, minor and moderate toxic effects occurred in 12.4% and 3.5% of cases, respectively. Gastrointestinal (24.4%) and pulmonary (8.4%) symptoms predominated. No major outcomes or deaths were reported. Hurricane Sandy significantly increased gasoline exposures. While the majority of exposures were managed at home with minimum clinical toxicity, some patients experienced more severe symptoms. Disaster plans should incorporate public health messaging and regional PCCs for public health promotion and toxicological surveillance.

  3. Learning to Play Efficient Coarse Correlated Equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Borowski, Holly P.; Marden, Jason R.; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2018-01-01

    The majority of the distributed learning literature focuses on convergence to Nash equilibria. Coarse correlated equilibria, on the other hand, can often characterize more efficient collective behavior than even the best Nash equilibrium. However

  4. NEW RSW & Wall Coarse Tet Only Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the RSW Coarse Tet Only grid with the root viscous tunnel wall. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Quad Surface Faces= 0 Tria Surface Faces=...

  5. NEW RSW & Wall Coarse Mixed Element Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Coarse Mixed Element Grid for the RSW with a viscous wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Quad Surface Faces= 9728 Tria...

  6. Coarse Thinking and Pricing a Financial Option

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqi, Hammad

    2009-01-01

    Mullainathan et al [Quarterly Journal of Economics, May 2008] present a formalization of the concept of coarse thinking in the context of a model of persuasion. The essential idea behind coarse thinking is that people put situations into categories and the values assigned to attributes in a given situation are affected by the values of corresponding attributes in other co-categorized situations. We derive a new option pricing formula based on the assumption that the market consists of coars...

  7. Radon emanation coefficients in sandy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Polaskova, A.; Baranova, A.; Sykora, I.; Hola, O.

    1998-01-01

    In this contribution the results of the study of an influence of the water content on the emanation coefficient for two sandy soil samples are reported. These samples were chosen on the because of the long-term continual monitoring of the 222 Rn concentration just in such types of soils and this radon concentration showed the significant variations during a year. These variations are chiefly given in connection with the soil moisture. Therefore, the determination of the dependence of the emanation coefficient of radon on the water content can help to evaluate the influence of the soil moisture variations of radon concentrations in the soil air. The presented results show that the emanation coefficient reaches the constant value in the wide interval of the water content for both sandy soil samples. Therefore, in the common range of the soil moisture (5 - 20 %) it is impossible to expect the variations of the radon concentration in the soil air due to the change of the emanation coefficient. The expressive changes of the radon concentration in the soil air can be observed in case of the significant decrease of the emanation coefficient during the soil drying when the water content decreases under 5 % or during the complete filling of the soil pores by the water. (authors)

  8. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

  9. Vascular Plants of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an updated listing of the vascular plants present on and near the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. This document is an update of a listing of plants prepared by Sackschewdky et al. in 1992. Since that time there has been a significant increase in the botanical knowledge of the Hanford Site. The present listing is based on an examination of herbarium collections held at PNNL, at WSU-Tri Cities, WSU-Pullman, Brigham Young University, and The University of Washington, and on examination of ecological literature derived from the Hanford and Benton county areas over the last 100 years. Based on the most recent analysis, there are approximately 725 different plant species that have been documented on or around the Hanford Site. This represents an approximate 20% increase in the number of species reported within Sackschewsky et al. (1992). This listing directly supports DOE and contractor efforts to assess the potential impacts of Hanford Site operations

  10. Hanford Patrol Academy demolition sites closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    The Hanford Site is owned by the U.S. Government and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites, the unit addressed in this paper. This document consists of a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application, Form 3 (Revision 4), and a closure plan for the site. An explanation of the Part A Form 3 submitted with this closure plan is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. This Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites Closure Plan submittal contains information current as of December 15, 1994.

  11. Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and environmental evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act remedial investigations (RIs) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facility investigations (FIs) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies Site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and environmental risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site

  12. Public involvement in environmental surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanf, R.W. Jr.; Patton, G.W.; Woodruff, R.K.; Poston, T.M.

    1994-08-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site began during the mid-1940s following the construction and start-up of the nation's first plutonium production reactor. Over the past approximately 45 years, surveillance operations on and off the Site have continued, with virtually all sampling being conducted by Hanford Site workers. Recently, the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office directed that public involvement in Hanford environmental surveillance operations be initiated. Accordingly, three special radiological air monitoring stations were constructed offsite, near hanford's perimeter. Each station is managed and operated by two local school teaches. These three stations are the beginning of a community-operated environmental surveillance program that will ultimately involve the public in most surveillance operations around the Site. The program was designed to stimulate interest in Hanford environmental surveillance operations, and to help the public better understand surveillance results. The program has also been used to enhance educational opportunities at local schools

  13. Annual Hanford seismic report - fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartshorn, D.C.; Reidel, S.P.

    1996-12-01

    Seismic monitoring (SM) at the Hanford Site was established in 1969 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under a contract with the US Atomic Energy Commission. Since 1980, the program has been managed by several contractors under the US Department of Energy (USDOE). Effective October 1, 1996, the Seismic Monitoring workscope, personnel, and associated contracts were transferred to the USDOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). SM is tasked to provide an uninterrupted collection and archives of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) located on and encircling the Hanford Site. SM is also tasked to locate and identify sources of seismic activity and monitor changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data compiled are used by SM, Waste Management, and engineering activities at the Hanford Site to evaluate seismic hazards and seismic design for the Site

  14. Hanford Environmental Management Program implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Management Program (HEMP) was established to facilitate compliance with the applicable environmental statues, regulations, and standards on the Hanford Site. The HEMP provides a structured approach to achieve environmental management objectives. The Hanford Environmental Management Program Plan (HEMP Plan) was prepared as a strategic level planning document to describe the program management, technical implementation, verification, and communications activities that guide the HEMP. Four basic program objectives are identified in the HEMP Plan as follows: establish ongoing monitoring to ensure that Hanford Site operations comply with environmental requirements; attain regulatory compliance through the modification of activities; mitigate any environmental consequences; and minimize the environmental impacts of future operations at the Hanford Site. 2 refs., 24 figs., 27 tabs

  15. Hanford Site Risk Assessment Methodology. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and ecological evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial investigations (RI) and the Resource conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) facility investigations (FI) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1994), referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and ecological risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site

  16. The Hanford Site: An anthology of early histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1993-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Memories of War: Pearl Harbor and the Genesis of the Hanford Site; safety has always been promoted at the Hanford Site; women have an important place in Hanford Site history; the boom and bust cycle: A 50-year historical overview of the economic impacts of Hanford Site Operations on the Tri-Cities, Washington; Hanford's early reactors were crucial to the sites's history; T-Plant made chemical engineering history; the UO 3 plant has a long history of service. PUREX Plant: the Hanford Site's Historic Workhorse. PUREX Plant Waste Management was a complex challenge; and early Hanford Site codes and jargon

  17. Hanford performance evaluation program for Hanford site analytical services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markel, L.P.

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 830.120, Quality Assurance Requirements, states that it is the responsibility of DOE contractors to ensure that ''quality is achieved and maintained by those who have been assigned the responsibility for performing the work.'' Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) is designed to meet the needs of the Richland Operations Office (RL) for maintaining a consistent level of quality for the analytical chemistry services provided by contractor and commmercial analytical laboratory operations. Therefore, services supporting Hanford environmental monitoring, environmental restoration, and waste management analytical services shall meet appropriate quality standards. This performance evaluation program will monitor the quality standards of all analytical laboratories supporting the Hanforad Site including on-site and off-site laboratories. The monitoring and evaluation of laboratory performance can be completed by the use of several tools. This program will discuss the tools that will be utilized for laboratory performance evaluations. Revision 0 will primarily focus on presently available programs using readily available performance evaluation materials provided by DOE, EPA or commercial sources. Discussion of project specific PE materials and evaluations will be described in section 9.0 and Appendix A

  18. Waste minimization -- Hanford`s strategy for sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merry, D.S.

    1998-01-30

    The Hanford Site cleanup activity is an immense and challenging undertaking, which includes characterization and decommissioning of 149 single-shell storage tanks, treating waste stored in 28 double-shell tanks, safely disposing of over 2,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel stored onsite, removing thousands of structures, and dealing with significant solid waste, groundwater, and land restoration issues. The Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program supports the Hanford Site mission to safely clean up and manage legacy waste and to develop and deploy science and technology in many ways. Once such way is through implementing and documenting over 231 waste reduction projects during the past five years, resulting in over $93 million in cost savings/avoidances. These savings/avoidances allowed other high priority cleanup work to be performed. Another way is by exceeding the Secretary of Energy`s waste reduction goals over two years ahead of schedule, thus reducing the amount of waste to be stored, treated and disposed. Six key elements are the foundation for these sustained P2/WMin results.

  19. Correlation between landscape fragmentation and sandy desertification: a case study in Horqin Sandy Land, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaodong; Dong, Kaikai; Luloff, A E; Wang, Luyao; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Shiying; Wang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    The exact roles of landscape fragmentation on sandy desertification are still not fully understood, especially with the impact of different land use types in spatial dimension. Taking patch size and shape into consideration, this paper selected the Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index to establish a model that reveals the association between the area of bare sand land and the fragmentation of different land use types adjacent to bare sand land. Results indicated that (1) grass land and arable land contributed the most to landscape fragmentation processes in the regions adjacent to bare sand land during the period 1980 to 2010. Grass land occupied 54 % of the region adjacent to bare sand land in 1980. The Ratio of Patch Size of grass land decreased from 1980 to 2000 and increased after 2000. The Fractal Dimension Index of grass increased during the period 1980 to 1990 and decreased after 1990. Arable land expanded significantly during this period. The Ratio of Patch Size of arable land increased from 1980 to 1990 and decreased since 1990. The Fractal Dimension Index of arable land increased from 1990 to 2000 and decreased after 2000. (2) The Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index were significantly related to the area of bare sand land. The role of landscape fragmentation was not linear to sandy desertification. There were both positive and negative effects of landscape fragmentation on sandy desertification. In 1980, the Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index were negatively related to the area of bare sand land, showing that the landscape fragmentation and regularity of patches contributed to the expansion of sandy desertification. In 1990, 2000, and 2010, the Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index were mostly positively related to the area of bare sand land, showing the landscape fragmentation and regularity of patches contributed to the reversion of sandy desertification in this phase. The absolute values of

  20. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses the procedures that establish the configuration control processes for the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) software. The procedures also provide the charter and function of the HEIS Configuration Control Board (CCB) for maintaining software. The software configuration control items covered under these procedures include the HEIS software and database structure. The configuration control processes include both administrative and audit functions. The administrative role includes maintaining the overall change schedule, ensuring consistency of proposed changes, negotiating change plan adjustments, setting priorities, and tracking the status of changes. The configuration control process audits to ensure that changes are performed to applicable standards

  1. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreck, R.I.

    1994-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) Subject Area manuals are designed as reference guides, that is, each chapter provides the information needed to make best use of each subject area, its tables, and reporting capabilities. Each subject area is documented in a chapter in one of the subject area manuals. Because these are reference manuals, most of the information is also available in the online help system as well. See Section 5.4.2 of the HEIS User's Guide (DOE-RL 1994a) for a detailed description of the online help

  2. Biochar amendment of fluvio-glacial temperate sandy subsoil: Effects on maize water uptake, growth and physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Fauziatu; Arthur, Emmanuel; Plauborg, Finn

    2018-01-01

    Coarse sandy soils have poor water retention capacity, which may constrain crop growth during drought. We investigated the effect of biochar amendment to subsoil on crop physiological processes and maize yield, comparing irrigated and drought conditions. A two-year greenhouse experiment was condu......Coarse sandy soils have poor water retention capacity, which may constrain crop growth during drought. We investigated the effect of biochar amendment to subsoil on crop physiological processes and maize yield, comparing irrigated and drought conditions. A two-year greenhouse experiment...... was conducted with one-time application of straw biochar at concentrations of 0%, 1%, 2% and 3% (B0, B1, B2 and B3). Maize was planted twice in the same large pots one week and again 12 months after biochar application. Plants were fully irrigated until flowering; thereafter, half of them were subjected...... to drought. Our results indicate B2 and B3 increased soil water content at field capacity. Leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and transpiration were maintained in B2 and B3 during the drying cycle in year one and in all biochar levels in year two. In the first year, B3 induced...

  3. Nitrate reduction in an unconfined sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Boesen, Carsten; Kristiansen, Henning

    1991-01-01

    of total dissolved ions in the NO3- free anoxic zone indicates the downward migration of contaminants and that active nitrate reduction is taking place. Nitrate is apparently reduced to N2 because both nitrite and ammonia are absent or found at very low concentrations. Possible electron donors......Nitrate distribution and reduction processes were investigated in an unconfined sandy aquifer of Quaternary age. Groundwater chemistry was studied in a series of eight multilevel samplers along a flow line, deriving water from both arable and forested land. Results show that plumes of nitrate...... processes of O2 and NO3- occur at rates that are fast compared to the rate of downward water transport. Nitrate-contaminated groundwater contains total contents of dissolved ions that are two to four times higher than in groundwater derived from the forested area. The persistence of the high content...

  4. Modelling the morphology of sandy spits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dorthe; Deigaard, Rolf; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    The shape, dimensions and growth rate of an accumulating sandy spit is investigated by a theoretical and experimental study. The idealised case of a spit growing without change of form under a constant wave forcing is considered. The longshore wave-driven sediment transport is taken to be dominant...... that with this assumption the dimensions of the spit cannot be determined. The width and shape of a finite spit is therefore determined from simulations with an area model for the wave-driven current and sediment transport along the spit. In this case the curvature effects from the spit on the longshore sediment transport...... conducted in a wave tank an accumulating spit was formed at the down-drift end of a uniform stretch of coast exposed to waves approaching at an angle. The spit approached equilibrium dimensions when a constant wave climate was applied. The radius of curvature of the spit varied according to the height...

  5. Denitrification pathways and rates in the sandy sediments of the Georgia continental shelf, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingall Ellery

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Denitrification in continental shelf sediments has been estimated to be a significant sink of oceanic fixed nitrogen (N. The significance and mechanisms of denitrification in organic-poor sands, which comprise 70% of continental shelf sediments, are not well known. Core incubations and isotope tracer techniques were employed to determine processes and rates of denitrification in the coarse-grained, sandy sediments of the Georgia continental shelf. In these sediments, heterotrophic denitrification was the dominant process for fixed N removal. Processes such as coupled nitrification-denitrification, anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification were not evident over the 24 and 48 h time scale of the incubation experiments. Heterotrophic denitrification processes produce 22.8–34.1 μmole N m-2 d-1 of N2 in these coarse-grained sediments. These denitrification rates are approximately two orders of magnitude lower than rates determined in fine-grained shelf sediments. These lower rates may help reconcile unbalanced marine N budgets which calculate global N losses exceeding N inputs.

  6. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, N.P.; Triner, G.C.

    1991-09-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages the Hanford Site solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites, radioactive solid waste storage areas and hazardous waste treatment, storage, and/or disposal facilities. This manual defines the criteria that must be met by waste generators for solid waste to be accepted by Westinghouse Hanford Company for treatment, storage and/or disposal facilities. It is to be used by all waste generators preparing radioactive solid waste for storage or disposal at the Hanford Site facilities and for all Hanford Site generators of hazardous waste. This manual is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved with approval and acceptance of solid waste. The criteria in this manual represent a compilation of state and federal regulations; US Department of Energy orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to management of solid waste. Where appropriate, these requirements are included in the manual by reference. It is the intent of this manual to provide guidance to the waste generator in meeting the applicable requirements

  7. Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Daly, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of the Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 200 Areas (which refers to the 200 East Area, 200 West Area, and 200 Area Corridor, located between the 200 East and 200 West Areas) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.lB (DOE 1991a) by performing the following: Establishing a land-use plan and setting land-use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities. Coordinating existing, 5-year, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans. Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities. Identifying site development issues that need further analysis. Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development. Coordinate DOE plans with other agencies [(i.e., Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Being a support document to the Hanford Site Development Plan (DOE-RL 1990a) (parent document) and providing technical site information relative to the 200 Areas.

  8. Cancer mortality in Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Gilbert, E.S.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1978-01-01

    Personnel and radiation exposure data for past and present employees of the Hanford plant have been collected and analysed for a possible relationship of exposure to mortality. The occurrence of death in workers was established by the Social Security Administration and the cause of death obtained from death certificates. Mortality from all causes, all cancer cases and specific cancer types was related to the population at risk. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated for white males, using age- and calendar year-specific mortality rates for the U.S. population in the calculation of expected deaths. This analysis showed a substantial 'healthy worker effect' and no significantly high standardized mortality ratios for specific disease categories. A test for association of mortality with levels of radiation exposure revealed no correlation for all causes and all cancer. In carrying out this test, adjustment was made for age and calendar year of death, length of employment and occupational category. A statistically significant test for trend was obtained for multiple myeloma and carcinoma of the pancreas. However, in view of the absence of such a correlation for diseases more commonly associated with radiation exposure such as myeloid leukaemia, as well as the small number of deaths in higher exposure groups, the results cannot be considered definitive. Any conclusions based on these associations should be viewed in relation to the results of other studies. These results are compared with those of other investigators who have analysed the Hanford data. (author)

  9. Hanford transuranic storage corrosion review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.L.; Divine, J.R.

    1980-12-01

    The rate of atmospheric corrosion of the transuranic (TRU) waste drums at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Project, near Richland, Washington, was evaluated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The rate of corrosion is principally contingent upon the effects of humidity, airborne pollutants, and temperature. Results of the study indicate that actual penetration of barrels due to atmospheric corrosion will probably not occur within the 20-year specified recovery period. Several other US burial sites were surveyed, and it appears that there is sufficient uncertainty in the available data to prevent a clearcut statement of the corrosion rate at a specific site. Laboratory and site tests are recommended before any definite conclusions can be made. The corrosion potential at the Hanford TRU waste site could be reduced by a combination of changes in drum materials (for example, using galvanized barrels instead of the currently used mild steel barrels), environmental exposure conditions (for example, covering the barrels in one of numerous possible ways), and storage conditions

  10. Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, C.A.; Daly, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of the Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 200 Areas (which refers to the 200 East Area, 200 West Area, and 200 Area Corridor, located between the 200 East and 200 West Areas) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.lB (DOE 1991a) by performing the following: Establishing a land-use plan and setting land-use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities. Coordinating existing, 5-year, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans. Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities. Identifying site development issues that need further analysis. Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development. Coordinate DOE plans with other agencies [(i.e., Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Being a support document to the Hanford Site Development Plan (DOE-RL 1990a) (parent document) and providing technical site information relative to the 200 Areas

  11. An Integrated Biological Control System At Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.R.; Caudill, J.G.; Giddings, R.F.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Roos, R.C.; Wilde, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 1999 an integrated biological control system was instituted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Successes and changes to the program needed to be communicated to a large and diverse mix of organizations and individuals. Efforts at communication are directed toward the following: Hanford Contractors (Liquid or Tank Waste, Solid Waste, Environmental Restoration, Science and Technology, Site Infrastructure), General Hanford Employees, and Hanford Advisory Board (Native American Tribes, Environmental Groups, Local Citizens, Washington State and Oregon State regulatory agencies). Communication was done through direct interface meetings, individual communication, where appropriate, and broadly sharing program reports. The objectives of the communication efforts was to have the program well coordinated with Hanford contractors, and to have the program understood well enough that all stakeholders would have confidence in the work performed by the program to reduce or elimate spread of radioactive contamination by biotic vectors. Communication of successes and changes to an integrated biological control system instituted in 1999 at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site have required regular interfaces with not only a diverse group of Hanford contractors (i.e., those responsible for liquid or tank waste, solid wastes, environmental restoration, science and technology, and site infrastructure), and general Hanford employees, but also with a consortium of designated stake holders organized as the Hanford Advisory Board (i.e., Native American tribes, various environmental groups, local citizens, Washington state and Oregon regulatory agencies, etc.). Direct interface meetings, individual communication where appropriate, and transparency of the biological control program were the methods and outcome of this effort.

  12. AN INTEGRATED BIOLOGICAL CONTROL SYSTEM AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON AR; CAUDILL JG; GIDDINGS RF; RODRIGUEZ JM; ROOS RC; WILDE JW

    2010-02-11

    In 1999 an integrated biological control system was instituted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Successes and changes to the program needed to be communicated to a large and diverse mix of organizations and individuals. Efforts at communication are directed toward the following: Hanford Contractors (Liquid or Tank Waste, Solid Waste, Environmental Restoration, Science and Technology, Site Infrastructure), General Hanford Employees, and Hanford Advisory Board (Native American Tribes, Environmental Groups, Local Citizens, Washington State and Oregon State regulatory agencies). Communication was done through direct interface meetings, individual communication, where appropriate, and broadly sharing program reports. The objectives of the communication efforts was to have the program well coordinated with Hanford contractors, and to have the program understood well enough that all stakeholders would have confidence in the work performed by the program to reduce or elimated spread of radioactive contamination by biotic vectors. Communication of successes and changes to an integrated biological control system instituted in 1999 at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site have required regular interfaces with not only a diverse group of Hanford contractors (i.e., those responsible for liquid or tank waste, solid wastes, environmental restoration, science and technology, and site infrastructure), and general Hanford employees, but also with a consortium of designated stake holders organized as the Hanford Advisory Board (i.e., Native American tribes, various environmental groups, local citizens, Washington state and Oregon regulatory agencies, etc.). Direct interface meetings, individual communication where appropriate, and transparency of the biological control program were the methods and outcome of this effort.

  13. Overview of the Hanford risk management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    The Project Hanford Management Contract called for the enhancement of site-wide decision processes, and development of a Hanford Risk Management Plan to adopt or develop a risk management system for the Hanford Site. This Plan provides a consistent foundation for Site issues and addresses site-wide management of risks of all types. It supports the Department of Energy planning and sitewide decision making policy. Added to this requirement is a risk performance report to characterize the risk management accomplishments. This paper presents the development of risk management within the context of work planning and performance. Also discussed are four risk elements which add value to the context

  14. Hanford's Radioactive Mixed Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Radioactive Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, is located in the Hanford Site Low-Level Burial Grounds and is designated as Trench 31 in the 218-W-5 Burial Ground. Trench 31 is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act compliant landfill and will receive wastes generated from both remediation and waste management activities. On December 30, 1994, Westinghouse Hanford Company declared readiness to operate Trench 31, which is the Hanford Site's (and the Department of Energy complex's) first facility for disposal of low-level radioactive mixed wastes

  15. Modelling airborne dispersion of coarse particulate material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsley, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    Methods of modelling the airborne dispersion and deposition of coarse particulates are presented, with the emphasis on the heavy particles identified as possible constituents of releases from damaged AGR fuel. The first part of this report establishes the physical characteristics of the irradiated particulate in airborne emissions from AGR stations. The second part is less specific and describes procedures for extending current dispersion/deposition models to incorporate a coarse particulate component: the adjustment to plume spread parameters, dispersion from elevated sources and dispersion in conjunction with building effects and plume rise. (author)

  16. Investigation of pier scour in coarse-bed streams in Montana, 2001 through 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holnbeck, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    A primary goal of ongoing field research of bridge scour is improvement of scour-prediction equations so that pier-scour depth is predicted accurately-an important element of hydraulic analysis and design of highway bridges that cross streams, rivers, and other waterways. Scour depth for piers in streambeds with a mixture of sand, gravel, cobbles, and boulders (coarse-bed streams, which are common in Montana) generally is less than the scour depth in finer-grained (sandy) streambeds under similar conditions. That difference is attributed to an armor layer of coarser material. Pier-scour data from the U.S. Geological Survey were used in this study to develop a bed-material correction factor, which was incorporated into the Federal Highway Administration's recommended equation for computing pier scour. This report describes results of a study of pier scour in coarse-bed streams at 59 bridge sites during 2001-2007 in the mountain and foothill regions of western Montana. Respective drainage areas ranged from about 3 square miles (mi2) to almost 20,000 mi2. Data collected and analyzed for this study included 103 pier-scour measurements; the report further describes data collection, shows expansion of the national coarse pier-scour database, discusses use of the new data in evaluation of relative accuracy of various predictive equations, and demonstrates how differences in size and gradation between surface bed material and shallow-subsurface bed material might relate to pier scour. Nearly all measurements were made under clear-water conditions with no incoming sediment supply to the bridge opening. Half of the measurements showed approach velocities that equaled or surpassed the critical velocity for incipient motion of bed material, possibly indicating that measurements were made very near the threshold between clear-water and live-bed scour, where maximum scour was shown in laboratory studies. Data collected in this study were compared to selected pier-scour data from

  17. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C.; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A.

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  18. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, November 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-12-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, November 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research.

  19. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, March 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-04-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation March 1963. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, operations research and synthesis, programming, and radiation protection operation are discussed.

  20. Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report describes risk assessment methodology associated with the remedial action programs at the Hanford Reservation. Topics addressed include human health evaluation, pollutant and radionuclide transport through the environment, and environmental transport pathways

  1. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, December 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-01-15

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, December 1963. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, and applied mathematics, and programming operations are discussed.

  2. Hanford Environmental Information System Configuration Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) Configuration Management Plan establishes the software and data configuration control requirements for the HEIS and project-related databases maintained within the Environmental Restoration Contractor's data management department

  3. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, October 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-11-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, October 1963. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  4. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, January 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-02-14

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, January 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, applied mathematics, programming operation, and radiation protection are discussed.

  5. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, August 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-09-16

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, August 1963. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  6. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, May 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-06-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, May 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, applied mathematics, programming operation, and radiation protection are discussed.

  7. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, January 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-02-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation January 1963. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, operations research and synthesis, programming, and radiation protection operation are discussed.

  8. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, September 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-10-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, September 1963. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  9. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, July 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-08-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, July 1963. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  10. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, May 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-06-14

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, May 1963. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, and applied mathematics, and programming operation are discussed.

  11. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, February 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-03-16

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, February, 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation process, reactor technology financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations, applied mathematics, programming, and radiation protection are discussed.

  12. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, June 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-07-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, June 1963. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  13. Continuing study of mortality in Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1979-10-01

    The mortality of workers at the Hanford Plant in southeastern Washington who have been exposed to penetrating external ionizing radiation is studied. Deaths are analyzed statistically and compared to standardized mortality ratios. Cancer deaths in particular are examined

  14. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, April 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-05-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, April 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, applied mathematics, programming operation, and radiation protection are discussed.

  15. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, July 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-08-14

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, July 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, applied mathematics, programming operation, and radiation protection are discussed.

  16. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, March 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-04-15

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, March 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, and applied mathematics operation, and programming operations are discussed.

  17. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, April, 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-05-15

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, April, 1963. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology financial activities, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations, applied mathematics operation, programming, and radiation protection operation discussed.

  18. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, August 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-09-15

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, August 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, and applied mathematics, and programming operations are discussed.

  19. Hanford Laboratories monthly activities report, October 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-11-16

    The monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, October 1964. Reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, biology operation, and physics and instrumentation research, and applied mathematics operations are discussed.

  20. Hanford Engineer Works technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1944-05-01

    The uranium metal, as discharged from the piles in the 100 Areas, contains the alpha emitting product, plutonium, in concentration in the neighborhood of 150--250 grams per metric ton, along with similar amounts of beta and gamma fission elements. It is the purpose of the Separations Plant to effect the separation of this product from the uranium metal and fission elements, and to prepare a concentrated, relatively pure solution of plutonium nitrate as the final product of the Hanford Plant. This section of the manual discusses the chemistry of the separations process, describes the buildings and equipment provided for carrying out the various steps in the operation, and presents the detailed operating procedures used. There are included, in many instances, references to other documents presenting a more detailed view of a specific point in the process.

  1. Hanford Nuclear Energy Center study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, H.

    1976-01-01

    Studies of a Nuclear Energy Center (NEC) at Hanford have not revealed any insurmountable technical problems, but problems have been identified that appear to be more difficult to resolve than for dispersed siting. Major technical developments in meteorology, and probably in seismology, are needed before an environmental report or safety analysis report could be prepared for an NEC. It would be helpful in further NEC studies if licensing requirements (and related criteria) were defined for them. An NEC will likely cause a step change in the amount of planning and involvement of regional groups in the energy picture compared to dispersed siting. The tools that must be developed for analysis of NECs will probably be used for evaluating dispersed siting in greater detail. NECs will probably bring about the use of dry or wet/dry cooling before it is required in equivalent amount for dispersed plants

  2. Hanford cultural resources management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatters, J.C. (ed.)

    1989-06-01

    As a federal agency, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by Congress and the President to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historical, and cultural resources on lands it administers, to manage these in a spirit of stewardship for future generations, and to protect and preserve the rights of Native Americans to religious freedom. The purpose of this document is to describe how the DOE-Richland Operations (DOE-RL) will meet those responsibilities on the Hanford Site, pursuant to guidelines for Agency Responsibilities under the Historic Preservation Act (FR 53:31, February 17, 1988). This document is intended for multiple uses. Among other things, the text is designed as a manual for cultural resource managers to follow and as an explanation of the process of cultural resource regulatory compliance for the DOE-RL and Site contractors. 10 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Hanford 300 Area Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, K.S.; Seiler, S.W.; Hail, J.C.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of the Hanford 300 Area Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 300 Area in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.1B (DOE 1991b) by performing the following: (1) Establishing a land use plan, setting land use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities; (2) Coordinating existing, 5-yr, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans; (3) Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities; (4) Identifying site development issues that need further analysis; Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development; and, (6) Integrating DOE plans with local agency plans (i.e., city, country, state, and Tri-Cities Science and Technology Park plans)

  4. Aluminum precipitation from Hanford DSSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgen, D.; Frazier, P.; Staton, G.

    1994-01-01

    A series of pilot scale tests using simulated Double Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) showed that well-settled aluminum precipitate can be produced in Hanford double shell tank (DST) high level waste by slow neutralization with carbon dioxide. This pretreatment could provide an early grout feed and free tank space, as well as facilitate downstream processes such as ion exchange by providing a less caustic feed. A total of eight test runs were completed using a 10-ft tall 3-in i.d. glass column. The 10-ft height corresponds to about one third of the vertical height of a DST, hence providing a reasonable basis for extrapolating the observed precipitate settling and compaction to the actual waste tank environment. Four runs (three with a simplified simulant and one with a chemically complete simulant) produced well settled precipitates averaging 1.5 to 2 feet high. Aluminum gel rather than settled precipitate resulted from one test where neutralization was too rapid

  5. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Tank Characterization Data subject area of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is to manage data acquired from waste tank characterization efforts. Tank samples provide the data stored in this subject area. Also included are data from tank inventories. These data are analyzed to determine disposal requirements, such as suitability for grout or vitrification. The data provide the basis for developing safety analyses and closure plans, and for establishing and verifying compliance with waste acceptance specifications. Two major sources of data make up the tank characterization data subject area: Data from single-shell and double-shell tank core samples -- core sampling analytical results include physical properties, radionuclides, major chemicals, and hazardous components; and data from waste tank supernatant samples. Four types of data are stored in the TCD subject area. Qualifiers for TCD analytical result data are listed in Appendix A. Data loading and verification procedures are described in Appendix B

  6. Hanford Nuclear Energy Center study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, H.

    1976-03-16

    Studies of a Nuclear Energy Center (NEC) at Hanford have not revealed any insurmountable technical problems, but problems have been identified that appear to be more difficult to resolve than for dispersed siting. Major technical developments in meteorology, and probably in seismology, are needed before an environmental report or safety analysis report could be prepared for an NEC. It would be helpful in further NEC studies if licensing requirements (and related criteria) were defined for them. An NEC will likely cause a step change in the amount of planning and involvement of regional groups in the energy picture compared to dispersed siting. The tools that must be developed for analysis of NECs will probably be used for evaluating dispersed siting in greater detail. NECs will probably bring about the use of dry or wet/dry cooling before it is required in equivalent amount for dispersed plants.

  7. Coarse grained model for semiquantitative lipid simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrink, SJ; de Vries, AH; Mark, AE

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the parametrization of a new coarse grained (CG) model for lipid and surfactant systems. Reduction of the number of degrees of freedom together with the use of short range potentials makes it computationally very efficient. Compared to atomistic models a gain of 3-4 orders of

  8. The Martini Coarse-Grained Force Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Periole, X.; Marrink, S.J.; Monticelli, Luca; Salonen, Emppu

    2013-01-01

    The Martini force field is a coarse-grained force field suited for molecular dynamics simulations of biomolecular systems. The force field has been parameterized in a systematic way, based on the reproduction of partitioning free energies between polar and apolar phases of a large number of chemical

  9. Hanford: The evolution of a dinosaur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, J.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how the Westinghouse Hanford Company is reinventing the US DOE's Hanford Site, turning a 1940s-era dinosaur into a 1990s-style business. The major topics covered include the following: breaking the logjam by ending the inefficient cost-plus days; Concentrating resources on resolving urgent safety issues; contract reform with more incentive, greater risk; finally reengineering: the next step

  10. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.M.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doeses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; environmental pathways and dose estimates

  11. Hanford soil partitioning and vapor extraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonge, D.; Hossain, A.; Cameron, R.; Ford, H.; Storey, C.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the testing and results of laboratory experiments conducted to assist the carbon tetrachloride soil vapor extraction project operating in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Vapor-phase adsorption and desorption testing was performed using carbon tetrachloride and Hanford Site soils to estimate vapor-soil partitioning and reasonably achievable carbon tetrachloride soil concentrations during active vapor extractions efforts at the 200 West Area. (CCl 4 is used in Pu recovery from aqueous streams.)

  12. Hanford Site Waste management units report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the operable units in several areas of the Hanford Site Waste Facility. Each operable unit has several waste units (crib, ditch, pond, etc.). The operable units are summarized by describing each was unit. Some of the descriptions are unit name, unit type, waste category start data, site description, etc. The descriptions will vary for each waste unit in each operable unit and area of the Hanford Site

  13. Environmental surveillance at Hanford for CY 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.R.; Blumer, P.J.

    1978-04-01

    Environmental data collected during 1977 show continued compliance by Hanford with all applicable state and federal regulations. Data were collected for most environmental media including air, Columbia River water, external radiation, foodstuffs (milk, beef, eggs, poultry, and produce) and wildlife (deer, fish, game birds, and oysters from Willapa Bay), as well as soil and vegetation samples. In general, offsite levels of radionuclides attributable to Hanford operations during 1977 were indistinguishable from background levels

  14. History of Hanford Site Defense Production (Brief)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER, M S

    2001-02-01

    This paper acquaints the audience with the history of the Hanford Site, America's first full-scale defense plutonium production site. The paper includes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War II construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), a brief production spurt from 1984-86, the end of the Cold War, and the beginning of the waste cleanup mission. The paper also delineates historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, past efforts to chemically treat, ''fractionate,'' and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes, and resulting major waste legacies that remain today. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history.

  15. Researchers take up environmental challenge at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illman, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford nuclear site, built to produce plutonium for the nation's first atomic weapons, occupies 560 square miles of desert in southeastern Washington State. Only 29 months after ground was broken at the site in March 1943, the Hanford project delivered the plutonium used in the bomb that was dropped on Nagasaki, Japan, at the end of World War II. Secrecy surrounding the nuclear weapons program continued through the Cold War years, concealing the fact that for decades, hazardous and radioactive wastes were discharged to the ground, water, and air at Hanford. Only in 1986 were documents finally declassified--tens of thousands of them--describing the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Hanford facilities, allowing a picture to be pieced together of the environmental cost there of the nuclear weapons buildup. That cost may never be completely tallied. But Westinghouse Hanford, Co., the principal operations contractor on the site, and Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute for the Department of Energy (DOE), have now begun working together to develop new technologies that are needed to address the short-term and long-term challenges of environmental restoration at Hanford. The paper discusses the problems and possible solutions that are being investigated

  16. Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has the most diverse and largest amount of highly radioactive waste of any site in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored in large underground tanks since 1944. A Tank Waste Remediation System Program has been established within the DOE to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Waste Management 1993 Symposium Papers and Viewgraphs covered the following topics: Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Overview; Tank Waste Retrieval Issues and Options for their Resolution; Tank Waste Pretreatment - Issues, Alternatives and Strategies for Resolution; Low-Level Waste Disposal - Grout Issue and Alternative Waste Form Technology; A Strategy for Resolving High-Priority Hanford Site Radioactive Waste Storage Tank Safety Issues; Tank Waste Chemistry - A New Understanding of Waste Aging; Recent Results from Characterization of Ferrocyanide Wastes at the Hanford Site; Resolving the Safety Issue for Radioactive Waste Tanks with High Organic Content; Technology to Support Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Objectives

  17. NHC's contribution to cleanup of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauve, H.D.

    1998-01-01

    The one billion dollars per year Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC), managed by Fluor Daniel Hanford, calls for cleanup of the Hanford Site for the Department of Energy. Project Hanford comprises four major subprojects, each managed by a different major contractor. Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) is a fifth major subcontractor which provides energy and technology to each of the Hanford projects. NHC draws on the experience and capabilities of its parent companies, COGEMA and SGN, and relies on local support from its sister Company in Richland, COGEMA Engineering Corporation, to bring the best commercial practices and new technology to the Project

  18. Quantum theory of multiscale coarse-graining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yining; Jin, Jaehyeok; Wagner, Jacob W; Voth, Gregory A

    2018-03-14

    Coarse-grained (CG) models serve as a powerful tool to simulate molecular systems at much longer temporal and spatial scales. Previously, CG models and methods have been built upon classical statistical mechanics. The present paper develops a theory and numerical methodology for coarse-graining in quantum statistical mechanics, by generalizing the multiscale coarse-graining (MS-CG) method to quantum Boltzmann statistics. A rigorous derivation of the sufficient thermodynamic consistency condition is first presented via imaginary time Feynman path integrals. It identifies the optimal choice of CG action functional and effective quantum CG (qCG) force field to generate a quantum MS-CG (qMS-CG) description of the equilibrium system that is consistent with the quantum fine-grained model projected onto the CG variables. A variational principle then provides a class of algorithms for optimally approximating the qMS-CG force fields. Specifically, a variational method based on force matching, which was also adopted in the classical MS-CG theory, is generalized to quantum Boltzmann statistics. The qMS-CG numerical algorithms and practical issues in implementing this variational minimization procedure are also discussed. Then, two numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the method. Finally, as an alternative strategy, a quasi-classical approximation for the thermal density matrix expressed in the CG variables is derived. This approach provides an interesting physical picture for coarse-graining in quantum Boltzmann statistical mechanics in which the consistency with the quantum particle delocalization is obviously manifest, and it opens up an avenue for using path integral centroid-based effective classical force fields in a coarse-graining methodology.

  19. Quantum theory of multiscale coarse-graining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yining; Jin, Jaehyeok; Wagner, Jacob W.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2018-03-01

    Coarse-grained (CG) models serve as a powerful tool to simulate molecular systems at much longer temporal and spatial scales. Previously, CG models and methods have been built upon classical statistical mechanics. The present paper develops a theory and numerical methodology for coarse-graining in quantum statistical mechanics, by generalizing the multiscale coarse-graining (MS-CG) method to quantum Boltzmann statistics. A rigorous derivation of the sufficient thermodynamic consistency condition is first presented via imaginary time Feynman path integrals. It identifies the optimal choice of CG action functional and effective quantum CG (qCG) force field to generate a quantum MS-CG (qMS-CG) description of the equilibrium system that is consistent with the quantum fine-grained model projected onto the CG variables. A variational principle then provides a class of algorithms for optimally approximating the qMS-CG force fields. Specifically, a variational method based on force matching, which was also adopted in the classical MS-CG theory, is generalized to quantum Boltzmann statistics. The qMS-CG numerical algorithms and practical issues in implementing this variational minimization procedure are also discussed. Then, two numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the method. Finally, as an alternative strategy, a quasi-classical approximation for the thermal density matrix expressed in the CG variables is derived. This approach provides an interesting physical picture for coarse-graining in quantum Boltzmann statistical mechanics in which the consistency with the quantum particle delocalization is obviously manifest, and it opens up an avenue for using path integral centroid-based effective classical force fields in a coarse-graining methodology.

  20. Hurricane Sandy: Rapid Response Imagery of the Surrounding Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of Hurricane Sandy. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA Remote Sensing Division. The images were acquired...

  1. Macrofauna and meiofauna of two sandy beaches at Mombasa, Kenya

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Macrofauna and meiofauna of 2 sandy beaches having medium and fine sand particles, respectively, were investigated, quantitatively Macrofauna density was highest around high water mark and progressively decreased towards low water mark Meiofauna...

  2. 2014 USGS CMGP Lidar: Sandy Restoration (Delaware and Maryland)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: SANDY_Restoration_DE_MD_QL2 Area of Interest covers approximately 3.096 square miles. Lot #5 contains the full project area Dataset Description:...

  3. 2014 USGS CMGP Lidar: Post Sandy (Long Island, NY)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Long Island New York Sandy LIDAR lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G14PD00296 Woolpert...

  4. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  5. Model projections of atmospheric steering of Sandy-like superstorms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Elizabeth A; Polvani, Lorenzo M; Sobel, Adam H

    2013-09-17

    Superstorm Sandy ravaged the eastern seaboard of the United States, costing a great number of lives and billions of dollars in damage. Whether events like Sandy will become more frequent as anthropogenic greenhouse gases continue to increase remains an open and complex question. Here we consider whether the persistent large-scale atmospheric patterns that steered Sandy onto the coast will become more frequent in the coming decades. Using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 multimodel ensemble, we demonstrate that climate models consistently project a decrease in the frequency and persistence of the westward flow that led to Sandy's unprecedented track, implying that future atmospheric conditions are less likely than at present to propel storms westward into the coast.

  6. On the Impact Angle of Hurricane Sandy's New Jersey Landfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy M.; Sobel, Adam H.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy's track crossed the New Jersey coastline at an angle closer to perpendicular than any previous hurricane in the historic record, one of the factors contributing to recordsetting peak-water levels in parts of New Jersey and New York. To estimate the occurrence rate of Sandy-like tracks, we use a stochastic model built on historical hurricane data from the entire North Atlantic to generate a large sample of synthetic hurricanes. From this synthetic set we calculate that under long-term average climate conditions, a hurricane of Sandy's intensity or greater (category 1+) makes NJ landfall at an angle at least as close to perpendicular as Sandy's at an average annual rate of 0.0014 yr-1 (95% confidence range 0.0007 to 0.0023); i.e., a return period of 714 years (95% confidence range 435 to 1429).

  7. Radionuclide releases to the atmosphere from Hanford Operations, 1944--1972. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeb, C.M.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of radionuclide emissions since 1944 from the Hanford Site. The first step in determining dose is to estimate the amount and timing of radionuclide releases to air and water. This report provides the air release information.

  8. Reservoir architecture patterns of sandy gravel braided distributary channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senlin Yin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to discuss shape, scale and superimposed types of sandy gravel bodies in sandy-gravel braided distributary channel. Lithofacies analysis, hierarchy bounding surface analysis and subsurface dense well pattern combining with outcrops method were used to examine reservoir architecture patterns of sandy gravel braided distributary channel based on cores, well logging, and outcrops data, and the reservoir architecture patterns of sandy gravel braided distributary channels in different grades have been established. The study shows: (1 The main reservoir architecture elements for sandy gravel braided channel delta are distributary channel and overbank sand, while reservoir flow barrier elements are interchannel and lacustrine mudstone. (2 The compound sand bodies in the sandy gravel braided delta distributary channel take on three shapes: sheet-like distributary channel sand body, interweave strip distributary channel sand body, single strip distributary channel sand body. (3 Identification marks of single distributary channel include: elevation of sand body top, lateral overlaying, “thick-thin-thick” feature of sand bodies, interchannel mudstone and overbank sand between distributary channels and the differences in well log curve shape of sand bodies. (4 Nine lithofacies types were distinguished in distributary channel unit interior, different channel units have different lithofacies association sequence.

  9. EAARL-B Coastal Topography--Eastern New Jersey, Hurricane Sandy, 2012: First Surface, Pre-Sandy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ASCII xyz and binary point-cloud data, as well as a digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the New Jersey coastline, pre- and post-Hurricane Sandy (October...

  10. Respirable dust and quartz exposure from three South African farms with sandy, sandy loam, and clay soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Andrew J; Kromhout, Hans; Jinnah, Zubair A; Portengen, Lützen; Renton, Kevin; Gardiner, Kerry; Rees, David

    2011-07-01

    To quantify personal time-weighted average respirable dust and quartz exposure on a sandy, a sandy loam, and a clay soil farm in the Free State and North West provinces of South Africa and to ascertain whether soil type is a determinant of exposure to respirable quartz. Three farms, located in the Free State and North West provinces of South Africa, had their soil type confirmed as sandy, sandy loam, and clay; and, from these, a total of 298 respirable dust and respirable quartz measurements were collected between July 2006-November 2009 during periods of major farming operations. Values below the limit of detection (LOD) (22 μg · m(-3)) were estimated using multiple 'imputation'. Non-parametric tests were used to compare quartz exposure from the three different soil types. Exposure to respirable quartz occurred on all three farms with the highest individual concentration measured on the sandy soil farm (626 μg · m(-3)). Fifty-seven, 59, and 81% of the measurements on the sandy soil, sandy loam soil, and clay soil farm, respectively, exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 25 μg · m(-3). Twelve and 13% of respirable quartz concentrations exceeded 100 μg · m(-3) on the sandy soil and sandy loam soil farms, respectively, but none exceeded this level on the clay soil farm. The proportions of measurements >100 μg · m(-3) were not significantly different between the sandy and sandy loam soil farms ('prop.test'; P = 0.65), but both were significantly larger than for the clay soil farm ('prop.test'; P = 0.0001). The percentage of quartz in respirable dust was determined for all three farms using measurements > the limit of detection. Percentages ranged from 0.5 to 94.4% with no significant difference in the median quartz percentages across the three farms (Kruskal-Wallis test; P = 0.91). This study demonstrates that there is significant potential for over-exposure to respirable quartz in

  11. Hanford science and technology needs statements document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, L.L.

    1997-12-31

    This document is a compilation of the Hanford science and technology needs statements for FY 1998. The needs were developed by the Hanford Site Technology Coordination Group (STCG) with full participation and endorsement of site user organizations, stakeholders, and regulators. The purpose of this document is to: (a) provide a comprehensive listing of Hanford science and technology needs, and (b) identify partnering and commercialization opportunities with industry, other federal and state agencies, and the academic community. The Hanford STCG reviews and updates the needs annually. Once completed, the needs are communicated to DOE for use in the development and prioritization of their science and technology programs, including the Focus Areas, Cross-Cutting Programs, and the Environmental Management Science Program. The needs are also transmitted to DOE through the Accelerating Cleanup: 2006 Plan. The public may access the need statements on the Internet on: the Hanford Home Page (www.hanford.gov), the Pacific Rim Enterprise Center`s web site (www2.pacific-rim.org/pacific rim), or the STCG web site at DOE headquarters (em-52.em.doegov/ifd/stcg/stcg.htm). This page includes links to science and technology needs for many DOE sites. Private industry is encouraged to review the need statements and contact the Hanford STCG if they can provide technologies that meet these needs. On-site points of contact are included at the ends of each need statement. The Pacific Rim Enterprise Center (206-224-9934) can also provide assistance to businesses interested in marketing technologies to the DOE.

  12. Hanford Site Performance Report - March 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDER, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Site Performance Report is to provide the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office's (DOE-RL's) report of Hanford's performance by: U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) through Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and its subcontractors, Environmental Restoration Contract through Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), and its subcontractors, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) for Science and Technology (S and T) Mission and support to the Environmental Management (EM). This report is published monthly with the intent of relating work performance and progress in the context of the Success Indicators and Critical Success Factors as outlined in the Hanford Strategic Plan. On a quarterly basis, the report also addresses performance and progress related to the Science and Technology Mission's Critical Outcomes as derived from the Hanford Strategic Plan. Section A of this report is the Executive Summary, encapsulating high-level data in this report into an overall brief. Summary information provided includes Notable Accomplishments, a performance profile with associated analyses, Critical Issues, Key Integration Activities, and a ''quick list'' of Upcoming Key Events. Section B of this report, the Site Summary section, provides Environmental Management performance data specifically organized to the pertinent Critical Success Factors and Success Indicators, and Science and Technology data in the context of the Critical Outcomes. The Site Summary demonstrates the various missions' overall progress against these strategic objectives. The information is presented in both narrative and graphical formats. The remaining sections provide performance data relative to each individual mission area (e.g., Waste Management, Spent Nuclear Fuels, etc.). The information provided in the Mission Area sections is at a level of greater detail than is presented in either the Executive Summary or

  13. Hanford Site Performance Report - May 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDER, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Site Performance Report is to provide the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office's (DOE-RL's) report of Hanford's performance by: U. S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) through Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and its subcontractors, Environmental Restoration Contract through Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), and its subcontractors, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) for Science and Technology (S and T) Mission and support to the Environmental Management (EM). This report is published monthly with the intent of relating work performance and progress in the context of the Success Indicators and Critical Success Factors as outlined in the Hanford Strategic Plan. On a quarterly basis, the report also addresses performance and progress related to the Science and Technology Mission's Critical Outcomes as derived from the Hanford Strategic Plan. Section A of this report is the Executive Summary, encapsulating high-level data in this report into an overall brief. Summary information provided includes Notable Accomplishments, a performance profile with associated analyses, Critical Issues, Key Integration Activities, and a ''quick list'' of Upcoming Key Events. Section B of this report, the Site Summary section, provides Environmental Management performance data specifically organized to the pertinent Critical Success Factors and Success Indicators, and Science and Technology data in the context of the Critical Outcomes. The Site Summary demonstrates the various missions' overall progress against these strategic objectives. The information is presented in both narrative and graphical formats. The remaining sections provide performance data relative to each individual mission area (e.g., Waste Management, Spent Nuclear Fuels, etc.). The information provided in the Mission Area sections is at a level of greater detail than is presented in either the Executive Summary or

  14. Hydrogeologic model for the old Hanford townsite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, Q.; Csun, C.

    1994-01-01

    The Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state produced the country's first plutonium during WW II, and production continued through the end of the cold war. This plutonium production generated significant volumes of chemical and radioactive wastes, some of which were discharged directly to the local sediments as wastewater. Artifical recharge is still the dominating influence on the uppermost and unconfined aquifer over much of the Hanford site. Groundwater from a portion of this aquifer, which is in excess of drinking water standards for tritium, discharges to the Columbia River in the vicinity of the old Hanford townsite. The Hanford site lies within the Pasco basin, which is a structural basin in the Columbia Plateau. Columbia River basalt is overlain by the fluvial and lacustrian Ringold formation. The Ringold is unconformably overlain by the informal Hanford formation. Relatively impermeable basalt outcrops and subcrops along a northwest-southeast-trending anticline across the study area. Hanford sediments include both fluvial and glacial flood deposits lying on an irregular surface of basalt and sedimentary rocks. The coarser flood deposits have very high hydraulic conductivity and probably are the most important conduit for contaminant transport within the aquifer. A finite element model (CFEST-SC) is being used to study the effect of changing river stage on baseflow to the Columbia River near the old Hanford townsite. A steady-state version of the model produces calculated head within 1 m of observed values. Transient flow and solute transport results are expected to help further define the relationship between the contaminated aquifer and the Columbia River

  15. Hanford Site Performance Report - April 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDER, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Site Performance Report is to provide the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office's (DOE-RL's) report of Hanford's performance by: U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) through Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and its subcontractors, Environmental Restoration Contract through Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), and its subcontractors, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) for Science and Technology (S and T) Mission and support to the Environmental Management (EM). This report is published monthly with the intent of relating work performance and progress in the context of the Success Indicators and Critical Success Factors as outlined in the Hanford Strategic Plan. On a quarterly basis, the report also addresses performance and progress related to the Science and Technology Mission's Critical Outcomes as derived from the Hanford Strategic Plan. Section A of this report is the Executive Summary, encapsulating high-level data in this report into an overall brief. Summary information provided includes Notable Accomplishments, a performance profile with associated analyses, Critical Issues, Key Integration Activities, and a ''quick list'' of Upcoming Key Events. Section B of this report, the Site Summary section, provides Environmental Management performance data specifically organized to the pertinent Critical Success Factors and Success Indicators, and Science and Technology data in the context of the Critical Outcomes. The Site Summary demonstrates the various missions' overall progress against these strategic objectives. The information is presented in both narrative and graphical formats. The remaining sections provide performance data relative to each individual mission area (e.g., Waste Management, Spent Nuclear Fuels, etc.). The information provided in the Mission Area sections is at a level of greater detail than is presented in either the Executive Summary or

  16. Environmental monitoring at Hanford for 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Carlile, J.M.V.; Dirkes, R.L.; Jaquish, R.E.; Trevathan, M.S.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1985-05-01

    Environmental surveillance activities performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Hanford Site for 1984 are discussed in this report. Samples of environmental media were collected in support of the Hanford Environmental Monitoring Program to determine radionuclide concentrations in the Hanford environs. Radiological impacts in terms of radiation dose equivalents as a result of Hanford operations are also discussed. Gross beta radioactivity concentrations in airborne particulates at all sampling locations were lower in 1984 than during 1983 as a result of declining levels of worldwide fallout. Slightly higher levels of 85 Kr and 129 I were noted at several onsite and offsite locations. The sampling location in close proximity to the PUREX plant also detected increased 3 H. Very low levels of radionuclides were detected in samples of Columbia River water during 1984. An extensive groundwater monitoring program was performed for the Hanford Site during 1984. The 3 H and nitrate plumes continued to move slowly toward the Columbia River. All 3 H results were within applicable concentration guides. Samples of deer, rabbits, game birds, waterfowl and fish were collected onsite or in the Columbia River at locations where the potential for radionuclide uptake was most likely, or at the nearest locations where wildlife samples were available. Radioisotope levels were measured. Dose rates from external penetrating radiation measured in the vicinity of residential areas were similar to those observed in the previous years, and no contribution from Hanford activities could be identified. An assessment of the 1984 potential radiological impacts attributable to the Hanford operations indicated that measured and calculated radiation doses to the public continued to be low, and well below applicable regulatory limits. 21 refs., 48 figs., 83 tabs

  17. The Hanford Site: An anthology of early histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1993-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Memories of War: Pearl Harbor and the Genesis of the Hanford Site; safety has always been promoted at the Hanford Site; women have an important place in Hanford Site history; the boom and bust cycle: A 50-year historical overview of the economic impacts of Hanford Site Operations on the Tri-Cities, Washington; Hanford`s early reactors were crucial to the sites`s history; T-Plant made chemical engineering history; the UO{sub 3} plant has a long history of service. PUREX Plant: the Hanford Site`s Historic Workhorse. PUREX Plant Waste Management was a complex challenge; and early Hanford Site codes and jargon.

  18. Criticality codes migration to workstations at the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company, Hanford Site Operations contractor, Richland, Washington, currently runs criticality codes on the Cray X-MP EA/232 computer but has recommended that US Department of Energy DOE-Richland replace the Cray with more economical workstations

  19. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  20. Spacetime coarse grainings in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Sum-over-histories generalizations of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics are explored in which probabilities are predicted, not just for alternatives defined on spacelike surfaces, but for alternatives defined by the behavior of spacetime histories with respect to spacetime regions. Closed, nonrelativistic systems are discussed whose histories are paths in a given configuration space. The action and the initial quantum state are assumed fixed and given. A formulation of quantum mechanics is used which assigns probabilities to members of sets of alternative coarse-grained histories of the system, that is, to the individual classes of a partition of its paths into exhaustive and exclusive classes. Probabilities are assigned to those sets which decohere, that is, whose probabilities are consistent with the sum rules of probability theory. Coarse graining by the behavior of paths with respect to regions of spacetime is described. For example, given a single region, the set of all paths may be partitioned into those which never pass through the region and those which pass through the region at least once. A sum-over-histories decoherence functional is defined for sets of alternative histories coarse-grained by spacetime regions. Techniques for the definition and effective computation of the relevant sums over histories by operator-product formulas are described and illustrated by examples. Methods based on Euclidean stochastic processes are also discussed and illustrated. Models of decoherence and measurement for spacetime coarse grainings are described. Issues of causality are investigated. Such spacetime generalizations of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics may be useful models for a generalized quantum mechanics of spacetime geometry

  1. Symmetries and the coarse-mesh method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makai, M.

    1980-10-01

    This report approaches the basic problem of the coarse-mesh method from a new side. Group theory is used for the determination of the space dependency of the flux. The result is a method called ANANAS after the analytic-analytic solution. This method was tested on two benchmark problems: one given by Melice and the IAEA benchmark. The ANANAS program is an experimental one. The method was intended for use in hexagonal geometry. (Auth.)

  2. Coarse graining flow of spin foam intertwiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Bianca; Schnetter, Erik; Seth, Cameron J.; Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Simplicity constraints play a crucial role in the construction of spin foam models, yet their effective behavior on larger scales is scarcely explored. In this article we introduce intertwiner and spin net models for the quantum group SU (2 )k×SU (2 )k, which implement the simplicity constraints analogous to four-dimensional Euclidean spin foam models, namely the Barrett-Crane (BC) and the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine/Freidel-Krasnov (EPRL/FK) model. These models are numerically coarse grained via tensor network renormalization, allowing us to trace the flow of simplicity constraints to larger scales. In order to perform these simulations we have substantially adapted tensor network algorithms, which we discuss in detail as they can be of use in other contexts. The BC and the EPRL/FK model behave very differently under coarse graining: While the unique BC intertwiner model is a fixed point and therefore constitutes a two-dimensional topological phase, BC spin net models flow away from the initial simplicity constraints and converge to several different topological phases. Most of these phases correspond to decoupling spin foam vertices; however we find also a new phase in which this is not the case, and in which a nontrivial version of the simplicity constraints holds. The coarse graining flow of the BC spin net models indicates furthermore that the transitions between these phases are not of second order. The EPRL/FK model by contrast reveals a far more intricate and complex dynamics. We observe an immediate flow away from the original simplicity constraints; however, with the truncation employed here, the models generically do not converge to a fixed point. The results show that the imposition of simplicity constraints can indeed lead to interesting and also very complex dynamics. Thus we need to further develop coarse graining tools to efficiently study the large scale behavior of spin foam models, in particular for the EPRL/FK model.

  3. Measuring Crack Length in Coarse Grain Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to a coarse grain structure, crack lengths in precracked spinel specimens could not be measured optically, so the crack lengths and fracture toughness were estimated by strain gage measurements. An expression was developed via finite element analysis to correlate the measured strain with crack length in four-point flexure. The fracture toughness estimated by the strain gaged samples and another standardized method were in agreement.

  4. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant applied technology plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, O.L.

    1990-09-01

    This Applied Technology Plan describes the process development, verification testing, equipment adaptation, and waste form qualification technical issues and plans for resolution to support the design, permitting, and operation of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. The scope of this Plan includes work to be performed by the research and development contractor, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, other organizations within Westinghouse Hanford Company, universities and companies with glass technology expertise, and other US Department of Energy sites. All work described in this Plan is funded by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project and the relationship of this Plan to other waste management documents and issues is provided for background information. Work to performed under this Plan is divided into major areas that establish a reference process, develop an acceptable glass composition envelope, and demonstrate feed processing and glass production for the range of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feeds. Included in this work is the evaluation and verification testing of equipment and technology obtained from the Defense Waste Processing Facility, the West Valley Demonstration Project, foreign countries, and the Hanford Site. Development and verification of product and process models and other data needed for waste form qualification documentation are also included in this Plan. 21 refs., 4 figs., 33 tabs

  5. Natural phenomena analyses, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard studies completed for the Washington Public Power Supply System's Nuclear Plant 2 and for the US Department of Energy's N Reactor sites, both on the Hanford Site, suggested that the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory seismic exposure estimates were lower than appropriate, especially for sites near potential seismic sources. A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment was completed for those areas that contain process and/or waste management facilities. the lower bound magnitude of 5.0 is used in the hazard analysis and the characteristics of small-magnitude earthquakes relatively common to the Hanford Site are addressed. The recommended ground motion for high-hazard facilities is somewhat higher than the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory model and the ground motion from small-magnitude earthquakes is addressed separately from the moderate- to large-magnitude earthquake ground motion. The severe wind and tornado hazards determined for the Hanford Siste are in agreement with work completed independently using 43 years of site data. The low-probability, high-hazard, design-basis flood at the Hanford Site is dominated by dam failure on the Columbia River. Further evaluation of the mechanisms and probabilities of such flooding is in progress. The Hanford Site is downwind from several active Cascade volcanoes. Geologic and historical data are used to estimate the ashfall hazard

  6. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Technology Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, R.A.

    1988-06-01

    The reference Hanford plan for disposal of defense high-level waste is based on waste immobilization in glass by the vitrification process and temporary vitrified waste storage at the Hanford Site until final disposal in a geologic repository. A companion document to the Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP) is the Draft, Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan (HWMTP), which provides a description of the technology that must be developed to meet the reference waste management plan. One of the issues in the HWMTP is DST-6, Immobilization (Glass). The HWMTP includes all expense funding needed to complete the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) project. A preliminary HWVP Technology Plan was prepared in 1985 as a supporting document to the HWMTP to provide a more detailed description of the technology needed to construct and operate a vitrification facility. The plan was updated and issued in 1986, and revised in 1987. This document is an annual update of the plan. The HWVP Technology Plan is limited in scope to technology that requires development or confirmation testing. Other expense-funded activities are not included. The relationship between the HWVP Technology Plan and other waste management issues addressed in the HWMTP is described in section 1.6 of this plan. 6 refs., 4 figs., 34 tabs

  7. Hanford site transuranic waste sampling plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling plan (SP) describes the selection of containers for sampling of homogeneous solids and soil/gravel and for visual examination of transuranic and mixed transuranic (collectively referred to as TRU) waste generated at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The activities described in this SP will be conducted under the Hanford Site TRU Waste Certification Program. This SP is designed to meet the requirements of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) (DOE 1996a) (QAPP), site-specific implementation of which is described in the Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Characterization Program Quality Assurance Project Plan (HNF-2599) (Hanford 1998b) (QAPP). The QAPP defines the quality assurance (QA) requirements and protocols for TRU waste characterization activities at the Hanford Site. In addition, the QAPP identifies responsible organizations, describes required program activities, outlines sampling and analysis strategies, and identifies procedures for characterization activities. The QAPP identifies specific requirements for TRU waste sampling plans. Table 1-1 presents these requirements and indicates sections in this SP where these requirements are addressed

  8. Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAILY, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) has established a document hierarchy as part of its integrated management system. The Strategic Plan defines the vision, values, missions, strategic goals, high-level outcomes, and the basic strategies in achieving those outcomes. As shown in Figure 1-1, the Site Specification derives requirements from the Strategic Plan and documents the top-level mission technical requirements for the work involved in the RL Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (EM). It also provides the basis for all contract technical requirements. Since this is limited to the EM work, neither the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) nor the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) non-EM science activities are included. Figure 1-1 also shows the relationship between this Site Specification and the other Site management and planning documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this document represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents

  9. Hanford Tank Waste Particle Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herting, D. L. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Cooke, G. A. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Page, J S [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Valerio, J. L. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Several methods have been utilized to perform solid phase characterization. Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is used to identify individual particles based on size, shape, color, and optical properties (e.g., refractive index1, birefringence, extinction positions, and interference figures). Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) is used to detect which elements are present in individual particles and to infer chemical phase identification based on the metals present in combination with the size and shape of the particles. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used to identify crystalline phases present in bulk samples by matching the X-ray patterns with a library of known patterns for pure phases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to identify individual particles by their X-ray diffraction patterns. RAMAN analysis is used to identify bulk sample compositions by matching RAMAN spectra with a library of known patterns. Other specialized techniques have not been employed routinely for Hanford tank waste samples.

  10. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in organo-mineral particles of alluvial sandy soil profiles at a petroleum-contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zhe; Zeng, Fangang; Xue, Nandong; Li, Fasheng

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence and the distribution of 16 USEPA priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in two alluvial sandy soil profiles and in their four sizes of organo-mineral particles ( 200 μm coarse sand) beside a typical oil sludge storage site in eastern China. PAHs were mainly enriched in the surface soil (0–20 cm) and the concentrations declined in deeper soils, from 3.68 to 0.128 μg/g in profile 1 and 10.8 to 0.143 μg/g in profile 2 (dry wt.). The PAHs in the upper soil layers of this study site mainly came from combustion pollution, whereas in the lower soil layers petroleum contamination became the major source of PAHs. The content of different sized organo-mineral particles of this alluvial sandy soil decreased in the following order: fine sand > coarse sand > silt > clay. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that all the different sized soil fractions of this study site were dominated by quartz, calcite and feldspar. The particle surface became smoother with size increasing as shown by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized soil fractions. The highest PAH concentration was associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay > silt > coarse sand > fine sand. Soil organic matter (SOM) content, mineral composition and particle surface characteristics were suggested as three main factors affecting the distribution of PAHs in different sized organo-mineral particles. This study will help to understand the distribution and transport characteristics of PAHs in soil profiles at petroleum-contaminated sites. -- Highlights: ► PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized fractions. ► The highest PAH concentrations were associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay > silt > coarse sand > fine sand. ► Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important factor to dominate the distribution of PAHs in this study site.

  11. The Hanford summit and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, C.T.

    1994-05-01

    Since the days of the Manhattan Project of World War II, the economic well being of the Tri-Cities (Pasco, Kennewick, and Richland) of Washington State has been tied to the US Department of Energy missions at the nearby Hanford Site. As missions at the Site changed, so did the well being of the region. The Hanford Site is now poised to complete its final mission, that of environmental restoration. When restoration is compiled, the Site may be closed and the effect on the local economy will be devastating if action is not taken now. To that end, economic diversification and transition are being planned. To facilitate the process, the Hanford Site will become a sustainable development demonstration project -- a project with regional, national, and international application

  12. Hanford Waste Vitrification Project overview and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, L.D.; Smets, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP) is being constructed at the US DOE's Hanford Site in Richland, WA. Engineering and design are being accomplished by Fluor Daniel Inc. in Irvine, CA. Technical input is furnished by Westinghouse Hanford Co. and construction management services by UE ampersand C-Catalytic Inc. The HWVP will immobilize high level nuclear waste in a glass matrix for eventual disposal in the federal repository. The HWVP consists of several structures, the major ones being the Vitrification Building, the Canister Storage Building, fan house, sand filter, waste hold tank, pump house, and administration and construction facilities. Construction started in April 1992 with the clearing and grubbing activities that prepared the site for fencing and construction preparation. Several design packages have been released for procurement activities. The most significant package release is for the Canister Storage Building, which will be the first major structure to be constructed

  13. Environmental monitoring at Hanford for 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquish, R.E.; Mitchell, P.J.

    1988-05-01

    Envoronmental monitoring activities performed on the Hanford Site for 1987 are discussed in this report. Samples of environmental media were collected to determine radionuclide and chemical concentrations at locations in the geographical area. Results are discussed in detail in subsequent sections of this report. Surveillance of radioactivity in the Hanford vicinity during 1987 indicated concentrations well below applicable DOE and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. Radioactive materials released from Hanford operations were generally indistinguishable above background in the offsite environment. Continued influence from the 1986 reactor accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the USSR was not apparent this year. Chemical concentrations in air were below applicable standards established by the EPA and the State of Washington. Chemicals detected in the ground water beneath the Site can be attributed to both Site operations and natural background levels. Several chemicals regulated by the EPA and the State of Washington exceeded EPA drinking water standards (DWS). 106 refs., 71 figs., 110 tabs

  14. Westinghouse Hanford Company package testing capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummer, J.H.; Mercado, M.S.

    1993-07-01

    The Department of Energy's Hanford Site is a 1,450-km 2 (560-mi 2 ) installation located in southeastern Washington State. Established in 1943 as a plutonium production facility, Hanford's role has evolved into one of environmental restoration and remediation. Many of these environmental restoration and remediation activities involve transportation of radioactive/hazardous materials. Packagings used for the transportation of radioactive/hazardous materials must be capable of meeting certain normal transport and hypothetical accident performance criteria. Evaluations of performance to these criteria typically involve a combination of analysis and testing. Required tests may include the free drop, puncture, penetration, compression, thermal, heat, cold, vibration, water spray, water immersion, reduced pressure, and increased pressure tests. The purpose of this paper is to outline the Hanford capabilities for performing each of these tests

  15. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document, Set 2, the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part B Permit Application, consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of WAC 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. This permit application contains ''umbrella- type'' documentation with overall application to the Hanford Facility. This documentation is broad in nature and applies to all TSD units that have final status under the Hanford Facility Permit

  16. Environmental surveillance at Hanford for CY-1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.R.; Blumer, P.J.

    1980-04-01

    Environmental data were collected for most environmental media including air, Columbia River water, external radiation, foodstuffs (milk, beef, eggs, poultry, and produce) and wildlife (deer, fish, and game birds), as well as soil and vegetation samples. In general, offsite levels of radionuclides attributable to Hanford operations during 1979 were indistinguishable from background levels. The data are summarized in the following highlights. Air quality measurements of NO 2 in the vicinity of the Hanford Site and releases of SO 2 onsite were well within the applicable federal and state standards. Particulate air concentrations exceed the standards primarily because of agricultural activities in the area. Discharges of waste water from Hanford facilities in the Columbia River under the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit were all within the parameter limits on the permit

  17. Vitrification technology for Hanford Site tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, E.T.; Calmus, R.B.; Wilson, C.N.

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site has an inventory of 217,000 m 3 of nuclear waste stored in 177 underground tanks. The DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology have agreed that most of the Hanford Site tank waste will be immobilized by vitrification before final disposal. This will be accomplished by separating the tank waste into high- and low-level fractions. Capabilities for high-capacity vitrification are being assessed and developed for each waste fraction. This paper provides an overview of the program for selecting preferred high-level waste melter and feed processing technologies for use in Hanford Site tank waste processing

  18. Hanford Tanks Initiative quality assurance implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huston, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan for Nuclear Facilities defines the controls for the products and activities developed by HTI. Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD)(HNF-PRO599) is the document that defines the quality requirements for Nuclear Facilities. The QAPD provides direction for compliance to 10 CFR 830.120 Nuclear Safety Management, Quality Assurance Requirements. Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year activity resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the US Department of Energy's Office of Waste Management (EM-30), and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). HTI will develop and demonstrate technologies and processes for characterization and retrieval of single shell tank waste. Activities and products associated with HTI consist of engineering, construction, procurement, closure, retrieval, characterization, and safety and licensing

  19. Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOMAN, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    The information contained in, and/or referenced in, this Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report addresses Permit Condition II.W (Other Permits and/or Approvals) of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA7890008967). Condition II.W specifies that the Permittees are responsible for obtaining all other applicable federal, state, and local permits authorizing the development and operation of the Hanford Facility. This status report also addresses Permit Condition I.E.22, as interpreted in Section 12.1.25 of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, General Information Portion (DOE/RL-91-28, Rev. 4), that states this report will be prepared annually and a copy of this report will be placed in the Facility Operating Record, General Information file by October 1 of each year

  20. In situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeen, R.S.; Roberson, K.R.; Workman, D.J.; Petersen, J.N.; Shouche, M.

    1992-04-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl 4 , nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on going effort to develop effective in situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations

  1. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is a consolidated set of automated resources that effectively manage the data gathered during environmental monitoring and restoration of the Hanford Site. The HEIS includes an integrated database that provides consistent and current data to all users and promotes sharing of data by the entire user community. Data stored in the HEIS are collected under several regulatory programs. Currently these include the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); and the Ground-Water Environmental Surveillance Project, managed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The HEIS is an information system with an inclusive database. The manual, the HEIS User's Manual, describes the facilities available to the scientist, engineer, or manager who uses the system for environmental monitoring, assessment, and restoration planning; and to the regulator who is responsible for reviewing Hanford Site operations against regulatory requirements and guidelines

  2. Assessment of groundwater management at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the groundwater management and environmental monitoring programs at the Hanford reservation was initiated in 1973. A large number of recommendations made as a result of this review are summarized. The purpose of the Hanford Hydrology Program is to maintain a groundwater surveillance network to assess contamination of the natural water system. Potential groundwater contamination is primarily a function of waste management decisions. The review revealed that although the hydrology program would greatly benefit from additional improvements, it is adequate to predict levels of contaminants present in the groundwater system. Studies are presently underway to refine advanced mathematical models to use results of the hydrologic investigation in forecasting the response of the system to different long-term management decisions. No information was found which indicates that a hazard through the groundwater pathway presently exists as a result of waste operations at Hanford. (CH)

  3. HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU CLEANUP COMPLETION STRATEGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the ∼200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were signed by the

  4. Vascular Plants of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2001-09-28

    This report provides an updated listing of the vascular plants present on and near the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. This document is an update of a listing of plants prepared by Sackschewdky et al. in 1992. Since that time there has been a significant increase in the botanical knowledge of the Hanford Site. The present listing is based on an examination of herbarium collections held at PNNL, at WSU-Tri Cities, WSU-Pullman, Bringham Young University, and The University of Washington, and on examination of ecological literature derived from the Hanford and Benton county areas over the last 100 years. Based on the most recent analysis, there are approximately 725 different plant species that have been documented on or around the Hanford Site. This represents an approximate 20% increase in the number of species reported within Sackschewsky et al. (1992). This listing directly supports DOE and contractor efforts to assess the potential impacts of Hanford Site operations on the biological environment, including impacts to rare habitats and to species listed as endangered or\\ threatened. This document includes a listing of plants currently listed as endangered, threatened, or otherwise of concern to the Washington Natural Heritage Program or the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, as well as those that are currently listed as noxious weeds by the State of Washington. Also provided is an overview of how plants on the Hanford Site can be used by people. This information may be useful in developing risk assessment models, and as supporting information for clean-up level and remediation decisions.

  5. Environmental surveillance at Hanford for CY-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1975-04-01

    During 1974, the work at Hanford included N Reactor operation, nuclear fuel fabrication, liquid waste solidification, continued construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility, continued construction of Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) No. 2 power reactor, Arid Lands Ecology studies, as well as continued use of a variety of research and laboratory facilities. Environmental data collected during 1974 showed continued compliance of Hanford operations with all applicable state and federal regulations. Levels of radioactivity in the atmosphere from Hanford operations at all offsite sampling locations were indistinguishable from levels due to natural causes and fallout from nuclear detonations in the atmosphere. Air quality measurements of NO 2 in the Hanford environs recorded a maximum yearly average concentration of 0.006 ppM or 12 percent of the ambient air standard. There was no indication that Hanford operations contributed significantly to these levels. All SO 2 results were less than the detection limit of 0.005 ppM or 25 percent of the ambient air quality standard. Routine radiological, chemical, biological, and physical analyses of Columbia River water upstream and downstream of the Hanford Reservation operations with the possible exception of water temperature. Levels of radioactivity were similar at both locations and were due to natural and fallout radioactivity. Estimates are included of the radiation dose to the human population within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the site during 1974. Methods used in calculations of the annual dose and 50-year dose commitment from radioactive effluents are discussed. (U.S.)

  6. HANFORD SITE SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAM RICHLAND WASHINGTON - 12464

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRITZ LL

    2012-01-12

    In support of implementation of Executive Order (EO) 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy and Economic Performance, the Hanford Site Sustainability Plan was developed to implement strategies and activities required to achieve the prescribed goals in the EO as well as demonstrate measurable progress in environmental stewardship at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site Sustainability Program was developed to demonstrate progress towards sustainability goals as defined and established in Executive Order (EO) 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy and Economic Performance; EO 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy and Transportation Management, and several applicable Energy Acts. Multiple initiatives were undertaken in Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 to implement the Program and poise the Hanford Site as a leader in environmental stewardship. In order to implement the Hanford Site Sustainability Program, a Sustainability Plan was developed in conjunction with prime contractors, two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offices, and key stakeholders to serve as the framework for measuring progress towards sustainability goals. Based on the review of these metrics and future plans, several activities were initiated to proactively improve performance or provide alternatives for future consideration contingent on available funding. A review of the key metric associated with energy consumption for the Hanford Site in FY 2010 and 2011 indicated an increase over the target reduction of 3 percent annually from a baseline established in FY 2003 as illustrated in Figure 1. This slight increase was attributed primarily from the increased energy demand from the cleanup projects funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) in FY 2010 and 2011. Although it is forecasted that the energy demand will decrease commensurate with the completion of ARRA projects, several major initiatives were launched to improve energy efficiency.

  7. Hanford Site performance report - December 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDER, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Site Performance Report is to provide the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office's (DOE-RL's) report of Hanford's performance by: U. S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) through Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and its subcontractors, Environmental Restoration Contract through Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), and its subcontractors, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) for Science and Technology support to the Environmental Management (EM) mission. This report is published monthly with the intent of relating work performance and progress in the context of the Success Indicators and Critical Success Factors as outlined in the Hanford Strategic Plan. Currently, the report focuses on the EM mission, and will be expanded in the future to include non-EM activities. Section A of this report is the Executive Summary, encapsulating high-level data in this report into an overall brief. Summary information provided includes Notable Accomplishments, a tabular performance profile with associated analyses, Critical Issues, Key Integration Activities, a look at Significant Trends, and a ''quick list'' of Upcoming Key Events. Section B of this report, the Site Summary section, provides Environmental Management performance data specifically organized to the pertinent Critical Success Factors and Success Indicators. The Site Summary is a compilation of performance data from all of the Mission Areas and the Projects that comprise these Mission Areas; the information is presented in both narrative and graphical formats. The remaining sections provide performance data relative to each individual mission area (e.g., Waste Management, Spent Nuclear Fuels, etc.). The information provided in the Mission Area sections is at a level of greater detail than is presented in either the Executive Summary or the Site Summary sections. At the end of this report, a glossary of terms is provided

  8. Radioactive waste management at the Hanford Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    During some 30 years of plutonium production, the Hanford Reservation has accumulated large quantities of low- and high-level radioactive wastes. The high-level wastes have been stored in underground tanks, and the low-level wastes have been percolated into the soil. In recent years some programs for solidification and separation of the high-level wastes have been initiated. The Hanford waste-management system was studied by a panel of the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Academy of Sciences. The panel concluded that Hanford waste-management practices were adequate at present and for the immediate future but recommended increased research and development programs related to long-term isolation of the wastes. The panel also considered some alternatives for on-site disposal of the wastes. The Hanford Reservation was originally established for the production of plutonium for military purposes. During more than 30 years of operation, large volumes of high- and low-level radioactive wastes have been accumulated and contained at the site. The Management of these wastes has been the subject of controversy and criticism. To obtain a true technical evaluation of the Hanford waste situation, the Energy Research and Development Administration (now part of the Department of Energy) issued a contract to the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Councilto conduct an independent review and evaluation of the Hanford waste-management practices and plans. A panel of the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) of the National Academy of Sciences conducted this study between the summer of 1976 and the summer of 1977. This article is a summary of the final report of that panel

  9. Proposal of new convenient extractant for assessing phytoavailability of heavy metals in contaminated sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Jolanta; Stanislawska-Glubiak, Ewa

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of 1 M HCl with aqua regia, EDTA, and CaCl 2 for the extraction of phytoavailable forms of Cu, Ni, and Zn on coarse-textured soils contaminated with these metals. Two microplot experiments were used for the studies. Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), maize (Zea mays), willow (Salix viminalis), spartina (Spartina pectinata), and miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) were used as test plants. They were grown on soil artificially spiked with Cu, Ni, and Zn. The experimental design included a control and three increasing doses of metals. Microplots (1 m 2  × 1 m deep) were filled with sandy soil (clay-6%, pH 5.5, Corg-0.8%). Metals in the form of sulfates were dissolved in water and applied to the plot using a hand liquid sprayer. During the harvest, samples were collected from aboveground parts, roots, and the soil and then tested for their Cu, Zn, and Ni contents. The metal content of the soil was determined using four tested extractants. It was found that Cu and Ni were accumulated in roots in bigger amounts than Zn. The usefulness of the extractants was evaluated based on the correlation between the content of metals in the soil and the plant (n = 32). This study demonstrated that 1 M HCl, aqua regia, and EDTA were more efficient or equally useful for the assessment of the phytoavailability of Cu, Ni, and Zn as CaCl 2 . Due to the ease of performing determinations and their low cost, 1 M HCl can be recommended to assess the excess of Cu, Ni, and Zn in the coarse-textured soils.

  10. Hanford Site ground-water surveillance for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.; Kemner, M.L.

    1990-06-01

    This annual report of ground-water surveillance activities provides discussions and listings of results for ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1989. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assesses the impacts of Hanford operations on the environment for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The impact Hanford operations has on ground water is evaluated through the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance program. Five hundred and sixty-seven wells were sampled during 1989 for Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. This report contains a listing of analytical results for calendar year (CY) 1989 for species of importance as potential contaminants. 30 refs., 29 figs,. 4 tabs

  11. Software configuration management plan for the Hanford site technical database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAVES, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Site Technical Database (HSTD) is used as the repository/source for the technical requirements baseline and programmatic data input via the Hanford Site and major Hanford Project Systems Engineering (SE) activities. The Hanford Site SE effort has created an integrated technical baseline for the Hanford Site that supports SE processes at the Site and project levels which is captured in the HSTD. The HSTD has been implemented in Ascent Logic Corporation (ALC) Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) package referred to as the Requirements Driven Design (RDD) software. This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides a process and means to control and manage software upgrades to the HSTD system

  12. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations ampersand Development (PO ampersand D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage

  13. Hanford year 2000 Business Continuity Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGGENKAMP, S.L.

    1999-11-01

    The goal of Department of Energy Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Year 2000 (Y2K) effort is to ensure that the Hanford site successfully continues its mission as we approach and enter the 21th century. The Y2K Business Continuity Planning process provides a structured approach to identify Y2K risks to the site and to mitigate these risks through Y2K Contingency Planning, ''Zero-Day'' Transition Planning and Emergency Preparedness. This document defines the responsibilities, processes and plans for Hanford's Y2K Business Continuity. It identifies proposed business continuity drills, tentative schedule and milestones.

  14. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, and 59 Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs

  15. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ({sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 59}Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs.

  16. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products (/sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 54/Mn, and /sup 59/Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs.

  17. Executive summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    A pollution prevention plan is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce waste generation. The Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan is designed to eliminate or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all aspects of Site operations. These efforts offer increased protection of public health and the environment. This plan reflects the goals and policies for pollution prevention at the Hanford Site and represents an ongoing effort to make pollution prevention part of the Site operating philosophy. The plan encompasses hazardous waste only and excludes radioactive waste and radioactive mixed waste

  18. Hanford year 2000 Business Continuity Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VORNEY, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of Department of Energy Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Year 2000 (Y2K) effort is to ensure that the Hanford site successfully continues its mission as we approach and enter the 21th century. The Y2K Business Continuity Planning process provides a structured approach to identify Y2K risks to the site and to mitigate these risks through Y2K Contingency Planning, ''Zero-Day'' Transition Planning and Emergency Preparedness. This document defines the responsibilities, processes and plans for Hanford's Y2K Business Continuity. It identifies proposed business continuity drills, tentative schedule and milestones

  19. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  20. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technology progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, B.A.; Scott, J.L.; Allen, C.R.

    1989-10-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is currently being designed to safely process and temporarily store immobilized defense liquid high-level wastes from the Hanford Site. These wastes will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass waste form in the HWVP and stored onsite until a qualified geologic waste repository is ready for permanent disposal. Because of the diversity of wastes to be disposed of, specific technical issues are being addressed so that the plant can be designed and operated to produce a waste form that meets the requirements for permanent disposal in a geologic repository. This paper reports the progress to date in addressing these issues. 2 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.M.

    1990-12-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have been have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, and 59 Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs

  3. Westinghouse Hanford Company environmental surveillance annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Johnson, A.R.; McKinney, S.M.; Perkins, C.J.; Webb, C.R.

    1992-07-01

    This document presents the results of near-facility operational environmental monitoring in 1991 of the 100, 200/600, and 300/400 Areas of the Hanford Site, in south-central Washington State, as performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. These activities are conducted to assess and to control the impacts of operations on the workers and the local environment and to monitor diffuse sources. Surveillance activities include sampling and analyses of ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sediments, soil, and biota. Also, external radiation measurements and radiological surveys are taken at waste disposal sites, radiologically controlled areas, and roads

  4. Coarse mode aerosols in the High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baibakov, K.; O'Neill, N. T.; Chaubey, J. P.; Saha, A.; Duck, T. J.; Eloranta, E. W.

    2014-12-01

    Fine mode (submicron) aerosols in the Arctic have received a fair amount of scientific attention in terms of smoke intrusions during the polar summer and Arctic haze pollution during the polar winter. Relatively little is known about coarse mode (supermicron) aerosols, notably dust, volcanic ash and sea salt. Asian dust is a regular springtime event whose optical and radiative forcing effects have been fairly well documented at the lower latitudes over North America but rarely reported for the Arctic. Volcanic ash, whose socio-economic importance has grown dramatically since the fear of its effects on aircraft engines resulted in the virtual shutdown of European civil aviation in the spring of 2010 has rarely been reported in the Arctic in spite of the likely probability that ash from Iceland and the Aleutian Islands makes its way into the Arctic and possibly the high Arctic. Little is known about Arctic sea salt aerosols and we are not aware of any literature on the optical measurement of these aerosols. In this work we present preliminary results of the combined sunphotometry-lidar analysis at two High Arctic stations in North America: PEARL (80°N, 86°W) for 2007-2011 and Barrow (71°N,156°W) for 2011-2014. The multi-years datasets were analyzed to single out potential coarse mode incursions and study their optical characteristics. In particular, CIMEL sunphotometers provided coarse mode optical depths as well as information on particle size and refractive index. Lidar measurements from High Spectral Resolution lidars (AHSRL at PEARL and NSHSRL at Barrow) yielded vertically resolved aerosol profiles and gave an indication of particle shape and size from the depolarization ratio and color ratio profiles. Additionally, we employed supplementary analyses of HYSPLIT backtrajectories, OMI aerosol index, and NAAPS (Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System) outputs to study the spatial context of given events.

  5. Light Gray Surface-Gleyed Loamy Sandy Soils of the Northern Part of Tambov Plain: Agroecology, Properties, and Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel'man, F. R.; Stepantsova, L. V.; Nikiforova, A. S.; Krasin, V. N.; Dautokov, I. M.; Krasina, T. V.

    2018-04-01

    Light gray soils of Tambov oblast mainly develop from sandy and loamy sandy parent materials; these are the least studied soils in this region. Despite their coarse texture, these soils are subjected to surface waterlogging. They are stronger affected by the agrogenic degradation in comparison with chernozems and dark gray soils. Morphology, major elements of water regime, physical properties, and productivity of loamy sandy light gray soils with different degrees of gleyzation have been studied in the northern part of Tambov Plain in order to substantiate the appropriate methods of their management. The texture of these soils changes at the depth of 70-100 cm. The upper part is enriched in silt particles (16-30%); in the lower part, the sand content reaches 80-85%. In the nongleyed variants, middle-profile horizons contain thin iron-cemented lamellae (pseudofibers); in surface-gleyed variants, iron nodules are present in the humus horizon. The removal of clay from the humus horizon and its accumulation at the lithological contact and in pseudofibers promote surface subsidence and formation of microlows in the years with moderate and intense winter precipitation. The low range of active moisture favors desiccation of the upper horizons to the wilting point in dry years. The yield of cereal crops reaches 3.5-4.5 t/ha in the years with high and moderate summer precipitation on nongleyed and slightly gleyed light gray soils and decreases by 20-50% on strongly gleyed light gray soils. On light gray soils without irrigation, crop yields are unstable, and productivity of pastures is low. High yields of cereals and vegetables can be obtained on irrigated soils. In this case, local drainage measures should be applied to microlows; liming can be recommended to improve soil productivity.

  6. Legal Considerations for Health Care Practitioners After Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, Tina Batra; Van Nostrand, Elizabeth; Sood, Rishi K; Potter, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    During disaster response and recovery, legal issues often arise related to the provision of health care services to affected residents. Superstorm Sandy led to the evacuation of many hospitals and other health care facilities and compromised the ability of health care practitioners to provide necessary primary care. This article highlights the challenges and legal concerns faced by health care practitioners in the aftermath of Sandy, which included limitations in scope of practice, difficulties with credentialing, lack of portability of practitioner licenses, and concerns regarding volunteer immunity and liability. Governmental and nongovernmental entities employed various strategies to address these concerns; however, legal barriers remained that posed challenges throughout the Superstorm Sandy response and recovery period. We suggest future approaches to address these legal considerations, including policies and legislation, additional waivers of law, and planning and coordination among multiple levels of governmental and nongovernmental organizations. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:518-524).

  7. Acidification of sandy grasslands - consequences for plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Pål Axel; Mårtensson, Linda-Maria; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2009-01-01

    soil; a number of nationally red-listed species showed a similar pattern. Plant species diversity and number of red-listed species increased with slope. Where the topsoil had been acidified, limestone was rarely present above a depth of 30 cm. The presence of limestone restricts the availability......Questions: (1) Does soil acidification in calcareous sandy grasslands lead to loss of plant diversity? (2) What is the relationship between the soil content of lime and the plant availability of mineral nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in sandy grasslands? Location: Sandy glaciofluvial deposits......). Environmental variables were recorded at each plot, and soil samples were analysed for exchangeable P and N, as well as limestone content and pH. Data were analysed with regression analysis and canonical correspondence analysis. Results: Plant species richness was highest on weakly acid to slightly alkaline...

  8. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rebecca M; Gillezeau, Christina N; Liu, Bian; Lieberman-Cribbin, Wil; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-08-24

    Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130). There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = -0.33, p Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  9. Hurricane Sandy, Disaster Preparedness, and the Recovery Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was the second largest and costliest hurricane in U.S. history to affect multiple states and communities. This article describes the lived experiences of 24 occupational therapy students who lived through Hurricane Sandy using the Recovery Model to frame the research. Occupational therapy student narratives were collected and analyzed using qualitative methods and framed by the Recovery Model. Directed content and thematic analysis was performed using the 10 components of the Recovery Model. The 10 components of the Recovery Model were experienced by or had an impact on the occupational therapy students as they coped and recovered in the aftermath of the natural disaster. This study provides insight into the lived experiences and recovery perspectives of occupational therapy students who experienced Hurricane Sandy. Further research is indicated in applying the Recovery Model to people who survive disasters. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  10. Hanford Site Raptor Nest Monitoring Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, John J. [Mission Support Alliance (MSA), Richland, WA (United States); Lindsey, Cole T. [Mission Support Alliance (MSA), Richland, WA (United States); Wilde, Justin W. [Mission Support Alliance (MSA), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) conducts ecological monitoring on the Hanford Site to collect and track data needed to ensure compliance with an array of environmental laws, regulations, and policies governing DOE activities. Ecological monitoring data provide baseline information about the plants, animals, and habitat under DOE-RL stewardship at Hanford required for decision-making under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The Hanford Site Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP, DOE/EIS-0222-F) which is the Environmental Impact Statement for Hanford Site activities, helps ensure that DOE-RL, its contractors, and other entities conducting activities on the Hanford Site are in compliance with NEPA. The Hanford Site supports a large and diverse community of raptorial birds (Fitzner et al. 1981), with 26 species of raptors observed on the Hanford Site.

  11. Family Structures, Relationships, and Housing Recovery Decisions after Hurricane Sandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nejat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the recovery phase of a disaster cycle is still in its infancy. Recent major disasters such as Hurricane Sandy have revealed the inability of existing policies and planning to promptly restore infrastructure, residential properties, and commercial activities in affected communities. In this setting, a thorough grasp of housing recovery decisions can lead to effective post-disaster planning by policyholders and public officials. The objective of this research is to integrate vignette and survey design to study how family bonds affected rebuilding/relocating decisions after Hurricane Sandy. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate respondents’ family structures before Sandy and explore whether their relationships with family members changed after Sandy. The study also explores the effect of the aforementioned relationship and its changes on households’ plans to either rebuild/repair their homes or relocate. These results were compared to another multinomial logistic regression which was applied to examine the impact of familial bonds on respondents’ suggestions to a vignette family concerning rebuilding and relocating after a hurricane similar to Sandy. Results indicate that respondents who lived with family members before Sandy were less likely to plan for relocating than those who lived alone. A more detailed examination shows that this effect was driven by those who improved their relationships with family members; those who did not improve their family relationships were not significantly different from those who lived alone, when it came to rebuilding/relocation planning. Those who improved their relationships with family members were also less likely to suggest that the vignette family relocate. This study supports the general hypothesis that family bonds reduce the desire to relocate, and provides empirical evidence that family mechanisms are important for the rebuilding/relocating decision

  12. Hanford Integrated Planning Process: 1993 Hanford Site-specific science and technology plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This document is the FY 1993 report on Hanford Site-specific science and technology (S ampersand T) needs for cleanup of the Site as developed via the Hanford Integrated Planning Process (HIPP). It identifies cleanup problems that lack demonstrated technology solutions and technologies that require additional development. Recommendations are provided regarding allocation of funding to address Hanford's highest-priority technology improvement needs, technology development needs, and scientific research needs, all compiled from a Sitewide perspective. In the past, the S ampersand T agenda for Hanford Site cleanup was sometimes driven by scientists and technologists, with minimal input from the ''problem owners'' (i.e., Westinghouse Hanford Company [WHC] staff who are responsible for cleanup activities). At other times, the problem-owners made decisions to proceed with cleanup without adequate scientific and technological inputs. Under both of these scenarios, there was no significant stakeholder involvement in the decision-making process. One of the key objectives of HIPP is to develop an understanding of the integrated S ampersand T requirements to support the cleanup mission, (a) as defined by the needs of the problem owners, the values of the stakeholders, and the technology development expertise that exists at Hanford and elsewhere. This requires a periodic, systematic assessment of these needs and values to appropriately define a comprehensive technology development program and a complementary scientific research program. Basic to our success is a methodology that is defensible from a technical perspective and acceptable to the stakeholders

  13. Early deterioration of coarse woody debris.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tainter, Frank, H.; McMinn, James, W.

    1999-02-16

    Tainter, F.H., and J.W. McMinn. 1999. Early deterioration of coarse woody debris. In: Proc. Tenth Bien. South. Silv. Res. Conf. Shreveport, LA, February 16-18, 1999. Pp. 232-237 Abstract - Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important structural component of southern forest ecosystems. CWD loading may be affected by different decomposition rates on sites of varying quality. Bolts of red oak and loblolly pine were placed on plots at each of three (hydric, mesic. and xerlc) sites at the Savannah River Site and sampled over a I6-week period. Major changes were in moisture content and nonstructural carbohydrate content (total carbohydrates, reducing sugars, and starch) of sapwood. Early changes in nonstructural carbohydrate levels following placement of the bolts were likely due to reallocation of these materials by sapwood parenchyma cells. These carbohydrates later formed pools increasingly metabolized by bacteria and invading fungi. Most prevalent fungi in sapwood were Ceratocysfis spp. in pine and Hypoxy/on spp. in oak. Although pine sapwood became blue stained and oak sapwood exhibited yellow soft decay with black zone lines, estimators of decay (specific gravity, sodium hydroxide solubility, and holocellulose content) were unchanged during the 16-week study period. A small effect of site was detected for starch content of sapwood of both species. Fungal biomass in sapwood of both species, as measured by ergosterol content, was detectable at week zero, increased somewhat by week three and increased significantly by week 16.

  14. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity

  15. Hanford Works monthly report, October 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1950-11-20

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of October 1950. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  16. Hanford defined waste model limitations and improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARMSEN, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan, Milestone 5,6.3.1.i requires issuance of this report which addresses ''updates to the tank contents model''. This report summarizes the review of the Hanford Defined Waste, Revision 4, model limitations and provides conclusions and recommendations for potential updates to the model

  17. Hanford Works monthly report, December 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1951-01-22

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of December 1950. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  18. Hanford Works monthly report, May 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1950-06-20

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of May 1950. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  19. Hanford Works monthly report, July 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1950-08-18

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of July 1950. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  20. Hanford Works monthly report, March 1952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1952-04-18

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of April 1952. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  1. Environmental surveillance at Hanford for CY-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.; Blumer, P.J.; Hoenes, G.R.; Bramson, P.E.

    1977-04-01

    Environmental data collected during 1976 show continued compliance by Hanford with all applicable state and federal regulations. Data were collected for most environmental media including air, Columbia River water, external radiation, foodstuffs (milk, meat, eggs, poultry, and produce), and wildlife (deer, fish, game birds, and oysters from Willapa Bay), as well as a few soil and vegetation samples. The data are summarized

  2. Hanford emergency management plan - release 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARPENTER, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford emergency management plan for the US Department of Energy Richland, WA and Office of River Protection. The program was developed in accordance with DOE Orders as well as Federal and State regulations to protect workers and public health and safety

  3. Hanford surplus facilities hazards identification document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egge, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides general safety information needed by personnel who enter and work in surplus facilities managed by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. The purpose of the document is to enhance access control of surplus facilities, educate personnel on the potential hazards associated with these facilities prior to entry, and ensure that safety precautions are taken while in the facility

  4. Hanford Works monthly report, April 1952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1952-05-20

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of April 1952. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  5. Hanford Works monthly report, July 1952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1952-08-15

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of July 1952. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  6. Hanford emergency management plan - release 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARPENTER, G.A.

    1999-07-19

    The Hanford emergency management plan for the US Department of Energy Richland, WA and Office of River Protection. The program was developed in accordance with DOE Orders as well as Federal and State regulations to protect workers and public health and safety.

  7. Hanford spent nuclear fuel project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, N.H.

    1997-08-19

    Twenty one hundred metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are currently stored in the Hanford Site K Basins near the Columbia River. The deteriorating conditions of the fuel and the basins provide engineering and management challenges to assure safe current and future storage. DE and S Hanford, Inc., part of the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. lead team on the Project Hanford Management Contract, is constructing facilities and systems to move the fuel from current pool storage to a dry interim storage facility away from the Columbia River, and to treat and dispose of K Basins sludge, debris and water. The process starts in K Basins where fuel elements will be removed from existing canisters, washed, and separated from sludge and scrap fuel pieces. Fuel elements will be placed in baskets and loaded into Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and into transportation casks. The MCO and cask will be transported to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, where free water within the MCO will be removed under vacuum at slightly elevated temperatures. The MCOs will be sealed and transported via the transport cask to the Canister Storage Building.

  8. Hanford science and technology needs statements, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERLIN, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    This document: (a) provides a comprehensive listing of the Hanford sites science and technology needs for fiscal year (FY) 2000; and (b) identifies partnering and commercialization opportunities within industry, other federal and state agencies, and the academic community. These needs were prepared by the Hanford projects (within the Project Hanford Management Contract and the Environmental Restoration Contract) and subsequently reviewed and endorsed by the Hanford Site Technology Coordination Group (STCG). The STCG reviews included participation of DOE-RL Management, site stakeholders, state and federal regulators, and Tribal Nations. The Science and Technology Needs Document is organized by major problem areas and coincides with the STCG subgroups which are as follows: Deactivation and Decommissioning, Mixed Waste, Subsurface Contaminants, High Level Waste Tanks, and Spent Nuclear Fuel. Each problem area begins with a technology needs index table. This table is followed by detailed descriptions of each technology need, including a problem statement and current baseline information associated with that need. Following the technology need description for each problem area is a table listing the science needs, followed by detailed descriptions of the functional need and the problem to be solved as currently understood. Finally, a crosswalk table is provided at the end of each problem area which ties together last years needs and this years needs, provides brief justification for elimination of any needs, and identifies any other significant changes which took place during the revision process

  9. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poloski, A. P.

    2004-01-01

    This project has two primary objectives. The first is to understand the physical properties and behavior of the Hanford transuranic (TRU) tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging, and transportation for disposal at WIPP. The second primary objective is to develop a fundamental understanding of these sludge suspensions by correlating the macroscopic properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of this research effort will enhance the existing understanding of agglomeration phenomena and the properties of complex colloidal suspensions. In addition, the knowledge gained and capabilities developed during this effort will aid in the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites. These objectives will be accomplished by: (1) characterizing the TRU sludges contained in the Hanford tanks that are intended for shipment to WIPP; (2) determining the physical behavior of the Hanford TRU tank sludges under conditions that might exist during treatment and packaging; (3) and modeling the retrieval, treatment, and packaging operations that will be performed at Hanford to dispose of TRU tank sludges

  10. Hanford Works monthly report, January 1952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1952-02-21

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of January 1952. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  11. Hanford Works monthly report, September 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1950-10-20

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of September 1950. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  12. Hanford Works monthly report, July 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1951-08-24

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of July 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  13. Hanford Works monthly report, March 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1951-04-20

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of March 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  14. Hanford Works monthly report, June 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1951-07-20

    This is a progress report of the production on the Hanford Reservation for the month of June 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  15. Hanford works monthly report, September 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1951-10-19

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of September 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  16. Hanford Works monthly report, May 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1951-06-21

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of May 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  17. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location

  18. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities were built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Areas to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive constituents. This paper focuses on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location

  19. Hanford Works monthly report, June 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1950-07-20

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of June 1950. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  20. Axial Dispersion during Hanford Saltcake Washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Geeting, John GH; Lessor, Delbert L.; Barton, William B.

    2006-01-01

    Clean up of Hanford salt cake wastes begins with dissolution retrieval of the sodium rich salts that make up the dominant majority of mass in the tanks. Water moving through the porous salt cake dissolves the soluble components and also displaces the soluble radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs and 99TcO4- ). The separation that occurs from this displacement, known as Selective dissolution, is an important component in Hanford?s pretreatment of low activity wastes for subsequent Supplemental treatment. This paper describes lab scale testing conducted to evaluate Selective dissolution of cesium from non-radioactive Hanford tank 241-S-112 salt cake simulant containing the primary chemicals found the actual tank. An modified axial dispersion model with increasing axial dispersion was developed to predict cesium removal. The model recognizes that water dissolves the salt cake during washing, which causes an increase in the axial dispersion during the wash. This model was subsequently compared with on-line cesium measurements from the retrieval of tank 241-S-112. The model had remarkably good agreement with both the lab scale and full scale data

  1. Hanford Works monthly report, November 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1951-12-21

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of November 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  2. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of the 1984 United States Code (USC). The report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site and consists of waste disposal units, including (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structure, (5) RCRA treatment and storage units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of this report, the listing of sites is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of HSWA. In support of the Hanford RCRA permit, a field was added to designate whether the waste management unit is a solid waste management unit (SWMU). As SWMUs are identified, they will added to the Hanford Waste Information Data System (WIDS), which is the database supporting this report, and added to the report at its next annual update. A quality review of the WIDS was conducted this past year. The review included checking all data against their reference and making appropriate changes, updating the data elements using the most recent references, marking duplicate units for deletion, and addition additional information. 6 refs

  3. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of the 1984 United States Code (USC). The report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site and consists of waste disposal units, including (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structures, (5) RCRA treatment and storage units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of this report, the listing of sites is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of HSWA. In support of the Hanford RCRA permit, a field was added to designate whether the waste management unit is a solid waste management unit (SWMU). As SWMUs are identified, they will added to the Hanford Waste Information Data System (WIDS), which is the database supporting this report, and added to the report at its next annual update. A quality review of the WIDS was conducted this past year. The review included checking all data against their reference and making appropriate changes, updating the data elements using the most recent references, marking duplicate units for deletion, and adding additional information. 6 refs

  4. Hanford Works monthly report, August 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1951-09-24

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of August 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  5. Environmental monitoring at Hanford for 1984. Supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Carlile, J.M.V.; Dirkes, R.L.; Jaquish, R.E.; Trevathan, M.S.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    A range fire started on private land on August 10, 1984, and burned northward onto the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Environmental monitoring results from air samples collected during and after the fire indicated that no radioactive materials different from normal levels were present in the air

  6. Hanford Works monthly report, August 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1950-09-18

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of August 1950. This report takes each division (e.g. manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  7. Hanford Works monthly report, November 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1950-12-20

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of November 1950. This report takes each division (e.g. manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  8. Software recycling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HINKELMAN, K.C.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Site was the first Department of Energy (DOE) complex to recycle excess software rather than dispose of it in the landfill. This plan, which took over a year to complete, was reviewed for potential legal conflicts, which could arise from recycling rather than disposal of software. It was determined that recycling was an approved method of destruction and therefore did not conflict with any of the licensing agreements that Hanford had with the software manufacturers. The Hanford Recycling Program Coordinator combined efforts with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to recycle all Hanford software through a single contract, which went out for bid in January 1995. It was awarded to GreenDisk, Inc. located in Woodinville Washington and implemented in March 1995. The contract was later re-bid and awarded to EcoDisWGreenDisk in December 1998. The new contract included materials such as; software manuals, diskettes, tyvek wrapping, cardboard and paperboard packaging, compact disks (CDs), videotapes, reel-to-reel tapes, magnetic tapes, audio tapes, and many other types of media

  9. Prioritization of environmental cleanup problems at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    New technologies and scientific research are needed to clean up the Hanford Site. However, there is insufficient funding to develop every technology that is identified or to undertake every scientific research project that is proposed. Thus, the Department of Energy (DOE) must focus its resources on science and technology (S ampersand T) that will have the most significant impacts on the overall cleanup effort. Hanford has recognized the importance of identifying and prioritizing its most critical problems and the most promising solutions to them. Hanford cleanup will require numerous decisions about technology development and implementation, which will be complicated because there are substantial uncertainties about the risks and the costs of new technologies. Further, the choice of a specific technology for a specific application must be evaluated with respect to multiple (and often conflicting) objectives (e.g., risk reduction, increasing effectiveness, cost reduction, increasing public acceptability, regulatory compliance). This paper provides an overview of the decision analysis methodology that was used to prioritize S ampersand T needs for Hanford cleanup

  10. Hanford environmental dose reconstruction project - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipler, D.B.; Napier, B.A.; Farris, W.T.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project was initiated because of public interest in the historical releases of radioactive materials from the Hanford Site, located in southcentral Washington State. By 1986, over 38,000 pages of environmental monitoring documentation from the early years of Hanford operations had been released. Special committees reviewing the documents recommended initiation of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, which began in October 1987, and is conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. The technical approach taken was to reconstruct releases of radioactive materials based on facility operating information; develop and/or adapt transport, pathway, and dose models and computer codes; reconstruct environmental, meterological, and hydrological monitoring information; reconstruct demographic, agricultural, and lifestyle characteristics; apply statistical methods to all forms of uncertainty in the information, parameters, and models; and perform scientific investigation that were technically defensible. The geographic area for the study includes ∼2 x 10 5 km 2 (75,000 mi 2 ) in eastern Washington, western Idaho, and northeastern Oregon (essentially the Mid-columbia Basin of the Pacific Northwest). Three exposure pathways were considered: the atmosphere, the Columbia River, and ground water

  11. Update on worker mortality data at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1979-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a study of the effects on mortality of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the Hanford plant. The Hanford plant, which is located in southeastern Washington State, was established in the early forties as an installation for plutonium production. Many workers employed by the various contractors hold jobs involving some exposure to radiation. Yearly records of this exposure, obtained from dosimeter readings, as well as occupational data, are maintained for all employees. Mortality data are obtained by having the Social Security Administration periodically search their records for deaths of persons identified in the personnel rosters of Hanford contractors. Published analyses of worker mortality at Hanford have included workers initially employed before 1965 and mortality up to April 1, 1974. In this paper, the mortality data are updated to include deaths up to May 1, 1977, workers employed 1965 and later, and the most recent exposure data. In addition to updating results of earlier analyses, this paper provides a discussion of the problems involved in analyzing and interpreting occupational exposure and mortality data. For a more detailed discussion of these problems the reader is referred to the papers noted above

  12. 1988 Hanford riverbank springs characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    This reports presents the results of a special study undertaken to characterize the riverbank springs (i.e., ground-water seepage) entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. Radiological and nonradiological analyses were performed. River water samples were also analyzed from upstream and downstream of the Site as well as from the immediate vicinity of the springs. In addition, irrigation return water and spring water entering the river along the shoreline opposite Hanford were analyzed. Hanford-origin contaminants were detected in spring water entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. The type and concentrations of contaminants in the spring water were similar to those known to exist in the ground water near the river. The location and extent of the contaminated discharges compared favorably with recent ground-water reports and predictions. Spring discharge volumes remain very small relative to the flow of the Columbia. Downstream river sampling demonstrates the impact of ground-water discharges to be minimal, and negligible in most cases. Radionuclide concentrations were below US Department of Energy Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) with the exception 90 Sr near the 100-N Area. Tritium, while below the DCG, was detected at concentrations above the US Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards in several springs. All other radionuclide concentrations were below drinking water standards. Nonradiological contaminants were generally undetectable in the spring water. River water contaminant concentrations, outside of the immediate discharge zones, were below drinking water standards in all cases. 19 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  13. Temporal variations in atmospheric dispersion at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Burk, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Climatological data are frequently used to estimate atmospheric dispersion factors for historical periods and for future releases for which adequate meteorological data are unavailable. This practice routinely leads to questions concerning the representativeness of data used. The work described here was performed to provide a basis for answering these questions at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in eastern Washington. Atmospheric transport and diffusion near Hanford have been examined using a Lagrangian puff dispersion model and hourly meteorological data from the Hanford Meteorological Station and a network of 24 surface wind stations for a 5-yr period. Average normalized monthly concentrations were computed at 2.5-km intervals on a 31 by 31 grid from January 1983 through 1987, assuming an elevated release in the 200-East Area. Monthly average concentrations were used to determine 5-yr mean pattern and monthly mean patterns and the interannual variability about each pattern. Intra-annual and diurnal variations in dispersion factors are examined for six locations near Hanford

  14. Hanford sitewide grounwater remediation - supporting technical information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonte, G.R.

    1996-05-01

    The Hanford Sitewide Groundwater Remediation Strategy was issued in 1995 to establish overall goals for groundwater remediation on the Hanford Site. This strategy is being refined to provide more detailed justification for remediation of specific plumes and to provide a decision process for long-range planning of remediation activities. Supporting this work is a comprehensive modeling study to predict movement of the major site plumes over the next 200 years to help plan the remediation efforts. The information resulting from these studies will be documented in a revision to the Strategy and the Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Plan. To support the modeling work and other studies being performed to refine the strategy, this supporting technical information report has been produced to compile all of the relevant technical information collected to date on the Hanford Site groundwater contaminant plumes. The primary information in the report relates to conceptualization of the source terms and available history of groundwater transport, and description of the contaminant plumes. The primary information in the report relates to conceptualization of the source terms and available history of groundwater transport, description of the contaminant plumes, rate of movement based on the conceptual model and monitoring data, risk assessment, treatability study information, and current approach for plume remediation

  15. Hanford Works monthly report, February 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1951-03-20

    This is a progress report of the production on the Hanford Reservation for the month of February 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  16. Hanford Works monthly report, December 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1952-01-22

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of December 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  17. Hanford Works monthly report, January 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1951-02-16

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of January 1951. This report takes each division (e.g. manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  18. Hanford Works monthly report, April 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1951-05-21

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of April 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  19. Hanford Works monthly report, March 1949

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1949-04-19

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of March 1949. This report takes each division (e.g. manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month. (MB)

  20. Decision process for Hanford sitewide groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonte, G.R.

    1996-06-01

    This document describes a decision process for planning future investigations and remediating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This decision process details the following: identifies key decisions and activities; defines the criteria used in making each decision; and defines the logic that links the decisions and the activities in a stepwise manner

  1. Progress and challenges in cleaning up Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J.D. [Dept. of Energy, Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper presents captioned viewgraphs which briefly summarize cleanup efforts at the Hanford Site. Underground waste tank and spent nuclear fuel issues are described. Progress is reported for the Plutonium Finishing Plant, PUREX plant, B-Plant/Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility, and Fast Flux Test Facility. A very brief overview of costs and number of sites remediated and/or decommissioned is given.

  2. Annual Hanford Site environmental permitting status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The information contained and/or referenced in this Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report (Status Report) addresses the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) of 1971 and Condition II.W. of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 Permit, Dangerous Waste Portion (DW Portion). Condition II.W. of the RCRA Permit specifies the Permittees are responsible for all other applicable federal, state, and local permits for the development and operation of the Hanford Facility. Condition II.W. of the RCRA Permit specifies that the Permittees are to use their best efforts to obtain such permits. For the purposes of permit condition, 'best efforts' means submittal of documentation and/or approval(s) in accordance with schedules specified in applicable regulations, or as determined through negotiations with the applicable regulatory agencies. This Status Report includes information on all existing and anticipated environmental permitting. Environmental permitting required by RCRA, the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of 1984, and non-RCRA permitting (solid waste handling, Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Clean Water Act Amendments of 1987, Washington State waste discharge, and onsite sewage system) is addressed. Information on RCRA and non-RCRA is current as of July 31, 1998. For the purposes of RCRA and the State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act of 1976 [as administered through the Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Active Code (WAC) 173-303], the Hanford Facility is considered a single facility. As such, the Hanford Facility has been issued one US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/State Identification Number (WA7890008967). This EPA/State identification number encompasses over 60 treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) units. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) has been delegated authority by the EPA to administer the RCRA, including mixed waste authority. The RCRA permitting approach for

  3. Filtration and transport of Bacillus subtilis spores and the F-RNA phage MS2 in a coarse alluvial gravel aquifer: implications in the estimation of setback distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Liping; Close, Murray; Goltz, Mark; Noonan, Mike; Sinton, Lester

    2005-04-01

    Filtration of Bacillus subtilis spores and the F-RNA phage MS2 (MS2) on a field scale in a coarse alluvial gravel aquifer was evaluated from the authors' previously published data. An advection-dispersion model that is coupled with first-order attachment kinetics was used in this study to interpret microbial concentration vs. time breakthrough curves (BTC) at sampling wells. Based on attachment rates (katt) that were determined by applying the model to the breakthrough data, filter factors (f) were calculated and compared with f values estimated from the slopes of log (cmax/co) vs. distance plots. These two independent approaches resulted in nearly identical filter factors, suggesting that both approaches are useful in determining reductions in microbial concentrations over transport distance. Applying the graphic approach to analyse spatial data, we have also estimated the f values for different aquifers using information provided by some other published field studies. The results show that values of f, in units of log (cmax/co) m(-1), are consistently in the order of 10(-2) for clean coarse gravel aquifers, 10(-3) for contaminated coarse gravel aquifers, and generally 10(-1) for sandy fine gravel aquifers and river and coastal sand aquifers. For each aquifer category, the f values for bacteriophages and bacteria are in the same order-of-magnitude. The f values estimated in this study indicate that for every one-log reduction in microbial concentration in groundwater, it requires a few tens of meters of travel in clean coarse gravel aquifers, but a few hundreds of meters in contaminated coarse gravel aquifers. In contrast, a one-log reduction generally only requires a few meters of travel in sandy fine gravel aquifers and sand aquifers. Considering the highest concentration in human effluent is in the order of 10(4) pfu/l for enteroviruses and 10(6) cfu/100 ml for faecal coliform bacteria, a 7-log reduction in microbial concentration would comply with the drinking

  4. Strontium-90 migration in Hanford sediments, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steefel, C.I.; Yang, L.; Carroll, S.A.; Roberts, S.; Zachara, J.M.; Yabusaki, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Strontium-90 is an important risk-driving contaminant at the Hanford site in eastern Washington, USA. Disposal operations at the Hanford 100-N area released millions of liters of reactor cooling water containing high concentrations of strontium-90 into the vadose zone immediately adjacent to the Columbia River. The effectiveness of pump-and-treat methods for remediation have been questioned, largely because the strontium is strongly sorbed on subsurface sediments via ion exchange reactions and co-precipitation in carbonates. In addition, groundwater monitoring wells show a fluctuating seasonal behavior in which high strontium-90 concentrations correlate with high Columbia River stage, even while average concentrations remain approximately constant. A series of fully saturated reactive transport column experiments have been conducted to investigate the important controls on strontium migration in Hanford groundwater [1]. The experiments were designed to investigate the multicomponent cation exchange behavior of strontium in competition with the cations Na + , Ca +2 , and Mg +2 , the concentration of which differs between river water and groundwater. Reactive transport modeling of the experiments indicates that the Sr +2 selectivity coefficient becomes larger with increasing NaNO 3 concentration, a behavior also shown by the divalent cations Ca +2 and Mg +2 . A new set of column experiments investigates the effect of wetting and drying cycles on strontium- 90 sorption and migration by considering episodic flow in Hanford sediments. In addition, the effect of fluctuating aquifer chemistry as a result of changes in the Columbia River stage on Sr +2 sorption is addressed. Modeling of multicomponent reactive transport under variably saturated conditions is used to interpret the results of the episodic flow/chemistry experiments. [1] Experimental and modeling studies of the migration behavior of strontium in Hanford sediments, USA. C

  5. 2012 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Lidar: Northeast Atlantic Coast Post-Hurricane Sandy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data were produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an...

  6. FLUOR HANFORD (FH) MAKES CLEANUP A REALITY IN NEARLY 11 YEARS AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER, M.S.

    2007-05-24

    For nearly 11 years, Fluor Hanford has been busy cleaning up the legacy of nuclear weapons production at one of the Department of Energy's (DOE'S) major sites in the United States. As prime nuclear waste cleanup contractor at the vast Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state, Fluor Hanford has changed the face of cleanup. Fluor beginning on October 1, 1996, Hanford Site cleanup was primarily a ''paper exercise.'' The Tri-Party Agreement, officially called the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order - the edict governing cleanup among the DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington state - was just seven years old. Milestones mandated in the agreement up until then had required mainly waste characterization, reporting, and planning, with actual waste remediation activities off in the future. Real work, accessing waste ''in the field'' - or more literally in huge underground tanks, decaying spent fuel POO{approx}{approx}S, groundwater, hundreds of contaminated facilities, solid waste burial grounds, and liquid waste disposal sites -began in earnest under Fluor Hanford. The fruits of labors initiated, completed and/or underway by Fluor Hanford can today be seen across the site. Spent nuclear fuel is buttoned up in secure, dry containers stored away from regional water resources, reactive plutonium scraps are packaged in approved containers, transuranic (TRU) solid waste is being retrieved from burial trenches and shipped offsite for permanent disposal, contaminated facilities are being demolished, contaminated groundwater is being pumped out of aquifers at record rates, and many other inventive solutions are being applied to Hanford's most intransigent nuclear wastes. (TRU) waste contains more than 100 nanocuries per gram, and contains isotopes higher than uranium on the Periodic Table of the Elements. (A nanocurie is one-billionth of a curie.) At the same time, Fluor Hanford

  7. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2006-01-01

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL's Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL's Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database

  8. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2005-02-25

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database.

  9. Patterns of species richness in sandy beaches of South America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The middle shore is primarily occupied by cirolanids and bivalves, and hippid crabs, bivalves and amphipods dominate the lower beach. Generally, species richness increases from upper to lower beach levels. Studies carried out on exposed sandy beaches of south-central Chile (ca. 40°S) show that different beach states ...

  10. Hurricane Sandy: An Educational Bibliography of Key Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    There, undoubtedly, will be a flurry of research activity in the "Superstorm" Sandy impact area on a myriad of disaster-related topics, across academic disciplines. The purpose of this study was to review the disaster research related specifically to hurricanes in the educational and social sciences that would best serve as a compendium…

  11. Structural stability and hydraulic conductivity of Nkpologu sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vincent

    mean weight diameter (MWD), water dispersible silt (WDSi), aggregate size distributions (> 2 mm, 1-0.5 mm and < 0.25 ... above sea level. ... and red to brownish red and derived from sandy ... where Q = steady state volume of outflow from the.

  12. Aggregations of the sandy-beach isopod, Tylos granulatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... lives as a scavenger in the intertidal zone of sandy beaches on the west coast of South Africa. Individuals emerge with the receding tide leaving exit holes, then forage for about two hours before returning to the vicinity of the high-water mark where they aggregate to bury themselves, leaving behind cone-shaped mounds.

  13. effect of tractor forward speed on sandy loam soil physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    Ilorin on a sandy loam soil to evaluate the effect of the imposition of different .... of the blade is 10.5cm. ... arranged in an inverted cone shape with ... replicates were taken for each speed run. The ..... Thakur, T. C; A. Yadav; B. P. Varshney and.

  14. Structural Stability and Hydraulic Conductivity Of Nkpologu Sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted in the runoff plots at the University of Nigeria Nsukka Teaching and Resesarch Farm in 2010 and 2011 to monitor the changes in structural stability and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of Nkpologu sandy loam soil under different cover management practices. The management practices were ...

  15. Can porosity affect the hyperspectral signature of sandy landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.; Kimmel, Bradley W.

    2017-10-01

    Porosity is a fundamental property of sand deposits found in a wide range of landscapes, from beaches to dune fields. As a primary determinant of the density and permeability of sediments, it represents a central element in geophysical studies involving basin modeling and coastal erosion as well as geoaccoustics and geochemical investigations aiming at the understanding of sediment transport and water diffusion properties of sandy landscapes. These applications highlight the importance of obtaining reliable porosity estimations, which remains an elusive task, notably through remote sensing. In this work, we aim to contribute to the strengthening of the knowledge basis required for the development of new technologies for the remote monitoring of environmentally-triggered changes in sandy landscapes. Accordingly, we employ an in silico investigation approach to assess the effects of porosity variations on the reflectance of sandy landscapes in the visible and near-infrared spectral domains. More specifically, we perform predictive computer simulations using SPLITS, a hyperspectral light transport model for particulate materials that takes into account actual sand characterization data. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first comprehensive investigation relating porosity to the reflectance responses of sandy landscapes. Our findings indicate that the putative dependence of these responses on porosity may be considerably less pronounced than its dependence on other properties such as grain size and shape. Hence, future initiatives for the remote quantification of porosity will likely require reflectance sensors with a high degree of sensitivity.

  16. Rapid Assessment of Anthropogenic Impacts of Exposed Sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We applied a rapid assessment methodology to estimate the degree of human impact of exposed sandy beaches in Ghana using ghost crabs as ecological indicators. The use of size ranges of ghost crab burrows and their population density as ecological indicators to assess extent of anthropogenic impacts on beaches ...

  17. Organisms associated with the sandy-beach bivalve Donax serra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    57: 134-136. BROWN, AC. & WEBB, S.c. 1994. Organisms associated \\.,.,ith burrowing whelks of the genus Bullia. S Afr. 1. Zool. 29: 144-151. BROWN, A.C., STENTON-DOZEY, J.~.E. & TRUEMAN, E.R.. 1989. Sandy-beach bivalves and gastropods; a comparison between Donax serra and Ruilia digitalis. Adv. mar. Bioi. 25:.

  18. Deaths associated with Hurricane Sandy - October-November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy hit the northeastern U.S. coastline. Sandy's tropical storm winds stretched over 900 miles (1,440 km), causing storm surges and destruction over a larger area than that affected by hurricanes with more intensity but narrower paths. Based on storm surge predictions, mandatory evacuations were ordered on October 28, including for New York City's Evacuation Zone A, the coastal zone at risk for flooding from any hurricane. By October 31, the region had 6-12 inches (15-30 cm) of precipitation, 7-8 million customers without power, approximately 20,000 persons in shelters, and news reports of numerous fatalities (Robert Neurath, CDC, personal communication, 2013). To characterize deaths related to Sandy, CDC analyzed data on 117 hurricane-related deaths captured by American Red Cross (Red Cross) mortality tracking during October 28-November 30, 2012. This report describes the results of that analysis, which found drowning was the most common cause of death related to Sandy, and 45% of drowning deaths occurred in flooded homes in Evacuation Zone A. Drowning is a leading cause of hurricane death but is preventable with advance warning systems and evacuation plans. Emergency plans should ensure that persons receive and comprehend evacuation messages and have the necessary resources to comply with them.

  19. The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting as tipping point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Muschert, Glenn W; Dingwall, Alison; Cohen, Alyssa M

    2013-01-01

    Among rampage shooting massacres, the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting on December 14, 2012 galvanized public attention. In this Commentary we examine the features of this episode of gun violence that has sparked strong reactions and energized discourse that may ultimately lead toward constructive solutions to diminish high rates of firearm deaths and injuries in the United States. PMID:28228989

  20. Copper and zinc distribution coefficients for sandy aquifer materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Boddum, J. K.

    2000-01-01

    Distribution coe�cients (Kd) were measured for copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in laboratory batch experiments for 17 sandy aquifer materials at environmentally relevant solute concentrations (Cu: 5±300 mg/l, Zn: 20±3100 mg/l). The Kd values ranged two to three orders of magnitude (Cu: 70±10,800 l/ kg...

  1. The sandy beach meiofauna and free-living nematodes from De Panne (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Gheskiere, T.; Hoste, E.; Kotwicki, L.; Degraer, S.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Vincx, M.

    2002-01-01

    Despite their rather barren and arid appearance, European sandy beaches harbour a highly diverse fauna and flora and some of them are even highly productive. In contrast to tropical sandy beaches little is known about the structural and functional diversity of the different benthic components. This study aims to investigate the structural diversity of the meiobenthos, emphasizing on free-living marine nematodes on a Belgian sandy beach.The samples were collected on the sandy beach of De Panne...

  2. Effects of soil amendment on soil characteristics and maize yield in Horqin Sandy Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Liu, J. H.; Zhao, B. P.; Xue, A.; Hao, G. C.

    2016-08-01

    A 4-year experiment was conducted to investigate the inter-annual effects of sandy soil amendment on maize yield, soil water storage and soil enzymatic activities in sandy soil in Northeast China in 2010 to 2014. We applied the sandy soil amendment in different year, and investigated the different effects of sandy soil amendment in 2014. There were six treatments including: (1) no sandy soil amendment application (CK); (2) one year after applying sandy soil amendment (T1); (3) two years after applying sandy soil amendment(T2); (4) three years after applying sandy soil amendment(T3); (5)four years after applying sandy soil amendment(T4); (6) five years after applying sandy soil amendment (T5). T refers to treatment, and the number refers to the year after application of the sandy soil amendment. Comparing with CK, sandy soil amendments improved the soil water storage, soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in different growth stages and soil layers, the order of soil water storage in all treatments roughly performed: T3 > T5 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. the order of soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in all treatments roughly performed: T5 > T3 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. Soil application of sandy soil amendment significantly (p≤⃒0.05) increased the grain yield and biomass yield by 22.75%-41.42% and 29.92%-45.45% respectively, and maize yield gradually increased with the years go by in the following five years. Sandy soil amendment used in poor sandy soil had a positive effect on soil water storage, soil enzymatic activities and maize yield, after five years applied sandy soil amendment (T5) showed the best effects among all the treatments, and deserves further research.

  3. Testing for entanglement with periodic coarse graining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, D. S.; Rudnicki, Łukasz; Aspden, R. S.; Padgett, M. J.; Souto Ribeiro, P. H.; Walborn, S. P.

    2018-04-01

    Continuous-variable systems find valuable applications in quantum information processing. To deal with an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space, one in general has to handle large numbers of discretized measurements in tasks such as entanglement detection. Here we employ the continuous transverse spatial variables of photon pairs to experimentally demonstrate entanglement criteria based on a periodic structure of coarse-grained measurements. The periodization of the measurements allows an efficient evaluation of entanglement using spatial masks acting as mode analyzers over the entire transverse field distribution of the photons and without the need to reconstruct the probability densities of the conjugate continuous variables. Our experimental results demonstrate the utility of the derived criteria with a success rate in entanglement detection of ˜60 % relative to 7344 studied cases.

  4. Field description of coarse bioclastic fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, S.M.; Holland, S.M. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

    1991-08-01

    Shell- and bone-bearing rocks can be readily categorized into 9 macroscopic fabric types using semi-quantitative scales for close-packing and size-sorting of bioclasts greater than 2 mm in diameter. Although designed to describe fossiliferous siliciclastics and volcaniclastics, this system of field description can also be used to enlarge upon standard petrographic descriptions of fossiliferous carbonates. In cross-sectional bed views, coarse bioclasts may be densely packed. These coarse bioclasts (>2 mm) may be well sorted (central 80% of bioclasts lie within 1 or 2 adjacent phi size-classes), bimodal (well sorted but with a distinct second mode), or poorly sorted (central 80% of bioclasts distributed over 3 or more adjacent size-classes). Despite the complicating effects of bioclast shape, novices show 90% accuracy in estimating close-packing from photographs. They have only 60% accuracy in estimating size-sorting (the most common error is underestimating goodness of sorting), underscoring the importance of size-tallies to cross-check visual estimates when first using this scheme. This packing/sorting approach provides a good visual image of the fabric, and narrows the range of possible modes of origin more than alternative criteria such as volumetric percent-abundance (which shows no one-to-one equivalence with close-packing), orientation, and fragmentation. However, detailed interpretations of fabrics usually require more information on these and other features of the deposit, including bioclast condition, associated sedimentary structures, life-habits of bioclast-producers, and stratigraphic context.

  5. Final Hanford Comprehensive Land-Use Plan Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-10-01

    This Final ''Hanford Comprehensive Land-Use Plan Environmental Impact Statement'' (HCP EIS) is being used by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its nine cooperating and consulting agencies to develop a comprehensive land-use plan (CLUP) for the Hanford Site. The DOE will use the Final HCP EIS as a basis for a Record of Decision (ROD) on a CLUP for the Hanford Site. While development of the CLUP will be complete with release of the HCP EIS ROD, full implementation of the CLUP is expected to take at least 50 years. Implementation of the CLUP would begin a more detailed planning process for land-use and facility-use decisions at the Hanford Site. The DOE would use the CLUP to screen proposals. Eventually, management of Hanford Site areas would move toward the CLUP land-use goals. This CLUP process could take more than 50 years to fully achieve the land-use goals.

  6. Third Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Sweeney, Mark D.

    2005-09-01

    Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the Hanford Seismic Network, there were 337 triggers during the third quarter of fiscal year 2005. Of these triggers, 20 were earthquakes within the Hanford Seismic Network. The largest earthquake within the Hanford Seismic Network was a magnitude 1.3 event May 25 near Vantage, Washington. During the third quarter, stratigraphically 17 (85%) events occurred in the Columbia River basalt (approximately 0-5 km), no events in the pre-basalt sediments (approximately 5-10 km), and three (15%) in the crystalline basement (approximately 10-25 km). During the first quarter, geographically five (20%) earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 10 (50%) earthquakes were associated with a major geologic structure, and 5 (25%) were classified as random events.

  7. Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste thermal treatment initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.; Riddelle, J.G.

    1993-03-01

    This paper is a progress report of current Westinghouse Hanford Company engineering activities related to the implementation of a program for the thermal treatment of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste. Topics discussed include a site-specific engineering study, the review of private sector capability in thermal treatment, and thermal treatment of some of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste at other US Department of Energy sites

  8. Hanford tank initiative test facility site selection study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staehr, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) project is developing equipment for the removal of hard heel waste from the Hanford Site underground single-shell waste storage tanks. The HTI equipment will initially be installed in the 241-C-106 tank where its operation will be demonstrated. This study evaluates existing Hanford Site facilities and other sites for functional testing of the HTI equipment before it is installed into the 241-C-106 tank

  9. Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, Ted M.; Hanf, Robert W.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Morasch, Launa F.

    2003-09-01

    This report is prepared annually to satisfy the requirements of DOE Orders. The report provides an overview of activities at the Hanford Site during 2002 and demonstrates the site's compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, executive orders, and DOE policies; and to summarize environmental data that characterize Hanford Site environmental management performance. The purpose of the report is to provide useful summary information to members of the public, public officials, regulators, Hanford contractors, and elected representatives.

  10. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents engineering drawings of the vitrification plant at Hanford Reservation. Individual sections in the report cover piping and instrumentation, process flow schemes, and material balance tables

  11. Hanford Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, R.K.; Hanf, R.W.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1993-06-01

    This report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations at the Hanford Site. The following sections: describe the Hanford Site and its mission; summarize the status in 1992 of compliance with environmental regulations; describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; discuss public dose estimates from 1992 Hanford activities; present information on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance, including ground-water protection and monitoring, and discuss activities to ensure quality

  12. Master schedule for CY-1979 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Houston, J.R.; Eddy, P.A.

    1978-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site, as conducted by the Environmental Evaluation Section of Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy (DOE), is given. Modifications to the schedule are made during the year and special areas of study, usually of short duration, are not scheduled. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, and to monitor Hanford operations for compliance with applicable environmental criteria and Washington State Water Quality Standards. Air quality data are obtained in a separate program administered by the Hanford Environmental Health Foundation. The collection schedule for potable water is shown but it is not part of the routine environmental surveillance program. Water quality data for Hanford Site potable water systems are published each year by the Hanford Environmental Health Foundation. The data collected are available in routine reports issued by the Environmental Evaluations staff. Groundwater data and evaluation are reported in the series, ''Radiological Status of the Groundwater Beneath the Hanford Project for...,'' the latest issue being PNL-2624 for CY-1977. Data from locations within the plant boundaries are presented in the annual ''Environmental Status of the Hanford Site for...'' report series, the most recent report being PNL-2677 for 1977. Data from offsite locations are presented in the annual ''Environmental Surveillance at Hanford for...'' series of reports, the latest being PNL-2614 for 1977

  13. First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2011-03-31

    The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The HSAP is responsible for locating and identifying sources of seismic activity and monitoring changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the HSAP works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. The Hanford Seismic Network recorded 16 local earthquakes during the first quarter of FY 2011. Six earthquakes were located at shallow depths (less than 4 km), seven earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km), most likely in the pre-basalt sediments, and three earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the basement. Geographically, thirteen earthquakes were located in known swarm areas and three earthquakes were classified as random events. The highest magnitude event (1.8 Mc) was recorded on October 19, 2010 at depth 17.5 km with epicenter located near the Yakima River between the Rattlesnake Mountain and Horse Heaven Hills swarm areas.

  14. Hanford Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, R.K.; Hanf, R.W.; Lundgren, R.E. [eds.

    1993-06-01

    This report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations at the Hanford Site. The following sections: describe the Hanford Site and its mission; summarize the status in 1992 of compliance with environmental regulations; describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; discuss public dose estimates from 1992 Hanford activities; present information on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance, including ground-water protection and monitoring, and discuss activities to ensure quality.

  15. Overview of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipler, D.B.; Napier, B.A.; Ikenberry, T.A.

    1992-04-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that specific and representative individuals and populations may have received as a result of releases of radioactive materials from historical operations at the Hanford Site. These dose estimates would account for the uncertainties of information regarding facilities operations, environmental monitoring, demography, food consumption and lifestyles, and the variability of natural phenomena. Other objectives of the HEDR Project include: supporting the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study (HTDS), declassifying Hanford-generated information and making it available to the public, performing high-quality, credible science, and conducting the project in an open, public forum. The project is briefly described

  16. Characterization plan for Hanford spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrefah, J.; Thornton, T.A.; Thomas, L.E.; Berting, F.M.; Marschman, S.C.

    1994-12-01

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Hanford Site Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) was terminated in 1972. Since that time a significant quantity of N Reactor and Single-Pass Reactor SNF has been stored in the 100 Area K-East (KE) and K-West (KW) reactor basins. Approximately 80% of all US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned SNF resides at Hanford, the largest portion of which is in the water-filled KE and KW reactor basins. The basins were not designed for long-term storage of the SNF and it has become a priority to move the SNF to a more suitable location. As part of the project plan, SNF inventories will be chemically and physically characterized to provide information that will be used to resolve safety and technical issues for development of an environmentally benign and efficient extended interim storage and final disposition strategy for this defense production-reactor SNF

  17. Hanford phosphate precipitation filtration process evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.; McCabe, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this filter study was to evaluate cross-flow filtration as effective solid-liquid separation technology for treating Hanford wastes, outline operating conditions for equipment, examine the expected filter flow rates, and determine proper cleaning. A proposed Hanford waste pre-treatment process uses sodium hydroxide at high temperature to remove aluminum from sludge. This process also dissolves phosphates. Upon cooling to 40 degrees centigrade the phosphates form a Na7(PO4)2F9H2O precipitate which must be removed prior to further treatment. Filter studies were conducted with a phosphate slurry simulant to evaluate whether 0.5 micron cross-flow sintered metal Mott filters can separate the phosphate precipitate from the wash solutions. The simulant was recirculated through the filters at room temperature and filtration performance data was collected

  18. Preliminary assessment of blending Hanford tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Kurath, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    A parametric study of blending Hanford tank wastes identified possible benefits from blending wastes prior to immobilization as a high level or low level waste form. Track Radioactive Components data were used as the basis for the single-shell tank (SST) waste composition, while analytical data were used for the double-shell tank (DST) composition. Limiting components were determined using the existing feed criteria for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). Results have shown that blending can significantly increase waste loading and that the baseline quantities of immobilized waste projected for the sludge-wash pretreatment case may have been drastically underestimated, because critical components were not considered. Alternatively, the results suggest further review of the grout feed specifications and the solubility of minor components in HWVP borosilicate glass. Future immobilized waste estimates might be decreased substantially upon a thorough review of the appropriate feed specifications

  19. Preliminary assessment of blending Hanford tank wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Kurath, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    A parametric study of blending Hanford tank wastes identified possible benefits from blending wastes prior to immobilization as a high level or low level waste form. Track Radioactive Components data were used as the basis for the single-shell tank (SST) waste composition, while analytical data were used for the double-shell tank (DST) composition. Limiting components were determined using the existing feed criteria for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). Results have shown that blending can significantly increase waste loading and that the baseline quantities of immobilized waste projected for the sludge-wash pretreatment case may have been drastically underestimated, because critical components were not considered. Alternatively, the results suggest further review of the grout feed specifications and the solubility of minor components in HWVP borosilicate glass. Future immobilized waste estimates might be decreased substantially upon a thorough review of the appropriate feed specifications.

  20. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMakin, A.H., Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction MDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in envirorunental pathways. epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering. radiation dosimetry. and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed members representing the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms; Environmental Transport; Environmental Monitoring Data Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture; and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates

  1. Nuclear isotope measurement in the Hanford environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacker, J.F.; Stoffel, J.J.; Kelley, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is located at the federal government's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, which was built during World War II as part of the secret Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb. Monitoring of the Site itself and surrounding environs for Hanford-related radionuclides has been a routine part of the operations since 1944. One of the most sensitive analytical methods used is thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) with triple-sector mass spectrometers. Normal geometry instruments have an abundance sensitivity of 10 -9 for uranium while the authors' newest Triple-Sector Isotope Mass Spectrometer (TRISM), utilizing a new ion-optical design developed at PNL, has an abundance sensitivity of 10 -11 . In favorable cases, sensitivity is such that complete isotopic analyses are obtained on total samples in the femtogram range; and minor isotopes in the attogram range are measured

  2. Inventory Data Package for Hanford Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kincaid, Charles T.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Miley, Terri B.; Nelson, Iral C.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Evans, John C.

    2006-06-01

    This document presents the basis for a compilation of inventory for radioactive contaminants of interest by year for all potentially impactive waste sites on the Hanford Site for which inventory data exist in records or could be reasonably estimated. This document also includes discussions of the historical, current, and reasonably foreseeable (1944 to 2070) future radioactive waste and waste sites; the inventories of radionuclides that may have a potential for environmental impacts; a description of the method(s) for estimating inventories where records are inadequate; a description of the screening method(s) used to select those sites and contaminants that might make a substantial contribution to impacts; a listing of the remedial actions and their completion dates for waste sites; and tables showing the best estimate inventories available for Hanford assessments.

  3. Prototype Hanford Surface Barrier: Design basis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.R.; Duranceau, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized in 1985 to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site and other arid sites. This document provides the basis of the prototype barrier. Engineers and scientists have momentarily frozen evolving barrier designs and incorporated the latest findings from BDP tasks. The design and construction of the prototype barrier has required that all of the various components of the barrier be brought together into an integrated system. This integration is particularly important because some of the components of the protective barreir have been developed independently of other barreir components. This document serves as the baseline by which future modifications or other barrier designs can be compared. Also, this document contains the minutes of meeting convened during the definitive design process in which critical decisions affecting the prototype barrier's design were made and the construction drawings

  4. Environmental monitoring at Hanford for 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    Environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site is conducted by the Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Division, as part of its contract to operate the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy. The data collected provide a historical record of the levels of radionuclides and radiation attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford operations. Data are also collected to monitor the status of chemical materials on the Site and in the Columbia River. This report represents a single, comprehensive source of environmental monitoring data collected during 1986 by PNL's Environmental monitoring Group in the offsite and onsite environments. Appendix A contains data and data summaries for results obtained during 1986 that include statistical estimates of variation. Information in Appendix A is intended for readers with a scientific interest or for those who wish to evaluate results in a manner not included here. 71 refs., 66 figs., 17 tabs

  5. Hanford Site performance summary: EM funded programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.

    1995-09-01

    Hanford performance at fiscal year end reflects a three percent unfavorable schedule variance ($46.3 million*) which was an improvement over August 1995 ($46.3 million for September versus $65.9 million for August) and is below established reporting thresholds (greater than 3 percent). The majority of the behind schedule condition (53 percent) is attributed to EM-40 (Office of Environmental Restoration [ER]) and is a result of late receipt of funds, procurement delays, and US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) work planned but not accomplished. Other primary contributors to the behind schedule condition are associated with tank farm upgrades, high-level waste disposal and work for others (support to the US Department of Energy-Headquarters [DOE-HQ]). The remaining behind schedule condition is distributed throughout the remaining Hanford programs and do not share common causes. A breakdown of individuals listed on page 8

  6. Hanford waste vitrification systems risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.C.; Hamilton, D.W.; Holton, L.K.; Bailey, J.W.

    1991-09-01

    A systematic Risk Assessment was performed to identify the technical, regulatory, and programmatic uncertainties and to quantify the risks to the Hanford Site double-shell tank waste vitrification program baseline (as defined in December 1990). Mitigating strategies to reduce the overall program risk were proposed. All major program elements were evaluated, including double-shell tank waste characterization, Tank Farms, retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and grouting. Computer-based techniques were used to quantify risks to proceeding with construction of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant on the present baseline schedule. Risks to the potential vitrification of single-shell tank wastes and cesium and strontium capsules were also assessed. 62 refs., 38 figs., 26 tabs

  7. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, Jeffrey P. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-02-29

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) has been created to meet the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Action Plan, Section 3.5, which states: “The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report shall be generated, in a format agreed upon by the Parties, as a calendar year report and issued annually by the DOE by the end of February of each year, and posted electronically for regulator and public access. This report shall reflect all changes made in waste management unit status during the previous year.” This February 2012 version of the HSWMUR contains a comprehensive inventory of the 3389 sites and 540 subsites in the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The information for each site contains a description of each unit and the waste it contains, where applicable. The WIDS database provides additional information concerning the sites contained in this report and is maintained with daily changes to these sites.

  8. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, Jeffrey P. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-02-13

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) has been created to meet the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Action Plan, Section 3.5, which states: “The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report shall be generated, in a format agreed upon by the Parties, as a calendar year report and issued annually by the DOE by the end of February of each year, and posted electronically for regulator and public access. This report shall reflect all changes made in waste management unit status during the previous year.” This February 2013 version of the HSWMUR contains a comprehensive inventory of the 3427 sites and 564 subsites in the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The information for each site contains a description of each unit and the waste it contains, where applicable. The WIDS database provides additional information concerning the sites contained in this report and is maintained with daily changes to these sites.

  9. The embryogenesis of dose assessment at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Several significant events occurred between 1955 and 1960 that resulted in major changes in environmental monitoring at Hanford and in the initiation of comprehensive dose assessments. These included: (1) specification of dose limits for nonoccupational exposure (including internal emitters); (2) a national and international awakening to the need for managing the disposal of radioactive wastes; (3) identification of the most important radionuclides and their sources of exposure; (4) data that quantified the transfer coefficients of nuclides along environmental pathways; and (5) development of greatly improved radiation detection instrumentation. In response to a growing need, the Hanford Laboratories formed the Environmental Studies and Evaluation component. This group revamped the monitoring and sampling programs so that analytical results contributed directly to dose estimation. Special studies were conducted to ascertain local dietary and recreational habits that affected dose calculations and to calibrate the models. These studies involved extensive contact with the public and governmental agencies, which elicited a positive reaction

  10. Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The information contained in, and/or referenced in, this Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report addresses Permit Condition II.W (Other Permits and/or Approvals) of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA7890008967). Condition II.W specifies that the Permittees are responsible for obtaining all other applicable federal, state, and local permits authorizing the development and operation of the Hanford Facility. Condition II.W further specifies that the Permittees are to use their best efforts to obtain such permits. For the purposes of this Permit Condition, ''best efforts'' mean submittal of documentation and/or approval(s) in accordance with schedules specified in applicable regulations, or as determined through negotiations with the applicable regulatory agencies

  11. Hanford grout: predicting long-term performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewart, G.H.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; McMakin, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Grouted disposal is being planned for the low-level portion of liquid radioactive wastes at the Hanford site in Washington state. The performance of the disposal system must be such that it will protect people and the environment for thousands of years after disposal. To predict whether a specific grout disposal system will comply with existing and foreseen regulations, a performance assessment (PA) is performed. Long-term PAs are conducted for a range of performance conditions. Performance assessment is an inexact science. Quantifying projected impacts is especially difficult when only scant data exist on the behavior of certain components of the disposal system over thousands of years. To develop defensible results, we are honing the models and obtaining experimental data. The combination of engineered features and PA refinements is being used to ensure that Hanford grout will meet its principal goal: to protect people and the environment in the future

  12. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, Jeffrey P. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-19

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) has been created to meet the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Action Plan, Section 3.5, which states: “The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report shall be generated, in a format agreed upon by the Parties, as a calendar year report and issued annually by the DOE by the end of February of each year, and posted electronically for regulator and public access. This report shall reflect all changes made in waste management unit status during the previous year.” This February 2013 version of the HSWMUR contains a comprehensive inventory of the 3438 sites and 569 subsites in the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The information for each site contains a description of each unit and the waste it contains, where applicable. The WIDS database provides additional information concerning the sites contained in this report and is maintained with daily changes to these sites.

  13. An overview of the Hanford controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.M.; Kneale, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    In 1964, the Atomic Energy Commission agreed to sponsor 'a study of the lifetime health and mortality experiences of all employees of AEC contractors.' The commission put in charge of this study a physician (Thomas Mancuso) who had recently shown how the U.S. Social Security system could be used to identify the dates and causes of death of all insured workers. As director of the AEC project, Mancuso was at liberty to include any or all the postwar offshoots of the Manhattan Project. His master plan included workers from Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, and Hanford, but it soon became apparent that his attempts to link radiation exposures to subsequent events were proving more successful at Hanford than elsewhere. The authors of this paper, who participated in the study, review the controversy surrounding its eventual publication.22 references

  14. Hanford Site Waste Storage Tank Information Notebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husa, E.I.; Raymond, R.E.; Welty, R.K.; Griffith, S.M.; Hanlon, B.M.; Rios, R.R.; Vermeulen, N.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides summary data on the radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 East and West Areas at the Hanford Site. The summary data covers each of the existing 161 Series 100 underground waste storage tanks (500,000 gallons and larger). It also contains information on the design and construction of these tanks. The information in this report is derived from existing reports that document the status of the tanks and their materials. This report also contains interior, surface photographs of each of the 54 Watch List tanks, which are those tanks identified as Priority I Hanford Site Tank Farm Safety Issues in accordance with Public Law 101-510, Section 3137*

  15. Hanford Site annual waste reduction report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.H.

    1992-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Field Office (RL) has developed and implemented a Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan that provides overall guidance and direction on waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness to the four contractors who manage and operate the Hanford Site for the RL. Waste reduction at the RL will be accomplished by following a hierarchy of environmental protection practices. First, waste generation will be eliminated or minimized through source reduction. Second, potential waste materials that cannot be eliminated or minimized will be recycled (i.e., used, reused, or reclaimed). Third, all waste that is nevertheless generated will be treated to reduce volume, toxicity, or mobility before storage or disposal. The scope of this waste reduction program will include nonhazardous, hazardous, radioactive mixed, and radioactive wastes

  16. Neutron Measurements At Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrady, Matthew M.; Berg, Randal K.; Scherpelz, Robert I.; Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted neutron measurements at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The measurements were performed to evaluate the performance of the Hanford Standard Dosimeter (HSD) and the 8816 TLD component of the Hanford Combination Neutron Dosimeter (HCND) in the neutron fields responsible for worker neutron exposures. For this study, TEPC detectors and multisphere spectrometers were used to measure neutron dose equivalent rate, and multispheres were used to measure average neutron energy. Water-filled phantoms holding Hanford dosimeters were positioned at each measurement location. The phantoms were positioned in the same location where a multisphere measurement was taken and TEPCs were also positioned there. Plant survey meters were also used to measure neutron dose rates at all locations. Three measurement locations were chose near the HC-9B glovebox in room 228A of Building 234-5. The multisphere spectrometers measured average neutron energies in the range of 337 to 555 keV at these locations. Personal dose equivalent, Hp(10)n, as measured by the multisphere and TEPC, ranged from 2.7 to 9.7 mrem/h in the three locations. Effective dose assuming a rotational geometry (EROT) was substantially lower than Hp(10), ranging from 1.3 to 3.6 mrem/h. These values were lower than the reported values from dosimeters exposed on a rotating phantom. Effective dose assuming an AP geometry (EAP) was also substantially lower than Hp(10), ranging from 2.3 to 6.5 mrem/h. These values were lower than the reported values from the dosimeters on slab phantoms. Since the effective dose values were lower than reported values from dosimeters, the dosimeters were shown to be conservative estimates of the protection quantities.

  17. Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan (HWMTP) is a companion document to the Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP). A reference plan for management and disposal of all existing and certain projected future radioactive Hanford Site Defense Wastes (HSDW) is described and discussed in the HWMP. Implementation of the reference plan requires that various open technical issues be satisfactorily resolved. The principal purpose of the HWMTP is to present detailed descriptions of the technology which must be developed to close each of the technical issues associated with the reference plan identified in the HWMP. If alternative plans are followed, however, technology development efforts including costs and schedules must be changed accordingly. Technical issues addressed in the HWMTP and HWMP are those which relate to disposal of single-shell tank wastes, contaminated soil sites, solid waste burial sites, double-shell tank wastes, encapsulated 137 CsCl and 90 SrF 2 , stored and new solid transuranic (TRU) wastes, and miscellaneous wastes such as contaminated sodium metal. Among the high priority issues to be resolved are characterization of various wastes including early determination of the TRU content of future cladding removal wastes; completion of development of vitrification (Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant) and grout technology; control of subsidence in buried waste sites; and development of criteria and standards including performance assessments of systems proposed for disposal of HSDW. Estimates of the technology costs shown in this report are made on the basis that all identified tasks for all issues associated with the reference disposal plan must be performed. Elimination of, consolidation of, or reduction in the scope of individual tasks will, of course, be reflected in corresponding reduction of overall technology costs

  18. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E. [ed.; Watrous, R.A.; Kruger, O.L. [and others

    1996-03-01

    A key element of the Hanford waste management strategy is the construction of a new facility, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), to vitrify existing and future liquid high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. The HWVP mission is to vitrify pretreated waste in borosilicate glass, cast the glass into stainless steel canisters, and store the canisters at the Hanford Site until they are shipped to a federal geological repository. The HWVP Technical Manual (Manual) documents the technical bases of the current HWVP process and provides a physical description of the related equipment and the plant. The immediate purpose of the document is to provide the technical bases for preparation of project baseline documents that will be used to direct the Title 1 and Title 2 design by the A/E, Fluor. The content of the Manual is organized in the following manner. Chapter 1.0 contains the background and context within which the HWVP was designed. Chapter 2.0 describes the site, plant, equipment and supporting services and provides the context for application of the process information in the Manual. Chapter 3.0 provides plant feed and product requirements, which are primary process bases for plant operation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes the technology for each plant process. Chapter 5.0 describes the engineering principles for designing major types of HWVP equipment. Chapter 6.0 describes the general safety aspects of the plant and process to assist in safe and prudent facility operation. Chapter 7.0 includes a description of the waste form qualification program and data. Chapter 8.0 indicates the current status of quality assurance requirements for the Manual. The Appendices provide data that are too extensive to be placed in the main text, such as extensive tables and sets of figures. The Manual is a revision of the 1987 version.

  19. Groundwater remediation at the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, W.

    1993-01-01

    Ion exchange resin and adsorption technology has been used successfully to treat diversified types of toxic waste water for many years. Even though the Hanford Site presents many unique problems, the author believes these technologies can remediate the groundwater at this site. However, treatment of the sludge in tanks generally is beyond the pale of these technologies except for the possibility of experimental studies being performed at the University of Idaho (Troescher)

  20. Insolation and turbidity measurements at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laulainen, N.S.; Kleckner, E.W.; Michalsky, J.J.; Thorp, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    From observations obtained at the Rattlesnake Observatory and the Hanford Meteorological Station, the redistribution of solar radiation as a result of aerosols in the lowest 1 km of the earth's atmosphere has been examined using several types of solar radiation measuring instruments. Large turbidity excursions are observed with high values associated with stagnant air masses and low values associated with frontal passage. Turbidities show variations in color dependence that arise because of changes in particle size distribution

  1. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002

  2. Hanford personnel dosimeter supporting studies FY-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    This report examined specific functional components of the routine external personnel dosimeter program at Hanford. Components studied included: dosimeter readout; dosimeter calibration; dosimeter field response; dose calibration algorithm; dosimeter design; and TLD chip acceptance procedures. Additional information is also presented regarding the dosimeter response to light- and medium-filtered x-rays, high energy photons and neutrons. This study was conducted to clarify certain data obtained during the FY-1980 studies

  3. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.; Watrous, R.A.; Kruger, O.L.

    1996-03-01

    A key element of the Hanford waste management strategy is the construction of a new facility, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), to vitrify existing and future liquid high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. The HWVP mission is to vitrify pretreated waste in borosilicate glass, cast the glass into stainless steel canisters, and store the canisters at the Hanford Site until they are shipped to a federal geological repository. The HWVP Technical Manual (Manual) documents the technical bases of the current HWVP process and provides a physical description of the related equipment and the plant. The immediate purpose of the document is to provide the technical bases for preparation of project baseline documents that will be used to direct the Title 1 and Title 2 design by the A/E, Fluor. The content of the Manual is organized in the following manner. Chapter 1.0 contains the background and context within which the HWVP was designed. Chapter 2.0 describes the site, plant, equipment and supporting services and provides the context for application of the process information in the Manual. Chapter 3.0 provides plant feed and product requirements, which are primary process bases for plant operation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes the technology for each plant process. Chapter 5.0 describes the engineering principles for designing major types of HWVP equipment. Chapter 6.0 describes the general safety aspects of the plant and process to assist in safe and prudent facility operation. Chapter 7.0 includes a description of the waste form qualification program and data. Chapter 8.0 indicates the current status of quality assurance requirements for the Manual. The Appendices provide data that are too extensive to be placed in the main text, such as extensive tables and sets of figures. The Manual is a revision of the 1987 version

  4. Hanford Site air operating permit application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which amended the Federal Clean Air Act of 1977, required that the US Environmental Protection Agency develop a national Air Operating Permit Program, which in turn would require each state to develop an Air Operating Permit Program to identify all sources of ``regulated`` pollutants. Regulated pollutants include ``criteria`` pollutants (oxides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, total suspended particulates, carbon monoxide, particulate matter greater than 10 micron, lead) plus 189 other ``Hazardous`` Air Pollutants. The Hanford Site, owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, is located in southcentral Washington State and covers 560 square miles of semi-arid shrub and grasslands located just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. This land, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas historically used for the production of nuclear materials, waste storage, and waste disposal. About 6 percent of the land area has been disturbed and is actively used. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application consists of more than 1,100 sources and in excess of 300 emission points. Before January 1995, the maintenance and operations contractor and the environmental restoration contractor for the US Department of Energy completed an air emission inventory on the Hanford Site. The inventory has been entered into a database so that the sources and emission points can be tracked and updated information readily can be retrieved. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application contains information current as of April 19, 1995.

  5. Hanford Site air operating permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which amended the Federal Clean Air Act of 1977, required that the US Environmental Protection Agency develop a national Air Operating Permit Program, which in turn would require each state to develop an Air Operating Permit Program to identify all sources of ''regulated'' pollutants. Regulated pollutants include ''criteria'' pollutants (oxides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, total suspended particulates, carbon monoxide, particulate matter greater than 10 micron, lead) plus 189 other ''Hazardous'' Air Pollutants. The Hanford Site, owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, is located in southcentral Washington State and covers 560 square miles of semi-arid shrub and grasslands located just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. This land, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas historically used for the production of nuclear materials, waste storage, and waste disposal. About 6 percent of the land area has been disturbed and is actively used. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application consists of more than 1,100 sources and in excess of 300 emission points. Before January 1995, the maintenance and operations contractor and the environmental restoration contractor for the US Department of Energy completed an air emission inventory on the Hanford Site. The inventory has been entered into a database so that the sources and emission points can be tracked and updated information readily can be retrieved. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application contains information current as of April 19, 1995

  6. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities

  7. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Daily activities at the Hanford Site generate sanitary solid waste (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) that is transported to and permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. This permit application describes the manner in which the solid Waste Landfill will be operated under Washington State Department of Ecology Minimum Functional Standards for Solid Waste Handling, Washington Administrative Code 173-304. The solid Waste Landfill is owned by the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office and is used for disposal of solid waste generated at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The jurisdictional health department's permit application form for the Solid Waste Landfill is provided in Chapter 1.0. Chapter 2.0 provides a description of the Hanford Site and the Solid Waste Landfill and reviews applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. Chapter 3.0 discusses the characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of in the Solid Waste Landfill. Chapter 4.0 reviews the regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 contain the plan of operation, closure plan, and postclosure plan, respectively. The plan of operation describes the routine operation and maintenance of the Solid Waste Landfill, the environmental monitoring program, and the safety and emergency plans. Chapter 5.0 also addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The postclosure plan describes requirements for final cover maintenance and environmental monitoring equipment following final closure. Chapter 8.0 discusses the integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 76 refs., 48 figs, 15 tabs

  8. Characterization of Hanford tank wastes containing ferrocyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, J.M.; Matheson, J.D.; McKinley, S.G.; Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-02-01

    Currently, 17 storage tanks on the Hanford site that are believed to contain > 1,000 gram moles (465 lbs) of ferrocyanide compounds have been identified. Seven other tanks are classified as ferrocyanide containing waste tanks, but contain less than 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide compounds. These seven tanks are still included as Hanford Watch List Tanks. These tanks have been declared an unreviewed safety question (USQ) because of potential thermal reactivity hazards associated with the ferrocyanide compounds and nitrate and nitrite. Hanford tanks with waste containing > 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide have been sampled. Extensive chemical, radiothermical, and physical characterization have been performed on these waste samples. The reactivity of these wastes were also studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis. Actual tank waste samples were retrieved from tank 241-C-112 using a specially designed and equipped core-sampling truck. Only a small portion of the data obtained from this characterization effort will be reported in this paper. This report will deal primarily with the cyanide and carbon analyses, thermal analyses, and limited physical property measurements

  9. Trends in actinide processing at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1993-09-01

    In 1989, the mission at the Hanford Site began a dramatic and sometimes painful transition. The days of production--as we used to know it--are over. Our mission officially has become waste management and environmental cleanup. This mission change didn't eliminate many jobs--in fact, budgets have grown dramatically to support the new mission. Most all of the same skilled crafts, engineers, and scientists are still required for the new mission. This change has not eliminated the need for actinide processing, but it has certainly changed the focus that our actinide chemists and process engineers have. The focus used to be on such things as increasing capacity, improving separations efficiency, and product purity. Minimizing waste had become a more important theme in recent years and it is still a very important concept in the waste management and environmental cleanup arena. However, at Hanford, a new set of words dominates the actinide process scene as we work to deal with actinides that still reside in a variety of forms at the Hanford Site. These words are repackage, stabilize, remove, store and dispose. Some key activities in each of these areas are described in this report

  10. Deactivation completed at historic Hanford Fuels Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses deactivation work which was completed as of March 31, 1994 at the 308 Fuels Development Laboratory (FDL) at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The decision to deactivate the structure, formerly known as the Plutonium Fabrication Pilot Plant (PFPP), was driven by a 1980s Department of Energy (DOE) decision that plutonium fuels should not be fabricated in areas near the Site`s boundaries, as well as by changing facility structural requirements. Inventory transfer has been followed by the cleanout and stabilization of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) and enriched uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) residues and powders in the facility`s equipment and duct work. The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington state, was one of America`s primary arsenals of nuclear defense production for nearly 50 years beginning in World War II. Approximately 53 metric tons of weapons grade plutonium, over half of the national supply and about one quarter of the world`s supply, were produced at Hanford between 1944 and 1989. Today, many Site buildings are undergoing deactivation, a precursor phase to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The primary difference between the two activities is that equipment and structural items are not removed or torn down in deactivation. However, utilities are disconnected, and special nuclear materials (SNM) as well as hazardous and pyrophoric substances are removed from structures undergoing this process.

  11. Deactivation completed at historic Hanford Fuels Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses deactivation work which was completed as of March 31, 1994 at the 308 Fuels Development Laboratory (FDL) at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The decision to deactivate the structure, formerly known as the Plutonium Fabrication Pilot Plant (PFPP), was driven by a 1980s Department of Energy (DOE) decision that plutonium fuels should not be fabricated in areas near the Site's boundaries, as well as by changing facility structural requirements. Inventory transfer has been followed by the cleanout and stabilization of plutonium oxide (PuO 2 ) and enriched uranium oxide (UO 2 ) residues and powders in the facility's equipment and duct work. The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington state, was one of America's primary arsenals of nuclear defense production for nearly 50 years beginning in World War II. Approximately 53 metric tons of weapons grade plutonium, over half of the national supply and about one quarter of the world's supply, were produced at Hanford between 1944 and 1989. Today, many Site buildings are undergoing deactivation, a precursor phase to decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D). The primary difference between the two activities is that equipment and structural items are not removed or torn down in deactivation. However, utilities are disconnected, and special nuclear materials (SNM) as well as hazardous and pyrophoric substances are removed from structures undergoing this process

  12. Hanford well remediation and decommissioning plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledgerwood, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    Protection of Hanford Site groundwater resources and assessment of the effects of their use or contamination upon public safety are required by federal and state regulations and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) policy, (DOE, 1989). Compliance with constraints applicable to the use of existing wells requires assessment as to the suitability for use and needs for rehabilitation, remediation or decommissioning of existing groundwater wells and other boreholes potentially affecting aquifers beneath the Hanford Site. Approximately 3,500 groundwater wells and vadose zone boreholes had been drilled on the Hanford Site prior to 1989, over 2,900 still exist. Most of these boreholes were drilled prior to 1987 and do not conform to presently accepted construction standards intended to protect groundwater resources. Approximately 260 wells have been installed since 1987. These wells were constructed to current standards for well construction which mandate seals between the permanent casing and the formation to prevent potential migration of contaminated liquid. Several programs presently construct and/or utilize existing and newly drilled wells to provide characterization and groundwater monitoring data. The programs are summarized

  13. Glass forms for immobilization of Hanford wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; Dressen, A.L.; Hobbick, C.W.; Babad, H.

    1975-03-01

    Approximately 140 million liters of solid salt cake (mainly NaNO 3 ), produced by evaporation of aged alkaline high-level liquid wastes, will be stored in underground tanks when the present Hanford Waste Management Program is completed in the early 1980's. At this time also, large volumes of various other solid radioactive wastes (sludges, excavated Pu-contaminated soil, and doubly encapsulated 137 CsCl and 90 SrF 2 ) will be stored on the Hanford Reservation. All these solid wastes can be converted to immobile silicate and aluminosilicate glasses of low water leachability by melting them at 1100 0 to 1400 0 C with appropriate amounts of basalt (or sand) and other glass-formers such as B 2 O 3 or CaO. Reviewed in this paper are formulations and other melt conditions used successfully in batch tests to make glasses from actual and synthetic wastes; leachability and other properties of these glasses show them to be satisfactory vehicles for immobilization of the Hanford wastes. (U.S.)

  14. Hanford Task Force: Collaboration over litigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorett, A.; Ross, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    At a number of USDOE sites around the country, USDOE and the regulators who oversee its sites have negotiated agreements that govern the cleanup of hazardous and/or radioactive contamination. Historically, these agreements have been hammered out in protracted and difficult inter-agency negotiations, behind closed doors. When the agencies have finally emerged to announce their hard-won agreements, the response from interested parties and the public has all too often ranged from lukewarm acceptance to severe criticism. The negotiations that led to the 1989 signing of Hanford's Tri-Party Agreement, officially known as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, as well as subsequent negotiated modifications to that Agreement, followed this pattern of closed-door agency negotiation, followed by a strategy of ''announce and defend.'' However, Hanford's latest Tri-Party Agreement negotiations, concluded with a signing ceremony on January 25, 1994, are persuasive evidence that a different approach can yield much more satisfying results -- for the agencies, for affected and interested parties, and for the public. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief description of that approach which can be a useful model for other USDOE sites that face similar negotiations

  15. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.; Long, M.P.

    1994-07-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project, as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy and its Hanford contractors. Project services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessment of potential intakes and internal dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. Specific chapters deal with the following subjects: practices of the project, including interpretation of applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for assessment, documentation, and reporting of doses; assessment of internal dose, including summary explanations of when and how assessments are performed; recording and reporting practices for internal dose; selection of workers for bioassay monitoring and establishment of type and frequency of bioassay measurements; capability and scheduling of bioassay monitoring services; recommended dosimetry response to potential internal exposure incidents; quality control and quality assurance provisions of the program

  16. Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danch, D.A.; Gay, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system

  17. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.; Long, M.P.

    1994-07-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project, as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy and its Hanford contractors. Project services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessment of potential intakes and internal dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. Specific chapters deal with the following subjects: practices of the project, including interpretation of applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for assessment, documentation, and reporting of doses; assessment of internal dose, including summary explanations of when and how assessments are performed; recording and reporting practices for internal dose; selection of workers for bioassay monitoring and establishment of type and frequency of bioassay measurements; capability and scheduling of bioassay monitoring services; recommended dosimetry response to potential internal exposure incidents; quality control and quality assurance provisions of the program.

  18. The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haerer, H.A.; Freshley, M.D.; Gilbert, R.O.; Morgan, L.G.; Napier, B.A.; Rhoads, R.E.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, researchers began a multiyear effort to estimate radiation doses that people could have received since 1944 at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The study was prompted by increasing concern about potential health effects to the public from more than 40 yr of nuclear activities. We will provide an overview of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project and its technical approach. The work has required development of new methods and tools for dealing with unique technical and communication challenges. Scientists are using a probabilistic, rather than the more typical deterministic, approach to generate dose distributions rather than single-point estimates. Uncertainties in input parameters are reflected in dose results. Sensitivity analyses are used to optimize project resources and define the project's scope. An independent technical steering panel directs and approves the work in a public forum. Dose estimates are based on review and analysis of historical data related to operations, effluents, and monitoring; determination of important radionuclides; and reconstruction of source terms, environmental conditions that affected transport, concentrations in environmental media, and human elements, such as population distribution, agricultural practices, food consumption patterns, and lifestyles. A companion paper in this volume, The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Technical Approach, describes the computational framework for the work

  19. List of currently classified documents relative to Hanford Production Facilities Operations originated on the Hanford Site between 1961 and 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has declared that all Hanford plutonium production- and operations-related information generated between 1944 and 1972 is declassified. Any documents found and deemed useful for meeting Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) objectives may be declassified with or without deletions in accordance with DOE guidance by Authorized Derivative Declassifiers. The September 1992, letter report, Declassifications Requested by the Technical Steering Panel of Hanford Documents Produced 1944--1960, (PNWD-2024 HEDR UC-707), provides an important milestone toward achieving a complete listing of documents that may be useful to the HEDR Project. The attached listing of approximately 7,000 currently classified Hanford-originated documents relative to Hanford Production Facilities Operations between 1961 and 1972 fulfills TSP Directive 89-3. This list does not include such titles as the Irradiation Processing Department, Chemical Processing Department, and Hanford Laboratory Operations monthly reports generated after 1960 which have been previously declassified with minor deletions and made publicly available. Also Kaiser Engineers Hanford (KEH) Document Control determined that no KEH documents generated between January 1, 1961 and December 31, 1972 are currently classified. Titles which address work for others have not been included because Hanford Site contractors currently having custodial responsibility for these documents do not have the authority to determine whether other than their own staff have on file an appropriate need-to-know. Furthermore, these documents do not normally contain information relative to Hanford Site operations.

  20. Hanford Site Composite Analysis Technical Approach Description: Hanford Site Disposition Baseline.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, M. A. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Dockter, R. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-10-02

    The permeability of ground surfaces within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site strongly influences boundary conditions when simulating the movement of groundwater using the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases model. To conduct site-wide modeling of cumulative impacts to groundwater from past, current, and future waste management activities, a site-wide assessment of the permeability of surface conditions is needed. The surface condition of the vast majority of the Hanford Site has been and continues to be native soils vegetated with dryland grasses and shrubs.

  1. Hanford Dose Overview Program. Comparison of AIRDOS-EPA and Hanford site dose codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1985-11-01

    Radiation dose commitments for persons in the Hanford environs calculated using AIRDOS-EPA were compared with those calculated using a suite of Hanford codes: FOOD, PABLM, DACRIN, and KRONIC. Dose commitments to the population and to the maximally exposed individual (MI) based on annual releases of eight radionuclides from the N-Reactor, were calculated by these codes. Dose commitments from each pathway to the total body, lung, thyroid, and lower large intestine (LLI) are given for the population and MI, respectively. 11 refs., 25 tabs

  2. Documentation of Hanford Site independent review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herborn, D.I.

    1991-10-01

    The requirements for Westinghouse Hanford independent review of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) are contained in Section 1.0, Subsection 4.3 of WCH-CM-4-46. Specifically, this manual requires the following: (1) Formal functional reviews of the HWVP PSAR by the future operating organization (HWVP Operations), and the independent review organizations (HWVP and Environmental Safety Assurance, Environmental Assurance, and Quality Assurance); and (2) Review and approval of the HWVP PSAR by the Tank Waste Disposal (TWD) Subcouncil of the Safety and Environmental Advisory Council (SEAC), which provides independent advice to the Westinghouse Hanford President and executives on matters of safety and environmental protection. 7 refs

  3. Coarsely resolved topography along protein folding pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ariel; Kostov, Konstantin S.; Berry, R. Stephen

    2000-03-01

    The kinetic data from the coarse representation of polypeptide torsional dynamics described in the preceding paper [Fernandez and Berry, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 5212 (2000), preceding paper] is inverted by using detailed balance to obtain a topographic description of the potential-energy surface (PES) along the dominant folding pathway of the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). The topography is represented as a sequence of minima and effective saddle points. The dominant folding pathway displays an overall monotonic decrease in energy with a large number of staircaselike steps, a clear signature of a good structure-seeker. The diversity and availability of alternative folding pathways is analyzed in terms of the Shannon entropy σ(t) associated with the time-dependent probability distribution over the kinetic ensemble of contact patterns. Several stages in the folding process are evident. Initially misfolded states form and dismantle revealing no definite pattern in the topography and exhibiting high Shannon entropy. Passage down a sequence of staircase steps then leads to the formation of a nativelike intermediate, for which σ(t) is much lower and fairly constant. Finally, the structure of the intermediate is refined to produce the native state of BPTI. We also examine how different levels of tolerance to mismatches of side chain contacts influence the folding kinetics, the topography of the dominant folding pathway, and the Shannon entropy. This analysis yields upper and lower bounds of the frustration tolerance required for the expeditious and robust folding of BPTI.

  4. Coarse-Grained Modeling of Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Alan R.; May, Sylvio

    2014-03-01

    Ionic mixtures, such as electrolyte and polyelectrolyte solutions, have attracted much attention recently for their rich and challenging combination of electrostatic and non-electrostatic interparticle forces and their practical importance, from battery technologies to biological systems. Hydration of ions in aqueous solutions is known to entail ion-specific effects, including variable solubility of organic molecules, as manifested in the classic Hofmeister series for salting-in and salting-out of proteins. The physical mechanism by which the solvent (water) mediates effective interactions between ions, however, is still poorly understood. Starting from a microscopic model of a polyelectrolyte solution, we apply a perturbation theory to derive a coarse-grained model of ions interacting through both long-range electrostatic and short-range solvent-induced pair potentials. Taking these effective interactions as input to molecular dynamics simulations, we calculate structural and thermodynamic properties of aqueous ionic solutions. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1106331.

  5. De Sitter stability and coarse graining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, T.

    2018-01-01

    We present a 4-dimensional back reaction analysis of de Sitter space for a conformally coupled scalar field in the presence of vacuum energy initialized in the Bunch-Davies vacuum. In contrast to the usual semi-classical prescription, as the source term in the Friedmann equations we use expectation values where the unobservable information hidden by the cosmological event horizon has been neglected i.e. coarse grained over. It is shown that in this approach the energy-momentum is precisely thermal with constant temperature despite the dilution from the expansion of space due to a flux of energy radiated from the horizon. This leads to a self-consistent solution for the Hubble rate, which is gradually evolving and at late times deviates significantly from de Sitter. Our results hence imply de Sitter space to be unstable in this prescription. The solution also suggests dynamical vacuum energy: the continuous flux of energy is balanced by the generation of negative vacuum energy, which accumulatively decreases the overall contribution. Finally, we show that our results admit a thermodynamic interpretation which provides a simple alternate derivation of the mechanism. For very long times the solutions coincide with flat space. (orig.)

  6. De Sitter stability and coarse graining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markkanen, T. [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom)

    2018-02-15

    We present a 4-dimensional back reaction analysis of de Sitter space for a conformally coupled scalar field in the presence of vacuum energy initialized in the Bunch-Davies vacuum. In contrast to the usual semi-classical prescription, as the source term in the Friedmann equations we use expectation values where the unobservable information hidden by the cosmological event horizon has been neglected i.e. coarse grained over. It is shown that in this approach the energy-momentum is precisely thermal with constant temperature despite the dilution from the expansion of space due to a flux of energy radiated from the horizon. This leads to a self-consistent solution for the Hubble rate, which is gradually evolving and at late times deviates significantly from de Sitter. Our results hence imply de Sitter space to be unstable in this prescription. The solution also suggests dynamical vacuum energy: the continuous flux of energy is balanced by the generation of negative vacuum energy, which accumulatively decreases the overall contribution. Finally, we show that our results admit a thermodynamic interpretation which provides a simple alternate derivation of the mechanism. For very long times the solutions coincide with flat space. (orig.)

  7. Thermodynamic forces in coarse-grained simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noid, William

    Atomically detailed molecular dynamics simulations have profoundly advanced our understanding of the structure and interactions in soft condensed phases. Nevertheless, despite dramatic advances in the methodology and resources for simulating atomically detailed models, low-resolution coarse-grained (CG) models play a central and rapidly growing role in science. CG models not only empower researchers to investigate phenomena beyond the scope of atomically detailed simulations, but also to precisely tailor models for specific phenomena. However, in contrast to atomically detailed simulations, which evolve on a potential energy surface, CG simulations should evolve on a free energy surface. Therefore, the forces in CG models should reflect the thermodynamic information that has been eliminated from the CG configuration space. As a consequence of these thermodynamic forces, CG models often demonstrate limited transferability and, moreover, rarely provide an accurate description of both structural and thermodynamic properties. In this talk, I will present a framework that clarifies the origin and impact of these thermodynamic forces. Additionally, I will present computational methods for quantifying these forces and incorporating their effects into CG MD simulations. As time allows, I will demonstrate applications of this framework for liquids, polymers, and interfaces. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation via CHE 1565631.

  8. Sorption and Migration Mechanisms of 237 Np through Sandy Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantaraprachoom, Nanthavan; Tanaka, Tadao

    2003-06-01

    In order to evaluate migration behavior of radioactive nuclides in the disposal of low-level radioactive waste into a shallow land burial, the sorption characteristic and migration behavior of 237 Np through sandy soil was studied. Two experimental methods were performed by using batch and column systems. The distribution coefficients (K d ) obtained from the adsorption and desorption process are rather small about 16 and 21 cm 3 /g respectively. Size distribution of 237 Np species in the influent solution was measured by ultra-filtration technique. Migration mechanism of 237 Np was studied by column experiments. The experimental condition was the influence of volume of eluting solution; 100, 300, 500, 1000 and 2000 ml respectively. The result from five column experiments confirm that the sorption characteristics of 237 Np are mainly controlled by a reversible ion-exchange reaction and the migration of 237 Np in the sandy soil can be estimated by using the K d concept

  9. Superstorm Sandy and the Verdant Power RITE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corren, D.; Colby, J.; Adonizio, M.

    2013-12-01

    On October 29, 2012 Superstorm Sandy (formerly Hurricane Sandy) made landfall in New Jersey. One of the deadliest, and second-costliest hurricane in US history, Sandy was the largest Atlantic hurricane on record, with a diameter of 1,800 km. It was this unprecedented size, extreme central low pressure, and full-moon timing that created a storm surge which inundated New York City with record-breaking water levels, resulting in tremendous destruction of buildings and infrastructure. At its RITE (Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy) Project in New York City's East River, Verdant Power has been installing demonstration and commercial turbine systems since 2005, along with performing related environmental monitoring and measurements. The RITE site is located in the East Channel of the East River, on the east side of Roosevelt Island. All along the East River, large areas of the adjacent boroughs were impacted by Sandy, including flooding of the subway tunnels under the river. When Sandy struck, Verdant had recently concluded a two-week in-water test at RITE of a new rotor for its Gen5 KHPS (Kinetic Hydropower System) turbine, with funding assistance by partners NYSERDA and the US Department of Energy. While the turbine had already been removed from its mounting in the river bottom in September, Verdant continued to operate two water measurement instruments in the river. These acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) measure the 3-D water velocity at various heights in the water column, and are also equipped to provide water level data. Verdant is interested in the effects such an extreme storm could have on turbines and other equipment installed in this river reach, as is planned by Verdant under a 10-year commercial pilot project licensed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for up to 30 turbines. Associated equipment includes navigational aids (buoys and signage), which Verdant is required to maintain to exclude vessels from the project boundaries. The East

  10. Quantifying the Digital Traces of Hurricane Sandy on Flickr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah; Bishop, Steven R.; Treleaven, Philip; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-11-01

    Society's increasing interactions with technology are creating extensive ``digital traces'' of our collective human behavior. These new data sources are fuelling the rapid development of the new field of computational social science. To investigate user attention to the Hurricane Sandy disaster in 2012, we analyze data from Flickr, a popular website for sharing personal photographs. In this case study, we find that the number of photos taken and subsequently uploaded to Flickr with titles, descriptions or tags related to Hurricane Sandy bears a striking correlation to the atmospheric pressure in the US state New Jersey during this period. Appropriate leverage of such information could be useful to policy makers and others charged with emergency crisis management.

  11. ASSIMILATION OF COARSE-SCALEDATAUSINGTHE ENSEMBLE KALMAN FILTER

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin

    2011-01-01

    Reservoir data is usually scale dependent and exhibits multiscale features. In this paper we use the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to integrate data at different spatial scales for estimating reservoir fine-scale characteristics. Relationships between the various scales is modeled via upscaling techniques. We propose two versions of the EnKF to assimilate the multiscale data, (i) where all the data are assimilated together and (ii) the data are assimilated sequentially in batches. Ensemble members obtained after assimilating one set of data are used as a prior to assimilate the next set of data. Both of these versions are easily implementable with any other upscaling which links the fine to the coarse scales. The numerical results with different methods are presented in a twin experiment setup using a two-dimensional, two-phase (oil and water) flow model. Results are shown with coarse-scale permeability and coarse-scale saturation data. They indicate that additional data provides better fine-scale estimates and fractional flow predictions. We observed that the two versions of the EnKF differed in their estimates when coarse-scale permeability is provided, whereas their results are similar when coarse-scale saturation is used. This behavior is thought to be due to the nonlinearity of the upscaling operator in the case of the former data. We also tested our procedures with various precisions of the coarse-scale data to account for the inexact relationship between the fine and coarse scale data. As expected, the results show that higher precision in the coarse-scale data yielded improved estimates. With better coarse-scale modeling and inversion techniques as more data at multiple coarse scales is made available, the proposed modification to the EnKF could be relevant in future studies.

  12. How hydrological factors initiate instability in a model sandy slope

    OpenAIRE

    Terajima, Tomomi; Miyahira, Ei-ichiro; Miyajima, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Hattori, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms of rain-induced shallow landslides can improve the prediction of their occurrence and mitigate subsequent sediment disasters. Here, we examine an artificial slope's subsurface hydrology and propose a new slope stability analysis that includes seepage force and the down-slope transfer of excess shear forces. We measured pore water pressure and volumetric water content immediately prior to a shallow landslide on an artificial sandy slope of 32°: The direction of the ...

  13. Sandy lower Gotherivian reservoirs in the south central Turkmeniya. [Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavyyev, N.Ch.; Nedirov, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Composition and capacitance-filtering properties of sandy rocks of the early Gotherivian age developed on the fields of Karadzhaulak and Cirili within the northeast slope of the Predkopetdag marginal trough and on areas of Dengli Bakharadok of the Bakharadok monocline are studied. These rocks are viewed as analogs of the gas-bearing Shatlyk level of the Murgabskiy Basin. They can be considered the main potential source of hydrocarbons on the studied territory. In the upper part of the lower Gotherivian, a level of sandy rocks is traced. Rocks represented by small-and average-grained red and light grey differences in sandstones of polymictic composition. The porosity of the sandstones is 20-22%, permeability is 200-500 mdarcy. Not only a similar stratigraphic position of the described sandstones in the lower Gotherivian was found, but also lithological common nature of the rocks. In the south central Turkmeniya one can isolate age analogs of the Shatlyk level, the main productive level of southeast Turkmeniya. The thickness of the sandy beds is from 17 to 45 m. The sandstones of the Karadzhaulak area have the best capacitance-filtering properties. Post sedimentation changes depend on the quantity and composition of the cement, influence of formation waters, and possibly thermobaric conditions of rock formation. The presence of sandy rocks with high collector properties in the cross section of the lower Gotherivian deposits in south central Turkmeniya should be considered in determining the objects for further prospecting and exploration. The areas of Kumbet and Karadzhaulak are primary.

  14. Patterns of species richness in sandy beaches of South America

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    beaches with rdkctive and dissip:1tive characteristics (sensu. R eprodu ced by Sabin et G atew ay u n der licen ce gran ted by th e P u blish er (dated 2009). ... beach intertidal communities WaS reviewed, (b) location of len sam.!y beaches studied in south-central Chile, imd (c) location of two sandy beaches studied on the ...

  15. Independent technical review of the Hanford Tank Farm Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Independent Technical Assessment of the Hanford Tank Farm Operations was commissioned by the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management on November 1, 1991. The Independent Technical Assessment team conducted on-site interviews and inspections during the following periods: November 18 to 22,1991; April 13 to 17; and April 27 to May 1, 1992. Westinghouse Hanford Company is the management and operating contractor for the Department of Energy at the Hanford site. The Hanford Tank Farm Operations consists of 177 underground storage tanks containing 61 million gallons of high-level radioactive mixed wastes from the chemical reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The Tank Farm Operations also includes associated transfer lines, ancillary equipment, and instrumentation. The Independent Technical Assessment of the Hanford Tank Farm Operations builds upon the prior assessments of the Hanford Waste Vitrification System and the Hanford Site Tank Waste Disposal Strategy.The objective of this technical assessment was to determine whether an integrated and sound program exists to manage the tank-waste storage and tankfarm operations consistent with the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management's guidance of overall risk minimization. The scope of this review includes the organization, management, operation, planning, facilities, and mitigation of the safety-concerns of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System. The assessments presented in the body of this report are based on the detailed observations discussed in the appendices. When the assessments use the term ''Hanford'' as an organizational body it means DOE-RL and Westinghouse Hanford Company as a minimum, and in many instances all of the stake holders for the Hanford site

  16. Historical research in the Hanford site waste cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, Michele S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will acquaint the audience with role of historical research in the Hanford Site waste cleanup - the largest waste cleanup endeavor ever undertaken in human history. There were no comparable predecessors to this massive waste remediation effort, but the Hanford historical record can provide a partial road map and guide. It can be, and is, a useful tool in meeting the goal of a successful, cost-effective, safe and technologically exemplary waste cleanup. The Hanford historical record is rich and complex. Yet, it poses difficult challenges, in that no central and complete repository or data base exists, records contain obscure code words and code numbers, and the measurement systems and terminology used in the records change many times over the years. Still, these records are useful to the current waste cleanup in technical ways, and in ways that extend beyond a strictly scientific aspect. Study and presentations of Hanford Site history contribute to the huge educational and outreach tasks of helping the Site's work force deal with 'culture change' and become motivated for the cleanup work that is ahead, and of helping the public and the regulators to place the events at Hanford in the context of WWII and the Cold War. This paper traces historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, and acquaints the audience with the generation of the major waste streams of concern in Hanford Site cleanup today. It presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. The earliest, 1940s knowledge base, assumptions and calculations about radioactive and chemical discharges, as discussed in the memos, correspondence and reports of the original Hanford Site (then Hanford Engineer Works) builders and operators, are reviewed. The growth of knowledge, research efforts, and subsequent changes in Site waste disposal policies and practices are traced. Examples of the strengths and limitations of the

  17. Brazilian sandy beaches: characteristics, ecosystem services, impacts, knowledge and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Cecília Zacagnini Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandy beaches constitute a key ecosystem and provide socioeconomic goods and services, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of human populations and in biodiversity conservation. Despite the ecological and social importance of these ecosytems, Brazilian sandy beaches are significantly impacted by human interference, chemical and organic pollution and tourism, as well as global climate change. These factors drive the need to better understand the environmental change and its consequences for biota. To promote the implementation of integrated studies to detect the effects of regional and global environmental change on beaches and on other benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast, Brazilian marine researchers have established The Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network (ReBentos. In order to provide input for sample planning by ReBentos, we have conducted an intensive review of the studies conducted on Brazilian beaches and summarized the current knowledge about this environment. In this paper, we present the results of this review and describe the physical, biological and socioeconomics features of Brazilian beaches. We have used these results, our personal experience and worldwide literature to identify research projects that should be prioritized in the assessment of regional and global change on Brazilian sandy beaches. We trust that this paper will provide insights for future studies and represent a significant step towards the conservation of Brazilian beaches and their biodiversity.

  18. Vadose-zone instrumentation in coarse alluvial deposits of the Amargosa Desert near Beatty, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.S.; Fischer, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A vadose-zone monitoring shaft near Beatty, NV, is 1.52 m in diameter and penetrates nearly 14 m of unsaturated fluvial sediments. These sediments are comprised of silty sand, coarse sandy gravel, and poorly cemented sand, with gravel and occasional cobbles and boulders. Thirty-three lateral ports at 11 levels between 3 and 13 m deep allow access to undisturbed sediments outside the vertical shaft. The prefabricated metal shaft was emplaced in a 2.44-m-diameter hole excavated by using a crane drill with bucket and flight augers. Laboratory-calibrated thermocouple-psychrometers are being used to measure soil-matrix potential. A method of installing the phychrometers was developed which will allow their retrieval, after extended periods in the soil, for cleaning, recalibration, and reinstallation. Primary access holes 2.5 cm in diameter are drilled laterally outward from the monitoring shaft to a distance of approximately 4 m. The psychrometer is then inserted into the primary access hole and sealed into a smaller diameter boring in the undisturbed material at the outer end of the primary access hole. Data are collected and stored by a programmable measurement-control and data-logger system powered by photovoltaic cells. Magnetic-tape data storage is used to back up daily data retrieval via telecommunication with the project headquarters in Carson City, Nev., 520 km north of the study

  19. Short- and medium-term response to storms on three Mediterranean coarse-grained beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grottoli, Edoardo; Bertoni, Duccio; Ciavola, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    The storm response of three Italian coarse-grained beaches was investigated to better understand the morphodynamics of coarse-clastic beaches in a microtidal context. Two of the studied sites are located on the eastern side of the country (Portonovo and Sirolo) and the third one (Marina di Pisa) is on the western side. Portonovo and Sirolo are mixed sand and gravel beaches where the storms approach from two main directions, SE and NE. Marina di Pisa is a coarse-grained, gravel-dominated beach, exposed to storms driven by SW winds. Gravel nourishments were undertaken in recent years on the three sites. Beach topography was monitored measuring the same network of cross sections at a monthly (i.e. short-term) to seasonal frequency (i.e. medium-term). Geomorphic changes were examined before and after storm occurrences by means of profile analyses and shoreline position evaluations. The beach orientation and the influence of hard structures are the main factors controlling the transport and accumulation of significant amount of sediments and the consequent high variability of beach morphology over the medium-term. For Marina di Pisa, storms tend to accumulate material towards the upper part of the beach with no shoreline rotation and no chance to recover the initial configuration. Sirolo and Portonovo showed a similar behaviour that is more typical of pocket beaches. Both beaches show shoreline rotation after storms in a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction according to the incoming wave direction. The wider and longer beach at Sirolo allows the accumulation of a thin layer of sediment during storms, rather than at Portonovo where, given its longshore and landward boundaries, the beach material tends to accumulate in greater thickness. After storms, Sirolo and especially Portonovo can quickly recover the initial beach configuration, as soon as another storm of comparable energy approaches from the opposite direction of the previous one. Large morphological

  20. Disposal of Radioactive Waste at Hanford Creates Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive storage tanks at the Hanford facility have developed leaks. The situation is presently considered safe, but serious. A report from the National Academy of Science has recommended that the wastes be converted to stable solids and stored at another site on the Hanford Reservation. (Author/MA)

  1. Environmental status of the Hanford Reservation for CY-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1975-09-01

    Environmental data collected at the Hanford Reservation during 1974 showed continued compliance of Hanford operations with all applicable State and Federal regulations. Data are presented on levels of radioactivity in samples of surface air, drinking water, Columbia River water and other surface waters, soil, and tissues of wild animals and water fowl collected at various locations

  2. Characterization plan for the Hanford Generating Plant (HGP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marske, S.G.

    1996-09-01

    This characterization plan describes the sample collection and sample analysis activities to characterize the Hanford Generating Plant and associated solid waste management units (SWMUs). The analytical data will be used to identify the radiological contamination in the Hanford Generating Plant as well as the presence of radiological and hazardous materials in the SWMUs to support further estimates of decontamination interpretation for demolition

  3. First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

    1999-05-26

    Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. They also locate and identify sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consists of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The operational rate for the first quarter of FY99 for stations in the HSN was 99.8%. There were 121 triggers during the first quarter of fiscal year 1999. Fourteen triggers were local earthquakes; seven (50%) were in the Columbia River Basalt Group, no earthquakes occurred in the pre-basalt sediments, and seven (50%) were in the crystalline basement. One earthquake (7%) occurred near or along the Horn Rapids anticline, seven earthquakes (50%) occurred in a known swarm area, and six earthquakes (43%) were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometer during the first quarter of FY99.

  4. Hanford Facility Annual Dangerous Waste Report Calendar Year 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FR-EEMAN, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Hanford CY 2002 dangerous waste generation and management forms. The Hanford Facility Annual Dangerous Waste Report (ADWR) is prepared to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative Code Sections 173-303-220, Generator Reporting, and 173-303-390, Facility Reporting. In addition, the ADWR is required to meet Hanford Facility RCRA Permit Condition I.E.22, Annual Reporting. The ADWR provides summary information on dangerous waste generation and management activities for the Calendar Year for the Hanford Facility EPA ID number assigned to the Department of Energy for RCRA regulated waste, as well as Washington State only designated waste and radioactive mixed waste. The Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) database is utilized to collect and compile the large array of data needed for preparation of this report. Information includes details of waste generated on the Hanford Facility, waste generated offsite and sent to Hanford for management, and other waste management activities conducted at Hanford, including treatment, storage, and disposal. Report details consist of waste descriptions and weights, waste codes and designations, and waste handling codes. In addition, for waste shipped to Hanford for treatment and/or disposal, information on manifest numbers, the waste transporter, the waste receiving facility, and the original waste generators are included. In addition to paper copies, electronic copies of the report are also transmitted to the regulatory agency

  5. Engineering report of plasma vitrification of Hanford tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides an analysis of vendor-derived testing and technology applicability to full scale glass production from Hanford tank wastes using plasma vitrification. The subject vendor testing and concept was applied in support of the Hanford LLW Vitrification Program, Tank Waste Remediation System

  6. Quality assurance in Hanford site defense waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtasek, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses quality assurance as an integral part of conducting waste management operations. The storage, treatment, and disposal of radioactive and non- radioactive hazardous wastes at Hanford are described. The author reports that quality assurance programs provide confidence that storage, treatment, and disposal facilities and systems perform as intended. Examples of how quality assurance is applied to Hanford defense waste operations are presented

  7. Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In south-central Washington State, the Columbia River flows through the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. A primary objective of the Hanford Site cleanup mission is protection of the Columbia River, through remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater that resulted from its weapons production mission. Within the Columbia River system, surface water, sediment, and biota samples related to potential Hanford Site hazardous substance releases have been collected since the start of Hanford operations. The impacts of Hanford Site hazardous substance releases to the Columbia River in areas upstream, within, and downstream of the Hanford Site boundary have been previously investigated as mandated by the U.S. Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act. The impacts are now being assessed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 via a remedial investigation. The Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River has been developed and issued to initiate the remedial investigation. The work plan establishes a phased approach to characterize contaminants, assess current risks, and determine whether or not there is a need for any cleanup actions. Field investigation activities began in October 2008 and are anticipated to continue into Fall 2009 over a 120 mile stretch of the Columbia River. Information gained from performing this remedial investigation will ultimately be used to help make final regulatory decisions for cleaning up Hanford Site contamination that exists in and along the Columbia River. (authors)

  8. Non-Galerkin Coarse Grids for Algebraic Multigrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falgout, Robert D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schroder, Jacob B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-06-26

    Algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a popular and effective solver for systems of linear equations that arise from discretized partial differential equations. And while AMG has been effectively implemented on large scale parallel machines, challenges remain, especially when moving to exascale. Particularly, stencil sizes (the number of nonzeros in a row) tend to increase further down in the coarse grid hierarchy, and this growth leads to more communication. Therefore, as problem size increases and the number of levels in the hierarchy grows, the overall efficiency of the parallel AMG method decreases, sometimes dramatically. This growth in stencil size is due to the standard Galerkin coarse grid operator, $P^T A P$, where $P$ is the prolongation (i.e., interpolation) operator. For example, the coarse grid stencil size for a simple three-dimensional (3D) seven-point finite differencing approximation to diffusion can increase into the thousands on present day machines, causing an associated increase in communication costs. We therefore consider algebraically truncating coarse grid stencils to obtain a non-Galerkin coarse grid. First, the sparsity pattern of the non-Galerkin coarse grid is determined by employing a heuristic minimal “safe” pattern together with strength-of-connection ideas. Second, the nonzero entries are determined by collapsing the stencils in the Galerkin operator using traditional AMG techniques. The result is a reduction in coarse grid stencil size, overall operator complexity, and parallel AMG solve phase times.

  9. Estimation of natural ground water recharge for the performance assessment of a low-level waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kincaid, C.T.; Gee, G.W.

    1995-03-01

    In 1994, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated the Recharge Task, under the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project, to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Recharge Task was established to address the issue of ground water recharge in and around the LLW facility and throughout the Hanford Site as it affects the unconfined aquifer under the facility. The objectives of this report are to summarize the current knowledge of natural ground water recharge at the Hanford Site and to outline the work that must be completed in order to provide defensible estimates of recharge for use in the performance assessment of this LLW disposal facility. Recharge studies at the Hanford Site indicate that recharge rates are highly variable, ranging from nearly zero to greater than 100 mm/yr depending on precipitation, vegetative cover, and soil types. Coarse-textured soils without plants yielded the greatest recharge. Finer-textured soils, with or without plants, yielded the least. Lysimeters provided accurate, short-term measurements of recharge as well as water-balance data for the soil-atmosphere interface and root zone. Tracers provided estimates of longer-term average recharge rates in undisturbed settings. Numerical models demonstrated the sensitivity of recharge rates to different processes and forecast recharge rates for different conditions. All of these tools (lysimetry, tracers, and numerical models) are considered vital to the development of defensible estimates of natural ground water recharge rates for the performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility at the Hanford Site

  10. Information storage and retrieval system at Westinghouse Hanford Company Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theo, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    The information storage and retrieval system developed at Westinghouse--Hanford is described. It will be able to store over two million documents on line. The system uses an interactive minicomputer to search for keyworded documents. Documents of interest can be displayed on CRTs or printed on microfilm reader--printers. 31 figures

  11. Annual Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2008-12-29

    The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The HSAP is responsible for locating and identifying sources of seismic activity and monitoring changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the HSAP works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. During fiscal year 2008, the Hanford Seismic Network recorded 1431 triggers on the seismometer system, which included 112 seismic events in the southeast Washington area and an additional 422 regional and teleseismic events. There were 74 events determined to be local earthquakes relevant to the Hanford Site. The highest-magnitude event (3.7 Mc) occurred on May 18, 2008, and was located approximately 17 km east of Prosser at a depth of 20.5 km. With regard to the depth distribution, 13 earthquakes were located at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), 45 earthquakes were located at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and 16 earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, 54 earthquakes were located in swarm areas and 20 earthquakes were classified as random events. The May 18 earthquake was the highest magnitude event recorded since 1975 in the vicinity of the Hanford Site (between 46 degrees and 47 degrees north latitude and

  12. Aggregate-associated carbon and nitrogen in reclaimed sandy loam soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, A.F.; Stahl, P.D.; Ingram, L.J. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Minimal research has been conducted on aggregate, C, and N in coarse-textured soils used to reclaim surface coal mine lands. Furthermore, little is known about the contribution different plant communities make to the recovery of aggregation in these soils. Two chronosequences of semiarid reclaimed sites with sandy loam soils were sampled under shrub- and grass-dominated communities. Aggregation, aggregate fractions, and associated C and N were measured. No definitive trends of increasing macroaggregates between sites were observed undershrubs; however, macro- and microaggregation was greater in the 16-yr-old (0.20 and 0.23 kg aggregate kg{sup -1} soil, respectively) than in the 5-yr-old soils (0.02 and 0.08 kg aggregate kg{sup -1} soil, respectively) under grasses. Although C and N concentrations were drastically reduced (50-75%) with mining activity between the <1-yr-old and native soils, aggregate C and N concentrations tinder shrubs and grasses were similar to each other and to the native soils in the 5-yr-old site. Sods under grass in the 16-yr-old site had lower available and aggregate-occluded C and N concentrations than the 5-yr-old site, while C and N concentrations did not change between 5- and 16-yr-old soils under shrubs. Conversely, aggregate C and N pool sizes under shrubs and grasses both increased with site age to conditions similar to those observed in the native soil. Reclaimed shrub site soils had consistently higher C concentrations in the older reclaimed sites (10 and 16 yr old) than the soils under grasses, indicating greater accumulation and retention of C and N in organic material under shrub than grass communities in semiarid reclaimed sites.

  13. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A.

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment and is numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in Hanford Site NEPA related documents. The document is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents that are being prepared by contractors. The two chapters in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered this way to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes the Hanford Site environment, and includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site

  14. Hanford Site environmental surveillance data report for calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-07-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site collects data that provides a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford operations. Data are also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River Water and Sediment. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory publishes an annual environmental report for the Hanford Site each calendar year. The Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995 describes the Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, and environmental monitoring activities and results. The report includes a summary of offsite and onsite environmental monitoring data collected during 1995 by PNNL's Environmental Monitoring Program. Appendix A of that report contains data summaries created from raw surface, river monitoring data, and chemical air data. This volume contains the actual raw data used to create the summaries. The data volume also includes Hanford Site drinking water radiological data

  15. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Data Report for Calendar Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2009-08-11

    Environmental surveillance on and around the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. The environmental surveillance data collected for this report provide a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford Site operations. Data were also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River water, sediment, and wildlife. These data are included in this appendix. This report is the first of two appendices that support "Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2008" (PNNL-18427), which describes the Hanford Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, Hanford Site cleanup and remediation efforts, and environmental monitoring activities and results.

  16. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A. [and others

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site environment and is numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in Hanford Site NEPA related documents. The document is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents that are being prepared by contractors. The two chapters in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered this way to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes the Hanford Site environment, and includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site.

  17. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Data Report for Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2008-10-13

    Environmental surveillance on and around the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. The environmental surveillance data collected for this report provide a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford Site operations. Data were also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River water, sediment, and wildlife. These data are included in this appendix. This report is the first of two appendices that support "Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2007" (PNNL-17603), which describes the Hanford Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, Hanford Site cleanup and remediation efforts, and environmental monitoring activities and results.

  18. Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and environmental evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act remedial investigations (RIs) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facility investigations (FIs) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies Site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and environmental risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site.

  19. Hanford Site Anuran Monitoring Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, Justin W. [Mission Support Alliance LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Scott J. [Mission Support Alliance LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Lindsey, Cole T. [Mission Support Alliance LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) conducts ecological monitoring on the Hanford Site to collect and track data needed to ensure compliance with an array of environmental laws, regulations, and policies governing DOE activities. Ecological monitoring data provide baseline information about the plants, animals, and habitat under DOE-RL stewardship at Hanford required for decision-making under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The Hanford Site Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP, DOE/EIS-0222-F) which is the Environmental Impact Statement for Hanford Site activities, helps ensure that DOE-RL, its contractors, and other entities conducting activities on the Hanford Site are in compliance with NEPA.

  20. Hanford Mission Plan risk-based prioritization methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesser, W.A.; Madden, M.S.; Pyron, N.M.; Butcher, J.L.

    1994-08-01

    Sites across the US Department (DOE) complex recognize the critical need for a systematic method for prioritizing among their work scope activities. Here at the Hanford Site, Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) conducted preliminary research into techniques to meet this need and assist managers in making financial resource allocation decisions. This research is a subtask of the risk management task of the Hanford Mission Plan as described in the WHC Integrated Planning Work Breakdown Structure 1.8.2 Fiscal Year 1994 Work Plan. The research team investigated prioritization techniques used at other DOE sites and compared them with the Priority Planning Grid (PPG), a tool used at Hanford. The authors concluded that the PPG could be used for prioritization of resource allocation, but it needed to be revised to better reflect the Site's priorities and objectives. The revised PPG was tested with three Hanford programs, the PPG was modified, and updated procedures were prepared

  1. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This plan, which is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400. 1, provides waste minimization and pollution prevention guidance for all Hanford Site contractors. The plan is primary in a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, Prime contractor implementation plans, and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation (DOE-RL, 1997a) describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Items discussed include the pollution prevention policy and regulatory background, organizational structure, the major objectives and goals of Hanford Site's pollution prevention program, and an itemized description of the Hanford Site pollution prevention program. The document also includes US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office's (RL's) statement of policy on pollution prevention as well as a listing of regulatory drivers that require a pollution prevention program

  2. Second and Third Quarters Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Rohay, Alan C.

    1999-10-08

    Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site.

  3. Third Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

    2000-09-01

    Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its con-tractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (E WRN) consist of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The HSN uses 21 sites and the EWRN uses 36 sites; both networks share 16 sites. The networks have 46 combined data channels because Gable Butte and Frenchman Hills East are three-component sites. The reconfiguration of the telemetry and recording systems was completed during the first quarter. All leased telephone lines have been eliminated and radio telemetry is now used exclusively. For the HSN, there were 818 triggers on two parallel detection and recording systems during the third quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2000. Thirteen seismic events were located by the Hanford Seismic Network within the reporting region of 46-47{degree} N latitude and 119-120{degree} W longitude; 7 were earthquakes in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 1 was an earthquake in the pre-basalt sediments, and 5 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Three earthquakes occurred in known swarm areas, and 10 earthquakes were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometers during the third quarter of FY 2000.

  4. Second Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartshorn, D.C.; Reidel, S.P.; Rohay, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the US Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consist of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The HSN uses 21 sites and the EWRN uses 36 sites; both networks share 16 sites. The networks have 46 combined data channels because Gable Butte and Frenchman Hills East are three-component sites. The reconfiguration of the telemetry and recording systems was completed during the first quarter. All leased telephone lines have been eliminated and radio telemetry is now used exclusively. For the HSN, there were 506 triggers on two parallel detection and recording systems during the second quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2000. Twenty-seven seismic events were located by the Hanford Seismic Network within the reporting region of 46--47degree N latitude and 119--120degree W longitude; 12 were earthquakes in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 2 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, 9 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement, and 5 were quarry blasts. Three earthquakes appear to be related to geologic structures, eleven earthquakes occurred in known swarm areas, and seven earthquakes were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion

  5. Second Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

    2000-07-17

    Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the US Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consist of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The HSN uses 21 sites and the EWRN uses 36 sites; both networks share 16 sites. The networks have 46 combined data channels because Gable Butte and Frenchman Hills East are three-component sites. The reconfiguration of the telemetry and recording systems was completed during the first quarter. All leased telephone lines have been eliminated and radio telemetry is now used exclusively. For the HSN, there were 506 triggers on two parallel detection and recording systems during the second quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2000. Twenty-seven seismic events were located by the Hanford Seismic Network within the reporting region of 46--47{degree} N latitude and 119--120{degree} W longitude; 12 were earthquakes in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 2 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, 9 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement, and 5 were quarry blasts. Three earthquakes appear to be related to geologic structures, eleven earthquakes occurred in known swarm areas, and seven earthquakes were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion

  6. First quarter Hanford seismic report for fiscal year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

    2000-02-23

    Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the US Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consist of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The HSN uses 21 sites and the EW uses 36 sites; both networks share 16 sites. The networks have 46 combined data channels because Gable Butte and Frenchman Hills East are three-component sites. The reconfiguration of the telemetry and recording systems was completed during the first quarter. All leased telephone lines have been eliminated and radio telemetry is now used exclusively. For the HSN, there were 311 triggers on two parallel detection and recording systems during the first quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2000. Twelve seismic events were located by the Hanford Seismic Network within the reporting region of 46--47{degree}N latitude and 119--120{degree}W longitude; 2 were earthquakes in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 3 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, 9 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement, and 1 was a quarry blast. Two earthquakes appear to be related to a major geologic structure, no earthquakes occurred in known swarm areas, and 9 earthquakes were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometers

  7. First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2008-03-21

    The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, forty-four local earthquakes were recorded during the first quarter of fiscal year 2008. A total of thirty-one micro earthquakes were recorded within the Rattlesnake Mountain swarm area at depths in the 5-8 km range, most likely within the pre-basalt sediments. The largest event recorded by the network during the first quarter (November 25, 2007 - magnitude 1.5 Mc) was located within this swarm area at a depth of 4.3 km. With regard to the depth distribution, three earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), thirty-six earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and five earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, thirty-eight earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and six earth¬quakes were classified as random events.

  8. Second Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2008-06-26

    The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, seven local earthquakes were recorded during the second quarter of fiscal year 2008. The largest event recorded by the network during the second quarter (February 3, 2008 - magnitude 2.3 Mc) was located northeast of Richland in Franklin County at a depth of 22.5 km. With regard to the depth distribution, two earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), three earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and two earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, five earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and two earthquakes were classified as random events.

  9. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2009-08-28

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document.

  10. Management of Hanford Site non-defense production reactor spent nuclear fuel, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) needs to provide radiologically, and industrially safe and cost-effective management of the non-defense production reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Hanford Site. The proposed action would place the Hanford Site's non-defense production reactor SNF in a radiologically- and industrially-safe, and passive storage condition pending final disposition. The proposed action would also reduce operational costs associated with storage of the non-defense production reactor SNF through consolidation of the SNF and through use of passive rather than active storage systems. Environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with existing non-defense production reactor SNF storage facilities have been identified. DOE has determined that additional activities are required to consolidate non-defense production reactor SNF management activities at the Hanford Site, including cost-effective and safe interim storage, prior to final disposition, to enable deactivation of facilities where the SNF is now stored. Cost-effectiveness would be realized: through reduced operational costs associated with passive rather than active storage systems; removal of SNF from areas undergoing deactivation as part of the Hanford Site remediation effort; and eliminating the need to duplicate future transloading facilities at the 200 and 400 Areas. Radiologically- and industrially-safe storage would be enhanced through: (1) removal from aging facilities requiring substantial upgrades to continue safe storage; (2) utilization of passive rather than active storage systems for SNF; and (3) removal of SNF from some storage containers which have a limited remaining design life. No substantial increase in Hanford Site environmental impacts would be expected from the proposed action. Environmental impacts from postulated accident scenarios also were evaluated, and indicated that the risks associated with the proposed action would be small

  11. Meiofauna of some sandy beaches of Andaman Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.

    Comparatively high meiofauna numbers were recorded from beaches having fine sand particles than those having coarse to medium sand particles The fauna was dominated mainly by nematodes (53.7%), harpacticoids (13.7%) and polychaetes (12.8%) On all...

  12. CALCULATING ECONOMIC RISK AFTER HANFORD CLEANUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Since late 1997, researchers at the Hanford Site have been engaged in the Groundwater Protection Project (formerly, the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Project), developing a suite of integrated physical and environmental models and supporting data to trace the complex path of Hanford legacy contaminants through the environment for the next thousand years, and to estimate corresponding environmental, human health, economic, and cultural risks. The linked set of models and data is called the System Assessment Capability (SAC). The risk mechanism for economics consists of ''impact triggers'' (sequences of physical and human behavior changes in response to, or resulting from, human health or ecological risks), and processes by which particular trigger mechanisms induce impacts. Economic impacts stimulated by the trigger mechanisms may take a variety of forms, including changes in either costs or revenues for economic sectors associated with the affected resource or activity. An existing local economic impact model was adapted to calculate the resulting impacts on output, employment, and labor income in the local economy (the Tri-Cities Economic Risk Model or TCERM). The SAC researchers ran a test suite of 25 realization scenarios for future contamination of the Columbia River after site closure for a small subset of the radionuclides and hazardous chemicals known to be present in the environment at the Hanford Site. These scenarios of potential future river contamination were analyzed in TCERM. Although the TCERM model is sensitive to river contamination under a reasonable set of assumptions concerning reactions of the authorities and the public, the scenarios show low enough future contamination that the impacts on the local economy are small

  13. Disposal of Hanford site tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, M.J.

    1993-09-01

    Between 1943 and 1986, 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) were built and used to store radioactive wastes generated during reprocessing of irradiated uranium metal fuel elements at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. The 149 SSTs, located in 12 separate areas (tank farms) in the 200 East and 200 West areas, currently contain about 1.4 x 10 5 m 3 of solid and liquid wastes. Wastes in the SSTs contain about 5.7 x 10 18 Bq (170 MCi) of various radionuclides including 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 137 Cs, and transuranium (TRU) elements. The 28 DSTs also located in the 200 East and West areas contain about 9 x 10 4 m 3 of liquid (mainly) and solid wastes; approximately 4 x 10 18 Bq (90 MCi) of radionuclides are stored in the DSTs. Important characteristics and features of the various types of SST and DST wastes are described in this paper. However, the principal focus of this paper is on the evolving strategy for final disposal of both the SST and DST wastes. Also provided is a chronology which lists key events and dates in the development of strategies for disposal of Hanford Site tank wastes. One of these strategies involves pretreatment of retrieved tank wastes to separate them into a small volume of high-level radioactive waste requiring, after vitrification, disposal in a deep geologic repository and a large volume of low-level radioactive waste which can be safely disposed of in near-surface facilities at the Hanford Site. The last section of this paper lists and describes some of the pretreatment procedures and processes being considered for removal of important radionuclides from retrieved tank wastes

  14. Hanford Site Waste Managements Units reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of the 1984 United States Code (USC 1984). This report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site, including a description of the units and the waste they contain. Waste management units in this report include: (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structures, (5) RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of this report, the listing of sites is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of HSWA. The information in this report is extracted from the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The WIDS provides additional information concerning the waste management units contained in this report and is maintained current with changes to these units. This report is updated annually if determined necessary per the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1990). This report identifies 1,414 waste management units. Of these, 1,015 units are identified as solid waste management units (SWMU), and 342 are RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal units. The remaining 399 are comprised mainly of one-time spills to the environment, sanitary waste disposal facilities (i.e., septic tanks), and surplus facilities awaiting decontamination and decommissioning

  15. CALCULATING ECONOMIC RISK AFTER HANFORD CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.

    2003-02-27

    Since late 1997, researchers at the Hanford Site have been engaged in the Groundwater Protection Project (formerly, the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Project), developing a suite of integrated physical and environmental models and supporting data to trace the complex path of Hanford legacy contaminants through the environment for the next thousand years, and to estimate corresponding environmental, human health, economic, and cultural risks. The linked set of models and data is called the System Assessment Capability (SAC). The risk mechanism for economics consists of ''impact triggers'' (sequences of physical and human behavior changes in response to, or resulting from, human health or ecological risks), and processes by which particular trigger mechanisms induce impacts. Economic impacts stimulated by the trigger mechanisms may take a variety of forms, including changes in either costs or revenues for economic sectors associated with the affected resource or activity. An existing local economic impact model was adapted to calculate the resulting impacts on output, employment, and labor income in the local economy (the Tri-Cities Economic Risk Model or TCERM). The SAC researchers ran a test suite of 25 realization scenarios for future contamination of the Columbia River after site closure for a small subset of the radionuclides and hazardous chemicals known to be present in the environment at the Hanford Site. These scenarios of potential future river contamination were analyzed in TCERM. Although the TCERM model is sensitive to river contamination under a reasonable set of assumptions concerning reactions of the authorities and the public, the scenarios show low enough future contamination that the impacts on the local economy are small.

  16. Screening the Hanford tanks for trapped gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Hydrogen gas is generated within the waste in these tanks. This document presents the results of a screening of Hanford's nuclear waste storage tanks for the presence of gas trapped in the waste. The method used for the screening is to look for an inverse correlation between waste level measurements and ambient atmospheric pressure. If the waste level in a tank decreases with an increase in ambient atmospheric pressure, then the compressibility may be attributed to gas trapped within the waste. In this report, this methodology is not used to estimate the volume of gas trapped in the waste. The waste level measurements used in this study were made primarily to monitor the tanks for leaks and intrusions. Four measurement devices are widely used in these tanks. Three of these measure the level of the waste surface. The remaining device measures from within a well embedded in the waste, thereby monitoring the liquid level even if the liquid level is below a dry waste crust. In the past, a steady rise in waste level has been taken as an indicator of trapped gas. This indicator is not part of the screening calculation described in this report; however, a possible explanation for the rise is given by the mathematical relation between atmospheric pressure and waste level used to support the screening calculation. The screening was applied to data from each measurement device in each tank. If any of these data for a single tank indicated trapped gas, that tank was flagged by this screening process. A total of 58 of the 177 Hanford tanks were flagged as containing trapped gas, including 21 of the 25 tanks currently on the flammable gas watch list

  17. Criticality safety training at Westinghouse Hanford Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.A.; Paglieri, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    In 1972 the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) established a comprehensive program to certify personnel who handle fissionable materials. As the quantity of fissionable material handled at WHC has increased so has the scope of training to assure that all employes perform their work in a safe manner. This paper describes training for personnel engaged in fuel fabrication and handling activities. Most of this training is provided by the Fissionable Material Handlers Certification Program. This program meets or exceeds all DOE requirements for training and has been attended by more than 475 employes. Since the program was instituted, the rate of occurrence of criticality safety limit violations has decreased by 50%

  18. Strategic plan for Hanford site information management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Hanford Site missions are to clean up the Site, to provide scientific knowledge and technology to meet global needs, and to partner in the economic diversification of the region. To achieve these long-term missions and increase confidence in the quality of the Site's decision making process, a dramatically different information management culture is required, consistent with US Department of Energy (DOE) mandates on increased safety, productivity, and openness at its sites. This plan presents a vision and six strategies that will move the Site toward an information management culture that will support the Site missions and address the mandates of DOE

  19. FY 2001 Hanford Waste Management Strategic Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COLLINS, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    We are pleased to present the 2001 Hanford Waste Management Program Strategic Plan. This plan supports the newly developed U. S. Department of Energy Site outcomes strategy. The 2001 Plan reflects current and projected needs for Waste Management Program services in support of Hanford Site cleanup, and updates the objectives and actions using new waste stream oriented logic for the strategic goals: (1) waste treatment/processing, storage, and disposal; (2) interfaces; and (3) program excellence. Overall direction for the Program is provided by the Waste Management Division, Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, U. S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is the operating contractor for the program. This Plan documents proactive strategies for planning and budgeting, with a major focus on helping meet regulatory commitments in a timely and efficient manner and concurrently assisting us in completing programs cheaper, better and quicker. Newly developed waste stream oriented logic was incorporated to clarify Site outcomes. External drivers, technology inputs, treatment/processing, storage and disposal strategies, and stream specific strategies are included for the six major waste types addressed in this Plan (low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, contact-handled transuranic waste, remote-handled transuranic waste, liquid waste, and cesium/strontium capsules). The key elements of the strategy are identification and quantification of the needs for waste management services, assessment of capabilities, and development of cost-effective actions to meet the needs and to continuously improve performance. Accomplishment of specific actions as set forth in the Plan depends on continued availability of the required resources and funding. The primary objectives of Plan are: (1) enhance the Waste Management Program to improve flexibility, become more holistic especially by implementing new

  20. Mixed waste management at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.J.; Jasen, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, special projects have been initiated for the management of RMW. This paper addresses the management of solid RMW. The management of bulk liquid RMW will not be described. 7 refs., 4 figs

  1. Summary Analysis: Hanford Site Composite Analysis Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Lehman, L. L. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-06-05

    The Hanford Site’s currently maintained Composite Analysis, originally completed in 1998, requires an update. A previous update effort was undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2001-2005, but was ended before completion to allow the Tank Closure & Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement (TC&WM EIS) (DOE/EIS-0391) to be prepared without potential for conflicting sitewide models. This EIS was issued in 2012, and the deferral was ended with guidance in memorandum “Modeling to Support Regulatory Decision Making at Hanford” (Williams, 2012) provided with the aim of ensuring subsequent modeling is consistent with the EIS.

  2. HANFORD TANK CLEANUP UPDATE MAY 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Retrieval of waste from single-shell tank C-110 resumed in January making it the first waste retrieval operation for WRPS since taking over Hanford's Tank Operations Contract last October. Now, with approximately 90 percent of the waste removed, WRPS believes that modified sluicing has reached the limits of the technology to remove any further waste and is preparing documentation for use in decision making about any future retrieval actions. Tank C-110 is located in C Fann near the center of the Hanford Site. It is a 530,000 gallon tank, built in 1946, and held approximately 126,000 gallons of sludge and other radioactive and chemical waste materials when retrieval resumed. Modified sluicing technology uses liquid waste from a nearby double-shell tank to break up, dissolve and mobilize the solid material so it can be pumped. Because of the variety of waste fon11S, sluicing is often not able to remove all of the waste. The remaining waste will next be sampled for analysis, and results will be used to guide decisions regarding future actions. Work is moving rapidly in preparation to retrieve waste from a second single-shell tank this summer and transfer it to safer double-shell tank storage. Construction activities necessary to retrieve waste from Tank C-104, a 530,000 gallon tank built in 1943, are approximately 60 percent complete as WRPS maintains its focus on reducing the risk posed by Hanford's aging single-shell waste tanks. C-104 is one of Hanford's oldest radioactive and chemical waste storage tanks, containing approximately 263,000 gallons of wet sludge with a top layer that is dry and powdery. This will be the largest sludge volume retrieval ever attempted using modified sluicing technology. Modified sluicing uses high pressure water or liquid radioactive waste sprayed from nozzles above the waste. The liquid dissolves and/or mobilizes the waste so it can be pumped. In addition to other challenges, tank C-104 contains a significant amount of plutonium and

  3. ChemWaste appeals Hanford permit stance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical Waste Management, Inc. is appealing the Washington State Department of Ecology's decision to suspend its review of the company's proposal to build a hazardous waste incinerator and two mixed waste incinerators at the Hanford Nuclear Site near Richland, Washington. The company wants to build the incinerators on a 200 acre parcel in the DOE reservation that is leased to the State. The State contends the two mixed waste incinerators meet siting criteria, but the hazardous waste unit does not. A compromise may be reached between DOE and Washington state involving the transfer of title to the leased land from DOE to the State

  4. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-07-11

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY

  5. Hanford radiochemical site decommissioning demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.C.

    1971-01-01

    A program is proposed for the innovation, development, and demonstration of technologies necessary to decommission the Hanford radiochemical plant area to the extent that the sites can have unrestricted public access. The five tasks selected for development and demonstration of restoration techniques were restoration of a burial ground, decommissioning of a separations plant, restoration of a separations plant waste interim storage tank farm, restoration of a liquid disposal area, and disposal of large contaminated equipment. Process development requirements are tabulated and discussed. A proposed schedule and estimated costs are given

  6. Preparation of Sandy Soil Stabilizer for Roads Based on Radiation Modified Polymer Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnahas, H.H.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation modified polymer composite (RMPC) was studied to build an extremely durable sandy road, construct a trail or bath, or control dust and erosion. A dilute solution of composite binds sandy soil fines through a coagulation bonding process. The result is a dense soil structure that has superior resistance to cracks and water penetration and can also solve erosion control problems. In erosion control applications, diluted composite is merely sprayed into sandy soil without compaction, effectively sealing the surface to prevent air-born dust or deterioration from erosion. The prepared composite has an elastic and melt-able film formation that imparts thermal compacting to the stabilized sandy soil after full dryness for sandy road leveling, repairing and restoration processes. The prepared composite is environmentally economical when compared with traditional sandy soil stabilizing (SSS) or sealing methods.

  7. Property A and Coarse Embedding for Locally Compact Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang

    property A. In a joint work with Knudby, we characterize the connected simple Lie groups with the discrete topology that have different approximation properties (see Article B). Moreover, we give a contractive Schur multiplier characterization of locally compact groups coarsely embeddable into Hilbert......In the study of the Novikov conjecture, property A and coarse embedding of metric spaces were introduced by Yu and Gromov, respectively. The main topic of the thesis is property A and coarse embedding for locally compact second countable groups. We prove that many of the results that are known...... to hold in the discrete setting, hold also in the locally compact setting.In a joint work with Deprez, we show that property A is equivalent to amenability at infinity and the strong Novikov conjecture is true for every locally compact group that embeds coarsely into a Hilbert space (see Article A...

  8. Comparison of coarse-grained (MARTINI) and atomistic molecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajat Desikan

    as the root mean square deviation (RMSD) histograms and the inner pore radius profiles from ... ever coarse-grained simulations of membrane-proteins ..... from the MARTINI simulations show greater fluctuations than the all-atom simulations.

  9. Information Theoretic Tools for Parameter Fitting in Coarse Grained Models

    KAUST Repository

    Kalligiannaki, Evangelia; Harmandaris, Vagelis; Katsoulakis, Markos A.; Plechac, Petr

    2015-01-01

    We study the application of information theoretic tools for model reduction in the case of systems driven by stochastic dynamics out of equilibrium. The model/dimension reduction is considered by proposing parametrized coarse grained dynamics

  10. Nonlinear Multigrid solver exploiting AMGe Coarse Spaces with Approximation Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour; Villa, Umberto; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    The paper introduces a nonlinear multigrid solver for mixed finite element discretizations based on the Full Approximation Scheme (FAS) and element-based Algebraic Multigrid (AMGe). The main motivation to use FAS for unstructured problems is the guaranteed approximation property of the AMGe coarse...... properties of the coarse spaces. With coarse spaces with approximation properties, our FAS approach on unstructured meshes has the ability to be as powerful/successful as FAS on geometrically refined meshes. For comparison, Newton’s method and Picard iterations with an inner state-of-the-art linear solver...... are compared to FAS on a nonlinear saddle point problem with applications to porous media flow. It is demonstrated that FAS is faster than Newton’s method and Picard iterations for the experiments considered here. Due to the guaranteed approximation properties of our AMGe, the coarse spaces are very accurate...

  11. Coarse-mesh rebalancing acceleration for eigenvalue problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaoka, T.; Nakahara, Y.; Miyasaka, S.

    1974-01-01

    The coarse-mesh rebalance method is adopted for Monte Carlo schemes for aiming at accelerating the convergence of a source iteration process. At every completion of the Monte Carlo game for one batch of neutron histories, the scaling factor for the neutron flux is calculated to achieve the neutron balance in each coarse-mesh zone into which the total system is divided. This rebalance factor is multiplied to the weight of each fission source neutron in the coarse-mesh zone for playing the next Monte Carlo game. The numerical examples have shown that the coarse-mesh rebalance Monte Carlo calculation gives a good estimate of the eigenvalue already after several batches with a negligible extra computer time compared to the standard Monte Carlo. 5 references. (U.S.)

  12. Recycled tires as coarse aggregate in concrete pavement mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The reuse potential of tire chips as coarse aggregates in pavement concrete was examined in this research by : investigating the effects of low- and high-volume tire chips on fresh and hardened concrete properties. One concrete : control mixture was ...

  13. Two-level method with coarse space size independent convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanek, P.; Brezina, M. [Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States); Tezaur, R.; Krizkova, J. [UWB, Plzen (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The basic disadvantage of the standard two-level method is the strong dependence of its convergence rate on the size of the coarse-level problem. In order to obtain the optimal convergence result, one is limited to using a coarse space which is only a few times smaller than the size of the fine-level one. Consequently, the asymptotic cost of the resulting method is the same as in the case of using a coarse-level solver for the original problem. Today`s two-level domain decomposition methods typically offer an improvement by yielding a rate of convergence which depends on the ratio of fine and coarse level only polylogarithmically. However, these methods require the use of local subdomain solvers for which straightforward application of iterative methods is problematic, while the usual application of direct solvers is expensive. We suggest a method diminishing significantly these difficulties.

  14. Third Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2008-09-01

    The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, fourteen local earthquakes were recorded during the third quarter of fiscal year 2008. The largest event recorded by the network during the third quarter (May 18, 2008 - magnitude 3.7 Mc) was located approximately 17 km east of Prosser at a depth of 20.5 km. With regard to the depth distribution, five earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), six earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and three earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, eight earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and six earthquakes were classified as random events. The largest event recorded by the network during the third quarter occurred on May 18 (magnitude 3.7 Mc) and was located approximately 17 km east of Prosser at a depth of 20.5 km. This earthquake was the highest magnitude event recorded in the 46-47 N. latitude / 119-120 W. longitude sector since 1975

  15. Estimating the shear strength of concrete with coarse aggregate replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Folagbade Olusoga Peter ORIOLA; George MOSES; Jacob Oyeniyi AFOLAYAN; John Engbonye SANI

    2017-01-01

    For economic, environmental and practical reasons, it is desirable to replace the constituents of concrete with wastes and cheaper alternative materials. However, it is best when such replacements are done at optimum replacement levels. In view of this, a laboratory investigative test was carried out to evaluate the shear strength of concrete with coarse aggregate replacement by Coconut Shell and by Waste Rubber Tyre. The coarse aggregate replacement was done at recommended optimum proportion...

  16. An Evaluation of Coarse-Grained Locking for Multicore Microkernels

    OpenAIRE

    Elphinstone, Kevin; Zarrabi, Amirreza; Danis, Adrian; Shen, Yanyan; Heiser, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    The trade-off between coarse- and fine-grained locking is a well understood issue in operating systems. Coarse-grained locking provides lower overhead under low contention, fine-grained locking provides higher scalability under contention, though at the expense of implementation complexity and re- duced best-case performance. We revisit this trade-off in the context of microkernels and tightly-coupled cores with shared caches and low inter-core migration latencies. We evaluate performance on ...

  17. Online Media Use and Adoption by Hurricane Sandy Affected Fire and Police Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Apoorva

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis work, I examine the use and adoption of online communication media by 840 fire and police departments that were affected by the 2012 Hurricane Sandy. I began by exploring how and why these fire and police departments used (or did not use) online media to communicate with the public during Hurricane Sandy. Results show that fire and police departments used online media during Hurricane Sandy to give timely and relevant information to the public about things such as evacuations, ...

  18. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Schwartz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130. There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = −0.33, p < 0.01 and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD scores (mean difference = −1.98, p = 0.001 between baseline and follow-up. Experiencing a combination of personal and property damage was positively associated with long-term PTSD symptoms (ORadj 1.2, 95% CI [1.1–1.4] but not with anxiety or depression. Having anxiety, depression, or PTSD at baseline was a significant predictor of persistent anxiety (ORadj 2.8 95% CI [1.1–6.8], depression (ORadj 7.4 95% CI [2.3–24.1 and PTSD (ORadj 4.1 95% CI [1.1–14.6] at follow-up. Exposure to Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  19. Constraining Depositional Slope From Sedimentary Structures in Sandy Braided Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynds, R. M.; Mohrig, D.; Heller, P. L.

    2003-12-01

    Determination of paleoslopes in ancient fluvial systems has potentially broad application to quantitatively constraining the history of tectonics and paleoclimate in continental sequences. Our method for calculating paleoslopes for sandy braided streams is based upon a simple physical model that establishes depositional skin-frictional shear stresses from assemblages of sedimentary structures and their associated grain size distributions. The addition of a skin-frictional shear stress, with a geometrically determined form-drag shear stress results in a total boundary shear stress which is directly related to water-surface slope averaged over an appropriate spatial scale. In order to apply this model to ancient fluvial systems, it is necessary to measure the following: coarsest suspended sediment size, finest grain size carried in bed load, flow depth, dune height, and dune length. In the rock record, suspended load and bed load can be accurately assessed by well-preserved suspended load deposits ("low-energy" ripples) and bed load deposits (dune foresets). This model predicts an average slope for the North Loup River near Taylor, Nebraska (modern case study) of 2.7 x 10-3. The measured reach-averaged water surface slope for the same reach of the river is 1.37 x 10-3. We suggest that it is possible to calculate the depositional slope of a sandy fluvial system by a factor of approximately two. Additionally, preliminary application of this model to the Lower Jurassic Kayenta Formation throughout the Colorado Plateau provides a promising and consistent evaluation of paleoslope in an ancient and well-preserved, sandy braided stream deposit.

  20. Disentangling diversity patterns in sandy beaches along environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Francisco R; Gómez, Julio; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Species richness in sandy beaches is strongly affected by concurrent variations in morphodynamics and salinity. However, as in other ecosystems, different groups of species may exhibit contrasting patterns in response to these environmental variables, which would be obscured if only aggregate richness is considered. Deconstructing biodiversity, i.e. considering richness patterns separately for different groups of species according to their taxonomic affiliation, dispersal mode or mobility, could provide a more complete understanding about factors that drive species richness patterns. This study analyzed macroscale variations in species richness at 16 Uruguayan sandy beaches with different morphodynamics, distributed along the estuarine gradient generated by the Rio de la Plata over a 2 year period. Species richness estimates were deconstructed to discriminate among taxonomic groups, supralittoral and intertidal forms, and groups with different feeding habits and development modes. Species richness was lowest at intermediate salinities, increasing towards oceanic and inner estuarine conditions, mainly following the patterns shown for intertidal forms. Moreover, there was a differential tolerance to salinity changes according to the habitat occupied and development mode, which determines the degree of sensitivity of faunal groups to osmotic stress. Generalized (additive and linear) mixed models showed a clear increase of species richness towards dissipative beaches. All taxonomic categories exhibited the same trend, even though responses to grain size and beach slope were less marked for crustaceans and insects than for molluscs or polychaetes. However, supralittoral crustaceans exhibited the opposite trend. Feeding groups decreased from dissipative to reflective systems, deposit feeders being virtually absent in the latter. This deconstructive approach highlights the relevance of life history strategies in structuring communities, highlighting the relative