Online handwritten mathematical expression recognition
Büyükbayrak, Hakan; Yanikoglu, Berrin; Erçil, Aytül
2007-01-01
We describe a system for recognizing online, handwritten mathematical expressions. The system is designed with a user-interface for writing scientific articles, supporting the recognition of basic mathematical expressions as well as integrals, summations, matrices etc. A feed-forward neural network recognizes symbols which are assumed to be single-stroke and a recursive algorithm parses the expression by combining neural network output and the structure of the expression. Preliminary results show that writer-dependent recognition rates are very high (99.8%) while writer-independent symbol recognition rates are lower (75%). The interface associated with the proposed system integrates the built-in recognition capabilities of the Microsoft's Tablet PC API for recognizing textual input and supports conversion of hand-drawn figures into PNG format. This enables the user to enter text, mathematics and draw figures in a single interface. After recognition, all output is combined into one LATEX code and compiled into a PDF file.
ICFHR 2016 CROHME: Competition on Recognition of Online Handwritten Mathematical Expressions
Mouchère, Harold; Viard-Gaudin, Christian; Zanibbi, Richard; Garain, Utpal
2016-01-01
International audience; This paper presents an overview of the 5th Competition on Recognition of Online Handwritten Mathematical Expressions (CROHME). As in previous years, the main task is formula recognition from handwritten strokes (Task 1). Additional tasks include classification of isolated symbols (Task 2a), classification of isolated valid and invalid symbols (Task 2b), a new task on parsing formula structure from valid handwritten symbols (Task 3), and parsing expressions with matrice...
Classiﬁcation and recognition of handwritten digits by using mathematical morphology
V Vijaya Kumar; A Srikrishna; B Raveendra Babu; M Radhika Mani
2010-08-01
The present paper proposes a novel algorithm for recognition of handwritten digits. For this, the present paper classiﬁed the digits into two groups: one group consists of blobs with/without stems and the other digits with stems only. The blobs are identiﬁed based on a new concept called morphological region ﬁlling methods. This eliminates the problem of ﬁnding the size of blobs and their structuring elements. The digits with blobs and stems are identiﬁed by a new concept called ‘connected component’. This method completely eliminates the complex process of recognition of horizontal or vertical lines and the property called ‘concavities’. The digits with only stems are recognized, by extending stems into blobs by using connected component approach of morphology. The present method has been applied and tested with various handwritten digits from modiﬁed NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) handwritten digit database (MNIST), and the success rate has been given. The present method is also compared with various existing methods.
Handwritten Digits Recognition
Grand, Eric
2000-01-01
My work of diploma consisted in developing a Windows application for the recognition of the handwritten digits. The source images come from a pen-scanner. The user can also draw the digits directly with the mouse and do the recognition of it. In this software, I integrated the SVM Light reconizer.
Quantify spatial relations to discover handwritten graphical symbols
Li, Jinpeng; Mouchère, Harold; Viard-Gaudin, Christian
2012-01-01
To model a handwritten graphical language, spatial relations describe how the strokes are positioned in the 2-dimensional space. Most of existing handwriting recognition systems make use of some predefined spatial relations. However, considering a complex graphical language, it is hard to express manually all the spatial relations. Another possibility would be to use a clustering technique to discover the spatial relations. In this paper, we discuss how to create a relational graph between strokes (nodes) labeled with graphemes in a graphical language. Then we vectorize spatial relations (edges) for clustering and quantization. As the targeted application, we extract the repetitive sub-graphs (graphical symbols) composed of graphemes and learned spatial relations. On two handwriting databases, a simple mathematical expression database and a complex flowchart database, the unsupervised spatial relations outperform the predefined spatial relations. In addition, we visualize the frequent patterns on two text-lines containing Chinese characters.
Handwritten Document Editor: An Approach
Sumit Nalawade
2014-05-01
Full Text Available With advancement in new technologies many individuals are moving towards personalization of the same. The same idea inspired us to develop a system which can provide a personal touch to all our documents including both electronic and paper media. In this article we are proposing a novel idea for creating an edito r system which will take handwritten scanned document as the input, recognizes the characters from the document, then proceed with creating the font of recognized handwriting to allow user to edit the document. We have proposed use of genetic algorithm along with K-NN classifier for fast recognition of handwritten characters and use of marching squares algorithm for tracing contour points of characters to generate a handwritten font.
Handwritten Document Editor: An Approach
Sumit Nalawade
2015-11-01
Full Text Available With advancement in new technologies many individuals are moving towards personalization of the same. The same idea inspired us to develop a system which can provide a personal touch to all our documents including both electronic and paper media. In this article we are proposing a novel idea for creating an editor system which will take handwritten scanned document as the input, recognizes the characters from the document, then proceed with creating the font of recognized handwriting to allow user to edit the document. We have proposed use of genetic algorithm along with K-NN classifier for fast recognition of handwritten characters and use of marching squares algorithm for tracing contour points of characters to generate a handwritten font.
Nearest Neighbor Algorithm in Handwritten Character
P. R. Deshmukh
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The proposed system extracts the geometric features of the character Contour. The system gives a feature vector as its output. The feature vectors so generated from a training set is then used to train a pattern recognition engine based on Neural Networks so that the system can be benchmarked. There was an attempt made to develop a system that used the methods that humans use to perceive handwritten characters. Hence a system that recognizes handwritten characters using Pattern recognition was developed. Here the data generated by comparing two images was stored in excel format and then that data was called as an individual input for generation of Simulink diagram. Pattern recognition can be used to model human perception. The mathematics that Pattern recognition requires is extremely fundamental. Any algorithm developed using Pattern recognition would require relatively simple and not so lengthy calculations. Due to simplicity of calculations, they can be implemented on any hardware or software platform without worrying about the computing power. In this paper first part is about introduction to character Recognition. The second part deals with the short introduction to neural network implementation for image processing using MATLAB
Mathematical symbol hypothesis recognition with rejection option
Julca-Aguilar, Frank; Hirata, Nina,; Viard-Gaudin, Christian; Mouchère, Harold; Medjkoune, Sofiane
2014-01-01
International audience; In the context of handwritten mathematical expressions recognition, a first step consist on grouping strokes (segmentation) to form symbol hypotheses: groups of strokes that might represent a symbol. Then, the symbol recognition step needs to cope with the identification of wrong segmented symbols (false hypotheses). However, previous works on symbol recognition consider only correctly segmented symbols. In this work, we focus on the problem of mathematical symbol reco...
Offline Handwritten Devanagari Script Recognition
Ved Prakash Agnihotri
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Handwritten Devanagari script recognition system using neural network is presented in this paper. Diagonal based feature extraction is used for extracting features of the handwritten Devanagari script. After that these feature of each character image is converted into chromosome bit string of length 378. More than 1000 sample is used for training and testing purpose in this proposed work. It is attempted to use the power of genetic algorithm to recognize the character. In step-I preprocessing on the character image, then image suitable for feature extraction as here is used. Diagonal based feature extraction method to extract 54 features to each character. In the next step character recognize image in which extracted feature in converted into Chromosome bit string of size 378. In recognition step using fitness function in which find the Chromosome difference between unknown character and Chromosome which are store in data base.
Handwritten text line segmentation by spectral clustering
Han, Xuecheng; Yao, Hui; Zhong, Guoqiang
2017-02-01
Since handwritten text lines are generally skewed and not obviously separated, text line segmentation of handwritten document images is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a novel text line segmentation algorithm based on the spectral clustering. Given a handwritten document image, we convert it to a binary image first, and then compute the adjacent matrix of the pixel points. We apply spectral clustering on this similarity metric and use the orthogonal kmeans clustering algorithm to group the text lines. Experiments on Chinese handwritten documents database (HIT-MW) demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Hemispheric Differences in Processing Handwritten Cursive
Hellige, Joseph B.; Adamson, Maheen M.
2007-01-01
Hemispheric asymmetry was examined for native English speakers identifying consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) non-words presented in standard printed form, in standard handwritten cursive form or in handwritten cursive with the letters separated by small gaps. For all three conditions, fewer errors occurred when stimuli were presented to the right…
Handwritten digits recognition based on immune network
Li, Yangyang; Wu, Yunhui; Jiao, Lc; Wu, Jianshe
2011-11-01
With the development of society, handwritten digits recognition technique has been widely applied to production and daily life. It is a very difficult task to solve these problems in the field of pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method is presented for handwritten digit recognition. The digit samples firstly are processed and features extraction. Based on these features, a novel immune network classification algorithm is designed and implemented to the handwritten digits recognition. The proposed algorithm is developed by Jerne's immune network model for feature selection and KNN method for classification. Its characteristic is the novel network with parallel commutating and learning. The performance of the proposed method is experimented to the handwritten number datasets MNIST and compared with some other recognition algorithms-KNN, ANN and SVM algorithm. The result shows that the novel classification algorithm based on immune network gives promising performance and stable behavior for handwritten digits recognition.
Mathematical Progress in Expressive Image Synthesis I
2014-01-01
This book presents revised versions of the best papers selected from the symposium “Mathematical Progress in Expressive Image Synthesis” (MEIS2013) held in Fukuoka, Japan, in 2013. The topics cover various areas of computer graphics (CG), such as surface deformation/editing, character animation, visual simulation of fluids, texture and sound synthesis, and photorealistic rendering. From a mathematical point of view, the book also presents papers addressing discrete differential geometry, Lie theory, computational fluid dynamics, function interpolation, and learning theory. This book showcases the latest joint efforts between mathematicians, CG researchers, and practitioners exploring important issues in graphics and visual perception. The book provides a valuable resource for all computer graphics researchers seeking open problem areas, especially those now entering the field who have not yet selected a research direction.
Extraction of handwritten areas from colored image of bank checks by an hybrid method
Haboubi, Sofiene
2011-01-01
One of the first step in the realization of an automatic system of check recognition is the extraction of the handwritten area. We propose in this paper an hybrid method to extract these areas. This method is based on digit recognition by Fourier descriptors and different steps of colored image processing . It requires the bank recognition of its code which is located in the check marking band as well as the handwritten color recognition by the method of difference of histograms. The areas extraction is then carried out by the use of some mathematical morphology tools.
RECOGNITION OF HINDI (ARABIC HANDWRITTEN NUMERALS
Rawan I. Zaghloul
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Recognition of handwritten numerals has been one of the most challenging topics in image processing. This is due to its contributions in the automation process in several applications. The aim of this study was to build a classifier that can easily recognize offline handwritten Arabic numerals to support those applications that are deal with Hindi (Arabic numerals. A new algorithm for Hindi (Arabic Numeral Recognition is proposed. The proposed algorithm was developed using MATLAB and tested with a large sample of handwritten numeral datasets for different writers in different ages. Pattern recognition techniques are used to identify Hindi (Arabic handwritten numerals. After testing, high recognition rates were achieved, their ranges from 95% for some numerals and up to 99% for others. The proposed algorithm used a powerful set of features which proved to be effective in the recognition of Hindi (Arabic numerals.
Segmentation of Offline Handwritten Bengali Script
Basu, Subhadip; Kundu, Mahantapas; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak K
2012-01-01
Character segmentation has long been one of the most critical areas of optical character recognition process. Through this operation, an image of a sequence of characters, which may be connected in some cases, is decomposed into sub-images of individual alphabetic symbols. In this paper, segmentation of cursive handwritten script of world's fourth popular language, Bengali, is considered. Unlike English script, Bengali handwritten characters and its components often encircle the main character, making the conventional segmentation methodologies inapplicable. Experimental results, using the proposed segmentation technique, on sample cursive handwritten data containing 218 ideal segmentation points show a success rate of 97.7%. Further feature-analysis on these segments may lead to actual recognition of handwritten cursive Bengali script.
Efficient Index for Handwritten Text
Kamel, Ibrahim
This paper deals with one of the new emerging multimedia data types, namely, handwritten cursive text. The paper presents two indexing methods for searching a collection of cursive handwriting. The first index, word-level index, treats word as pictogram and uses global features for retrieval. The word-level index is suitable for large collection of cursive text. While the second one, called stroke-level index, treats the word as a set of strokes. The stroke-level index is more accurate, but more costly than the word level index. Each word (or stroke) can be described with a set of features and, thus, can be stored as points in the feature space. The Karhunen-Loeve transform is then used to minimize the number of features used (data dimensionality) and thus the index size. Feature vectors are stored in an R-tree. We implemented both indexes and carried many simulation experiments to measure the effectiveness and the cost of the search algorithm. The proposed indexes achieve substantial saving in the search time over the sequential search. Moreover, the proposed indexes improve the matching rate up to 46% over the sequential search.
Handwritten Arabic Numeral Recognition using a Multi Layer Perceptron
Das, Nibaran; Saha, Sudip; Haque, Syed Sahidul
2010-01-01
Handwritten numeral recognition is in general a benchmark problem of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence. Compared to the problem of printed numeral recognition, the problem of handwritten numeral recognition is compounded due to variations in shapes and sizes of handwritten characters. Considering all these, the problem of handwritten numeral recognition is addressed under the present work in respect to handwritten Arabic numerals. Arabic is spoken throughout the Arab World and the fifth most popular language in the world slightly before Portuguese and Bengali. For the present work, we have developed a feature set of 88 features is designed to represent samples of handwritten Arabic numerals for this work. It includes 72 shadow and 16 octant features. A Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) based classifier is used here for recognition handwritten Arabic digits represented with the said feature set. On experimentation with a database of 3000 samples, the technique yields an average recognition rate of 94....
DATABASES FOR RECOGNITION OF HANDWRITTEN ARABIC CHEQUES
Alohali, Y.; Cheriet, M.; Suen, C.Y.
2004-01-01
This paper describes an effort toward building Arabic cheque databases for research in recognition of handwritten Arabic cheques. Databases of Arabic legal amounts, Arabic sub words, courtesy amounts, Indian digits, and Arabic cheques are provided. This paper highlights the characteristics of the A
RECOGNITION AND VERIFICATION OF TOUCHING HANDWRITTEN NUMERALS
Zhou, J.; Kryzak, A.; Suen, C.Y.
2004-01-01
In the field of financial document processing, recognition of touching handwritten numerals has been limited by lack of good benchmarking databases and low reliability of algorithms. This paper addresses the efforts toward solving the two problems. Two databases IRIS-Bell\\\\\\'98 and TNIST are built/o
Separability versus Prototypicality in Handwritten Word Retrieval
van Oosten, Jean-Paul; Schomaker, Lambertus
User appreciation of a word-image retrieval system is based on the quality of a hit list for a query. Using support vector machines for ranking in large scale, handwritten document collections, we observed that many hit lists suffered from bad instances in the top ranks. An analysis of this problem
Offline Handwritten Script Identification in Document Images
Mallikarjun Hangarge; B V Dhandra
2010-01-01
... of such images, or as a precursor to optical character recognition (OCR). In this paper, we investigate a texture as a tool for determining the script of handwritten document image, based on the observation that text has a distinct visual texture...
Segmentation and Recognition of Handwritten Numeric Chains
Salim Ouchtati
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Automatic reading of numeric chains has been attempted in several application areas such as bank cheque processing, postal code recognition and form processing. Such applications have been very popular in handwriting recognition research, due to the possibility to reduce considerably the manual effort involved in these tasks. In this study we propose an off line system for the recognition of the handwritten numeric chains. Firstly, study was based mainly on the evaluation of neural network performances, trained with the gradient back propagation algorithm. Used parameters to form the input vector of the neural network are extracted on the binary images of the digits by several methods: distribution sequence, Barr features and centred moments of different projections and profiles. Secondly, study was extented for the reading of the handwritten numeric chains constituted of a variable number of digits. Vertical projection was used to segment the numeric chain at isolated digits and every digit (or segment was presented separately to the entry of the system achieved in the first part (recognition system of the isolated handwritten digits. The performances of the proposed system for the used database attain a recognition rate equal to 91.3%.
Font generation of personal handwritten Chinese characters
Lin, Jeng-Wei; Wang, Chih-Yin; Ting, Chao-Lung; Chang, Ray-I.
2014-01-01
Today, digital multimedia messages have drawn more and more attention due to the great achievement of computer and network techniques. Nevertheless, text is still the most popular media for people to communicate with others. Many fonts have been developed so that product designers can choose unique fonts to demonstrate their idea gracefully. It is commonly believed that handwritings can reflect one's personality, emotion, feeling, education level, and so on. This is especially true in Chinese calligraphy. However, it is not easy for ordinary users to customize a font of their personal handwritings. In this study, we performed a process reengineering in font generation. We present a new method to create font in a batch mode. Rather than to create glyphs of characters one by one according to their codepoints, people create glyphs incrementally in an on-demand manner. A Java Implementation is developed to read a document image of user handwritten Chinese characters, and make a vector font of these handwritten Chinese characters. Preliminary experiment result shows that the proposed method can help ordinary users create their personal handwritten fonts easily and quickly.
Handwritten Digits Recognition Using Neural Computing
Călin Enăchescu
2009-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for the recognition of handwritten digits and a practical implementation of this method for real-time recognition. A theoretical framework for the neural networks used to classify the handwritten digits is also presented.The classiﬁcation task is performed using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN. CNN is a special type of multy-layer neural network, being trained with an optimized version of the back-propagation learning algorithm.CNN is designed to recognize visual patterns directly from pixel images with minimal preprocessing, being capable to recognize patterns with extreme variability (such as handwritten characters, and with robustness to distortions and simple geometric transformations.The main contributions of this paper are related to theoriginal methods for increasing the efﬁciency of the learning algorithm by preprocessing the images before the learning process and a method for increasing the precision and performance for real-time applications, by removing the non useful information from the background.By combining these strategies we have obtained an accuracy of 96.76%, using as training set the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology database.
Is Word Order Asymmetry Mathematically Expressible?
Koji Arikawa
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The computational procedure for human natural language (CHL shows an asymmetry in unmarked orders for S, O, and V. Following Lyle Jenkins, it is speculated that the asymmetry is expressible as a group-theoretical factor (included in Chomsky’s third factor: “[W]ord order types would be the (asymmetric stable solutions of the symmetric still-to-be-discovered ‘equations’ governing word order distribution”. A possible “symmetric equation” is a linear transformation f(x = y, where function f is a set of merge operations (transformations expressed as a set of symmetric transformations of an equilateral triangle, x is the universal base vP input expressed as the identity triangle, and y is a mapped output tree expressed as an output triangle that preserves symmetry. Although the symmetric group S3 of order 3! = 6 is too simple, this very simplicity is the reason that in the present work cost differences are considered among the six symmetric operations of S3. This article attempts to pose a set of feasible questions for future research.
Mathematical approaches in deriving hydrocarbons expressions from seismic data
Farfour, Mohammed; Yoon, Wang Jung; Yoon-Geun, Lee, Jeong-Hwan
2016-06-01
Defining and understanding hydrocarbon expressions in seismic expression is main concern of geoscientists in oil and gas exploration and production. Over the last decades several mathematical approaches have been developed in this regard. Most of approaches have addressed information in amplitude of seismic data. Recently, more attention has been drawn towards frequency related information in order to extract frequency behaviors of hydrocarbons bearing sediments. Spectrally decomposing seismic data into individual frequencies found to be an excellent tool for investigating geological formations and their pore fluids. To accomplish this, several mathematical approaches have been invoked. Continuous wavelet transform and Short Time Window Fourier transform are widely used techniques for this purpose. This paper gives an overview of some widely used mathematical technique in hydrocarbon reservoir detection and mapping. This is followed by an application on real data from Boonsville field.
Using the Braille Lite To Produce Mathematical Expressions in Print.
Kapperman, Gaylen; Sticken, Jodi
2003-01-01
This article describes a strategy for using Braille Lite, a portable notetaking device that combines synthetic speech and Braille, to produce mathematical expressions that can be easily interpreted by sighted teachers who do not use Braille. The strategy also allows students to review their work tactilely on the Braille display. (Contains 2…
3rd International Symposium Mathematical Progress in Expressive Image Synthesis
Ochiai, Hiroyuki
2016-01-01
“Progress in Expressive Image Synthesis” (MEIS2015), was held in Fukuoka, Japan, September 25–27, 2015. The aim of the symposium was to provide a unique venue where various issues in computer graphics (CG) application fields could be discussed by mathematicians, CG researchers, and practitioners. Through the previous symposiums MEIS2013 and MEIS2014, mathematicians as well as CG researchers have recognized that CG is a specific and practical activity derived from mathematical theories. Issues found in CG broaden the field of mathematics and vice versa, and CG visualizes mathematical theories in an aesthetic manner. In this volume, the editors aim to provoke interdisciplinary research projects through the peer-reviewed papers and poster presentations at the this year’s symposium. This book captures interactions among mathematicians, CG researchers, and practitioners sharing important, state-of-the-art issues in graphics and visual perception. The book is suitable for all CG researchers seeking open pro...
Offline recognition of handwritten cursive words
Favata, John T.; Srihari, Sargur N.
1992-08-01
A robust algorithm for offline cursive script recognition is described. The algorithm uses a generate-and-test paradigm to analyze cursive word images. The generate phase of the algorithm intelligently segments the word after analyzing certain structural features present in the word. The test phase determines the most likely character candidates among the segmentation points by using a recognition algorithm trained on generalized cursive letter shapes. In a sense, word recognition is done by sliding a variable sized window across the word looking for recognizable characters and strokes. The output of this system is a list of all plausible interpretations of the word. This list is then analyzed by a two-step contextual post- processor which first matches all of the interpretations to a supplied dictionary using a string matching algorithm. This eliminates the least likely interpretations. The remaining candidates are then analyzed for certain character spatial relationships (local reference line finder) to finally rank the dictionary. The system has the advantage of not requiring explicit word training yet is able to recognize many handwriting styles. This system is being successfully tested on a database of handwritten words extracted from live mail with dictionary sizes of up to 300 words. Planned extensions include developing a multilevel generate-and-test paradigm which can handle any type of handwritten word.
Handwritten Text Image Authentication using Back Propagation
Chakravarthy, A S N; Avadhani, P S
2011-01-01
Authentication is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a datum or entity. This might involve confirming the identity of a person, tracing the origins of an artefact, ensuring that a product is what it's packaging and labelling claims to be, or assuring that a computer program is a trusted one. The authentication of information can pose special problems (especially man-in-the-middle attacks), and is often wrapped up with authenticating identity. Literary can involve imitating the style of a famous author. If an original manuscript, typewritten text, or recording is available, then the medium itself (or its packaging - anything from a box to e-mail headers) can help prove or disprove the authenticity of the document. The use of digital images of handwritten historical documents has become more popular in recent years. Volunteers around the world now read thousands of these images as part of their indexing process. Handwritten text images of old documents are sometimes difficult to read or noisy du...
Handwritten Character Recognition of South Indian Scripts: A Review
Jomy, John; Kannan, Balakrishnan
2011-01-01
Handwritten character recognition is always a frontier area of research in the field of pattern recognition and image processing and there is a large demand for OCR on hand written documents. Even though, sufficient studies have performed in foreign scripts like Chinese, Japanese and Arabic characters, only a very few work can be traced for handwritten character recognition of Indian scripts especially for the South Indian scripts. This paper provides an overview of offline handwritten character recognition in South Indian Scripts, namely Malayalam, Tamil, Kannada and Telungu.
Optical character recognition of handwritten Arabic using hidden Markov models
Aulama, Mohannad M. [University of Jordan; Natsheh, Asem M. [University of Jordan; Abandah, Gheith A. [University of Jordan; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL
2011-01-01
The problem of optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten Arabic has not received a satisfactory solution yet. In this paper, an Arabic OCR algorithm is developed based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) combined with the Viterbi algorithm, which results in an improved and more robust recognition of characters at the sub-word level. Integrating the HMMs represents another step of the overall OCR trends being currently researched in the literature. The proposed approach exploits the structure of characters in the Arabic language in addition to their extracted features to achieve improved recognition rates. Useful statistical information of the Arabic language is initially extracted and then used to estimate the probabilistic parameters of the mathematical HMM. A new custom implementation of the HMM is developed in this study, where the transition matrix is built based on the collected large corpus, and the emission matrix is built based on the results obtained via the extracted character features. The recognition process is triggered using the Viterbi algorithm which employs the most probable sequence of sub-words. The model was implemented to recognize the sub-word unit of Arabic text raising the recognition rate from being linked to the worst recognition rate for any character to the overall structure of the Arabic language. Numerical results show that there is a potentially large recognition improvement by using the proposed algorithms.
Optical character recognition of handwritten Arabic using hidden Markov models
Aulama, Mohannad M.; Natsheh, Asem M.; Abandah, Gheith A.; Olama, Mohammed M.
2011-04-01
The problem of optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten Arabic has not received a satisfactory solution yet. In this paper, an Arabic OCR algorithm is developed based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) combined with the Viterbi algorithm, which results in an improved and more robust recognition of characters at the sub-word level. Integrating the HMMs represents another step of the overall OCR trends being currently researched in the literature. The proposed approach exploits the structure of characters in the Arabic language in addition to their extracted features to achieve improved recognition rates. Useful statistical information of the Arabic language is initially extracted and then used to estimate the probabilistic parameters of the mathematical HMM. A new custom implementation of the HMM is developed in this study, where the transition matrix is built based on the collected large corpus, and the emission matrix is built based on the results obtained via the extracted character features. The recognition process is triggered using the Viterbi algorithm which employs the most probable sequence of sub-words. The model was implemented to recognize the sub-word unit of Arabic text raising the recognition rate from being linked to the worst recognition rate for any character to the overall structure of the Arabic language. Numerical results show that there is a potentially large recognition improvement by using the proposed algorithms.
A Proposed Arabic Handwritten Text Normalization Method
Tarik Abu-Ain
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Text normalization is an important technique in document image analysis and recognition. It consists of many preprocessing stages, which include slope correction, text padding, skew correction, and straight the writing line. In this side, text normalization has an important role in many procedures such as text segmentation, feature extraction and characters recognition. In the present article, a new method for text baseline detection, straightening, and slant correction for Arabic handwritten texts is proposed. The method comprises a set of sequential steps: first components segmentation is done followed by components text thinning; then, the direction features of the skeletons are extracted, and the candidate baseline regions are determined. After that, selection of the correct baseline region is done, and finally, the baselines of all components are aligned with the writing line. The experiments are conducted on IFN/ENIT benchmark Arabic dataset. The results show that the proposed method has a promising and encouraging performance.
An MLP based Approach for Recognition of Handwritten `Bangla' Numerals
Basu, Subhadip; Sarkar, Ram; Kundu, Mahantapas; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar
2012-01-01
The work presented here involves the design of a Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) based pattern classifier for recognition of handwritten Bangla digits using a 76 element feature vector. Bangla is the second most popular script and language in the Indian subcontinent and the fifth most popular language in the world. The feature set developed for representing handwritten Bangla numerals here includes 24 shadow features, 16 centroid features and 36 longest-run features. On experimentation with a database of 6000 samples, the technique yields an average recognition rate of 96.67% evaluated after three-fold cross validation of results. It is useful for applications related to OCR of handwritten Bangla Digit and can also be extended to include OCR of handwritten characters of Bangla alphabet.
Segmentation-free Word Spotting for Handwritten Arabic Documents
Ghizlane Khaissidi; Youssef Elfakir; Mostafa Mrabti; Mounîm El Yacoubi; Driss Chenouni; Zakia Lakhliai
2016-01-01
In this paper we present an unsupervised segmentation-free method for spotting and searching query, especially, for images documents in handwritten Arabic, for this, Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOGs...
Features fusion based approach for handwritten Gujarati character recognition
Ankit Sharma
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Handwritten character recognition is a challenging area of research. Lots of research activities in the area of character recognition are already done for Indian languages such as Hindi, Bangla, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu. Literature review on handwritten character recognition indicates that in comparison with other Indian scripts research activities on Gujarati handwritten character recognition are very less. This paper aims to bring Gujarati character recognition in attention. Recognition of isolated Gujarati handwritten characters is proposed using three different kinds of features and their fusion. Chain code based, zone based and projection profiles based features are utilized as individual features. One of the significant contribution of proposed work is towards the generation of large and representative dataset of 88,000 handwritten Gujarati characters. Experiments are carried out on this developed dataset. Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Naive Bayes (NB classifier based methods are implemented for handwritten Gujarati character recognition. Experimental results show substantial enhancement over state-of-the-art and authenticate our proposals.
Intelligent Image Watermarking based on Handwritten Signature
Saeid Shahmoradi
2016-09-01
Full Text Available With the growth of digital technology over the past decades, the issue of copyright protection has become especially important. Digital watermarking is a suitable way of addressing this issue. The main problem in the area of watermarking, is the balance between image transparency and resistance to attacks after watermarking, where an increase in either one of them will always cause a decrease in the other. Providing statistical and intelligent methods, is the most common way of optimizing resistance and transparency. In this paper, the intelligent method of genetic algorithm (GA in watermarking will be examined and also the results of using this method will be compared with the results of a statistical SVD-based method. Also, by combining the issues of watermarking and authentication, a relatively higher security in these two issues can be achieved. In this scheme, the security of watermarking increases through the provision of a new method which is based on the combination of image watermarking with a person's handwritten signature. It must be mentioned that the section of signature recognition is implemented using neural networks. The results from implementing these two methods show that in this area, intelligent methods have a better performance compared to statistical methods. This method can also be used for tasks like passport or national identity card authentication.
Authentication based on feature of hand-written signature
ZHU Shu-ren
2007-01-01
The typical features of the coordinate and the curvature as well as the recorded time information were analyzed in the hand-written signatures. In the hand-written signature process 10 biometric features were summarized: the amount of zero speed in direction x and direction y, the amount of zero acceleration in direction x and direction y, the total time of the hand-written signatures,the total distance of the pen traveling in the hand-written process, the frequency for lifting the pen, the time for lifting the pen, the amount of the pressure higher or lower than the threshold values. The formulae of biometric features extraction were summarized.The Gauss function was used to draw the typical information from the above-mentioned biometric features, with which to establish the hidden Markov mode and to train it. The frame of double authentication was proposed by combing the signature with the digital signature. Web service technology was applied in the system to ensure the security of data transmission. The training practice indicates that the hand-written signature verification can satisfy the needs from the office automation systems.
Handwritten Bangla Alphabet Recognition using an MLP Based Classifier
Basu, Subhadip; Sarkar, Ram; Kundu, Mahantapas; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar
2012-01-01
The work presented here involves the design of a Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) based classifier for recognition of handwritten Bangla alphabet using a 76 element feature set Bangla is the second most popular script and language in the Indian subcontinent and the fifth most popular language in the world. The feature set developed for representing handwritten characters of Bangla alphabet includes 24 shadow features, 16 centroid features and 36 longest-run features. Recognition performances of the MLP designed to work with this feature set are experimentally observed as 86.46% and 75.05% on the samples of the training and the test sets respectively. The work has useful application in the development of a complete OCR system for handwritten Bangla text.
Sunspot drawings handwritten character recognition method based on deep learning
Zheng, Sheng; Zeng, Xiangyun; Lin, Ganghua; Zhao, Cui; Feng, Yongli; Tao, Jinping; Zhu, Daoyuan; Xiong, Li
2016-05-01
High accuracy scanned sunspot drawings handwritten characters recognition is an issue of critical importance to analyze sunspots movement and store them in the database. This paper presents a robust deep learning method for scanned sunspot drawings handwritten characters recognition. The convolution neural network (CNN) is one algorithm of deep learning which is truly successful in training of multi-layer network structure. CNN is used to train recognition model of handwritten character images which are extracted from the original sunspot drawings. We demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method on sunspot drawings provided by Chinese Academy Yunnan Observatory and obtain the daily full-disc sunspot numbers and sunspot areas from the sunspot drawings. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves a high recognition accurate rate.
Handwritten Farsi Character Recognition using Artificial Neural Network
Ahangar, Reza Gharoie
2009-01-01
Neural Networks are being used for character recognition from last many years but most of the work was confined to English character recognition. Till date, a very little work has been reported for Handwritten Farsi Character recognition. In this paper, we have made an attempt to recognize handwritten Farsi characters by using a multilayer perceptron with one hidden layer. The error backpropagation algorithm has been used to train the MLP network. In addition, an analysis has been carried out to determine the number of hidden nodes to achieve high performance of backpropagation network in the recognition of handwritten Farsi characters. The system has been trained using several different forms of handwriting provided by both male and female participants of different age groups. Finally, this rigorous training results an automatic HCR system using MLP network. In this work, the experiments were carried out on two hundred fifty samples of five writers. The results showed that the MLP networks trained by the err...
A Two Stage Classification Approach for Handwritten Devanagari Characters
Arora, Sandhya; Nasipuri, Mita; Malik, Latesh
2010-01-01
The paper presents a two stage classification approach for handwritten devanagari characters The first stage is using structural properties like shirorekha, spine in character and second stage exploits some intersection features of characters which are fed to a feedforward neural network. Simple histogram based method does not work for finding shirorekha, vertical bar (Spine) in handwritten devnagari characters. So we designed a differential distance based technique to find a near straight line for shirorekha and spine. This approach has been tested for 50000 samples and we got 89.12% success
New efficient algorithm for recognizing handwritten Hindi digits
El-Sonbaty, Yasser; Ismail, Mohammed A.; Karoui, Kamal
2001-12-01
In this paper a new algorithm for recognizing handwritten Hindi digits is proposed. The proposed algorithm is based on using the topological characteristics combined with statistical properties of the given digits in order to extract a set of features that can be used in the process of digit classification. 10,000 handwritten digits are used in the experimental results. 1100 digits are used for training and another 5500 unseen digits are used for testing. The recognition rate has reached 97.56%, a substitution rate of 1.822%, and a rejection rate of 0.618%.
Diagonal Based Feature Extraction for Handwritten Alphabets Recognition System using Neural Network
Pradeep, J; Himavathi, S; 10.5121/ijcsit.2011.3103
2011-01-01
An off-line handwritten alphabetical character recognition system using multilayer feed forward neural network is described in the paper. A new method, called, diagonal based feature extraction is introduced for extracting the features of the handwritten alphabets. Fifty data sets, each containing 26 alphabets written by various people, are used for training the neural network and 570 different handwritten alphabetical characters are used for testing. The proposed recognition system performs quite well yielding higher levels of recognition accuracy compared to the systems employing the conventional horizontal and vertical methods of feature extraction. This system will be suitable for converting handwritten documents into structural text form and recognizing handwritten names.
Interpreting Chicken-Scratch: Lexical Access for Handwritten Words
Barnhart, Anthony S.; Goldinger, Stephen D.
2010-01-01
Handwritten word recognition is a field of study that has largely been neglected in the psychological literature, despite its prevalence in society. Whereas studies of spoken word recognition almost exclusively employ natural, human voices as stimuli, studies of visual word recognition use synthetic typefaces, thus simplifying the process of word…
Handwritten, Soft Circuit Boards and Antennas Using Liquid Metal Nanoparticles.
Lin, Yiliang; Cooper, Christopher; Wang, Meng; Adams, Jacob J; Genzer, Jan; Dickey, Michael D
2015-12-22
Soft conductors are created by embedding liquid metal nanoparticles between two elastomeric sheets. Initially, the particles form an electrically insulating composite. Soft circuit boards can be handwritten by a stylus, which sinters the particles into conductive traces by applying localized mechanical pressure to the elastomeric sheets. Antennas with tunable frequencies are formed by sintering nanoparticles in microchannels.
WORD LEVEL DISCRIMINATIVE TRAINING FOR HANDWRITTEN WORD RECOGNITION
Chen, W.; Gader, P.
2004-01-01
Word level training refers to the process of learning the parameters of a word recognition system based on word level criteria functions. Previously, researchers trained lexicondriven handwritten word recognition systems at the character level individually. These systems generally use statistical o
Classification of handwritten digits using a RAM neural net architecture
Jørgensen, T.M.
1997-01-01
Results are reported on the task of recognizing handwritten digits without any advanced pre-processing. The result are obtained using a RAM-based neural network, making use of small receptive fields. Furthermore, a technique that introduces negative weights into the RAM net is reported. The results...
Novel Moment Features Extraction for Recognizing Handwritten Arabic Letters
Gheith Abandah
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Offline recognition of handwritten Arabic text awaits accurate recognition solutions. Most of the Arabic letters have secondary components that are important in recognizing these letters. However these components have large writing variations. We targeted enhancing the feature extraction stage in recognizing handwritten Arabic text. Approach: In this study, we proposed a novel feature extraction approach of handwritten Arabic letters. Pre-segmented letters were first partitioned into main body and secondary components. Then moment features were extracted from the whole letter as well as from the main body and the secondary components. Using multi-objective genetic algorithm, efficient feature subsets were selected. Finally, various feature subsets were evaluated according to their classification error using an SVM classifier. Results: The proposed approach improved the classification error in all cases studied. For example, the improvements of 20-feature subsets of normalized central moments and Zernike moments were 15 and 10%, respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: Extracting and selecting statistical features from handwritten Arabic letters, their main bodies and their secondary components provided feature subsets that give higher recognition accuracies compared to the subsets of the whole letters alone.
Interpreting Chicken-Scratch: Lexical Access for Handwritten Words
Barnhart, Anthony S.; Goldinger, Stephen D.
2010-01-01
Handwritten word recognition is a field of study that has largely been neglected in the psychological literature, despite its prevalence in society. Whereas studies of spoken word recognition almost exclusively employ natural, human voices as stimuli, studies of visual word recognition use synthetic typefaces, thus simplifying the process of word…
An Optical Character Recognition for Handwritten Devanagari Script
Trupti R. Zalke
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Optical Character Recognition is process of recognition of character from scanned document and lots of OCR now available in the market. But most of these systems work for Roman, Chinese, Japanese and Arabic characters . There are no sufficient number of work on Indian language script like Devanagari so this paper present a review on optical character recognition on handwritten Devanagari script.
A* Path Planning for Line Segmentation of Handwritten Documents
Surinta, Olarik; Karaaba, Mahir; van Oosten, Jean-Paul; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco
2014-01-01
This paper describes the use of a novel A∗ path-planning algorithm for performing line segmentation of handwritten documents. The novelty of the proposed approach lies in the use of a smart combination of simple soft cost functions that allows an artificial agent to compute paths separating the uppe
Recognition of handwritten characters using local gradient feature descriptors
Surinta, Olarik; Karaaba, Mahir F.; Schomaker, Lambert R.B.; Wiering, Marco A.
2015-01-01
Abstract In this paper we propose to use local gradient feature descriptors, namely the scale invariant feature transform keypoint descriptor and the histogram of oriented gradients, for handwritten character recognition. The local gradient feature descriptors are used to extract feature vectors fro
WORD LEVEL DISCRIMINATIVE TRAINING FOR HANDWRITTEN WORD RECOGNITION
Chen, W.; Gader, P.
2004-01-01
Word level training refers to the process of learning the parameters of a word recognition system based on word level criteria functions. Previously, researchers trained lexicondriven handwritten word recognition systems at the character level individually. These systems generally use statistical
ADAPTIVE CONTEXT PROCESSING IN ON-LINE HANDWRITTEN CHARACTER RECOGNITION
Iwayama, N.; Ishigaki, K.
2004-01-01
We propose a new approach to context processing in on-line handwritten character recognition (OLCR). Based on the observation that writers often repeat the strings that they input, we take the approach of adaptive context processing. (ACP). In ACP, the strings input by a writer are automatically
USE OF JPEG ALGORITHM IN HANDWRITTEN DEVNAGRI NUMERAL RECOGNITION
Gajanan Birajdar
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Automatic recognition of handwritten Devnagri numerals is a difficult task in pattern recognition. It hasnumerous applications including those in postal sorting and bank cheque processing. In this paper, a fastand effective method is proposed for recognition of isolated handwritten Devnagri numerals based onJPEG image compression algorithm, which is less time consuming as compared to artificial neuralnetwork based recognition systems. In JPEG image compression, which has high compression ratio, aunique vector which helps to identify each character is generated. By using this unique vector, theproposed system has recognized the input numeral after measuring the Euclidean distance between thevector corresponding to the numeral and the vectors in the codebook as well as the length of vector. Thenthe shortest distance pointed to the corresponding letter is obtained. The result was considerably high interms of recognition rate.
Combining Multiple Feature Extraction Techniques for Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognition
Arora, Sandhya; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Kundu, Mahantapas
2010-01-01
In this paper we present an OCR for Handwritten Devnagari Characters. Basic symbols are recognized by neural classifier. We have used four feature extraction techniques namely, intersection, shadow feature, chain code histogram and straight line fitting features. Shadow features are computed globally for character image while intersection features, chain code histogram features and line fitting features are computed by dividing the character image into different segments. Weighted majority voting technique is used for combining the classification decision obtained from four Multi Layer Perceptron(MLP) based classifier. On experimentation with a dataset of 4900 samples the overall recognition rate observed is 92.80% as we considered top five choices results. This method is compared with other recent methods for Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognition and it has been observed that this approach has better success rate than other methods.
Two-tier architecture for unconstrained handwritten character recognition
K V Prema; N V Subba Reddy
2002-10-01
In this paper, we propose an approach that combines the unsupervised and supervised learning techniques for unconstrained handwritten numeral recognition. This approach uses the Kohonen self-organizing neural network for data classiﬁcation in the ﬁrst stage and the learning vector quantization (LVQ) model in the second stage to improve classiﬁcation accuracy. The combined architecture performs better than the Kohonen self-organizing map alone. In the proposed approach, the collection of centroids at different phases of training plays a vital role in the performance of the recognition system. Four experiments have been conducted and experimental results show that the collection of centroids in the middle of the training gives high performance in terms of speed and accuracy. The systems developed also resolve the confusion between handwritten numerals.
A novel approach for handwritten Devnagari character recognition
Arora, Sandhya; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nasipuri, Mita
2010-01-01
In this paper a method for recognition of handwritten devanagari characters is described. Here, feature vector is constituted by accumulated directional gradient changes in different segments, number of intersections points for the character, type of spine present and type of shirorekha present in the character. One Multi-layer Perceptron with conjugate-gradient training is used to classify these feature vectors. This method is applied to a database with 1000 sample characters and the recognition rate obtained is 88.12%
Using Amazon Mechanical Turk to Transcribe Historical Handwritten Documents
Andrew S.I.D. Lang
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The developing “information age” is continually unraveling new ways of discovering, presenting and sharing information. Most new academic material is digitally formatted upon its creation and is thus easy to find and query. However, there remains a good deal of material from times prior to the “information age” that has yet to be converted to digital form. Much of this material can be found in library collections—whether academic, public or private—and thus remains available only to a limited number of locals or willing-and-able sojourners. Using OCR technology, most typeset documents can be digitized and made available online; and there are several projects underway to do exactly this. However, there remains little to be done for handwritten materials. Those who own collections of handwritten documents are increasingly wanting to make the content thereof available to the general public. Unfortunately, traditional transcription models typically prove to be expensive or inefficient and pdf snapshots are not searchable. We have developed a model for digital transcription using Google Docs and Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Using this model, one can use an online workforce to efficiently transcribe handwritten texts and perform quality control at a cost much lower than professional transcription services. To illustrate the model we used Amazon’s Mechanical Turk to transcribe and then proofread the Frederick Douglass Diary which we have made available on a public searchable wiki. The total cost of transcription and proofreading for the 72 page diary was less than $25.00 with some pages being transcribed and proofread for as little as $0.04. Our results show that using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk holds great promise for providing an affordable transcription method for hand-written historical documents making them easily sharable and fully searchable.
Handwritten and printed text distinction by using stroke thickness features
Ding, Hong; Wu, Huiqun; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaofeng
2017-01-01
This paper presents an algorithm to identify the handwritten and the printed texts among document images. The characteristic of stroke thickness is used and a kind of calculating method is designed for this feature. The proposed method, which is clearly defined and easily realized, calculates the stroke thickness feature by counting edge pixels in a neighborhood. Document images are generally divided into text lines or characters. However, the line and the character are not conducive to the judgment between handwritten and printed text distinction. The line is too rough and the character is too small. Using the stroke thickness characteristics, combined with layout analysis, the text line in the document image is further divided into the area of uniform thickness. This kind of area is more detailed than text line and larger than a single character. So more stable features can be extracted from it. Last, the features of these regions are divided by using SVM. The proposed algorithm obtained better performance in the document image database including handwritten and printed texts.
Post processing for offline Chinese handwritten character string recognition
Wang, YanWei; Ding, XiaoQing; Liu, ChangSong
2012-01-01
Offline Chinese handwritten character string recognition is one of the most important research fields in pattern recognition. Due to the free writing style, large variability in character shapes and different geometric characteristics, Chinese handwritten character string recognition is a challenging problem to deal with. However, among the current methods over-segmentation and merging method which integrates geometric information, character recognition information and contextual information, shows a promising result. It is found experimentally that a large part of errors are segmentation error and mainly occur around non-Chinese characters. In a Chinese character string, there are not only wide characters namely Chinese characters, but also narrow characters like digits and letters of the alphabet. The segmentation error is mainly caused by uniform geometric model imposed on all segmented candidate characters. To solve this problem, post processing is employed to improve recognition accuracy of narrow characters. On one hand, multi-geometric models are established for wide characters and narrow characters respectively. Under multi-geometric models narrow characters are not prone to be merged. On the other hand, top rank recognition results of candidate paths are integrated to boost final recognition of narrow characters. The post processing method is investigated on two datasets, in total 1405 handwritten address strings. The wide character recognition accuracy has been improved lightly and narrow character recognition accuracy has been increased up by 10.41% and 10.03% respectively. It indicates that the post processing method is effective to improve recognition accuracy of narrow characters.
A Study of Moment Based Features on Handwritten Digit Recognition
Pawan Kumar Singh
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Handwritten digit recognition plays a significant role in many user authentication applications in the modern world. As the handwritten digits are not of the same size, thickness, style, and orientation, therefore, these challenges are to be faced to resolve this problem. A lot of work has been done for various non-Indic scripts particularly, in case of Roman, but, in case of Indic scripts, the research is limited. This paper presents a script invariant handwritten digit recognition system for identifying digits written in five popular scripts of Indian subcontinent, namely, Indo-Arabic, Bangla, Devanagari, Roman, and Telugu. A 130-element feature set which is basically a combination of six different types of moments, namely, geometric moment, moment invariant, affine moment invariant, Legendre moment, Zernike moment, and complex moment, has been estimated for each digit sample. Finally, the technique is evaluated on CMATER and MNIST databases using multiple classifiers and, after performing statistical significance tests, it is observed that Multilayer Perceptron (MLP classifier outperforms the others. Satisfactory recognition accuracies are attained for all the five mentioned scripts.
Eringen, A Cemal
2013-01-01
Continuum Physics: Volume 1 - Mathematics is a collection of papers that discusses certain selected mathematical methods used in the study of continuum physics. Papers in this collection deal with developments in mathematics in continuum physics and its applications such as, group theory functional analysis, theory of invariants, and stochastic processes. Part I explains tensor analysis, including the geometry of subspaces and the geometry of Finsler. Part II discusses group theory, which also covers lattices, morphisms, and crystallographic groups. Part III reviews the theory of invariants th
Becker, Nicole; Towns, Marcy
2012-01-01
Undergraduate physical chemistry courses require students to be proficient in calculus in order to develop an understanding of thermodynamics concepts. Here we present the findings of a study that examines student understanding of mathematical expressions, including partial derivative expressions, in two undergraduate physical chemistry courses.…
Becker, Nicole; Towns, Marcy
2012-01-01
Undergraduate physical chemistry courses require students to be proficient in calculus in order to develop an understanding of thermodynamics concepts. Here we present the findings of a study that examines student understanding of mathematical expressions, including partial derivative expressions, in two undergraduate physical chemistry courses.…
Stein, Sherman K
2010-01-01
Anyone can appreciate the beauty, depth, and vitality of mathematics with the help of this highly readable text, specially developed from a college course designed to appeal to students in a variety of fields. Readers with little mathematical background are exposed to a broad range of subjects chosen from number theory, topology, set theory, geometry, algebra, and analysis. Starting with a survey of questions on weight, the text discusses the primes, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, rationals and irrationals, tiling, tiling and electricity, probability, infinite sets, and many other topi
Multi-script handwritten character recognition : Using feature descriptors and machine learning
Surinta, Olarik
2016-01-01
Handwritten character recognition plays an important role in transforming raw visual image data obtained from handwritten documents using for example scanners to a format which is understandable by a computer. It is an important application in the field of pattern recognition, machine learning and a
A Comparison of Feature and Pixel-Based Methods for Recognizing Handwritten Bangla Digits
Surinta, Olarik; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco
2013-01-01
We propose a novel handwritten character recognition method for isolated handwritten Bangla digits. A feature is introduced for such patterns, the contour angular technique. It is compared to other methods, such as the hotspot feature, the gray-level normalized character image and a basic low-resolu
Britto jr., A. de S.; Sabourin, R.; Lethelier, E.; Bortolozzi, F.; Suen, C.Y.
2004-01-01
This work describes a way of enhancing handwritten numeral string recognition by considering slant normalization and contextual information to train an implicit segmentationbased system. A word slant normalization method is modified in order to improve the results for handwritten numeral strings.
Multi-script handwritten character recognition : Using feature descriptors and machine learning
Surinta, Olarik
2016-01-01
Handwritten character recognition plays an important role in transforming raw visual image data obtained from handwritten documents using for example scanners to a format which is understandable by a computer. It is an important application in the field of pattern recognition, machine learning and
A Comparison of Feature and Pixel-Based Methods for Recognizing Handwritten Bangla Digits
Surinta, Olarik; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco
2013-01-01
We propose a novel handwritten character recognition method for isolated handwritten Bangla digits. A feature is introduced for such patterns, the contour angular technique. It is compared to other methods, such as the hotspot feature, the gray-level normalized character image and a basic
Swethalakshmi, H.; Jayaraman, Anitha; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Sekhar, C. Chandra
2006-01-01
http://www.suvisoft.com; A system for recognition of online handwritten characters has been presented for Indian writing systems. A handwritten character is represented as a sequence of strokes whose features are extracted and classied. Support vector machines have been used for constructing the stroke recognition engine. The results have been presented after testing the system on Devanagari and Telugu scripts.
Incremental Tensor Principal Component Analysis for Handwritten Digit Recognition
Chang Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available To overcome the shortcomings of traditional dimensionality reduction algorithms, incremental tensor principal component analysis (ITPCA based on updated-SVD technique algorithm is proposed in this paper. This paper proves the relationship between PCA, 2DPCA, MPCA, and the graph embedding framework theoretically and derives the incremental learning procedure to add single sample and multiple samples in detail. The experiments on handwritten digit recognition have demonstrated that ITPCA has achieved better recognition performance than that of vector-based principal component analysis (PCA, incremental principal component analysis (IPCA, and multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA algorithms. At the same time, ITPCA also has lower time and space complexity.
On the Performance Improvement of Devanagari Handwritten Character Recognition
Pratibha Singh
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper is about the application of mini minibatch stochastic gradient descent (SGD based learning applied to Multilayer Perceptron in the domain of isolated Devanagari handwritten character/numeral recognition. This technique reduces the variance in the estimate of the gradient and often makes better use of the hierarchical memory organization in modern computers. L2-weight decay is added on minibatch SGD to avoid overfitting. The experiments are conducted firstly on the direct pixel intensity values as features. After that, the experiments are performed on the proposed flexible zone based gradient feature extraction algorithm. The results are promising on most of the standard dataset of Devanagari characters/numerals.
Ancient administrative handwritten documents: X-ray analysis and imaging
Albertin, F.; Astolfo, A.; Stampanoni, M.; Peccenini, Eva; Hwu, Y.; Kaplan, F.; Margaritondo, G.
2015-01-01
Handwritten characters in administrative antique documents from three centuries have been detected using different synchrotron X-ray imaging techniques. Heavy elements in ancient inks, present even for everyday administrative manuscripts as shown by X-ray fluorescence spectra, produce attenuation contrast. In most cases the image quality is good enough for tomography reconstruction in view of future applications to virtual page-by-page ‘reading’. When attenuation is too low, differential phase contrast imaging can reveal the characters from refractive index effects. The results are potentially important for new information harvesting strategies, for example from the huge Archivio di Stato collection, objective of the Venice Time Machine project. PMID:25723946
Handwritten Bangla Basic and Compound character recognition using MLP and SVM classifier
Das, Nibaran; Sarkar, Ram; Basu, Subhadip; Kundu, Mahantapas; Nasipuri, Mita
2010-01-01
A novel approach for recognition of handwritten compound Bangla characters, along with the Basic characters of Bangla alphabet, is presented here. Compared to English like Roman script, one of the major stumbling blocks in Optical Character Recognition (OCR) of handwritten Bangla script is the large number of complex shaped character classes of Bangla alphabet. In addition to 50 basic character classes, there are nearly 160 complex shaped compound character classes in Bangla alphabet. Dealing with such a large varieties of handwritten characters with a suitably designed feature set is a challenging problem. Uncertainty and imprecision are inherent in handwritten script. Moreover, such a large varieties of complex shaped characters, some of which have close resemblance, makes the problem of OCR of handwritten Bangla characters more difficult. Considering the complexity of the problem, the present approach makes an attempt to identify compound character classes from most frequently to less frequently occurred o...
Bachmat, Eitan
2014-01-01
This monograph describes problems in the field of performance analysis, primarily the study of storage systems and the diverse mathematical techniques that are required for solving such problems. Topics covered include best practices for scheduling I/O requests to a disk drive, how this problem is related to airplane boarding, and how both problems can be modeled using space-time geometry. The author also explains how Riemann's proof of the analytic continuation and functional equation of the Riemann zeta function can be used to analyze express-line queues in a minimarket. Overall, the book reveals the surprising applicability of abstract mathematical ideas that are not usually associated with applied topics. Advanced undergraduate students or graduate students with an interest in the applications of mathematics will find this book a useful resource. It will also be of interest to professional mathematicians who want exposure to the surprising ways that theoretical mathematics may be applied to engineering pr...
Online Handwritten Sanskrit Character Recognition Using Support Vector Classification
Prof. Sonal P.Patil
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Handwritten recognition has been one of the active and challenging research areas in the field of image processing. In this Paper, we are going to analyses feature extraction technique to recognize online handwritten Sanskrit word using preprocessing, segmentation. However, most of the current work in these areas is limited to English and a few oriental languages. The lack of efficient solutions for Indic scripts and languages such as Sanskrit has disadvantaged information extraction from a large body of documents of cultural and historical importance. Here we use Freeman chain code (FCC as the representation technique of an image character. Chain code gives the boundary of a character image in which the codes represents the direction of where is the location of the next pixel. Randomized algorithm is used to generate the FCC. After that, features vector is built. The criterion of features toinput the classification is the chain code that converted to various features. And segmentation is applied to evaluate the possible segmentation zone. Accordingly, several generations are performed to evaluate the individuals with maximum fitness value. Support vector machine (SVM is chosen for the classification step.
Modeling the lexical morphology of Western handwritten signatures.
Moises Diaz-Cabrera
Full Text Available A handwritten signature is the final response to a complex cognitive and neuromuscular process which is the result of the learning process. Because of the many factors involved in signing, it is possible to study the signature from many points of view: graphologists, forensic experts, neurologists and computer vision experts have all examined them. Researchers study written signatures for psychiatric, penal, health and automatic verification purposes. As a potentially useful, multi-purpose study, this paper is focused on the lexical morphology of handwritten signatures. This we understand to mean the identification, analysis, and description of the signature structures of a given signer. In this work we analyze different public datasets involving 1533 signers from different Western geographical areas. Some relevant characteristics of signature lexical morphology have been selected, examined in terms of their probability distribution functions and modeled through a General Extreme Value distribution. This study suggests some useful models for multi-disciplinary sciences which depend on handwriting signatures.
First experiments on a new online handwritten flowchart database
Awal, Ahmad-Montaser; Feng, Guihuan; Mouchère, Harold; Viard-Gaudin, Christian
2011-01-01
We propose in this paper a new online handwritten flowchart database and perform some first experiments to have a baseline benchmark on this dataset. The collected database consists of 419 flowcharts labeled at the stroke and symbol levels. In addition, an isolated database of graphical and text symbols was extracted from these collected flowcharts. Then, we tackle the problem of online handwritten flowchart recognition from two different points of view. Firstly, we consider that flowcharts are correctly segmented, and we propose different classifiers to perform two tasks, text/non-text separation and graphical symbol recognition. Tested with the extracted isolated test database, we achieve up to 90% and 98% in text/non-text separation and up to 93.5% in graphical symbols recognition. Secondly, we propose a global approach to perform flowchart segmentation and recognition. For this latter, we adopt a global learning schema and a recognition architecture that considers a simultaneous segmentation and recognition. Global architecture is trained and tested directly with flowcharts. Results show the interest of such global approach, but regarding the complexity of flowchart segmentation problem, there is still lot of space to improve the global learning and recognition methods.
A New Approach for Arabic Handwritten Postal Addresses Recognition
Moncef Charfi
2012-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an automatic analysis system for the Arabic handwriting postal addresses recognition, by using the beta elliptical model. Our system is divided into different steps: analysis, pre-processing and classification. The first operation is the filtering of image. In the second, we remove the border print, stamps and graphics. After locating the address on the envelope, the address segmentation allows the extraction of postal code and city name separately. The pre-processing system and the modeling approach are based on two basic steps. The first step is the extraction of the temporal order in the image of the handwritten trajectory. The second step is based on the use of Beta-Elliptical model for the representation of handwritten script. The recognition system is based on Graph-matching algorithm. Our modeling and recognition approaches were validated by using the postal code and city names extracted from the Tunisian postal envelopes data. The recognition rate obtained is about 98%.
A Statistical Approach For Latin Handwritten Digit Recognition
Ihab Zaqout
2011-10-01
Full Text Available A simple method based on some statistical measurements for Latin handwritten digit recognition is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a preprocess step is started with thresholding the gray-scale digit image into a binary image, and then noise removal, spurring and thinning are performed. Secondly, by reducing the search space, the region-of-interest (ROI is cropped from the preprocessed image, then a freeman chain code template is applied and five feature sets are extracted from each digit image. Counting the number of termination points, their coordinates with relation to the center of the ROI, Euclidian distances, orientations in terms of angles, and other statistical properties such as minor-to-major axis length ratio, area and others. Finally, six categories are created based on the relation between number of termination points and possible digits. The present method is applied and tested on training set (60,000 images and test set (10,000 images of MNIST handwritten digit database. Our experiments report a correct classification of 92.9041% for the testing set and 95.0953% for the training set.
Writer Identity Recognition and Confirmation Using Persian Handwritten Texts
aida sheikh
2015-11-01
Full Text Available There are many ways to recognize the identity of individuals and authenticate them. Recognition and authentication of individuals with the help of their handwriting is regarded as a research topic in recent years. It is widely used in the field of security, legal, access control and financial activities. This article tries to examines the identification and authentication of individuals in Persian (Farsi handwritten texts so that the identity of the author can be determined with a handwritten text. The proposed system for recognizing the identity of the author in this study can be divided into two main parts: one part is intended for training and the other for testing. To assess the performance of introduced characteristics, the Hidden Markov Model is used as the classifier; thus, a model is defined for each angular characteristic. The defined angular models are connected by a specific chain network to form a comprehensive database for classification. This database is then used to determine and authenticate the author.
Mapping a mathematical expression onto a Montium ALU using GNU Bison
Rosien, M.A.J.; Smit, G.J.M.
2004-01-01
The Montium processing tile [1], [4] contains a number of complex ALUs which can perform many different operations in many different ways. In the Chameleon tool flow [2], it is necessary to automatically determine whether a certain mathematical expression can be mapped onto an ALU and to automatical
A Novel Handwritten Letter Recognizer Using Enhanced Evolutionary Neural Network
Mahmoudi, Fariborz; Mirzashaeri, Mohsen; Shahamatnia, Ehsan; Faridnia, Saed
This paper introduces a novel design for handwritten letter recognition by employing a hybrid back-propagation neural network with an enhanced evolutionary algorithm. Feeding the neural network consists of a new approach which is invariant to translation, rotation, and scaling of input letters. Evolutionary algorithm is used for the global search of the search space and the back-propagation algorithm is used for the local search. The results have been computed by implementing this approach for recognizing 26 English capital letters in the handwritings of different people. The computational results show that the neural network reaches very satisfying results with relatively scarce input data and a promising performance improvement in convergence of the hybrid evolutionary back-propagation algorithms is exhibited.
Ancient administrative handwritten documents: X-ray analysis and imaging
Albertin, F., E-mail: fauzia.albertin@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Astolfo, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Stampanoni, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); ETHZ, Zürich (Switzerland); Peccenini, Eva [University of Ferrara (Italy); Technopole of Ferrara (Italy); Hwu, Y. [Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kaplan, F. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland); Margaritondo, G. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2015-01-30
The heavy-element content of ink in ancient administrative documents makes it possible to detect the characters with different synchrotron imaging techniques, based on attenuation or refraction. This is the first step in the direction of non-interactive virtual X-ray reading. Handwritten characters in administrative antique documents from three centuries have been detected using different synchrotron X-ray imaging techniques. Heavy elements in ancient inks, present even for everyday administrative manuscripts as shown by X-ray fluorescence spectra, produce attenuation contrast. In most cases the image quality is good enough for tomography reconstruction in view of future applications to virtual page-by-page ‘reading’. When attenuation is too low, differential phase contrast imaging can reveal the characters from refractive index effects. The results are potentially important for new information harvesting strategies, for example from the huge Archivio di Stato collection, objective of the Venice Time Machine project.
An Efficient Hidden Markov Model for Offline Handwritten Numeral Recognition
Saritha, B S
2010-01-01
Traditionally, the performance of ocr algorithms and systems is based on the recognition of isolated characters. When a system classifies an individual character, its output is typically a character label or a reject marker that corresponds to an unrecognized character. By comparing output labels with the correct labels, the number of correct recognition, substitution errors misrecognized characters, and rejects unrecognized characters are determined. Nowadays, although recognition of printed isolated characters is performed with high accuracy, recognition of handwritten characters still remains an open problem in the research arena. The ability to identify machine printed characters in an automated or a semi automated manner has obvious applications in numerous fields. Since creating an algorithm with a one hundred percent correct recognition rate is quite probably impossible in our world of noise and different font styles, it is important to design character recognition algorithms with these failures in min...
Structural model constructing for optical handwritten character recognition
Khaustov, P. A.; Spitsyn, V. G.; Maksimova, E. I.
2017-02-01
The article is devoted to the development of the algorithms for optical handwritten character recognition based on the structural models constructing. The main advantage of these algorithms is the low requirement regarding the number of reference images. The one-pass approach to a thinning of the binary character representation has been proposed. This approach is based on the joint use of Zhang-Suen and Wu-Tsai algorithms. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is confirmed by the results of the experiments. The article includes the detailed description of the structural model constructing algorithm’s steps. The proposed algorithm has been implemented in character processing application and has been approved on MNIST handwriting characters database. Algorithms that could be used in case of limited reference images number were used for the comparison.
Nilam Mistry*, Sameer Vashi, Vidhi Patel, Kunal Shah, Denish Rixawapla, Foram Rakholiya, Rakesh Savant
2016-01-01
OCR is technique to convert the handwritten or printed document into the digital format by scanning it which can be understandable by a computer. OCR is important and challenging task in many computer vision applications. Segmentation is generally the first stage in any attempt to analyse or interpret an image automatically. Segmentation is separate the document into lines, lines to words and words to characters which has been one of the major laboriousness in handwritten text recogniti...
Segmentation of Handwritten Chinese Character Strings Based on improved Algorithm Liu
Zhihua Cai; Jiangqing Wang; Yangguang Sun
2014-01-01
Algorithm Liu attracts high attention because of its high accuracy in segmentation of Japanese postal address. But the disadvantages, such as complexity and difficult implementation of algorithm, etc. have an adverse effect on its popularization and application. In this paper, the author applies the principles of algorithm Liu to handwritten Chinese character segmentation according to the characteristics of the handwritten Chinese characters, based on deeply study on algorithm Liu.In the same...
Sheetal Dabra; Sunil Agrawal; Rama Krishna Challa
2011-01-01
The growing need of handwritten Hindi character recognition in Indian offices such as passport, railway etc, has made it a vital area of research. Similar shaped characters are more prone to misclassification. In this paper four Machine Learning (ML) algorithms namely Bayesian Network, Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), and C4.5 Decision Tree are used for recognition of Similar Shaped Handwritten Hindi Characters (SSHHC) and their performance is ...
Processing of self-related kinematic information embedded in static handwritten characters.
Sawada, Reiko; Doi, Hirokazu; Masataka, Nobuo
2016-07-01
Handwritten characters are generated by our own motor actions, and previous studies have shown that the manner in which such characters are perceived and generated is related. However, the temporal course of the neural activation involved in the processing of self-related kinematic information embedded in static handwritten characters remains to be identified. We applied event-related potential (ERP) recording while participants judged whether handwritten characters were self- or non-self-generated. To test the effects of the self-related kinematic characteristics of static handwritten characters, we conducted two experiments in which the styles or familiarity of characters were manipulated. The ERP results indicated differences in brain activation between self- and non-self-written characters for the P250 component (250-350ms after stimulus onset) in right posterior regions and for the late positive component (LPC; 350-500ms after stimulus onset) in anterior midline regions; this was the case even when the handwritten characters were not generated in their usual form or were written for the first time. Therefore, our data indicate that self-information embedded in handwritten characters involves both right-lateralized brain activation associated with bodily self-processing and anterior midline brain activation related to self-referential processing.
Hines, Claudia L.; Brown, Nina W.; Myran, Steve
2016-01-01
Ninety-three (n = 93) students in grades 9-12 who failed the Virginia Standards of Learning mathematics test were placed into experimental and control groups. Pre and posttest measures for general and mathematics anxiety, and physical symptoms of stress were administered. The Expressive Writing intervention was used with both groups where the…
The Proximate Unit in Chinese Handwritten Character Production
Jenn-Yeu eChen
2013-08-01
Full Text Available In spoken word production, a proximate unit is the first phonological unit at the sublexical level that is selectable for production (O’Seaghdha, Chen, & Chen, 2010. The present study investigated whether the proximate unit in Chinese handwritten word production is the stroke, the radical, or something in between. A written version of the form preparation task was adopted. Chinese participants learned sets of two-character words, later were cued with the first character of each word, and had to write down the second character (the target. Response times were measured from the onset of a cue character to the onset of a written response. In Experiment 1, the target characters within a block shared (homogeneous or did not share (heterogeneous the first stroke. In Experiment 2, the first two strokes were shared in the homogeneous blocks. Response times in the homogeneous blocks and in the heterogeneous blocks were comparable in both experiments (Exp. 1: 687 ms vs. 684 ms, Exp. 2: 717 vs. 716. In Experiment 3 and 4, the target characters within a block shared or did not share the first radical. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 3: 685 vs. 704, Exp. 4: 594 vs. 650. In Experiment 5 and 6, the shared component was a Gestalt-like form that is more than a stroke, constitutes a portion of the target character, can be a stand-alone character itself, can be a radical of another character but is not a radical of the target character (e.g., 士in聲, 鼓, 穀, 款; called a logographeme. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 5: 576 vs. 625, Exp. 6: 586 vs. 620. These results suggest a model of Chinese handwritten character production in which the stroke is not a functional unit, the radical plays the role of a morpheme, and the logographeme is the proximate unit.
ASM Based Synthesis of Handwritten Arabic Text Pages.
Dinges, Laslo; Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Elzobi, Moftah; El-Etriby, Sherif; Ghoneim, Ahmed
2015-01-01
Document analysis tasks, as text recognition, word spotting, or segmentation, are highly dependent on comprehensive and suitable databases for training and validation. However their generation is expensive in sense of labor and time. As a matter of fact, there is a lack of such databases, which complicates research and development. This is especially true for the case of Arabic handwriting recognition, that involves different preprocessing, segmentation, and recognition methods, which have individual demands on samples and ground truth. To bypass this problem, we present an efficient system that automatically turns Arabic Unicode text into synthetic images of handwritten documents and detailed ground truth. Active Shape Models (ASMs) based on 28046 online samples were used for character synthesis and statistical properties were extracted from the IESK-arDB database to simulate baselines and word slant or skew. In the synthesis step ASM based representations are composed to words and text pages, smoothed by B-Spline interpolation and rendered considering writing speed and pen characteristics. Finally, we use the synthetic data to validate a segmentation method. An experimental comparison with the IESK-arDB database encourages to train and test document analysis related methods on synthetic samples, whenever no sufficient natural ground truthed data is available.
Handwritten Javanese Character Recognition Using Several Artificial Neural Network Methods
Gregorius Satia Budhi
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Javanese characters are traditional characters that are used to write the Javanese language. The Javanese language is a language used by many people on the island of Java, Indonesia. The use of Javanese characters is diminishing more and more because of the difficulty of studying the Javanese characters themselves. The Javanese character set consists of basic characters, numbers, complementary characters, and so on. In this research we have developed a system to recognize Javanese characters. Input for the system is a digital image containing several handwritten Javanese characters. Preprocessing and segmentation are performed on the input image to get each character. For each character, feature extraction is done using the ICZ-ZCZ method. The output from feature extraction will become input for an artificial neural network. We used several artificial neural networks, namely a bidirectional associative memory network, a counterpropagation network, an evolutionary network, a backpropagation network, and a backpropagation network combined with chi2. From the experimental results it can be seen that the combination of chi2 and backpropagation achieved better recognition accuracy than the other methods.
MODIFIED VIEW BASED APPROACHES FOR HANDWRITTEN TAMIL CHARACTER RECOGNITION
S. Sobhana Mari
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Finding simple and efficient features for offline hand written character recognition is still an active area of research. In this work, we propose modified view based feature extraction approaches for the recognition of handwritten Tamil characters. In the first approach, the five views of a normalized and binarized character image viz, top, bottom, left, right and front are extracted. Each view is then divided into 16 equal zones and the total numbers of background pixel in each zone are counted. The 80 values so obtained form a feature vector. In the second approach, the normalized and binaraized character images are divided into 16 equal zones. Five views are extracted from each zone and the total number of background pixel in each view is counted, resulting in 80 feature values. Further the above two approaches are modified by employing thinned images instead of the whole image. The extracted features are classified using SVM, MLP and ELM classifier. The discriminative powers of the proposed approaches are compared with that of four popular feature extraction approaches in character recognition. The feature extraction time and classification performances are also compared. The proposed modified approaches results in high classification performance (95.26% with comparatively less feature extraction time.
Arabic Handwritten Word Recognition Using HMMs with Explicit State Duration
M. Sellami
2008-05-01
Full Text Available We describe an offline unconstrained Arabic handwritten word recognition system based on segmentation-free approach and discrete hidden Markov models (HMMs with explicit state duration. Character durations play a significant part in the recognition of cursive handwriting. The duration information is still mostly disregarded in HMM-based automatic cursive handwriting recognizers due to the fact that HMMs are deficient in modeling character durations properly. We will show experimentally that explicit state duration modeling in the HMM framework can significantly improve the discriminating capacity of the HMMs to deal with very difficult pattern recognition tasks such as unconstrained Arabic handwriting recognition. In order to carry out the letter and word model training and recognition more efficiently, we propose a new version of the Viterbi algorithm taking into account explicit state duration modeling. Three distributions (Gamma, Gauss, and Poisson for the explicit state duration modeling have been used, and a comparison between them has been reported. To perform word recognition, the described system uses an original sliding window approach based on vertical projection histogram analysis of the word and extracts a new pertinent set of statistical and structural features from the word image. Several experiments have been performed using the IFN/ENIT benchmark database and the best recognition performances achieved by our system outperform those reported recently on the same database.
A Novel Approach for Identify Small and Capital Handwritten Letter
Ekta Tiwari
2012-06-01
Full Text Available A handwritten character is represented as a sequence of strokes whose features are extracted and classified. Although the off-line and on-line character recognition techniques have different approaches, they share a lot of common problems and solutions. The printed documents available in the form of books, papers, magazines, etc. are scanned using standard scanners which produce an image of the scanned document. The preprocessed image is segmented using an algorithm which decomposes the scanned text into paragraphs using special space detection technique and then the paragraphs into lines using vertical histograms, and lines into words using horizontal histograms, and words into character image glyphs using horizontal histograms. Each image glyph is comprised of 24x24 pixels. Thus a database of character image glyphs is created out of the segmentation phase. The various features that are considered for classification are the character height, character width, the number of horizontal lines (long and short, image centroid and special dots. we proposed extracted features were passed to a Support Vector Machine (SVM where the characters are classified by Supervised Learning Algorithm. These classes are mapped onto for recognition. Then the text is reconstructed using fonts.
Generalized Hidden Markov Models To Handwritten Devanagari Word Recognition
Mr. Pradeep Singh Thakur
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Hidden Markov Models (HMM have long been a popular choice for Western cursive handwriting recognition following their success in speech recognition. Even for the recognition of Oriental scripts such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean, Hidden Markov Models are increasingly being used to model substrokes of characters. However, when it comes to Indic script recognition, the published work employing HMMs is limited, and generally focused on isolated character recognition. In this effort, a data-driven HMM-based handwritten word recognition system for Hindi, an Indic script, is proposed. Though Devanagari is the script for Hindi, which is the official language of India, its character and word recognition pose great challenges due to large variety of symbols and their proximity in appearance. The accuracies obtained ranged from 30�0to 60�0with lexicon. These initial results are promising and warrant further research in this direction. The results are also encouraging to explore possibilities for adopting the approach to other Indic scripts as well.
ASM Based Synthesis of Handwritten Arabic Text Pages
Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Elzobi, Moftah; El-etriby, Sherif; Ghoneim, Ahmed
2015-01-01
Document analysis tasks, as text recognition, word spotting, or segmentation, are highly dependent on comprehensive and suitable databases for training and validation. However their generation is expensive in sense of labor and time. As a matter of fact, there is a lack of such databases, which complicates research and development. This is especially true for the case of Arabic handwriting recognition, that involves different preprocessing, segmentation, and recognition methods, which have individual demands on samples and ground truth. To bypass this problem, we present an efficient system that automatically turns Arabic Unicode text into synthetic images of handwritten documents and detailed ground truth. Active Shape Models (ASMs) based on 28046 online samples were used for character synthesis and statistical properties were extracted from the IESK-arDB database to simulate baselines and word slant or skew. In the synthesis step ASM based representations are composed to words and text pages, smoothed by B-Spline interpolation and rendered considering writing speed and pen characteristics. Finally, we use the synthetic data to validate a segmentation method. An experimental comparison with the IESK-arDB database encourages to train and test document analysis related methods on synthetic samples, whenever no sufficient natural ground truthed data is available. PMID:26295059
WATERSHED ALGORITHM BASED SEGMENTATION FOR HANDWRITTEN TEXT IDENTIFICATION
P. Mathivanan
2014-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper we develop a system for writer identification which involves four processing steps like preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and writer identification using neural network. In the preprocessing phase the handwritten text is subjected to slant removal process for segmentation and feature extraction. After this step the text image enters into the process of noise removal and gray level conversion. The preprocessed image is further segmented by using morphological watershed algorithm, where the text lines are segmented into single words and then into single letters. The segmented image is feature extracted by Daubechies’5/3 integer wavelet transform to reduce training complexity [1, 6]. This process is lossless and reversible [10], [14]. These extracted features are given as input to our neural network for writer identification process and a target image is selected for each training process in the 2-layer neural network. With the several trained output data obtained from different target help in text identification. It is a multilingual text analysis which provides simple and efficient text segmentation.
The value of patients' handwritten comments on HCAHPS surveys.
Huppertz, John W; Smith, Robert
2014-01-01
Some patients write comments on their Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) surveys, but survey vendors do not record them, and the value of this anecdotal information is not well understood. However, many rating websites contain both numerical ratings and anecdotal comments from consumers who wish to share their experiences, and the option to write comments enhances the appeal of these survey forums. Recent research shows that numerical ratings do not sufficiently capture the range of consumer experiences and that comments contain additional information that complements survey responses. In this study, we investigate the contribution of anecdotal comments on HCAHPS surveys to the prediction of two global outcome measures: overall hospital rating and intention to recommend. HCAHPS surveys were collected retrospectively from 589 inpatients at two community hospitals, whose answers to the HCAHPS questions plus any handwritten comments were entered into a database. Nearly 20% of the surveys contained at least one written comment. A content analysis was performed, and comments were classified as positive, negative, neutral, or mixed. Regression analyses showed that negative comments significantly affected patients' overall hospital rating with and intention to recommend the hospital. After adjusting for their quantitative ratings on the HCAHPS questions, we found that patients who wrote negative comments gave the hospitals significantly lower satisfaction and intention scores. Consistent with prior research, our study showed that the information contained in numerical HCAHPS composite measures was enhanced by patients' commentary. In addition, quantitative HCAHPS ratings appear to underestimate the feelings of people who write negative comments, validating practices at hospitals that use surveys containing negative anecdotes in quality improvement initiatives.
Word level Script Identification from Bangla and Devanagri Handwritten Texts mixed with Roman Script
Sarkar, Ram; Basu, Subhadip; Kundu, Mahantapas; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar
2010-01-01
India is a multi-lingual country where Roman script is often used alongside different Indic scripts in a text document. To develop a script specific handwritten Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system, it is therefore necessary to identify the scripts of handwritten text correctly. In this paper, we present a system, which automatically separates the scripts of handwritten words from a document, written in Bangla or Devanagri mixed with Roman scripts. In this script separation technique, we first, extract the text lines and words from document pages using a script independent Neighboring Component Analysis technique. Then we have designed a Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) based classifier for script separation, trained with 8 different wordlevel holistic features. Two equal sized datasets, one with Bangla and Roman scripts and the other with Devanagri and Roman scripts, are prepared for the system evaluation. On respective independent text samples, word-level script identification accuracies of 99.29% and 98....
Recognition of Similar Shaped Handwritten Marathi Characters Using Artificial Neural Network
Jane, Archana P.; Pund, Mukesh A.
2012-03-01
The growing need have handwritten Marathi character recognition in Indian offices such as passport, railways etc has made it vital area of a research. Similar shape characters are more prone to misclassification. In this paper a novel method is provided to recognize handwritten Marathi characters based on their features extraction and adaptive smoothing technique. Feature selections methods avoid unnecessary patterns in an image whereas adaptive smoothing technique form smooth shape of charecters.Combination of both these approaches leads to the better results. Previous study shows that, no one technique achieves 100% accuracy in handwritten character recognition area. This approach of combining both adaptive smoothing & feature extraction gives better results (approximately 75-100) and expected outcomes.
李国宏; 施鹏飞
2004-01-01
This paper presents a methodology for off-line handwritten Chinese character recognition based on mergence of consecutive segments of adaptive duration. The handwritten Chinese character string is partitioned into a sequence of consecutive segments, which are combined to implement dissimilarity evaluation within a sliding window whose durations are determined adaptively by the integration of shapes and context of evaluations. The average stroke width is estimated for the handwritten Chinese character string, and a set of candidate character segmentation boundaries is found by using the integration of pixel and stroke features. The final decisions on segmentation and recognition are made under minimal arithmetical mean dissimilarities. Experiments proved that the proposed approach of adaptive duration outperforms the method of fixed duration, and is very effective for the recognition of overlapped, broken, touched, loosely configured Chinese characters.
李国宏; 施鹏飞
2004-01-01
This paper presents a methodology for off-line handwritten Chinese character recognition based on mergence of consecutive segments of adaptive duration. The handwritten Chinese character string is partitioned into a sequence of consecutive segments,which are combined to implement dissimilarity evaluation within a sliding window whose durations are determined adaptively by the integration of shapes and context of evaluations. The average stroke width is estimated for the handwritten Chinese character string,and a set of candidate character segmentation boundaries is found by using the integration of pixel and stroke features. The final decisions on segmentation and recognition are made under minimal arithmetical mean dissimilarities. Experiments proved that the proposed approach of adaptive duration outperforms the method of fixed duration,and is very effective for the recognition of overlapped,broken,touched,loosely configured Chinese characters.
Ph. D. Student, Eng. Eusebiu Marcu
This paper introduces a new method of combining the degrees of similarity for a hand-written signature (also known as holographic signature or biometric signature) using neural networks. This method is used for a biometric authentication system after the degrees of similarity between a signature and it’s reference template are computed. The degrees of similarity are defined using Levenstein distance of the handwritten signature’s features. Using this method we achieved the following biometric performance metrics: FRR: 8.45% and FAR: 0.9%.
Optical Character Recognition for Isolated Offline Handwritten Devanagari Numerals Using Wavelets
Gaurav Y. Tawde
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a method of recognition of isolated offline handwritten Devanagari numerals using wavelets and neural network classifier. This method of optical character recognition takes the handwritten numeral image as input. After pre-processing, it is subjected to single level wavelet decomposition using Daubechies-4 wavelet filter. This wavelet decomposition allows viewing the input numeral at multiple resolutions. The Low-Low band components are used as inputs to multilayer perceptron (MLP classifier. The feed forward back propagation algorithm is used for classification of the input numeral.
A New Linguistic Decoding Method for Online Handwritten Chinese Character Recognition
徐志明; 王晓龙
2000-01-01
This paper presents a new linguistic decoding method for online handwritten Chinese character recognition. The method employs a hybrid language model which combines N-gram and linguistic rules by rule quantification technique.The linguistic decoding algorithm consists of three stages: word lattice construction,the optimal sentence hypothesis search and self-adaptive learning mechanism. The technique has been applied to palmtop computer's online handwritten Chinese character recognition. Samples containing millions of characters were used to test the linguistic decoder. In the open experiment, accuracy rate up to 92％ is achieved, and the error rate is reduced by 68％.
Fajri Kurniawan
2011-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a robust algorithm to identify the letter boundaries in images of unconstrained handwritten word. The proposed algorithm is based on vertical contour analysis. Proposed algorithm is performed to generate pre-segmentation by analyzing the vertical contours from right to left. The unwanted segmentation points are reduced using neural network validation to improve accuracy of segmentation. The neural network is utilized to validate segmentation points. The experiments are performed on the IAM benchmark database. The results are showing that the proposed algorithm capable to accurately locating the letter boundaries for unconstrained handwritten words.
Comparison of crisp and fuzzy character networks in handwritten word recognition
Gader, Paul; Mohamed, Magdi; Chiang, Jung-Hsien
1992-01-01
Experiments involving handwritten word recognition on words taken from images of handwritten address blocks from the United States Postal Service mailstream are described. The word recognition algorithm relies on the use of neural networks at the character level. The neural networks are trained using crisp and fuzzy desired outputs. The fuzzy outputs were defined using a fuzzy k-nearest neighbor algorithm. The crisp networks slightly outperformed the fuzzy networks at the character level but the fuzzy networks outperformed the crisp networks at the word level.
A convolutional recursive modified Self Organizing Map for handwritten digits recognition.
Mohebi, Ehsan; Bagirov, Adil
2014-12-01
It is well known that the handwritten digits recognition is a challenging problem. Different classification algorithms have been applied to solve it. Among them, the Self Organizing Maps (SOM) produced promising results. In this paper, first we introduce a Modified SOM for the vector quantization problem with improved initialization process and topology preservation. Then we develop a Convolutional Recursive Modified SOM and apply it to the problem of handwritten digits recognition. The computational results obtained using the well known MNIST dataset demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm over the existing SOM-based algorithms.
Mathematical Modeling and Pure Mathematics
Usiskin, Zalman
2015-01-01
Common situations, like planning air travel, can become grist for mathematical modeling and can promote the mathematical ideas of variables, formulas, algebraic expressions, functions, and statistics. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the mathematical modeling that is present in everyday situations can be naturally embedded in…
The language of mathematics telling mathematical tales
Barton, Bill
2008-01-01
Everyday mathematical ideas are expressed differently in different languages. This book probes those differences and explores their implications for mathematics education, arguing for alternatives to how we teach and learn mathematics.
D. Dimogianopoulos
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel methodology based on semistatic nondestructive testing of fish for the analytical computation of its textural characteristics via closed-form mathematical expressions. The novelty is that, unlike alternatives, explicit values for both stiffness and viscoelastic textural attributes may be computed, even if fish of different size/weight are tested. Furthermore, the testing procedure may be adapted to the specifications (sampling rate and accuracy of the available equipment. The experimental testing involves a fish placed on the pan of a digital weigh scale, which is subsequently tested with a ramp-like load profile in a custom-made installation. The ramp slope is (to some extent adjustable according to the specification (sampling rate and accuracy of the equipment. The scale’s reaction to fish loading, namely, the reactive force, is collected throughout time and is shown to depend on the fish textural attributes according to a closed-form mathematical formula. The latter is subsequently used along with collected data in order to compute these attributes rapidly and effectively. Four whole raw sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax of various sizes and textures were tested. Changes in texture, related to different viscoelastic characteristics among the four fish, were correctly detected and quantified using the proposed methodology.
JeongSuk, J.; Kim, G.
2004-01-01
We propose an active handwritten Hangul segmentation method. A manageable structure based on Run-length code is defined in order to apply to preprocessing and segmentation. Also three fundamental candidate estimation functions are in- troduced to detect the clues on touching points, and the classifi
Edeiken-Cooperman, Nanette; Berenato, Carolyn L.
2014-01-01
This study explored the area of effective feedback and whether undergraduate students prefer electronic or handwritten feedback. In teacher training programs this determination has become crucial because of the escalation in the number of formative assessments replacing summative assessments. A mixed methodology design was completed that involved…
THE SEGMENTATION OF A TEXT LINE FOR A HANDWRITTEN UNCONSTRAINED DOCUMENT USING THINING ALGORITHM
Tsuruoka, S.; Adachi, Y.; Yoshikawa, T.
2004-01-01
For printed documents, the projection analysis of black pixels is widely used for the segmentation of a text line. However, for handwritten documents, we think that the projection analysis is not appropriate, as the separating border line of a text line is not a straight line on a paper with no rule
U Ravi Babu
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to off-line handwritten numeral recognition based on structural and statistical features. Five different types of skeleton features: (horizontal, vertical crossings, end, branch, and cross points, number of contours in the image, Width-to-Height ratio, and distribution features are used for the recognition of numerals. We create two vectors Sample Feature Vector (SFV is a vector which contains Structural and Statistical features of MNIST sample data base of handwritten numerals and Test Feature Vector (TFV is a vector which contains Structural and Statistical features of MNIST test database of handwritten numerals. The performance of digit recognition system depends mainly on what kind of features are being used. The objective of this paper is to provide efficient and reliable techniques for recognition of handwritten numerals. A Euclidian minimum distance criterion is used to find minimum distances and k-nearest neighbor classifier is used to classify the numerals. MNIST database is used for both training and testing the system. A total 5000 numeral images are tested, and the overall accuracy is found to be 98.42%.
THE SEGMENTATION OF A TEXT LINE FOR A HANDWRITTEN UNCONSTRAINED DOCUMENT USING THINING ALGORITHM
Tsuruoka, S.; Adachi, Y.; Yoshikawa, T.
2004-01-01
For printed documents, the projection analysis of black pixels is widely used for the segmentation of a text line. However, for handwritten documents, we think that the projection analysis is not appropriate, as the separating border line of a text line is not a straight line on a paper with no
RZ: a tool for bringing constructive and computable mathematics closer to programming practice
Stone, Christopher A.; Bauer, Andrej
2015-01-01
Realizability theory can produce interfaces for the data structure corresponding to a mathematical theory. Our tool, called RZ, serves as a bridge between constructive mathematics and programming by translating specifications in constructive logic into annotated interface code in Objective Caml. The system supports a rich input language allowing descriptions of complex mathematical structures. RZ does not extract code from proofs, but allows any implementation method, from handwritten code to...
Performance Comparison of SVM and ANN for Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognition
Sandhya Arora
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Classification methods based on learning from examples have been widely applied to character recognition from the 1990s and have brought forth significant improvements of recognition accuracies. This class of methods includes statistical methods, artificial neural networks, support vector machines (SVM, multiple classifier combination, etc. In this paper, we discuss the characteristics of the some classification methods that have been successfully applied to handwritten Devnagari character recognition and results of SVM and ANNs classification method, applied on Handwritten Devnagari characters. After preprocessing the character image, we extracted shadow features, chain code histogram features, view based features and longest run features. These features are then fed to Neural classifier and in support vector machine for classification. In neural classifier, we explored three ways of combining decisions of four MLP's, designed for four different features.
Classification Of Gradient Change Features Using MLP For Handwritten Character Recognition
Arora, Sandhya; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nasipuri, Mita
2010-01-01
A novel, generic scheme for off-line handwritten English alphabets character images is proposed. The advantage of the technique is that it can be applied in a generic manner to different applications and is expected to perform better in uncertain and noisy environments. The recognition scheme is using a multilayer perceptron(MLP) neural networks. The system was trained and tested on a database of 300 samples of handwritten characters. For improved generalization and to avoid overtraining, the whole available dataset has been divided into two subsets: training set and test set. We achieved 99.10% and 94.15% correct recognition rates on training and test sets respectively. The purposed scheme is robust with respect to various writing styles and size as well as presence of considerable noise.
Performance Comparison of SVM and ANN for Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognition
Arora, Sandhya; Nasipuri, Mita; Malik, L; Kundu, M; Basu, D K
2010-01-01
Classification methods based on learning from examples have been widely applied to character recognition from the 1990s and have brought forth significant improvements of recognition accuracies. This class of methods includes statistical methods, artificial neural networks, support vector machines (SVM), multiple classifier combination, etc. In this paper, we discuss the characteristics of the some classification methods that have been successfully applied to handwritten Devnagari character recognition and results of SVM and ANNs classification method, applied on Handwritten Devnagari characters. After preprocessing the character image, we extracted shadow features, chain code histogram features, view based features and longest run features. These features are then fed to Neural classifier and in support vector machine for classification. In neural classifier, we explored three ways of combining decisions of four MLP's designed for four different features.
Multiple Classifier Combination for Off-line Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognition
Arora, Sandhya; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Kundu, Mahantapas
2010-01-01
This work presents the application of weighted majority voting technique for combination of classification decision obtained from three Multi_Layer Perceptron(MLP) based classifiers for Recognition of Handwritten Devnagari characters using three different feature sets. The features used are intersection, shadow feature and chain code histogram features. Shadow features are computed globally for character image while intersection features and chain code histogram features are computed by dividing the character image into different segments. On experimentation with a dataset of 4900 samples the overall recognition rate observed is 92.16% as we considered top five choices results. This method is compared with other recent methods for Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognition and it has been observed that this approach has better success rate than other methods.
Vikas J. Dongre
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In handwritten character recognition, benchmark database plays an important role in evaluating the performance of various algorithms and the results obtained by various researchers. In Devnagari script, there is lack of such official benchmark. This paper focuses on the generation of offline benchmark database for Devnagari handwritten numerals and characters. The present work generated 5137 and 20305 isolated samples for numeral and character database, respectively, from 750 writers of all ages, sex, education, and profession. The offline sample images are stored in TIFF image format as it occupies less memory. Also, the data is presented in binary level so that memory requirement is further reduced. It will facilitate research on handwriting recognition of Devnagari script through free access to the researchers.
Recognition of Handwritten Arabic words using a neuro-fuzzy network
Boukharouba, Abdelhak; Bennia, Abdelhak
2008-06-01
We present a new method for the recognition of handwritten Arabic words based on neuro-fuzzy hybrid network. As a first step, connected components (CCs) of black pixels are detected. Then the system determines which CCs are sub-words and which are stress marks. The stress marks are then isolated and identified separately and the sub-words are segmented into graphemes. Each grapheme is described by topological and statistical features. Fuzzy rules are extracted from training examples by a hybrid learning scheme comprised of two phases: rule generation phase from data using a fuzzy c-means, and rule parameter tuning phase using gradient descent learning. After learning, the network encodes in its topology the essential design parameters of a fuzzy inference system. The contribution of this technique is shown through the significant tests performed on a handwritten Arabic words database.
Mithun Biswas
2017-06-01
Full Text Available BanglaLekha-Isolated, a Bangla handwritten isolated character dataset is presented in this article. This dataset contains 84 different characters comprising of 50 Bangla basic characters, 10 Bangla numerals and 24 selected compound characters. 2000 handwriting samples for each of the 84 characters were collected, digitized and pre-processed. After discarding mistakes and scribbles, 1,66,105 handwritten character images were included in the final dataset. The dataset also includes labels indicating the age and the gender of the subjects from whom the samples were collected. This dataset could be used not only for optical handwriting recognition research but also to explore the influence of gender and age on handwriting. The dataset is publicly available at https://data.mendeley.com/datasets/hf6sf8zrkc/2.
Youssef Boulid
2017-08-01
Full Text Available A good Arabic handwritten recognition system must consider the characteristics of Arabic letters which can be explicit such as the presence of diacritics or implicit such as the baseline information (a virtual line on which cursive text are aligned and/join. In order to find an adequate method of features extraction, we have taken into consideration the nature of the Arabic characters. The paper investigate two methods based on two different visions: one describes the image in terms of the distribution of pixels, and the other describes it in terms of local patterns. Spatial Distribution of Pixels (SDP is used according to the first vision; whereas Local Binary Patterns (LBP are used for the second one. Tested on the Arabic portion of the Isolated Farsi Handwritten Character Database (IFHCDB and using neural networks as a classifier, SDP achieve a recognition rate around 94% while LBP achieve a recognition rate of about 96%.
Hidehisa NAKAYAMA
2004-08-01
Full Text Available In the field of handwritten Japanese address recognition, it is common to recognize place-name strings from place-name images. However, in practice, it is necessary to recognize the place-name strings from address images. Therefore, we have proposed the post-processing system, which checks the list of the place-name strings in two-stages for recognizing the place-name images. In this paper, we propose a new technique based on phased search of candidate rectangle lattice, and improve the technique with the detection of key-characters for final output. Applying our proposal to the IPTP 1840 image data of address strings, the results of experiments clearly show the efficiency of our system in handwritten Japanese address recognition.
Biswas, Mithun; Islam, Rafiqul; Shom, Gautam Kumar; Shopon, Md; Mohammed, Nabeel; Momen, Sifat; Abedin, Anowarul
2017-06-01
BanglaLekha-Isolated, a Bangla handwritten isolated character dataset is presented in this article. This dataset contains 84 different characters comprising of 50 Bangla basic characters, 10 Bangla numerals and 24 selected compound characters. 2000 handwriting samples for each of the 84 characters were collected, digitized and pre-processed. After discarding mistakes and scribbles, 1,66,105 handwritten character images were included in the final dataset. The dataset also includes labels indicating the age and the gender of the subjects from whom the samples were collected. This dataset could be used not only for optical handwriting recognition research but also to explore the influence of gender and age on handwriting. The dataset is publicly available at https://data.mendeley.com/datasets/hf6sf8zrkc/2.
A string matching based algorithm for performance evaluation of mathematical expression recognition
P Pavan Kumar; Arun Agarwal; Chakravarthy Bhagvati
2014-02-01
In this paper, we have addressed the problem of automated performance evaluation of Mathematical Expression (ME) recognition. Automated evaluation requires that recognition output and ground truth in some editable format like LaTeX, MathML, etc. have to be matched. But standard forms can have extraneous symbols or tags. For example,
Review: Mathematical expressions for estimating equivalent permeability of rock fracture networks
Liu, Richeng; Li, Bo; Jiang, Yujing; Huang, Na
2016-06-01
Fracture networks play a more significant role in conducting fluid flow and solute transport in fractured rock masses, comparing with that of the rock matrix. Accurate estimation of the permeability of fracture networks would help researchers and engineers better assess the performance of projects associated with fluid flow in fractured rock masses. This study provides a review of previous works that have focused on the estimation of equivalent permeability of two-dimensional (2-D) discrete fracture networks (DFNs) considering the influences of geometric properties of fractured rock masses. Mathematical expressions for the effects of nine important parameters that significantly impact on the equivalent permeability of DFNs are summarized, including (1) fracture-length distribution, (2) aperture distribution, (3) fracture surface roughness, (4) fracture dead-end, (5) number of intersections, (6) hydraulic gradient, (7) boundary stress, (8) anisotropy, and (9) scale. Recent developments of 3-D fracture networks are briefly reviewed to underline the importance of utilizing 3-D models in future research.
Review: Mathematical expressions for estimating equivalent permeability of rock fracture networks
Liu, Richeng; Li, Bo; Jiang, Yujing; Huang, Na
2016-11-01
Fracture networks play a more significant role in conducting fluid flow and solute transport in fractured rock masses, comparing with that of the rock matrix. Accurate estimation of the permeability of fracture networks would help researchers and engineers better assess the performance of projects associated with fluid flow in fractured rock masses. This study provides a review of previous works that have focused on the estimation of equivalent permeability of two-dimensional (2-D) discrete fracture networks (DFNs) considering the influences of geometric properties of fractured rock masses. Mathematical expressions for the effects of nine important parameters that significantly impact on the equivalent permeability of DFNs are summarized, including (1) fracture-length distribution, (2) aperture distribution, (3) fracture surface roughness, (4) fracture dead-end, (5) number of intersections, (6) hydraulic gradient, (7) boundary stress, (8) anisotropy, and (9) scale. Recent developments of 3-D fracture networks are briefly reviewed to underline the importance of utilizing 3-D models in future research.
Akio Inoue; Kentaro Kuraoka; Fumiaki Kitahara
2012-01-01
We analyzed the relationship between internode number and internode length for one of the largest bamboo,Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex Houz.For 50 sample culms with various sizes felled in a pure stand of P.pubescens,the intemode number was assigned from base to tip and the length for each intemode was directly measured.The result indicated that the intemode length should be cumulated from base to tip,and then the cumulated intemode length should be relativized by the total culm length.It was inappropriate to relativize the internode length by the maximum intenode length.In addition,the relationship between the relative internode number (the internode number relativized by the total number of internodes) and the relative cumulated internode length should be described not by a power function but by a sigmoid function such as the third-order function.The determined function enabled us to estimate the actual internode length,with the root mean squared error being 4 cm.In conclusion,the mathematical expression presented here,i.e.,the relativization of the cumulated internode length by the total culm length and the application of the sigmoid function,will be uscful in describing the relationship between internode number and internode length for P.pubescens.
Handwritten Digit Recognition with a Committee of Deep Neural Nets on GPUs
Cireşan, Dan C; Gambardella, Luca M; Schmidhuber, Jürgen
2011-01-01
The competitive MNIST handwritten digit recognition benchmark has a long history of broken records since 1998. The most recent substantial improvement by others dates back 7 years (error rate 0.4%) . Recently we were able to significantly improve this result, using graphics cards to greatly speed up training of simple but deep MLPs, which achieved 0.35%, outperforming all the previous more complex methods. Here we report another substantial improvement: 0.31% obtained using a committee of MLPs.
AN ADAPTIVELY TRAINED KERNEL-BASED NONLINEAR REPRESENTOR FOR HANDWRITTEN DIGIT CLASSIFICATION
无
2006-01-01
In practice, retraining a trained classifier is necessary when novel data become available. This paper adopts an incremental learning procedure to adaptively train a Kernel-based Nonlinear Representor(KNR), a recently presented nonlinear classifier for optimal pattern representation, so that its generalization ability may be evaluated in time-variant situation and a sparser representation is obtained for computationally intensive tasks. The addressed techniques are applied to handwritten digit classification to illustrate the feasibility for pattern recognition.
Fuzzy Logic Module of Convolutional Neural Network for Handwritten Digits Recognition
Popko, E. A.; Weinstein, I. A.
2016-08-01
Optical character recognition is one of the important issues in the field of pattern recognition. This paper presents a method for recognizing handwritten digits based on the modeling of convolutional neural network. The integrated fuzzy logic module based on a structural approach was developed. Used system architecture adjusted the output of the neural network to improve quality of symbol identification. It was shown that proposed algorithm was flexible and high recognition rate of 99.23% was achieved.
Segmentation of Handwritten Chinese Character Strings Based on improved Algorithm Liu
Zhihua Cai
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Algorithm Liu attracts high attention because of its high accuracy in segmentation of Japanese postal address. But the disadvantages, such as complexity and difficult implementation of algorithm, etc. have an adverse effect on its popularization and application. In this paper, the author applies the principles of algorithm Liu to handwritten Chinese character segmentation according to the characteristics of the handwritten Chinese characters, based on deeply study on algorithm Liu.In the same time, the author put forward the judgment criterion of Segmentation block classification and adhering mode of the handwritten Chinese characters.In the process of segmentation, text images are seen as the sequence made up of Connected Components (CCs, while the connected components are made up of several horizontal itinerary set of black pixels in image. The author determines whether these parts will be merged into segmentation through analyzing connected components. And then the author does image segmentation through adhering mode based on the analysis of outline edges. Finally cut the text images into character segmentation. Experimental results show that the improved Algorithm Liu obtains high segmentation accuracy and produces a satisfactory segmentation result.
Mostafa, Khaled; Darwish, Ahmed M.
1999-01-01
The problem of cursive script segmentation is an essential one for handwritten character recognition. This is specially true for Arabic text where cursive is the only mode even for typewritten font. In this paper, we present a generalized segmentation approach for handwritten Arabic cursive scripts. The proposed approach is based on the analysis of the upper and lower contours of the word. The algorithm searchers for local minima points along the upper contour and local maxima points along the lower contour of the word. These points are then marked as potential letter boundaries (PLB). A set of rules, based on the nature of Arabic cursive scripts, are then applied to both upper and lower PLB points to eliminate some of the improper ones. A matching process between upper and lower PLBs is then performed in order to obtain the minimum number of non-overlapping PLB for each word. The output of the proposed segmentation algorithm is a set of labeled primitives that represent the Arabic word. In order to reconstruct the original word from its corresponding primitives and diacritics, a novel binding and dot assignment algorithm is introduced. The algorithm achieved correct segmentation rate of 97.7% when tested on samples of loosely constrained handwritten cursive script words consisting of 7922 characters written by 14 different writers.
A novel framework for Farsi and latin script identification and Farsi handwritten digit recognition
Behrad Alireza
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Optical character recognition is an important task for converting handwritten and printed documents to digital format. In multilingual systems, a necessary process before OCR algorithm is script identification. In this paper novel methods for the script language identification and the recognition of Farsi handwritten digits are proposed. Our method for script identification is based on curvature scale space features. The proposed features are rotation and scale invariant and can be used to identify scripts with different fonts. We assumed that the bilingual scripts may have Farsi and English words and characters together; therefore the algorithm is designed to be able to recognize scripts in the connected components level. The output of the recognition is then generalized to word, line and page levels. We used cluster based weighted support vector machine for the classification and recognition of Farsi handwritten digits that is reasonably robust against rotation and scaling. The algorithm extracts the required features using principle component analysis (PCA and linear discrimination analysis (LDA algorithms. The extracted features are then classified using a new classification algorithm called cluster based weighted SVM (CBWSVM. The experimental results showed the promise of the algorithms.
Rasmussen, Luke V; Peissig, Peggy L; McCarty, Catherine A; Starren, Justin
2012-06-01
Although the penetration of electronic health records is increasing rapidly, much of the historical medical record is only available in handwritten notes and forms, which require labor-intensive, human chart abstraction for some clinical research. The few previous studies on automated extraction of data from these handwritten notes have focused on monolithic, custom-developed recognition systems or third-party systems that require proprietary forms. We present an optical character recognition processing pipeline, which leverages the capabilities of existing third-party optical character recognition engines, and provides the flexibility offered by a modular custom-developed system. The system was configured and run on a selected set of form fields extracted from a corpus of handwritten ophthalmology forms. The processing pipeline allowed multiple configurations to be run, with the optimal configuration consisting of the Nuance and LEADTOOLS engines running in parallel with a positive predictive value of 94.6% and a sensitivity of 13.5%. While limitations exist, preliminary experience from this project yielded insights on the generalizability and applicability of integrating multiple, inexpensive general-purpose third-party optical character recognition engines in a modular pipeline.
A K SAMPATH; N GOMATHI
2017-09-01
Due to constant advancement of computer tools, automated conversion of images of typed,handwritten and printed text is important for various applications, which has led to intense research for several years in the field of offline handwritten character recognition. Handwritten character recognition is complex because characters differ by writing style, shapes and writing devices. To resolve this problem, we propose a fuzzy-based multi-kernel spherical support vector machine. Initially, the input image is fed into the pre-processing step to acquire suitable images. Then, histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) descriptor is utilised forfeature extraction. The HOG descriptor constitutes a histogram estimation and normalisation computation. The features are then classified using the proposed classifier for character recognition. In the proposed classifier, we design a new multi-kernel function based on the fuzzy triangular membership function. Finally, a newly developed multi-kernel function is incorporated into the spherical support vector machine to enhance the performance significantly. The experimental results are evaluated and performance is analysed by metrics such as false acceptance rate, false rejection rate and accuracy, which is implemented in MATLAB. Then, the performance is compared with existing systems based on the percentage of training data samples. Thus, the outcome of our proposed system attains 99% higher accuracy, which ensures efficient recognition performance
A MULTISET APPROACH FOR RECOGNITION OF HANDWRITTEN CHARACTERS USING PUZZLE PIECES
Ashlin Deepa R.N
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Image pattern matching is one of the most widely used techniques in character recognition. A pattern is the description of an object. Although a large number of papers have been reported on handwritten character recognition, it is still a very challenging problem. Recognition of characters is based on pattern classification. In this paper a hybrid approach is proposed using fuzzy technique and multiset comparison to recognize handwritten characters. Fuzzy technique is used to measure the variations in the features of handwritten numerals to form strings of character. Features are selected from the preprocessed image and the feature is labeled using fuzzy logic. Strings of a character are formed from these labeled primitives. Each string is divided into a multiset of puzzle pieces by repeatedly applying a mask which is comprised of all ones. The string is padded with anchors at the beginning and end. The mask is placed over the string, beginning at a certain character, and reading off all characters corresponding to 1 bit in the mask, thus producing one puzzle piece. To divide a string into multiset of puzzle pieces, the mask is applied at all shifts in the string starting at each character. Thus for each prototype character, we associate a multiset of puzzle pieces, which form the database. The multiset of puzzle pieces of an unknown character is constructed and compared with the same in the database, leading to the identification of the unknown character.
Experimental model for non-Newtonian fluid viscosity estimation: Fit to mathematical expressions
Guillem Masoliver i Marcos
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The construction process of a viscometer, developed in collaboration with a final project student, is here presented. It is intended to be used by first year's students to know the viscosity as a fluid property, for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian flows. Viscosity determination is crucial for the fluids behaviour knowledge related to their reologic and physical properties. These have great implications in engineering aspects such as friction or lubrication. With the present experimental model device three different fluids are analyzed (water, kétchup and a mixture with cornstarch and water. Tangential stress is measured versus velocity in order to characterize all the fluids in different thermal conditions. A mathematical fit process is proposed to be done in order to adjust the results to expected analytical expressions, obtaining good results for these fittings, with R2 greater than 0.88 in any case.
Behrouz Sarbakhshian
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This study attempted to compare typed and handwritten essays of Iranian EFL students in terms of length, spelling, and grammar. To administer the study, the researchers utilized Alice Touch Typing Tutor software to select 15 upper intermediate students with higher ability to write two essays: one typed and the other handwritten. The students were both males and females between the ages of 22 to 35. The analyses of the students’ scores in the three mentioned criteria through three paired samples t-tests indicate that typed essays are significantly better than handwritten ones in terms of length of texts and grammatical mistakes, but not significantly different in spelling mistakes. Positive effects of typing can provide a logical reason for students, especially TOEFL applicants, to spend more time on acquiring typing skill and also for teachers to encourage their students with higher typing ability to choose typed format in their essays.
The use of invariant moments in hand-written character recognition
Dan L. Lacrama
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present the implementation of a Radial Basis Function neural network with built-in knowledge to recognize hand-written characters. The neural network includes in its architecture gates controlled by an attraction/repulsion system of coefficients. These coefficients are derived from a preprocessing stage which groups the characters according to their ascendant, central, or descendent components.The neural network is trained using data from invariant moment functions. Results are compared with those obtained using a K nearest neighbor method on the same moment data.
Mathematical Epistemologies at Work.
Noss, Richard
2002-01-01
Investigates young people's expression of mathematical ideas with a computer, the nature of mathematical practices, and the problem of mathematical meaning from cognitive and socio-cultural perspectives. Describes a mathematical activity system designed for learning and the role of digital technologies in helping to understand and reshape the…
Zhang Renxiang; Zhang Renji
2007-01-01
The meridian (Jingluo 经络) is a core principle of traditional Chinese. medicine. The meridian plays a central role in the regulation of human health and vitality. In the past 50 years, the scientific evidence has been gathered via our physiological experiments to confirm the biological basis of the human meridian pathway phenomenon. Meridian Science has been established as a new branch of natural science to advance and promote the study of this important phenomenon for human life. In this paper, the authors describe the theoretical concept of the meridian and mathematics expression, its relationship to an efficient meridian circadian cycle, and its significance to human life.
Recognition of online handwritten Gurmukhi characters based on zone and stroke identification
KARUN VERMA; R K SHARMA
2017-05-01
Handwriting recognition is a technique that converts handwritten characters into a machine-processable format. Handwritten characters can either be presented to machine online or offline. A good amount of research in this area has been carried out for English, Chinese, Japanese and Korean languages. Research is also going on for Indian languages on developing online handwriting recognition systems. Headline and baseline are common features in most Indic languages which divide a character into three zones, namely, upper, middle andlower zones. Identification of headline and baseline is a major task for classification of strokes located in these three zones. A zone identification algorithm is proposed and tested in this text for online handwriting recognitionof Gurmukhi script. The strokes are grouped into these separate zones and are recognized based on respective support vector machine model for each zone. A rule-based approach has also been applied and tested for generation of characters from the set of recognized strokes. In this work, an accuracy of 95.3% has been achieved for zone identification and an accuracy of 74.8% has been achieved for character identification for Gurmukhi script. This accuracy has been achieved when the recognition engines of three zones were tested onthe dataset of 428 characters each written by 10 users.
Fajri Kurniawan
2013-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a robust algorithm to identify the letter boundaries in images of unconstrained handwritten word . The proposed algorithm is based on vertical contour analysis. Proposed algorithm is performed to generate presegmentation by analyzing the vertical contours from right to left. The unwanted segmentation points are reduced using neural network validation to improve accuracy of segmentation. The neural network is utilized to validate segmentation points. The experiments are performed on the IAM benchmark database. The results are showing that the proposed algorithm capable to accurately locating the letter boundaries for unconstrained handwritten words.
Adaptive membership functions for handwritten character recognition by Voronoi-based image zoning.
Pirlo, Giuseppe; Impedovo, Donato
2012-09-01
In the field of handwritten character recognition, image zoning is a widespread technique for feature extraction since it is rightly considered to be able to cope with handwritten pattern variability. As a matter of fact, the problem of zoning design has attracted many researchers who have proposed several image-zoning topologies, according to static and dynamic strategies. Unfortunately, little attention has been paid so far to the role of feature-zone membership functions that define the way in which a feature influences different zones of the zoning method. The result is that the membership functions defined to date follow nonadaptive, global approaches that are unable to model local information on feature distributions. In this paper, a new class of zone-based membership functions with adaptive capabilities is introduced and its effectiveness is shown. The basic idea is to select, for each zone of the zoning method, the membership function best suited to exploit the characteristics of the feature distribution of that zone. In addition, a genetic algorithm is proposed to determine-in a unique process-the most favorable membership functions along with the optimal zoning topology, described by Voronoi tessellation. The experimental tests show the superiority of the new technique with respect to traditional zoning methods.
Evaluating structural pattern recognition for handwritten math via primitive label graphs
Zanibbi, Richard; MoucheÌre, Harold; Viard-Gaudin, Christian
2013-01-01
Currently, structural pattern recognizer evaluations compare graphs of detected structure to target structures (i.e. ground truth) using recognition rates, recall and precision for object segmentation, classification and relationships. In document recognition, these target objects (e.g. symbols) are frequently comprised of multiple primitives (e.g. connected components, or strokes for online handwritten data), but current metrics do not characterize errors at the primitive level, from which object-level structure is obtained. Primitive label graphs are directed graphs defined over primitives and primitive pairs. We define new metrics obtained by Hamming distances over label graphs, which allow classification, segmentation and parsing errors to be characterized separately, or using a single measure. Recall and precision for detected objects may also be computed directly from label graphs. We illustrate the new metrics by comparing a new primitive-level evaluation to the symbol-level evaluation performed for the CROHME 2012 handwritten math recognition competition. A Python-based set of utilities for evaluating, visualizing and translating label graphs is publicly available.
Corticospinal excitability during the processing of handwritten and typed words and non-words.
Gordon, Chelsea L; Spivey, Michael J; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh
2017-06-09
A number of studies have suggested that perception of actions is accompanied by motor simulation of those actions. To further explore this proposal, we applied Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the left primary motor cortex during the observation of handwritten and typed language stimuli, including words and non-word consonant clusters. We recorded motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle to measure cortico-spinal excitability during written text perception. We observed a facilitation in MEPs for handwritten stimuli, regardless of whether the stimuli were words or non-words, suggesting potential motor simulation during observation. We did not observe a similar facilitation for the typed stimuli, suggesting that motor simulation was not occurring during observation of typed text. By demonstrating potential simulation of written language text during observation, these findings add to a growing literature suggesting that the motor system plays a strong role in the perception of written language. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ghany, Ahmad; Vassanji, Karim; Kuziemsky, Craig; Keshavjee, Karim
2013-01-01
Electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) is expected to bring many benefits to Canadian healthcare, such as a reduction in errors and adverse drug reactions. As there currently is no functioning e-prescribing system in Canada that is completely electronic, we are unable to evaluate the performance of a live system. An alternative approach is to use simulation modeling for evaluation. We developed two discrete-event simulation models, one of the current handwritten prescribing system and one of a proposed e-prescribing system, to compare the performance of these two systems. We were able to compare the number of processes in each model, workflow efficiency, and the distribution of patients or prescriptions. Although we were able to compare these models to each other, using discrete-event simulation software was challenging. We were limited in the number of variables we could measure. We discovered non-linear processes and feedback loops in both models that could not be adequately represented using discrete-event simulation software. Finally, interactions between entities in both models could not be modeled using this type of software. We have come to the conclusion that a more appropriate approach to modeling both the handwritten and electronic prescribing systems would be to use a complex adaptive systems approach using agent-based modeling or systems-based modeling.
THE SYNTACTIC ORGANIZATION OF THE 16th CENTURY HANDWRITTEN PROLOGUE
Akimova Elvira Nikolaevna
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This article introduces the 16th century handwriting (the Prologue into the scientific use. So, the Prologue is a collection of brief lives, teachings, edifying stories and episodes put in the calendar order. And this article is the first study of its syntactic organization. Micro texts forming the Prologue's macro text are divided into narrative and didactic. For example, hagiographic narrative texts as the type of speech – narration – make about two-thirds of the total number of micro texts. Edifying texts are heterogeneous; they can be persuasive, rhetorical and mixed. Different types of discourse led to a variety of syntactical construction of micro texts. Moreover, narrative ones agree with a strict model, they contain persistent verbal formulas of beginning and end. They include chains of active action verbs; participle constructions of deliberative and modal verbs; turn "dative independent case" ("datelny samostoyatelny"; stringing design constructions – relevant phenomena for syntactical narrations. The basis of narrative micro texts coherence is chronological. And instructive texts can be placed in arbitrary order, which is typical for enfilade-type collections. Consequently, the structure of edifying texts is much more diverse than that of narrative ones. Persuasive micro texts present narration persuasion which is common for ancient Russian manuscripts. Directive nature of similar micro texts implies timelessness, transcendence of statements and is expressed primarily by various forms of the verb imperative which are not estimated from the viewpoint of speech moment. The edifying discourse, the predominance of arguments, the truth statements, intention indication contribute to the semantics of explication conditionality of micro texts. So, the rhetorical parts of the Prologue can be organized in the question-answer unity form, or detailed antithesis, contain rhetorical questions, exclamations, appeals, addresses in different
Rakshit, Sandip; Ikeda, Hisashi
2010-01-01
Objective of the current work is to develop an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) engine for information Just In Time (iJIT) system that can be used for recognition of handwritten textual annotations of lower case Roman script. Tesseract open source OCR engine under Apache License 2.0 is used to develop user-specific handwriting recognition models, viz., the language sets, for the said system, where each user is identified by a unique identification tag associated with the digital pen. To generate the language set for any user, Tesseract is trained with labeled handwritten data samples of isolated and free-flow texts of Roman script, collected exclusively from that user. The designed system is tested on five different language sets with free- flow handwritten annotations as test samples. The system could successfully segment and subsequently recognize 87.92%, 81.53%, 92.88%, 86.75% and 90.80% handwritten characters in the test samples of five different users.
Zavorin, Ilya; Borovikov, Eugene; Davis, Ericson; Borovikov, Anna; Summers, Kristen
2008-01-01
Machine perception and recognition of handwritten text in any language is a difficult problem. Even for Latin script most solutions are restricted to specific domains like bank checks courtesy amount recognition. Arabic script presents additional challenges for handwriting recognition systems due to its highly connected nature, numerous forms of each letter, and other factors. In this paper we address the problem of offline Arabic handwriting recognition of pre-segmented words. Rather than focusing on a single classification approach and trying to perfect it, we propose to combine heterogeneous classification methodologies. We evaluate our system on the IFN/ENIT corpus of Tunisian village and town names and demonstrate that the combined approach yields results that are better than those of the individual classifiers.
A Markov chain based line segmentation framework for handwritten character recognition
Wu, Yue; Zha, Shengxin; Cao, Huaigu; Liu, Daben; Natarajan, Premkumar
2013-12-01
In this paper, we present a novel text line segmentation framework following the divide-and-conquer paradigm: we iteratively identify and re-process regions of ambiguous line segmentation from an input document image until there is no ambiguity. To detect ambiguous line segmentation, we introduce the use of two complimentary line descriptors, referred as to the underline and highlight line descriptors, and identify ambiguities when their patterns mismatch. As a result, we can easily identify already good line segmentations, and largely simplify the original line segmentation problem by only reprocessing ambiguous regions. We evaluate the performance of the proposed line segmentation framework using the ICDAR 2009 handwritten document dataset, and it is close to top-performing systems submitted to the competition. Moreover, the proposed method is also robust against skewness, noise, variable line heights and touching characters. The proposed idea can also be applied to other text analysis tasks such as word segmentation and page layout analysis.
Adaptive, optical, radial basis function neural network for handwritten digit recognition
Foor, Wesley E.; Neifeld, Mark A.
1995-11-01
An adaptive, optical, radial basis function classifier for handwritten digit recognition is experimentally demonstrated. We describe a spatially multiplexed system that incorporates an on-line adaptation of weights and basis function widths to provide robustness to optical system imperfections and system noise. The optical system computes the Euclidean distances between a 100-dimensional input vector and 198 stored reference patterns in parallel by using dual vector-matrix multipliers and a contrast-reversing spatial light modulator. Software is used to emulate an electronic chip that performs the on-line learning of the weights and basis function widths. An experimental recognition rate of 92.7% correct out of 300 testing samples is achieved with the adaptive training, versus 31.0% correct for nonadaptive training. We compare the experimental results with a detailed computer model of the system in order to analyze the influence of various noise sources on the system performance.
Rosso, Osvaldo A; Ospina, Raydonal; Frery, Alejandro C
2016-01-01
We present a new approach for handwritten signature classification and verification based on descriptors stemming from time causal information theory. The proposal uses the Shannon entropy, the statistical complexity, and the Fisher information evaluated over the Bandt and Pompe symbolization of the horizontal and vertical coordinates of signatures. These six features are easy and fast to compute, and they are the input to an One-Class Support Vector Machine classifier. The results are better than state-of-the-art online techniques that employ higher-dimensional feature spaces which often require specialized software and hardware. We assess the consistency of our proposal with respect to the size of the training sample, and we also use it to classify the signatures into meaningful groups.
A comparison of 1D and 2D LSTM architectures for the recognition of handwritten Arabic
Yousefi, Mohammad Reza; Soheili, Mohammad Reza; Breuel, Thomas M.; Stricker, Didier
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present an Arabic handwriting recognition method based on recurrent neural network. We use the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) architecture, that have proven successful in different printed and handwritten OCR tasks. Applications of LSTM for handwriting recognition employ the two-dimensional architecture to deal with the variations in both vertical and horizontal axis. However, we show that using a simple pre-processing step that normalizes the position and baseline of letters, we can make use of 1D LSTM, which is faster in learning and convergence, and yet achieve superior performance. In a series of experiments on IFN/ENIT database for Arabic handwriting recognition, we demonstrate that our proposed pipeline can outperform 2D LSTM networks. Furthermore, we provide comparisons with 1D LSTM networks trained with manually crafted features to show that the automatically learned features in a globally trained 1D LSTM network with our normalization step can even outperform such systems.
An efficient method to enhance the readability of historical handwritten artifacts
Soni, Ramakant; Shekhawat, Pradeep Singh; Jangir, Ramesh; Saini, Sanjay Kumar
2016-03-01
Historical handwritten letters, manuscripts, old books, paintings and similar artifacts are extremely valuable heritage and of historical importance. During a course of time these are subjected to various degradation factors which reduce their visual quality and degrade state. To preserve these for future generation their digitization is the best suitable method. Converting these into digital format will enhance their state in terms of visual quality. Using various image processing and analysis techniques their state and quality can be enhanced which will help us to restore them and preserve them and analyze them to explore valuable information of the past. This paper is based on combining different image processing techniques like de-noising the images and making them smoother, de-blurring the motion blur effects and reducing the intensity levels to reduce the memory consumption.
Bogdan Woźniak
2007-12-01
Full Text Available This paper, part 3 of the description of vertical pigment distributions in the Baltic Sea, discusses the mathematical expression enabling the vertical distributions of the non-photosynthetic pigment absorption factor fa to be estimated. The factor fa is directly related to concentrations of the several groups of phytoplankton pigments and describes quantitatively the ratio of the light energy absorbed at given depths by photosynthetic pigments to the light energy absorbed by all the phytoplankton pigments together (photosynthetic and photoprotecting. Knowledge of this factor is highly desirable in the construction of state-of-the-art "light-photosynthesis" models for remote-sensing purposes. The expression enables fa to be estimated with considerable precision on the basis of two surface parameters (available from satellite observations: the total chlorophyll a concentration at the surfaceCa(0 and the spectral downward irradiance Ed(λ, 0 just below the sea surface. The expression is applicable to Baltic waters from the surface down to an optical depth of τ ≈ 5. The verification of the model description of fa was based on 400 quasi-empirical values of this factor which were calculated on the basis of empirical values of the following parameters measured at the same depths: Ed(λ, z (or also PAR(z, apl(λ, z,and the concentrations of all the groups of phytoplankton pigments Ca(z and Cj(z (where j denotes in turn chl b, chl c, PSC, phyc, PPC. The verification shows that the errors in the values of the non-photosynthetic pigment absorption factor fa estimated using the modeldeveloped in this work are small: in practice they do not exceed 4%. Besides the mathematical description of the vertical distribution of fa, this paper also discusses the range of variation of its values measured in the Baltic and its dependence on the trophic index of a basin and depth in the sea. In addition, the similarities and differences in the
Poletti, Michele
2016-01-01
The fifth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" grouped specific learning disabilities in the single diagnostic category of specific learning disorder (SLD), with specifiers for impairments in reading, written expression, and mathematics. This study aimed at investigating the intellectual profile,…
Jerzy Dera
2007-12-01
Full Text Available This article is the first in a series of three describing the modelling of the vertical different photosynthetic and photoprotecting phytoplankton pigments concentration distributions in the Baltic and their interrelationsdescribed by the so-called non-photosynthetic pigment factor.The model formulas yielded by this research are an integral part of the algorithms used in the remote sensingof the Baltic ecosystem. Algorithms of this kind have already been developed by our team from data relating mainly to oceanic Case 1 waters (WC1 and have produced good results for these waters. But their application to Baltic waters, i.e.,Case 2 waters, was not so successful. On the basis of empirical data for the Baltic Sea, we therefore derived new mathematical expressions for the spatial distribution of Baltic phytoplankton pigments. They are discussed in this series of articles. This first article presents a statistical model for determining the total concentration ofchlorophyll, a (i.e., the sum of chlorophylls a+pheo derived spectrophotometrically at different depths in the Baltic Sea Ca(z on the basis of its surface concentration Ca(0,which can be determined by remote sensing. This model accounts for the principal features of the vertical distributions of chlorophyll concentrations characteristic of the Baltic Sea. The model's precision was verified empirically: it was found suitable for application in the efficient monitoring of the Baltic Sea. The modified mathematical descriptions of the concentrations of accessory pigments (photosynthetic and photoprotecting in Baltic phytoplankton and selected relationships between them are given in the other two articles in this series (Majchrowski et al. 2007, Woźniak et al. 2007b, both in this volume.
HMM-based lexicon-driven and lexicon-free word recognition for online handwritten Indic scripts.
Bharath, A; Madhvanath, Sriganesh
2012-04-01
Research for recognizing online handwritten words in Indic scripts is at its early stages when compared to Latin and Oriental scripts. In this paper, we address this problem specifically for two major Indic scripts--Devanagari and Tamil. In contrast to previous approaches, the techniques we propose are largely data driven and script independent. We propose two different techniques for word recognition based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM): lexicon driven and lexicon free. The lexicon-driven technique models each word in the lexicon as a sequence of symbol HMMs according to a standard symbol writing order derived from the phonetic representation. The lexicon-free technique uses a novel Bag-of-Symbols representation of the handwritten word that is independent of symbol order and allows rapid pruning of the lexicon. On handwritten Devanagari word samples featuring both standard and nonstandard symbol writing orders, a combination of lexicon-driven and lexicon-free recognizers significantly outperforms either of them used in isolation. In contrast, most Tamil word samples feature the standard symbol order, and the lexicon-driven recognizer outperforms the lexicon free one as well as their combination. The best recognition accuracies obtained for 20,000 word lexicons are 87.13 percent for Devanagari when the two recognizers are combined, and 91.8 percent for Tamil using the lexicon-driven technique.
Mathematical and Biological Modelling of RNA Secondary Structure and Its Effects on Gene Expression
T. A. Hughes
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Secondary structures within the 5′ untranslated regions of messenger RNAs can have profound effects on the efficiency of translation of their messages and thereby on gene expression. Consequently they can act as important regulatory motifs in both physiological and pathological settings. Current approaches to predicting the secondary structure of these RNA sequences find the structure with the global-minimum free energy. However, since RNA folds progressively from the 5′ end when synthesised or released from the translational machinery, this may not be the most probable structure. We discuss secondary structure prediction based on local-minimisation of free energy with thermodynamic fluctuations as nucleotides are added to the 3′ end and show that these can result in different secondary structures. We also discuss approaches for studying the extent of the translational inhibition specified by structures within the 5′ untranslated region.
Solen eSausset
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The coordination of the various processes involved in language production is a subject of keen debate in writing research. Some authors hold that writing processes can be flexibly coordinated according to task demands, whereas others claim that process coordination is entirely inflexible. For instance, orthographic planning has been shown to be resource-dependent during handwriting, but inflexible in typing, even under time pressure. The present study therefore went one step further in studying flexibility in the coordination of orthographic processing and graphomotor execution, by measuring the impact of time pressure during a handwritten copy task. Orthographic and graphomotor processes were observed via syllable processing. Writers copied out two- and three-syllable words three times in a row, with and without time pressure. Latencies and letter measures at syllable boundaries were analyzed. We hypothesized that if coordination is flexible and varies according to task demands, it should be modified by time pressure, affecting both latency before execution and duration of execution. We therefore predicted that the extent of syllable processing before execution would be reduced under time pressure and, as a consequence, syllable effects during execution would be more salient. Results showed, however, that time pressure interacted neither with syllable number nor with syllable structure. Accordingly, syllable processing appears to remain the same regardless of time pressure. The flexibility of process coordination during handwriting is discussed, as is the operationalization of time pressure constraints.
Deep Convolutional Extreme Learning Machine and Its Application in Handwritten Digit Classification.
Pang, Shan; Yang, Xinyi
2016-01-01
In recent years, some deep learning methods have been developed and applied to image classification applications, such as convolutional neuron network (CNN) and deep belief network (DBN). However they are suffering from some problems like local minima, slow convergence rate, and intensive human intervention. In this paper, we propose a rapid learning method, namely, deep convolutional extreme learning machine (DC-ELM), which combines the power of CNN and fast training of ELM. It uses multiple alternate convolution layers and pooling layers to effectively abstract high level features from input images. Then the abstracted features are fed to an ELM classifier, which leads to better generalization performance with faster learning speed. DC-ELM also introduces stochastic pooling in the last hidden layer to reduce dimensionality of features greatly, thus saving much training time and computation resources. We systematically evaluated the performance of DC-ELM on two handwritten digit data sets: MNIST and USPS. Experimental results show that our method achieved better testing accuracy with significantly shorter training time in comparison with deep learning methods and other ELM methods.
A knowledge-based approach for recognition of handwritten Pitman shorthand language strokes
P Nagabhushan; Basavaraj S Anami
2002-12-01
The Pitman shorthand language (PSL) is a recording medium practised in all organizations, where English is the transaction medium. It has the practical advantage of high speed of recording, more than 120-200 words per minute, because of which it is universally acknowledged. This recording medium has its continued existence in spite of considerable developments in speech processing systems, which are not universally established yet. In order to exploit the vast transcribing potential of PSL a new area of research on automation of PSL processing is conceived. It has three major steps, namely, shape recognition of PSL strokes, their validation and English text production from these strokes. The paper describes a knowledge-based approach for the recognition of PSL strokes. Information about location and the direction of the starting point and ﬁnal point of strokes are considered the knowledge base for recognition of strokes. The work comprises preprocessing, determination of starting and ﬁnal points, acquisition of quadrant knowledge, graph-based traversal and ﬁnally a rule-based inference process for generating phonetic equivalent of English language characters for the strokes. The proposed work is thoroughly tested for a large number of handwritten strokes.
A novel handwritten character recognition system using gradient based features and run length count
G Raju; Bindu S Moni; Madhu S Nair
2014-12-01
In this paper, we propose a novel hand written character recognition systemusing a combination of gradient-based features and run length count (GBF–RLC). The performance of the proposed method has been tested on Malayalam script, a South Indian language. The gradient of image is the intensity at each point, giving the direction of the largest possible increase from light to dark and the rate of change in that direction. RLC is the count of contiguous group of 1’s encountered in a left to right/top to bottom scan of a character image or block of an image. Classification was carried out with a Simplified Quadratic Classifier (SQDF) and Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP). A database containing 19,800 isolated handwritten characters pertaining to 44 classes was used for the study. The feature vector is augmented by including aspect ratio, position of centroid and ratio of pixels on the vertical halves of a character image. The recognition accuracy of 99.78% was achieved with minimum computational and storage requirement.
Rajashekararadhya, S. V.; Ranjan, P. Vanaja
India is a multi-lingual multi script country, where eighteen official scripts are accepted and have over hundred regional languages. In this paper we propose a zone based hybrid feature extraction algorithm scheme towards the recognition of off-line handwritten numerals of south Indian scripts. The character centroid is computed and the image (character/numeral) is further divided in to n equal zones. Average distance and Average angle from the character centroid to the pixels present in the zone are computed (two features). Similarly zone centroid is computed (two features). This procedure is repeated sequentially for all the zones/grids/boxes present in the numeral image. There could be some zones that are empty, and then the value of that particular zone image value in the feature vector is zero. Finally 4*n such features are extracted. Nearest neighbor classifier is used for subsequent classification and recognition purpose. We obtained 97.55 %, 94 %, 92.5% and 95.2 % recognition rate for Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam numerals respectively.
Data fusion based framework for the recognition of Isolated Handwritten Kannada Numerals
Mamatha. H.R
2013-07-01
Full Text Available combining classifiers appears as a natural step forward when a critical mass of knowledge of single classifier models has been accumulated. Although there are many unanswered questions about matching classifiers to real-life problems, combining classifiers is rapidly growing and enjoying a lot of attention from pattern recognition and machine learning communities. For any pattern classification task, an increase in data size, number of classes, dimension of the feature space and interclass separability affect the performance of any classifier. It is essential to know the effect of the training dataset size on the recognition performance of a feature extraction method and classifier. In this paper, an attempt is made to measure the performance of the classifier by testing the classifier with two different datasets of different sizes. In practical classification applications, if the number of classes and multiple feature sets for pattern samples are given, a desirable recognition performance can be achieved by data fusion. In this paper, we have proposed a framework based on the combined concepts of decision fusion and feature fusion for the isolated handwritten Kannada numerals classification. The proposed method improves the classification result. From the experimental results it is seen that there is an increase of 13.95% in the recognition accuracy.
Deep Convolutional Extreme Learning Machine and Its Application in Handwritten Digit Classification
Shan Pang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years, some deep learning methods have been developed and applied to image classification applications, such as convolutional neuron network (CNN and deep belief network (DBN. However they are suffering from some problems like local minima, slow convergence rate, and intensive human intervention. In this paper, we propose a rapid learning method, namely, deep convolutional extreme learning machine (DC-ELM, which combines the power of CNN and fast training of ELM. It uses multiple alternate convolution layers and pooling layers to effectively abstract high level features from input images. Then the abstracted features are fed to an ELM classifier, which leads to better generalization performance with faster learning speed. DC-ELM also introduces stochastic pooling in the last hidden layer to reduce dimensionality of features greatly, thus saving much training time and computation resources. We systematically evaluated the performance of DC-ELM on two handwritten digit data sets: MNIST and USPS. Experimental results show that our method achieved better testing accuracy with significantly shorter training time in comparison with deep learning methods and other ELM methods.
Deep Convolutional Extreme Learning Machine and Its Application in Handwritten Digit Classification
Yang, Xinyi
2016-01-01
In recent years, some deep learning methods have been developed and applied to image classification applications, such as convolutional neuron network (CNN) and deep belief network (DBN). However they are suffering from some problems like local minima, slow convergence rate, and intensive human intervention. In this paper, we propose a rapid learning method, namely, deep convolutional extreme learning machine (DC-ELM), which combines the power of CNN and fast training of ELM. It uses multiple alternate convolution layers and pooling layers to effectively abstract high level features from input images. Then the abstracted features are fed to an ELM classifier, which leads to better generalization performance with faster learning speed. DC-ELM also introduces stochastic pooling in the last hidden layer to reduce dimensionality of features greatly, thus saving much training time and computation resources. We systematically evaluated the performance of DC-ELM on two handwritten digit data sets: MNIST and USPS. Experimental results show that our method achieved better testing accuracy with significantly shorter training time in comparison with deep learning methods and other ELM methods. PMID:27610128
Westphael, Henning; Mogensen, Arne
2013-01-01
In this article we present the notion of Mathematical competences as a tool to describe the mathematically gifted students.......In this article we present the notion of Mathematical competences as a tool to describe the mathematically gifted students....
K. Moro
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an optical character recognition (OCR system for Gujarati handwritten digits. One may find so much of work for latin writing, arabic, chines, etc. but Gujarati is a language for which hardly any work is traceable especially for handwritten characters. Here in this work we have proposed a method of feature extraction based on the raw form of the character and his skeleton and we have shown the advantage of using this method over other approaches mentioned in this article.
Lee Sunjae
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the emerging field of synthetic biology, engineering paradigms have recently been used to design biological systems with novel functionalities. One of the essential challenges hampering the construction of such systems is the need to precisely optimize protein expression levels for robust operation. However, it is difficult to design mRNA sequences for expression at targeted protein levels, since even a few nucleotide modifications around the start codon may alter translational efficiency and dramatically (up to 250-fold change protein expression. Previous studies have used ad hoc approaches (e.g., random mutagenesis to obtain the desired translational efficiencies for mRNA sequences. Hence, the development of a mathematical methodology capable of estimating translational efficiency would greatly facilitate the future design of mRNA sequences aimed at yielding desired protein expression levels. Results We herein propose a mathematical model that focuses on translation initiation, which is the rate-limiting step in translation. The model uses mRNA-folding dynamics and ribosome-binding dynamics to estimate translational efficiencies solely from mRNA sequence information. We confirmed the feasibility of our model using previously reported expression data on the MS2 coat protein. For further confirmation, we used our model to design 22 luxR mRNA sequences predicted to have diverse translation efficiencies ranging from 10-5 to 1. The expression levels of these sequences were measured in Escherichia coli and found to be highly correlated (R2 = 0.87 with their estimated translational efficiencies. Moreover, we used our computational method to successfully transform a low-expressing DsRed2 mRNA sequence into a high-expressing mRNA sequence by maximizing its translational efficiency through the modification of only eight nucleotides upstream of the start codon. Conclusions We herein describe a mathematical model that uses m
Luther, Kenneth H.
2012-01-01
Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…
Luther, Kenneth H.
2012-01-01
Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…
Examining the Language Factor in Mathematics Assessments
Kan, Adnan; Bulut, Okan
2015-01-01
This study investigates whether word problems and mathematically expressed items can be used interchangeably regardless of their linguistic complexities. A sample of sixth grade students was given two forms of a mathematics assessment. The first form included mathematics items with mathematical terms, expressions, and equations whereas the second…
Building Mathematics Vocabulary
Kovarik, Madeline
2010-01-01
Although mathematics is visual language of symbols and numbers it is also expressed and explained through written and spoken words. For students to excel in mathematics, they must recognize, comprehend and apply the requisite vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary instruction is as critical in content areas as it is in language arts. It is especially…
Mathematical Footprints Discovering Mathematics Everywhere
Pappas, Theoni
1999-01-01
MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS takes a creative look at the role mathematics has played since prehistoric times, and will play in the future, and uncovers mathematics where you least expect to find it from its many uses in medicine, the sciences, and its appearance in art to its patterns in nature and its central role in the development of computers. Pappas presents mathematical ideas in a readable non-threatening manner. MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS is another gem by the creator of THE MATHEMATICS CALENDAR and author of THE JOY OF MATHEMATICS. "Pappas's books have been gold mines of mathematical ent
Poletti, Michele
2016-01-01
The fifth edition of theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disordersgrouped specific learning disabilities in the single diagnostic category of specific learning disorder (SLD), with specifiers for impairments in reading, written expression, and mathematics. This study aimed at investigating the intellectual profile, assessed with the fourth edition of theWechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(WISC-IV), of 172 children with a diagnosis of SLD, compared to 74 clinical referral controls. WISC-IV intellectual functioning in children with SLD was characterized by a significant discrepancy between general ability and cognitive proficiency (General Ability Index [GAI] > Cognitive Proficiency Index [CPI]), and worse performances on the Similarities, Digit Span, Letter-Number Sequencing, and Coding subtests, supporting models of multiple cognitive deficits at the basis of neurodevelopmental disorders as SLD. GAI was the best and more conservative measure provided by the WISC-IV to identify intellectual functioning in children with SLD, and the intellectual discrepancy between GAI and CPI could be considered a "cognitive sign" for the presence of SLD in a single diagnostic category. Cognitive deficits differed in subtypes of impairment (reading, written expression, and mathematics), supporting their distinction for empirical, educational, and rehabilitative purposes. These findings need further replication in larger samples and in comparison to typically developing children.
Rishi, Rahul; Choudhary, Amit; Singh, Ravinder; Dhaka, Vijaypal Singh; Ahlawat, Savita; Rao, Mukta
2010-02-01
In this paper we propose a system for classification problem of handwritten text. The system is composed of preprocessing module, supervised learning module and recognition module on a very broad level. The preprocessing module digitizes the documents and extracts features (tangent values) for each character. The radial basis function network is used in the learning and recognition modules. The objective is to analyze and improve the performance of Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) using RBF transfer functions over Logarithmic Sigmoid Function. The results of 35 experiments indicate that the Feed Forward MLP performs accurately and exhaustively with RBF. With the change in weight update mechanism and feature-drawn preprocessing module, the proposed system is competent with good recognition show.
Andreescu, Titu; Tetiva, Marian
2017-01-01
Building bridges between classical results and contemporary nonstandard problems, Mathematical Bridges embraces important topics in analysis and algebra from a problem-solving perspective. Blending old and new techniques, tactics and strategies used in solving challenging mathematical problems, readers will discover numerous genuine mathematical gems throughout that will heighten their appreciation of the inherent beauty of mathematics. Most of the problems are original to the authors and are intertwined in a well-motivated exposition driven by representative examples. The book is structured to assist the reader in formulating and proving conjectures, as well as devising solutions to important mathematical problems by making connections between various concepts and ideas from different areas of mathematics. Instructors and educators teaching problem-solving courses or organizing mathematics clubs, as well as motivated mathematics students from high school juniors to college seniors, will find Mathematical Bri...
Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... In the transmission culture of teaching and learning, mathematics is seen as a body of knowledge and ... Keyword: algebraic thinking, discussion in mathematics classroom, teaching approaches ...
卓鹏
2016-01-01
Language expression ability is one of the essential qualities of modern talents. The expression ability of mathematics language is the best embodiment and reflection of the ability of mathematics subject. The author made a survey of the students' expression of mathematics language, and analyzed the actual situation of the students' mathematics language expression. In view of the present situation of the secondary vocational school students' mathematics language expression, the author from leave no stone unturned grasping the "opening", to the cultivation of reading ability as the starting point, take simultaneously, such as the combination of several aspects, elaborated own in cultivating vocational students mathematical language expression ability.%语言表达能力是现代人才必备的基本素质之一。数学语言表达能力，几乎就是数学学科能力的最佳体现和反映。笔者对所教学生的数学语言表达情况做了一个调查，并就调查中反映出来的中职学生数学语言表达的实际情况做了相应的分析。针对中职学生数学语言表达的现状，笔者从千方百计抓“开口”、以培养阅读能力为抓手、多措并举相结合等几方面，阐述了自己在培养中职学生数学语言表达能力的方面的一些做法。
Ligomenides, Panos A.
2009-05-01
The power of mathematics is discussed as a way of expressing reasoning, aesthetics and insight in symbolic non-verbal communication. The human culture of discovering mathematical ways of thinking in the enterprise of exploring the understanding of the nature and the evolution of our world through hypotheses, theories and experimental affirmation of the scientific notion of algorithmic and non-algorithmic [`]computation', is examined and commended upon.
Kilpatrick, Jeremy
2014-01-01
This paper addresses the contested way that ethnomathematics has sometimes been received by mathematicians and others and what that disagreement might suggest about issues in mathematics education; namely, (a) the relation of ethnomathematics to academic mathematics; (b) recent efforts to reform secondary school mathematics so that it prepares…
Kilpatrick, Jeremy
2014-01-01
This paper addresses the contested way that ethnomathematics has sometimes been received by mathematicians and others and what that disagreement might suggest about issues in mathematics education; namely, (a) the relation of ethnomathematics to academic mathematics; (b) recent efforts to reform secondary school mathematics so that it prepares…
Alan E Bilsland
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Cancer cells depend on transcription of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT. Many transcription factors affect TERT, though regulation occurs in context of a broader network. Network effects on telomerase regulation have not been investigated, though deeper understanding of TERT transcription requires a systems view. However, control over individual interactions in complex networks is not easily achievable. Mathematical modelling provides an attractive approach for analysis of complex systems and some models may prove useful in systems pharmacology approaches to drug discovery. In this report, we used transfection screening to test interactions among 14 TERT regulatory transcription factors and their respective promoters in ovarian cancer cells. The results were used to generate a network model of TERT transcription and to implement a dynamic Boolean model whose steady states were analysed. Modelled effects of signal transduction inhibitors successfully predicted TERT repression by Src-family inhibitor SU6656 and lack of repression by ERK inhibitor FR180204, results confirmed by RT-QPCR analysis of endogenous TERT expression in treated cells. Modelled effects of GSK3 inhibitor 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO predicted unstable TERT repression dependent on noise and expression of JUN, corresponding with observations from a previous study. MYC expression is critical in TERT activation in the model, consistent with its well known function in endogenous TERT regulation. Loss of MYC caused complete TERT suppression in our model, substantially rescued only by co-suppression of AR. Interestingly expression was easily rescued under modelled Ets-factor gain of function, as occurs in TERT promoter mutation. RNAi targeting AR, JUN, MXD1, SP3, or TP53, showed that AR suppression does rescue endogenous TERT expression following MYC knockdown in these cells and SP3 or TP53 siRNA also cause partial recovery. The model therefore successfully predicted several
M. N. Priemysheva
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The article discusses the handwritten «Dictionary of the Russian language difficulties», on which Ya. K. Grot worked in the 1870s.This handwritten dictionary continues the tradition of creating dictionaries of difficulties that arose in Russia in the 1840s (A. N. Grech, V. Dolopchev. The dictionary has not yet been a subject of scientific interest.It represents a notebook of 63 sheets, where problematic words written alphabetically are supplied with detailed linguistic comments on their etymology, variation in pronunciation, spelling and stress. The text is complemented by press-cuttings on phraseology, etymology of Russian patronyms as well as by examples of grammatical abusage by Russian writers and poets.The handwritten dictionary by Ya. K. Grot indicates that the distinguished linguist was not only one of the originators of theoretical foundations of Russian orthography, but that his scientific activity was closely connected with the study of its practical problems and with continuation of such direction of national lexicography as compiling dictionaries of the Russian language difficulties.
Sørensen, John Aasted
2011-01-01
The objectives of Discrete Mathematics (IDISM2) are: The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including the application within programming languages for computer systems. Having passed the IDISM2 course, the student will be able...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics......; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...
Blomhøj, Morten
2004-01-01
Developing competences for setting up, analysing and criticising mathematical models are normally seen as relevant only from and above upper secondary level. The general belief among teachers is that modelling activities presuppose conceptual understanding of the mathematics involved. Mathematical...... modelling, however, can be seen as a practice of teaching that place the relation between real life and mathematics into the centre of teaching and learning mathematics, and this is relevant at all levels. Modelling activities may motivate the learning process and help the learner to establish cognitive...... roots for the construction of important mathematical concepts. In addition competences for setting up, analysing and criticising modelling processes and the possible use of models is a formative aim in this own right for mathematics teaching in general education. The paper presents a theoretical...
Stöltzner, Michael
Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.
Tanmay Bhattacharya
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Unimodal biometric systems have to contend with a variety of problems such as noisy data, intra-class variations, restricted degrees of freedom, non-universality; phishing attacks spoof attacks, and high false acceptance rates. In order for the biometrics to be ultra-secure and to provide more-than-average accuracy, more then one form of biometric identification is required. Hence some of these limitations can be addressed by a combination of different biometric recognition technologies that integrate the evidence presented by multiple sources of information. In the proposed work Fingerprint Key and Signature Keys are generated from the Fingerprint and Handwritten Signature of the legitimate user. The system is quite robust because it is trained by Artificial Neural Network and Machine Intelligence. Two Combined Keys are generated by Genetic crossover of those two keys. Finally by interleaving the combined keys Encryption Key is generated. In this approach there is a significant improvement over the traditional Unimodal biometric authentication techniques.
Arora, Sandhya; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, D K; Kundu, M
2010-01-01
This paper deals with a new method for recognition of offline Handwritten non-compound Devnagari Characters in two stages. It uses two well known and established pattern recognition techniques: one using neural networks and the other one using minimum edit distance. Each of these techniques is applied on different sets of characters for recognition. In the first stage, two sets of features are computed and two classifiers are applied to get higher recognition accuracy. Two MLP's are used separately to recognize the characters. For one of the MLP's the characters are represented with their shadow features and for the other chain code histogram feature is used. The decision of both MLP's is combined using weighted majority scheme. Top three results produced by combined MLP's in the first stage are used to calculate the relative difference values. In the second stage, based on these relative differences character set is divided into two. First set consists of the characters with distinct shapes and second set co...
Vajda, Szilárd; Rangoni, Yves; Cecotti, Hubert
2015-06-01
For training supervised classifiers to recognize different patterns, large data collections with accurate labels are necessary. In this paper, we propose a generic, semi-automatic labeling technique for large handwritten character collections. In order to speed up the creation of a large scale ground truth, the method combines unsupervised clustering and minimal expert knowledge. To exploit the potential discriminant complementarities across features, each character is projected into five different feature spaces. After clustering the images in each feature space, the human expert labels the cluster centers. Each data point inherits the label of its cluster's center. A majority (or unanimity) vote decides the label of each character image. The amount of human involvement (labeling) is strictly controlled by the number of clusters - produced by the chosen clustering approach. To test the efficiency of the proposed approach, we have compared, and evaluated three state-of-the art clustering methods (k-means, self-organizing maps, and growing neural gas) on the MNIST digit data set, and a Lampung Indonesian character data set, respectively. Considering a k-nn classifier, we show that labeling manually only 1.3% (MNIST), and 3.2% (Lampung) of the training data, provides the same range of performance than a completely labeled data set would.
Kumar, Somesh; Pratap Singh, Manu; Goel, Rajkumar; Lavania, Rajesh
2013-12-01
In this work, the performance of feedforward neural network with a descent gradient of distributed error and the genetic algorithm (GA) is evaluated for the recognition of handwritten 'SWARS' of Hindi curve script. The performance index for the feedforward multilayer neural networks is considered here with distributed instantaneous unknown error i.e. different error for different layers. The objective of the GA is to make the search process more efficient to determine the optimal weight vectors from the population. The GA is applied with the distributed error. The fitness function of the GA is considered as the mean of square distributed error that is different for each layer. Hence the convergence is obtained only when the minimum of different errors is determined. It has been analysed that the proposed method of a descent gradient of distributed error with the GA known as hybrid distributed evolutionary technique for the multilayer feed forward neural performs better in terms of accuracy, epochs and the number of optimal solutions for the given training and test pattern sets of the pattern recognition problem.
Middle-School Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs in NCTM's Vision
Perrin, John Robert
2012-01-01
This study examined the extent to which seventh- and eighth-grade mathematics teachers are aware of National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards documents, Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics and Principles and Standards for School Mathematics and agree with NCTM's vision of school mathematics as expressed in…
Jothi, A Lenin
2009-01-01
Financial services, particularly banking and insurance services is the prominent sector for the development of a nation. After the liberalisation of financial sector in India, the scope of getting career opportunities has been widened. It is heartening to note that various universities in India have introduced professional courses on banking and insurance. A new field of applied mathematics has come into prominence under the name of Financial Mathematics. Financial mathematics has attained much importance in the recent years because of the role played by mathematical concepts in decision - m
Aigner, Martin; Spain, Philip G
2010-01-01
Mathematics is all around us. Often we do not realize it, though. Mathematics Everywhere is a collection of presentations on the role of mathematics in everyday life, through science, technology, and culture. The common theme is the unique position of mathematics as the art of pure thought and at the same time as a universally applicable science. The authors are renowned mathematicians; their presentations cover a wide range of topics. From compact discs to the stock exchange, from computer tomography to traffic routing, from electronic money to climate change, they make the "math inside" unde
Pappas, Theoni
1997-01-01
In this highly readable volume of vignettes of mathematical scandals and gossip, Theoni Pappas assembles 29 fascinating stories of intrigue and the bizarre ? in short, the human background of the history of mathematics. Might a haberdasher have changed Einstein's life? Why was the first woman mathematician murdered? How come there's no Nobel Prize in mathematics?Mathematics is principally about numbers, equations, and solutions, all of them precise and timeless. But, behind this arcane matter lies the sometimes sordid world of real people, whose rivalries and deceptions
Stroud, K A
2013-01-01
A groundbreaking and comprehensive reference that's been a bestseller since it first debuted in 1970, the new seventh edition of Engineering Mathematics has been thoroughly revised and expanded. Providing a broad mathematical survey, this innovative volume covers a full range of topics from the very basic to the advanced. Whether you're an engineer looking for a useful on-the-job reference or want to improve your mathematical skills, or you are a student who needs an in-depth self-study guide, Engineering Mathematics is sure to come in handy time and time again.
Experimental Mathematics and Mathematical Physics
Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Broadhurst, David; Zudilin, Wadim
2009-06-26
One of the most effective techniques of experimental mathematics is to compute mathematical entities such as integrals, series or limits to high precision, then attempt to recognize the resulting numerical values. Recently these techniques have been applied with great success to problems in mathematical physics. Notable among these applications are the identification of some key multi-dimensional integrals that arise in Ising theory, quantum field theory and in magnetic spin theory.
Loving + hating mathematics challenging the myths of mathematical life
Hersh, Reuben
2011-01-01
Mathematics is often thought of as the coldest expression of pure reason. But few subjects provoke hotter emotions--and inspire more love and hatred--than mathematics. And although math is frequently idealized as floating above the messiness of human life, its story is nothing if not human; often, it is all too human. Loving and Hating Mathematics is about the hidden human, emotional, and social forces that shape mathematics and affect the experiences of students and mathematicians. Written in a lively, accessible style, and filled with gripping stories and anecdotes, Loving and Hating Mathema
Kleene, Stephen Cole
2002-01-01
Undergraduate students with no prior instruction in mathematical logic will benefit from this multi-part text. Part I offers an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order. Part II introduces some of the newer ideas and the more profound results of logical research in the 20th century. 1967 edition.
Kodaira, Kunihiko
1996-01-01
This is the translation from the Japanese textbook for the grade 11 course, "General Mathematics". It is part of the easier of the three elective courses in mathematics offered at this level and is taken by about 40% of students. The book covers basic notions of probability and statistics, vectors, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions, and an introduction to differentiation and integration.
Personal Achievement Mathematics: Automotive.
Baenziger, Betty
Utilizing word problems relevant to automotive mechanics, this workbook presents a concept-oriented approach to competency development in 13 areas of basic mathematics: (1) the expression of numbers as figures and words; (2) the addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers, fractions, and decimals; (3) scientific notation;…
Parshall, Karen Hunger
2002-01-01
Although today's mathematical research community takes its international character very much for granted, this "global nature" is relatively recent, having evolved over a period of roughly 150 years-from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century. During this time, the practice of mathematics changed from being centered on a collection of disparate national communities to being characterized by an international group of scholars for whom the goal of mathematical research and cooperation transcended national boundaries. Yet, the development of an international community was far from smooth and involved obstacles such as war, political upheaval, and national rivalries. Until now, this evolution has been largely overlooked by historians and mathematicians alike. This book addresses the issue by bringing together essays by twenty experts in the history of mathematics who have investigated the genesis of today's international mathematical community. This includes not only develo...
Murray, James D
1993-01-01
The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...
Perry, J N; Devos, Y; Arpaia, S; Bartsch, D; Gathmann, A; Hails, R S; Kiss, J; Lheureux, K; Manachini, B; Mestdagh, S; Neemann, G; Ortego, F; Schiemann, J; Sweet, J B
2010-05-01
Genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 expresses a Cry1Ab insecticidal protein, derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), toxic to lepidopteran target pests such as Ostrinia nubilalis. An environmental risk to non-target Lepidoptera from this GM crop is exposure to harmful amounts of Bt-containing pollen deposited on host plants in or near MON810 fields. An 11-parameter mathematical model analysed exposure of larvae of three non-target species: the butterflies Inachis io (L.), Vanessa atalanta (L.) and moth Plutella xylostella (L.), in 11 representative maize cultivation regions in four European countries. A mortality-dose relationship was integrated with a dose-distance relationship to estimate mortality both within the maize MON810 crop and within the field margin at varying distances from the crop edge. Mortality estimates were adjusted to allow for physical effects; the lack of temporal coincidence between the susceptible larval stage concerned and the period over which maize MON810 pollen is shed; and seven further parameters concerned with maize agronomy and host-plant ecology. Sublethal effects were estimated and allowance made for aggregated pollen deposition. Estimated environmental impact was low: in all regions, the calculated mortality rate for worst-case scenarios was less than one individual in every 1572 for the butterflies and one in 392 for the moth.
Lee, Jong-Min; Galkina, Ekaterina I; Levantovsky, Rachel M; Fossale, Elisa; Anne Anderson, Mary; Gillis, Tammy; Srinidhi Mysore, Jayalakshmi; Coser, Kathryn R; Shioda, Toshi; Zhang, Bin; Furia, Matthew D; Derry, Jonathan; Kohane, Isaac S; Seong, Ihn Sik; Wheeler, Vanessa C; Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E
2013-08-15
In Huntington's disease (HD), the size of the expanded HTT CAG repeat mutation is the primary driver of the processes that determine age at onset of motor symptoms. However, correlation of cellular biochemical parameters also extends across the normal repeat range, supporting the view that the CAG repeat represents a functional polymorphism with dominant effects determined by the longer allele. A central challenge to defining the functional consequences of this single polymorphism is the difficulty of distinguishing its subtle effects from the multitude of other sources of biological variation. We demonstrate that an analytical approach based upon continuous correlation with CAG size was able to capture the modest (∼21%) contribution of the repeat to the variation in genome-wide gene expression in 107 lymphoblastoid cell lines, with alleles ranging from 15 to 92 CAGs. Furthermore, a mathematical model from an iterative strategy yielded predicted CAG repeat lengths that were significantly positively correlated with true CAG allele size and negatively correlated with age at onset of motor symptoms. Genes negatively correlated with repeat size were also enriched in a set of genes whose expression were CAG-correlated in human HD cerebellum. These findings both reveal the relatively small, but detectable impact of variation in the CAG allele in global data in these peripheral cells and provide a strategy for building multi-dimensional data-driven models of the biological network that drives the HD disease process by continuous analysis across allelic panels of neuronal cells vulnerable to the dominant effects of the HTT CAG repeat.
Mathematical Model for Hit Phenomena
Ishii, Akira; Hayashi, Takefumi; Matsuda, Naoya; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Arakaki, Hisashi; Yoshida, Narihiko
2010-01-01
The mathematical model for hit phenomena in entertainments is presented as a nonlinear, dynamical and non-equilibrium phenomena. The purchase intention for each person is introduced and direct and indirect communications are expressed as two-body and three-body interaction in our model. The mathematical model is expressed as coupled nonlinear differential equations. The important factor in the model is the decay time of rumor for the hit. The calculated results agree very well with revenues of recent 25 movies.
McDonnell, Mark D; Tissera, Migel D; Vladusich, Tony; van Schaik, André; Tapson, Jonathan
2015-01-01
Recent advances in training deep (multi-layer) architectures have inspired a renaissance in neural network use. For example, deep convolutional networks are becoming the default option for difficult tasks on large datasets, such as image and speech recognition. However, here we show that error rates below 1% on the MNIST handwritten digit benchmark can be replicated with shallow non-convolutional neural networks. This is achieved by training such networks using the 'Extreme Learning Machine' (ELM) approach, which also enables a very rapid training time (∼ 10 minutes). Adding distortions, as is common practise for MNIST, reduces error rates even further. Our methods are also shown to be capable of achieving less than 5.5% error rates on the NORB image database. To achieve these results, we introduce several enhancements to the standard ELM algorithm, which individually and in combination can significantly improve performance. The main innovation is to ensure each hidden-unit operates only on a randomly sized and positioned patch of each image. This form of random 'receptive field' sampling of the input ensures the input weight matrix is sparse, with about 90% of weights equal to zero. Furthermore, combining our methods with a small number of iterations of a single-batch backpropagation method can significantly reduce the number of hidden-units required to achieve a particular performance. Our close to state-of-the-art results for MNIST and NORB suggest that the ease of use and accuracy of the ELM algorithm for designing a single-hidden-layer neural network classifier should cause it to be given greater consideration either as a standalone method for simpler problems, or as the final classification stage in deep neural networks applied to more difficult problems.
Mark D McDonnell
Full Text Available Recent advances in training deep (multi-layer architectures have inspired a renaissance in neural network use. For example, deep convolutional networks are becoming the default option for difficult tasks on large datasets, such as image and speech recognition. However, here we show that error rates below 1% on the MNIST handwritten digit benchmark can be replicated with shallow non-convolutional neural networks. This is achieved by training such networks using the 'Extreme Learning Machine' (ELM approach, which also enables a very rapid training time (∼ 10 minutes. Adding distortions, as is common practise for MNIST, reduces error rates even further. Our methods are also shown to be capable of achieving less than 5.5% error rates on the NORB image database. To achieve these results, we introduce several enhancements to the standard ELM algorithm, which individually and in combination can significantly improve performance. The main innovation is to ensure each hidden-unit operates only on a randomly sized and positioned patch of each image. This form of random 'receptive field' sampling of the input ensures the input weight matrix is sparse, with about 90% of weights equal to zero. Furthermore, combining our methods with a small number of iterations of a single-batch backpropagation method can significantly reduce the number of hidden-units required to achieve a particular performance. Our close to state-of-the-art results for MNIST and NORB suggest that the ease of use and accuracy of the ELM algorithm for designing a single-hidden-layer neural network classifier should cause it to be given greater consideration either as a standalone method for simpler problems, or as the final classification stage in deep neural networks applied to more difficult problems.
Štolc, Svorad; Bajla, Ivan
2010-01-01
In the paper we describe basic functions of the Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) network based on a novel biologically inspired model of the large-scale structure of the mammalian neocortex. The focus of this paper is in a systematic exploration of possibilities how to optimize important controlling parameters of the HTM model applied to the classification of hand-written digits from the USPS database. The statistical properties of this database are analyzed using the permutation test which employs a randomization distribution of the training and testing data. Based on a notion of the homogeneous usage of input image pixels, a methodology of the HTM parameter optimization is proposed. In order to study effects of two substantial parameters of the architecture: the patch size and the overlap in more details, we have restricted ourselves to the single-level HTM networks. A novel method for construction of the training sequences by ordering series of the static images is developed. A novel method for estimation of the parameter maxDist based on the box counting method is proposed. The parameter sigma of the inference Gaussian is optimized on the basis of the maximization of the belief distribution entropy. Both optimization algorithms can be equally applied to the multi-level HTM networks as well. The influences of the parameters transitionMemory and requestedGroupCount on the HTM network performance have been explored. Altogether, we have investigated 2736 different HTM network configurations. The obtained classification accuracy results have been benchmarked with the published results of several conventional classifiers.
Logan, J David
2013-01-01
Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat
Handley, Bill
2012-01-01
This new, revised edition of the bestselling Speed Mathematics features new chapters on memorising numbers and general information, calculating statistics and compound interest, square roots, logarithms and easy trig calculations. Written so anyone can understand, this book teaches simple strategies that will enable readers to make lightning-quick calculations. People who excel at mathematics use better strategies than the rest of us; they are not necessarily more intelligent. With Speed Mathematics you'll discover methods to make maths easy and fun. This book is perfect for stud
Geroch, Robert
1985-01-01
Mathematical Physics is an introduction to such basic mathematical structures as groups, vector spaces, topological spaces, measure spaces, and Hilbert space. Geroch uses category theory to emphasize both the interrelationships among different structures and the unity of mathematics. Perhaps the most valuable feature of the book is the illuminating intuitive discussion of the ""whys"" of proofs and of axioms and definitions. This book, based on Geroch's University of Chicago course, will be especially helpful to those working in theoretical physics, including such areas as relativity, particle
Written mathematical traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia
Høyrup, Jens
2015-01-01
Writing, as well as various mathematical techniques, were created in proto-literate Uruk in order to serve accounting, and Mesopotamian mathematics as we know it was always expressed in writing. In so far, mathematics generically regarded was always part of the generic written tradition....
Lecturers' Views on Ghana's Undergraduate Mathematics Education
Assuah, Charles; Ayebo, Abraham
2015-01-01
This paper synthesizes the views of 6 university lecturers on Ghana's undergraduate mathematics education. These views were expressed during a mathematics workshop sensitization program on the "contribution of undergraduate mathematics education to the Ghanaian economy." The data consisting of open-ended questions followed by…
2016-01-01
This book provides a thorough introduction to the challenge of applying mathematics in real-world scenarios. Modelling tasks rarely involve well-defined categories, and they often require multidisciplinary input from mathematics, physics, computer sciences, or engineering. In keeping with this spirit of modelling, the book includes a wealth of cross-references between the chapters and frequently points to the real-world context. The book combines classical approaches to modelling with novel areas such as soft computing methods, inverse problems, and model uncertainty. Attention is also paid to the interaction between models, data and the use of mathematical software. The reader will find a broad selection of theoretical tools for practicing industrial mathematics, including the analysis of continuum models, probabilistic and discrete phenomena, and asymptotic and sensitivity analysis.
Hougardy, Stefan
2016-01-01
Algorithms play an increasingly important role in nearly all fields of mathematics. This book allows readers to develop basic mathematical abilities, in particular those concerning the design and analysis of algorithms as well as their implementation. It presents not only fundamental algorithms like the sieve of Eratosthenes, the Euclidean algorithm, sorting algorithms, algorithms on graphs, and Gaussian elimination, but also discusses elementary data structures, basic graph theory, and numerical questions. In addition, it provides an introduction to programming and demonstrates in detail how to implement algorithms in C++. This textbook is suitable for students who are new to the subject and covers a basic mathematical lecture course, complementing traditional courses on analysis and linear algebra. Both authors have given this "Algorithmic Mathematics" course at the University of Bonn several times in recent years.
Menzel, Donald H
2003-01-01
Useful treatment of classical mechanics, electromagnetic theory, and relativity includes explanations of function theory, vectors, matrices, dyadics, tensors, partial differential equations, other advanced mathematical techniques. Nearly 200 problems with answers.
Eck, Christof; Knabner, Peter
2017-01-01
Mathematical models are the decisive tool to explain and predict phenomena in the natural and engineering sciences. With this book readers will learn to derive mathematical models which help to understand real world phenomena. At the same time a wealth of important examples for the abstract concepts treated in the curriculum of mathematics degrees are given. An essential feature of this book is that mathematical structures are used as an ordering principle and not the fields of application. Methods from linear algebra, analysis and the theory of ordinary and partial differential equations are thoroughly introduced and applied in the modeling process. Examples of applications in the fields electrical networks, chemical reaction dynamics, population dynamics, fluid dynamics, elasticity theory and crystal growth are treated comprehensively.
Sneyd, James
2009-01-01
There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...
Yvon, Bernard R.; Walo, Trudy J.
1975-01-01
A large doll can be used to illustrate many mathematical concepts to young children. Examples of the concepts introduced with the doll include one-to-one correspondence (buttons with buttonholes) and relative sizes. (SD)
posed' with respect to connections are intended to open up possibilities for thinking ... knowledge in the teaching and learning of mathematics, it is essential to take .... two and three dimensions using various approaches in geometry and trigo-.
无
2004-01-01
Puzzles of purely logical nature are distinguished from most mathematical puzzles,in that thought rather than memory, that is,native mental ingenuity rather than a store of acquired information, is the key to their solution.
Sørensen, John Aasted
2010-01-01
The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18...
Sørensen, John Aasted
2010-01-01
The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15...
Pestman, Wiebe R
2009-01-01
This textbook provides a broad and solid introduction to mathematical statistics, including the classical subjects hypothesis testing, normal regression analysis, and normal analysis of variance. In addition, non-parametric statistics and vectorial statistics are considered, as well as applications of stochastic analysis in modern statistics, e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing, smoothing techniques, robustness and density estimation. For students with some elementary mathematical background. With many exercises. Prerequisites from measure theory and linear algebra are presented.
2005-01-01
<正>20051134 Chen Aibing (Faculty of Land Resource Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology) Kunming, Yunnan 650093, China); Qin Dexian MathematicEconomical Model of No. 5 Orebody in Gejiu Tin Mine, Yunnan Province (Acta Mineralogica Sinica, ISSN 1000 - 4734, CN 52 -1045/P, 24(2), 2004, p. 171-175, 5 illus. , 5 tables, 7 refs. ) Key words: tin deposits, mathematical models, Yunnan Province
Berman, Elizabeth
1979-01-01
Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim
Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen
2016-01-01
Dynamic mathematical environments allow users to reify mathematical concepts through multiple representations, transform mathematical relations and organically explore mathematical properties, investigate integrated mathematics, and develop conceptual understanding. Herein, we integrate Boolean algebra, the functionalities of a dynamic…
Zorich, Vladimir A
2015-01-01
VLADIMIR A. ZORICH is professor of mathematics at Moscow State University. His areas of specialization are analysis, conformal geometry, quasiconformal mappings, and mathematical aspects of thermodynamics. He solved the problem of global homeomorphism for space quasiconformal mappings. He holds a patent in the technology of mechanical engineering, and he is also known by his book Mathematical Analysis of Problems in the Natural Sciences . This second English edition of a very popular two-volume work presents a thorough first course in analysis, leading from real numbers to such advanced topics as differential forms on manifolds; asymptotic methods; Fourier, Laplace, and Legendre transforms; elliptic functions; and distributions. Especially notable in this course are the clearly expressed orientation toward the natural sciences and the informal exploration of the essence and the roots of the basic concepts and theorems of calculus. Clarity of exposition is matched by a wealth of instructive exercises, problems...
Persian architecture and mathematics
2012-01-01
This volulme features eight original papers dedicated to the theme “Persian Architecture and Mathematics,” guest edited by Reza Sarhangi. All papers were approved through a rigorous process of blind peer review and edited by an interdisciplinary scientific editorial committee. Topics range from symmetry in ancient Persian architecture to the elaborate geometric patterns and complex three-dimensional structures of standing monuments of historical periods, from the expression of mathematical ideas to architectonic structures, and from decorative ornament to the representation of modern group theory and quasi-crystalline patterns. The articles discuss unique monuments Persia, including domed structures and two-dimensional patterns, which have received significant scholarly attention in recent years. This book is a unique contribution to studies of Persian architecture in relation to mathematics.
Philosophy of Mathematics, Mathematics Education and Philosophy of Mathematics Education.
Zheng, Yuxin
1994-01-01
Uses the modern development of mathematics education in the United States as background for the analysis of the influence of mathematics philosophy on mathematics education. Discusses the problem of how to develop the subject of philosophy of mathematics education, regarded as an impetus from mathematics education, to the further development of…
Sobrado, E.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra resultados de una investigación que da respuesta a las insuficiencias que presenta la comunicación sobre temas de matemática, particularmente en la dimensión expresión, del profesor en formación de la carrera Licenciatura en Educación especialidad Matemática-Física. Tiene como objetivo ofrecer un marco de referencia acerca de la comunicación en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje de la Matemática y una escala valorativa para evaluar la calidad de la referida expresión. Se emplearon como métodos la observación en la determinación de las insuficiencias de la expresión, la revisión bibliográfica en la determinación de los presupuestos teóricos-metodológicos acerca de la comunicación en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje, el análisis-síntesis al contextualizar dichos presupuestos en la enseñanza aprendizaje de la Matemática, la validación de expertos en la precisión de los indicadores, y la modelación en la construcción de la escala. Se describen los resultados, diagnóstico de las insuficiencias en la comunicación en Matemática, marco de referencia que incluye una caracterización de la comunicación en Matemática y presupuestos teóricos-metodológicos, indicadores y una escala para evaluar la calidad de la expresión al comunicarse en matemática. This article describes the findings of a research in tended to face current shortcomings in communication in mathematics, particularly in the formative process of mathematic would-be teachers’ expression. The article aims to provide a framework about communication in the teaching and learning of mathematics and aerating scale for assessing the quality of that expression .Several method were used. Observation in determining the limitations of expression; literature review, analysis and synthesis in the construction of a framework related to communication in the teaching-learning process of mathematics, expert surveying to evaluate the
Jost, Jürgen
2015-01-01
The main intention of this book is to describe and develop the conceptual, structural and abstract thinking of mathematics. Specific mathematical structures are used to illustrate the conceptual approach; providing a deeper insight into mutual relationships and abstract common features. These ideas are carefully motivated, explained and illustrated by examples so that many of the more technical proofs can be omitted. The book can therefore be used: · simply as an overview of the panorama of mathematical structures and the relations between them, to be supplemented by more detailed texts whenever you want to acquire a working knowledge of some structure · by itself as a first introduction to abstract mathematics · together with existing textbooks, to put their results into a more general perspective · to gain a new and hopefully deeper perspective after having studied such textbooks Mathematical Concepts has a broader scope and is less detaile...
Rubin, Andrew
2014-01-01
This book presents concise descriptions and analysis of the classical and modern models used in mathematical biophysics. The authors ask the question "what new information can be provided by the models that cannot be obtained directly from experimental data?" Actively developing fields such as regulatory mechanisms in cells and subcellular systems and electron transport and energy transport in membranes are addressed together with more classical topics such as metabolic processes, nerve conduction and heart activity, chemical kinetics, population dynamics, and photosynthesis. The main approach is to describe biological processes using different mathematical approaches necessary to reveal characteristic features and properties of simulated systems. With the emergence of powerful mathematics software packages such as MAPLE, Mathematica, Mathcad, and MatLab, these methodologies are now accessible to a wide audience. Provides succinct but authoritative coverage of a broad array of biophysical topics and models Wr...
Vivaldi, Franco
2014-01-01
This book teaches the art of writing mathematics, an essential -and difficult- skill for any mathematics student. The book begins with an informal introduction on basic writing principles and a review of the essential dictionary for mathematics. Writing techniques are developed gradually, from the small to the large: words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, to end with short compositions. These may represent the introduction of a concept, the abstract of a presentation or the proof of a theorem. Along the way the student will learn how to establish a coherent notation, mix words and symbols effectively, write neat formulae, and structure a definition. Some elements of logic and all common methods of proofs are featured, including various versions of induction and existence proofs. The book concludes with advice on specific aspects of thesis writing (choosing of a title, composing an abstract, compiling a bibliography) illustrated by large number of real-life examples. Many exercises are included; over 150...
Hiriart-Urruty, Jean-Baptiste
2016-01-01
This book contains a collection of exercises (called “tapas”) at undergraduate level, mainly from the fields of real analysis, calculus, matrices, convexity, and optimization. Most of the problems presented here are non-standard and some require broad knowledge of different mathematical subjects in order to be solved. The author provides some hints and (partial) answers and also puts these carefully chosen exercises into context, presents information on their origins, and comments on possible extensions. With stars marking the levels of difficulty, these tapas show or prove something interesting, challenge the reader to solve and learn, and may have surprising results. This first volume of Mathematical Tapas will appeal to mathematicians, motivated undergraduate students from science-based areas, and those generally interested in mathematics.
Cahill, Kevin
2013-01-01
Unique in its clarity, examples and range, Physical Mathematics explains as simply as possible the mathematics that graduate students and professional physicists need in their courses and research. The author illustrates the mathematics with numerous physical examples drawn from contemporary research. In addition to basic subjects such as linear algebra, Fourier analysis, complex variables, differential equations and Bessel functions, this textbook covers topics such as the singular-value decomposition, Lie algebras, the tensors and forms of general relativity, the central limit theorem and Kolmogorov test of statistics, the Monte Carlo methods of experimental and theoretical physics, the renormalization group of condensed-matter physics and the functional derivatives and Feynman path integrals of quantum field theory.
Quotable Quotes in Mathematics
Lo, Bruce W. N.
1983-01-01
As a way to dispel negative feelings toward mathematics, a variety of quotations are given. They are categorized by: what mathematics is, mathematicians, mathematics and other disciplines, different areas of mathematics, mathematics and humor, applications of mathematics, and pure versus applied mathematics. (MNS)
The Language of Mathematics Utilizing Math in Practice
Baber, Robert L
2011-01-01
A new and unique way of understanding the translation of concepts and natural language into mathematical expressions Transforming a body of text into corresponding mathematical expressions and models is traditionally viewed and taught as a mathematical problem; it is also a task that most find difficult. The Language of Mathematics: Utilizing Math in Practice reveals a new way to view this process-not as a mathematical problem, but as a translation, or language, problem. By presenting the language of mathematics explicitly and systematically, this book helps readers to learn mathematics¿and i
Mathematical Model of Gravitational and Electrostatic Forces
Krouglov, Alexei
2006-01-01
Author presents mathematical model for acting-on-a-distance attractive and repulsive forces based on propagation of energy waves that produces Newton expression for gravitational and Coulomb expression for electrostatic forces. Model uses mathematical observation that difference between two inverse exponential functions of the distance asymptotically converges to function proportional to reciprocal of distance squared.
Handbook for Spoken Mathematics: (Larry's Speakeasy).
Chang, Lawrence A.; And Others
This handbook is directed toward those who have to deal with spoken mathematics, yet have insufficient background to know the correct verbal expression for the written symbolic one. It compiles consistent and well-defined ways of uttering mathematical expressions so listeners will receive clear, unambiguous, and well-pronounced representations.…
Bartocci, Claudio; Guerraggio, Angelo; Lucchetti, Roberto; Williams, Kim
2011-01-01
Steps forward in mathematics often reverberate in other scientific disciplines, and give rise to innovative conceptual developments or find surprising technological applications. This volume brings to the forefront some of the proponents of the mathematics of the twentieth century, who have put at our disposal new and powerful instruments for investigating the reality around us. The portraits present people who have impressive charisma and wide-ranging cultural interests, who are passionate about defending the importance of their own research, are sensitive to beauty, and attentive to the soci
Najman, Laurent
2013-01-01
Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoretical foun
Green, George
2005-01-01
An almost entirely self-taught mathematical genius, George Green (1793 -1841) is best known for Green's theorem, which is used in almost all computer codes that solve partial differential equations. He also published influential essays, or papers, in the fields of hydrodynamics, electricity, and magnetism. This collection comprises his most significant works.The first paper, ""An Essay on the Application of Mathematical Analysis to the Theories of Electricity and Magnetism,"" which is also the longest and perhaps the most Important, appeared In 1828. It introduced the term potential as desig
Mathematical Modelling of Involute Spur Gears Manufactured by Rack Cutter
Tufan Gürkan YILMAZ
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In this study, mathematical modelling of asymmetric involute spur gears was situated in by Litvin approach. In this context, firstly, mathematical expressions of rack cutter which manufacture asymmetric involute spur gear, then mathematical expression of asymmetric involute spur gear were obtained by using differential geometry, coordinate transformation and gear theory. Mathematical expressions were modelled in MATLAB and output files including points of involute spur gear’s teeth were designed automatically thanks to macros.
Hadlock, Charles R
2013-01-01
The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…
Fujita, Shinsaku
2015-01-01
Chirality and stereogenicity are closely related concepts and their differentiation and description is still a challenge in chemoinformatics. A new stereoisogram approach, developed by the author, is introduced in this book, providing a theoretical framework for mathematical aspects of modern stereochemistry. The discussion covers point-groups and permutation symmetry and exemplifies the concepts using organic molecules and inorganic complexes.
Weaver, Nik
2001-01-01
With a unique approach and presenting an array of new and intriguing topics, Mathematical Quantization offers a survey of operator algebras and related structures from the point of view that these objects are quantizations of classical mathematical structures. This approach makes possible, with minimal mathematical detail, a unified treatment of a variety of topics.Detailed here for the first time, the fundamental idea of mathematical quantization is that sets are replaced by Hilbert spaces. Building on this idea, and most importantly on the fact that scalar-valued functions on a set correspond to operators on a Hilbert space, one can determine quantum analogs of a variety of classical structures. In particular, because topologies and measure classes on a set can be treated in terms of scalar-valued functions, we can transfer these constructions to the quantum realm, giving rise to C*- and von Neumann algebras.In the first half of the book, the author quickly builds the operator algebra setting. He uses this ...
Mathematics is always invisible, Professor Dowling
Cable, John
2015-09-01
This article provides a critical evaluation of a technique of analysis, the Social Activity Method, recently offered by Dowling (2013) as a `gift' to mathematics education. The method is found to be inadequate, firstly, because it employs a dichotomy (between `expression' and `content') instead of a finer analysis (into symbols, concepts and setting or phenomena), and, secondly, because the distinction between `public' and `esoteric' mathematics, although interesting, is allowed to obscure the structure of the mathematics itself. There is also criticism of what Dowling calls the `myth of participation', which denies the intimate links between mathematics and the rest of the universe that lie at the heart of mathematical pedagogy. Behind all this lies Dowling's `essentially linguistic' conception of mathematics, which is criticised on the dual ground that it ignores the chastening experience of formalism in mathematical philosophy and that linguistics itself has taken a wrong turn and ignores lessons that might be learnt from mathematics education.
陈军胜
2013-01-01
Because of its large differences in writing style, context-independency and high recognition accuracy requirement, free handwritten digital identification is still a very difficult problem. Analyzing the characteristic of handwritten digits, this paper proposes a new handwritten digital identification method based on combining structural features. Given a handwritten digit, a variety of structural features of the digit including end points, bifurcation points, horizontal lines and so on are identified automatically and robustly by a proposed extended structural features identification algorithm, and a decision tree based on those structural features is constructed to support automatic recognition of the handwritten digit. Experimental result demonstrates that the proposed method is superior to other general methods in recognition rate and robustness.%自由手写体因其书写风格差异大、上下文无关及识别准确度要求高等原因导致其识别难度大的问题.针对手写体数字识别的特点及要求,提出一种新的基于组合结构特征的自由手写体数字识别算法.通过扩展的字符结构特征识别算法自动、鲁棒地提取手写体数字字符端点、分叉点、横线等多种结构特征,并组合应用这些结构特征构造决策树完成手写体字符的自动识别.实验结果表明基于组合结构特征的自由手写体数字识别算法的鲁棒性和识别率明显优于传统方法.
Sierpinska, Anna
1994-01-01
The concept of understanding in mathematics with regard to mathematics education is considered in this volume, the main problem for mathematics teachers being how to facilitate their students'' understanding of the mathematics being taught.
Sørensen, John Aasted
2011-01-01
examples on regular languages. Apply these concepts to new problems. Finite state machines: Define a finite state machine as a 6-tuble; describe simple finite state machines by tables and graphs; pattern recognition by finite state machines; minimizing the number of states in a finite state machine......The objectives of Discrete Mathematics (IDISM2) are: The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including the application within programming languages for computer systems. Having passed the IDISM2 course, the student will be able...... of natural numbers. Apply these concepts to new problems. Division and factorizing: Define a prime number and apply Euclid´s algorithm for factorizing an integer. Regular languages: Define a language from the elements of a set; define a regular language; form strings from a regular language; construct...
Capozziello, Salvatore; Faraoni, Valerio
In this chapter we discuss certain mathematical tools which are used extensively in the following chapters. Some of these concepts and methods are part of the standard baggage taught in undergraduate and graduate courses, while others enter the tool-box of more advanced researchers. These mathematical methods are very useful in formulating ETGs and in finding analytical solutions.We begin by studying conformal transformations, which allow for different representations of scalar-tensor and f(R) theories of gravity, in addition to being useful in GR. We continue by discussing variational principles in GR, which are the basis for presenting ETGs in the following chapters. We close the chapter with a discussion of Noether symmetries, which are used elsewhere in this book to obtain analytical solutions.
Driessche, Pauline; Wu, Jianhong
2008-01-01
Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downlo...
Robinson, H.P.; Potter, Elinor
1971-03-01
This collection of mathematical data consists of two tables of decimal constants arranged according to size rather than function, a third table of integers from 1 to 1000, giving some of their properties, and a fourth table listing some infinite series arranged according to increasing size of the coefficients of the terms. The decimal values of Tables I and II are given to 20 D.
2007-01-01
<正>20070721 Dong Yaosong (National Key La-boratory of Geological Process and Mineral resources, Institute of Mathematical Geology and Remote Sensing, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China); Yang Yanchen Mutual Compensation of Nerval Net and Characteristic Analysis in Mineral Resources Exploration (Mineral Resources and Geology, ISSN1001-5663, CN45-1174/TD, 20(1), 2006, p.1-6, 3 illus., 6 tables, 5 refs.) Key words: prospecting and exploration of mineral, neural network systems
Teachers' Mathematics as Mathematics-at-Work
Bednarz, Nadine; Proulx, Jérôme
2017-01-01
Through recognising mathematics teachers as professionals who use mathematics in their workplace, this article traces a parallel between the mathematics enacted by teachers in their practice and the mathematics used in workplaces found in studies of professionals (e.g. nurses, engineers, bankers). This parallel is developed through the five…
Teaching Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education
Saxena, Ritu; Shrivastava, Keerty; Bhardwaj, Ramakant
2016-01-01
Mathematics is not only a subject but it is also a language consisting of many different symbols and relations. Taught as a compulsory subject up the 10th class, students are then able to choose whether or not to study mathematics as a main subject. The present paper discusses mathematical modeling in mathematics education. The article provides…
Mogensen, Arne; Georgiev, Vladimir; Ulovec, Andreas
To encourage many more young people to appreciate the real nature and spirit of mathematics and possibly to be enrolled in mathematics study it is important to involve them in doing mathematics (not just learning about mathematics). This goal could be achieved if mathematics teachers are prepared...... to identify and work with mathematically gifted students (without loosing the rest). The book offers chapters on gifted students, mathematical competences and other issues....
Wang-Xia Wang
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.
Authenticity of Mathematical Modeling
Tran, Dung; Dougherty, Barbara J.
2014-01-01
Some students leave high school never quite sure of the relevancy of the mathematics they have learned. They fail to see links between school mathematics and the mathematics of everyday life that requires thoughtful decision making and often complex problem solving. Is it possible to bridge the gap between school mathematics and the mathematics in…
Mathematical Sketching: An Approach to Making Dynamic Illustrations
Laviola, Joseph J.
Mathematical sketching is a pen-based, gestural interaction paradigm for mathematics problem solving. It derives from the familiar pencil-and-paper process of drawing supporting diagrams to facilitate the formulation of mathematical expressions; however, with mathematical sketching, users can also leverage their physical intuition by watching their hand-drawn diagrams animate in response to continuous or discrete parameter changes in their written formulas. Diagram animation is driven by implicit associations that are inferred, either automatically or with gestural guidance, from mathematical expressions, diagram labels, and drawing elements. In this chapter, we discuss the important issues related to the mathematical sketching paradigm such as the development of a fluid gestural user interface, recognition of mathematical expressions, and the preparation and translation of mathematical sketches into animated illustrations.
Mathematical Theory of Peer-Instruction Dynamics
Nitta, Hideo
2010-01-01
A mathematical theory of peer instruction describing the increase of the normalized number of correct answers due to peer discussion is presented. A simple analytic expression is derived which agrees with class data. It is shown that our theory is connected to the mathematical learning models proposed by Pritchard et al. It is also shown that…
Emotion and Disaffection with School Mathematics
Lewis, Gareth
2013-01-01
This paper reports some initial findings from research designed to understand more deeply the motivational and emotional landscape of disaffection with school mathematics. A context is described in which there has been significant concern expressed about a number of aspects of mathematics education, but where affect is seen as salient to these…
Nappi, Francesco; Fraldi, Massimiliano; Spadaccio, Cristiano; Carotenuto, Angelo Rosario; Montagnani, Stefania; Castaldo, Clotilde; Chachques, Juan Carlos; Acar, Christophe
2016-11-01
The pulmonary artery autograft (PA) is the ideal substitute for aortic valve disease in children and young adult. However, it is harnessed by the issue of long-term dilation and regurgitation, often requiring surgery. PA implanted in aortic position during the growth phase in children undergoes a process of mechanical remodeling. We previously developed a semiresorbable armored prosthesis able to mechanically sustain the neoaorta preventing dilation and to gradually integrate with the PA wall inducing a progressive arterial-like tissue positive remodeling. We also described the mechanisms of growth, remodeling and stress shielding of the reinforced PA through a mathematical model. We sought to demonstrate the biological counterpart and the potential molecular mechanisms underlying this histological and mechanical remodeling. A specific mathematical model was developed to describe mechanical behavior of the PA. Mallory trichrome red staining and immunohistochemistry for MMP-9 were performed to elucidate extracellular matrix remodeling phenomena. Apoptosis and cell proliferation were determined by TUNEL assay and immunohistochemistry for Ki67, respectively. An histological remodeling phenomenon sustained by increased level of MMP-9, augmented cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis in the reinforced PA was demonstrated. The mathematical model predicted the biomechanical behavior subtended by the histological changes of the PA in these settings. Changes in metalloproteinases (MMP-9), cell proliferation and apoptosis are the main actors in the remodeling process occurring after transposition of the PA into systemic regimens. Use of semiresorbable reinforcements might induce a positive remodeling of the PA in the context of Ross operation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2785-2793, 2016.
Cinthia O. A. Freitas
2004-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new strategy for selecting classes of symbols from classes of graphemes in HMM-based handwritten word recognition from Brazilian legal amounts. This paper discusses features, graphemes and symbols, as our baseline system is based on a global approach in which the explicit segmentation of words into letters or pseudo-letters is avoided and HMM models are used. For this framework, the input data are the symbols of an alphabet based on graphemes extracted from the word images visible on the Hidden Markov Model. The idea is to introduce high-level concepts, such as perceptual features (loops, ascenders, descenders, concavities and convexities and to provide fast and informative feedback about the information contained in each class of grapheme for symbol class selection. The paper presents an algorithm based on Mutual Information and HMM working in the same evaluation process. Finally, the experimental results demonstrate that it is possible to select from the “original” grapheme set (composed of 94 graphemes an alphabet of symbols (composed of 29 symbols. We conclude that the discriminating power of the grapheme is very important for consolidating an alphabet of symbols. Este artigo descreve uma metodologia para seleção de classes de símbolos a partir de classesde grafemas em um sistema de reconhecimento de palavras manuscritas do extenso de cheques bancários brasileiros baseado em HMM (Hidden Markov Models. Este artigo discute as definições de primitivas,grafemas e símbolos considerando um enfoque Global para o reconhecimento das palavras, o qual evita a segmentação das palavras em letras ou pseudo-letras utilizando HMM. Assim, a entrada para os modelos consiste em uma descrição da palavra a partir de um alfabeto de símbolos gerados a partir dos grafemas extraídos das imagens das palavras, sendo esta a representação visível para o HMM. Portanto, a idéia é introduzir uma conceituação de alto n
Plato's ghost the modernist transformation of mathematics
Gray, Jeremy
2008-01-01
Plato's Ghost is the first book to examine the development of mathematics from 1880 to 1920 as a modernist transformation similar to those in art, literature, and music. Jeremy Gray traces the growth of mathematical modernism from its roots in problem solving and theory to its interactions with physics, philosophy, theology, psychology, and ideas about real and artificial languages. He shows how mathematics was popularized, and explains how mathematical modernism not only gave expression to the work of mathematicians and the professional image they sought to create for themselves, but how modernism also introduced deeper and ultimately unanswerable questions
Figures of thought mathematics and mathematical texts
Reed, David
2003-01-01
Examines the ways in which mathematical works can be read as texts, examines their textual strategiesand demonstrates that such readings provide a rich source of philosophical debate regarding mathematics.
Introducing philosophy of mathematics
Friend, Michele
2014-01-01
What is mathematics about? Does the subject-matter of mathematics exist independently of the mind or are they mental constructions? How do we know mathematics? Is mathematical knowledge logical knowledge? And how is mathematics applied to the material world? In this introduction to the philosophy of mathematics, Michele Friend examines these and other ontological and epistemological problems raised by the content and practice of mathematics. Aimed at a readership with limited proficiency in mathematics but with some experience of formal logic it seeks to strike a balance between conceptual acc
Mathematics Education Computer Software and Mathematics Teachers.
Ozgun-Koca, S. Asli
2000-01-01
Presents results from a study that uses questionnaires to ask mathematics teachers' (N=64) opinions about mathematics education computer software. Indicates that respondents overwhelmingly favored discovery and remediation as the purpose of using software in mathematics classrooms. Teachers believed that real world situations and multiple…
Mathematical Story: A Metaphor for Mathematics Curriculum
Dietiker, Leslie
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a theoretical framework for interpreting the content found in mathematics curriculum in order to offer teachers and other mathematics educators comprehensive conceptual tools with which to make curricular decisions. More specifically, it describes a metaphor of "mathematics curriculum as story" and defines and…
Mathematics and art a cultural history
Gamwell, Lynn
2016-01-01
This is a cultural history of mathematics and art, from antiquity to the present. Mathematicians and artists have long been on a quest to understand the physical world they see before them and the abstract objects they know by thought alone. Taking readers on a tour of the practice of mathematics and the philosophical ideas that drive the discipline, Lynn Gamwell points out the important ways mathematical concepts have been expressed by artists. Sumptuous illustrations of artworks and cogent math diagrams are featured in Gamwell’s comprehensive exploration. Gamwell begins by describing mathematics from antiquity to the Enlightenment, including Greek, Islamic, and Asian mathematics. Then focusing on modern culture, Gamwell traces mathematicians’ search for the foundations of their science, such as David Hilbert’s conception of mathematics as an arrangement of meaning-free signs, as well as artists’ search for the essence of their craft, such as Aleksandr Rodchenko’s monochrome paintings. She shows t...
2010-01-01
<正>20102798 Gao Shengxiang(School of Resource and Earth Science,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Ye Rongzhang Establishment of Complex Geological Body FLAC3D Model by Using MATLAB Interface Program(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,37(5),2009,p.51-53,5 illus.,4 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:FLAC3D,computer programs20102799 Li Xiuzhen(Key Laboratory of Mountain Hazards and Surface Processes,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Chengdu 610041,China);Wang Chenghua Potential Landslide Identification Model Based on Fisher Discrimination Analysis Method and Its Application(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2825/P,20(4),2009,p.23-26,40,2 tables,11 refs.)Key words:mathematical models,landslidesAiming at ancient(old)landslides,four kinds of discrimination indexes which included nine secondary indexes for potential landslides,such as landform character,slip surface character,landslide body structure and recent activities characters,were presented.Then according to Fisher Discrimination theory,Fisher Discrimination model for the potential landslides was built.The re
Three essays in mathematical finance
Wang, Ruming
This dissertation uses mathematical techniques to solve three problems in mathematical finance. The first two problems are on model-independent pricing and hedging of financial derivatives. We use asymptotic expansions to express derivative prices and implied volatilities. Then just by using the first few terms in the expansions, we get simple and accurate formulas, which can also help us find connections between different products. The last problem is on optimal trading strategies in a limit order book. Under a very general setup, we solve explicitly for a dynamic decision problem involving choosing between limit order and market order.
Developing Mathematics for Insight into Sensorimotor Neurobiology
McCollum, G
2002-01-01
This paper summarizes a research program to express the organization of sensorimotor control by specifying physiological states and the conditions for transitions among them. By a slight change in standard notation, conditional dynamics provides a moving spotlight, focussing on salient subspaces within a high-dimensional space. This mathematical approach serves as a window on the organization of sensorimotor neurobiology. The intertwined efforts to express the intrinsic organization of neurobiology and to clarify it mathematically are yielding a mathematical structure that is growing on fertile empirical ground.
Students as Mathematics Consultants
Jensen, Jennifer L.
2013-01-01
If students are going to develop reasoning and thinking skills, use their mathematical knowledge, and recognize the relevance of mathematics in their lives, they need to experience mathematics in meaningful ways. Only then will their mathematical skills be transferrable to all other parts of their lives. To promote such flexible mathematical…
Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard
2005-01-01
A brief tour through the history of mathematics from the very beginnings to modern times, with an emphasis on the main contributions and important periods of mathematics in various civilizations.......A brief tour through the history of mathematics from the very beginnings to modern times, with an emphasis on the main contributions and important periods of mathematics in various civilizations....
Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard
A brief tour through the history of mathematics from the very beginnings to modern times, with an emphasis on the main contributions and important periods of mathematics in various civilizations.......A brief tour through the history of mathematics from the very beginnings to modern times, with an emphasis on the main contributions and important periods of mathematics in various civilizations....
Transforming Primary Mathematics
Askew, Mike
2011-01-01
What is good mathematics teaching? What is mathematics teaching good for? Who is mathematics teaching for? These are just some of the questions addressed in "Transforming Primary Mathematics", a highly timely new resource for teachers which accessibly sets out the key theories and latest research in primary maths today. Under-pinned by findings…
Koseki, Jun; Colvin, Hugh; Fukusumi, Takahito; Nishida, Naohiro; Konno, Masamitsu; Kawamoto, Koichi; Tsunekuni, Kenta; Matsui, Hidetoshi; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Hideshi
2015-03-01
Bioinformatics and computational modeling offer innovative approaches to investigate cancer metabolism and predict the secondary and tertiary cellular responses. Dysregulation of metabolism has also been implicated in the pathophysiology of cancer. A significant proportion of patients with glioblastoma and hematological malignancies harbor the mutated forms of the oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) enzymes, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 or 2. The mutated forms of IDH1 and IDH2 produce an oncogenic metabolite, D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG). A recent study of breast cancer patients showed that D2HG can also be produced in the absence of mutated IDH, through an alternative route involving over-activated MYC signaling. We developed a novel methodology to computationally analyze gene expression in colorectal cancer (CRC), and identified novel sets of genes that are associated with patient survival. The study of OxPhos-related genes revealed that an imbalance between the expression of IDH1 and IDH2, defined as overexpression of one isoform in relation to the other, was associated with worse prognosis in CRC patients. This effect was further accentuated by reduced expression of the β-oxygenation enzyme, 3-D-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase (HCDH) 4, which has been reported to contribute to metabolism of intracellular D2HG. The present computational analysis revealed a novel and potential mechanism of CRC development, through over-production of D2HG when there is an imbalance between IDH1 and IDH2 expression, resulting in decreased clearance of D2HG when the β-oxidization pathway is diminished. Additional validation analysis with another gene expression dataset resulted in IDH1/2 imbalanced expression with a shorter DFS compared with balanced expression. Altogether, these findings provide a strong rationale for studying this mechanism further in order to discover novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of CRC.
Mastering mathematics geometry & measures
Various
2014-01-01
Deliver outstanding lessons that build fluency, problem-solving and mathematical reasoning skills to enable sustained progress at Key Stage 3, in preparation for GCSE. Mastering Mathematics provides flexible online and print teaching and learning resources. The service focuses on strands within the curriculum to improve progression throughout Secondary Mathematics . Mastering Mathematics Student Books and Whiteboard eTextbooks are organised into progression strands in line with Mastering Mathematics Teaching and Learning Resources:. - Enable students to identify appropriate remediation or exte
Mathematics without boundaries surveys in pure mathematics
Pardalos, Panos
2014-01-01
The contributions in this volume have been written by eminent scientists from the international mathematical community and present significant advances in several theories, methods and problems of Mathematical Analysis, Discrete Mathematics, Geometry and their Applications. The chapters focus on both old and recent developments in Functional Analysis, Harmonic Analysis, Complex Analysis, Operator Theory, Combinatorics, Functional Equations, Differential Equations as well as a variety of Applications. The book also contains some review works, which could prove particularly useful for a broader audience of readers in Mathematical Sciences, and especially to graduate students looking for the latest information.
Schleicher, Dierk
2011-01-01
This "Invitation to Mathematics" consists of 14 contributions, many from the world's leading mathematicians, which introduce the readers to exciting aspects of current mathematical research. The contributions are as varied as the personalities of active mathematicians, but together they show mathematics as a rich and lively field of research. The contributions are written for interested students at the age of transition between high school and university who know high school mathematics and perhaps competition mathematics and who want to find out what current research mathematics is
A Query Language for Formal Mathematical Libraries
Rabe, Florian
2012-01-01
One of the most promising applications of mathematical knowledge management is search: Even if we restrict attention to the tiny fragment of mathematics that has been formalized, the amount exceeds the comprehension of an individual human. Based on the generic representation language MMT, we introduce the mathematical query language QMT: It combines simplicity, expressivity, and scalability while avoiding a commitment to a particular logical formalism. QMT can integrate various search paradigms such as unification, semantic web, or XQuery style queries, and QMT queries can span different mathematical libraries. We have implemented QMT as a part of the MMT API. This combination provides a scalable indexing and query engine that can be readily applied to any library of mathematical knowledge. While our focus here is on libraries that are available in a content markup language, QMT naturally extends to presentation and narration markup languages.
Middle School Immigrant Students Developing Mathematical Reasoning in Spanish and English
McGraw, Rebecca; Rubinstein-Avila, Eliane
2008-01-01
Language is the means through which mathematics is learned and mathematical reasoning is developed and expressed. Students' development of mathematical knowledge is dependent upon their codevelopment of language competencies. This study sought to understand the intersection of language acquisition and mathematical reasoning in a multigrade,…
Mathematical theory of sedimentation analysis
Fujita, Hiroshi; Van Rysselberghe, P
1962-01-01
Mathematical Theory of Sedimentation Analysis presents the flow equations for the ultracentrifuge. This book is organized into two parts encompassing six chapters that evaluate the systems of reacting components, the differential equations for the ultracentrifuge, and the case of negligible diffusion. The first chapters consider the Archibald method for molecular weight determination; pressure-dependent sedimentation; expressions for the refractive index and its gradient; relation between refractive index and concentration; and the analysis of Gaussian distribution. Other chapters deal with th
Mathematics for Language, Language for Mathematics
Prochazkova, Lenka Tejkalova
2013-01-01
The author discusses the balance and mutual influence of the language of instruction and mathematics in the context of CLIL, Content and Language Integrated Learning. Different aspects of the relationship of language and Mathematics teaching and learning are discussed: the benefits of using a foreign language of instruction, as well as the…
Mathematical model of cylindrical form tolerance
蔡敏; 杨将新; 吴昭同
2004-01-01
Tolerance is essential for integration of CAD and CAM. Unfortunately, the meaning of tolerances in the national standard is expressed in graphical and language forms and is not adaptable for expression, processing and data transferring with computers. How to interpret its semantics is becoming a focus of relevant studies. This work based on the mathematical definition of form tolerance in ANSI Y 14.5.1 M-1994, established the mathematical model of form tolerance for cylindrical feature. First, each tolerance in the national standard was established by vector equation. Then on the foundation of toler-ance's mathematical definition theory, each tolerance zone's mathematical model was established by inequality based on degrees of feature. At last the variance area of each tolerance zone is derived. This model can interpret the semantics of form tolerance exactly and completely.
Mathematical model of cylindrical form tolerance
蔡敏; 杨将新; 吴昭同
2004-01-01
Tolerance is essential for integration of CAD and CAM.Unfortunately,the meaning of tolerances in the national standard is expressed in graphical and language forms and is not adaptable for expression,processing and data transferring with computers.How to interpret its semantics is becoming a focus of relevant studies.This work based on the mathematical definition of form tolerance in ANSI Y 14.5.1 M-1994,established the mathematical model of form tolerance for cylindrical feature.First,each tolerance in the national standard was established by vector equation.Then on the foundation of tolerance's mathematical definition theory,each tolerance zone's mathematical model was established by inequality based on degrees of feature.At last the variance area of each tolerance zone is derived.This model can interpret the semantics of form tolerance exactly and completely.
Dominik Petko
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to compare how weblogs and traditional hand-written reflective learning protocols compare regarding the use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies for knowledge acquisition as well as learning gains in secondary school students. The study used a quasi-experimental control group design with repeated measurements comparing weblogs and text-based reflective journals both with and without prompts. During a learning unit on the subject of climate change, students were assigned one to four experimental groups with different writing assignments and one control group that did not keep a learning protocol of any kind. Comparisons of pretest and posttest scores indicate that students in the experimental groups collectively outperform the students in the control group. Looking closer however, only the groups writing with the guidance of prompts showed better learning gains, while groups writing without prompts did not show significant differences when compared to the control group. There were no differences with respect to learning gains between groups writing weblogs and those writing with paper and pencil when supported by prompts. Without prompts however, students in the paper-and-pencil writing condition performed better than students writing blogs. For blogging students, prompts seemed to be more important to achieve greater learning gains. In addition, students showed greater use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies when guided by prompts. Also here, there were no differences with regard to the medium of writing. Both cognitive and metacognitive strategies were predictors of learning gains. In conclusion, the use of prompts can be considered as important scaffold when writing weblogs or paper based learning protocols.
Journal of applied mathematics
2001-01-01
"[The] Journal of Applied Mathematics is a refereed journal devoted to the publication of original research papers and review articles in all areas of applied, computational, and industrial mathematics...
Semiotic Scaffolding in Mathematics
Johansen, Mikkel Willum; Misfeldt, Morten
2015-01-01
This paper investigates the notion of semiotic scaffolding in relation to mathematics by considering its influence on mathematical activities, and on the evolution of mathematics as a research field. We will do this by analyzing the role different representational forms play in mathematical...... cognition, and more broadly on mathematical activities. In the main part of the paper, we will present and analyze three different cases. For the first case, we investigate the semiotic scaffolding involved in pencil and paper multiplication. For the second case, we investigate how the development of new...... in both mathematical cognition and in the development of mathematics itself, but mathematical cognition cannot itself be reduced to the use of semiotic scaffolding....
Mathematical and statistical analysis
Houston, A. Glen
1988-01-01
The goal of the mathematical and statistical analysis component of RICIS is to research, develop, and evaluate mathematical and statistical techniques for aerospace technology applications. Specific research areas of interest include modeling, simulation, experiment design, reliability assessment, and numerical analysis.
Mathematical knowledge in teaching
Rowland, Tim
2011-01-01
This book examines issues of considerable significance in addressing global aspirations to raise standards of teaching and learning in mathematics by developing approaches to characterizing, assessing and developing mathematical knowledge for teaching.
Developing My Mathematics Identity
Gonzalez, Lidia
2016-01-01
Assuming the role of storyteller, the author uses her experiences as a graduate student and beginning teacher to reflect critically on issues related to mathematics, mathematics education, gender, and diversity.
Mathematics for the nonmathematician
Kline, Morris
1967-01-01
Erudite and entertaining overview follows development of mathematics from ancient Greeks to present. Topics include logic and mathematics, the fundamental concept, differential calculus, probability theory, much more. Exercises and problems.
Developing My Mathematics Identity
Gonzalez, Lidia
2016-01-01
Assuming the role of storyteller, the author uses her experiences as a graduate student and beginning teacher to reflect critically on issues related to mathematics, mathematics education, gender, and diversity.
Aberdein, Andrew
2014-01-01
This book presents a comprehensive investigation into the relationship between argumentation theory and the philosophy of mathematical practice. It offers large array of examples ranging from the history of mathematics to formal proof verification.
Unity and disunity and other mathematical essays
Davis, Philip J
2015-01-01
This book is a mathematical potpourri. Its material originated in classroom presentations, formal lectures, sections of earlier books, book reviews, or just things written by the author for his own pleasure. Written in a nontechnical fashion, this book expresses the unique vision and attitude of the author towards the role of mathematics in society. It contains observations or incidental remarks on mathematics, its nature, its impacts on education and science and technology, its personalities and philosophies. The book is directed towards the math buffs of the world and, more generally, toward
Mathematical theory of peer-instruction dynamics
Hideo Nitta
2010-08-01
Full Text Available A mathematical theory of peer instruction describing the increase of the normalized number of correct answers due to peer discussion is presented. A simple analytic expression is derived which agrees with class data. It is shown that our theory is connected to the mathematical learning models proposed by Pritchard et al. It is also shown that obtained theoretical lines are useful for analyzing peer-instruction efficiencies.
Modern mathematics made simple
Murphy, Patrick
1982-01-01
Modern Mathematics: Made Simple presents topics in modern mathematics, from elementary mathematical logic and switching circuits to multibase arithmetic and finite systems. Sets and relations, vectors and matrices, tesselations, and linear programming are also discussed.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to sets and basic operations on sets, as well as solving problems with Venn diagrams. The discussion then turns to elementary mathematical logic, with emphasis on inductive and deductive reasoning; conjunctions and disjunctions; compound statements and conditional
Mastering mathematics statistics & probability
Various
2014-01-01
Mastering Mathematics provides flexible online and print teaching and learning resources. The service focuses on strands within the curriculum to improve progression throughout Secondary Mathematics. Mastering Mathematics Student Books and eBooks are organised into progression strands in line with Mastering Mathematics Teaching and Learning Resources:. - Enable students to identify appropriate remediation or extension steps they need in order to progress, through easy to follow progression charts. - Clear explanations of the tools needed for the chapter followed by questions that develop fluen
Various
2014-01-01
Mastering Mathematics provides flexible online and print teaching and learning resources. The service focuses on strands within the curriculum to improve progression throughout Secondary Mathematics. Mastering Mathematics Student Books and Whiteboard eTextbooks are organised into progression strands in line with Mastering Mathematics Teaching and Learning Resources:. - Enable students to identify appropriate remediation or extension steps they need in order to progress, through easy to follow progression charts. - Clear explanations of the tools needed for the chapter followed by questions tha
Students' Mathematical Noticing
Lobato, Joanne; Hohensee, Charles; Rhodehamel, Bohdan
2013-01-01
Even in simple mathematical situations, there is an array of different mathematical features that students can attend to or notice. What students notice mathematically has consequences for their subsequent reasoning. By adapting work from both cognitive science and applied linguistics anthropology, we present a focusing framework, which treats…
Henson, R.; Stumbles, A.
1977-01-01
The relationship between mathematics and chemistry has been changing rapidly in recent years. Some chemistry teachers have experienced difficulties in their teaching with the introduction of modern mathematics in the schools. Some suggestions for reinforcing the concepts and language of modern mathematics are put forth. (Author/MA)
Modern Versus Traditional Mathematics
Roberts, A. M.
1974-01-01
The effect of different secondary school mathematics syllabi on first-year performance in college-level mathematics was studied in an attempt to evaluate the syllabus change. Students with a modern mathematics background performed sigficantly better on most first-year units. A topic-by-topic analysis of results is included. (DT)
Mathematics a minimal introduction
Buium, Alexandru
2013-01-01
Pre-Mathematical Logic Languages Metalanguage Syntax Semantics Tautologies Witnesses Theories Proofs Argot Strategies Examples Mathematics ZFC Sets Maps Relations Operations Integers Induction Rationals Combinatorics Sequences Reals Topology Imaginaries Residues p-adics Groups Orders Vectors Matrices Determinants Polynomials Congruences Lines Conics Cubics Limits Series Trigonometry Integrality Reciprocity Calculus Metamodels Categories Functors Objectives Mathematical Logic Models Incompleteness Bibliography Index
Mendick, Heather
2006-01-01
The study of mathematics, with other ''gendered'' subjects such as science and engineering, usually attracts more male than female pupils. This book explores this phenomenon, addressing the important question of why more boys than girls choose to study mathematics. It illuminates what studying mathematics means for both students and teachers.
Buchman, Aaron; Zimmerman, Robert
This outline for Eleventh Year Mathematics in New York adheres closely to the recommendations of The Commission of Mathematics of the College Entrance Examination Board and thus presents a unified development of certain aspects of algebra, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. Its aim is both as a terminal course in mathematics and as a solid…
Defining Mathematical Giftedness
Parish, Linda
2014-01-01
This theoretical paper outlines the process of defining "mathematical giftedness" for a present study on how primary school teaching shapes the mindsets of children who are mathematically gifted. Mathematical giftedness is not a badge of honour or some special value attributed to a child who has achieved something exceptional.…
Saludes, Jordi; 10.4204/EPTCS.79.6
2012-01-01
This paper is devoted to present the Mathematics Grammar Library, a system for multilingual mathematical text processing. We explain the context in which it originated, its current design and functionality and the current development goals. We also present two prototype services and comment on possible future applications in the area of artificial mathematics assistants.
Abraham, Ralph
2015-12-01
Is there a world of mathematics above and beyond ordinary reality, as Plato proposed? Or is mathematics a cultural construct? In this short article we speculate on the place of mathematical reality from the perspective of the mystical cosmologies of the ancient traditions of meditation, psychedelics, and divination. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Galligan, Linda
2016-01-01
A "National Numeracy Report" and the Australian Curriculum (2014) have recognised the importance of language in mathematics. The general capabilities contained within the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" (2014) highlight literacy as an important tool in the teaching and learning of mathematics, from the interpretation of…
Gallian, Joseph A., Ed.
2010-01-01
"Mathematics and Sports", edited by Joseph A. Gallian, gathers 25 articles that illuminate the power and role of mathematics in the worlds of professional and recreational play. Divided into sections by the kind of sports, the book offers source materials for classroom use and student projects. Readers will encounter mathematical ideas from an…
Galligan, Linda
2016-01-01
A "National Numeracy Report" and the Australian Curriculum (2014) have recognised the importance of language in mathematics. The general capabilities contained within the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" (2014) highlight literacy as an important tool in the teaching and learning of mathematics, from the interpretation of…
Mathematics, Programming, and STEM
Yeh, Andy; Chandra, Vinesh
2015-01-01
Learning mathematics is a complex and dynamic process. In this paper, the authors adopt a semiotic framework (Yeh & Nason, 2004) and highlight programming as one of the main aspects of the semiosis or meaning-making for the learning of mathematics. During a 10- week teaching experiment, mathematical meaning-making was enriched when primary…
Walshaw, Margaret
2014-01-01
This paper explores contemporary thinking about learning mathematics, and within that, social justice within mathematics education. The discussion first looks at mechanisms offered by conventional explanations on the emancipatory project and then moves towards more recent insights developed within mathematics education. Synergies are drawn between…
Translations toward Connected Mathematics
Applebaum, Mark; Leikin, Roza
2010-01-01
The translation principle allows students to solve problems in different branches of mathematics and thus to develop connectedness in their mathematical knowledge. Successful application of the translation principle depends on the classroom mathematical norms for the development of discussions and the comparison of different solutions to one…
Lessons from PISA 2012 about mathematical literacy: an illustrated essay
Ross Turner
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Mathematics is central in school curricula around the world, yet outcomes are mixed at best. This is true both in relation to attitudes expressed towards mathematics, and in relation to observed assessment outcomes, showing how poorly individuals are prepared to use mathematics in a world in which the ability to do so is of increasing importance. Why? This essay uses some PISA 2012 mathematics outcomes to seek explanations and possible ways forward. The main message is that negative outcomes of school mathematics arise for a variety of reasons, and they can be reversed through deliberate and concerted action.
TWO CRITICISMS AGAINST MATHEMATICAL REALISM
Seungbae Park
2017-01-01
Mathematical realism asserts that mathematical objects exist in the abstract world, and that a mathematical sentence is true or false, depending on whether the abstract world is as the mathematical sentence says...
Jourdain, Philip E B
2007-01-01
Anyone with an interest in mathematics will welcome the republication of this little volume by a remarkable mathematician who was also a logician, a philosopher, and an occasional writer of fiction and poetry. Originally published in 1913, and later included in the acclaimed anthology The World of Mathematics, Jourdain's survey shows how and why the methods of mathematics were developed, traces the development of mathematical science from the earliest to modern times, and chronicles the application of mathematics to natural science.Starting with the ancient Egyptians and Greeks, the author p
Crossley, J N; Brickhill, CJ; Stillwell, JC
2010-01-01
Although mathematical logic can be a formidably abstruse topic, even for mathematicians, this concise book presents the subject in a lively and approachable fashion. It deals with the very important ideas in modern mathematical logic without the detailed mathematical work required of those with a professional interest in logic.The book begins with a historical survey of the development of mathematical logic from two parallel streams: formal deduction, which originated with Aristotle, Euclid, and others; and mathematical analysis, which dates back to Archimedes in the same era. The streams beg
Mathematics for physical chemistry
Mortimer, Robert G
2013-01-01
Mathematics for Physical Chemistry is the ideal supplementary text for practicing chemists and students who want to sharpen their mathematics skills while enrolled in general through physical chemistry courses. This book specifically emphasizes the use of mathematics in the context of physical chemistry, as opposed to being simply a mathematics text. This 4e includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The early chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, wit
Introductory discrete mathematics
Balakrishnan, V K
2010-01-01
This concise text offers an introduction to discrete mathematics for undergraduate students in computer science and mathematics. Mathematics educators consider it vital that their students be exposed to a course in discrete methods that introduces them to combinatorial mathematics and to algebraic and logical structures focusing on the interplay between computer science and mathematics. The present volume emphasizes combinatorics, graph theory with applications to some stand network optimization problems, and algorithms to solve these problems.Chapters 0-3 cover fundamental operations involv
Mathematics for the imagination
Higgins, Peter
2002-01-01
Mathematics for the Imagination provides an accessible and entertaining investigation into mathematical problems in the world around us. From world navigation, family trees, and calendars to patterns, tessellations, and number tricks, this informative and fun new book helps you to understand the maths behind real-life questions and rediscover your arithmetical mind.This is a follow-up to the popular Mathematics for the Curious, Peter Higgins's first investigation into real-life mathematical problems.A highly involving book which encourages the reader to enter into the spirit of mathematical ex
The development of mathematics
Bell, E T
1992-01-01
""This important book . . . presents a broad account of the part played by mathematics in the evolution of civilization, describing clearly the main principles, methods, and theories of mathematics that have survived from about 4000 BC to 1940.""― BooklistIn this time-honored study, one of the 20th century's foremost scholars and interpreters of the history and meaning of mathematics masterfully outlines the development of its leading ideas, and clearly explains the mathematics involved in each. According to the author, a professor of mathematics at the California Institute of Technology from
Fundamental concepts of mathematics
Goodstein, R L
Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people
Dantzig, Tobias
2006-01-01
More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led
Gabbay, Dov M; Woods, John
2009-01-01
One of the most striking features of mathematics is the fact that we are much more certain about the mathematical knowledge we have than about what mathematical knowledge is knowledge of. Are numbers, sets, functions and groups physical entities of some kind? Are they objectively existing objects in some non-physical, mathematical realm? Are they ideas that are present only in the mind? Or do mathematical truths not involve referents of any kind? It is these kinds of questions that have encouraged philosophers and mathematicians alike to focus their attention on issues in the philosophy of mat
Martin, B R
2015-01-01
Mathematics for Physicists is a relatively short volume covering all the essential mathematics needed for a typical first degree in physics, from a starting point that is compatible with modern school mathematics syllabuses. Early chapters deliberately overlap with senior school mathematics, to a degree that will depend on the background of the individual reader, who may quickly skip over those topics with which he or she is already familiar. The rest of the book covers the mathematics that is usually compulsory for all students in their first two years of a typical university physics degree, plus a little more. There are worked examples throughout the text, and chapter-end problem sets. Mathematics for Physicists features: * Interfaces with modern school mathematics syllabuses * All topics usually taught in the first two years of a physics degree * Worked examples throughout * Problems in every chapter, with answers to selected questions at the end of the book and full solutions on a website This text will ...
Leifer, M S
2015-01-01
In this essay, I argue that mathematics is a natural science---just like physics, chemistry, or biology---and that this can explain the alleged "unreasonable" effectiveness of mathematics in the physical sciences. The main challenge for this view is to explain how mathematical theories can become increasingly abstract and develop their own internal structure, whilst still maintaining an appropriate empirical tether that can explain their later use in physics. In order to address this, I offer a theory of mathematical theory-building based on the idea that human knowledge has the structure of a scale-free network and that abstract mathematical theories arise from a repeated process of replacing strong analogies with new hubs in this network. This allows mathematics to be seen as the study of regularities, within regularities, within ..., within regularities of the natural world. Since mathematical theories are derived from the natural world, albeit at a much higher level of abstraction than most other scientif...
Meaning in mathematics education
Valero, Paola; Hoyles, Celia; Skovsmose, Ole
2005-01-01
What does it mean to know mathematics? How does meaning in mathematics education connect to common sense or to the meaning of mathematics itself? How are meanings constructed and communicated and what are the dilemmas related to these processes? There are many answers to these questions, some of which might appear to be contradictory. Thus understanding the complexity of meaning in mathematics education is a matter of huge importance. There are twin directions in which discussions have developed - theoretical and practical - and this book seeks to move the debate forward along both dimensions while seeking to relate them where appropriate. A discussion of meaning can start from a theoretical examination of mathematics and how mathematicians over time have made sense of their work. However, from a more practical perspective, anybody involved in teaching mathematics is faced with the need to orchestrate the myriad of meanings derived from multiple sources that students develop of mathematical knowledge.
Mathematical models in biology bringing mathematics to life
Ferraro, Maria; Guarracino, Mario
2015-01-01
This book presents an exciting collection of contributions based on the workshop “Bringing Maths to Life” held October 27-29, 2014 in Naples, Italy. The state-of-the art research in biology and the statistical and analytical challenges facing huge masses of data collection are treated in this Work. Specific topics explored in depth surround the sessions and special invited sessions of the workshop and include genetic variability via differential expression, molecular dynamics and modeling, complex biological systems viewed from quantitative models, and microscopy images processing, to name several. In depth discussions of the mathematical analysis required to extract insights from complex bodies of biological datasets, to aid development in the field novel algorithms, methods and software tools for genetic variability, molecular dynamics, and complex biological systems are presented in this book. Researchers and graduate students in biology, life science, and mathematics/statistics will find the content...
The History of Mathematics and Mathematical Education
Grattan-Guinness, I.
1977-01-01
Answers to questions which were asked after the author's various lectures in Australia are gathered here. Topics touched upon include "new" mathematics, unknown constants and free variables, propositional functions, linear algebra, arithmetic and geometry, and student assessment. (MN)
张衡; 姚胜; 周小洪
2015-01-01
通过分析银行无纸化业务需求，归纳出手写签名技术在银行无纸化应用中的技术要求，提出了手写签名电子凭证业务处理模型，该模型基于建立可信证据链，实现了完整记录客户个性化行为的电子签名，以及电子化签名和其他业务信息安全合成为可信电子凭证，最后给出了相关应用原型系统。%Through the analysis of the paperless banking business process demand,summed up the technical require-ments about the handwritten signature technology in paperless application,then put forward business process model of the handwritten signature electronic bill.
The Formalization of Syntax-Based Mathematical Algorithms Using Quotation and Evaluation
Farmer, William M.
2013-01-01
Algorithms like those for differentiating functional expressions manipulate the syntactic structure of mathematical expressions in a mathematically meaningful way. A formalization of such an algorithm should include a specification of its computational behavior, a specification of its mathematical meaning, and a mechanism for applying the algorithm to actual expressions. Achieving these goals requires the ability to integrate reasoning about the syntax of the expressions with reasoning about ...
Secondary School Mathematics Teachers' Attitude in Teaching Mathematics
Mulugeta Atnafu
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine Addis Ababa secondary school mathematics teachers’ attitude in teaching mathematics. 148 mathematics teachers were selected using cluster sampling from Addis Ababa administration region. The study used survey method of data collection and it includes both quantitative and qualitative research methods. From the independent t-test, ANOVA, tukey test and regression analysis, some of the results obtained were: the majority of the secondary school mathematics teachers do not possess positive attitude in teaching mathematics; the most challenge area that affect the attitude in teaching mathematics was motivation in teaching mathematics; no significant differences in all variables with respect to sex and service year; the medium age of mathematics teachers were found to have significantly the most successful in teaching mathematics than young and old mathematics teachers; the master mathematics teachers were found to have significantly the highest and the diploma mathematics teachers were found to have the least attitude, confidence and anxiety of teaching mathematics;the relatively high salary of the mathematics teachers were found to have significantly the highest attitude in teaching mathematics and the average salary of the mathematics teachers were found to have significantly the highest anxiety in teaching mathematics. All the variables sex, age, education, service year and salary of the mathematics teachers were significantly contributing to the equation for predicting mathematics teachers’ attitude and only education was significantly contributing to the equation for predicting mathematics teachers’ attitude in teaching mathematics.
Mathematical Sciences Institute Workshop
Scott, Philip
1990-01-01
A so-called "effective" algorithm may require arbitrarily large finite amounts of time and space resources, and hence may not be practical in the real world. A "feasible" algorithm is one which only requires a limited amount of space and/or time for execution; the general idea is that a feasible algorithm is one which may be practical on today's or at least tomorrow's computers. There is no definitive analogue of Church's thesis giving a mathematical definition of feasibility; however, the most widely studied mathematical model of feasible computability is polynomial-time computability. Feasible Mathematics includes both the study of feasible computation from a mathematical and logical point of view and the reworking of traditional mathematics from the point of view of feasible computation. The diversity of Feasible Mathematics is illustrated by the. contents of this volume which includes papers on weak fragments of arithmetic, on higher type functionals, on bounded linear logic, on sub recursive definitions ...
Nash, Jr, John Forbes
2016-01-01
The goal in putting together this unique compilation was to present the current status of the solutions to some of the most essential open problems in pure and applied mathematics. Emphasis is also given to problems in interdisciplinary research for which mathematics plays a key role. This volume comprises highly selected contributions by some of the most eminent mathematicians in the international mathematical community on longstanding problems in very active domains of mathematical research. A joint preface by the two volume editors is followed by a personal farewell to John F. Nash, Jr. written by Michael Th. Rassias. An introduction by Mikhail Gromov highlights some of Nash’s legendary mathematical achievements. The treatment in this book includes open problems in the following fields: algebraic geometry, number theory, analysis, discrete mathematics, PDEs, differential geometry, topology, K-theory, game theory, fluid mechanics, dynamical systems and ergodic theory, cryptography, theoretical computer sc...
International Mathematical Internet Olympiad
Alexander Domoshnitsky
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Modern Internet technologies open new possibilities in wide spectrum of traditional methods used in mathematical education. One of the areas, where these technologies can be efficiently used, is an organization of mathematical competitions. Contestants can stay at their schools or universities and try to solve as many mathematical problems as possible and then submit their solutions through Internet. Simple Internet technologies supply audio and video connection between participants and organizers.
Interactive Mathematics Textbooks
Sinclair, Robert
1999-01-01
We claim that important considerations have been overlooked in designinginteractive mathematics educational software in the past.In particular,most previous work has concentrated on how to make use ofpre-existing software in mathematics education, rather than firstasking the more...... fundamentalquestion of which requirements mathematics education puts on software, and thendesigning software to fulfil these requirements.We present a working prototype system which takes a script defining an interactivemathematicaldocument and then provides a reader with an interactive realization of thatdocument....
Advances in mathematical economics
Maruyama, Toru
2016-01-01
The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.
Advances in mathematical economics
Yamazaki, Akira
2006-01-01
A lot of economic problems can formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions.Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who were seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking for effective mathematical tools for their researchers.
Educating mathematics teacher educators
Højgaard, Tomas; Jankvist, Uffe Thomas
2014-01-01
The paper argues for a three-dimensional course design structure for future mathematics teacher educators. More precisely we describe the design and implementation of a course basing itself on: the two mathematical competencies of modelling and problem tackling, this being the first dimension......; the two mathematical topics of differential equations and stochastics, this being the second dimension; and finally a third dimension the purpose of which is to deepen the two others by means of a didactical perspective....
Advances in mathematical economics
Maruyama, Toru
2015-01-01
The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.
Advances in mathematical economics
Yamazaki, Akira
2006-01-01
A lot of economic problems can formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who were seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking for effective mathematical tools for their researchers.
Advances in mathematical economics
Maruyama, Toru
2017-01-01
The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.
Using Mathematics Literature with Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers
Jett, Christopher C.
2014-01-01
Literature in mathematics has been found to foster positive improvements in mathematics learning. This manuscript reports on a mathematics teacher educator's use of literature via literature circles with 11 prospective secondary mathematics teachers in a mathematics content course. Using survey and reflection data, the author found that…
Mathematics for Teaching: A Form of Applied Mathematics
Stylianides, Gabriel J.; Stylianides, Andreas J.
2010-01-01
In this article we elaborate a conceptualisation of "mathematics for teaching" as a form of applied mathematics (using Bass's idea of characterising mathematics education as a form of applied mathematics) and we examine implications of this conceptualisation for the mathematical preparation of teachers. Specifically, we focus on issues of design…
Using Mathematics Literature with Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers
Jett, Christopher C.
2014-01-01
Literature in mathematics has been found to foster positive improvements in mathematics learning. This manuscript reports on a mathematics teacher educator's use of literature via literature circles with 11 prospective secondary mathematics teachers in a mathematics content course. Using survey and reflection data, the author found that…
A Capstone Mathematics Course for Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers
Artzt, Alice F.; Sultan, Alan; Curcio, Frances R.; Gurl, Theresa
2012-01-01
This article describes an innovative capstone mathematics course that links college mathematics with school mathematics and pedagogy. It describes how college juniors in a secondary mathematics teacher preparation program engage in leadership experiences that enable them to learn mathematics for teaching while developing student-centered…
On Mathematical Understanding: Perspectives of Experienced Chinese Mathematics Teachers
Cai, Jinfa; Ding, Meixia
2017-01-01
Researchers have long debated the meaning of mathematical understanding and ways to achieve mathematical understanding. This study investigated experienced Chinese mathematics teachers' views about mathematical understanding. It was found that these mathematics teachers embrace the view that understanding is a web of connections, which is a result…
Exploring Differential Effects of Mathematics Courses on Mathematics Achievement
Ma, Xin; McIntyre, Laureen J.
2005-01-01
Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Mathematics Participation (N = 1,518 students from 34 schools), we investigated the effects of pure and applied mathematics courses on mathematics achievement, controlling for prior mathematics achievement. Results of multilevel modelling showed that the effects of pure mathematics were significant after…
Kuipers, L
1969-01-01
International Series of Monographs in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Volume 99: Handbook of Mathematics provides the fundamental mathematical knowledge needed for scientific and technological research. The book starts with the history of mathematics and the number systems. The text then progresses to discussions of linear algebra and analytical geometry including polar theories of conic sections and quadratic surfaces. The book then explains differential and integral calculus, covering topics, such as algebra of limits, the concept of continuity, the theorem of continuous functions (with examp
2011-01-01
Is mathematics a highly sophisticated intellectual game in which the adepts display their skill by tackling invented problems, or are mathematicians engaged in acts of discovery as they explore an independent realm of mathematical reality? Why does this seemingly abstract discipline provide the key to unlocking the deep secrets of the physical universe? How one answers these questions will significantly influence metaphysical thinking about reality. This book is intended to fill a gap between popular 'wonders of mathematics' books and the technical writings of the philosophers of mathematics.
Teaching secondary mathematics
Rock, David
2013-01-01
Solidly grounded in up-to-date research, theory and technology,?Teaching Secondary Mathematics?is a practical, student-friendly, and popular text for secondary mathematics methods courses. It provides clear and useful approaches for mathematics teachers, and shows how concepts typically found in a secondary mathematics curriculum can be taught in a positive and encouraging way. The thoroughly revised fourth edition combines this pragmatic approach with truly innovative and integrated technology content throughout. Synthesized content between the book and comprehensive companion websi
Resnikoff, Howard L
2015-01-01
Space flight, computers, lasers, and information technology ― these are but a few examples of the spectacular growth, development, and far-reaching applications of mathematics. But what of the field's past? Upon which intellectual milestones were the foundations of modern mathematics constructed? How has our comprehension of the physical universe, language, and the nature of thought itself been influenced and informed by the developments of mathematics through the ages?This lucid presentation examines how mathematics shaped and was shaped by the course of human events. In a format suited to co
Plumpton, C
1968-01-01
Sixth Form Pure Mathematics, Volume 1, Second Edition, is the first of a series of volumes on Pure Mathematics and Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Form students whose aim is entrance into British and Commonwealth Universities or Technical Colleges. A knowledge of Pure Mathematics up to G.C.E. O-level is assumed and the subject is developed by a concentric treatment in which each new topic is used to illustrate ideas already treated. The major topics of Algebra, Calculus, Coordinate Geometry, and Trigonometry are developed together. This volume covers most of the Pure Mathematics required for t
O'Briain, Dara
2014-01-01
Relax: no one understands technical mathematics without lengthy training but we all have an intuitive grasp of the ideas behind the symbols. To celebrate the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications (IMA), this book is designed to showcase the beauty of mathematics - including images inspired by mathematical problems - together with its unreasonable effectiveness and applicability, without frying your brain. The book is a collection of 50 original essays contributed by a wide variety of authors. It contains articles by some of the best expositors of
Mathematics, Mathematicians, and Desire
Roodal Persad, Veda
2014-01-01
This thesis is about mapping the landscape of engagement with mathematics, including elucidating aspects of who we are, as human beings, when we do mathematics and of what mathematics calls us to do if we are to engage with it. Using the concept of desire in the psychoanalytic theory of Jacques Lacan and the forms of desire as elucidated by the Lacanian theorist, Mark Bracher, I seek to find out what the mathematical encounter takes (the demands and costs) and what it gives (the offers and re...
Plofker, Kim
2009-01-01
Based on extensive research in Sanskrit sources, Mathematics in India chronicles the development of mathematical techniques and texts in South Asia from antiquity to the early modern period. Kim Plofker reexamines the few facts about Indian mathematics that have become common knowledge--such as the Indian origin of Arabic numerals--and she sets them in a larger textual and cultural framework. The book details aspects of the subject that have been largely passed over in the past, including the relationships between Indian mathematics and astronomy, and their cross-fertilizations with Islamic sc
Mathematical fallacies and paradoxes
Bunch, Bryan
1982-01-01
Stimulating, thought-provoking analysis of the most interesting intellectual inconsistencies in mathematics, physics, and language, including being led astray by algebra (De Morgan's paradox). 1982 edition.
Winkler, Peter
2007-01-01
Peter Winkler is at it again. Following the enthusiastic reaction to Mathematical Puzzles: A Connoisseur's Collection, Peter has compiled a new collection of elegant mathematical puzzles to challenge and entertain the reader. The original puzzle connoisseur shares these puzzles, old and new, so that you can add them to your own anthology. This book is for lovers of mathematics, lovers of puzzles, lovers of a challenge. Most of all, it is for those who think that the world of mathematics is orderly, logical, and intuitive-and are ready to learn otherwise! A pdf with errata is updated by the aut
Zorich, Vladimir A
2016-01-01
This second English edition of a very popular two-volume work presents a thorough first course in analysis, leading from real numbers to such advanced topics as differential forms on manifolds; asymptotic methods; Fourier, Laplace, and Legendre transforms; elliptic functions; and distributions. Especially notable in this course are the clearly expressed orientation toward the natural sciences and the informal exploration of the essence and the roots of the basic concepts and theorems of calculus. Clarity of exposition is matched by a wealth of instructive exercises, problems, and fresh applications to areas seldom touched on in textbooks on real analysis. The main difference between the second and first English editions is the addition of a series of appendices to each volume. There are six of them in the first volume and five in the second. The subjects of these appendices are diverse. They are meant to be useful to both students (in mathematics and physics) and teachers, who may be motivated by different go...
Interactions Between Mathematics and Physics
Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Lützen, Jesper
2015-01-01
In this paper, we discuss the history of the concept of function and emphasize in particular how problems in physics have led to essential changes in its definition and application in mathematical practices. Euler defined a function as an analytic expression, whereas Dirichlet defined it as a var......In this paper, we discuss the history of the concept of function and emphasize in particular how problems in physics have led to essential changes in its definition and application in mathematical practices. Euler defined a function as an analytic expression, whereas Dirichlet defined...... it as a variable that depends in an arbitrary manner on another variable. The change was required when mathematicians discovered that analytic expressions were not sufficient to represent physical phenomena such as the vibration of a string (Euler) and heat conduction (Fourier and Dirichlet). The introduction...... of generalized functions or distributions is shown to stem partly from the development of new theories of physics such as electrical engineering and quantum mechanics that led to the use of improper functions such as the delta function that demanded a proper foundation. We argue that the development of student...
Proof and knowledge in mathematics
Detlefsen, Michael
2005-01-01
These questions arise from any attempt to discover an epistemology for mathematics. This collection of essays considers various questions concerning the nature of justification in mathematics and possible sources of that justification. Among these are the question of whether mathematical justification is a priori or a posteriori in character, whether logical and mathematical differ, and if formalization plays a significant role in mathematical justification,
Remedial Mathematics for Quantum Chemistry
Koopman, Lodewijk; Brouwer, Natasa; Heck, Andre; Buma, Wybren Jan
2008-01-01
Proper mathematical skills are important for every science course and mathematics-intensive chemistry courses rely on a sound mathematical pre-knowledge. In the first-year quantum chemistry course at this university, it was noticed that many students lack basic mathematical knowledge. To tackle the mathematics problem, a remedial mathematics…
Syntactic and Semantic Reasoning in Mathematics Teaching and Learning
Easdown, David
2009-01-01
This article discusses a variety of examples in errors in mathematical reasoning, the source of which is due to the tension between the syntax (form of mathematical expression) and semantics (underlying ideas or meaning). This article suggests that the heightened awareness of syntactic and semantic reasoning, and the consequent resolution of the…
Promoting the Understanding of Mathematics in Physics at Secondary Level
Thompson, Alaric
2016-01-01
This article explores some of the common mathematical difficulties that 11- to 16-year-old students experience with respect to their learning of physics. The definition of "understanding" expressed in the article is in the sense of transferability of mathematical skills from topic to topic within physics as well as between the separate…
The Technological Mediation of Mathematics and Its Learning
Hoyles, Celia; Noss, Richard
2009-01-01
This paper examines the extent to which mathematical knowledge, and its related pedagogy, is inextricably linked to the tools--physical, virtual, cultural--in which it is expressed. Our goal is to focus on a few exemplars of computational tools, and to describe with some illustrative examples, how mathematical meanings are shaped by their use. We…
The mathematics companion mathematical methods for physicists and engineers
Fischer-Cripps, Anthony C
2014-01-01
Part 1 Essential Mathematics: Basic mathematics. Differentiation. Integration. Exponentials and logarithms. Hyperbolic functions. Infinite series. Part 2 Advance Mathematics: Ordinary differential equations. Laplace transforms. Vector analysis. Partial derivatives. Multiple integrals. Fourier series. Special functions. Partial differential equations.
Mathematical knowledge: a case study in empirical philosophy of mathematics
Löwe, B.; Müller, T.; Wilhelmus, E.; Van Kerkhove, B.; De Vuyst, J.; Van Bendegem, J.P.
2010-01-01
In this paper, we present a paradigm for the philosopher of mathematics who takes mathematical practice seriously: Empirical Philosophy of Mathematics. In this philosophical paradigm, we use empirical methods (from sociology, psychology, cognitive science, didactics) to evaluate empirical questions
Mathematical Progress in Expressive Image Synthesis II
Anjyo, Ken
2015-01-01
The material included in this book provides selected presentations given at the international symposium MEIS2014. The book aims to provide a unique venue where various issues in computer graphics (CG) application fields are discussed by mathematicians as well as CG researchers and practitioners. The target audience is not limited to researchers in academia but also those in industries with a strong interest in digital media creation, scientific visualization, and visual engineering. .
Developing Mathematical Vocabulary.
Monroe, Eula Ewing; Orme, Michelle P.
2002-01-01
This article discusses the importance of mathematical vocabulary, difficulties students encounter in learning this vocabulary, and some instructional strategies. Two general methods for teaching vocabulary are discussed: context and explicit vocabulary instruction. The methods are summarized as they apply to mathematical vocabulary instruction and…
Mathematical Graphic Organizers
Zollman, Alan
2009-01-01
As part of a math-science partnership, a university mathematics educator and ten elementary school teachers developed a novel approach to mathematical problem solving derived from research on reading and writing pedagogy. Specifically, research indicates that students who use graphic organizers to arrange their ideas improve their comprehension…
Sinclair, Robert
1998-01-01
Course notes of a PhD course held in 1998. The central idea is to introduce students to computational mathematics using object oriented programming in C++.......Course notes of a PhD course held in 1998. The central idea is to introduce students to computational mathematics using object oriented programming in C++....
田琳
2016-01-01
In both China and the West, mathematics is closely connected with literature. The maths thought implied in Chinese and western literature is worth our study, and the maths thought in the field of literature is also appear in aesthetics and philoso-phy, so literature, mathematics, aesthetics and philosophy become a network of interconnected.
Winsløw, Carl
2015-01-01
Mathematics is studied in universities by a large number of students. At the same time it is a field of research for a (smaller) number of university teachers. What relations, if any, exist between university research and teaching of mathematics? Can research “support” teaching? What research and...
Teaching Mathematical Induction I.
Dubinsky, Ed
1986-01-01
A novel approach to teaching mathematical induction was used, based on a Piagetian theory of learning abstract mathematical concepts in which the learner uses reflective abstraction to construct new schemas out of old ones. Computer experiences are used to induce students to make the appropriate reflective abstractions. (MNS)
Oldfield, Christine
1996-01-01
Describes aspects of learning the language of mathematics including vocabulary and grammar, the origins of the vocabulary, the pronunciation problem, and translation of English phrases and sentences into mathematical language accompanied by conceptual understanding of the process being described. Gives suggestions for teachers in class and…
Discrete Mathematics Re "Tooled."
Grassl, Richard M.; Mingus, Tabitha T. Y.
1999-01-01
Indicates the importance of teaching discrete mathematics. Describes how the use of technology can enhance the teaching and learning of discrete mathematics. Explorations using Excel, Derive, and the TI-92 proved how preservice and inservice teachers experienced a new dimension in problem solving and discovery. (ASK)
Sinclair, Robert
1998-01-01
Course notes of a PhD course held in 1998. The central idea is to introduce students to computational mathematics using object oriented programming in C++.......Course notes of a PhD course held in 1998. The central idea is to introduce students to computational mathematics using object oriented programming in C++....
Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard; Gray, Jeremy
Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO.......Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO....
Mathematics across the Curriculum.
Kleiman, Glenn M.
1991-01-01
Except for its relationship to science, mathematics is the forgotten cousin in interdisciplinary teaching and learning. In the Journeys in Mathematics project, teachers engage children in imaginative activities that inspire them to identify patterns and relationships, solve problems, and communicate accurately, using Jonathan Swift's…
Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard; Gray, Jeremy
Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO.......Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO....
Mathematics Teaching and Inclusion
This volume contains the proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Research Conference on Special Needs Education in Mathematics, which took place in Rebild organised by Aalborg University in November 23-25, 2005. The theme of the conference was Mathematics Education and Inclusion. The conference theme...
Mathematics Education in Argentina
Varsavsky, Cristina; Anaya, Marta
2009-01-01
This article gives an overview of the state of mathematics education in Argentina across all levels, in the regional and world contexts. Statistics are drawn from Mercosur and UNESCO data bases, World Education Indicators and various national time-series government reports. Mathematics results in national testing programmes, Programme for…
Teaching Mathematical Modelling.
Jones, Mark S.
1997-01-01
Outlines a course at the University of Glamorgan in the United Kingdom in which a computer algebra system (CAS) teaches mathematical modeling. The format is based on continual assessment of group and individual work stating the problem, a feature list, and formulation of the models. No additional mathematical word processing package is necessary.…
Experimenting with Mathematical Biology
Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne
2016-01-01
St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…
Stallings, L. Lynn
2007-01-01
This article proposes four strategies for posing mathematics problems that raise the cognitive demands of the tasks given to students. Each strategy is illustrated with three common middle school mathematics examples: finding the greatest common factor, finding area or perimeter, and finding the equation of a line. Posing these types of problems…
Dyslexia, Dyspraxia and Mathematics.
Yeo, Dorian
This book explores how primary school children with dyslexia or dyspraxia and difficulty in math can learn math and provides practical support and detailed teaching suggestions. It considers cognitive features that underlie difficulty with mathematics generally or with specific aspects of mathematics. It outlines the ways in which children usually…
Mathematics Education in Argentina
Varsavsky, Cristina; Anaya, Marta
2009-01-01
This article gives an overview of the state of mathematics education in Argentina across all levels, in the regional and world contexts. Statistics are drawn from Mercosur and UNESCO data bases, World Education Indicators and various national time-series government reports. Mathematics results in national testing programmes, Programme for…
Educating mathematics teacher educators
Højgaard, Tomas; Jankvist, Uffe Thomas
2014-01-01
The paper argues for a three-dimensional course design structure for future mathematics teacher educators. More precisely we describe the design and implementation of a course basing itself on: the two mathematical competencies of modelling and problem tackling, this being the first dimension...
Mathematics: Content and Pedagogy
Ediger, Marlow
2009-01-01
The debate has gone on for some time in terms of which is more salient for the teacher to be well versed in, mathematical content versus methods and approaches in teaching. Both are salient. They cannot be separated from each other. The mathematics teacher must indeed have broad, in-depth knowledge of subject matter as well as in teaching and…
Astronomy and Mathematics Education
Ros, Rosa M.
There are many European countries where Astronomy does not appear as a specific course on the secondary school. In these cases Astronomy content can be introduced by means of other subjects. There are some astronomical topics within the subject of Physics but this talk concerns introducing Astronomy in Mathematics classes. Teaching Astronomy through Mathematics would result in more exposure than through Physics as Mathematics is more prevalent in the curriculum. Generally it is not easy to motivate students in Mathematics but they are motivated to find out more about the universe and Astronomy current events than appears in the media. This situation can be an excellent introduction to several mathematics topics. The teachers in secondary and high school can use this idea in order to present more attractive mathematics courses. In particular some different examples will be offered regarding * Angles and spherical coordinates considering star traces * Logarithms and visual magnitudes * Plane trigonometry related orbital movements * Spherical trigonometry in connection with ecliptic obliquity * Conic curves related to sundial at several latitudes Some students do not enjoy studying Mathematics but they can be attracted by practical situations using Applied Mathematics: Astronomy is always very attractive to teenagers.
Fennema, Elizabeth, Ed.; Leder, Gilah C., Ed.
This book reports on various studies that have increased our understanding of why females and males learn different kinds and amounts of mathematics. In particular, this book explicates the Autonomous Learning Behavior model, proposed by Fennema and Peterson, which is a possible explanation of the development of gender differences in mathematics.…
Elementary Mathematics Leaders
Fennell, Francis; Kobett, Beth McCord; Wray, Jonathan A.
2013-01-01
Elementary school mathematics leaders often come to the realization that their position, however titled and determined, although dedicated to addressing needs in math teaching and learning, also entails and directly involves leadership. Elementary school math specialists/instructional leaders (referenced here as elementary mathematics leaders, or…
St. Vincent Handwritten History Notes
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document gives historical highlights of St. Vincent Island from the Creek and Seminole Native Americans who inhabited the island in the 1700's to the Loomis...
Handwritten digit recognition based on AP and BP neural network algorithm%基于 AP 和 BP 神经网络算法的手写数字识别
朱婷婷; 魏海坤; 张侃健
2014-01-01
Given the problem that current methods of handwritten digit recognition are not ideal for large-scale application,a new method of handwritten digit recognition has been proposed,combining affinity propagation with error back-propagation neural network algorithm.Firstly,pretreatment of samples was carried out.Then the AP algorithm was used to cluster samples to e-liminate redundant and re-construct the sample space.Finally,the BP neural network was utilized to learn and recognize each class from AP clustering.Experiments were conducted with the data from UCI machine learning database,and the correct identi-fication rate of the method reaches 96.10%,which is better than that of BP neural network algorithm (94.88%),and the pro-cessing time of the method is only one over ten of BP neural network algorithm.Thus,the proposed method can be used to effi-ciently and effectively identify handwritten digits with high practical value.%针对现有的手写数字识别技术不适合大规模应用的问题，提出了一种基于 AP 和 BP 神经网络的快速手写数字识别算法。首先对预处理后的样本通过 AP 算法（affinity propagation）聚类消除冗余，重新构造样本空间；然后构造 BP（误差反向传播）神经网络模型，学习测试集合样本。采用 UCI 机器学习数据库中的数据进行实验，结果表明，算法的识别正确率可达96．10％，高于 BP 神经网络算法的识别正确率94．88％，且执行时间约为后者的10％，具有较高的实用价值。
Physics Teaching: Mathematics as an Epistemological Tool
Kneubil, Fabiana B.; Robilotta, Manoel R.
2015-01-01
We study the interconnection between Physics and Mathematics in concrete instances, departing from the usual expression for the Coulomb electric field, produced by a point-like charge. It is scrutinized by means of six epistemology-intensive questions and radical answers are proposed, intended to widen one's understanding of the subject. Our…
Confidence and Competence with Mathematical Procedures
Foster, Colin
2016-01-01
Confidence assessment (CA), in which students state alongside each of their answers a confidence level expressing how certain they are, has been employed successfully within higher education. However, it has not been widely explored with school pupils. This study examined how school mathematics pupils (N?=?345) in five different secondary schools…
Confidence and Competence with Mathematical Procedures
Foster, Colin
2016-01-01
Confidence assessment (CA), in which students state alongside each of their answers a confidence level expressing how certain they are, has been employed successfully within higher education. However, it has not been widely explored with school pupils. This study examined how school mathematics pupils (N?=?345) in five different secondary schools…
Haigh, John
2016-01-01
How does mathematics impact everyday events? The purpose of this book is to show a range of examples where mathematics can be seen at work in everyday life. From money (APR, mortgage repayments, personal finance), simple first and second order ODEs, sport and games (tennis, rugby, athletics, darts, tournament design, soccer, snooker), business (stock control, linear programming, check digits, promotion policies, investment), the social sciences (voting methods, Simpson’s Paradox, drug testing, measurements of inequality) to TV game shows and even gambling (lotteries, roulette, poker, horse racing), the mathematics behind commonplace events is explored. Fully worked examples illustrate the ideas discussed and each chapter ends with a collection of exercises. Everyday Mathematics supports other first year modules by giving students extra practice in working with calculus, linear algebra, geometry, trigonometry and probability. Secondary/high school level mathematics is all that is required for students to und...
Rethinking the mathematics curriculum
Hoyles, Celia; Woodhouse, Geoffrey
1998-01-01
At a time when political interest in mathematics education is at its highest, this book demonstrates that the issues are far from straightforward. A wide range of international contributors address such questions as: What is mathematics, and what is it for? What skills does mathematics education need to provide as technology advances? What are the implications for teacher education? What can we learn from past attempts to change the mathematics curriculum? Rethinking the Mathematics Curriculum offers stimulating discussions, showing much is to be learnt from the differences in culture, national expectations, and political restraints revealed in the book. This accessible book will be of particular interest to policy makers, curriculum developers, educators, researchers and employers as well as the general reader.
Canadian Mathematical Congress
1977-01-01
For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...
Mathematics of aperiodic order
Lenz, Daniel; Savinien, Jean
2015-01-01
What is order that is not based on simple repetition, that is, periodicity? How must atoms be arranged in a material so that it diffracts like a quasicrystal? How can we describe aperiodically ordered systems mathematically? Originally triggered by the – later Nobel prize-winning – discovery of quasicrystals, the investigation of aperiodic order has since become a well-established and rapidly evolving field of mathematical research with close ties to a surprising variety of branches of mathematics and physics. This book offers an overview of the state of the art in the field of aperiodic order, presented in carefully selected authoritative surveys. It is intended for non-experts with a general background in mathematics, theoretical physics or computer science, and offers a highly accessible source of first-hand information for all those interested in this rich and exciting field. Topics covered include the mathematical theory of diffraction, the dynamical systems of tilings or Delone sets, their cohomolog...
African Americans in mathematics
1997-01-01
This volume contains research and expository papers by African-American mathematicians on issues related to their involvement in the mathematical sciences. Little is known, taught, or written about African-American mathematicians. Information is lacking on their past and present contributions and on the qualitative and quantitative nature of their existence in and distribution throughout mathematics. This lack of information leads to a number of questions that have to date remained unanswered. This volume provides details and pointers to help answer some of these questions. Features: Research articles by distinguished African-American mathematicians. Accomplishments of African-American researchers in the mathematical sciences. Articles that explore issues important to the African-American community and to the mathematics community as a whole. Inspiration for African-American students who wish to pursue advancement in the mathematical sciences.
Advanced engineering mathematics
Jeffrey, Alan
2001-01-01
Advanced Engineering Mathematics provides comprehensive and contemporary coverage of key mathematical ideas, techniques, and their widespread applications, for students majoring in engineering, computer science, mathematics and physics. Using a wide range of examples throughout the book, Jeffrey illustrates how to construct simple mathematical models, how to apply mathematical reasoning to select a particular solution from a range of possible alternatives, and how to determine which solution has physical significance. Jeffrey includes material that is not found in works of a similar nature, such as the use of the matrix exponential when solving systems of ordinary differential equations. The text provides many detailed, worked examples following the introduction of each new idea, and large problem sets provide both routine practice, and, in many cases, greater challenge and insight for students. Most chapters end with a set of computer projects that require the use of any CAS (such as Maple or Mathematica) th...
Developing mathematical modelling competence
Blomhøj, Morten; Jensen, Tomas Højgaard
2003-01-01
In this paper we introduce the concept of mathematical modelling competence, by which we mean being able to carry through a whole mathematical modelling process in a certain context. Analysing the structure of this process, six sub-competences are identified. Mathematical modelling competence...... cannot be reduced to these six sub-competences, but they are necessary elements in the development of mathematical modelling competence. Experience from the development of a modelling course is used to illustrate how the different nature of the sub-competences can be used as a tool for finding...... the balance between different kinds of activities in a particular educational setting. Obstacles of social, cognitive and affective nature for the students' development of mathematical modelling competence are reported and discussed in relation to the sub-competences....
Hebert, Michael A.; Powell, Sarah R.
2016-01-01
Increasingly, students are expected to write about mathematics. Mathematics writing may be informal (e.g., journals, exit slips) or formal (e.g., writing prompts on high-stakes mathematics assessments). In order to develop an effective mathematics-writing intervention, research needs to be conducted on how students organize mathematics writing and…
A Mathematical Model for Suppression Subtractive Hybridization
2002-01-01
Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) is frequently used to unearth differentially expressed genes on a whole-genome scale. Its versatility is based on combining cDNA library subtraction and normalization, which allows the isolation of sequences of varying degrees of abundance and differential expression. SSH is a complex process with many adjustable parameters that affect the outcome of gene isolation.We present a mathematical model of SSH based on DNA hybridization kinetics for assess...
Philosophical dimensions in mathematics education
Francois, Karen
2007-01-01
This book brings together diverse recent developments exploring the philosophy of mathematics in education. The unique combination of ethnomathematics, philosophy, history, education, statistics and mathematics offers a variety of different perspectives from which existing boundaries in mathematics education can be extended. The ten chapters in this book offer a balance between philosophy of and philosophy in mathematics education. Attention is paid to the implementation of a philosophy of mathematics within the mathematics curriculum.
照那木拉; 李根全; 苏和平; 包常明; 吉日嘎拉; 王朝鲁
2005-01-01
biomechanical mechanisms and characters of reduction and union of fracture are summarized from the micro-reaction of bone repair and union so as to discover biomechanical mechanisms and characters of reduction and union of fracture and further to set up biomechanical models and mathematics-physics expressions during the treatment.RESULTS: Chinese traditional osteopathy envelopes macro-idea of "initiative reduction-functional union" in fracture and micro-mechanism on "stress adaptability-functional adaptability" of bone repair and union.CONCLUSION: Chinese traditional osteopathy compiles with the natural,green and non-traumatic therapy in bio-natural law of bone repair and union and supports the theme of "high thought and high skill".
Mathematics as verbal behavior.
Marr, M Jackson
2015-04-01
"Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Defining culturally responsive teaching: The case of mathematics
Jenni L. Harding-DeKam
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Elementary classroom teachers in eight school districts across Colorado, United States, share the knowledge of their students’ home and community life, define culturally responsive mathematics based on the children they instruct, and give examples of how students learn math through culture in their classrooms. Findings from two interviews, classroom observations, and student artifacts reveal that teachers have an intimate cultural knowledge of the students in their classrooms, define culturally responsive mathematical practices consistent with research, use culturally responsive mathematics teaching for authentic learning, and express a need for additional professional development and curriculum support for culturally responsive mathematics instruction. Culturally responsive mathematics is important in elementary classrooms because it allows students to make personal connections to mathematics content.
高学; 王有旺
2014-01-01
In order to recognize similar handwritten Chinese characters effectively,a convolutional neural network (CNN)model is proposed,and the topology of the network model is presented.Then,the sample set is extended by introducing a stochastic elastic deformation to enhance the generalization performance of the model.Experimen-tal results indicate that the recognition accuracy of the proposed CNN model is 1.66%higher than that of the tradi-tional CNN model,especially,for distorted handwritten Chinese characters,the recognition accuracy increases by 12.85%;moreover,as compared with the traditional recognition methods,the proposed CNN model reduces the recognition error rate by 36.47%.It is thus concluded that the proposed method is effective.%针对手写汉字中相似汉字的识别问题，构建了一种卷积神经网络（CNN）模型，并给出了其网络拓扑结构，通过随机弹性形变对样本集进行扩展，以提高模型的泛化性能．相似手写汉字的识别实验结果表明：相对于常规的CNN模型，文中CNN模型的手写汉字识别正确率提高1．66％，特别是对于变形的手写汉字，识别正确率提高12．85％；相对于传统的手写汉字识别方法，文中方法的识别错误率降低36．47％，从而验证了文中识别方法的有效性．
来晶
2015-01-01
浙江婺剧手写孤本其自成体系的程式化语言有着婺剧的共性特征和区别于其他剧种的艺术特色, 由于保存条件等原因已经濒临消失的境地. 其文化传承的现代呈现以手绘绘本形式体现, 创新之处在于以传统地方剧种为主题, 改变以代表性场景为主要表现内容的创作方式, 结合媒材开发进行多元化表现; 透过婺剧脸谱、 戏服、 表演等独特的艺术美, 在此基础上通过仔细研读剧目, 缜密的创作构思, 抓取人物动态, 强调道具的烘托作用, 注重细节刻画等进行现代呈现.%With its unique system of language, the only existing handwritten copy of Zhejiang Wuju opera has com-mon elements of Wuju opera, and artistic characteristics different from other kinds of opera. It is on the verge of dis-appearing due to the keeping condition. The cultural inheritance is presented with the form of handwritten copies, which take the traditional local opera as the theme, change the creation of taking representative scene as the main content, and provides multimedia presentation with the development of media. Based on the artistic charm of facial makeup, costume and performance of Wuju opera, the copy gives a modern presentation by reading up scripts, careful creative thought, grasping dynamic characters, emphasizing stage prop and paying attention to details.
基于矩阵SVD的手写数字分类及其特征区域的SVD优化%SVD Decomposition-based Approach for Handwritten Digits Classification
曹立
2016-01-01
This paper proposes two methods to realize using matrix handwritten digit classification methods. A method based on a matrix decomposition SVD, each with a number of one-dimensional vector and a matrix consisting of the number of classes for the singular value decomposition (SVD) means;, two methods to achieve the final classifi-cation is appropriate to use the least squares method for solving the problem. Using USPS handwritten digital database for training and testing, and the results of the two methods are briefly compared.%本文提出了三种利用矩阵的SVD分解来实现手写数字分类的方法。第一种方法基于矩阵的svd分解，将每一个数字用一个一维向量表示而对某一类的数字组成的矩阵进行奇异值分解（SVD）；第二种方法是对特征区域的SVD优化，是对第一种方法的基础上进行的改进；两种方法最终的分类实现都是运用相应的最小二乘问题的方法求解。采用USPS的手写数字数据库进行训练和测试，并对两种方法的结果进行了简要对比。
The Greatest Mathematical Discovery?
Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.
2010-05-12
What mathematical discovery more than 1500 years ago: (1) Is one of the greatest, if not the greatest, single discovery in the field of mathematics? (2) Involved three subtle ideas that eluded the greatest minds of antiquity, even geniuses such as Archimedes? (3) Was fiercely resisted in Europe for hundreds of years after its discovery? (4) Even today, in historical treatments of mathematics, is often dismissed with scant mention, or else is ascribed to the wrong source? Answer: Our modern system of positional decimal notation with zero, together with the basic arithmetic computational schemes, which were discovered in India about 500 CE.
Fundamentals of university mathematics
McGregor, C M; Stothers, W W
2010-01-01
The third edition of this popular and effective textbook provides in one volume a unified treatment of topics essential for first year university students studying for degrees in mathematics. Students of computer science, physics and statistics will also find this book a helpful guide to all the basic mathematics they require. It clearly and comprehensively covers much of the material that other textbooks tend to assume, assisting students in the transition to university-level mathematics.Expertly revised and updated, the chapters cover topics such as number systems, set and functions, differe
Hollingdale, Stuart
2011-01-01
Fascinating and highly readable, this book recounts the history of mathematics as revealed in the lives and writings of the most distinguished practitioners of the art: Archimedes, Descartes, Fermat, Pascal, Newton, Leibniz, Euler, Gauss, Hamilton, Einstein, and many more. Author Stuart Hollingdale introduces and explains the roles of these gifted and often colorful figures in the development of mathematics as well as the ways in which their work relates to mathematics as a whole.Although the emphasis in this absorbing survey is primarily biographical, Hollingdale also discusses major historic
Alexander, Serena; Poggo, Tammy
2014-01-01
Features the complete set of answers to the exercises in Mathematics Year 5, to save you time marking work and enable you to identify areas requiring further attention. The book includes diagrams and workings where necessary, to ensure pupils understand how to present their answers. Also available from Galore Park www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics Year 5. - Mathematics Year 6. - 11+ Maths Practice Exercises. - 11+ Maths Revision Guide. - 10-Minute Maths Tests Workbook Age 8-10. - 10-Minute Maths Tests Workbook Age 9-11. - Mental Arithmetic Workbook Age 8-10. - Mental Arithmetic Workbook Ag
Applied impulsive mathematical models
Stamova, Ivanka
2016-01-01
Using the theory of impulsive differential equations, this book focuses on mathematical models which reflect current research in biology, population dynamics, neural networks and economics. The authors provide the basic background from the fundamental theory and give a systematic exposition of recent results related to the qualitative analysis of impulsive mathematical models. Consisting of six chapters, the book presents many applicable techniques, making them available in a single source easily accessible to researchers interested in mathematical models and their applications. Serving as a valuable reference, this text is addressed to a wide audience of professionals, including mathematicians, applied researchers and practitioners.
Higher engineering mathematics
John Bird
2014-01-01
A practical introduction to the core mathematics principles required at higher engineering levelJohn Bird's approach to mathematics, based on numerous worked examples and interactive problems, is ideal for vocational students that require an advanced textbook.Theory is kept to a minimum, with the emphasis firmly placed on problem-solving skills, making this a thoroughly practical introduction to the advanced mathematics engineering that students need to master. The extensive and thorough topic coverage makes this an ideal text for upper level vocational courses. Now in
Equations of mathematical physics
Tikhonov, A N
2011-01-01
Mathematical physics plays an important role in the study of many physical processes - hydrodynamics, elasticity, and electrodynamics, to name just a few. Because of the enormous range and variety of problems dealt with by mathematical physics, this thorough advanced-undergraduate or graduate-level text considers only those problems leading to partial differential equations. The authors - two well-known Russian mathematicians - have focused on typical physical processes and the principal types of equations deailing with them. Special attention is paid throughout to mathematical formulation, ri
Logic in elementary mathematics
Exner, Robert M
2011-01-01
This applications-related introductory treatment explores facets of modern symbolic logic useful in the exposition of elementary mathematics. The authors convey the material in a manner accessible to those trained in standard elementary mathematics but lacking any formal background in logic. Topics include the statement calculus, proof and demonstration, abstract mathematical systems, and the restricted predicate calculus. The final chapter draws upon the methods of logical reasoning covered in previous chapters to develop solutions of linear and quadratic equations, definitions of order and
Mathematization in introductory physics
Brahmia, Suzanne M.
Mathematization is central to STEM disciplines as a cornerstone of the quantitative reasoning that characterizes these fields. Introductory physics is required for most STEM majors in part so that students develop expert-like mathematization. This dissertation describes coordinated research and curriculum development for strengthening mathematization in introductory physics; it blends scholarship in physics and mathematics education in the form of three papers. The first paper explores mathematization in the context of physics, and makes an original contribution to the measurement of physics students' struggle to mathematize. Instructors naturally assume students have a conceptual mastery of algebra before embarking on a college physics course because these students are enrolled in math courses beyond algebra. This paper provides evidence that refutes the validity of this assumption and categorizes some of the barriers students commonly encounter with quantification and representing ideas symbolically. The second paper develops a model of instruction that can help students progress from their starting points to their instructor's desired endpoints. Instructors recognize that the introductory physics course introduces new ideas at an astonishing rate. More than most physicists realize, however, the way that mathematics is used in the course is foreign to a large portion of class. This paper puts forth an instructional model that can move all students toward better quantitative and physical reasoning, despite the substantial variability of those students' initial states. The third paper describes the design and testing of curricular materials that foster mathematical creativity to prepare students to better understand physics reasoning. Few students enter introductory physics with experience generating equations in response to specific challenges involving unfamiliar quantities and units, yet this generative use of mathematics is typical of the thinking involved in
Learning Mathematics through Programming
Misfeldt, Morten; Ejsing-Duun, Stine
2015-01-01
In this paper we explore the potentials for learning mathematics through programming by a combination of theoretically derived potentials and cases of practical pedagogical work. We propose a model with three interdependent learning potentials as programming which can: (1) help reframe the students...... as producers of knowledge and artifacts, (2) support abstraction and encapsulation, and (3) promote thinking in algorithms. Programming is a topic that has recently gained interest in primary and lower secondary education levels in various countries, and hence a specific analysis of the potentials in relation...... to mathematics is paramount. Analyzing two cases, we suggest a number of ways in which didactical attention to epistemic mediation can support learning mathematics....
Troelstra, AS
1988-01-01
Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics, Volume 123: Constructivism in Mathematics: An Introduction, Vol. II focuses on various studies in mathematics and logic, including metric spaces, polynomial rings, and Heyting algebras.The publication first takes a look at the topology of metric spaces, algebra, and finite-type arithmetic and theories of operators. Discussions focus on intuitionistic finite-type arithmetic, theories of operators and classes, rings and modules, linear algebra, polynomial rings, fields and local rings, complete separable metric spaces, and located sets. The te
Constructing mathematical knowledge
Ernest, Paul
2012-01-01
This book provides a panorama of complimentary and forward looking perspectives on the learning of mathematics and epistemology from some of the leading contributors to the field. It explores constructivist and social theories of learning, and discusses the role of the computer in the light of these theories. It brings analyses from psychoanalysis, Hermeneutics and other perspectives to bear on the issues of mathematics and learning. It enquires into the nature of enquiry itself, and an important emergent theme is the role of language. Finally it relates the history of mathematics to its te
Boyer, Carl B
2011-01-01
The updated new edition of the classic and comprehensive guide to the history of mathematics. For more than forty years, A History of Mathematics has been the reference of choice for those looking to learn about the fascinating history of humankind's relationship with numbers, shapes, and patterns. This revised edition features up-to-date coverage of topics such as Fermat's Last Theorem and the Poincaré Conjecture , in addition to recent advances in areas such as finite group theory and computer-aided proofs.: Distills thousands of years of mathematics into a single, approachable volume; Cover
Dependencies in Formal Mathematics
Alama, Jesse; Urban, Josef
2011-01-01
Dependencies in formal mathematical texts, large coherent formal libraries and proof assistants are introduced as an emerging research topic, analyzed from foundational, semantic, computational, and pragmatic perspectives, and put to practical use in computer-assisted mathematics. Two different approaches to dependency computation are implemented over two major proof assistants with different type disciplines, and a large-scale experimental comparison is provided based on large Coq and Mizar formal libraries. Apart from theoretical discussions, importance of dependency analysis for advanced automation of computer-assisted reasoning, and for efficient proof analysis and theory refactoring in substantial mathematical domains are experimentally demonstrated.
Mentoring in mathematics education
Hyde, Rosalyn
2013-01-01
Designed to support both teachers and university-based tutors in mentoring pre-service and newly qualified mathematics teachers at both primary and secondary levels, Mentoring Mathematics Teachers offers straightforward practical advice that is based on practice, underpinned by research, and geared specifically towards this challenging subject area.Developed by members of The Association of Mathematics Education Teachers, the authors draw upon the most up-to-date research and theory to provide evidence-based practical guidance. Themes covered include:
Mathematical modelling techniques
Aris, Rutherford
1995-01-01
""Engaging, elegantly written."" - Applied Mathematical ModellingMathematical modelling is a highly useful methodology designed to enable mathematicians, physicists and other scientists to formulate equations from a given nonmathematical situation. In this elegantly written volume, a distinguished theoretical chemist and engineer sets down helpful rules not only for setting up models but also for solving the mathematical problems they pose and for evaluating models.The author begins with a discussion of the term ""model,"" followed by clearly presented examples of the different types of mode
Mathematical methods for physicists
Arfken, George B
1985-01-01
Mathematical Methods for Physicists, Third Edition provides an advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate study in physical science, focusing on the mathematics of theoretical physics. This edition includes sections on the non-Cartesian tensors, dispersion theory, first-order differential equations, numerical application of Chebyshev polynomials, the fast Fourier transform, and transfer functions. Many of the physical examples provided in this book, which are used to illustrate the applications of mathematics, are taken from the fields of electromagnetic theory and quantum mechanics. The He
Sulley, Robert
2014-01-01
Achieve the best possible standard with this bestselling book of traditional practice and guidance - now in colour!. First Aid in Mathematics provides all the help and support needed for learning and practising Mathematics. It offers comprehensive coverage of core mathematical topics in clear and accessible language. It is suitable for both native English speakers and students of English as a second language and can be used in class, or as a reference and revision book. - Develops a strong basis of understanding with core topics covered in clear and accessible language. - Improves student's ab
Banagl, Markus
2011-01-01
The present volume grew out of the Heidelberg Knot Theory Semester, organized by the editors in winter 2008/09 at Heidelberg University. The contributed papers bring the reader up to date on the currently most actively pursued areas of mathematical knot theory and its applications in mathematical physics and cell biology. Both original research and survey articles are presented; numerous illustrations support the text. The book will be of great interest to researchers in topology, geometry, and mathematical physics, graduate students specializing in knot theory, and cell biologists interested
Examining the Relationship between Gender DIF and Language Complexity in Mathematics Assessments
Kan, Adnan; Bulut, Okan
2014-01-01
This study investigated whether the linguistic complexity of items leads to gender differential item functioning (DIF) on mathematics assessments. Two forms of a mathematics test were developed. The first form consisted of algebra items based on mathematical expressions, terms, and equations. In the second form, the same items were written as word…
Mathematics for the liberal arts
Bindner, Donald; Hemmeter, Joe
2014-01-01
Presents a clear bridge between mathematics and the liberal arts Mathematics for the Liberal Arts provides a comprehensible and precise introduction to modern mathematics intertwined with the history of mathematical discoveries. The book discusses mathematical ideas in the context of the unfolding story of human thought and highlights the application of mathematics in everyday life. Divided into two parts, Mathematics for the Liberal Arts first traces the history of mathematics from the ancient world to the Middle Ages, then moves on to the Renaissance and finishes with the development of modern mathematics. In the second part, the book explores major topics of calculus and number theory, including problem-solving techniques and real-world applications. This book emphasizes learning through doing, presents a practical approach, and features: A detailed explanation of why mathematical principles are true and how the mathematical processes workNumerous figures and diagrams as well as hundreds of worked example...
Mathematics, anxiety, and the brain.
Moustafa, Ahmed A; Tindle, Richard; Ansari, Zaheda; Doyle, Margery J; Hewedi, Doaa H; Eissa, Abeer
2017-02-03
Given that achievement in learning mathematics at school correlates with work and social achievements, it is important to understand the cognitive processes underlying abilities to learn mathematics efficiently as well as reasons underlying the occurrence of mathematics anxiety (i.e. feelings of tension and fear upon facing mathematical problems or numbers) among certain individuals. Over the last two decades, many studies have shown that learning mathematical and numerical concepts relies on many cognitive processes, including working memory, spatial skills, and linguistic abilities. In this review, we discuss the relationship between mathematical learning and cognitive processes as well as the neural substrates underlying successful mathematical learning and problem solving. More importantly, we also discuss the relationship between these cognitive processes, mathematics anxiety, and mathematics learning disabilities (dyscalculia). Our review shows that mathematical cognition relies on a complex brain network, and dysfunction to different segments of this network leads to varying manifestations of mathematical learning disabilities.
Optimization and mathematical modeling in computer architecture
Sankaralingam, Karu; Nowatzki, Tony
2013-01-01
In this book we give an overview of modeling techniques used to describe computer systems to mathematical optimization tools. We give a brief introduction to various classes of mathematical optimization frameworks with special focus on mixed integer linear programming which provides a good balance between solver time and expressiveness. We present four detailed case studies -- instruction set customization, data center resource management, spatial architecture scheduling, and resource allocation in tiled architectures -- showing how MILP can be used and quantifying by how much it outperforms t
Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Attitudes Towards Learning Mathematics with Technology
Ipek, A. Sabri; Berigel, Muhammed; Albayrak, Mustafa
2007-01-01
Role of technology which is an important tool for new approaches in learning mathematics is rapidly increasing at focus point of learning mathematics with new designs. One of the biggest factors at learning and instructing technology based mathematic education is attitudes of mathematics teachers towards technology. At this study, attitudes of…
Mathematical Intelligence and Mathematical Creativity: A Causal Relationship
Tyagi, Tarun Kumar
2017-01-01
This study investigated the causal relationship between mathematical creativity and mathematical intelligence. Four hundred thirty-nine 8th-grade students, age ranged from 11 to 14 years, were included in the sample of this study by random cluster technique on which mathematical creativity and Hindi adaptation of mathematical intelligence test…
Manin, Yu I
1981-01-01
A bird's eye view of mathematics ; physical quantities, dimensions and constants : the source of numbers in physics ; a drop of milk : observer, observation, observable and unobservable ; space-time as a physical system ; action and symmetry.
Visualization and mathematics III
Polthier, Konrad
2003-01-01
This research book on Mathematical Visualization contains state of the art presentations on visualization problems in mathematics, on fundamental mathematical research in computer graphics, and on software frameworks for the application of visualization to real-world problems. All contributions were written by leading experts in the field and peer-refereed by an international editorial team. The book grew out of the third international workshop "Visualization and Mathematics", which was held from May 22-25, 2002 in Berlin. The themes of the book cover important recent developments on - Geometry and Combinatorics of Meshes - Discrete Vector Fields and Topology - Geometric Modelling - Image Based Visualization - Software Environments and Applications - Education and Communication The variety of topics makes the book a suitable resource for researchers, lecturers, and practitioners; http://www-sfb288.math.tu-berlin.de/vismath/
Mathematics for physical chemistry
Mortimer, Robert G
2005-01-01
Mathematics for Physical Chemistry, Third Edition, is the ideal text for students and physical chemists who want to sharpen their mathematics skills. It can help prepare the reader for an undergraduate course, serve as a supplementary text for use during a course, or serve as a reference for graduate students and practicing chemists. The text concentrates on applications instead of theory, and, although the emphasis is on physical chemistry, it can also be useful in general chemistry courses. The Third Edition includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The first ten chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, with a gradual progression into more advanced material. The final chapter discusses mathematical topics needed in the analysis of experimental data.* Numerous examples and problems interspersed throughout the presentations * Each extensive chapter contains a preview, objectives, and ...
Fostering Mathematical Curiosity.
Knuth, Eric J.
2002-01-01
Demonstrates what it might mean to engage students in problem posing and how teachers might begin to create classroom environments that encourage, develop, and foster mathematical curiosity. (Author/NB)
无
2006-01-01
@@ 1 Early Education in China I entered Fulun Middle School in Tientsin in January 1923. It was a four-year high school and I was admitted to the second semester of the first year. The mathematical curriculum consisted of:
Making Mathematical Induction Meaningful
Hirsch, Christian R.
1976-01-01
The author argues that the "least number principle" (well-ordering for positive integers) is more intuitively acceptable to high school students than mathematical induction which can be derived from it. (SD)
Fundamentals of scientific mathematics
Owen, George E
2003-01-01
Offering undergraduates a solid mathematical background (and functioning equally well for independent study), this rewarding, beautifully illustrated text covers geometry and matrices, vector algebra, analytic geometry, functions, and differential and integral calculus. 1961 edition.
Mathematics for operations research
1994-01-01
Effective procedures for mathematical tasks in many fields: resolving linear independence, finding null spaces and factors of matrices; differentiating vectors and matrices by chain rule, many more. Techniques illustrated in examples. 1,300 problems. 1978 edition.
Mathematical games, abstract games
Neto, Joao Pedro
2013-01-01
User-friendly, visually appealing collection offers both new and classic strategic board games. Includes abstract games for two and three players and mathematical games such as Nim and games on graphs.
Wickerhauser, Mladen Victor
2003-01-01
Mathematics and Multimedia focuses on the mathematics behind multimedia applications. This timely and thoroughly modern text is a rigorous survey of selected results from algebra and analysis, requiring only undergraduate math skills.The topics are `gems'' chosen for their usefulness in understanding and creating application software for multimedia signal processing and communication.The book is aimed at a wide audience, including computer science and mathematics majors and those interested in employing mathematics in multimedia design and implementation. For the instructor, the material is divided into six chapters that may be presented in six lecture hours each. Thus, the entire text may be covered in one semester, with time left for examinations and student projects. For the student,there are more than 100 exercises with complete solutions, and numerous example programs in Standard C. Each chapter ends with suggestions for further reading. A companion website provides more insight for both instructors an...
Mathematical methods for physicists
Arfken, George B
2005-01-01
This best-selling title provides in one handy volume the essential mathematical tools and techniques used to solve problems in physics. It is a vital addition to the bookshelf of any serious student of physics or research professional in the field. The authors have put considerable effort into revamping this new edition.* Updates the leading graduate-level text in mathematical physics* Provides comprehensive coverage of the mathematics necessary for advanced study in physics and engineering* Focuses on problem-solving skills and offers a vast array of exercises * Clearly illustrates and proves mathematical relationsNew in the Sixth Edition:* Updated content throughout, based on users'' feedback * More advanced sections, including differential forms and the elegant forms of Maxwell''s equations* A new chapter on probability and statistics* More elementary sections have been deleted
Bronshtein, I N; Musiol, Gerhard; Mühlig, Heiner
2015-01-01
This guide book to mathematics contains in handbook form the fundamental working knowledge of mathematics which is needed as an everyday guide for working scientists and engineers, as well as for students. Easy to understand, and convenient to use, this guide book gives concisely the information necessary to evaluate most problems which occur in concrete applications. In the newer editions emphasis was laid on those fields of mathematics that became more important for the formulation and modeling of technical and natural processes, namely Numerical Mathematics, Probability Theory and Statistics, as well as Information Processing. Besides many enhancements and new paragraphs, new sections on Geometric and Coordinate Transformations, Quaternions and Applications, and Lie Groups and Lie Algebras were added for the sixth edition.
Farlow, Stanley J
2014-01-01
Students and puzzle enthusiasts will get plenty of enjoyment plus some painless mathematical instruction from 28 conundrums, including The Curve That Shook the World, Space Travel in a Wineglass, and Through Cantor's Looking Glass.
Directions in mathematical quasicrystals
Baake, Michael
2000-01-01
This volume includes twelve solicited articles which survey the current state of knowledge and some of the open questions on the mathematics of aperiodic order. A number of the articles deal with the sophisticated mathematical ideas that are being developed from physical motivations. Many prominent mathematical aspects of the subject are presented, including the geometry of aperiodic point sets and their diffractive properties, self-affine tilings, the role of C^*-algebras in tiling theory, and the interconnections between symmetry and aperiodic point sets. Also discussed are the question of pure point diffraction of general model sets, the arithmetic of shelling icosahedral quasicrystals, and the study of self-similar measures on model sets. From the physical perspective, articles reflect approaches to the mathematics of quasicrystal growth and the Wulff shape, recent results on the spectral nature of aperiodic Schrödinger operators with implications to transport theory, the characterization of spectra thro...
Canuto, Claudio
2015-01-01
The purpose of the volume is to provide a support textbook for a second lecture course on Mathematical Analysis. The contents are organised to suit, in particular, students of Engineering, Computer Science and Physics, all areas in which mathematical tools play a crucial role. The basic notions and methods concerning integral and differential calculus for multivariable functions, series of functions and ordinary differential equations are presented in a manner that elicits critical reading and prompts a hands-on approach to concrete applications. The pedagogical layout echoes the one used in the companion text Mathematical Analysis I. The book’s structure has a specifically-designed modular nature, which allows for great flexibility in the preparation of a lecture course on Mathematical Analysis. The style privileges clarity in the exposition and a linear progression through the theory. The material is organised on two levels. The first, reflected in this book, allows students to grasp the essential ideas, ...
Mathematical foundations of neurocomputing
Amari, S. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)
1990-09-01
Neurocomputing makes use of parallel dynamical interactions of modifiable neuron-like elements. It is important to show, by mathematical treatments, the capabilities and limitations of information processing by various architectures of neural networks. This paper, gives mathematical foundations to neurocomputing. It considers the capabilities of transformations by layered networks, statistical neurodynamics, the dynamical characteristics of associative memory, a general theory of neural learning, and self-organization of neural networks.
Mathematical Optimiation in Economics
De Finetti, Bruno
2011-01-01
Preface by B. de Finetti.- G.Th. Guilbaud: Les equilibres dans les modeles economiques.-H.W. Kuhn: Locational problems and mathematical programming.- M. Morishima: The multi-sectoral theory of economic growth.- B. Martos, J. Kornai: Experiments in Hungary with industry-wide and economy wide programming.- A. Prekopa: Probability distribution problems concerning stochastic programming problems.- R. Frisch: General principles and mathematical techniques of macroeconomic programming.
Landauer, C.; Bellman, K.L.
1996-12-31
In this paper, we study foundational issues that we believe will help us develop a theoretically sound approach to constructing complex systems. The two theoretical approaches that have helped us understand and develop computational systems in the past are mathematics and linguistics. We describe some differences and strengths of the approaches, and propose a research program to combine the richness of linguistic reasoning with the precision of mathematics.
Mathematics for electronic technology
Howson, D P
1975-01-01
Mathematics for Electronic Technology is a nine-chapter book that begins with the elucidation of the introductory concepts related to use of mathematics in electronic engineering, including differentiation, integration, partial differentiation, infinite series, vectors, vector algebra, and surface, volume and line integrals. Subsequent chapters explore the determinants, differential equations, matrix analysis, complex variable, topography, graph theory, and numerical analysis used in this field. The use of Fourier method for harmonic analysis and the Laplace transform is also described. The ma
Mathematical foundations of thermodynamics
Giles, R; Stark, M; Ulam, S
2013-01-01
Mathematical Foundations of Thermodynamics details the core concepts of the mathematical principles employed in thermodynamics. The book discusses the topics in a way that physical meanings are assigned to the theoretical terms. The coverage of the text includes the mechanical systems and adiabatic processes; topological considerations; and equilibrium states and potentials. The book also covers Galilean thermodynamics; symmetry in thermodynamics; and special relativistic thermodynamics. The book will be of great interest to practitioners and researchers of disciplines that deal with thermodyn
Understanding mathematical proof
Taylor, John
2014-01-01
Introduction The need for proof The language of mathematics Reasoning Deductive reasoning and truth Example proofs Logic and ReasoningIntroduction Propositions, connectives, and truth tables Logical equivalence and logical implication Predicates and quantification Logical reasoning Sets and Functions Introduction Sets and membership Operations on setsThe Cartesian product Functions and composite functions Properties of functions The Structure of Mathematical ProofsIntroduction Some proofs dissected An informal framework for proofs Direct proof A more formal framework Finding Proofs Direct proo
Addressing mathematics & statistics anxiety
Kotecha, Meena
2015-01-01
This paper should be of interest to mathematics and statistics educators ranging from pre-university to university education sectors. It will discuss some features of the author’s teaching model developed over her longitudinal study conducted to understand and address mathematics and statistics anxiety, which is one of the main barriers to engaging with these subjects especially in non-specialist undergraduates. It will demonstrate how a range of formative assessments are used to kindle, as w...
Pontrjagin, Lev Semenovič
1984-01-01
Lev Semenovic Pontrjagin (1908) is one of the outstanding figures in 20th century mathematics. In a long career he has made fundamental con tributions to many branches of mathematics, both pure and applied. He has received every honor that a grateful government can bestow. Though in no way constrained to do so, he has through the years taught mathematics courses at Moscow State University. In the year 1975 he set himself the task of writing a series of books on secondary school and beginning university mathematics. In his own words, "I wished to set forth the foundations of higher mathematics in a form that would have been accessible to myself as a lad, but making use of all my experience as a scientist and a teacher, ac cumulated over many years. " The present volume is a translation of the first two out of four moderately sized volumes on this theme planned by Pro fessor Pontrjagin. The book begins at the beginning of modern mathematics, analytic ge ometry in the plane and 3-dimensional space. Refin...
Boyer, Carl B
1989-01-01
"Boyer and Merzbach distill thousands of years of mathematics into this fascinating chronicle. From the Greeks to Godel, the mathematics is brilliant; the cast of characters is distinguished; the ebb and flow of ideas is everywhere evident. And, while tracing the development of European mathematics, the authors do not overlook the contributions of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic civilizations. Without doubt, this is--and will long remain--a classic one-volume history of mathematics and mathematicians who create it." --William Dunham Author, Journey Through Genius, The Great Theorems of Mathematics "When we read a book like A History of Mathematics, we get the picture of a mounting structure, ever taller and broader and more beautiful and magnificent--and with a foundation, moreover, that is as untainted and as functional now as it was when Thales worked out the first geometrical theorems nearly 26 centuries ago." --From the Foreword by Isaac Asimov "One of the most useful and comprehensive general introductions t...
New mathematical cuneiform texts
Friberg, Jöran
2016-01-01
This monograph presents in great detail a large number of both unpublished and previously published Babylonian mathematical texts in the cuneiform script. It is a continuation of the work A Remarkable Collection of Babylonian Mathematical Texts (Springer 2007) written by Jöran Friberg, the leading expert on Babylonian mathematics. Focussing on the big picture, Friberg explores in this book several Late Babylonian arithmetical and metro-mathematical table texts from the sites of Babylon, Uruk and Sippar, collections of mathematical exercises from four Old Babylonian sites, as well as a new text from Early Dynastic/Early Sargonic Umma, which is the oldest known collection of mathematical exercises. A table of reciprocals from the end of the third millennium BC, differing radically from well-documented but younger tables of reciprocals from the Neo-Sumerian and Old-Babylonian periods, as well as a fragment of a Neo-Sumerian clay tablet showing a new type of a labyrinth are also discussed. The material is presen...
Challenges in Mathematical Cognition
Lara Alcock
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This paper reports on a collaborative exercise designed to generate a coherent agenda for research on mathematical cognition. Following an established method, the exercise brought together 16 mathematical cognition researchers from across the fields of mathematics education, psychology and neuroscience. These participants engaged in a process in which they generated an initial list of research questions with the potential to significantly advance understanding of mathematical cognition, winnowed this list to a smaller set of priority questions, and refined the eventual questions to meet criteria related to clarity, specificity and practicability. The resulting list comprises 26 questions divided into six broad topic areas: elucidating the nature of mathematical thinking, mapping predictors and processes of competence development, charting developmental trajectories and their interactions, fostering conceptual understanding and procedural skill, designing effective interventions, and developing valid and reliable measures. In presenting these questions in this paper, we intend to support greater coherence in both investigation and reporting, to build a stronger base of information for consideration by policymakers, and to encourage researchers to take a consilient approach to addressing important challenges in mathematical cognition.
Wilson, John Martin, Jr.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrelationship of general mathematics skills, modern mathematics skills, modern mathematics achievement, prior mathematical attitudes, and postmathematical attitudes of prospective elementary teachers. A sample of 206 students was drawn from 286 students enrolled in a modern mathematics course.…
MATHEMATICS EDUCATION FOR LOGISTICS ENGINEERING
BÉLA ILLÉS; GABRIELLA BOGNÁR
2012-01-01
Mathematics is a crucial language in all engineering courses and researches where mathematical modeling, simulation and manipulation are commonly used. Engineering Mathematics courses are considered difficult courses in engineering curricula. This is reflected in engineering students’ performance at the end of each semester for these courses. Our goal is to overview a few questions on mathematics as a core subject of engineering.
Computers in the Mathematics Curriculum.
Ediger, Marlow
This paper examines ways that mathematics teachers and supervisors can use computers in a quality mathematics curriculum in a school setting. Teachers and supervisors continually need to appraise the present mathematics curriculum and make necessary changes. A modern mathematics curriculum makes much use of technology. Society emphasizes heavy use…
Celebrating Mathematics All Year 'Round
Daire, Sandra Arguelles
2010-01-01
Celebrating mathematics should be a yearlong event in which students in mathematics classes of all levels engage in mathematics activities and competitions that will encourage growth in mathematical knowledge, enthusiasm for the subject, and collaboration among students of different abilities and backgrounds. Pi Day and Pi Week festivities--a good…
Teacher's Guide to Secondary Mathematics.
Duval County Schools, Jacksonville, FL.
This is a teacher's guide to secondary school mathematics. Developed for use in the Duval County Public Schools, Jacksonville, Florida. Areas of mathematics covered are algebra, analysis, calculus, computer literacy, computer science, geometry, analytic geometry, general mathematics, consumer mathematics, pre-algebra, probability and statistics,…
Assessment and realistic mathematics education
Heuvel-Panhuizen, M.H.A.M. van den
1996-01-01
This book describes the consequences of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) for assessing students’ understanding of mathematics in primary school. RME is the Dutch answer to the worldwide need to reform mathematics education. Changed ideas about mathematics as a school subject, its goals, ideas a
Semantic Processing of Mathematical Gestures
Lim, Vanessa K.; Wilson, Anna J.; Hamm, Jeff P.; Phillips, Nicola; Iwabuchi, Sarina J.; Corballis, Michael C.; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Thomas, Michael O. J.
2009-01-01
Objective: To examine whether or not university mathematics students semantically process gestures depicting mathematical functions (mathematical gestures) similarly to the way they process action gestures and sentences. Semantic processing was indexed by the N400 effect. Results: The N400 effect elicited by words primed with mathematical gestures…
A Mathematics Software Database Update.
Cunningham, R. S.; Smith, David A.
1987-01-01
Contains an update of an earlier listing of software for mathematics instruction at the college level. Topics are: advanced mathematics, algebra, calculus, differential equations, discrete mathematics, equation solving, general mathematics, geometry, linear and matrix algebra, logic, statistics and probability, and trigonometry. (PK)
Motivating Students to Study Mathematics
田枫
2005-01-01
Teaching required mathematics courses poses a challenge to teachers at all levels. Many of these difficulties are the result of cultural attitudes that make it socially acceptable, even trendy, to lack mathematical knowledge. Most of our students are aware of the inherent value of mathematics; but because mathematics is a subject that requires hard work, they choose to deny its importance.
Assessment and realistic mathematics education
Heuvel-Panhuizen, M.H.A.M. van den
1996-01-01
This book describes the consequences of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) for assessing students’ understanding of mathematics in primary school. RME is the Dutch answer to the worldwide need to reform mathematics education. Changed ideas about mathematics as a school subject, its goals,
Mathematical points as didactical ideas
Mogensen, Arne
2012-01-01
Mathematics teaching in Denmark was recently recommended better organized in sequences with clear mathematical pedagogical goals and a focus on mathematical points. In this paper I define a mathematical point and inform on coding of transcripts in a video based Danish research study on grade 8...
Physics Teaching: Mathematics as an Epistemological Tool
Kneubil, Fabiana B.; Robilotta, Manoel R.
2015-07-01
We study the interconnection between Physics and Mathematics in concrete instances, departing from the usual expression for the Coulomb electric field, produced by a point-like charge. It is scrutinized by means of six epistemology-intensive questions and radical answers are proposed, intended to widen one's understanding of the subject. Our interventions act along two complementary directions. One of them regards ontology, since questions induce one to look closely at the electric charge, from different perspectives, promoting reflections about its nature and reinforcing the corresponding concept. Formal manipulations rely on the identification of concepts with symbols, and the other direction concerns the spatial extension of mathematical structures. Our questions and their somewhat unusual answers help disclosing information which is not present in many textbooks, and show that Mathematics can be used as an efficient epistemological tool in Physics teaching.
Type Classes for Mathematics in Type Theory
Spitters, Bas
2011-01-01
The introduction of first-class type classes in the Coq system calls for re-examination of the basic interfaces used for mathematical formalization in type theory. We present a new set of type classes for mathematics and take full advantage of their unique features to make practical a particularly flexible approach formerly thought infeasible. Thus, we address both traditional proof engineering challenges as well as new ones resulting from our ambition to build upon this development a library of constructive analysis in which abstraction penalties inhibiting efficient computation are reduced to a minimum. The base of our development consists of type classes representing a standard algebraic hierarchy, as well as portions of category theory and universal algebra. On this foundation we build a set of mathematically sound abstract interfaces for different kinds of numbers, succinctly expressed using categorical language and universal algebra constructions. Strategic use of type classes lets us support these high...
Mathematical logic in the human brain: syntax.
Roland Friedrich
Full Text Available Theory predicts a close structural relation of formal languages with natural languages. Both share the aspect of an underlying grammar which either generates (hierarchically structured expressions or allows us to decide whether a sentence is syntactically correct or not. The advantage of rule-based communication is commonly believed to be its efficiency and effectiveness. A particularly important class of formal languages are those underlying the mathematical syntax. Here we provide brain-imaging evidence that the syntactic processing of abstract mathematical formulae, written in a first order language, is, indeed efficient and effective as a rule-based generation and decision process. However, it is remarkable, that the neural network involved, consisting of intraparietal and prefrontal regions, only involves Broca's area in a surprisingly selective way. This seems to imply that despite structural analogies of common and current formal languages, at the neural level, mathematics and natural language are processed differently, in principal.
Mathematical logic in the human brain: semantics.
Roland M Friedrich
Full Text Available As a higher cognitive function in humans, mathematics is supported by parietal and prefrontal brain regions. Here, we give an integrative account of the role of the different brain systems in processing the semantics of mathematical logic from the perspective of macroscopic polysynaptic networks. By comparing algebraic and arithmetic expressions of identical underlying structure, we show how the different subparts of a fronto-parietal network are modulated by the semantic domain, over which the mathematical formulae are interpreted. Within this network, the prefrontal cortex represents a system that hosts three major components, namely, control, arithmetic-logic, and short-term memory. This prefrontal system operates on data fed to it by two other systems: a premotor-parietal top-down system that updates and transforms (external data into an internal format, and a hippocampal bottom-up system that either detects novel information or serves as an access device to memory for previously acquired knowledge.
Mathematical logic in the human brain: semantics.
Friedrich, Roland M; Friederici, Angela D
2013-01-01
As a higher cognitive function in humans, mathematics is supported by parietal and prefrontal brain regions. Here, we give an integrative account of the role of the different brain systems in processing the semantics of mathematical logic from the perspective of macroscopic polysynaptic networks. By comparing algebraic and arithmetic expressions of identical underlying structure, we show how the different subparts of a fronto-parietal network are modulated by the semantic domain, over which the mathematical formulae are interpreted. Within this network, the prefrontal cortex represents a system that hosts three major components, namely, control, arithmetic-logic, and short-term memory. This prefrontal system operates on data fed to it by two other systems: a premotor-parietal top-down system that updates and transforms (external) data into an internal format, and a hippocampal bottom-up system that either detects novel information or serves as an access device to memory for previously acquired knowledge.