WorldWideScience

Sample records for handling toxic substances

  1. Toxic substances handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  2. Toxic substances alert program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  3. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  4. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z # Search Form Controls Search The CDC submit Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Note: Javascript ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) , based ...

  5. National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-03

    This podcast gives an overview of the three components of the National Toxic Substance Incidents Program: state surveillance, national database, and response teams.  Created: 2/3/2011 by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.   Date Released: 2/3/2011.

  6. Toxicities of selected substances to freshwater biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohreiter, D.W.

    1980-05-01

    The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.

  7. Toxicity of 56 substances to trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Toxicity data of substances to higher plants is needed for the purpose of risk assessment, site evaluation, phytoremediation, and plant protection. However, the results from the most common phytotoxicity tests, like the OECD algae and Lemna test, are not necessarily valid for higher terrestrial...

  8. Potential hazard by toxic substances in foods. Environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unterhalt, B

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews various toxic substances found in foods. These toxic substances include not only natural occurring toxins but also bacterial food poisons, pesticide residues, heavy metals, and food additives. The potential hazard of each toxic substance is discussed. 74 references.

  9. Persistent toxic substances: sources, fates and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming H; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Naidu, Ravi; Man, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Persistent toxic substances (PTS) include the Stockholm persistent organic pollutants, like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin/furan, etc., and organometallic compounds, like organomercury, organotin, and organolead, which all share the same characteristics of being persistent, toxic, bioaccumulative, and able to travel long distances through different media. The adverse health effects of some of the emerging chemicals like pentabromodiphenyl ether, bisphenol A, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, which are widely used in daily appliances (e.g., TVs, computers, mobile phones, plastic baby bottles), have become a public health concern due to more evidence now available showing their adverse effects like disturbance of the endocrine system and cancer. This article is an attempt to review the current status of PTS in our environment, citing case studies in China and North America, and whether our existing drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment processes are adequate in removing them from water. Some management issues of these emerging chemicals of concern are also discussed.

  10. Accident = energy/toxic substance + misinformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays, the ever-increasing complication of technology and management of industry, supplemented with a variety of information technology and communication skills, has made the modern safety professionals discover a new mechanism of accident occurrences. This mechanism is outstanding in that the integrity of energy and toxic substance utilized in the production processes can be effectively maintained and limited through improving and updating both the techniques and management of information and communications, and consequently, accidents are prevented from occurring, or once accidentally released, the consequences can be effectively mitigated. In light of the experience of China Guangdong Nuclear Power Corporation (CGNPC), the importance of the new mechanism and its prospects for further application in nuclear industry are depicted through case studies

  11. 40 CFR 792.107 - Test, control, and reference substance handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Test, Control, and Reference... proper storage. (b) Distribution is made in a manner designed to preclude the possibility of... the date and quantity of each batch distributed or returned. ...

  12. Presence, origin and importance of toxic substances in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemayer, N H

    1980-01-01

    The ubiquitous, environmental toxic substances representing a risk to health, and of importance with respect to the production of drinking water, largely belong to the following groups: cancerogenic, polycyclic, aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, N-nitroso compounds, pesticides. In addition the following substances: polychlorinated biphenyls, hormones, antibiotics, halogen hydrocarbons and heavy metals such as mercury, cadmium, lead, vanadium, chromium etc. Today, there is full appreciation of the qualitative aspects associated with the burdening of the environmental factor 'water' with toxic substances. However, as to the quantitative aspects, especially those relating to a combined effect of toxic substances adding to the total burden of man with noxious environmental agents, data are still lacking. The assessment of the chronic action exercised by minute and very minute concentrations of potentially toxic, cancerogenic or mutagenic substances possess a particularly complex problem for the environmental and water hygiene. Nowadays, there are basically 3 possibilities of solving this problem: epidemiological-statistical analyses, long-term animal experiments and in-vitro short-term tests. The epidemiological-statistical analysis can make a valuable contribution to the evaluation of the risk to human health of polluted drinking water and may also furnish the first clues to an incipient danger. However, it has to be considered that epidemiological studies deal with multifactorial events and that a monocausality is difficult to establish.

  13. Toxic or dangerous substances present construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Alvarado, A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is the elaboration of a guide which could be used as a support and consultation concerning the topic of safety in the construction, specifically in the area of the use and managing of material and dangerous substances; considering the possible dangers to medium and long term that some of the common construction materials represent for the health. The gathered information is the result of the review of bibliographical material, the visits to public institutions at national level and to international offices which representation in our country, this way as a work of field and of study of the national market, among others. Besides important consult through the Internet checking many sites of interest with the finality of getting more updated information as possible, like that as the consultation to professionals and workers related to the construction area. (Author) [es

  14. Licence template for mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, A.; Schumann, J.; Huhn, W.

    2016-01-01

    The Technical Committee ''Radiation Protection'' (Fachausschuss ''Strahlenschutz'') and the Laender Committee ''X-ray ordinance'' (Laenderausschuss ''Roentgenverordnung'') have appointed a working group for the formulation of licence templates for the nationwide use of X-ray equipment or handling of radioactive substances. To date, the following licence templates have been adopted: - Mobile operation of X-ray equipment under technical radiography to the coarse structural analysis in material testing; - Mobile operation of a handheld X-ray fluorescence system; - Mobile operation of a flash X-ray system; - Operation of an X-ray system for teleradiology The licence template ''Mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials'' is scheduled for publication. The licence template ''Practices in external facilities and installations'' is currently being revised. The licence template ''Mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials'' is used as an example to demonstrate the legal framework and the results of the working group.

  15. Quinone-induced protein handling changes: Implications for major protein handling systems in quinone-mediated toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David

    2014-01-01

    Para-quinones such as 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ) and menadione (MD) and ortho-quinones including the oxidation products of catecholamines, are derived from xenobiotics as well as endogenous molecules. The effects of quinones on major protein handling systems in cells; the 20/26S proteasome, the ER stress response, autophagy, chaperone proteins and aggresome formation, have not been investigated in a systematic manner. Both BQ and aminochrome (AC) inhibited proteasomal activity and activated the ER stress response and autophagy in rat dopaminergic N27 cells. AC also induced aggresome formation while MD had little effect on any protein handling systems in N27 cells. The effect of NQO1 on quinone induced protein handling changes and toxicity was examined using N27 cells stably transfected with NQO1 to generate an isogenic NQO1-overexpressing line. NQO1 protected against BQ–induced apoptosis but led to a potentiation of AC- and MD-induced apoptosis. Modulation of quinone-induced apoptosis in N27 and NQO1-overexpressing cells correlated only with changes in the ER stress response and not with changes in other protein handling systems. These data suggested that NQO1 modulated the ER stress response to potentiate toxicity of AC and MD, but protected against BQ toxicity. We further demonstrated that NQO1 mediated reduction to unstable hydroquinones and subsequent redox cycling was important for the activation of the ER stress response and toxicity for both AC and MD. In summary, our data demonstrate that quinone-specific changes in protein handling are evident in N27 cells and the induction of the ER stress response is associated with quinone-mediated toxicity. - Highlights: • Unstable hydroquinones contributed to quinone-induced ER stress and toxicity

  16. Quinone-induced protein handling changes: Implications for major protein handling systems in quinone-mediated toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David, E-mail: david.ross@ucdenver.edu

    2014-10-15

    Para-quinones such as 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ) and menadione (MD) and ortho-quinones including the oxidation products of catecholamines, are derived from xenobiotics as well as endogenous molecules. The effects of quinones on major protein handling systems in cells; the 20/26S proteasome, the ER stress response, autophagy, chaperone proteins and aggresome formation, have not been investigated in a systematic manner. Both BQ and aminochrome (AC) inhibited proteasomal activity and activated the ER stress response and autophagy in rat dopaminergic N27 cells. AC also induced aggresome formation while MD had little effect on any protein handling systems in N27 cells. The effect of NQO1 on quinone induced protein handling changes and toxicity was examined using N27 cells stably transfected with NQO1 to generate an isogenic NQO1-overexpressing line. NQO1 protected against BQ–induced apoptosis but led to a potentiation of AC- and MD-induced apoptosis. Modulation of quinone-induced apoptosis in N27 and NQO1-overexpressing cells correlated only with changes in the ER stress response and not with changes in other protein handling systems. These data suggested that NQO1 modulated the ER stress response to potentiate toxicity of AC and MD, but protected against BQ toxicity. We further demonstrated that NQO1 mediated reduction to unstable hydroquinones and subsequent redox cycling was important for the activation of the ER stress response and toxicity for both AC and MD. In summary, our data demonstrate that quinone-specific changes in protein handling are evident in N27 cells and the induction of the ER stress response is associated with quinone-mediated toxicity. - Highlights: • Unstable hydroquinones contributed to quinone-induced ER stress and toxicity.

  17. Determination of Anti-nutrients and Toxic Substances of Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT: Determination of antinutrients and toxic substances in leafy vegetables is an imperative facet in nutritional studies as it establishes the baseline concentrations index for phytotoxins in the vegetables. Concentrations of cyanide, nitrate, soluble and total oxalates were quantitatively determined in the common ...

  18. A Review of Toxicity and Use and Handling Considerations for Guanidine, Guanidine Hydrochloride, and Urea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertell, Katherine GB

    2006-03-27

    This is a technical report prepared for Oregon Sustainable Energy, LLC, under Agreement 06-19 with PNNL's Office of Small Business Programs. The request was to perform a review of the toxicity and safe handling of guanidine. The request was later amended to add urea. This report summarizes the toxicity data available in the scientific literature and provides an interpretation of the results and recommendations for handling these compounds.

  19. Toxic substances: Federal-provincial control. Revised edition. Current issue review No. 88-11E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, K; Johansen, D

    1993-01-01

    There is widespread public concern about the effect of toxic substances on human health and the environment. This document looks at the federal-provincial control on toxic substances. It specifically examines the control of toxic substances under the Canadian constitution; the political arena; the federal- provincial co-operation; the Green Plan; and the 1991 Auditor General's Report.

  20. Toxic substances registry system: Index of material safety data sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS's) listed in this index reflect product inventories and associated MSDS's which were submitted to the Toxic Substances Registry database maintained by the Base Operations Contractor at the Kennedy Space Center. The purpose of this index is to provide KSC government, contractor, and tenant organizations a means to access information on the hazards associated with these chemicals. The Toxic Substance Registry Service (TSRS) was established to manage information dealing with the storage and use of toxic and otherwise hazardous materials at KSC. As a part of this service, the BOC Environmental Health Services maintains a central repository of MSDS's which were provided to TSRS. The data on the TSRS are obtained from NASA, contractor, and tenant organizations who use or store hazardous materials at KSC. It is the responsibility of these organizations to conduct inventories, obtain MSDS's, distribute Hazard Communication information to their employees, and otherwise implement compliance with appropriate Federal, State, and NASA Hazard Communication and Worker Right-to-Know regulations and policies.

  1. Upper parameters of toxicity (LDsub(50/30)) of some radioactive and chemical substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, L.F.; Kupriyanova, V.M.; Zasedatelev, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The toxicities of radioactive ( 90 Sr, 210 Po) and chemical (lead nitrate, mercuric chloride) substances were compared using equivalent procedures. Ninety six doses of toxic substances in various concentrations were tested on mice to which these substances were administered by intragastric intubation. The material was processed and analyzed by conventional methods used in toxicology. The upper limits of toxicity for the tested substances were determined from their LDsub(50/30) values by various methods of calculation

  2. Handling nonnormality and variance heterogeneity for quantitative sublethal toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Christian; Van der Vliet, Leana

    2009-09-01

    The advantages of using regression-based techniques to derive endpoints from environmental toxicity data are clear, and slowly, this superior analytical technique is gaining acceptance. As use of regression-based analysis becomes more widespread, some of the associated nuances and potential problems come into sharper focus. Looking at data sets that cover a broad spectrum of standard test species, we noticed that some model fits to data failed to meet two key assumptions-variance homogeneity and normality-that are necessary for correct statistical analysis via regression-based techniques. Failure to meet these assumptions often is caused by reduced variance at the concentrations showing severe adverse effects. Although commonly used with linear regression analysis, transformation of the response variable only is not appropriate when fitting data using nonlinear regression techniques. Through analysis of sample data sets, including Lemna minor, Eisenia andrei (terrestrial earthworm), and algae, we show that both the so-called Box-Cox transformation and use of the Poisson distribution can help to correct variance heterogeneity and nonnormality and so allow nonlinear regression analysis to be implemented. Both the Box-Cox transformation and the Poisson distribution can be readily implemented into existing protocols for statistical analysis. By correcting for nonnormality and variance heterogeneity, these two statistical tools can be used to encourage the transition to regression-based analysis and the depreciation of less-desirable and less-flexible analytical techniques, such as linear interpolation.

  3. Sample taking device for toxic and/or radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterwalder, L.; Zeh, H.; Schaarschmidt, U.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus for taking samples of toxic and/or radioactive liquid substances by introducing such substances into sample vessels includes a holder for holding such a vessel, at least one needle head filling system composed of upwardly pointing hollow needles for introducing a sample of one such substance into such a vessel at a filling position, and inlet and outlet conduits for pneumatically conveying vessels to or from the holder at a transfer position. The holder is composed of a turntable having a sleeve for accommodating such vessel and is mounted to undergo rotary movement to convey a sample vessel held in the sleeve between the filling and transfer positions. The apparatus further includes a stand supporting the filling system below the holder and a lifting device connected for imparting a translational movement to the holder to bring a vessel in the holder to operative association with the filling system. The lifting device is arranged so that the translational movement which it produces is independent of the rotary movement of the turntable

  4. Toxic substances or dangerous presents in the construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Alvarado, A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work of investigation is the elaboration of a guide who serves as support and consults in the referring thing to the subject of the security in the construction, specifically in and area of the use and handling of materials and dangerous substances; Considering the possible dangers to medium and long term that some of but the common construction equipments represent for the health. The obtained data is a bibliographical review, the visits to public institutions and international offices with representation in our country, as well as a work of field and study of the national market, among others. In addition it made an important consultation through network Internet reviewing many sites of with the purpose of obtaining the data but updated interest possible, as well as the consultation to professionals and workers with the area of the construction. (Author) [es

  5. Testing of TSCA [Toxic Substances Control Act] incinerator for destruction of PCBs in uranium contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    A Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator for environmentally safe destruction of PCBs and hazardous organic materials contaminated with low level radioactive wastes from seven DOE facilities has been constructed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and has undergone performance testing with PCB surrogates. The system incorporates state-of-the-art off-gas treatment, a highly instrumented kiln and secondary combustion chamber, and an inert atmosphere solids handling feed system. Release of organic during an upset event, which triggers opening of the secondary combustion chamber relief vent, will be prevented by maintaining excess oxygen in the kiln and a high temperature in the secondary combustion chamber with an operating burner. Mixtures of chlorinated benzenes used in performance testing to simulate destruction of PCB, worst case studies to satisfy regulatory concerns, and implications of performance test results will be discussed. 4 refs

  6. Sequential assessment via daphnia and zebrafish for systematic toxicity screening of heterogeneous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Gun Hyuk; Park, Chang-Beom; Kang, Benedict J; Kim, Young Jun; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2016-09-01

    Environment and organisms are persistently exposed by a mixture of various substances. However, the current evaluation method is mostly based on an individual substance's toxicity. A systematic toxicity evaluation of heterogeneous substances needs to be established. To demonstrate toxicity assessment of mixture, we chose a group of three typical ingredients in cosmetic sunscreen products that frequently enters ecosystems: benzophenone-3 (BP-3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), and titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP). We first determined a range of nominal toxic concentration of each ingredient or substance using Daphnia magna, and then for the subsequent organismal level phenotypic assessment, chose the wild-type zebrafish embryos. Any phenotype change, such as body deformation, led to further examinations on the specific organs of transgenic zebrafish embryos. Based on the systematic toxicity assessments of the heterogeneous substances, we offer a sequential environmental toxicity assessment protocol that starts off by utilizing Daphnia magna to determine a nominal concentration range of each substance and finishes by utilizing the zebrafish embryos to detect defects on the embryos caused by the heterogeneous substances. The protocol showed additive toxic effects of the mixtures. We propose a sequential environmental toxicity assessment protocol for the systematic toxicity screening of heterogeneous substances from Daphnia magna to zebrafish embryo in-vivo models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 78 FR 64210 - Extension of Review Periods Under the Toxic Substances Control Act; Certain Chemicals and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Under the Toxic Substances Control Act; Certain Chemicals and Microorganisms; Premanufacture... 325 and 324110), e.g., chemical manufacturing and petroleum refineries. The North American Industrial... Agency under section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), received by EPA on or before October 1...

  8. A scheme for regulating toxic substances to water quality of Chamsil upstream water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Suk; Kim, Jee Hoon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study asserts to reflect a concept of toxicity thoroughly in the present water quality concept. It presents an appropriate solution to control toxic substances flowing into the Chamsil upstream water system. Although a regulation of toxic substances into major rivers in Korea other than Han river is also required urgently, it will be studied in future. It is expected that this study on Chamsil upstream would be a cornerstone for establishing a national regulation policy of toxic substances into water system. 28 refs., 1 fig., 36 tabs.

  9. Artificial saliva effect on toxic substances release from acrylic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Milena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Acrylic-based resins are intensively used in dentistry practice as restorative or denture-base materials. The purpose of this study was to analyze the surface structure of denture base resins and the amount of released potentially toxic substances (PTS immediately upon polymerization and incubation in different types of artificial saliva. Methods. Storage of acrylic samples in two models of artificial saliva were performed in a water bath at the temperature of 37 ± 1°C. Analysis of the surface structure of samples was carried out using scanning electronic microscopy analysis immediately after polymerization and after the 30-day incubation. The amounts of PTS per day, week and month extracts were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Results. Surface design and amount of PTS in acrylic materials were different and depended on the types and duration of polymerization. The surfaces of tested acrylates became flatter after immersing in solutions of artificial saliva. The degree of acrylic materials release was not dependent on the applied model of artificial saliva. Conclusion. In order to improve biological features of acrylic resin materials, it was recommended that dentures lined with soft or hard coldpolymerized acrylates should be kept at least 1 to 7 days in water before being given to a patient. So, as to reach high degree of biocompatibility preparation of prosthetic restorations from heat-polymerized acrylate was unnecessary. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41017

  10. [Nutrition and health--toxic substances in food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, I M; Alink, G M

    2003-11-29

    With respect to food, the most important factors causing adverse health effects are: an unbalanced diet, resulting in obesity or vitamin deficiencies, overconsumption of alcohol or fat, the presence of microbial contamination and the presence of natural toxins. Two additional factors, the presence of environmental contaminants and products formed on heating food, may also be of importance. It is generally assumed that, when combined, food-related factors contribute to around 35% of overall cancer incidence. The most important groups of health-threatening compounds to be found in the food chain include natural toxins, such as those produced by plants (phytotoxins), fungi (mycotoxins), marine algae (phycotoxins) and by bacteria, and toxins present in animals for human consumption, especially fish. A second important group of toxic compounds in food consists of environmental contaminants, including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants, such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls, all of which may unintentionally end up in the food chain. A third group of toxins present in food are those substances produced when food is heated, and include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic amines and acrylamide.

  11. Research on the Relationships between Endogenous Biomarkers and Exogenous Toxic Substances of Acute Toxicity in Radix Aconiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haonan Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Radix Aconiti, a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, has been widely used throughout China for disease treatment due to its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and analgesic effects. However, improper use of Radix Aconiti often generated severe acute toxicity. Currently, research on the toxic substances of Radix Aconiti is not rare. In our previous study, acute toxic biomarkers of Radix Aconiti have been found. However, few studies were available to find the relationships between these endogenous biomarkers and exogenous toxic substances. Therefore, in this study, toxic substances of Radix Aconiti have been found using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. Then, we used biochemical indicators as a bridge to find the relationships between biomarkers and toxic substances of Radix Aconiti through Pearson correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis (CCA. Finally, the CCA results showed that LysoPC(22:5 is related to 14-acetyl-talatisamine, mesaconitine, talatisamine and deoxyaconitine in varying degrees; l-acetylcarnitine is negatively correlated with deoxyaconitine and demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline; shikimic acid has a good correlation with karacoline, demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline and deoxyaconitine; and valine is correlated with talatisamine and deoxyaconitine. Research on these relationships provides an innovative way to interpret the toxic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine, and plays a positive role in the overall study of TCM toxicity.

  12. Research on the Relationships between Endogenous Biomarkers and Exogenous Toxic Substances of Acute Toxicity in Radix Aconiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haonan; Zhang, Pengjie; Hou, Zhiguo; Xie, Jiabin; Wang, Yuming; Yang, Bin; Xu, Yanyan; Li, Yubo

    2016-11-25

    Radix Aconiti , a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used throughout China for disease treatment due to its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and analgesic effects. However, improper use of Radix Aconiti often generated severe acute toxicity. Currently, research on the toxic substances of Radix Aconiti is not rare. In our previous study, acute toxic biomarkers of Radix Aconiti have been found. However, few studies were available to find the relationships between these endogenous biomarkers and exogenous toxic substances. Therefore, in this study, toxic substances of Radix Aconiti have been found using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. Then, we used biochemical indicators as a bridge to find the relationships between biomarkers and toxic substances of Radix Aconiti through Pearson correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Finally, the CCA results showed that LysoPC(22:5) is related to 14-acetyl-talatisamine, mesaconitine, talatisamine and deoxyaconitine in varying degrees; l-acetylcarnitine is negatively correlated with deoxyaconitine and demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline; shikimic acid has a good correlation with karacoline, demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline and deoxyaconitine; and valine is correlated with talatisamine and deoxyaconitine. Research on these relationships provides an innovative way to interpret the toxic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine, and plays a positive role in the overall study of TCM toxicity.

  13. Research on the Relationships between Endogenous Biomarkers and Exogenous Toxic Substances of Acute Toxicity in Radix Aconiti

    OpenAIRE

    Haonan Zhou; Pengjie Zhang; Zhiguo Hou; Jiabin Xie; Yuming Wang; Bin Yang; Yanyan Xu; Yubo Li

    2016-01-01

    Radix Aconiti, a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used throughout China for disease treatment due to its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and analgesic effects. However, improper use of Radix Aconiti often generated severe acute toxicity. Currently, research on the toxic substances of Radix Aconiti is not rare. In our previous study, acute toxic biomarkers of Radix Aconiti have been found. However, few studies were availabl...

  14. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) 8(e) Notices and FYI Submissions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Section 8(e) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires U.S. chemical manufacturers, importers, processors and distributors to notify EPA within 30 calendar...

  15. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data, 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data, 1996 consists of 2042 polygons for selected hazardous waste sites...

  16. Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions 2.0 (TSCATS 2.0)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions 2.0 (TSCATS 2.0) tracks the submissions of health and safety data submitted to the EPA either as required or...

  17. The risk of contamination of food with toxic substances present in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Meijer, G.A.L.

    2007-01-01

    Toxic substances such as dioxins, mycotoxins, heavy metals, pesticides, veterinary drugs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are almost ubiquitous in the environment. Thus, they are also present in ingredients for animal feed. Adequate risk management depends on knowledge of absorption, metabolism,

  18. NODC Standard Format Marine Toxic Substances and Pollutants (F144) chemical identification codes (NODC Accession 9200273)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival information package contains a listing of codes and chemical names that were used in NODC Standard Format Marine Toxic Substances and Pollutants (F144)...

  19. Creating mechanisms of toxic substances emission of combustion engines

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowski Antoni; Kowalski Mirosław

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses the mechanisms of creation of toxic exhaust gases, which mainly derived from inexact fuel metering and improper air-fuel mixture preparation. The paper describes the process of creating toxic components in the exhaust gases of piston engines during engine operation, and impact on the emission of these components determining the composition of the fuel mixture determined equivalence factor Φ. The principal mechanisms of formation of toxic exhaust gases, in particular nitroge...

  20. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and electric...

  1. A re-evaluation of PETROTOX for predicting acute and chronic toxicity of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Aaron D; Parkerton, Thomas F; Leon Paumen, Miriam; Butler, Josh D; Letinski, Daniel J; den Haan, Klass

    2017-08-01

    The PETROTOX model was developed to perform aquatic hazard assessment of petroleum substances based on substance composition. The model relies on the hydrocarbon block method, which is widely used for conducting petroleum substance risk assessments providing further justification for evaluating model performance. Previous work described this model and provided a preliminary calibration and validation using acute toxicity data for limited petroleum substance. The objective of the present study was to re-evaluate PETROTOX using expanded data covering both acute and chronic toxicity endpoints on invertebrates, algae, and fish for a wider range of petroleum substances. The results indicated that recalibration of 2 model parameters was required, namely, the algal critical target lipid body burden and the log octanol-water partition coefficient (K OW ) limit, used to account for reduced bioavailability of hydrophobic constituents. Acute predictions from the updated model were compared with observed toxicity data and found to generally be within a factor of 3 for algae and invertebrates but overestimated fish toxicity. Chronic predictions were generally within a factor of 5 of empirical data. Furthermore, PETROTOX predicted acute and chronic hazard classifications that were consistent or conservative in 93 and 84% of comparisons, respectively. The PETROTOX model is considered suitable for the purpose of characterizing petroleum substance hazard in substance classification and risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2245-2252. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  2. Investigations with beagles about toxicity and radioprotective effect of the chemical radioprotection substance WR 2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.; Sedlmeier, H.; Wustrow, T.; Messerschmidt, O.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of the chemical radioprotection substance WR 2721 (S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethyl-thiophosphate) was examined in 25 beagles. The study showed that the toxicity of the substance increases as the dose gets higher. Between the doses 200 and 250 mg/kg of body weight, the increase of toxicity was significantly greater than could be expected on the basis of the dose difference. Until a dose of 200 mg/kg, the authors found no side effects which would have disturbed vital functions, but higher doses led to marked symptoms of intoxication. (orig.) [de

  3. Cadmium Handling, Toxicity and Molecular Targets Involved during Pregnancy: Lessons from Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Jacobo-Estrada

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Even decades after the discovery of Cadmium (Cd toxicity, research on this heavy metal is still a hot topic in scientific literature: as we wrote this review, more than 1440 scientific articles had been published and listed by the PubMed.gov website during 2017. Cadmium is one of the most common and harmful heavy metals present in our environment. Since pregnancy is a very particular physiological condition that could impact and modify essential pathways involved in the handling of Cd, the prenatal life is a critical stage for exposure to this non-essential element. To give the reader an overview of the possible mechanisms involved in the multiple organ toxic effects in fetuses after the exposure to Cd during pregnancy, we decided to compile some of the most relevant experimental studies performed in experimental models and to summarize the advances in this field such as the Cd distribution and the factors that could alter it (diet, binding-proteins and membrane transporters, the Cd-induced toxicity in dams (preeclampsia, fertility, kidney injury, alteration in essential element homeostasis and bone mineralization, in placenta and in fetus (teratogenicity, central nervous system, liver and kidney.

  4. Persistent toxic substances released from uncontrolled e-waste recycling and actions for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, Ming; Naidu, Ravi; Wong, Ming H.

    2013-01-01

    The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted on March 22, 1989 and enforced on May 5, 1992. Since then, the USA, one of the world's largest e-waste producers, has not ratified this Convention or the Basel Ban Amendment. Communities are still debating the legal loophole, which permits the export of whole products to other countries provided it is not for recycling. In January 2011, China's WEEE Directive was implemented, providing stricter control over e-waste imports to China, including Hong Kong, while emphasizing that e-waste recycling is the producers' responsibility. China is expected to supersede the USA as the principal e-waste producer, by 2020, according to the UNEP. Uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities generate and release heavy metals and POPs into the environment, which may be re-distributed, bioaccumulated and biomagnified, with potentially adverse human health effects. Greater efforts and scientific approaches are needed for future e-product designs of minimal toxic metal and compound use, reaping greater benefits than debating the definition and handling responsibilities of e-waste recycling. - Highlights: ► We recommended to ban uses of deca-BDE in addition to penta- and octa-BDEs. ► We suggested to replace PVC in electronic products with non-chlorinated polymers. ► Spend less time on debating responsibilities and definition of e-waste and recycling. ► Proposed to work more on eliminating sources and potentials of toxic substances

  5. Persistent toxic substances released from uncontrolled e-waste recycling and actions for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Ming [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong); Naidu, Ravi [Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environments (CRC CARE), University of South Australia (Australia); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong)

    2013-10-01

    The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted on March 22, 1989 and enforced on May 5, 1992. Since then, the USA, one of the world's largest e-waste producers, has not ratified this Convention or the Basel Ban Amendment. Communities are still debating the legal loophole, which permits the export of whole products to other countries provided it is not for recycling. In January 2011, China's WEEE Directive was implemented, providing stricter control over e-waste imports to China, including Hong Kong, while emphasizing that e-waste recycling is the producers' responsibility. China is expected to supersede the USA as the principal e-waste producer, by 2020, according to the UNEP. Uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities generate and release heavy metals and POPs into the environment, which may be re-distributed, bioaccumulated and biomagnified, with potentially adverse human health effects. Greater efforts and scientific approaches are needed for future e-product designs of minimal toxic metal and compound use, reaping greater benefits than debating the definition and handling responsibilities of e-waste recycling. - Highlights: ► We recommended to ban uses of deca-BDE in addition to penta- and octa-BDEs. ► We suggested to replace PVC in electronic products with non-chlorinated polymers. ► Spend less time on debating responsibilities and definition of e-waste and recycling. ► Proposed to work more on eliminating sources and potentials of toxic substances.

  6. Creating mechanisms of toxic substances emission of combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowski Antoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the mechanisms of creation of toxic exhaust gases, which mainly derived from inexact fuel metering and improper air-fuel mixture preparation. The paper describes the process of creating toxic components in the exhaust gases of piston engines during engine operation, and impact on the emission of these components determining the composition of the fuel mixture determined equivalence factor Φ. The principal mechanisms of formation of toxic exhaust gases, in particular nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and also essential according to create each of toxic exhaust gases are the subject of the paper. Moreover, empirical relationships, by means of which it is possible to determine the time of creation of the individual components of toxic exhaust gases, are presented. For example, one of the mechanisms for prompt formation of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons graphic illustration of formation as a function of crank angle is described. At the conclusion, the summary and significance of information on creation mechanisms of toxic components in the exhaust gases of piston engines are presented.

  7. Access device for transferring toxic or radioactive substances between a flanged flask and a containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnett, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    This invention concerns the transfer of toxic or radioactive substances between a containment and a flask in which such substances are transported. When toxic or radioactive substances are being transferred, it is important to ensure that such substances cannot excape into the surrounding atmosphere and, preferably, the appliance utilized has to be capable of making a misuse impossible, whether accidental or calculated. The flask to which this invention applies is of the type comprising lugs, near its open ends, which act in combination with a groove made around an access opening to hold and maintain the flask in position against the wall of the containment, so that its open end is aligned with an access opening provided in the containment wall [fr

  8. 40 CFR 160.107 - Test, control, and reference substance handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Test, Control, and Reference Substances § 160.107 Test...) Distribution is made in a manner designed to preclude the possibility of contamination, deterioration, or... distributed or returned. ...

  9. 77 FR 6801 - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Individuals Displaced by the Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (Pilot Project)--New--Agency for Toxic Substances and... credible research, of air quality conditions present in FEMA housing units to guide FEMA policy makers and... of the health effects among resident children. Formaldehyde testing conducted and evaluated by the...

  10. [The biomonitoring of toxic substances in biological samples of general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarluzea, Jesús; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Porta, Miquel; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2016-11-01

    Many of the world's most developed countries have adopted biomonitoring of toxic substances in order to ascertain their levels in biological samples. These substances get into the body through different environmental exposures. Monitoring toxic substances in biological samples should allow us to ascertain their levels in vulnerable groups, assess their evolution over time, make comparisons with levels observed in other countries, identify groups at risk or with high toxic levels and promote research. The main objective of biomonitoring is to act as a policy design tool to facilitate the implementation of particular measures in various sectors: health, environmental, agricultural and livestock or food industry sectors. In Spain, information on levels of toxic substances of environmental origin is provided by specific studies on health effects from environmental sources, such as the INMA project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [childhood and environment]). In addition, biomonitoring projects have been implemented in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, together with a national biomonitoring programme in the adult working population. However, further progress is needed to develop a system that covers the general population as well as subgroups at risk, which relies on the collaboration of the involved authorities and the participation of professionals from different sectors and citizen organisations interested in the relationship between health and the environment. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Federal regulation on the handling of substances constituting a hazard to water; Bundeseinheitliche Regelung des Umgangs mit wassergefaehrdenden Stoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollaender, Robert; Unnerstall, Herwig; Skiba, Katja; Katscher, Henriette; Kochmann, Linda; Enderlein, Frank [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Professur fuer Umwelttechnik und -management; Helmholtzzentrum fuer Umweltforschung - ufz, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Umwelt- und Planungsrecht; Sachverstaendigenorganisation AGU-TSO e.V., Bergen b. Auerbach (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Subject of the research project was preliminary work for a draft of the federal ordinance on the handling of substances constituting a hazard to water. Basis was the draft for an Environmental Code by the Federal Ministry for the Environment from 25. June 2007 and 03. July 2008, Part II on water management. This report includes an analysis of the existing ordinances of the Laender (to be replaced by the new federal ordinance), a survey on problems with their enforcement, an analysis of European Directives on relevant implementation requirements, an analysis of the relation to the legislation on construction products, a comparison to regulations of other European Countries for the protection of water against hazardous substances, an approach for obligations of an ordinance, a preliminary draft of an ordinance, a concept for a system of related Technical Rules and finally an evaluation of possible costs of operators and of additional tasks of authorities due to obligations in the preliminary draft. (orig.)

  12. 48 CFR 1552.235-78 - Data Security for Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (DEC 1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Data Security for Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (DEC 1997) The... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Data Security for Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (DEC 1997). 1552.235-78 Section 1552.235-78 Federal...

  13. Toxic metals in WEEE: Characterization and substance flow analysis in waste treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguchi, Masahiro, E-mail: oguchi.masahiro@nies.go.jp; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Terazono, Atsushi

    2013-10-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has received extensive attention as a secondary source of metals. Because WEEE also contains toxic substances such as heavy metals, appropriate management of these substances is important in the recycling and treatment of WEEE. As a basis for discussion toward better management of WEEE, this study characterizes various types of WEEE in terms of toxic metal contents. The fate of various metals contained in WEEE, including toxic metals, was also investigated in actual waste treatment processes. Cathode-ray tube televisions showed the highest concentration and the largest total amount of toxic metals such as Ba, Pb, and Sb, so appropriate recycling and disposal of these televisions would greatly contribute to better management of toxic metals in WEEE. A future challenge is the management of toxic metals in mid-sized items such as audio/visual and ICT equipment because even though the concentrations were not high in these items, the total amount of toxic metals contained in them is not negligible. In the case of Japan, such mid-sized WEEE items as well as small electronic items are subject to municipal solid waste treatment. A case study showed that a landfill was the main destination of toxic metals contained in those items in the current treatment systems. The case study also showed that changes in the flows of toxic metals will occur when treatment processes are modified to emphasize resource recovery. Because the flow changes might lead to an increase in the amount of toxic metals released to the environment, the flows of toxic metals and the materials targeted for resource recovery should be considered simultaneously. - Highlights: ► Appropriate management of toxic metals contained in WEEE is important during recycling and treatment of WEEE. ► CRT TVs contain large amount of toxic metals with high concentration and thus appropriate management is highly important. ► Mid-sized equipment is a future target for

  14. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome Related to Viscoelastic Substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Gül Altıntaş

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the etiologic factors of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS outbreak after uneventful cataract surgery, to discuss the treatment plan, and to assess the response to medical therapy. Materials and Methods: Clinical features in twenty-two eyes of 22 patients who had TASS outbreak after uneventful cataract surgery were evaluated. Visual acuity (VA, intraocular pressure (IOP measurements, biomicroscopic and B-mode ultrasound evaluations were performed. To establish the differential diagnosis from infectious endophthalmitis, cultures were taken from different subjects such as surgical equipment, solutions, medical devices. All patients were treated as having endophthalmitis until the culture results were obtained. Results: Based on the negative culture results, absence of any symptoms of TASS in other patients who underwent different intraocular surgeries rather than cataract surgery in the same day and same surgical condition in which VES was not used, and the fact that postoperative inflammation occurred only in eyes in which the new VES made of rooster comb was used, we assume that the recently used VES is most likely responsible for the TASS outbreak. As soon as another VES was replaced with the suspected one, no other cases with TASS occurred. Conclusion: Even though the chemical compositions of VES are in physiological limits for viability to the anterior segment tissue, the suboptimal or inappropriate storage conditions may cause loss of the original chemical integrity which can be the reason of TASS. Close monitoring of each patient, early diagnosis, and correct treatment can prevent its complications. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 341-6

  15. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION-A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.L. Senior; F. Huggins; G.P. Huffman; N. Shah; N. Yap; J.O.L. Wendt; W. Seames; M.R. Ames; A.F. Sarofim; S. Swenson; J.S. Lighty; A. Kolker; R. Finkelman; C.A. Palmer; S.J. Mroczkowski; J.J. Helble; R. Mamani-Paco; R. Sterling; G. Dunham; S. Miller

    2001-06-30

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). The work discussed in this report covers the Phase II program. Five coals were studied (three in Phase I and two new ones in Phase II). In this work UK has used XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopies to characterize elements in project coals. For coals, the principal use was to supply direct information about certain hazardous and other key elements (iron) to complement the more complete indirect investigation of elemental modes of occurrence being carried out by colleagues at USGS. Iterative selective leaching using ammonium acetate, HCl, HF, and HNO3, used in conjunction with mineral identification/quantification, and microanalysis of individual mineral grains, has allowed USGS to delineate modes of occurrence for 44 elements. The Phase II coals show rank-dependent systematic differences in trace-element modes of occurrence. The work at

  16. Safety in handling of cryogenic substance (liquid N2) and regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Liquid N 2 is at - 196 deg C may cause cold burning and if being used in a confined area/space upon spill can increase N 2 concentration in the environment and deplete O 2 , hence cause danger to the lives of the occupants if not rescued and evacuated from that area. In view of the this danger/unsafe condition while handling liquid N 2 , safety concerns are discussed in detail

  17. How can we investigate the effects of small amounts of toxic substances?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Today there is increasing concern about the possible toxic effects of tiny amounts of toxic substances in the environment of workplace. Because the incidence of effects at such levels of toxic material is likely to be very low their investigation becomes very difficult and will require new approaches to toxicological research. Only through the use of in vitro cell systems and the most modern theoretical and experimental methods in biochemistry, chemistry and molecular biolgoy can we hope to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the causation and expression of environmentally-induced diseases. Much of this research will be at the fundamental level but it must be so oriented that the information obtained is directly applicable to the realistic estimation of the risks to mankind and other living creatures from natural and man made toxicants. (orig.) [de

  18. Toxic Substances Control Act test submissions database (TSCATS) - comprehensive update. Data file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions Database (TSCATS) was developed to make unpublished test data available to the public. The test data is submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by industry under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Test is broadly defined to include case reports, episodic incidents, such as spills, and formal test study presentations. The database allows searching of test submissions according to specific chemical identity or type of study when used with an appropriate search retrieval software program. Studies are indexed under three broad subject areas: health effects, environmental effects and environmental fate. Additional controlled vocabulary terms are assigned which describe the experimental protocol and test observations. Records identify reference information needed to locate the source document, as well as the submitting organization and reason for submission of the test data

  19. Environmental Guidance Program reference book: Toxic substances control act. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  20. Toxic Substances Control Act. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  1. Handling of radioactive substances containing ionization smoke detectors found in debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, M.; Lorenz, F.

    1992-01-01

    In many commercial buildings, ionization smoke detectors are installed which contain radioactive substances such as Ra-226 or Am-241 and are subject to regularoty control. The obligations of plant owners having installed such devices are laid down in Annex III of the Radiation Protection Ordinance of June 30, 1989. In the event of a fire, the public trade inspection offices are the competent authorities for examining the radioactivity level of the debris to be managed after a fire. The radioactivity level is determined in accordance with Annex IV of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, defining the MPA data for every nuclide. If the specific activity measured per gramme of debris is in excess of the 10 -4 -fold maximum permissible activity, waste management requires a permit according to section 3 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig.) [de

  2. NODC Standard Format Marine Toxic Substances and Pollutants (F144) Data (1971-1989) (NODC Accession 0014199)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data type contains data on ambient concentrations of toxic substances and other pollutants in the marine environment. The data derive from laboratory analyses...

  3. Toxic effect of a marine bacterium on aquatic organisms and its algicidal substances against Phaeocystis globosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuchan Yang

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms have caused enormous damage to the marine ecosystem and the coastal economy in China. In this paper, a bacterial strain B1, which had strong algicidal activity against Phaeocystis globosa, was isolated from the coastal waters of Zhuhai in China. The strain B1 was identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence and morphological characteristics. To evaluate the ecological safety of the algicidal substances produced by strain B1, their toxic effects on marine organisms were tested. Results showed that there were no adverse effects observed in the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Chaetoceros muelleri, and Isochrystis galbana after exposure to the algicidal substances at a concentration of 1.0% (v/v for 96 h. The 48h LC50 values for Brachionus plicatilis, Moina mongolica Daday and Paralichthys olivaceus were 5.7, 9.0 and 12.1% (v/v, respectively. Subsequently, the algicidal substances from strain B1 culture were isolated and purified by silica gel column, Sephadex G-15 column and high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and PeakView Software, the purified substances were identified as prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine. Algicidal mechanism indicated that prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine inhibited the growth of P. globosa by disrupting the antioxidant systems. In the acute toxicity assessment using M. mongolica, 24h LC50 values of prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine were 7.0 and 13.8 g/L, respectively. The active substances produced by strain B1 can be considered as ecologically and environmentally biological agents for controlling harmful algal blooms.

  4. Multiple inorganic toxic substances contaminating the groundwater of Myingyan Township, Myanmar: arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, and uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacquart, Thomas; Frisbie, Seth; Mitchell, Erika; Grigg, Laurie; Cole, Christopher; Small, Colleen; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2015-06-01

    In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Subsequently, other inorganic toxic substances, including manganese, uranium, and fluoride have been found at unsafe levels in groundwater in South Asia. While numerous drinking water wells throughout Myanmar have been tested for arsenic, relatively little is known about the concentrations of other inorganic toxic substances in Myanmar groundwater. In this study, we analyzed samples from 18 drinking water wells (12 in Myingyan City and 6 in nearby Tha Pyay Thar Village) and 2 locations in the Ayeyarwaddy River for arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, or uranium exceeded health-based reference values in most wells. In addition, any given well usually contained more than one toxic substance at unsafe concentrations. While water testing and well sharing could reduce health risks, none of the wells sampled provide water that is entirely safe with respect to inorganic toxic substances. It is imperative that users of these wells, and users of other wells that have not been tested for multiple inorganic toxic substances throughout the region, be informed of the need for drinking water testing and the health consequences of drinking water contaminated with inorganic toxic

  5. Determination of the gaseous emission of toxic substances in the Curva de Rodas sanitary landfill in Medellin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Renteria, Francisco Fernando; Agudelo Garcia, Ruben Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Results of the investigation conducted at the sanitary landfill Curva de Rodas, aimed to determine the emission and migration of toxic substances are presented. Traces of benzene, toluene, hexane, vinyl chloride and xylene were found. Concentrations of these substances were, however, below threshold limits at the landfill and below detectable limits in the air of populated areas adjacent to the sanitary landfill

  6. Underestimated impact of novel psychoactive substances: laboratory confirmation of recreational drug toxicity in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallersnes, Odd Martin; Persett, Per Sverre; Øiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Karinen, Ritva; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Hovda, Knut Erik

    2017-08-01

    Recreational drug toxicity is frequent. Availability of new psychoactive substances is steadily increasing. However, data with verified analyses from clinical settings are limited. To evaluate the impact of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) on recreational drug toxicity in Oslo, Norway, we analysed samples from a selection of patients. All the patients presenting with recreational drug toxicity at the Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (OAEOC) and at the Oslo University Hospital (OUH) were registered from April through September 2014. Oral fluid samples were collected at the OAEOC. Blood samples were collected at the OUH. The samples were screened using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Nine hundred and sixty-four cases were included, 841 (87.2%) at the OAEOC and 123 (12.8%) at the OUH. A total of 55 oral fluid samples (OAEOC) and 103 blood samples (OUH) could be analysed. NPS were not clinically suspected in any of the screened cases. At the outpatient clinic, the most commonly found substances were clonazepam in 42/55 (76.4%) cases, amfetamines in 40/55 (72.7%) and heroin in 39/55 (70.9%). In seven (12.7%) cases NPS were detected: 4-methylamfetamine in three cases, dimethyltryptamine in two, methylone in one, and N,N-dimethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamfetamine in one. Among the hospital patients, the most commonly found substances were clonazepam in 51/103 (49.5%) cases, amfetamines in 48/103 (46.6%), heroin in 31/103 (30.1%), and diazepam in 30/103 (29.1%). In five (4.9%) cases NPS were detected: JWH-210 in two cases, AM-2201 in two, and 5-EAPB in one. NPS were clinically not suspected, though found in eight percent of cases. Still, the vast majority of patients treated for recreational drug toxicity in Oslo have taken classical drugs. Management of these patients should be based on their clinical condition. However, it is highly important to be alert to atypical presentations possibly resulting from

  7. Temperature selection of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) as influenced by various toxic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, R H

    1976-08-01

    Previous exposure to sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP), Guthion, malathion, Dursban, and Dibrom lowered the preferred temperature for juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) tested in a horizontal temperature gradient. Lindane, CuSO/sub 4/, ZnSO/sub 4/, CdSO/sub 4/, Sevin, heptachlor, and fenitrothion did not change the preferred temperature significantly. Comparison with other published results indicates that those substances that increase the preferred temperature are more toxic (based on relevant changes in 24-h LC50) at low temperatures and vice versa. It is suggested that such shifts in selected temperature may be of potential immediate, short-term, survival value to the fish. (auth)

  8. Assessment of the toxicity of a substance under Canadian environmental protection act, a case study. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadon, B.; Germain, A.; Coillie, R. van [Environment Canada, Montreal (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) proclaimed in 1988 requires the Canadian Ministers of the Environment and of National Health and Welfare to assess the toxicity of different substances. A Priority Substances List containing 44 substances was developed and their assessments had to determine if they were `toxic`, according to the CEPA definition. This definition states that `a substance is toxic if it is entering or may enter the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions (a) having or that may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment, (b) constituting or that may constitute a danger to the environment on which human life depends; or (c) constituting or that may constitute a danger in Canada to human life of health.` This presentation use the assessment of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as an example of this procedure. (author)

  9. Assessment of the toxicity of a substance under Canadian environmental protection act, a case study. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadon, B; Germain, A; Coillie, R van [Environment Canada, Montreal (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) proclaimed in 1988 requires the Canadian Ministers of the Environment and of National Health and Welfare to assess the toxicity of different substances. A Priority Substances List containing 44 substances was developed and their assessments had to determine if they were `toxic`, according to the CEPA definition. This definition states that `a substance is toxic if it is entering or may enter the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions (a) having or that may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment, (b) constituting or that may constitute a danger to the environment on which human life depends; or (c) constituting or that may constitute a danger in Canada to human life of health.` This presentation use the assessment of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as an example of this procedure. (author)

  10. Predicting the formation and the dispersion of toxic combustion products from the fires of dangerous substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevrlý, V.; Bitala, P.; Danihelka, P.; Dobeš, P.; Dlabka, J.; Hejzlar, T.; Baudišová, B.; Míček, D.; Zelinger, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Natural events, such as wildfires, lightning or earthquakes represent a frequent trigger of industrial fires involving dangerous substances. Dispersion of smoke plume from such fires and the effects of toxic combustion products are one of the reference scenarios expected in the framework of major accident prevention. Nowadays, tools for impact assessment of these events are rather missing. Detailed knowledge of burning material composition, atmospheric conditions, and other factors are required in order to describe quantitatively the source term of toxic fire products and to evaluate the parameters of smoke plume. Nevertheless, an assessment of toxic emissions from large scale fires involves a high degree of uncertainty, because of the complex character of physical and chemical processes in the harsh environment of uncontrolled flame. Among the others, soot particle formation can be mentioned as still being one of the unresolved problems in combustion chemistry, as well as decomposition pathways of chemical substances. Therefore, simplified approach for estimating the emission factors from outdoor fires of dangerous chemicals, utilizable for major accident prevention and preparedness, was developed and the case study illustrating the application of the proposed method was performed. ALOFT-FT software tool based on large eddy simulation of buoyant fire plumes was employed for predicting the local toxic contamination in the down-wind vicinity of the fire. The database of model input parameters can be effectively modified enabling the simulation of the smoke plume from pool fires or jet fires of arbitrary flammable (or combustible) gas, liquid or solid. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic via the project LD11012 (in the frame of the COST CM0901 Action) and the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic (project no. SPII 1a10 45/70).

  11. Enhanced resistance to nanoparticle toxicity is conferred by overproduction of extracellular polymeric substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Nimisha, E-mail: joshi.nimisha@gmail.com [School of GeoSciences, Microbial Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW (United Kingdom); Ngwenya, Bryne T. [School of GeoSciences, Microbial Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW (United Kingdom); French, Christopher E. [School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Cell Biology, Darwin Building, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstration that bacteria engineered for EPS overproduction have better survival against Ag nanotoxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPS destabilises Ag nanoparticles and promotes their aggregation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TEM demonstration that EPS traps the Ag nanoparticles outside the cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPS from overexpressing strains offers protection to non-EPS strains of bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPS polymer analogues such as xanthan also produce a similar response. - Abstract: The increasing production and use of engineered nanoparticles, coupled with their demonstrated toxicity to different organisms, demands the development of a systematic understanding of how nanoparticle toxicity depends on important environmental parameters as well as surface properties of both cells and nanomaterials. We demonstrate that production of the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), colanic acid by engineered Escherichia coli protects the bacteria against silver nanoparticle toxicity. Moreover, exogenous addition of EPS to a control strain results in an increase in cell viability, as does the addition of commercial EPS polymer analogue xanthan. Furthermore, we have found that an EPS producing strain of Sinorhizobium meliloti shows higher survival upon exposure to silver nanoparticles than the parent strain. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed that EPS traps the nanoparticles outside the cells and reduces the exposed surface area of cells to incoming nanoparticles by inducing cell aggregation. Nanoparticle size characterization in the presence of EPS and xanthan indicated a marked tendency towards aggregation. Both are likely effective mechanisms for reducing nanoparticle toxicity in the natural environment.

  12. Enhanced resistance to nanoparticle toxicity is conferred by overproduction of extracellular polymeric substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Nimisha; Ngwenya, Bryne T.; French, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Demonstration that bacteria engineered for EPS overproduction have better survival against Ag nanotoxicity. ► EPS destabilises Ag nanoparticles and promotes their aggregation. ► TEM demonstration that EPS traps the Ag nanoparticles outside the cell. ► EPS from overexpressing strains offers protection to non-EPS strains of bacteria. ► EPS polymer analogues such as xanthan also produce a similar response. - Abstract: The increasing production and use of engineered nanoparticles, coupled with their demonstrated toxicity to different organisms, demands the development of a systematic understanding of how nanoparticle toxicity depends on important environmental parameters as well as surface properties of both cells and nanomaterials. We demonstrate that production of the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), colanic acid by engineered Escherichia coli protects the bacteria against silver nanoparticle toxicity. Moreover, exogenous addition of EPS to a control strain results in an increase in cell viability, as does the addition of commercial EPS polymer analogue xanthan. Furthermore, we have found that an EPS producing strain of Sinorhizobium meliloti shows higher survival upon exposure to silver nanoparticles than the parent strain. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed that EPS traps the nanoparticles outside the cells and reduces the exposed surface area of cells to incoming nanoparticles by inducing cell aggregation. Nanoparticle size characterization in the presence of EPS and xanthan indicated a marked tendency towards aggregation. Both are likely effective mechanisms for reducing nanoparticle toxicity in the natural environment.

  13. Did Mineral Surface Chemistry and Toxicity Contribute to Evolution of Microbial Extracellular Polymeric Substances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jay M.; Zhang, Nianli; Hickey, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Modern ecological niches are teeming with an astonishing diversity of microbial life in biofilms closely associated with mineral surfaces, which highlights the remarkable success of microorganisms in conquering the challenges and capitalizing on the benefits presented by the mineral–water interface. Biofilm formation capability likely evolved on early Earth because biofilms provide crucial cell survival functions. The potential toxicity of mineral surfaces toward cells and the complexities of the mineral–water–cell interface in determining the toxicity mechanisms, however, have not been fully appreciated. Here, we report a previously unrecognized role for extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which form biofilms in shielding cells against the toxicity of mineral surfaces. Using colony plating and LIVE/DEAD staining methods in oxide suspensions versus oxide-free controls, we found greater viability of wild-type, EPS-producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 compared to their isogenic knockout mutant with defective biofilm-producing capacity. Oxide toxicity was specific to its surface charge and particle size. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images and assays for highly reactive oxygen species (hROS) on mineral surfaces suggested that EPS shield via both physical and chemical mechanisms. Intriguingly, qualitative as well as quantitative measures of EPS production showed that toxic minerals induced EPS production in bacteria. By determining the specific toxicity mechanisms, we provide insight into the potential impact of mineral surfaces in promoting increased complexity of cell surfaces, including EPS and biofilm formation, on early Earth. Key Words: Mineral toxicity—Bacteria—EPS evolution—Biofilms—Cytotoxicity—Silica—Anatase—Alumina. Astrobiology 12, 785–798. PMID:22934560

  14. Notification of the commission on the eco-toxicity of chemical substances; Avis de la commission d'evaluation de l'ecotoxicite des substances chimiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The french commission on the evaluation of the chemical substances eco-toxicity, published recommendations concerning the use of additives for the automotive fuels, for the cooling circuit of electric power plants and for gases against fire. The risks for the public health are analysed and safety precautions are asked. (A.L.B.)

  15. Evaluating the toxic effects of three priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) to rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Pan, Luqing; Lin, Pengfei; Miao, Jingjing; Wang, Xiufen; Lin, Yufei; Wu, Jiangyue

    2017-12-01

    Hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) spill in the marine environment is an issue of growing concern, and it will mostly continue to do so in the future owing to the increase of high chemical traffic. Nevertheless, the effects of HNS spill on marine environment, especially on aquatic organisms are unclear. Consequently, it is emergent to provide valuable information for the toxicities to marine biota caused by HNS spill. Accordingly, the acute toxicity of three preferential HNS and sub-lethal effects of acrylonitrile on Brachionus plicatilis were evaluated. The median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) at 24 h were 47.2 mg acrylonitrile L -1 , 276.9 mg styrene L -1 , and 488.3 mg p-xylene L -1 , respectively. Sub-lethal toxicity effects of acrylonitrile on feeding behavior, development, and reproduction parameters of B. plicatilis were also evaluated. Results demonstrated that rates of filtration and ingestion were significantly reduced at 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mg L -1 of acrylonitrile. Additionally, reproductive period, fecundity, and life span were significantly decreased at high acrylonitrile concentrations. Conversely, juvenile period was significantly increased at the highest two doses and no effects were observed on embryonic development and post-reproductive period. Meanwhile, we found that ingestion rate decline could be a good predictor of reproduction toxicity in B. plicatilis and ecologically relevant endpoint for toxicity assessment. These data will be useful to assess and deal with marine HNS spillages.

  16. Multiple inorganic toxic substances contaminating the groundwater of Myingyan Township, Myanmar: Arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacquart, Thomas [Better Life Laboratories, Calais, VT (United States); Frisbie, Seth [Better Life Laboratories, Calais, VT (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Norwich University, Northfield, VT (United States); Mitchell, Erika [Better Life Laboratories, Calais, VT (United States); Grigg, Laurie [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Norwich University, Northfield, VT (United States); Cole, Christopher [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Norwich University, Northfield, VT (United States); Small, Colleen [Vermont Department of Health Laboratory, Burlington, VT (United States); Sarkar, Bibudhendra, E-mail: bsarkar@sickkids.ca [Department of Molecular Structure and Function, The Research Institute of The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-01

    In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Subsequently, other inorganic toxic substances, including manganese, uranium, and fluoride have been found at unsafe levels in groundwater in South Asia. While numerous drinking water wells throughout Myanmar have been tested for arsenic, relatively little is known about the concentrations of other inorganic toxic substances in Myanmar groundwater. In this study, we analyzed samples from 18 drinking water wells (12 in Myingyan City and 6 in nearby Tha Pyay Thar Village) and 2 locations in the Ayeyarwaddy River for arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, or uranium exceeded health-based reference values in most wells. In addition, any given well usually contained more than one toxic substance at unsafe concentrations. While water testing and well sharing could reduce health risks, none of the wells sampled provide water that is entirely safe with respect to inorganic toxic substances. It is imperative that users of these wells, and users of other wells that have not been tested for multiple inorganic toxic substances throughout the region, be informed of the need for drinking water testing and the health consequences of drinking water contaminated with inorganic toxic

  17. Multiple inorganic toxic substances contaminating the groundwater of Myingyan Township, Myanmar: Arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacquart, Thomas; Frisbie, Seth; Mitchell, Erika; Grigg, Laurie; Cole, Christopher; Small, Colleen; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2015-01-01

    In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Subsequently, other inorganic toxic substances, including manganese, uranium, and fluoride have been found at unsafe levels in groundwater in South Asia. While numerous drinking water wells throughout Myanmar have been tested for arsenic, relatively little is known about the concentrations of other inorganic toxic substances in Myanmar groundwater. In this study, we analyzed samples from 18 drinking water wells (12 in Myingyan City and 6 in nearby Tha Pyay Thar Village) and 2 locations in the Ayeyarwaddy River for arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, or uranium exceeded health-based reference values in most wells. In addition, any given well usually contained more than one toxic substance at unsafe concentrations. While water testing and well sharing could reduce health risks, none of the wells sampled provide water that is entirely safe with respect to inorganic toxic substances. It is imperative that users of these wells, and users of other wells that have not been tested for multiple inorganic toxic substances throughout the region, be informed of the need for drinking water testing and the health consequences of drinking water contaminated with inorganic toxic

  18. Toxins secreted by Bacillus isolated from lung adenocarcinomas favor the penetration of toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eMerlos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to explore the eventual role of bacteria in the induction of lung cancer by smoking habits. Viable bacteria closely related to the genus Bacillus were detected at high frequencies in lung-cancer biopsies. Similar, if not identical, microbes were isolated from cigarettes and in smog. Bacteria present in cigarettes could be transferred to a physiological solution via a smoker device that mimicked their potential transfer during smoking those bacteria produce exotoxins able to open transmembrane pores. These channels can be used as a way to penetrate cells of benzopyrenes and other toxic substances present in tobacco products. We hypothesize that Bacillaceae present in tobacco play a key role in the development of lung cancer.

  19. EXTRAN: A computer code for estimating concentrations of toxic substances at control room air intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1991-03-01

    This report presents the NRC staff with a tool for assessing the potential effects of accidental releases of radioactive materials and toxic substances on habitability of nuclear facility control rooms. The tool is a computer code that estimates concentrations at nuclear facility control room air intakes given information about the release and the environmental conditions. The name of the computer code is EXTRAN. EXTRAN combines procedures for estimating the amount of airborne material, a Gaussian puff dispersion model, and the most recent algorithms for estimating diffusion coefficients in building wakes. It is a modular computer code, written in FORTRAN-77, that runs on personal computers. It uses a math coprocessor, if present, but does not require one. Code output may be directed to a printer or disk files. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Application of in silico modelling to estimate toxicity of migrating substances from food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Nicholas; Chaudhry, Qasim

    2014-09-01

    This study derived toxicity estimates for a set of 136 chemical migrants from food packaging materials using in silico (computational) modelling and read across approaches. Where available, the predicted results for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity were compared with published experimental data. As the packaging compounds are subject to safety assessment, the migrating substances were more likely to be negative for both the endpoints. A set of structural analogues with positive experimental data for carcinogenicity and/or mutagenicity was therefore used as a positive comparator. The results showed that a weight of evidence assembled from different in silico models and read-across from already-tested structurally similar compounds can provide a rapid and reliable means for rapid screening of new yet-untested intentional or unintentional chemical compounds that may migrate to packaged foodstuffs. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Alleviation of iron toxicity in Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) by humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbss, Leonardo Barros; Dos Santos, Tamires Cruz; Pittarello, Marco; de Souza, Sávio Bastos; Ramos, Alessandro Coutinho; Busato, Jader Galba

    2018-04-01

    One of the industrial pillars of Espírito Santo state, South East of Brazil, is iron-mining products processing. This activity brings to a high level of coastal pollution due to deposition of iron particulate on fragile ecosystems as mangroves and restinga. Schinus therebinthifolius (aroeira) is a widespread restinga species. This work tested iron toxicity alleviation by vermicompost humic substances (HS) added to aroeira seedlings in hydroponic conditions. Catalase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase are antioxidant enzymes that work as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers: they increase their activity as an answer to ROS concentration rise that is the consequence of metal accumulation or humic substance stimulation. S. terebinthifolius seedlings treated with HS and Fe augmented their antioxidant enzyme activities significantly less than seedlings treated separately with HS and Fe; their significantly lower Fe accumulation and the slight increase of root and leaf area confirm the biostimulating effect of HS and their role in blocking Fe excess outside the roots. The use of HS can be useful for the recovery of areas contaminated by heavy metals.

  2. Skin toxicity of jet fuels: ultrastructural studies and the effects of substance P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Inman, Alfred O.; Riviere, Jim E.

    2004-01-01

    Topical exposure to jet fuel is a significant occupational hazard. Recent studies have focused on dermal absorption of fuel and its components, or alternatively, on the biochemical or immunotoxicological sequelae to exposure. Surprisingly, morphological and ultrastructural analyses have not been systematically conducted. Similarly, few studies have compared responses in skin to that of the primary target organ, the lung. The focus of the present investigation was 2-fold: first, to characterize the ultrastructural changes seen after topical exposure to moderate doses (335 or 67 μl/cm 2 ) of jet fuels [Jet A, Jet Propellant (JP)-8, JP-8+100] for up to 4 days in pigs, and secondly, to determine if co-administration of substance P (SP) with JP-8 jet fuel in human epidermal keratinocyte cell cultures modulates toxicity as it does to pulmonary toxicity in laboratory animal studies. The primary change seen after exposure to all fuels was low-level inflammation accompanied by formation of lipid droplets in various skin layers, mitochondrial and nucleolar changes, cleft formation in the intercellular lipid lamellar bilayers, as well as disorganization in the stratum granulosum-stratum corneum interface. An increased number of Langerhans cells were also noted in jet fuel-treated skin. These changes suggest that the primary effect of jet fuel exposure is damage to the stratum corneum barrier. SP administration decreased the release of interleukin (IL)-8 normally seen in keratinocytes after JP-8 exposure, a response similar to that reported for SP's effect on JP-8 pulmonary toxicity. These studies provide a base upon which biochemical and immunological data collected in other model systems can be compared

  3. Toxicity assessment of 4-chlorophenol to aerobic granular sludge and its interaction with extracellular polymeric substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Dong; Wang, Yifan; Wang, Xiaodong; Li, Mengting; Han, Fei; Ju, Luyu; Zhang, Ge; Shi, Li; Li, Kai; Wang, Bingfeng [School of Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Du, Bin, E-mail: dubin61@gmail.com [School of Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Wei, Qin [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • Toxicity of 4-CP to aerobic granular sludge process was evaluated. • 3D-EEM characterized the interaction between EPS and 4-CP. • Tryptophan was the main substance result in fluorescence quenching. • The mechanism of fluorescence quenching belongs to static quenching. - Abstract: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) to aerobic granular sludge in the process of treating ammonia rich wastewater. In the short-term exposure of 4-CP of 5 and 10 mg/L, ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies in the batch reactors decreased to 87.18 ± 2.81 and 41.16 ± 3.55%, which were remarkably lower than that of control experiment (99.83 ± 0.54%). Correspondingly, the respirometric activities of heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria of aerobic granular sludge were significantly inhibited in the presence of 4-CP. Moreover, the main components of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) including polysaccharides and proteins increased from 18.74 ± 0.29 and 22.57 ± 0.34 mg/g SS to 27.79 ± 0.51 and 24.69 ± 0.38 mg/g SS, respectively, indicating that the presence of 4-CP played an important role on the EPS production. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy further showed that the intensities of EPS samples were obviously quenched with the increased of 4-CP concentrations. To be more detailed, synchronous fluorescence spectra indicated that the interaction between EPS and 4-CP was mainly caused by tryptophan residues. The mechanism of fluorescence quenching belongs to static quenching with a formation constant (K{sub A}) of 0.07 × 10{sup 4} L/mol, implying the strong formation of EPS and 4-CP complex. The results could provide reliable and accurate information to determine the potential toxicity of 4-CP on the performance of aerobic granular sludge system.

  4. 48 CFR 1552.235-75 - Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996). 1552.235-75 Section 1552.235-75 Federal... Confidential Business Information (APR 1996). As prescribed in 1535.007(b), insert the following provision: Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996) In order to perform...

  5. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Confidential Business Information Records Access System for the Toxic Control Substances Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    This system collects submission data from the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and contact information for EPA contractors and employees who are CBI cleared. Learn how this data is collected, how it will be used, and the purpose of data collection.

  6. Toxic substances: Federal-provincial control -- rev. revised edition. Current issue review No. 88-11E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, K

    1994-12-31

    This document provides a background and analysis on federal-provincial control of toxic substances, including their control under the Canadian Constitution, legislation passed by both levels of government, political aspects, federal-provincial cooperation, the Green Plan, and the Auditor General`s report. Parliamentary action taken and a chronology of events are also included.

  7. Urgent need to reevaluate the latest World Health Organization guidelines for toxic inorganic substances in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbie, Seth H; Mitchell, Erika J; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2015-08-13

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has established guidelines for drinking-water quality that cover biological and chemical hazards from both natural and anthropogenic sources. In the most recent edition of Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality (2011), the WHO withdrew, suspended, did not establish, or raised guidelines for the inorganic toxic substances manganese, molybdenum, nitrite, aluminum, boron, nickel, uranium, mercury, and selenium. In this paper, we review these changes to the WHO drinking-water guidelines, examining in detail the material presented in the WHO background documents for each of these toxic substances. In some cases, these WHO background documents use literature reviews that do not take into account scientific research published within the last 10 or more years. In addition, there are instances in which standard WHO practices for deriving guidelines are not used; for example, rounding and other mathematical errors are made. According to published meeting reports from the WHO Chemical Aspects Working Group, the WHO has a timetable for revising some of its guidelines for drinking-water quality, but for many of these toxic substances the planned changes are minimal or will be delayed for as long as 5 years. Given the limited nature of the planned WHO revisions to the inorganic toxic substances and the extended timetable for these revisions, we suggest that governments, researchers, and other stakeholders might establish independent recommendations for inorganic toxic substances and possibly other chemicals to proactively protect public health, or at the very least, revert to previous editions of the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, which were more protective of public health.

  8. Contamination by persistent toxic substances in surface sediment of urban rivers in Chaohu City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feipeng; Zhang, Haiping; Meng, Xiangzhou; Chen, Ling; Yin, Daqiang

    2012-01-01

    The concentration and spatial distribution of persistent toxic substances (PTS) in the river sediment in Chaohu City, China were investigated. A total of nine surface sediments were collected and the selected PTS pollutants including six heavy metals and nineteen polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed. The mean heavy metal concentrations (in mg/kg, dry weight) ranged within 0.18-1.53 (Hg), 50.08-200.18 (Cu), 118.70-313.65 (Zn), 50.77-310.85 (Cr), 37.12-92.72 (Pb) and 13.29-197.24 (As), and Cu, Zn and As have been regarded as the main metal pollutants. The levels of PBDEs (1.2-12.1 ng/g) and BDE-209 (2.4-30.5 ng/g) were at the middle level of the global range. BDE-209 was the predominant congener (67.0%-85.7%), which agrees with the fact that technical deca-BDE mixtures are the dominant PBDE formulation in China. The relative high level of PTS pollutants in the western part of the city is probably owing to the intensive agricultural activities and lack of sewerage system there. The ecological risk assessment with the sediment quality guidelines (SOGs) indicates that the urban river sediments in the city have been heavily contaminated by heavy metals with probable ecotoxicological impacts on freshwater organisms and the main toxic pollutants are Hg and As. The results of current study imply that the city, and perhaps many other small cities in China as well, requires immediate pollution control measures with emphasis on not only conventional organic pollutants but also on PTS such as heavy metals and PBDEs.

  9. 78 FR 66700 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... additive for food Rat--Up-and-Down processing, and as Procedure. ingredient in aluminum Micronucleus Test... Toxicity to Fish; Acute Toxicity to Daphnia; Toxicity to Algae; Acute Toxicity to Mammals; Bacterial..., cold Study in Zebra Fish set, and sheet-fed (Brachydanio rerio). applications. Acute Toxicity Study in...

  10. Persistent toxic substances released from uncontrolled e-waste recycling and actions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Ming; Naidu, Ravi; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted on March 22, 1989 and enforced on May 5, 1992. Since then, the USA, one of the world's largest e-waste producers, has not ratified this Convention or the Basel Ban Amendment. Communities are still debating the legal loophole, which permits the export of whole products to other countries provided it is not for recycling. In January 2011, China's WEEE Directive was implemented, providing stricter control over e-waste imports to China, including Hong Kong, while emphasizing that e-waste recycling is the producers' responsibility. China is expected to supersede the USA as the principal e-waste producer, by 2020, according to the UNEP. Uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities generate and release heavy metals and POPs into the environment, which may be re-distributed, bioaccumulated and biomagnified, with potentially adverse human health effects. Greater efforts and scientific approaches are needed for future e-product designs of minimal toxic metal and compound use, reaping greater benefits than debating the definition and handling responsibilities of e-waste recycling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel two-dimensional liquid chromatographic system for the online toxicity prediction of pharmaceuticals and related substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian; Xu, Li [Tongji School of Pharmacy, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Shi, Zhi-guo, E-mail: shizg@whu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu, Min [Hubei Instrument for Food and Drug Control, Wuhan (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A novel two-dimensional liquid chromatographic system was developed. • The 1st dimension was ODS to separate components in the sample. • The 2nd dimension was biopartitioning micellar chromatography to predict toxicity. • The system was used to screen toxicity of pharmaceuticals and related substances. • It was promising for fast online toxicity screening of complex sample in one step. - Abstract: In this study, a novel two-dimensional liquid chromatographic (2D-LC) system was developed for simultaneous separation and toxicity prediction of pharmaceutical and its related substances. A conventional ODS column was used on the 1st-D to separate the sample; while, bio-partitioning micellar chromatography served as the 2nd-D to predict toxicity of the components. The established system was tested for the toxicity of ibuprofen and its impurities with known toxicity. With only one injection, ibuprofen and its impurities were separated on the 1st-D; and LC50 values of individual impurity were obtained based on the quantitative retention–activity relationships, which agreed well with the reported data. Furthermore, LC50 values of photolysis transformation products (TPs) of carprofen, ketoprofen and diclofenac acid (as unknown compounds) were screened in this 2D-LC system, which could be an indicator of the toxicity of these TPs and was meaningful for the environmental monitoring and drinking water treatment. The established 2D-LC system was cost-effective, time-saving and reliable, and was promising for fast online screening of toxicity of known and unknown analytes in the complex sample in a single step. It may find applications in environment, pharmaceutical and food, etc.

  12. A novel two-dimensional liquid chromatographic system for the online toxicity prediction of pharmaceuticals and related substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jian; Xu, Li; Shi, Zhi-guo; Hu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel two-dimensional liquid chromatographic system was developed. • The 1st dimension was ODS to separate components in the sample. • The 2nd dimension was biopartitioning micellar chromatography to predict toxicity. • The system was used to screen toxicity of pharmaceuticals and related substances. • It was promising for fast online toxicity screening of complex sample in one step. - Abstract: In this study, a novel two-dimensional liquid chromatographic (2D-LC) system was developed for simultaneous separation and toxicity prediction of pharmaceutical and its related substances. A conventional ODS column was used on the 1st-D to separate the sample; while, bio-partitioning micellar chromatography served as the 2nd-D to predict toxicity of the components. The established system was tested for the toxicity of ibuprofen and its impurities with known toxicity. With only one injection, ibuprofen and its impurities were separated on the 1st-D; and LC50 values of individual impurity were obtained based on the quantitative retention–activity relationships, which agreed well with the reported data. Furthermore, LC50 values of photolysis transformation products (TPs) of carprofen, ketoprofen and diclofenac acid (as unknown compounds) were screened in this 2D-LC system, which could be an indicator of the toxicity of these TPs and was meaningful for the environmental monitoring and drinking water treatment. The established 2D-LC system was cost-effective, time-saving and reliable, and was promising for fast online screening of toxicity of known and unknown analytes in the complex sample in a single step. It may find applications in environment, pharmaceutical and food, etc

  13. [Behavioral-cognitive disorders due to chronic exposure to industrial and environmental toxic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Carlos A; Genovese, Osvaldo; Abel, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    A review of neurotoxics is made, given the low tendency to investigate for chronic exposure to environmental and industrial potential central nervous system toxic substances (heavy metals, insecticides, organic solvents and carbon monoxide) in the history of a patient consulting for behavioral - cognitive complains, and considering the potential overturn of the disease if a correct diagnosis and early treatment is made. to determine the onset of the cognitive - behavioral features, presentation pattern, diagnosis and treatment of such neurotoxics (NT). systematized search in Cochrane and Medline reviews, Embase and Lilacs. chronic exposure to neurotoxics can produce personality changes (sleeping problems, excitation, depression, delusions and hallucinations) as well as cognitive problems (memory, learning, language and cognitive reaction problems). NT may cause changes in the neuron morphology and its sub cellular structures, affecting its normal biochemistry and physiology (proteins and neurotransmitters synthesis). The clinical history, diagnosis and treatment of each neurotoxic are discussed. The NT must be taken in consideration among the possible different etiologies when a patient with a bizarre behavioral cognitive syndrome is examined.

  14. Nutrients and natural toxic substances in commonly consumed Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judprasong, Kunchit; Archeepsudcharit, Nidthida; Chantapiriyapoon, Kedsiri; Tanaviyutpakdee, Pharrunrat; Temviriyanukul, Piya

    2018-01-01

    This study determined nutrients, chemical contaminants, (insecticide residues and heavy metals), and natural toxic substances (nitrate, nitrite, cyanide, oxalate, phytate, and trypsin inhibitor) in tubers of Jerusalem artichokes-Kaentawan in the Thai language-grown in four major provinces in Thailand. They were purchased, prepared, homogenized, and freeze-dried for further analysis using standard methods. All Kaentawan samples contained considerable amounts of fructans and dietary fiber (15.4±0.2gand3.2±0.8g/100gfresh weight [FW], respectively), as well as potassium and iron (339±61and0.32±0.05mg/100gFW, respectively). All samples had very low amounts of insecticide residues (37 compounds), cyanide, and trypsin inhibitor, as well as Pb, Cd, nitrate, and nitrite (0.82±0.09, 0.10±0.02, 1.9-17.5, and 0.01-0.24mgkg -1 FW, respectively), in addition to oxalate and phytate (14±9and0.17±0.02mg/100gFW, respectively). This study's data can be used for food composition databases and for safety consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator test bed for continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, L.V. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator, located on the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, continues to be the only operational incinerator in the country that can process hazardous and radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. During 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems established a continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) test bed and began conducting evaluations of CEMS under development to measure contaminants from waste combustion and thermal treatment stacks. The program was envisioned to promote CEMS technologies meeting requirements of the recently issued Proposed Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors as well as monitoring technologies that will allay public concerns about mixed waste thermal treatment and accelerate the development of innovative treatment technologies. Fully developed CEMS, as well as innovative continuous or semi-continuous sampling systems not yet interfaced with a pollutant analyzer, were considered as candidates for testing and evaluation. Complementary to other Environmental Protection Agency and DOE sponsored CEMS testing and within compliant operating conditions of the TSCA Incinerator, prioritization was given to multiple metals monitors also having potential to measure radionuclides associated with particulate emissions. In August 1996, developers of two multiple metals monitors participated in field activities at the incinerator and a commercially available radionuclide particulate monitor was acquired for modification and testing planned in 1997. This paper describes the CEMS test bed infrastructure and summarizes completed and planned activities

  16. Integrated approaches for determination of environmental and human risks of persistent toxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, L.; Cupr, P.; Dusek, L.; Hilscherova, K.; Holoubek, I.; Klanova, J.

    2008-01-01

    Substances that are persistent and bioaccumulative often posses toxic characteristics and cause adverse human health or environmental effects. Basic objective of the long-term research project INCHEMBIOL undertaken by the Centre RECETOX are the complex studies of interactions among chemical compounds present in environmental compartments and their biological effects and studies of the fate of mainly persistent chemical compounds in the environment, their effects on the environment and living organisms including human. Destiny in this concept consists of a summary of transport (from their input in the environment, transport within the environmental compartment, where they are discharged, transport among compartments and long-range transport in the environment) and transformation processes (abiotic and biotic transformations). It also includes study of distribution equilibriums, properties conditioning their environmental behaviour, study of the transformation processes and their products. This complex approach is a part of long-term research activities of the centre RECETOX. In the contribution methods used and results obtained in exploration of the causality among chemical (presence of chemical compounds in the environment) and biological (mechanisms of effects on the living organisms) are described.

  17. 78 FR 69414 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ...; Acute emulsion polymerization in Inhalation Toxicity in paper, textile, fiber, and Rats; Bacterial.../ Reproduction Development Toxicity. Note: CAS No. = Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number. Authority: 15 U...

  18. Effect of toxic substance on delayed competitive allelopathic phytoplankton system with varying parameters through stability and bifurcation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, D.; Mahapatra, G.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We study a delayed two species competitive system with imprecise biological parameters. • We consider impreciseness in the form of interval number. • We introduce parametric functional form of interval number to study the model. • We study the effect of toxicant and time delay under impreciseness. • We discuss the chaotic behavior of the model. - Abstract: We have studied the combined effect of toxicant and fluctuation of the biological parameters on the dynamical behaviors of a delayed two-species competitive system with imprecise biological parameters. Due to the global increase of harmful phytoplankton blooms, the study of dynamic interactions between two competing phytoplankton species in the presence of toxic substances is an active field of research now days. The ordinary mathematical formulation of models for two competing phytoplankton species, when one or both the species liberate toxic substances, is unable to capture the oscillatory and highly variable growth of phytoplankton populations. The deterministic model never predicts the sudden localized behavior of certain species. These obstacles of mathematical modeling can be overcomed if we include interval variability of biological parameters in our modeling approach. In this investigation, we construct imprecise models of allelopathic interactions between two competing phytoplankton species as a parametric differential equation model. We incorporate the effect of toxicant on the species in two different cases known as toxic inhibition and toxic stimulatory system. We have discussed the existence of various equilibrium points and stability of the system at these equilibrium points. In case of toxic stimulatory system, the delay model exhibits a stable limit cycle oscillation. Analytical findings are supported through exhaustive numerical simulations.

  19. In the arc of history: AIHA and the movement to reform the Toxic Substances Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Michael P. Wilson of UC Berkeley delivered his keynote address before the general assembly of the American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exhibition (AIHce) in Portland, Oregon, in May 2011. Here, Dr. Wilson again discusses the political and economic drivers of occupational disease in the United States and proposes a role for AIHA in helping to highlight and resolve them. He proposes that until these underlying drivers are acknowledged and ameliorated, the toll of occupational disease will persist, despite the hard work of industrial hygienists in the workplace. Among these drivers, Dr. Wilson points to the decline of labor rights and unionization; economic inequality; economic insecurity; political resistance to public health protections for workers, notably the OSHA and NIOSH programs; and weaknesses in the Federal Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA). Of these, Dr. Wilson calls on the AIHA to participate in the historic effort to rewrite TSCA. He points to weaknesses in TSCA that have produced a chemicals market dominated by the function, price, and performance of chemicals, with little attention given to their health and environmental effects. Under these conditions, he argues, hazardous chemicals have remained economically competitive, and innovation in inherently safer chemicals-in green chemistry-has been held back by a lack of market transparency and public accountability in the industry. TSCA reform has the potential to shift the market toward green chemistry, with long-term implications for occupational disease prevention, industrial investment, and renewed energy in the industrial hygiene profession. Dr. Wilson proposes that, like previous legislative changes in the United States, TSCA reform is likely to occur in response to myriad social pressures, which include the emergence of the European Union's REACH regulation; recent chemicals policy actions in 18 U.S. states; growing support from downstream businesses; increasing public awareness

  20. Airborne persistent toxic substances (PTSs) in China: occurrence and its implication associated with air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yingming; Matsiko, Julius; Zhang, Ya; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-08-16

    In recent years, China suffered from extensive air pollution due to the rapidly expanding economic and industrial developments. Its severe impact on human health has raised great concern currently. Persistent toxic substances (PTSs), a large group of environmental pollutants, have also received much attention due to their adverse effects on both the ecosystem and public health. However, limited studies have been conducted to reveal the airborne PTSs associated with air pollution at the national scale in China. In this review, we summarized the occurrence and variation of airborne PTSs in China, especially in megacities. These PTSs included polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals. The implication of their occurrence associated with air pollution was discussed, and the emission source of these chemicals was concluded. Most reviewed studies have been conducted in east and south China with more developed economy and industry. Severe contamination of airborne PTSs generally occurred in megacities with large populations, such as Guangzhou, Shanghai and Beijing. However, the summarized results suggested that industrial production and product consumption are the major sources of most PTSs in the urban environment, while unintentional emission during anthropogenic activities is an important contributor to airborne PTSs. It is important that fine particles serve as a major carrier of most airborne PTSs, which facilitates the long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of PTSs, and therefore, increases the exposure risk of the human body to these pollutants. This implied that not only the concentration and chemical composition of fine particles but also the absorbed PTSs are of particular concern when air pollution occurs.

  1. Review of organic nitrile incineration at the Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) operates the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), formerly called the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, where uranium was enriched under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Currently, ETTP missions include environmental management, waste management (WM), and the development of new technologies. As part of its WM mission, ETTP operates the TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act) Incinerator (TSCAI) for treatment of hazardous waste and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated with low-level radioactivity. Beginning in the autumn of 1995, employees from diverse ETTP buildings and departments reported experiencing headaches, fatigue, depression, muscle aches, sleeplessness, and muscle tremors. These symptoms were judged by a physician in the ETTP Health Services Department to be consistent with chronic exposures to hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was called in to perform a health hazard evaluation to ascertain whether the employees' illnesses were in fact caused by occupational exposure to HCN. The NIOSH evaluation found no patterns for employees' reported symptoms with respect to work location or department. NIOSH also conducted a comprehensive air sampling study, which did not detect airborne cyanides at the ETTP. Employees, however, expressed concerns that the burning of nitrile-bearing wastes at the TSCAI might have produced HCN as a combustion product. Therefore, LMES and DOE established a multidisciplinary team (TSCAI Technical Review Team) to make a more detailed review of the possibility that combustion of nitrile-bearing wastes at the TSCAI might have either released nitriles or created HCN as a product of incomplete combustion (PIC)

  2. Toxicity of binary mixtures of metals and pyrethroid insecticides to Daphnia magna Straus. Implications for multi-substance risks assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barata, Carlos [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Universitat Poltiecnica de Catalunya, CN 150 Km 14.5, Terrassa 08220 (Spain)]. E-mail: barata@intexter.upc.edu; Baird, D.J. [National Water Research Institute (Environment Canada) at Canadian Rivers Institute, 10 Bailey Drive, PO Box 45111, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton E3B 6E1, New Brunswick (Canada); Nogueira, A.J.A. [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Soares, A.M.V.M. [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Riva, M.C. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Universitat Poltiecnica de Catalunya, CN 150 Km 14.5, Terrassa 08220 (Spain)

    2006-06-10

    Two different concepts, termed concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA), describe general relationships between the effects of single substances and their corresponding mixtures allowing calculation of an expected mixture toxicity on the basis of known toxicities of the mixture components. Both concepts are limited to cases in which all substances in a mixture influence the same experimental endpoint, and are usually tested against a 'fixed ratio design' where the mixture ratio is kept constant throughout the studies and the overall concentration of the mixture is systematically varied. With this design, interaction among toxic components across different mixture ratios and endpoints (i.e. lethal versus sublethal) is not assessed. In this study lethal and sublethal (feeding) responses of Daphnia magna individuals to single and binary combinations of similarly and dissimilarly acting chemicals including the metals (cadmium, copper) and the pyrethroid insecticides ({lambda}-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin) were assayed using a composite experimental design to test for interactions among toxic components across mixture effect levels, mixture ratios, lethal and sublethal toxic effects. To account for inter-experiment response variability, in each binary mixture toxicity assay the toxicity of the individual mixture constituents was also assessed. Model adequacy was then evaluated comparing the slopes and elevations of predicted versus observed mixture toxicity curves with those estimated for the individual components. Model predictive abilities changed across endpoints. The IA concept was able to predict accurately mixture toxicities of dissimilarly acting chemicals for lethal responses, whereas the CA concept did so in three out of four pairings for feeding response, irrespective of the chemical mode of action. Interaction effects across mixture effect levels, evidenced by crossing slopes, were only observed for the binary mixture Cd and Cu for

  3. Toxicity of binary mixtures of metals and pyrethroid insecticides to Daphnia magna Straus. Implications for multi-substance risks assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barata, Carlos; Baird, D.J.; Nogueira, A.J.A.; Soares, A.M.V.M.; Riva, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Two different concepts, termed concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA), describe general relationships between the effects of single substances and their corresponding mixtures allowing calculation of an expected mixture toxicity on the basis of known toxicities of the mixture components. Both concepts are limited to cases in which all substances in a mixture influence the same experimental endpoint, and are usually tested against a 'fixed ratio design' where the mixture ratio is kept constant throughout the studies and the overall concentration of the mixture is systematically varied. With this design, interaction among toxic components across different mixture ratios and endpoints (i.e. lethal versus sublethal) is not assessed. In this study lethal and sublethal (feeding) responses of Daphnia magna individuals to single and binary combinations of similarly and dissimilarly acting chemicals including the metals (cadmium, copper) and the pyrethroid insecticides (λ-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin) were assayed using a composite experimental design to test for interactions among toxic components across mixture effect levels, mixture ratios, lethal and sublethal toxic effects. To account for inter-experiment response variability, in each binary mixture toxicity assay the toxicity of the individual mixture constituents was also assessed. Model adequacy was then evaluated comparing the slopes and elevations of predicted versus observed mixture toxicity curves with those estimated for the individual components. Model predictive abilities changed across endpoints. The IA concept was able to predict accurately mixture toxicities of dissimilarly acting chemicals for lethal responses, whereas the CA concept did so in three out of four pairings for feeding response, irrespective of the chemical mode of action. Interaction effects across mixture effect levels, evidenced by crossing slopes, were only observed for the binary mixture Cd and Cu for lethal effects

  4. Comparative analysis of the toxic effects of natural toxins and harmful substances produced by conventional processing methods or by irradiation and of toxicity tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlhelm, H.; Arndt, K.; Groeger, G.; Schreiber, G.A.; Boegl, K.W.

    1994-01-01

    In this review, tasks and methods of food toxicology as well as the application of the different toxicity tests for the risk assessment of food ingredients are described. Particular reference is made to short-term genotoxicity tests. Enzymatic digestion and extraction methods for complex foodstuffs which are used in the toxicological testing of foods in in vitro systems are described. Radiolytic products which result from irradiation of foods or components of foodstuffs and corresponding results of toxicity testing are reviewed. Foodstuffs irradiated with doses of up to 10 kGy are regarded as toxicologically safe. A survey of the toxicologically tested irradiated foodstuffs as well as the applied maximum doses are given in tables at the end of chapter 8. Among the great number of toxicological studies of irradiated foods those are especially mentioned which have given rise to discussions on the health risks involved. In addition, the difficulties associated with the testing of toxicity of irradiated foodstuffs in feeding experiments are discussed. Short-term tests used to establish the benotoxicity of irradiated foods and essential results of toxicological testing are also presented in tables. An overview is given of the occurrence, frequency and health risks of natural toxins in foods and harmful substances produced by conventional methods of cooking and preservation, in order to enable a comparison with the health risks of irradiated foods. The relevance of animal experiments and in vitro investigations for the prediction of toxic effects of harmful substances of foodstuffs in man is discussed in the final chapter. (VHE) [de

  5. Rapid bioassay-guided screening of toxic substances in vegetable oils that shorten the life of SHRSP rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewandowski Paul

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been consistently reported that vegetable oils including canola oil have a life shortening effect in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP and this toxic effect is not due to the fatty acid composition of the oil. Although it is possible that the phytosterol content or type of phytosterol present in vegetable oils may play some role in the life shortening effect observed in SHRSP rats this is still not completely resolved. Furthermore supercritical CO2 fractionation of canola oil with subsequent testing in SHRSP rats identified safe and toxic fractions however, the compounds responsible for life shortening effect were not characterised. The conventional approach to screen toxic substances in oils using rats takes more than six months and involves large number of animals. In this article we describe how rapid bioassay-guided screening could be used to identify toxic substances derived from vegetable oils and/or processed foods fortified with vegetable oils. The technique incorporates sequential fractionation of oils/processed foods and subsequent treatment of human cell lines that can be used in place of animal studies to determine cytotoxicity of the fractions with structural elucidation of compounds of interest determined via HPLC-MS and GC-MS. The rapid bioassay-guided screening proposed would require two weeks to test multiple fractions from oils, compared with six months if animal experiments were used to screen toxic effects. Fractionation of oil before bio-assay enhances the effectiveness of the detection of active compounds as fractionation increases the relative concentration of minor components.

  6. Why the toxic substances control act needs an overhaul, and how to strengthen oversight of chemicals in the interim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Sarah A; Roberts, Jody A

    2011-05-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act gives the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the authority to regulate industrial chemicals not covered by other statutes. Today there are more than 83,000 such chemicals. However, the law is widely perceived as weak and outdated, and various stakeholders have called for its reform, citing the EPA's inability to regulate the use of asbestos, among other substances. We analyze the flaws in the act and suggest ways in which the EPA might better position itself to manage chemical risks and protect the public's health. In addition to the new tools and technologies it is adopting, the agency needs new allies-both inside and outside the government-in its efforts to identify and control hazardous chemicals.

  7. The relevance of national and international initiatives on toxic substances to the management of hazardous air pollutants in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buccini, J.

    2001-03-30

    The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), seeking guidance on current and emerging national and international initiatives, activities, and programs that could impact on the management of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in Canada, commissioned the author to prepare this document. In this report, HAPs are defined as toxic substances subject to airborne transport as a significant route of environmental distribution and/or exposure. Heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were included in this definition. A model, known as toxics cycle, represented the four distinct stages of the process of selecting substances for risk assessment and management: problem identification and priority setting, risk assessment, risk management, and monitoring and evaluation. A large number of international activities were reviewed, such as research, hazard and risk assessment, risk management, and monitoring and surveillance programs. The present report only deals with the programs that had been identified in the National Air Issues Coordinating Committee-Other Air Issues (NAICC-A) of the CCME report published in 1999 and which had recent or foreseen impacts. Five bi-lateral and multi-lateral agreements on persistent toxic substances, as well as national, regional and global programs, activities, and initiatives concerning the assessment of the hazards and risks of chemicals and actions were reviewed. It was recommended that initiatives at all levels continue to be monitored and that Environment Canada continue to be the conduit of information at the international level. Issues and opportunities must be identified by all jurisdictions with regard to risk management. It was suggested by the author that risk assessment be conducted by Environment Canada and the attention of the HAP group be drawn on specific topics as required. 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  8. Estudo de metais e de substâncias tóxicas em brinquedos Toys contamined by toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Zini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present study is the analysis of toxic elements in plastic toys commercialized in Brazil. Metals like cadmium, lead, chromium, zinc, and aluminum, along with organic substances, such as phthalates, were identified in different toys by quantitative analytical techniques. Traces of thorium were detected in one of the studied samples. Although the measured radioactive dose was rather low, the presence of such a radioactive contaminant is against to the International Agency of Atomic Energy regulations. Similar toys manufactured in Brazil were analyzed and found to observe the standards defined by the National Institute of Metrology (Inmetro.

  9. On the impact of second generation mating and offspring in multi-generation reproductive toxicity studies on classification and labelling of substances in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rorije, Emiel; Muller, André; Beekhuijzen, Manon E.W.

    2011-01-01

    The possible impact on classification and labelling decisions of effects observed in second generation parental (P1) and offspring (F2) parameters in multi-generation studies was investigated. This was done for 50 substances classified as reproductive toxicants in Europe, for which a multi-genera...... and reduced animal use, provide strong further support for replacement of the classical two-generation reproductive toxicity study by the EOGRTS in regulatory reproductive toxicity assessment....

  10. Isolation and identification of some unknown substances in disposable nitrile-butadiene rubber gloves used for food handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsuga, M; Wakui, C; Kawamura, Y; Maitani, T

    2002-11-01

    In Japan, disposable gloves made from nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) are frequently used in contact with foods. In a previous paper, we investigated substances migrating from various gloves made of polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, natural rubber and NBR. Zinc di-n-butyldithiocarbamate (ZDBC), diethyldithiocarbamate (ZDEC) used as vulcanization accelerators, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) used as a plasticizer and many unknown compounds that migrated from NBR gloves into n-heptane were detected by GC/MS. In this paper, six unknown compounds were obtained from one kind of NBR glove by n-hexane extraction and each was isolated by silica gel chromatography. From the results of NMR and mass spectral analysis of the six unknown compounds, their structures are proposed as 1,4-dione-2,5-bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl)cyclohexadiene (1), 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetra methylbutyl)phenol (2), 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (3), 2,4-bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (4), 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)4,6-bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (5) and 2,4,6-tris(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (6). Compound 1 was observed in five of the seven kinds of NBR gloves, and compounds 2-4 and 6, which are not listed in Chemical Abstract (CA), were present in four kinds of gloves.

  11. Comparison of methods for conducting marine and estuarine sediment porewater toxicity tests—extraction, storage, and handling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    A series of studies was conducted to compare different porewater extraction techniques and to evaluate the effects of sediment and porewater storage conditions on the toxicity of pore water, using assays with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata. If care is taken in the selection of materials, several different porewater extraction techniques (pressurized squeezing, centrifugation, vacuum) yield samples with similar toxicity. Where the primary contaminants of concern are highly hydrophobic organic compounds, centrifugation is the method of choice for minimizing the loss of contaminants during the extraction procedure. No difference was found in the toxicity of pore water obtained with the Teflon® and polyvinyl chloride pressurized extraction devices. Different types of filters in the squeeze extraction devices apparently adsorbed soluble contaminants to varying degrees. The amount of fine suspended particulate material remaining in the pore water after the initial extraction varied among the methods. For most of the sediments tested, freezing and thawing did not affect the toxicity of porewater samples obtained by the pressurized squeeze extraction method. Pore water obtained by other methods (centrifugation, vacuum) and frozen without additional removal of suspended particulates by centrifugation may exhibit increased toxicity compared with the unfrozen sample.The toxicity of pore water extracted from refrigerated (4°C) sediments exhibited substantial short-term (days, weeks) changes. Similarly, sediment pore water extracted over time from a simulated amphipod solid-phase toxicity test changed substantially in toxicity. For the sediments tested, the direction and magnitude of change in toxicity of pore water extracted from both refrigerated and solid-phase test sediments was unpredictable.

  12. Plasma exchange combining with plasma bilirubin adsorption effectively removes toxic substances and improves liver functions of hepatic failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, X-Q; Li, Z-Q; Chen, Z; Guo, D; Jia, Q-Y; Jiang, S-C; Cai, J

    2018-02-01

    Hepatic failure (HF) is a kind of complex disease characterizing with liver dysfunction and a few clinical complications. Artificial liver support system (ALSS) has been applied to HF patients to improve dysfunctional liver in recent years. This study aims to evaluate therapeutic effects of ALSS approaches, including plasma exchange (PE), plasma diafiltration (PDF) and plasma bilirubin adsorption (PBA), on liver function of HF patients. This study is a retrospective analysis involving 516 patients diagnosed as HF between February 2014 and February 2015. Patients were randomly divided into PE, PDF, PE plus PBA, and PDF plus PBA group. Meanwhile, single-drug group and combined-drug group were also divided. The liver functions, capability of removing toxic substances and coagulation functions were evaluated both pre-treatment and post-treatment. The side effects and hospital improvement rate were also observed post-treatment. Hospital improvement rate achieves to 69.6%. TBIL levels and MELD scores were significantly decreased post-treatment compared to pre-treatment (phigher compared to PE and PDF group (p=0.002, 0.002, respectively). MELD scores were significantly decreased post-treatment compared to pre-treatment in each group (pbetter role in removing toxic substances, improving liver functions of HF patients.

  13. Use of genetic toxicity data in GHS mutagenicity classification and labeling of substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nicholas S; Hollnagel, Heli M

    2017-06-01

    One of the key outcomes of testing the potential genotoxicity or mutagenicity of a substance is the conclusion on whether the substance should be classified as a germ cell mutagen and the significance of this for other endpoints such as carcinogenicity. The basis for this conclusion are the criteria presented in classification and labelling systems such as the Globally Harmonized System for classification and labeling (GHS). This article reviews the classification criteria for germ cell mutagenicity and carcinogenicity and how they are applied to substances with evidence of mutagenicity. The implications and suitability of such a classification for hazard communication, risk assessment, and risk management are discussed. It is proposed that genotoxicity assessments should not focus on specifically identifying germ cell mutagens, particularly given the challenges associated with communicating this information in a meaningful way. Rather the focus should be on deriving data to characterize the mode of action and for use in the risk assessment of mutagens, which could then feed into a more robust, risk based management of mutagenic substances versus the current more hazard based approaches. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:354-360, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. DNA repair: As influenced by age, nutrition, and exposure to toxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.; Chou, Ming; Feuers, R.; Leakey, J.; Duffy, P.; Lyn-Cook, B.; Lipman, J.; Makamura, Kenji; Turturro, A.; Allaben, W.

    1992-01-01

    In evaluating the risk associated with low levels of exposure to toxicants, it is clear that DNA repair, one of the main defenses against agent damage, is not a constant. It can be modified by age, time of day, and physiological state. Nutrition, especially caloric restriction (CR), can modify almost every step in the process of protecting genomic integrity. And history of exposure can modify DNA repair. Thus, the conditions of exposure are almost as important to toxicity as the exposure itself, even at the level of DNA repair. Extrapolation from high to low dose, to be consistent with what is known, should be less a mathematical exercise than an exercise in toxicological judgement, which puts the exposure in proper perspective. This appears to be true at almost every level in the process including a response with a toxic stimulus, even those thought to be very basic, such as DNA repair

  15. Caffeine intake, toxicity and dependence and lifetime risk for psychiatric and substance use disorders: an epidemiologic and co-twin control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Myers, John; O Gardner, Charles

    2006-12-01

    Although caffeine is the most commonly used psychoactive substance and often produces symptoms of toxicity and dependence, little is known, especially in community samples, about the association between caffeine use, toxicity and dependence and risk for common psychiatric and substance use disorders. Assessments of lifetime maximal caffeine use and symptoms of caffeine toxicity and dependence were available on over 3600 adult twins ascertained from the population-based Virginia Twin Registry. Lifetime histories of major depression (MD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder, alcohol dependence, adult antisocial behavior and cannabis and cocaine abuse/dependence were obtained at personal interview. Logistic regression analyses in the entire sample and within monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs were conducted in SAS. In the entire sample, measures of maximal caffeine use, heavy caffeine use, and caffeine-related toxicity and dependence were significantly and positively associated with all seven psychiatric and substance use disorders. However, within MZ twin pairs, controlling for genetic and family environmental factors, these associations, while positive, were all non-significant. These results were similar when excluding twins who denied regular caffeine use. Maximal lifetime caffeine intake and caffeine-associated toxicity and dependence are moderately associated with risk for a wide range of psychiatric and substance use disorders. Analyses of these relationships within MZ twin pairs suggest that most of the observed associations are not causal. Rather, familial factors, which are probably in part genetic, predispose to both caffeine intake, toxicity and dependence and the risk for a broad array of internalizing and externalizing disorders.

  16. Sorbents for waste water purification from radionuclides and other toxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddalone, R.F.; MakKlenason, L.Ts.

    1996-01-01

    The TRW firm (USA) developed the system for sorption and disposal of radionuclides, heavy metals and organic substances, based on utilization of carbon sorbents. The sorbent is produced through processing natural coal by alkali-salt solution and has a large specific pores surface (up to 1000 m 2 /g). The sorbent carboxyl ionogenic groups are able of absorbing heavy metals cations from waste waters. Sorption by uranium constituted 30 mg/l. The sorbent with absorbed substances may be burnt (it contains no sulfur) or delivered for vitrification. The volume of disposed materials constitutes in comparison with existing techniques for uranium isotopes 420000 : 1. The costs are reduced up to 0.26 doll/m 2 of reprocessed water. 2 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  17. The pT-value as environmental policy indicator for the exposure to toxic substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff W; de Zwart D

    1991-01-01

    This report contains a proposal for an indicator to measure the effectivity of the environmental policy with regard to the theme "Verspreiding" of the Directorate-General for Environmental Protection. It is recommended to use a method which indicates the toxicity of organic pollutants as

  18. 76 FR 38169 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... (7405M), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania... gold leaf, dyeing mixtures, antifreeze mixtures, extraction of resins and waxes, preservative for...: June 21, 2011. Maria J. Doa, Director, Chemical Control Division, Office of Pollution Prevention and...

  19. Review of the use of Ceramium tenuicorne growth inhibition test for testing toxicity of substances, effluents, products sediment and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Britta

    2017-08-01

    A growth inhibition test has been developed based on two clones of the red macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne, one originating from 7 PSU and the other from 20 PSU. The species can be adapted to different salinities and the test can be carried out between 4 and 32 PSU. This test became an ISO standard in 2010 (ISO 107 10) for testing of chemicals and water effluents. In this study new and published data has been compiled on toxicity of single substances, waste waters from pulp mills, leachates from antifouling paints, harbour sediments and soil used for maintenance of leisure boats. The results show that the alga is sensitive to both metals and organic compounds and to biocides used in antifouling paints. By testing leachates from antifouling paints these could be ranked according to their toxicity. Similarly, the toxicity of waste waters from pulp mills was determined and the efficiency of secondary treatment evaluated. Further, the test method proved useful to test the toxicity in sediment samples. Sediments from small town harbours and ship lanes were shown to be harmful and compounds originating from antifouling paints were responsible for a large part of the inhibiting effect. The alga proved to be sensitive to contaminants leaking from boat yard soil. The growth inhibition test is a robust test that has high repeatability and reproducibility and easily can be applied on water, soil and sediment samples without being too costly. The species is found worl-wide in temperate waters, which makes the results relevant for large areas. In the Baltic Sea C. tenuicorne is the most common red alga species and is thus particularly relevant for this area. The overall results show that contaminants from boat activities and the use of antifouling paints in particular pose a threat to the environment.

  20. Mixture and single-substance toxicity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors toward algae and crustaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Munch; Faaborg-Andersen, S.; Ingerslev, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are used as antidepressant medications. primarily in the treatment of clinical depression. They are among the pharmaceuticals most often Prescribed in the industrialized countries. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are compounds with an identi......Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are used as antidepressant medications. primarily in the treatment of clinical depression. They are among the pharmaceuticals most often Prescribed in the industrialized countries. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are compounds...... with an identical mechanism of action in mammals (inhibit reuptake of serotonin), and they have been found in different aqeous as well as biological samples collected in the environment. In the present study, we tested the toxicities of five SSRIs (citalopram, fluoxetine, fluoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline.......027 to 1.6 mg/L, and in daphnids, test EC50s ranged from 0.92 to 20 mg/L, with sertraline being one of the most toxic compounds. The test design and statistical analysis of results from mixture tests were based on isobole analysis. It was demonstrated that the mixture toxicity of the SSRIs in the two...

  1. Use of environmental health-risk analysis for managing toxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.

    1985-03-01

    This paper presents a set of simple models used to assess health risks based on toxicity, environmental mobility and persistence. These models use a representative landscape in order to describe the steady-state distribution of arsenic, tritiated water, and TCDD as a result of continuous additions to soil. This information is used to assess potential exposures. Application of the screening model to three chemically different carcinogens reveals that the environmental health risk does not scale with direct measures of toxicity. As estimated here, the environmental health risk of TCDD relative to tritiated water and arsenic is roughly an order of magnitude less than its cancer potency relative to these compounds. The difference is attributable in large part to the immobility of TCDD relative to tritium and the lower persistence of TCDD compared to arsenic. The purpose is to present a simple procedure for using the relative behavior of toxic species under prototype conditions as a basis for risk management. 21 refs., 4 tabs

  2. Human contamination by persistent toxic substances: the rationale to improve exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Miquel

    2015-10-01

    We know quite a lot about the generalized human contamination by environmental chemical agents; this statement is fully compatible with the view that most countries lack the necessary monitoring systems. We also know quite a lot about the toxic effects of environmental pollutants; this statement is fully compatible with the proposal that we need both more research and more energetic policies to decrease human contamination by such pollutants. Unsurprisingly, we know too little about the (environmental and social) causes and the etiopathogenesis (mechanisms) of the most prevalent diseases, and we will continue to miss relevant causes and mechanisms if we neglect the toxic chemicals that commonly contaminate humans, worldwide. Basic, clinical end environmental-epidemiological research on human health should more often consider integrating biomarkers of internal dose of environmental chemical pollutants. When we act in more responsible, rational, and scientific ways; when we become less dismissive towards environmental hazards; and when we thus neglect less the generalized human contamination by environmental chemical agents and their toxic effects, we will expand mechanistic biologic knowledge, and we shall as well increase the effectiveness of interventions and policies that enable the primary prevention of human diseases which cause huge amounts of economic burden and human suffering.

  3. QSAR pre-screen of 70,983 substances for genotoxic carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and developmental toxicity in the EU FP7 project ChemScreen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedebye, Eva Bay; Dybdahl, Marianne; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev

    2014-01-01

    be performed in REACH on known genotoxic carcinogens or germ cell mutagens with appropriate risk management measures implemented, a QSAR pre-screen for genotoxic carcinogenicity, germ cell mutagenicity and (limited) developmental toxicity was included in the project. Predictions for estrogenic and anti...... algorithms were applied to combine the predictions from the individual models to reach overall predictions for genotoxic carcinogenicity, germ cell mutagenicity and developmental toxicity. Furthermore, the full list of REACH pre-registered substances (143,835) was searched for substances containing certain...

  4. The toxic exposure of flamingos to per- and Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from firefighting foam applications in Bonaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Pepijn; Slijkerman, Diana M E; Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Kotterman, Michiel J J; Posthuma, Leo; de Zwart, Dick; Murk, Albertinka J; Foekema, Edwin M

    2017-11-15

    In 2010 an oil terminal next to nature reservation Saliña Goto (Bonaire) caught fire. Firefighting resulted in elevated per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) concentrations in the salt lake. Within months flamingo abundance in Goto dropped to near complete absence. After statistical analysis, rainfall was deemed an unlikely cause for this decline. Toxicological effects on abundance of prey are likely the main cause for the flamingo absence. This reduced PFAS exposure via food and thus risk towards flamingos during the first years after the fires. Although the sediment is still polluted with persistent PFAS, flamingos returned, and started to feed on organisms with PFAS levels that exceed safety thresholds, placing the birds and other wildlife at risk. Monitoring bird populations is advised to assess potential toxic effects on birds and their offspring. This case suggests that applying persistent chemicals to reduce incident impacts may be more harmful than the incident itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Operations, Level III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    A Level III pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator to evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options for various waste streams: The main objective of this study was to identify and evaluate options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the TSCA Incinerator operations to realize significant environmental and/or economic benefits from P2. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hierarchy to (1) reduce the quantity of waste generated, (2) recycle the waste, and/or (3) use alternate waste treatment or segregation methods. This report provides process descriptions, identification and evaluation of P2 options, and final recommendations

  6. Clearing of toxic substances: are there differences between the available liver support devices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisper, Peter; Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Stauber, Rudolf E

    2011-09-01

    Toxins accumulating in liver failure split into water solved (e.g. ammonia) and albumin bound substances (e.g. bilirubin). Because the latter cannot be removed by conventional haemodialysis, special liver support systems have been developed. The majority of data concerning elimination efficiency exist for the cell-free devices Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) and Prometheus, as they have been commercially available in Europe since many years. Overall, Prometheus provides higher clearances for most liver toxins, especially if they are tightly albumin bound. However, for bile acids and cytokines no such differences could be found. Single pass albumin dialysis (SPAD) can be assumed to be equally effective as MARS. None of the bioartificial liver support systems being developed is on the market today and published clearance data are scarce. In general, clearance efficiency for albumin bound substances is relatively low in all systems currently available. Besides optimizing biocompatibility and selectivity, future technologies should also focus on improved detoxification efficiency of liver support devices. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Assessment of the levels of potentially toxic substances around a transect of anthrosols in Aqaba shoreline, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahsha, Mohammad; Al-Rousan, Saber; Al-Jawasreh, Raid

    2016-04-01

    Soils are the major sink for potentially toxic substances (PTSs) such as heavy metals released into the environment by emissions from the quickly increasing of human impact including industrial mine tailings, disposal of high metal wastes, land misuse, wastewater irrigation, spillage of petrochemicals, and atmospheric deposition. The present study concerns the properties variability and soil biological health status in abandoned salt transportation port site in the Jordanian coast of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Seven sites were selected according to different morphological and pedological conditions, anthropogenic impact and the same climate conditions. Successively, all locations were sampled for topsoil in the period between spring-summer 2014. Field observations as well as laboratory analysis including heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn); soil chemo-physical parameters (pH, soil dry mass, carbonate, water holding, organic carbon content, soil particle size distribution), and quality of soil's biological community were determined. The anthropogenic influence related to former port activity on soils of the studied area is evident. Soils in the studied area site are highly contaminated by PTSs, mainly Cu and Zn, by 648, 298.6 mgKg-1respectively. Former activities proved to affect the microarthropods community altering both quantity and quality of soil and the chemo-physical structure of the microhabitats. The evaluation of soil biological quality index (QBS-ar) of the surface horizons from the study area is demonstrated that the area is "sufferings" since it is affected by PTSs contamination resulting in a failure in the ecological success of secondary recolonization after abandonment. However, there is an increasing need for further research in the soils of Aqaba focusing on soil health management , combining QBS-ar index with soil chemo-physical properties. Key words: Potentially Toxic Substances, Heavy Metals, Soil Quality.

  8. Use of computer-assisted prediction of toxic effects of chemical substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon-Hettich, Brigitte; Rothfuss, Andreas; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The current revision of the European policy for the evaluation of chemicals (REACH) has lead to a controversy with regard to the need of additional animal safety testing. To avoid increases in animal testing but also to save time and resources, alternative in silico or in vitro tests for the assessment of toxic effects of chemicals are advocated. The draft of the original document issued in 29th October 2003 by the European Commission foresees the use of alternative methods but does not give further specification on which methods should be used. Computer-assisted prediction models, so-called predictive tools, besides in vitro models, will likely play an essential role in the proposed repertoire of 'alternative methods'. The current discussion has urged the Advisory Committee of the German Toxicology Society to present its position on the use of predictive tools in toxicology. Acceptable prediction models already exist for those toxicological endpoints which are based on well-understood mechanism, such as mutagenicity and skin sensitization, whereas mechanistically more complex endpoints such as acute, chronic or organ toxicities currently cannot be satisfactorily predicted. A potential strategy to assess such complex toxicities will lie in their dissection into models for the different steps or pathways leading to the final endpoint. Integration of these models should result in a higher predictivity. Despite these limitations, computer-assisted prediction tools already today play a complementary role for the assessment of chemicals for which no data is available or for which toxicological testing is impractical due to the lack of availability of sufficient compounds for testing. Furthermore, predictive tools offer support in the screening and the subsequent prioritization of compound for further toxicological testing, as expected within the scope of the European REACH program. This program will also lead to the collection of high-quality data which will broaden the

  9. Symposium on Toxic Substance Control: Decontamination, April 22 - 24, 1980, Columbus, Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    the form of water and carbon dioxide or nontoxic solids that can be landfilled without environmental hazard. Toxic Military Wastes Disposal of...have generated sound intensities of over 100 decibels. 20 THERMAL DEFLECTION When the modulated C02 laser is abosrbed in a gas sample, both acoustic...pressure to propylene pressure. An "X" in a column denotes that the product gas was absent. Irradiation, C3H6 C 4 C2H4 C 3OHC carbon propylene methane

  10. Potassium Dichromate as a Reference Substance for Embryonic Tests of Toxicity in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krejčí

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 has already been used as a reference substance in tests of toxicity with aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to determine and compare values of LC50 for potassium dichromate during the whole period of embryonic development (i.e., 120 h and 48 h after hatching of embryos in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Fish eggs and embryos were exposed to 5 different concentrations of potassium dichromate (i.e., 372, 409, 450, 495, 545 mg l-1 during two experiments. Such characteristics as the cumulative mortality, the start and the end of hatching, the number of deformities, body length, and body mass of surviving individuals were studied during the tests. The highest mortality was found in the hatched embryos. Mortality and frequency of deformities increased with the growing concentration of potassium dichromate. The value of 120 LC50 for potassium dichromate was 464.91 ± 23.83 mg l-1 and the value of 48 LC50 was 458.94 ± 4.14 mg l-1 (mean ± SD. No statistically significant difference between values 120 LC50 a 48 LC50 was found. This is why reduction of the exposure period to only 48 h after hatching seems a reasonable method to study the control of susceptibility using potassium dichromate in embryonic tests of toxicity.

  11. Integrative rodent models for assessing male reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine active substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Auger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, we first summarize the main benefits, limitations and pitfalls of conventional in vivo approaches to assessing male reproductive structures and functions in rodents in cases of endocrine active substance (EAS exposure from the postulate that they may provide data that can be extrapolated to humans. Then, we briefly present some integrated approaches in rodents we have recently developed at the organism level. We particularly focus on the possible effects and modes of action (MOA of these substances at low doses and in mixtures, real-life conditions and at the organ level, deciphering the precise effects and MOA on the fetal testis. It can be considered that the in vivo experimental EAS exposure of rodents remains the first choice for studies and is a necessary tool (together with the epidemiological approach for understanding the reproductive effects and MOA of EASs, provided the pitfalls and limitations of the rodent models are known and considered. We also provide some evidence that classical rodent models may be refined for studying the multiple consequences of EAS exposure, not only on the reproductive axis but also on various hormonally regulated organs and tissues, among which several are implicated in the complex process of mammalian reproduction. Such models constitute an interesting way of approaching human exposure conditions. Finally, we show that organotypic culture models are powerful complementary tools, especially when focusing on the MOA. All these approaches have contributed in a combinatorial manner to a better understanding of the impact of EAS exposure on human reproduction.

  12. Accumulation of chlorinated and brominated persistent toxic substances (PTS) and their relationship to testosterone suppression in Norway rats from Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasuga, T.; Senthilkumar, K. [Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc. (Japan); Ishizuka, M.; Fujita, S. [Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido Univ. (Japan); Tanikawa, R. [Inst. of Tech., Ikari Corp. (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Contamination of chlorinated/brominated persistent toxic substances (PTS) such as polychlorinated, -dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs), -biphenyls (PCBs), - organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) {l_brace}e.g., aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, chlordane compounds [cis/transchlordane, cis/trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide], hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDTs) and its metabolities [o,p/p,p'-DDD and DDE] and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs){r_brace} and -brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are considered to important class of chemicals due to persistence in nature, bioaccumulation potential and adverse health effects in wildlife and humans. Among South East Asian countries, Japan reported to contaminated with aforesaid chemicals with considerable amounts. There is no document reports contamination of PTS in wild animals, which in-habit near humans. Norway rat (NR) inhabits not only near human environment but also distributed worldwide. Especially, NR feeds on human waste and shelter in and around human environment and thus exposure of toxic contaminants in this animal considered to similar with those in humans. In addition, rats have unique physiology that match with humans (e.g., they have similar pathogens as humans have). Therefore, analysis of toxic contaminants in NR considered as indirect measure in humans. Considering those facts, in this study, we analyzed NR collected from urban area, rural area, waste dumping or land fill site and isolated remote island from Japan. Particularly several chlorinated and brominated organic contaminants such as PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, chlordane compounds, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, HCB, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and PBDEs were analyzed in rat livers by isotope dilution technique using HRGC-HRMS. In addition, laboratory Wistar rats (WR) were used as control.

  13. Ameliorating effects of extracellular polymeric substances excreted by Thalassiosira pseudonana on algal toxicity of CdSe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Saijin, E-mail: zhangs@tamug.edu [Department of Marine Science, Texas A and M University at Galveston, 200 Seawolf Parkway, Galveston, TX 77553 (United States); Jiang Yuelu, E-mail: jyuelu@gmail.com [Department of Marine Biology, Texas A and M University at Galveston, 200 Seawolf Parkway, Galveston, TX 77553 (United States); Chen, Chi-Shuo, E-mail: chen.chishuo@gmail.com [School of Engineering, University of California - Merced, Merced, CA 95344 (United States); Creeley, Danielle [Department of Marine Science, Texas A and M University at Galveston, 200 Seawolf Parkway, Galveston, TX 77553 (United States); Schwehr, Kathleen A., E-mail: schwerhk@tamug.edu [Department of Marine Science, Texas A and M University at Galveston, 200 Seawolf Parkway, Galveston, TX 77553 (United States); Quigg, Antonietta, E-mail: quigga@tamug.edu [Department of Marine Biology, Texas A and M University at Galveston, 200 Seawolf Parkway, Galveston, TX 77553 (United States); Department of Oceanography, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Chin, Wei-Chun, E-mail: wchin2@ucmerced.edu [School of Engineering, University of California - Merced, Merced, CA 95344 (United States); Santschi, Peter H., E-mail: santschi@tamug.edu [Department of Marine Science, Texas A and M University at Galveston, 200 Seawolf Parkway, Galveston, TX 77553 (United States); Department of Oceanography, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Quantum dots (QDs) are engineered nanoparticles (ENs) that have found increasing applications and shown great potential in drug delivery, biological imaging and industrial products. Knowledge of their stability, fate and transport in the aquatic environment is still lacking, including details of how these nanomaterials interact with marine phytoplankton. Here, we examined the toxicity of functionalized CdSe/ZnS QDs (amine- and carboxyl-) by exposing them for five days to Thalassiosira pseudonana (marine diatom) grown under different nutrient-conditions (enriched versus nitrogen-limited media). The released polysaccharides and proteins, the major components of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), were measured to assess their potential effects on the interactions between QDs and T. pseudonana. The partitioning of QDs was analyzed by monitoring the concentration of Cd in different size fractions of the cultures (i.e., filtrate, <0.22 {mu}m and permeate, <3 kDa). We found that the Cd release of QDs in the T. pseudonana culture was dependent on the nutrient conditions and nature of QDs' surface coating. Both amine- and carboxyl-functionalized QDs exhibited higher rates of Cd release in N-limited cultures than in nutrient enriched cultures. The results also showed that amine-functionalized QDs aggregate with minimal Cd release, independent of nutrient conditions. Laser scanning confocal microscopy images confirmed that aggregates are composed of QDs and the culture matrix (EPS). In addition, both types of QDs showed limited toxicity to T. pseudonana. The increasing production of proteins induced by QDs suggests that extracellular proteins might be involved in the detoxification of QDs to T. pseudonana via the Cd release of QDs. Our results here demonstrated that EPS can play an ameliorating role in QD toxicity, fate and transport in the aquatic environment.

  14. Raising awareness of new psychoactive substances: chemical analysis and in vitro toxicity screening of 'legal high' packages containing synthetic cathinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ana Margarida; Valente, Maria João; Carvalho, Márcia; Dias da Silva, Diana; Gaspar, Helena; Carvalho, Félix; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2015-05-01

    The world's status quo on recreational drugs has dramatically changed in recent years due to the rapid emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), represented by new narcotic or psychotropic drugs, in pure form or in preparation, which are not controlled by international conventions, but that may pose a public health threat comparable with that posed by substances listed in these conventions. These NPS, also known as 'legal highs' or 'smart drugs', are typically sold via Internet or 'smartshops' as legal alternatives to controlled substances, being announced as 'bath salts' and 'plant feeders' and is often sought after for consumption especially among young people. Although NPS have the biased reputation of being safe, the vast majority has hitherto not been tested and several fatal cases have been reported, namely for synthetic cathinones, with pathological patterns comparable with amphetamines. Additionally, the unprecedented speed of appearance and distribution of the NPS worldwide brings technical difficulties in the development of analytical procedures and risk assessment in real time. In this study, 27 products commercialized as 'plant feeders' were chemically characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It was also evaluated, for the first time, the in vitro hepatotoxic effects of individual synthetic cathinones, namely methylone, pentedrone, 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Two commercial mixtures ('Bloom' and 'Blow') containing mainly cathinone derivatives were also tested, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) was used as the reference drug. The study allowed the identification of 19 compounds, showing that synthetic cathinones are the main active compounds present in these products. Qualitative and quantitative variability was found in products sold with the same trade name in matching or different 'smartshops'. In the toxicity studies performed in

  15. Assessment of toxic and endocrine potential of substances migrating from selected toys and baby products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepańska, Natalia; Namieśnik, Jacek; Kudłak, Błażej

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of literature data shows that there is limited information about the harmful biological effects of mixture of compounds from the EDC group that are released from the surface of toys and objects intended for children and infants. One of the tools that can be used to obtain such information is appropriate bioanalytical tests. The aim of this research involved determining whether tests that use living organisms as an active element (Vibrio fischeri-Microtox®, Heterocypris incongruens-Ostrocodtoxkit F™ and the XenoScreen YES/YAS™ test of oestrogenic/androgenic activity) can be a tool for estimating the combined toxic effects induced by xenobiotics released from objects intended for children. To reproduce the conditions to which objects are exposed during their use, liquids with a composition corresponding to that of human bodily fluids (artificial sweat and saliva) were used. This research focused on the main parameters influencing the intensification of the migration process (temperature, contact time and composition of the extraction mixture). The studies aimed to estimate the endocrine potential of the extracts showed that compounds released from the surface of studied objects exhibit antagonistic androgenic activity. While on the basis of the results of Microtox® test, one can state that the largest quantity of toxic compounds are released in the first 2 h of using the object. The FTIR spectra analyses confirmed that no degradation of polymeric material took place. On the basis of the results obtained, it was unanimously concluded that contact of the object with bodily fluids may result in the release of a large number of xenobiotics, which has disadvantageous effects on the metabolic processes of the indicator organisms.

  16. Large Scale Numerical Modelling to Study the Dispersion of Persistent Toxic Substances Over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulinger, A.; Petersen, G.

    2003-12-01

    For the past two decades environmental research at the GKSS Research Centre has been concerned with airborne pollutants with adverse effects on human health. The research was mainly focused on investigating the dispersion and deposition of heavy metals like lead and mercury over Europe by means of numerical modelling frameworks. Lead, in particular, served as a model substance to study the relationship between emissions and human exposition. The major source of airborne lead in Germany was fuel combustion until the 1980ies when its use as gasoline additive declined due to political decisions. Since then, the concentration of lead in ambient air and the deposition rates decreased in the same way as the consumption of leaded fuel. These observations could further be related to the decrease of lead concentrations in human blood measured during medical studies in several German cities. Based on the experience with models for heavy metal transport and deposition we have now started to turn our research focus to organic substances, e.g. PAHs. PAHs have been recognized as significant air borne carcinogens for several decades. However, it is not yet possible to precisely quantify the risk of human exposure to those compounds. Physical and chemical data, known from literature, describing the partitioning of the compounds between particle and gas phase and their degradation in the gas phase are implemented in a tropospheric chemistry module. In this way, the fate of PAHs in the atmosphere due to different particle type and size and different meteorological conditions is tested before carrying out large-scale and long-time studies. First model runs have been carried out for Benzo(a)Pyrene as one of the principal carcinogenic PAHs. Up to now, nearly nothing is known about degradation reactions of particle bound BaP. Thus, they could not be taken into account in the model so far. On the other hand, the proportion of BaP in the gas phase has to be considered at higher ambient

  17. QSAR screening of 70,983 REACH substances for genotoxic carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and developmental toxicity in the ChemScreen project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedebye, Eva Bay; Dybdahl, Marianne; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev

    2015-01-01

    The ChemScreen project aimed to develop a screening system for reproductive toxicity based on alternative methods. QSARs can, if adequate, contribute to the evaluation of chemical substances under REACH and may in some cases be applied instead of experimental testing to fill data gaps...... for information requirements. As no testing for reproductive effects should be performed in REACH on known genotoxic carcinogens or germ cell mutagens with appropriate risk management measures implemented, a QSAR pre-screen for 70,983 REACH substances was performed. Sixteen models and three decision algorithms...... were used to reach overall predictions of substances with potential effects with the following result: 6.5% genotoxic carcinogens, 16.3% mutagens, 11.5% developmental toxicants. These results are similar to findings in earlier QSAR and experimental studies of chemical inventories, and illustrate how...

  18. Analytical solution using computer algebra of a biosensor for detecting toxic substances in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rúa Taborda, María. Isabel

    2014-05-01

    In a relatively recent paper an electrochemical biosensor for water toxicity detection based on a bio-chip as a whole cell was proposed and numerically solved and analyzed. In such paper the kinetic processes in a miniaturized electrochemical biosensor system was described using the equations for specific enzymatic reaction and the diffusion equation. The numerical solution shown excellent agreement with the measured data but such numerical solution is not enough to design efficiently the corresponding bio-chip. For this reason an analytical solution is demanded. The object of the present work is to provide such analytical solution and then to give algebraic guides to design the bio-sensor. The analytical solution is obtained using computer algebra software, specifically Maple. The method of solution is the Laplace transform, with Bromwich integral and residue theorem. The final solution is given as a series of Bessel functions and the effective time for the bio-sensor is computed. It is claimed that the analytical solutions that were obtained will be very useful to predict further current variations in similar systems with different geometries, materials and biological components. Beside of this the analytical solution that we provide is very useful to investigate the relationship between different chamber parameters such as cell radius and height; and electrode radius.

  19. Licence template for mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials; Mustergenehmigung zur ortsveraenderlichen Verwendung und Lagerung radioaktiver Stoffe im Rahmen der zerstoerungsfreien Materialpruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, A. [Niedersaechsisches Ministerium fuer Umwelt, Energie und Klimaschutz (Germany); Schumann, J. [Landesamt fuer Arbeitsschutz, Gesundheitsschutz und technische Sicherheit, Berlin (Germany); Huhn, W.

    2016-07-01

    The Technical Committee ''Radiation Protection'' (Fachausschuss ''Strahlenschutz'') and the Laender Committee ''X-ray ordinance'' (Laenderausschuss ''Roentgenverordnung'') have appointed a working group for the formulation of licence templates for the nationwide use of X-ray equipment or handling of radioactive substances. To date, the following licence templates have been adopted: - Mobile operation of X-ray equipment under technical radiography to the coarse structural analysis in material testing; - Mobile operation of a handheld X-ray fluorescence system; - Mobile operation of a flash X-ray system; - Operation of an X-ray system for teleradiology The licence template ''Mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials'' is scheduled for publication. The licence template ''Practices in external facilities and installations'' is currently being revised. The licence template ''Mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials'' is used as an example to demonstrate the legal framework and the results of the working group.

  20. Impacts and Compliance Implementation Plans and Required Deviations for Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) Regulation of Double Shell Tanks (DST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    In May 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held meetings regarding the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hanford tank waste. It was decided that the radioactive waste currently stored in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) contain waste which will become subject to the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) (40 CFR 761). As a result, DOE-ORP directed the River Protection Project tank farm contractor (TFC) to prepare plans for managing the PCB inventory in the DSTs. Two components of the PCB management plans are this assessment of the operational impacts of TSCA regulation and the identifications of deviations from TSCA that are required to accommodate tank farm unique limitations. This plan provides ORP and CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) with an outline of TSCA PCB requirements and their applicability to tank farm activities, and recommends a compliance/implementation approach. Where strict compliance is not possible, the need for deviations from TSCA PCB requirements is identified. The purpose of assembling this information is to enhance the understanding of PCB management requirements, identify operational impacts and select impact mitigation strategies. This information should be useful in developing formal agreements with EPA where required

  1. Field testing of particulate matter continuous emission monitors at the DOE Oak Ridge TSCA incinerator. Toxic Substances Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James E; Davis, Wayne T; Calcagno, James A; Allen, Marshall W

    2002-01-01

    A field study to evaluate the performance of three commercially available particulate matter (PM) continuous emission monitors (CEMs) was conducted in 1999-2000 at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. This study offers unique features that are believed to enhance the collective US experience with PM CEMs. The TSCA Incinerator is permitted to treat PCB-contaminated RCRA hazardous low-level radioactive wastes. The air pollution control system utilizes MACT control technology and is comprised of a rapid quench, venturi scrubber, packed bed scrubber, and two ionizing wet scrubbers in series, which create a saturated flue gas that must be conditioned by the CEMs prior to measurement. The incinerator routinely treats a wide variety of wastes including high and low BTU organic liquids, aqueous, and solid wastes. The various possible combinations for treating liquid and solid wastes may present a challenge in establishing a single, acceptable correlation relationship for individual CEMs. The effect of low-level radioactive material present in the waste is a unique site-specific factor not evaluated in previous tests. The three systems chosen for evaluation were two beta gauge devices and a light scattering device. The performance of the CEMs was evaluated using the requirements in draft Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 11 (PS11) and Procedure 2. The results of Reference Method 5i stack tests for establishing statistical correlations between the reference method data and the CEMs responses are discussed.

  2. Overview of major hazards. Part 2: Source term; dispersion; combustion; blast, missiles, venting; fire; radiation; runaway reactions; toxic substances; dust explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, J.

    Approaches to major hazard assessment and prediction are reviewed. Source term: (phenomenology/modeling of release, influence on early stages of dispersion); dispersion (atmospheric advection, diffusion and deposition, emphasis on dense/cold gases); combustion (flammable clouds and mists covering flash fires, deflagration, transition to detonation; mostly unconfined/partly confined situations); blast formation, propagation, interaction with structures; catastrophic fires (pool fires, torches and fireballs; highly reactive substances) runaway reactions; features of more general interest; toxic substances, excluding toxicology; and dust explosions (phenomenology and protective measures) are discussed.

  3. Export Mechanisms of Persistent Toxic Substances (PTSs) in Urban Land Uses during Rainfall-Runoff Events: Experimental and Modeling Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Luo, X.; Lin, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The urban environment has a variety of Persistent Toxic Substances (PTS), such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mercury. Soil in pervious lands and dust deposited on impervious surfaces are two major sinks of PTSs in urbanized areas, which could contribute significant nonpoint source loadings of PTSs to adjacent waterbodies during rainfall-runoff events and therefore jeopardize aquatic ecosystems. However, PTSs have been much less understood regarding their export mechanisms in urban land uses, and efforts to model nonpoint source pollution processes of PTSs have been rare. We designed and performed in-lab rainfall-runoff simulation experiments to investigate transport of PAHs and mercury by runoff from urban soils. Organic petrology analysis (OPA) techniques were introduced to analyze the soil and sediment compositions. Our study revealed the limitation of the classic enrichment theory which attributes enrichment of pollutants in eroded sediment solely to the sediment's particle size distribution and adopts simple relationships between enrichment ratio and sediment flux. We found that carbonaceous materials (CMs) in soil are the direct and major sorbents for PAHs and mercury, and highly different in content, mobility and adsorption capacity for the PTSs. Anthropogenic CMs like black carbon components largely control the transport of soil PAHs, while humic substances have a dominant influence on the transport of soil mercury. A model was further developed to estimate the enrichment ratio of PAHs, which innovatively applies the fugacity concept.We also conducted field studies on export of PAHs by runoff from urban roads. A variable time-step model was developed to simulate the continuous cycles of PAH buildup and washoff on urban roads. The dependence of the pollution level on antecedent weather conditions was investigated and embodied in the model. The applicability of this approach and its value to environmental management was demonstrated by a case

  4. Use and acute toxicity associated with the novel psychoactive substances diphenylprolinol (D2PM) and desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David M; Dargan, Paul I

    2012-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been greater use of novel psychoactive substances ('legal highs') across Europe and the United States, including increasing reports of use of diphenylprolinol (D2PM) and desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP). This review will discuss the pharmacology and mechanisms of action of these two compounds, available data on their sources and prevalence of use and reports of acute toxicity and fatalities associated with their use. PubMed was searched using the search terms 'D2PM', '2-DPMP', 'diphenyl-2-pyrrolidinyl-methanol', 'diphenylprolinol', '2-diphenylmethylpiperidine' and 'desoxypipradrol'. These searches identified 70 articles, only five of which were relevant. PHARMACOLOGY AND MECHANISMS OF ACTION: D2PM is a pyrrolidine analogue and 2-DPMP is a desoxy analogue of pipradrol. Animal studies have shown that 2-DPMP increases the release of dopamine and decreases dopamine re-uptake comparable to the effects of cocaine. The binding and activity of D2PM at the dopamine re-uptake transporter, based on currently published data, is also similar to cocaine, although it appears that D2PM has less biological activity. SOURCES AND PREVALENCE OF USE: D2PM and 2-DPMP is available from internet-based suppliers and street level drug dealers; there is currently no systematic data to be able to determine the relative importance of these routes of supply. There is no population level, and limited subpopulation level, data on the prevalence of use of D2PM/2-DPMP. In one 2011 study, 1.6% of 315 individuals in 'gay friendly' nightclubs in South London reported that they had used a pipradrol: 1.0% had used within the last year and 0.6% had used or were planning to use a pipradrol on the night of the survey. ACUTE TOXICITY: Reports on internet discussion fora describe prolonged euphoria and stimulant effects including euphoria, sweating and bruxism with use of D2PM and 2-DPMP. The first report of analytically confirmed acute D2PM toxicity described chest pain and

  5. Handling and Transport Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomarola, J. [Head of Technical Section, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France); Savouyaud, J. [Head of Electro-Mechanical Sub-Division, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    Arrangements for special or dangerous transport operations by road arising out of the activities of the Atomic Energy Commission are made by the Works and Installations Division which acts in concert with the Monitoring and Protection Division (MPD) whenever radioactive substances or appliances are involved. In view of the risk of irradiation and contamination entailed in handling and transporting radioactive substances, including waste, a specialized transport and storage team has been formed as a complement to the emergency and decontamination teams.

  6. Toxic Substances Portal- Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is found at low levels in breast milk. top How can families reduce their risk for exposure to arsenic? If you use arsenic-treated wood in home projects, you should wear dust masks, gloves, and protective clothing to decrease exposure to sawdust. ...

  7. Marine chemistry, fish / shell-fish surveys, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data from current meter and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from 1993-01-26 to 1994-06-13 (NODC Accession 9500088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine chemistry, fish / shell-fish surveys, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data were collected using current meter and other...

  8. Current direction, chemical, and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1978-09-09 to 1979-11-19 (NODC Accession 8000043)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and chemical data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  9. Benthic organisms and marine toxic substances and pollutants collected using sediment sampler and net casts from the GUS III and EXCELLENCE in the Gulf of Mexico from 1978-05-24 to 1979-02-26 (NODC Accession 7900304)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms and marine toxic substances and pollutants were collected using sediment sampler and net casts in the Gulf of Mexico. Data were submitted by Texas...

  10. Benthic organisms and marine toxic substances and pollutants collected using net and sediment samplers from the MT MITCHELL and other platforms from 22 May 1974 to 27 May 1974 (NODC Accession 7800886)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms and marine toxic substances and pollutants were collected using sediment sampler and net casts in the coastal waters of the East coast of US. Data...

  11. Chemical, zooplankton, and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1978-06-02 to 1979-06-02 (NODC Accession 8000002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, zooplankton, and marine toxic substances data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from June 2, 1978...

  12. Marine toxic substance and other data from the Gulf of Alaska from the MOANA WAVE as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program from 1976-06-25 to 078 July 1976 (NCEI Accession 7601849)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine toxic substance and other data were collected in the Gulf of Alaska from the MOANA WAVE. Data were collected by Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL)...

  13. Benthic organism and marine toxic substances and pollutants collected using net and sediment sampler casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in Gulf of Mexico from 1979-07-23 to 1980-12-13 (NODC Accession 8200103)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organism and marine toxic substances and pollutants were collected using net, sediment sampler, and other instruments from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other...

  14. Benthic organisms and marine toxic substances and pollutants data collected using net casts and other instruments from the GYRE and other platforms in NW Atlantic Ocean from 11 November 1983 to 30 July 1986 (NODC Accession 8800192)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms and marine toxic substances and pollutants were collected using net casts, sediment sampler, and other instruments from the GYRE and other...

  15. Marine toxic substances and pollutants data from sediment corer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the Caribbean Sea from 1980-07-16 to 1987-11-29 (NODC Accession 8800013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine toxic substance and pollutants data were collected using sediment corer and other instruments in the Caribbean Sea from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other...

  16. Chemical, benthic organisms, zooplankton, marine toxic substances, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1979-08-30 to 1981-09-21 (NODC Accession 8200012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, marine toxic substances, benthic organisms, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf...

  17. High concentrations of protein test substances may have non-toxic effects on Daphnia magna: implications for regulatory study designs and ecological risk assessments for GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Alan; Burns, Andrea; Hamer, Mick

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory testing for possible adverse effects of insecticidal proteins on non-target organisms (NTOs) is an important part of many ecological risk assessments for regulatory decision-making about the cultivation of insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) crops. To increase confidence in the risk assessments, regulatory guidelines for effects testing specify that representative surrogate species for NTOs are exposed to concentrations of insecticidal proteins that are in excess of worst-case predicted exposures in the field. High concentrations in effects tests are achieved by using protein test substances produced in microbes, such as Escherichia coli. In a study that exposed Daphnia magna to a single high concentration of a microbial test substance containing Vip3Aa20, the insecticidal protein in MIR162 maize, small reductions in growth were observed. These effects were surprising as many other studies strongly suggest that the activity of Vip3Aa20 is limited to Lepidoptera. A plausible explanation for the effect on growth is that high concentrations of test substance have a non-toxic effect on Daphnia, perhaps by reducing its feeding rate. A follow-up study tested that hypothesis by exposing D. magna to several concentrations of Vip3Aa20, and a high concentration of a non-toxic protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). Vip3Aa20 and BSA had sporadic effects on the reproduction and growth of D. magna. The pattern of the effects suggests that they result from non-toxic effects of high concentrations of protein, and not from toxicity. The implications of these results for regulatory NTO effects testing and ERA of IRGM crops are discussed.

  18. Various possible ways to express the toxicity of radioactive substances in relation with the involved practical problems; Diverses expressions possibles de la toxicite des substances radioactives en fonction des problemes pratiques poses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H; Vacca, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Radioelements have at the same time physico-chemical and radioactive properties. It is then possible to establish two types of toxicological classifications: one in function of the weight of the radioelement, another in function of its activity. More often, the maximum permissible amounts (MPA) in the human body and the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) in air and water are expressed in microcuries by millilitre ({mu}c/ml), less frequently in micrograms by millilitre ({mu}g/ml). The comparison of these tables of MPA and MPC shows important differences in the classification of radioactive substances by order of decreasing toxicity. Plutonium and radium, being among the most toxic products when the activity is considered are far from being the most dangerous when the weight is considered. On the other hand, {sup 131}I and {sup 56}Mn, for instance appear to be among the most hazardous substances in this eventuality. This twofold consideration corresponds to two aspects of the problems of the toxicity of radioisotopes. The classification by activity is almost exclusively utilised because the toxicological measurements are based on the radioactive properties of the radioisotopes. In general, only these measurements allow to detect the very small amounts of substance usually involved. On the other hand, the toxicity related to internal contamination by radioisotopes depends mostly from their metabolism which is exclusively a function of their physico-chemical properties. Therefore the classification by weight gives the best representation of the hazards encountered when radioactive substances are inhaled or ingested. As a result, the relative toxicity of radioisotopes cannot be based on the classification by activity only. The present division of radioisotopes into different classes: very hazardous, moderately hazardous, slightly hazardous must be revised. (author) [French] Les radioelements presentent a la fois des proprietes physico-chimiques banales et des

  19. Impact of certain household micropollutants on bacterial behavior. Toxicity tests/study of extracellular polymeric substances in sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquini, Laure [Laboratoire Environnement et Minéralurgie-CNRS, Université de Lorraine, 15 Avenue du Charmois, 54501 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Merlin, Christophe [Laboratoire de Chimie, Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement-CNRS, Université de Lorraine, 15 Avenue du Charmois, 54501 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Hassenboehler, Lucille [Laboratoire Environnement et Minéralurgie-CNRS, Université de Lorraine, 15 Avenue du Charmois, 54501 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Munoz, Jean-François [Laboratoire d' Hydrologie de Nancy, ANSES, 40 rue Lionnois, 54000 Nancy (France); Pons, Marie-Noëlle [Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés-CNRS, Université de Lorraine, 1 Rue Grandville, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France); Görner, Tatiana [Laboratoire Environnement et Minéralurgie-CNRS, Université de Lorraine, 15 Avenue du Charmois, 54501 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France)

    2013-10-01

    The impact of eight household micropollutants (erythromycin, ofloxacin, ibuprofen, 4-nonylphenol, triclosan, sucralose, PFOA and PFOS (PFAAs)) on the laboratory bacterial strain Escherichia coli MG1655 and on activated sludge from an urban wastewater treatment plant was studied. Growth-based toxicity tests on E. coli were performed for each micropollutants. The effect of micropollutants on activated sludge (at concentrations usually measured in wastewater up to concentrations disturbing the bacterial growth of E. coli) was examined in batch reactors and by comparison to a control reactor (without micropollutants). The bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secreted by the sludge were measured by size exclusion chromatography and their overexpression was considered as an indicator of bacteria sensitivity to environmental changes. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the ammonium concentration were monitored to evaluate the biomass ability to remove the macropollution. Some micropollutants induced an increase of bound EPS in activated sludge flocs at concentrations depending on the micropollutant: erythromycin from 100 μg/L, ofloxacin from 10 μg/L, triclosan from 0.5 μg/L, 4-nonylphenol from 5000 μg/L and PFAAs from 0.1 μg/L. This suggests that the biomass had to cope with new conditions. Moreover, at high concentrations of erythromycin (10 mg/L) and ibuprofen (5 mg/L) bacterial populations were no longer able to carry out the removal of macropollution. Ibuprofen induced a decrease of bound EPS at all the studied concentrations, probably reflecting a decrease of general bacterial activity. The biomass was not sensitive to sucralose in terms of EPS production, however at very high concentration (1 g/L) it inhibited the COD decrease. Micropollution removal was also assessed. Ibuprofen, erythromycin, ofloxacin, 4-nonylphenol and triclosan were removed from wastewater, mainly by biodegradation. Sucralose and PFOA were not removed from wastewater at all, and

  20. Impact of certain household micropollutants on bacterial behavior. Toxicity tests/study of extracellular polymeric substances in sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquini, Laure; Merlin, Christophe; Hassenboehler, Lucille; Munoz, Jean-François; Pons, Marie-Noëlle; Görner, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    The impact of eight household micropollutants (erythromycin, ofloxacin, ibuprofen, 4-nonylphenol, triclosan, sucralose, PFOA and PFOS (PFAAs)) on the laboratory bacterial strain Escherichia coli MG1655 and on activated sludge from an urban wastewater treatment plant was studied. Growth-based toxicity tests on E. coli were performed for each micropollutants. The effect of micropollutants on activated sludge (at concentrations usually measured in wastewater up to concentrations disturbing the bacterial growth of E. coli) was examined in batch reactors and by comparison to a control reactor (without micropollutants). The bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secreted by the sludge were measured by size exclusion chromatography and their overexpression was considered as an indicator of bacteria sensitivity to environmental changes. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the ammonium concentration were monitored to evaluate the biomass ability to remove the macropollution. Some micropollutants induced an increase of bound EPS in activated sludge flocs at concentrations depending on the micropollutant: erythromycin from 100 μg/L, ofloxacin from 10 μg/L, triclosan from 0.5 μg/L, 4-nonylphenol from 5000 μg/L and PFAAs from 0.1 μg/L. This suggests that the biomass had to cope with new conditions. Moreover, at high concentrations of erythromycin (10 mg/L) and ibuprofen (5 mg/L) bacterial populations were no longer able to carry out the removal of macropollution. Ibuprofen induced a decrease of bound EPS at all the studied concentrations, probably reflecting a decrease of general bacterial activity. The biomass was not sensitive to sucralose in terms of EPS production, however at very high concentration (1 g/L) it inhibited the COD decrease. Micropollution removal was also assessed. Ibuprofen, erythromycin, ofloxacin, 4-nonylphenol and triclosan were removed from wastewater, mainly by biodegradation. Sucralose and PFOA were not removed from wastewater at all, and

  1. TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Section 8 (b) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires EPA to compile, keep current, and publish a list of each chemical substance that is manufactured or processed in the United States for TSCA uses.

  2. Safety handling of beryllium for fusion technology R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Makoto; Terai, Takayuki; Odawara, Osamu; Ashibe, Kusuo; Ohara, Atsushi.

    1992-07-01

    Feasibility of beryllium use as a blanket neutron multiplier, first wall and plasma facing material has been studied for the D-T burning experiment reactors such as ITER. Various experimental work of beryllium and its compounds will be performed under the conditions of high temperature and high energy particle exposure simulating fusion reactor conditions. Beryllium is known as a hazardous substance and its handling has been carefully controlled by various health and safe guidances and/or regulations in many countries. Japanese regulations for hazardous substance provide various guidelines on beryllium for the protection of industrial workers and environment. This report was prepared for the safe handling of beryllium in a laboratory scale experiments for fusion technology R and D such as blanket development. Major items in this report are; (1) Brief review of guidances and regulations in USA, UK and Japan. (2) Safe handling and administration manuals at beryllium facilities in INEL, LANL and JET. (3) Conceptual design study of beryllium handling facility for small to mid-scale blanket R and D. (4) Data on beryllium toxicity, example of clinical diagnosis of beryllium disease, and environmental occurence of beryllium. (5) Personnel protection tools of Japanese Industrial Standard for hazardous substance. (author) 61 refs

  3. Implementation of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Health Authority by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 greatly expanded the health authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. One of the federal agencies most affected by SARA is the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) of the U.S. Public Health Service. Among other responsibilities, ATSDR was mandated to conduct health assessments within strict time frames for each site on or proposed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List. The author will review ATSDR's efforts to address this new statutory mandate, especially for federal facilities, and will focus on different conceptual frameworks for implementing the health assessment program

  4. Some biochemical characteristics of a toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated animals in the course of the intestinal syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meter, J D; Sirota, N S [Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Rentgeno-Radiologicheskij Inst., Leningrad (USSR)

    1976-05-01

    A toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated (1300 rads) animals in the period when intestinal syndrome has developed is classified according to the parameters under study (namely, the molecular weight, UV-absorption curve, extinction coefficient, specific monosaccharides, the presence and percentage of KDA, etc.) as lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli, the main inhabitant of the gastroenteric tract of mice. That endotoxins (sensitivity to which is increased in this period of radiation sickness) are detected in the blood and organs of lethally irradiated animals, might indicate their participation in the pathogenesis of the intestinal syndrome.

  5. Some biochemical characteristics of a toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated animals in the course of the intestinal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meter, J.D.; Sirota, N.S.

    1976-01-01

    A toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated (1300 rads) animals in the period when intestinal syndrome has developed is classified according to the parameters under study (namely, the molecular weight, UV-absorption curve, extinction coefficient, specific monosaccharides, the presence and percentage of KDA, etc.) as lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli, the main inhabitant of the gastroenteric tract of mice. That endotoxins (sensitivity to which is increased in this period of radiation sickness) are detected in the blood and organs of lethally irradiated animals, might indicate their participation in the pathogenesis of the intestinal syndrome

  6. Separation of special toxic substances from the air and incinerator of offgas streams, especially of radioactive iodine and polycyclic carbon hydrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikoopour-Deylami, A.H.

    1981-11-01

    In the first part of the thesis, the adsorption of radioiodine and methyliodide on different kinds of active charcoal was studied. It was observed that untreated charcoal retains radioiodine sufficiently, while organic compounds as methyliodid could be adsorbed after pretreating with triethylenediamine even at high air velocities. In the presence of moisture in the air the efficiency dropped down to 30% of the original value. In the second part of the work an apparatus using sandfilter columns for the separation of toxic substances and thermochrome column for marking the temperature intervals was developed and posted at different places in athe filtering system of an incineration plant. After extraction of the polycyclic aromates with benzene from the column and chemical separation, the neutral fraction was split by a silicagel column and 14 toxic aromates identified by gas chromatography. It could be proven that 97 +- 2% of the polycyclic aromates were retained by the existing ceramic filter systems. (Author)

  7. Group psycho-education in patients with bipolar disorder associated with a dependency of toxic substances in patients who are in abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia González Alegre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The high comorbility that exists among psychiatric disorders and addictive is important. In the latest years it is produced an increase of the sensibility related to this problem. A great deal it is due to the demand of Mental Health Services and also due to drug dependency, as a consequence of the lack of an integral approach. Because of this fact and because of the mentioned demand, we though it should be pertinent developing a research project in order to check if the carrying the psycho-educative preventive group project out in patients with a diagnose of bipolar disorder with an abuse of drugs history and/or dependency of toxic substance in abstinence at the moment influents in a positive way in the course of the number of relapses in the toxic consumption during at least six months subsequent to the intervention. And at this way, these patients will purchase a greater consciousness of the important of healthy habits in the bipolar disorder and the recovery in the toxic substance abuse. The program will be developed in an experimental research where the patients will be randomly assigned in group control/ experimentally, the intervention will last twenty sessions, each session will be an hour and a half long and will be held weekly. In these sessions we will deal with topics related to the psychiatric disorder and the toxic consume. At the same time we will bank on the development of practical relaxation workshops on in some of the sessions with the object of providing a resource in view of stress situations.

  8. The toxic exposure of flamingos to per- and Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from firefighting foam applications in Bonaire.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Pepijn; Slijkerman, Diana M E; Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Kotterman, Michiel J J; Posthuma, Leo; de Zwart, Dick; Murk, Albertinka J; Foekema, Edwin M

    2017-01-01

    In 2010 an oil terminal next to nature reservation Saliña Goto (Bonaire) caught fire. Firefighting resulted in elevated per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) concentrations in the salt lake. Within months flamingo abundance in Goto dropped to near complete absence. After statistical analysis,

  9. The toxic exposure of flamingos to per - and Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from firefighting foam applications in Bonaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Pepijn; Slijkerman, Diana M.E.; Kwadijk, Christiaan J.A.F.; Kotterman, Michael; Posthuma, Leo; Zwart, De Dick; Murk, A.J.; Foekema, Edwin M.

    2017-01-01

    In 2010 an oil terminal next to nature reservation Saliña Goto (Bonaire) caught fire. Firefighting resulted in elevated per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) concentrations in the salt lake. Within months flamingo abundance in Goto dropped to near complete absence. After statistical analysis,

  10. The toxic exposure of flamingos to per- and Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from firefighting foam applications in Bonaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, P.; Slijkerman, D.M.E.; Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Kotterman, M.J.J.; Posthuma, L.; De Zwart, D.; Murk, A.J.; Foekema, E.M.

    2017-01-01

    In 2010 an oil terminal next to nature reservation Saliña Goto (Bonaire) caught fire. Firefighting resulted in elevated per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) concentrations in the salt lake. Within months flamingo abundance in Goto dropped to near complete absence. After statistical analysis,

  11. Process of preparing substantially organic waste liquids containing radioactive or toxic substances for safe, non-pollutive handling, transportation, and permanent storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehr, W.; Drobnik, S.; Hild, W.; Kroebel, R.; Meyer, A.; Naumann, G.

    1977-01-01

    In this process, the liquids are mixed with polymerizable mixtures consisting essentially of one or more monomeric monovinyl compounds and one or more polyvinyl compounds and polymerization catalysts, and the resulting mixtures are converted into solid blocks by polymerization at temperatures in the range of from 15 to 150 0 C. 8 claims

  12. Nabarlek evaporation and storage ponds: possible role of biological activity in the escape of toxic substances to the general environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinick, W.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to determine whether or not game birds might become contaminated with radionuclides while visiting the evaporating ponds at the Nabarlek uranium mine. The level of biological community development in the ponds and water bird activity were low. It is concluded that at present escape of radionuclides or toxic elements from the ponds as a result of biological activity is not a problem

  13. Update to agency for toxic substances and disease registry 2012 report on assessment of biota exposure to mercury originating from Savannah River Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhne, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-08-10

    The purpose of this report is to 1) update previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) assessment reports (Kvartek et al. 1994 and Halverson et al. 2008) on the fate of mercury in the Savannah River Site (SRS) environment and 2) address comments and recommendations from the review of SRS by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) concerning the evaluation of exposures to contaminants in biota originating from the SRS. The ATSDR reviewed and evaluated data from SRS, South Carolina Department of Health & Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GDNR) concerning the non-radioactive contaminant mercury. This report will provide a response and update to conclusions and recommendations made by the ATSDR.

  14. Evaluation of potentially inorganic toxic substances in sewage from treatment plants of the metropolitan region of Campinas by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Broleze, Silvana Turolla

    2013-01-01

    The increased production of sludge is a consequence of the growth of the volume of treated sewage and of the number of Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) in Brazil and, it has demanded the search of alternatives for its final disposal. Amongst the some alternatives of disposal, the agricultural use is viable, a time that the sewage is rich in organic substances, macro and micronutrients necessary to the soil fertility. However, the illegal industrial releases at public sewage may contain the presence of elements that cause harm to human health and the environment as Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr and Se. This work evaluated the potentially inorganic toxic substances in the sewage, previously dried, of the STP Camanducaia in Jaguariuna city; Village Flora in Sumare city; Praia Azul and Carioba in Americana city; Samambaia, Anhumas, Picarrao and Barao Geraldo in Campinas city, SP, employing the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The sewage of Treatment Plants of the Metropolitan Region of Campinas take care of CONAMA 375/06 legislation. However, so that it can be commercialized as fertilizing or conditioning of soils, it must take care of to Normative Instruction 27/06, needing to reduce the contents of Ni and Cr. One of the alternatives would be a bigger supervising in the generating sources, in order to improve the quality of the tributary of the stations, being adjusted the sewage to the Brazilian legislations. (author)

  15. Evaluation of potentially inorganic toxic substances in sewage from treatment plants of the metropolitan region of Campinas by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Broleze, Silvana Turolla, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    The increased production of sludge is a consequence of the growth of the volume of treated sewage and of the number of Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) in Brazil and, it has demanded the search of alternatives for its final disposal. Amongst the some alternatives of disposal, the agricultural use is viable, a time that the sewage is rich in organic substances, macro and micronutrients necessary to the soil fertility. However, the illegal industrial releases at public sewage may contain the presence of elements that cause harm to human health and the environment as Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr and Se. This work evaluated the potentially inorganic toxic substances in the sewage, previously dried, of the STP Camanducaia in Jaguariuna city; Village Flora in Sumare city; Praia Azul and Carioba in Americana city; Samambaia, Anhumas, Picarrao and Barao Geraldo in Campinas city, SP, employing the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The sewage of Treatment Plants of the Metropolitan Region of Campinas take care of CONAMA 375/06 legislation. However, so that it can be commercialized as fertilizing or conditioning of soils, it must take care of to Normative Instruction 27/06, needing to reduce the contents of Ni and Cr. One of the alternatives would be a bigger supervising in the generating sources, in order to improve the quality of the tributary of the stations, being adjusted the sewage to the Brazilian legislations. (author)

  16. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, personal-care products, and other organic wastewater contaminants in water resources: Recent research activities of the U.S. Geological Survey's toxic substances hydrology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, Michael J.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2003-01-01

    Recent decades have brought increasing concerns for potential contamination of water resources that could inadvertently result during production, use, and disposal of the numerous chemicals offering improvements in industry, agriculture, medical treatment, and even common household products. Increasing knowledge of the environmental occurrence or toxicological behavior of these contaminants from various studies in Europe, United States, and elsewhere has resulted in increased concern for potential adverse environmental and human health effects (Daughton and Ternes, 1999). Ecologists and public health experts often have incomplete understandings of the toxicological significance of many of these contaminants, particularly long-term, low-level exposure and when they occur in mixtures with other contaminants (Daughton and Ternes, 1999; Kümmerer, 2001). In addition, these ‘emerging contaminants’ are not typically monitored or assessed in ambient water resources. The need to understand the processes controlling the transport and fate of these contaminants in the environment, and the lack of knowledge of the significance of long-term exposures have increased the need to study environmental occurrence down to trace (nanogram per liter) levels. Furthermore, the possibility that mixtures of environmental contaminants may interact synergistically or antagonistically has increased the need to characterize the types of mixtures that are found in our waters. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Toxic Substances Hydrology Program (Toxics Program) is developing information and tools on emerging water-quality issues that will be used to design and improve water-quality monitoring and assessment programs of the USGS and others, and for proactive decision-making by industry, regulators, the research community, and the public (http://toxics.usgs.gov/regional/emc.html). This research on emerging water-quality issues includes a combination of laboratory work to develop new analytical

  17. Environmental contaminants in food. Volume II-part a: working papers. I. Priority setting of toxic substances for guiding monitoring programs. II. Five case studies of environmental food contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains working papers written for Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to assist in preparation of the report Environmental Contaminants in Food. The contents include: (1) Priority setting of toxic substances for guiding monitoring programs; and (2) Five case studies of environmental food contamination

  18. Biosorption of Cadmium by Non-Toxic Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS Synthesized by Bacteria from Marine Intertidal Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Camacho-Chab

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a major heavy metal found in polluted aquatic environments, mainly derived from industrial production processes. We evaluated the biosorption of solubilized Cd2+ using the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS produced by Bacillus sp. MC3B-22 and Microbacterium sp. MC3B-10 (Microbactan; these bacteria were originally isolated from intertidal biofilms off the coast of Campeche, Mexico. EPS were incubated with different concentrations of cadmium in ultrapure water. Residual Cd2+ concentrations were determined by Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optic Emission Spectrometry and the maximum sorption capacity (Qmax was calculated according to the Langmuir model. EPS were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS before and after sorption. The Qmax of Cd2+ was 97 mg g−1 for Microbactan and 141 mg g−1 for MC3B-22 EPS, these adsorption levels being significantly higher than previously reported for other microbial EPS. In addition, XPS analysis revealed changes in structure of EPS after biosorption and showed that amino functional groups contributed to the binding of Cd2+, unlike other studies that show the carbohydrate fraction is responsible for this activity. This work expands the current view of bacterial species capable of synthesizing EPS with biosorbent potential for cadmium and provides evidence that different chemical moieties, other than carbohydrates, participate in this process.

  19. Personal Care Products Are Only One of Many Exposure Routes of Natural Toxic Substances to Humans and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Bucheli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The special issue “A Critical View on Natural Substances in Personal Care Products” is dedicated to addressing the multidisciplinary special challenges of natural ingredients in personal care products (PCP and addresses also environmental exposure. In this perspective article, we argue that environmental exposure is probably not so much dominated by PCP use, but in many cases by direct emission from natural or anthropogenically managed vegetation, including agriculture. In support of this hypothesis, we provide examples of environmental fate and behaviour studies for compound classes that are either listed in the International Nomenclature of Cosmetics Ingredients (INCI or have been discussed in a wider context of PCP applications and have been classified as potentially harmful to humans and the environment. Specifically, these include estrogenic isoflavones, the carcinogenic ptaquiloside and pyrrolizidine alkaloids, saponins, terpenes and terpenoids, such as artemisinin, and mycotoxins. Research gaps and challenges in the domains of human and environmental exposure assessment of natural products common to our currently rather separated research communities are highlighted.

  20. Liver dysfunction among workers handling 5-nitro-o-toluidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, H; Kumada, T; Nakano, S; Kiriyama, S; Sone, Y; Honda, T; Watanabe, K; Nakano, I; Fukuda, Y; Hayakawa, T

    2002-02-01

    5-Nitro-o-toluidine is an aromatic nitro amino compound. While other aromatic compounds are known to damage the human liver and are registered as toxic substances, toxicity information concerning 5-nitro-o-toluidine is lacking. To investigate the hepatotoxicity of 5-nitro-o-toluidine. Of 15 workers in the same factory who handled 5-nitro-o-toluidine, three were hospitalised with symptoms of acute liver dysfunction. Suspecting a link between liver dysfunction and working conditions, we correlated workplace factors with clinical findings in all 15 workers. Blood biochemistry tests indicated liver damage in seven of 15 study subjects. Workers who handled 5-nitro-o-toluidine and nitrosyl sulphuric acid often loosened their respiratory protective equipment shortly after 5-nitro-o-toluidine powder had been dispersed into the air of the room. No potential hepatotoxins were present except for 5-nitro-o-toluidine. Six of the affected workers had handled 5-nitro-o-toluidine 12 to 20 times; the seventh worker had handled the powder three times; and the other eight workers without liver dysfunction had handled the material once or twice. No other significant differences in background were evident between the affected and unaffected workers, such as age, sex, or protective measures. Histological findings during recovery from liver damage were similar to those of acute viral hepatitis. None of the 15 subjects has demonstrated liver damage since the factory was closed. A link between liver dysfunction and 5-nitro-o-toluidine exposure is suggested by greater severity of liver dysfunction associated with more episodes of handling.

  1. Acute and chronic toxicity of four frequently used UV filter substances for Desmodesmus subspicatus and Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieratowicz, Agnes; Kaiser, Dominic; Behr, Maximilian; Oetken, Matthias; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of growing public concern about UV radiation effects on human health chemical and physical UV filters are increasingly used in personal care and other products. The release of these lipophilic and often persistent compounds into surface waters may pose a risk for aquatic organisms. The aim of the study was to determine effects of four frequently used UV filters on primary aquatic producers and consumers, the green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus and the crustacean Daphnia magna. Exposure to benzophenone 3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC) and 3-(4'-methylbenzylidene)-camphor (4-MBC) resulted in growth inhibition of D. subspicatus with 72 h IC(10) values of 0.56 mg/L (BP 3), 0.24 mg/L (EHMC), 0.27 mg/L (3-BC) and 0.21 mg/L (4-MBC). EC(50) concentrations in the acute test with D. magna were 1.67, 0.57, 3.61 and 0.80 mg/L for BP3, EHMC, 3-BC and 4-MBC, respectively. Chronic exposure of D. magna resulted in NOECs of 0.04 mg/L (EHMC) and 0.1 mg/L (3-BC and 4-MBC). BP 3 showed no effects on neonate production or the length of adults. Rapid dissipation of these substances from the water phase was observed indicating the need for more frequent test medium renewal in chronic tests or the use of flow-through test systems.

  2. History of EPI Suite™ and future perspectives on chemical property estimation in US Toxic Substances Control Act new chemical risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Marcella L; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Lee, Wen-Hsiung; Lynch, David G; Orentas, Nerija S; Lee, Mari Titcombe; Wong, Edmund M; Boethling, Robert S

    2017-03-22

    Chemical property estimation is a key component in many industrial, academic, and regulatory activities, including in the risk assessment associated with the approximately 1000 new chemical pre-manufacture notices the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) receives annually. The US EPA evaluates fate, exposure and toxicity under the 1976 Toxic Substances Control Act (amended by the 2016 Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21 st Century Act), which does not require test data with new chemical applications. Though the submission of data is not required, the US EPA has, over the past 40 years, occasionally received chemical-specific data with pre-manufacture notices. The US EPA has been actively using this and publicly available data to develop and refine predictive computerized models, most of which are housed in EPI Suite™, to estimate chemical properties used in the risk assessment of new chemicals. The US EPA develops and uses models based on (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ([Q]SARs) to estimate critical parameters. As in any evolving field, (Q)SARs have experienced successes, suffered failures, and responded to emerging trends. Correlations of a chemical structure with its properties or biological activity were first demonstrated in the late 19 th century and today have been encapsulated in a myriad of quantitative and qualitative SARs. The development and proliferation of the personal computer in the late 20 th century gave rise to a quickly increasing number of property estimation models, and continually improved computing power and connectivity among researchers via the internet are enabling the development of increasingly complex models.

  3. [Responsibilities of enterprises introducing new dangerous chemical substances and preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Jacek; Majka, Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the responsibilities of producers, importers and distributors set in a new Act of January 2001 on chemical substances and preparations (Off. J. 2001, No. 11, item 84, with subsequent amendments). This Act together with executive provisions is aimed at harmonizing Polish legislation with EU requirements. The Act sets conditions, restriction and bans of production placing on the market and use of chemical substances and preparations in order to protect human health and environment against their harmful effects. The Act together with a number of executive provisions render those who introduce dangerous chemicals and chemical preparations, including distributors responsible for: classification and labelling of dangerous chemical substances and preparations; possessing, making available and up-dating safety data sheets; supplying packages containing certain dangerous substances with child-proof fastenings; notifying the Inspector for Chemical Substances and Preparations about placing a dangerous preparation on the market; notifying the Inspector about a new substance and conducting required studies; being properly qualified to handle dangerous substances. The Act strictly defines the term "placing a substance or a preparation on the market"--it means making a substance or a preparation available to third parties on the territory of The Republic of Poland, territories of the Member States of the European Union or the territory of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, unless the Act provides otherwise; it also means introduction of a substance or a preparation from outside of the territory referred to above on the customs territory of The Republic of Poland, or that of the member states of the European Union and other states listed above. In addition, some of the responsibilities defined by the provisions of the law on chemical substances and preparations are also applicable to handling of biocidals, which are classified as dangerous substances. The Act

  4. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Galhano, Victor; Ferreira, Marta; Guimarães, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems. Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms. Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should

  5. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S., E-mail: cristinasrocha@gmail.com; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Galhano, Victor; Ferreira, Marta, E-mail: marta.ferreira@usp.ac.fj; Guimarães, Laura

    2016-01-15

    Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems. Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms. Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should

  6. Enhancement of Toxic Substances Clearance from Blood Equvalent Solution and Human Whole Blood through High Flux Dialyzer by 1 MHz Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiran M. B.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodialysis is a process of removing waste and excess fluid from blood when kidneys cannot function efficiently. It often involves diverting blood to the filter of the dialysis machin to be cleared of toxic substances. Fouling of pores in dialysis membrane caused by adhesion of plasma protein and other toxins will reduce the efficacy of the filtre. Objective: In This study, the influence of pulsed ultrasound waves on diffusion and the prevention of fouling in the filter membrane were investigated. Material and Methods: Pulsed ultrasound waves with frequency of 1 MHz at an intensity of 1 W/cm2 was applied to the high flux (PES 130 filter. Blood and blood equivalent solutions were passed through the filter in separate experimental setups. The amount of Creatinine, Urea and Inulin cleared from both blood equvalent solution and human whole blood passed through High Flux (PES 130 filter were measured in the presence and absence of ultrasound irradiation. Samples were taken from the outlet of the dialyzer every five minutes and the clearance of each constituent was calculated. Results: Statistical analysis of the blood equvalent solution and whole blood indicated the clearance of Urea and Inulin in the presence of ultrasound increased (p<0.05, while no significant effects were observed for Creatinine. Conclusion: It may be concluded that ultrasound, as a mechanical force, can increase the rate of clearance of some toxins (such as middle and large molecules in the hemodialysis process.

  7. Enhancement of Toxic Substances Clearance from Blood Equvalent Solution and Human Whole Blood through High Flux Dialyzer by 1 MHz Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiran, M.B.; Barzegar Marvasti, M.; Shakeri-Zadeh, A.; Shahidi, M.; Tabkhi, N.; Farkhondeh, F.; Kalantar, E.; Asadinejad, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hemodialysis is a process of removing waste and excess fluid from blood when kidneys cannot function efficiently. It often involves diverting blood to the filter of the dialysis machin to be cleared of toxic substances. Fouling of pores in dialysis membrane caused by adhesion of plasma protein and other toxins will reduce the efficacy of the filtre. Objective: In This study, the influence of pulsed ultrasound waves on diffusion and the prevention of fouling in the filter membrane were investigated. Material and Methods: Pulsed ultrasound waves with frequency of 1 MHz at an intensity of 1 W/cm2 was applied to the high flux (PES 130) filter. Blood and blood equivalent solutions were passed through the filter in separate experimental setups. The amount of Creatinine, Urea and Inulin cleared from both blood equvalent solution and human whole blood passed through High Flux (PES 130) filter were measured in the presence and absence of ultrasound irradiation. Samples were taken from the outlet of the dialyzer every five minutes and the clearance of each constituent was calculated. Results: Statistical analysis of the blood equvalent solution and whole blood indicated the clearance of Urea and Inulin in the presence of ultrasound increased (p<0.05), while no significant effects were observed for Creatinine. Conclusion: It may be concluded that ultrasound, as a mechanical force, can increase the rate of clearance of some toxins (such as middle and large molecules) in the hemodialysis process. PMID:28580332

  8. Prenatal developmental toxicity testing of petroleum substances: Application of the mouse embryonic stem cell test (EST) to compare in vitro potencies with potencies observed in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamelia, Lenny; Louisse, Jochem; de Haan, Laura; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Boogaard, Peter J

    2017-10-01

    Prenatal developmental toxicity (PDT) as observed with some petroleum substances (PS) has been associated with the presence of 3-7 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the present study, the applicability of ES-D3 cell differentiation assay of the EST to evaluate in vitro embryotoxicity potencies of PS and gas-to-liquid (GTL) products as compared to their in vivo potencies was investigated. DMSO-extracts of a range of PS, containing different amounts of PAHs, and GTL-products, which are devoid of PAHs, were tested in the ES-D3 cell proliferation and differentiation assays of the EST. The results show that PS inhibited the differentiation of ES-D3 cells into cardiomyocytes in a concentration-dependent manner at non-cytotoxic concentrations, and that their potency was proportional to their PAH content. In contrast, as expected, GTL-products did not inhibit ES-D3 cell viability or differentiation at all. The in vitro PDT potencies were compared to published in vivo PDT studies, and a good correlation was found between in vitro and in vivo results (R 2 =0.97). To conclude, our results support the hypothesis that PAHs are the primary inducers of the PDT in PS. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Enclosure for handling high activity materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimeno de Osso, F.

    1977-01-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With this purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. In this report a description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (Author)

  10. Enclosure for handling high activity materials abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimeno de Osso, F.; Dominguez Rodriguez, G.; Cruz Castillo, F. de la; Rodriguez Esteban, A.

    1977-01-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With that purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. A description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (author) [es

  11. Enclosure for handling high activity materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimeno de Osso, F

    1977-07-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With this purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. In this report a description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (Author)

  12. Formulation of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) with safe EPA-exempt substance significantly diminishes the Anopheles sergentii population in a desert oasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revay, Edita E; Schlein, Yosef; Tsabari, Onie; Kravchenko, Vasiliy; Qualls, Whitney; De-Xue, Rui; Beier, John C; Traore, Sekou F; Doumbia, Seydou; Hausmann, Axel; Müller, Günter C

    2015-10-01

    Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) is a highly effective method which targets mosquitoes based on their sugar foraging behavior, by presenting baits of attractive compounds in combination with sugar and oral toxin to local mosquito populations. Environmental concerns and insecticide selection-pressure have prompted investigations of novel, ecologically-harmless substances which can be used as insecticides. This study examined the efficacy of microencapsulated garlic-oil as the oral toxin component of ATSB for controlling Anopheles sergentii populations inhabiting desert-surrounded wetlands in Israel. ATSB solution containing 0.4% encapsulated garlic oil was applied to local vegetation around a streamlet located in the lower Jordan Valley. To determine the propensity of bait ingestion, and assess the potential ecological impact of the method, mosquito and non-target specimens were collected and tested for the presence of natural plant- or attractive sugar bait (ASB)-derived sugars. Over the experimental period, biting-pressure values in the ATSB treatment site decreased by 97.5%, while at the control site, treated with non-toxic ASB, no significant changes were observed. Approximately 70% of the mosquitoes collected before both treatments, as well as those captured following the application of ASB at the control site, were found to have ingested sugar prior to capture. Non-target insects were minimally affected by the treatment when ATSB was applied to foliage of non-flowering plants. Of the non-Diptera species, only 0.7% of the sampled non-target insects were found to have ingested ASB-solution which was applied to green vegetation, compared with 8.5% which have foraged on ASB-derived sugars applied to flowering plants. Conversely, a high proportion of the non-target species belonging to the order Diptera, especially non-biting midges, were found to have ingested foliage-applied ASB, with more than 36% of the specimens collected determined to have foraged on bait

  13. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  14. Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act mixed waste incinerator emissions tests of January 16 and 18, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, J.T.; Bostick, W.D.; Coroneos, A.C.; Bunch, D.H.; Gibson, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Shoemaker, J.L.

    1992-02-01

    On January 16 and 18, 1991, special emissions tests were conducted at the Oak Ridge, K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. Both tests were approximately 6 h long and were performed at TSCA temperatures [1200 degrees C, secondary combustion chamber (SSC)]. Liquid feed and effluent samples were collected every 30 min. A filter was used to collect particles from stack gases to study morphology and composition during the first test. Isokinetic air samples were also taken during the second test. Metals emissions from the second test were evaluated using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 5 sampling train. The aqueous waste was collected and fed in batches to the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF), where it was treated by iron coprecipitation and polymer flocculation and data were collected. In the first test (1-16-91), the aqueous and organic wastes were fed directly to the kiln or primary combustion chamber (PCC). In the second test (1-18-91), the remaining organic waste from the first test was fed into the SSC, and other organic waste was fed into the PCC. One objective of the two tests was to determine if feeding the same organic waste into the two combustion chambers made a difference in a partitioning of uranium and other metals. No evaluation of radionuclides other than uranium was made. The partition coefficient of uranium to the quench water was 0.3 on January 16 and 0.35 on January 18; so directing Tank 306A to the feed to the primary vs the secondary combustion chamber appears to have made little difference. The partition coefficient of uranium to the stack on January 18 was 0.0039. 5 refs., 15 figs., 26 tabs

  15. Marine toxic substance and other data from bottle casts in the Gulf of Alaska from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program from 1976-04-13 to 1976-04-30 (NODC Accession 7601548)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine toxic substance and other data were collected in the Gulf of Alaska from bottle casts from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER. Data were collected by Pacific Marine...

  16. Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 1977-09-15 to 1979-06-30 (NODC Accession 7900295)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  17. Current direction, marine toxic substances, and other data from current meters and grab casts from the GUSS III and other platforms in support of the Brine Disposal project from 1977-10-20 to 1979-04-16 (NODC Accession 8000029)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and other data from were collected from current meters and grab casts from the GUSS III and other platforms from 20...

  18. Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 1977-12-22 to 1979-09-30 (NODC Accession 7900336)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  19. Marine toxic substances and pollutants data collected using sediment corer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in Gulf of Mexico and other Sea areas from 1979-02-05 to 1987-10-30 (NODC Accession 8700038)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine toxic substances and pollutants data were collected using sediment corer and other instruments in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and other Sea areas from...

  20. CTD, marine invertebrate pathology, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data collected using CTD casts and other instruments from SEA TRANSPORTER and other platforms in Gulf of Mexico from 1978-05-20 to 1979-01-15 (NODC Accession 8000022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, marine invertebrate pathology, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data were collected using CTD, net casts, and other instruments...

  1. Current meter and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Deep Ocean Mining and Environmental Study (DOMES) project, 1975-08-29 to 1977-12-01 (NODC Accession 7800741)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and marine toxic substances data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North Pacific Ocean from August 29, 1975...

  2. Multidisciplinary Studies of the Fate and Transport of Contaminants in Ground Water at the U.S. Geological Survey Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Program Research Site, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, D. R.; Smith, R. L.; Kent, D. B.; Barber, L. B.; Harvey, R. W.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducts multidisciplinary research on the physical, chemical, and microbiological processes affecting ground-water contaminants of global concern at its Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Program site in Massachusetts, USA. The work centers on a 6-kilometer-long plume of treated wastewater in a glacial sand and gravel aquifer. The plume is characterized by distinct geochemical zones caused by the biodegradation of organic materials in treated wastewater that was disposed to the aquifer by rapid infiltration during the period 1936-95. A core group of hydrogeologists, geochemists, microbiologists, and geophysicists has been involved in the research effort for more than two decades. The effort has been enhanced by stable funding, a readily accessible site, a relatively simple hydrologic setting, and logistical support from an adjacent military base. The research team uses a three-part approach to plan and conduct research at the site. First, detailed spatial and temporal monitoring of the plume since the late 1970s provides field evidence of important contaminant-transport processes and provides the basis for multidisciplinary, process-oriented studies. Second, ground-water tracer experiments are conducted in various geochemical zones in the plume to study factors that control the rate and extent of contaminant transport. Several arrays of multilevel sampling devices, including an array with more than 15,000 individual sampling points, are used to conduct these experiments. Plume-scale (kilometers) and tracer-test-scale (1- 100 meters) studies are complemented by laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling of flow and reactive transport. Third, results are applied to the treated-wastewater plume, other contaminant plumes at the military base, and other sites nationally to evaluate the applicability of the findings and to point toward further research. Examples of findings to date include that (1) macrodispersivity can be related to

  3. Management of Bottom Sediments Containing Toxic Substances: Proceedings of the U.S./Japan Experts Meeting (11th) Held in Seattle, Washington, on 4-6 November 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    potential environmental impact of organotins and their effect on the dredging permit proenp, Eighteen-day-old mysids were exposed to tributyltin ( TBT ...sediment. The TBT toxicant became a significant deleterious factor by day 8. After 10 days control survival was 100 per- cent with sediment and 95 percent...It is generally accepted that the TBT cation is the toxic component and the anion is not a factor in its toxicity . TBT degradation products are less

  4. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  5. Handle with care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-03-15

    Full text: A film dealing with transport of radioactive materials by everyday means - rail, road, sea and air transport - has been made for IAEA. It illustrates in broad terms some of the simple precautions which should be followed by persons dealing with such materials during shipment. Throughout, the picture stresses the transport regulations drawn up and recommended by the Agency, and in particular the need to carry out carefully the instructions based on these regulations in order to ensure that there is no hazard to the public nor to those who handle radioactive materials in transit and storage. In straightforward language, the film addresses the porter of a goods wagon, an airline cargo clerk, a dockside crane operator, a truck driver and others who load and ship freight. It shows the various types of package used to contain different categories of radioactive substances according to the intensity of the radiation emitted. It also illustrates their robustness by a series of tests involving drops, fires, impact, crushing, etc. Clear instructions are conveyed on what to do in the event of an unlikely accident with any type of package. The film is entitled, 'The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials', and is No. 3 in the series entitled, 'Handle with Care'. It was made for IAEA through the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority by the Film Producers' Guild in the United Kingdom. It is in 16 mm colour, optical sound, with a running time of 20 minutes. It is available for order at $50 either direct from IAEA or through any of its Member Governments. Prints can be supplied in English, French, Russian or Spanish. Copies are also available for adaptation for commentaries in other languages. (author)

  6. [Immunotoxicity and environmental substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    A well functioning immune system is essential in maintaining integrity of the organism, and malfunction may have severe health consequences. Environmental substances may pose direct toxicity to components of the immune system, often leading to immunosuppression and resulting reduced resistance to infections and tumors. Alternatively, such substances may be recognized by the immune system in a specific fashion, which may result in allergy and autoimmunity. A proper risk assessment of environmental substances in terms of immunotoxicity is necessary. In this manuscript, I reviewed recent three topics about immunotoxicity: (1) IPCS/WHO Guidance for immunotoxicity risk assessment for chemicals, (2) Intestinal immunotoxicity, and (3) Epicutaneous sensitization of food proteins.

  7. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  8. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount

  9. An investigation into the handling and storage of dangerous goods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As Ghana develops, the Port of Tema has seen an increase in the handling of good, which are substances either due to their inherent properties or in reaction to the environment are considered dangerous and therefore when not handled properly pose significant injury or harm to people, property and the environment.

  10. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1998-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  11. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. Using S and Pb isotope ratios to trace leaching of toxic substances from an acid-impacted industrial-waste landfill (Pozdatky, Czech Republic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, Martin; Pacherova, Petra; Erbanova, Lucie; Veron, Alain J.; Buzek, Frantisek; Jackova, Ivana; Paces, Tomas; Rukavickova, Lenka; Blaha, Vladimir; Holecek, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► S and Pb isotopes are useful tracers of polluted groundwater movement. ► Large ranges of found δ 34 S and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios made source apportionment robust. ► δ 34 S values higher than 6.5 permil indicated contamination. ► Pb in stream sediment recorded landfill leaks, but was insensitive to air pollution. ► The front of polluted groundwater plume in fractured plutonic rocks spread unevenly. - Abstract: Slightly elevated concentrations of toxic species in waters sampled in the surroundings of a leaky landfill may be both a sign of an approaching contaminant plume, or a result of water–rock interaction. Isotopes can be instrumental in distinguishing between anthropogenic and geogenic species in groundwater. We studied sulfur and lead isotope ratios at an abandoned industrial-waste landfill, located in a densely populated part of Central Europe. Stable isotope variability in space and time was used to follow the movement of a groundwater plume, contaminated with toxic metals (Cd, Cr, Be), in fractured granitoids. Toxic metals had been mobilized from industrial waste by a strong pulse of sulfuric acid, also deposited in the landfill. Both tracers exhibited a wide range of values (δ 34 S between +2.6 and +18.9‰; 206 Pb/ 207 Pb between 1.16 and 1.39), which facilitated identification of mixing end-members, and made it possible to assess the sources of the studied species. In situ fractionations did not hinder source apportionment. Influx of contaminated groundwater was observed neither in irrigation wells in a nearby village, nor at distances greater than 300 m from the landfill. Combination of stable isotope tracers can be used as part of an early-warning system in landscapes affected by landfills.

  13. Nuclear fuel handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, C.; Dupen, C.F.G.; Noyes, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    A fuel handling machine for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor in which a retractable handling tube and gripper are lowered into the reactor to withdraw a spent fuel assembly into the handling tube. The handling tube containing the fuel assembly immersed in liquid sodium is then withdrawn completely from the reactor into the outer barrel of the handling machine. The machine is then used to transport the spent fuel assembly directly to a remotely located decay tank. The fuel handling machine includes a decay heat removal system which continuously removes heat from the interior of the handling tube and which is capable of operating at its full cooling capacity at all times. The handling tube is supported in the machine from an articulated joint which enables it to readily align itself with the correct position in the core. An emergency sodium supply is carried directly by the machine to provide make up in the event of a loss of sodium from the handling tube during transport to the decay tank. 5 claims, 32 drawing figures

  14. Substance use - prescription drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use disorder - prescription drugs; Substance abuse - prescription drugs; Drug abuse - prescription drugs; Drug use - prescription drugs; Narcotics - substance use; Opioid - substance use; Sedative - substance ...

  15. Interaction effects on uptake and toxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances and cadmium in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) from co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuyan; Fan, Ziyan; Sun, Lihui; Zhou, Tao; Xing, Yuliang; Liu, Lifen

    2017-03-01

    A vegetation study was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and Cadmium (Cd) on soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity and bioaccumulation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) from co-contaminated soil. Soil urease activities were inhibited significantly but catalase activities were promoted significantly by interaction of PFASs and Cd which had few effects on sucrase activities. Joint stress with PFASs and Cd decreased the biomass of plants and chlorophyll (Chl) content in both wheat and rapeseed, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were increased in wheat but inhibited in rapeseed compared with single treatments. The bioconcentration abilities of PFASs in wheat and rapeseed were decreased, and the translocation factor of PFASs was decreased in wheat but increased in rapeseed with Cd addition. The bioaccumulation and translocation abilities of Cd were increased significantly in both wheat and rapeseed with PFASs addition. These findings suggested important evidence that the co-existence of PFASs and Cd reduced the bioavailability of PFASs while enhanced the bioavailability of Cd in soil, which increased the associated environmental risk for Cd but decreased for PFASs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Toxic chemicals: risk prevention through use reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Thomas E; Sachdev, Jayanti A; Engleman, Stephen A

    2011-01-01

    ... on the actual toxicity of chemicals currently in use, discusses variables that contribute to the relative toxicity of a substance, compares alternate emphases in existing programs for reducing environmental...

  17. How to Handle Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Handle Abuse KidsHealth / For Kids / How to Handle Abuse What's in this article? Tell Right Away How Do You Know Something Is Abuse? ... babysitter, teacher, coach, or a bigger kid. Child abuse can happen anywhere — at ... building. Tell Right Away A kid who is being seriously hurt ...

  18. Grain Handling and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  19. Handling Pyrophoric Reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Haynie, Todd O.

    2009-08-14

    Pyrophoric reagents are extremely hazardous. Special handling techniques are required to prevent contact with air and the resulting fire. This document provides several methods for working with pyrophoric reagents outside of an inert atmosphere.

  20. Remote handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, G.

    1984-01-01

    After a definition of intervention, problems encountered for working in an adverse environment are briefly analyzed for development of various remote handling equipments. Some examples of existing equipments are given [fr

  1. Ergonomics and patient handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoskey, Kelsey L

    2007-11-01

    This study aimed to describe patient-handling demands in inpatient units during a 24-hour period at a military health care facility. A 1-day total population survey described the diverse nature and impact of patient-handling tasks relative to a variety of nursing care units, patient characteristics, and transfer equipment. Productivity baselines were established based on patient dependency, physical exertion, type of transfer, and time spent performing the transfer. Descriptions of the physiological effect of transfers on staff based on patient, transfer, and staff characteristics were developed. Nursing staff response to surveys demonstrated how patient-handling demands are impacted by the staff's physical exertion and level of patient dependency. The findings of this study describe the types of transfers occurring in these inpatient units and the physical exertion and time requirements for these transfers. This description may guide selection of the most appropriate and cost-effective patient-handling equipment required for specific units and patients.

  2. Progress report and technology status development of an EG and G Berthold LB-150 alpha/beta particulate monitor for use on the East Tennessee Technology Park Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shor, J.T.; Singh, S.P.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Gibson, L.V. Jr. [East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). ASO Customer Services Div.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to modify and evaluate a commercially available EG and G Berthold LB-150 alpha-beta radionuclide particulate monitor for the high-temperature and moisture-saturation conditions of the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly K-25 Site) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator stack. The monitor was originally outfitted for operation at gas temperatures of 150 F on the defunct Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) controlled air incinerator, and the objective was to widen its operating envelope. A laboratory apparatus was constructed that simulated the effects of water-saturated air at the TSCA Incinerator stack-gas temperatures, 183 F. An instrumented set of heat exchangers was constructed to then condition the gas so that the radionuclide monitor could be operated without condensation. Data were collected under the conditions of the elevated temperatures and humidities and are reported herein, and design considerations of the apparatus are provided. The heat exchangers and humidification equipment performed as designed, the Mylar film held, and the instrument suffered no ill effects. However, for reasons as yet undetermined, the sensitivity of the radionuclide detection diminishes as the gas temperature is elevated, whether the gas is humidified or not. The manufacturer has had no experience with (a) the operation of the monitor under these conditions and (b) any commercial market that might exist for an instrument that operates under these conditions. The monitor was not installed into the radiologically contaminated environment of the TSCA Incinerator stack pending resolution of this technical issue.

  3. Progress report and technology status development of an EG and G Berthold LB-150 alpha/beta particulate monitor for use on the East Tennessee Technology Park Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, J.T.; Singh, S.P.N.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to modify and evaluate a commercially available EG and G Berthold LB-150 alpha-beta radionuclide particulate monitor for the high-temperature and moisture-saturation conditions of the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly K-25 Site) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator stack. The monitor was originally outfitted for operation at gas temperatures of 150 F on the defunct Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) controlled air incinerator, and the objective was to widen its operating envelope. A laboratory apparatus was constructed that simulated the effects of water-saturated air at the TSCA Incinerator stack-gas temperatures, 183 F. An instrumented set of heat exchangers was constructed to then condition the gas so that the radionuclide monitor could be operated without condensation. Data were collected under the conditions of the elevated temperatures and humidities and are reported herein, and design considerations of the apparatus are provided. The heat exchangers and humidification equipment performed as designed, the Mylar film held, and the instrument suffered no ill effects. However, for reasons as yet undetermined, the sensitivity of the radionuclide detection diminishes as the gas temperature is elevated, whether the gas is humidified or not. The manufacturer has had no experience with (a) the operation of the monitor under these conditions and (b) any commercial market that might exist for an instrument that operates under these conditions. The monitor was not installed into the radiologically contaminated environment of the TSCA Incinerator stack pending resolution of this technical issue

  4. Avoiding toxicity from water-borne contaminants in hemodialysis: new challenges in an era of increased demand for water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Richard A

    2011-05-01

    Water is necessary for all hemodialysis treatments. However, drinking water contains a range of substances that are toxic to patients on hemodialysis. Thus, all dialysis facilities are equipped with a water treatment system that removes those substances from the water before it is used to prepare dialysate. Increased demand for water and ever-evolving drinking water regulations are leading to changes in drinking water quality that may compromise the ability of typical dialysis water treatment systems to adequately remove substances that are known to be toxic or to deal with unexpected increases in other substances of unknown toxicity. In addition to these external challenges to dialysis water quality, the growing recognition that microbial contaminants in dialysate contribute to long-term morbidity has led to more stringent microbiological quality standards for dialysate and a consequent need to control biofilm formation in the fluid pathways involved in dialysate preparation. Avoiding toxicity from water contaminants in this dynamic environment requires a comprehensive approach to water treatment, including flexibility regarding the choice of water treatment processes, close communication with the suppliers of drinking water, and an emphasis on training technicians responsible for monitoring and maintaining all aspects of the fluid handling systems. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Storage of hazardous substances in bonded warehouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos Artavia, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    A variety of special regulations exist in Costa Rica for registration and transport of hazardous substances; these set the requirements for entry into the country and the security of transport units. However, the regulations mentioned no specific rules for storing hazardous substances. Tax deposits have been the initial place where are stored the substances that enter the country.The creation of basic rules that would be regulating the storage of hazardous substances has taken place through the analysis of regulations and national and international laws governing hazardous substances. The regulatory domain that currently exists will be established with a field research in fiscal deposits in the metropolitan area. The storage and security measures that have been used by the personnel handling the substances will be identified to be putting the reality with that the hazardous substances have been handled in tax deposits. A rule base for the storage of hazardous substances in tax deposits can be made, protecting the safety of the environment in which are manipulated and avoiding a possible accident causing a mess around. The rule will have the characteristics of the storage warehouses hazardous substances, such as safety standards, labeling standards, infrastructure features, common storage and transitional measures that must possess and meet all bonded warehouses to store hazardous substances. (author) [es

  6. Summary reports on some ecotoxicologically hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueffer, H.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on industrial waste water discharge into a public sewage system initiated a study in which the available knowlege on ecologically hazardous materials was compiled. The report contains information on polychlorinated biphenyls, acrylonitride, pentachlorophenol, and further toxic substances. (UT) [de

  7. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  8. Psychotoxic Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-11-16

    halluci- nations , disturbances of body perception, depersonalization symptoms, and a "psychotic" status. Also with the derivatives, the individual...the substance had also local anesthetic properties. After clinical testing, ibogaine was then used as stimulans for neurasthenics and convalescents1 1 3...con- siderably disturbed by this group of substances. The optic halluci- nations consist to a small extent in scenic proceedings of actions, more

  9. Remote handling machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shinri

    1985-01-01

    In nuclear power facilities, the management of radioactive wastes is made with its technology plus the automatic techniques. Under the radiation field, the maintenance or aid of such systems is important. To cope with this situation, MF-2 system, MF-3 system and a manipulator system as remote handling machines are described. MF-2 system consists of an MF-2 carrier truck, a control unit and a command trailer. It is capable of handling heavy-weight objects. The system is not by hydraulic but by electrical means. MF-3 system consists of a four-crawler truck and a manipulator. The truck is versatile in its posture by means of the four independent crawlers. The manipulator system is bilateral in operation, so that the delicate handling is made possible. (Mori, K.)

  10. Practices of Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ræbild, Ulla

    to touch, pick up, carry, or feel with the hands. Figuratively it is to manage, deal with, direct, train, or control. Additionally, as a noun, a handle is something by which we grasp or open up something. Lastly, handle also has a Nordic root, here meaning to trade, bargain or deal. Together all four...... meanings seem to merge in the fashion design process, thus opening up for an embodied engagement with matter that entails direction giving, organizational management and negotiation. By seeing processes of handling as a key fashion methodological practice, it is possible to divert the discourse away from...... introduces four ways whereby fashion designers apply their own bodies as tools for design; a) re-activating past garment-design experiences, b) testing present garment-design experiences c) probing for new garment-design experiences and d) design of future garment experiences by body proxy. The paper...

  11. Remote handling at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental area A at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) encompasses a large area. Presently there are four experimental target cells along the main proton beam line that have become highly radioactive, thus dictating that all maintenance be performed remotely. The Monitor remote handling system was developed to perform in situ maintenance at any location within area A. Due to the complexity of experimental systems and confined space, conventional remote handling methods based upon hot cell and/or hot bay concepts are not workable. Contrary to conventional remote handling which require special tooling for each specifically planned operation, the Monitor concept is aimed at providing a totally flexible system capable of remotely performing general mechanical and electrical maintenance operations using standard tools. The Monitor system is described

  12. TRANSPORT/HANDLING REQUESTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST/HM

    2002-01-01

    A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

  13. Safe handling of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Grain Grading and Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  15. Mars Sample Handling Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. A.; Mattingly, R. L.

    2018-04-01

    The final leg of a Mars Sample Return campaign would be an entity that we have referred to as Mars Returned Sample Handling (MRSH.) This talk will address our current view of the functional requirements on MRSH, focused on the Sample Receiving Facility (SRF).

  16. Handling wood shavings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-18

    Details of bulk handling equipment suitable for collection and compressing wood waste from commercial joinery works are discussed. The Redler Bin Discharger ensures free flow of chips from storage silo discharge prior to compression into briquettes for use as fuel or processing into chipboard.

  17. Region 5 Toxic Substances Control Act Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset represents the query results from the Envirofacts database for facilities known as Chemical Manufacturers, Processors and Formulators (MPFs) with TSCA identification numbers located in Region 5.

  18. Teale Depatment of Toxic Substance Control Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  19. Hazardous materials and toxic substances - Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerlad, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The paper first forecasts what the status of hazardous wastes should be in the year 2028. The author believes all the problems will be solved: no new hazardous wastes will be being generated and the current hazardous waste problems will have been cleared up by common sense engineering. He then describes the current status of waste management of hazardous wastes, the regulatory situation, as well as combustion test programs

  20. Chemical Safety Alert: Lightning Hazard to Facilities Handling Flammable Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raises awareness about lightning strikes, which cause more death/injury and damage than all other environmental elements combined, so industry can take proper precautions to protect equipment and storage or process vessels containing flammable materials.

  1. Test sample handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test sample handling apparatus using automatic scintillation counting for gamma detection, for use in such fields as radioimmunoassay, is described. The apparatus automatically and continuously counts large numbers of samples rapidly and efficiently by the simultaneous counting of two samples. By means of sequential ordering of non-sequential counting data, it is possible to obtain precisely ordered data while utilizing sample carrier holders having a minimum length. (U.K.)

  2. Solid waste handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.)

  3. Handling of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza Mir, Azucena

    1998-01-01

    Based on characteristics and quantities of different types of radioactive waste produced in the country, achievements in infrastructure and the way to solve problems related with radioactive waste handling and management, are presented in this paper. Objectives of maintaining facilities and capacities for controlling, processing and storing radioactive waste in a conditioned form, are attained, within a great range of legal framework, so defined to contribute with safety to people and environment (au)

  4. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  5. Shared Substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerlufsen, Tony; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Eagan, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel middleware for developing flexible interactive multi-surface applications. Using a scenario-based approach, we identify the requirements for this type of applications. We then introduce Substance, a data- oriented framework that decouples functionality from data, and S...

  6. Uranium hexafluoride handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF 6 from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride

  7. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Torus sector handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    A remote handling system is proposed for moving a torus sector of the accelerator from under the cryostat to a point where it can be handled by a crane and for the reverse process for a new sector. Equipment recommendations are presented, as well as possible alignment schemes. Some general comments about future remote-handling methods and the present capabilities of existing systems will also be included. The specific task to be addressed is the removal and replacement of a 425 to 450 ton torus sector. This requires a horizontal movement of approx. 10 m from a normal operating position to a point where its further transport can be accomplished by more conventional means (crane or floor transporter). The same horizontal movement is required for reinstallation, but a positional tolerance of 2 cm is required to allow reasonable fit-up for the vacuum seal from the radial frames to the torus sector. Since the sectors are not only heavy but rather tall and narrow, the transport system must provide a safe, stable, and repeatable method fo sector movement. This limited study indicates that the LAMPF-based method of transporting torus sectors offers a proven method of moving heavy items. In addition, the present state of the art in remote equipment is adequate for FED maintenance

  9. 3. Production of radionuclides, preparation and handling of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation of natural radioactive compounds and the manufacture of artificial radionuclides, the labelling of organic compounds, and the methods of radioactive substance separation are described. The principles are shown of handling radioactive materials and a brief description is given of the stability, packaging and storage of radiopharmaceuticals. (J.P.)

  10. Preference Handling for Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Judy; University of Kentucky; Junker, Ulrich; ILOG

    2009-01-01

    This article explains the benefits of preferences for AI systems and draws a picture of current AI research on preference handling. It thus provides an introduction to the topics covered by this special issue on preference handling.

  11. Egyptian Environmental Activities and Regulations for Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Zarka, M.

    1999-01-01

    A substantial use of hazardous substances is essential to meet the social and economic goals of the community in Egypt. Agrochemicals are being used extensively to increase crop yield. The outdated agrochemicals and their empty containers represent a serious environmental problem. Industrial development in different sectors in Egypt obligates handling of huge amounts of hazardous substances and hazardous wastes. The inappropriate handling of such hazardous substances creates several health and environmental problems. Egypt faces many challenges to control safe handling of such substances and wastes. Several regulations are governing handling of hazardous substances in Egypt. The unified Environmental Law 4 for the year 1994 includes a full chapter on the Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes. National and international activities have been taken to manage hazardous substances and hazardous wastes in an environmental sound manner

  12. Crud handling circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.C.; Manuel, R.J.; McAllister, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    A process for handling the problems of crud formation during the solvent extraction of wet-process phosphoric acid, e.g. for uranium and rare earth removal, is described. It involves clarification of the crud-solvent mixture, settling, water washing the residue and treatment of the crud with a caustic wash to remove and regenerate the solvent. Applicable to synergistic mixtures of dialkylphosphoric acids and trialkylphosphine oxides dissolved in inert diluents and more preferably to the reductive stripping technique. (U.K.)

  13. Handling of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, N.; Komurka, M.

    1983-03-01

    As a result for the Fast Breeder Development extensive experience is available worldwide with respect to Sodium technology. Due to the extension of the research program to topping cycles with Potassium as the working medium, test facilities with Potassium have been designed and operated in the Institute of Reactor Safety. The different chemical properties of Sodium and Potassium give rise in new safety concepts and operating procedures. The handling problems of Potassium are described in the light of theoretical properties and own experiences. Selected literature on main safety and operating problems complete this report. (Author) [de

  14. Extreme coal handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, S; Homleid, D. [Air Control Science Inc. (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Within the journals 'Focus on O & M' is a short article describing modifications to coal handling systems at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska, which is supplied with power and heat from a subbituminous coal-fired central plant. Measures to reduce dust include addition of an enclosed recirculation chamber at each transfer point and new chute designs to reduce coal velocity, turbulence, and induced air. The modifications were developed by Air Control Science (ACS). 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Remote handling in ZEPHYR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelfinger, C.; Lackner, E.; Ulrich, M.; Weber, G.; Schilling, H.B.

    1982-04-01

    A conceptual design of the ZEPHYR building is described. The listed radiation data show that remote handling devices will be necessary in most areas of the building. For difficult repair and maintenance works it is intended to transfer complete units from the experimental hall to a hot cell which provides better working conditions. The necessary crane systems and other transport means are summarized as well as suitable commercially available manipulators and observation devices. The conept of automatic devices for cutting and welding and other operations inside the vacuum vessel and the belonging position control system is sketched. Guidelines for the design of passive components are set up in order to facilitate remote operation. (orig.)

  16. Handling hunger strikers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Hunger strikes are being used increasingly and not only by those with a political point to make. Whereas in the past, hunger strikes in the United Kingdom seemed mainly to be started by terrorist prisoners for political purposes, the most recent was begun by a Tamil convicted of murder, to protest his innocence. In the later stages of his strike, before calling it off, he was looked after at the Hammersmith Hospital. So it is not only prison doctors who need to know how to handle a hunger strike. The following guidelines, adopted by the 43rd World Medical Assembly in Malta in November 1991, are therefore a timely reminder of the doctor's duties during a hunger strike.

  17. MFTF exception handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowell, D.M.; Bridgeman, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    In the design of large experimental control systems, a major concern is ensuring that operators are quickly alerted to emergency or other exceptional conditions and that they are provided with sufficient information to respond adequately. This paper describes how the MFTF exception handling system satisfies these requirements. Conceptually exceptions are divided into one of two classes. Those which affect command status by producing an abort or suspend condition and those which fall into a softer notification category of report only or operator acknowledgement requirement. Additionally, an operator may choose to accept an exception condition as operational, or turn off monitoring for sensors determined to be malfunctioning. Control panels and displays used in operator response to exceptions are described

  18. Plutonium safe handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvehlov, Yu.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract, prepared on the basis of materials of the IAEA new leadership on the plutonium safe handling and its storage (the publication no. 9 in the Safety Reports Series), aimed at presenting internationally acknowledged criteria on the radiation danger evaluation and summarizing the experience in the safe management of great quantities of plutonium, accumulated in the nuclear states, is presented. The data on the weapon-class and civil plutonium, the degree of its danger, the measures for provision of its safety, including the data on accident radiation consequences with the fission number 10 18 , are presented. The recommendations, making it possible to eliminate the super- criticality danger, as well as ignition and explosion, to maintain the tightness of the facility, aimed at excluding the radioactive contamination and the possibility of internal irradiation, to provide for the plutonium security, physical protection and to reduce irradiation are given [ru

  19. Guidelines for safe handling of toxins. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, M.

    1995-11-01

    Toxins are highly toxic chemicals which cause illness through all routes of entry into the body. This technical note has been prepared to ensure that preparation, handling, and disposal of toxins does not constitute a greater occupational hazard than is necessary. It includes hazards that may be encountered and the precautions that should be taken against such hazards.

  20. The toxicity of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    Shipments of plutonium occasionally pass around the Cape coastal waters on its way to Japan from Europe. This invariably leads to a great deal of speculation of the dangers involved and of the extreme toxicity of plutonium, with the media and environmental groups claiming that (a) plutonium is the most toxic substance known to man, and that (b) a few kilograms of plutonium ground finely and dispersed in the atmosphere could kill every human being on earth. Comparisons with other poisons are drawn, e.g. common inorganic chemicals and biological agents. The original scare around the extraordinary toxicity of Pu seems to have started in 1974 with the claims of Tamplin and Cochran's hot particle theory about plutonium lodging in the sensitive portions of the lungs in small concentrated aggregates where they are much more effective in producing cancers. This theory, however, is regarded as thoroughly discredited by the experts in the field of radiotoxicity. 8 refs

  1. Unvented Drum Handling Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    This drum-handling plan proposes a method to deal with unvented transuranic drums encountered during retrieval of drums. Finding unvented drums during retrieval activities was expected, as identified in the Transuranic (TRU) Phase I Retrieval Plan (HNF-4781). However, significant numbers of unvented drums were not expected until excavation of buried drums began. This plan represents accelerated planning for management of unvented drums. A plan is proposed that manages unvented drums differently based on three categories. The first category of drums is any that visually appear to be pressurized. These will be vented immediately, using either the Hanford Fire Department Hazardous Materials (Haz. Mat.) team, if such are encountered before the facilities' capabilities are established, or using internal capabilities, once established. To date, no drums have been retrieved that showed signs of pressurization. The second category consists of drums that contain a minimal amount of Pu isotopes. This minimal amount is typically less than 1 gram of Pu, but may be waste-stream dependent. Drums in this category are assayed to determine if they are low-level waste (LLW). LLW drums are typically disposed of without venting. Any unvented drums that assay as TRU will be staged for a future venting campaign, using appropriate safety precautions in their handling. The third category of drums is those for which records show larger amounts of Pu isotopes (typically greater than or equal to 1 gram of Pu). These are assumed to be TRU and are not assayed at this point, but are staged for a future venting campaign. Any of these drums that do not have a visible venting device will be staged awaiting venting, and will be managed under appropriate controls, including covering the drums to protect from direct solar exposure, minimizing of container movement, and placement of a barrier to restrict vehicle access. There are a number of equipment options available to perform the venting. The

  2. New transport and handling contract

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department

    2008-01-01

    A new transport and handling contract entered into force on 1.10.2008. As with the previous contract, the user interface is the internal transport/handling request form on EDH: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TransportRequest/ To ensure that you receive the best possible service, we invite you to complete the various fields as accurately as possible and to include a mobile telephone number on which we can reach you. You can follow the progress of your request (schedule, completion) in the EDH request routing information. We remind you that the following deadlines apply: 48 hours for the transport of heavy goods (up to 8 tonnes) or simple handling operations 5 working days for crane operations, transport of extra-heavy goods, complex handling operations and combined transport and handling operations in the tunnel. For all enquiries, the number to contact remains unchanged: 72202. Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 72672 - 160319

  3. Nitrogen Trifluoride: Its Chemistry, Toxicity, and Safe Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-12

    Hopkins University . LPAI—LtIP-1 , Nov 1961 . 27. Stauffer Chemical Co. Technical Bulletin. “Nitrogen Trifluoride and Tetrafluorohydrazine ” . Market ...Continued ) United Technologies Corp. Naval Postgraduate School Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Div. Attn: Libra ry, Tech. Repts. Florida Researc h & Development Ctr

  4. 75 FR 4983 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... this substance (see Unit V. of the proposed rule). Use of most flammable refrigerants, including the... 2070-AB27 Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances AGENCY: Environmental Protection...) under section 5(a)(2) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) for 15 chemical substances which were...

  5. Remote handling and accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.T.

    1983-01-01

    The high-current levels of contemporary and proposed accelerator facilities induce radiation levels into components, requiring consideration be given to maintenance techniques that reduce personnel exposure. Typical components involved include beamstops, targets, collimators, windows, and instrumentation that intercepts the direct beam. Also included are beam extraction, injection, splitting, and kicking regions, as well as purposeful spill areas where beam tails are trimmed and neutral particles are deposited. Scattered beam and secondary particles activate components all along a beamline such as vacuum pipes, magnets, and shielding. Maintenance techniques vary from hands-on to TV-viewed operation using state-of-the-art servomanipulators. Bottom- or side-entry casks are used with thimble-type target and diagnostic assemblies. Long-handled tools are operated from behind shadow shields. Swinging shield doors, unstacking block, and horizontally rolling shield roofs are all used to provide access. Common to all techniques is the need to make operations simple and to provide a means of seeing and reaching the area

  6. TFTR tritium handling concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garber, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, to be located on the Princeton Forrestal Campus, is expected to operate with 1 to 2.5 MA tritium--deuterium plasmas, with the pulses involving injection of 50 to 150 Ci (5 to 16 mg) of tritium. Attainment of fusion conditions is based on generation of an approximately 1 keV tritium plasma by ohmic heating and conversion to a moderately hot tritium--deuterium ion plasma by injection of a ''preheating'' deuterium neutral beam (40 to 80 keV), followed by injection of a ''reacting'' beam of high energy neutral deuterium (120 to 150 keV). Additionally, compressions accompany the beam injections. Environmental, safety and cost considerations led to the decision to limit the amount of tritium gas on-site to that required for an experiment, maintaining all other tritium in ''solidified'' form. The form of the tritium supply is as uranium tritide, while the spent tritium and other hydrogen isotopes are getter-trapped by zirconium--aluminum alloy. The issues treated include: (1) design concepts for the tritium generator and its purification, dispensing, replenishment, containment, and containment--cleanup systems; (2) features of the spent plasma trapping system, particularly the regenerable absorption cartridges, their integration into the vacuum system, and the handling of non-getterables; (3) tritium permeation through the equipment and the anticipated releases to the environment; (4) overview of the tritium related ventilation systems; and (5) design bases for the facility's tritium clean-up systems

  7. Radioactive wastes handling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Emiko; Inaguma, Masahiko; Ozaki, Shigeru; Matsumoto, Kaname.

    1997-01-01

    There are disposed an area where a conveyor is disposed for separating miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes such as metals, on area for operators which is disposed in the direction vertical to the transferring direction of the conveyor, an area for receiving the radioactive wastes and placing them on the conveyor and an area for collecting the radioactive wastes transferred by the conveyor. Since an operator can conduct handling while wearing a working cloth attached to a partition wall as he wears his ordinary cloth, the operation condition can be improved and the efficiency for the separating work can be improved. When the area for settling conveyors and the area for the operators is depressurized, cruds on the surface of the wastes are not released to the outside and the working clothes can be prevented from being involved. Since the wastes are transferred by the conveyor, the operator's moving range is reduced, poisonous materials are fallen and moved through a sliding way to an area for collecting materials to be separated. Accordingly, the materials to be removed can be accumulated easily. (N.H.)

  8. Trends in Modern Exception Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kuta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Exception handling is nowadays a necessary component of error proof information systems. The paper presents overview of techniques and models of exception handling, problems connected with them and potential solutions. The aspects of implementation of propagation mechanisms and exception handling, their effect on semantics and general program efficiency are also taken into account. Presented mechanisms were adopted to modern programming languages. Considering design area, formal methods and formal verification of program properties we can notice exception handling mechanisms are weakly present what makes a field for future research.

  9. Mixture toxicity of wood preservative products in the fish embryo toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Anja; Dobrick, Jan; Möder, Monika; Kehrer, Anja

    2012-06-01

    Wood preservative products are used globally to protect wood from fungal decay and insects. We investigated the aquatic toxicity of five commercial wood preservative products, the biocidal active substances and some formulation additives contained therein, as well as six generic binary mixtures of the active substances in the fish embryo toxicity test (FET). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the single substances, the mixtures, and the products were estimated from concentration-response curves and corrected for concentrations measured in the test medium. The comparison of the experimentally observed mixture toxicity with the toxicity predicted by the concept of concentration addition (CA) showed less than twofold deviation for all binary mixtures of the active substances and for three of the biocidal products. A more than 60-fold underestimation of the toxicity of the fourth product by the CA prediction was detected and could be explained fully by the toxicity of one formulation additive, which had been labeled as a hazardous substance. The reason for the 4.6-fold underestimation of toxicity of the fifth product could not be explained unambiguously. Overall, the FET was found to be a suitable screening tool to verify whether the toxicity of formulated wood preservatives can reliably be predicted by CA. Applied as a quick and simple nonanimal screening test, the FET may support approaches of applying component-based mixture toxicity predictions within the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products, which is required according to European regulations. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  10. Introducing Toxics

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-01-01

    With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present ...

  11. Safety measuring for sodium handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Jeong, K C; Kim, T J; Kim, B H; Choi, J H

    2001-09-01

    This is the report for the safety measures of sodium handling. These contents are prerequisites for the development of sodium technology and thus the workers participate in sodium handling and experiments have to know them perfectly. As an appendix, the relating parts of the laws are presented.

  12. Validation of the plan of handling of hospital accustomed to waste of the Costa Rica Box of the Public Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar Monge, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    The handling that is given at the moment to the hospital solid waste in Costa Rica is considered inadequate, due to the lack of the personnel's of cleaning training, segregation, vehicles of transport and recipients, signaling, team of personal protection, schedule and gathering route and recycle. This situation represents a serious danger for the population's health and the since environment is exposed infectious agents toxic substances and even radioactive products that are generated in the residuals of the centers of health. In this work they intend improvements to the system of handling of solid waste of the hospital Calderon Guardia, and you evaluates each one of the points mentioned previously. A revision was made about the properties, the quality and the quantity of the produced solid waste and an I diagnose of the current situation in this center of health. The proposed improvements are based on the regional program of hospital solid waste, agreement ALA91/33 (this it was elaborated in 1997 by a cooperation initiative between the European Union and the Governments from Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama) and the Norms for the Handling of dangerous Solid Waste in Establishments of Health (elaborated by the Costa Rican Box of the Public Health) their advantages and disadvantages are also exposed and he/she is carried out a comparative analysis among the handling plan proposed in these documents and the one that is used at the moment in the Calderon Guardia hospital. Some of the detected problems are: it lacks of team of personal protection, the appropriate recipients are not used, storage of waste inside the hospital, the vehicles used in the internal transport are not appropriate, bad organization of the storing center, among others [es

  13. Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.W. Rowe

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the ''Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study'' is to develop proposed design requirements for the repository Waste Handling System in sufficient detail to allow the surface facility design to proceed to the License Application effort if the proposed requirements are approved by DOE. Proposed requirements were developed to further refine waste handling facility performance characteristics and design constraints with an emphasis on supporting modular construction, minimizing fuel inventory, and optimizing facility maintainability and dry handling operations. To meet this objective, this study attempts to provide an alternative design to the Site Recommendation design that is flexible, simple, reliable, and can be constructed in phases. The design concept will be input to the ''Modular Design/Construction and Operation Options Report'', which will address the overall program objectives and direction, including options and issues associated with transportation, the subsurface facility, and Total System Life Cycle Cost. This study (herein) is limited to the Waste Handling System and associated fuel staging system

  14. Substance Identification Information from EPA's Substance Registry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the authoritative resource for basic information about substances of interest to the U.S. EPA and its state and tribal...

  15. Health physics considerations in UF{sub 6} handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.C. [Norway Assoicates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Uranium is a radioactive substance that emits alpha particles and very small amounts of gamma radiation. Its daughter products emit beta and gamma radiation. In uranium handling operations these are the radiations one must consider. This presentation will review the characteristics of the radiations, the isotopes from which they originate, the growth and decay of the uranium daughter products, and some specific health physics practices dictated by these factors.

  16. Safe handling of radioactive isotopes. Handbook 42

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1949-09-01

    With the increasing use of radioactive isotopes by industry, the medical profession, and research laboratories, it is essential that certain minimal precautions be taken to protect the users and the public. The recommendations contained in this handbook represent what is believed to be the best available opinions on the subject as of this date. As our experience with radioisotopes broadens, we will undoubtedly be able to improve and strengthen the recommendations for their safe handling and utilization. Through the courtesy of the National Research Council about a year ago, several hundred draft copies of this report were circulated to all leading workers and authorities in the field for comment and criticism. The present handbook embodies all pertinent suggestions received from these people. Further comment will be welcomed by the committee. One of the greatest difficulties encountered in the preparation of this handbook lay in the uncertainty regarding permissible radiation exposure levels - particularly for ingested radioactive materials. The establishment of sound figures for such exposure still remains a problem of high priority for many conditions and radioactive substances. Such figures as are used in this report represent the best available information today. If, in the future, these can be improved upon, appropriate corrections will be issued. The subject will be under continuous study by the two subcommittees mentioned above. The present Handbook has been prepared by the Subcommittee on the Handling of Radioactive Isotopes and Fission Products

  17. Safe handling of radioactive isotopes. Handbook 42

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1949-09-15

    With the increasing use of radioactive isotopes by industry, the medical profession, and research laboratories, it is essential that certain minimal precautions be taken to protect the users and the public. The recommendations contained in this handbook represent what is believed to be the best available opinions on the subject as of this date. As our experience with radioisotopes broadens, we will undoubtedly be able to improve and strengthen the recommendations for their safe handling and utilization. Through the courtesy of the National Research Council about a year ago, several hundred draft copies of this report were circulated to all leading workers and authorities in the field for comment and criticism. The present handbook embodies all pertinent suggestions received from these people. Further comment will be welcomed by the committee. One of the greatest difficulties encountered in the preparation of this handbook lay in the uncertainty regarding permissible radiation exposure levels - particularly for ingested radioactive materials. The establishment of sound figures for such exposure still remains a problem of high priority for many conditions and radioactive substances. Such figures as are used in this report represent the best available information today. If, in the future, these can be improved upon, appropriate corrections will be issued. The subject will be under continuous study by the two subcommittees mentioned above. The present Handbook has been prepared by the Subcommittee on the Handling of Radioactive Isotopes and Fission Products.

  18. Certification plan transuranic waste: Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of transuranic (TRU) waste handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The plan incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWBF; and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification

  19. Sophisticated fuel handling system evolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The control systems at Sellafield fuel handling plant are described. The requirements called for built-in diagnostic features as well as the ability to handle a large sequencing application. Speed was also important; responses better than 50ms were required. The control systems are used to automate operations within each of the three main process caves - two Magnox fuel decanners and an advanced gas-cooled reactor fuel dismantler. The fuel route within the fuel handling plant is illustrated and described. ASPIC (Automated Sequence Package for Industrial Control) which was developed as a controller for the plant processes is described. (U.K.)

  20. Production management of window handles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Ingaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the chapter a company involved in the production of aluminum window and door handles was presented. The main customers of the company are primarily companies which produce PCV joinery and wholesalers supplying these companies. One chosen product from the research company - a single-arm pin-lift window handle - was described and its production process depicted technologically. The chapter also includes SWOT analysis conducted in the research company and the value stream of the single-arm pin-lift window handle.

  1. Radioiodination of humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, K.; Kupsch, H. [Inst. of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The known IODO-GEN trademark -method was adapted for radiolabeling of humic and fulvic acids with {sup 131}I. The water insoluble oxidizing agent 1,3,4,6tetrachloro-3{alpha},6{alpha}-diphenylglycoluril (IODO-GEN trademark) forms an iodous ion species (I{sup +}), which undergoes an electrophilic I/H-substitution on aromatic moieties of the humic and fulvic acids. This method offers mild conditions with a lesser extent of oxidative alterations of the target molecule, accompanied by an easy handling due to the virtual water-insolubility of the oxidizing agent. The method was optimized and different techniques were tested for the purification of the radioiodinated humic material. The yield of the labeling procedure varies between 45 and 75% depending on the provenance of the humic material and the applied purification method. A specific activity up to 40 MBq/mg was achieved. Furthermore, the known inherent photo-susceptibility of the iodinated humic substance and the influence of reducing agents were verified. An additional release of {sup 131}I up to 20% and up to 35%, respectively were observed. (orig.)

  2. Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices. Revision 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is continuing the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies in sharing with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) shipping containers and handling procedures. The USEC has reviewed Revision 6 or ORO-651 and is issuing this new edition to assure that the document includes the most recent information on UF 6 handling procedures and reflects the policies of the USEC. This manual updates the material contained in earlier issues. It covers the essential aspects of UF 6 handling, cylinder filling and emptying, general principles of weighing and sampling, shipping, and the use of protective overpacks. The physical and chemical properties of UF 6 are also described. The procedures and systems described for safe handling of UF 6 presented in this document have been developed and evaluated during more than 40 years of handling vast quantities of UF 6 . With proper consideration for its nuclear properties, UF 6 may be safely handled in essentially the same manner as any other corrosive and/or toxic chemical

  3. Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is continuing the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies in sharing with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) shipping containers and handling procedures. The USEC has reviewed Revision 6 or ORO-651 and is issuing this new edition to assure that the document includes the most recent information on UF{sub 6} handling procedures and reflects the policies of the USEC. This manual updates the material contained in earlier issues. It covers the essential aspects of UF{sub 6} handling, cylinder filling and emptying, general principles of weighing and sampling, shipping, and the use of protective overpacks. The physical and chemical properties of UF{sub 6} are also described. The procedures and systems described for safe handling of UF{sub 6} presented in this document have been developed and evaluated during more than 40 years of handling vast quantities of UF{sub 6}. With proper consideration for its nuclear properties, UF{sub 6} may be safely handled in essentially the same manner as any other corrosive and/or toxic chemical.

  4. Safe handling of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    This chapter discussed the subjects related to the safe handling of radiation sources: type of radiation sources, method of use: transport within premises, transport outside premises; Disposal of Gamma Sources

  5. How Retailers Handle Complaint Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Wilke, Ricky; Zaichkowsky, Judy

    2009-01-01

    This article fills a gap in the literature by providing insight about the handling of complaint management (CM) across a large cross section of retailers in the grocery, furniture, electronic and auto sectors. Determinants of retailers’ CM handling are investigated and insight is gained as to the......This article fills a gap in the literature by providing insight about the handling of complaint management (CM) across a large cross section of retailers in the grocery, furniture, electronic and auto sectors. Determinants of retailers’ CM handling are investigated and insight is gained...... as to the links between CM and redress of consumers’ complaints. The results suggest that retailers who attach large negative consequences to consumer dissatisfaction are more likely than other retailers to develop a positive strategic view on customer complaining, but at the same time an increase in perceived...

  6. Ergonomic material-handling device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsnick, Lance E.; Zalk, David M.; Perry, Catherine M.; Biggs, Terry; Tageson, Robert E.

    2004-08-24

    A hand-held ergonomic material-handling device capable of moving heavy objects, such as large waste containers and other large objects requiring mechanical assistance. The ergonomic material-handling device can be used with neutral postures of the back, shoulders, wrists and knees, thereby reducing potential injury to the user. The device involves two key features: 1) gives the user the ability to adjust the height of the handles of the device to ergonomically fit the needs of the user's back, wrists and shoulders; and 2) has a rounded handlebar shape, as well as the size and configuration of the handles which keep the user's wrists in a neutral posture during manipulation of the device.

  7. The technique on handling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This book describes measurement of radiation and handling radiation. The first part deals with measurement of radiation. The contents of this part are characteristic on measurement technique of radiation, radiation detector, measurement of energy spectrum, measurement of radioactivity, measurement for a level of radiation and county's statistics on radiation. The second parts explains handling radiation with treating of sealed radioisotope, treating unsealed source and radiation shield.

  8. Civilsamfundets ABC: H for Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink; Meyer, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til H for Handling.......Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til H for Handling....

  9. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  10. Building a developmental toxicity ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy; Boobis, Alan; Burgoon, Lyle; Carney, Edward; Currie, Richard; Fritsche, Ellen; Knudsen, Thomas; Laffont, Madeleine; Piersma, Aldert H; Poole, Alan; Schneider, Steffen; Daston, George

    2018-04-03

    As more information is generated about modes of action for developmental toxicity and more data are generated using high-throughput and high-content technologies, it is becoming necessary to organize that information. This report discussed the need for a systematic representation of knowledge about developmental toxicity (i.e., an ontology) and proposes a method to build one based on knowledge of developmental biology and mode of action/ adverse outcome pathways in developmental toxicity. This report is the result of a consensus working group developing a plan to create an ontology for developmental toxicity that spans multiple levels of biological organization. This report provide a description of some of the challenges in building a developmental toxicity ontology and outlines a proposed methodology to meet those challenges. As the ontology is built on currently available web-based resources, a review of these resources is provided. Case studies on one of the most well-understood morphogens and developmental toxicants, retinoic acid, are presented as examples of how such an ontology might be developed. This report outlines an approach to construct a developmental toxicity ontology. Such an ontology will facilitate computer-based prediction of substances likely to induce human developmental toxicity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Materials Safety Data Sheets: the basis for control of toxic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketchen, E.E.; Porter, W.E.

    1979-09-01

    The Material Safety Data Sheets contained in this volume are the basis for the Toxic Chemical Control Program developed by the Industrial Hygiene Department, Health Division, ORNL. The three volumes are the update and expansion of ORNL/TM-5721 and ORNL/TM-5722 Material Safety Data Sheets: The Basis for Control of Toxic Chemicals, Volume I and Volume II. As such, they are a valuable adjunct to the data cards issued with specific chemicals. The chemicals are identified by name, stores catalog number where appropriate, and sequence numbers from the NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, 1977 Edition, if available. The data sheets were developed and compiled to aid in apprising the employees of hazards peculiar to the handling and/or use of specific toxic chemicals. Space limitation necessitate the use of descriptive medical terms and toxicological abbreviations. A glossary and an abbreviation list were developed to define some of those sometimes unfamiliar terms and abbreviations. The page numbers are keyed to the catalog number in the chemical stores at ORNL.

  12. Asthma, guides for diagnostic and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, Carlos E; Caballero A, Andres S; Garcia G, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    The paper defines the asthma, includes topics as diagnostic, handling of the asthma, special situations as asthma and pregnancy, handling of the asthmatic patient's perioperatory and occupational asthma

  13. SRV-automatic handling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Koji

    1987-01-01

    Automatic handling device for the steam relief valves (SRV's) is developed in order to achieve a decrease in exposure of workers, increase in availability factor, improvement in reliability, improvement in safety of operation, and labor saving. A survey is made during a periodical inspection to examine the actual SVR handling operation. An SRV automatic handling device consists of four components: conveyor, armed conveyor, lifting machine, and control/monitoring system. The conveyor is so designed that the existing I-rail installed in the containment vessel can be used without any modification. This is employed for conveying an SRV along the rail. The armed conveyor, designed for a box rail, is used for an SRV installed away from the rail. By using the lifting machine, an SRV installed away from the I-rail is brought to a spot just below the rail so that the SRV can be transferred by the conveyor. The control/monitoring system consists of a control computer, operation panel, TV monitor and annunciator. The SRV handling device is operated by remote control from a control room. A trial equipment is constructed and performance/function testing is carried out using actual SRV's. As a result, is it shown that the SRV handling device requires only two operators to serve satisfactorily. The required time for removal and replacement of one SRV is about 10 minutes. (Nogami, K.)

  14. Introducing Toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present their work in as much detail as they wish. Toxics will publish original research papers, conventional reviews, meta-analyses, short communications, theoretical papers, case reports, commentaries and policy perspectives, and book reviews (Book reviews will be solicited and should not be submitted without invitation. Toxins and toxicants concern individuals from a wide range of disciplines, and Toxics is interested in receiving papers that represent the full range of approaches applied to their study, including in vitro studies, studies that use experimental animal or non-animal models, studies of humans or other biological populations, and mathematical modeling. We are excited to get underway and look forward to working with authors in the scientific and medical communities and providing them with a novel venue for sharing their work. [...

  15. Technical session 4: Health and safety issues. Working environment control in beryllium handling area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, K.; Natori, Y.; Tatenuma, K.; Nakamichi, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Beryllium (Be) and its intermetallic compound (beryllide) are recommended from Japan as the most promising solid neutron multiplier for nuclear fusion power plant. The shape as the neutron multiplier is small sphere (pebble), and the mass production technology of it must be developed urgently. Beryllium is the substance regulated by the law of Ordinance on Prevention of Hazards Due to Specified the Chemical Substances Control. We'll report on a way of the operational environmental management to make a safe Be handling area for the Be handling researchers and workers. (author)

  16. Handling of waste in ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    The regulations governing the handling of port-generated waste are often national and/or local legislation, whereas the handling of ship-generated waste is governed by the MARPOL Convention in most parts of the world. The handling of waste consists of two main phases -collection and treatment. Waste has to be collected in every port and on board every ship, whereas generally only some wastes are treated and to a certain degree in ports and on board ships. This paper considers the different kinds of waste generated in both ports and on board ships, where and how it is generated, how it could be collected and treated. The two sources are treated together to show how some ship-generated waste may be treated in port installations primarily constructed for the treatment of the port-generated waste, making integrated use of the available treatment facilities. (author)

  17. Antimony Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically.

  18. Antimony Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The...

  19. Oxygen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. van der Westhuizen

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biologi­cal processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.

  20. Corneal Toxicity Following Exposure to Asclepias Tuberosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Lauge Hjorth; Hamoudi, Hassan; Gül, Cigdem Altuntas; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    To present a case of corneal toxicity following exposure to milky plant latex from Asclepias tuberosa. A 70-year-old female presented with blurred vision and pain in her left eye after handling an Ascepias tuberosa . Clinical examination revealed a corneal stromal oedema with small epithelial defects. The corneal endothelium was intact and folds in Descemets membrane were observed. The oedema was treated with chloramphenicol, dexamethasone and scopolamine. The corneal oedema had appeared after corneal exposure to the plant, Asclepias tuberosa , whose latex contains cardenolides that inhibit the Na + / K + -ATPase in the corneal endothelium. The oedema resolved after 96 hours. After nine months the best corrected visual acuity was 20/20. Corneal toxicity has previously been reported for plants of the Asclepias family. This is a rare case describing severe corneal toxicity caused by exposure to latex from Asclepias tuberosa . Handling of plants of the Asclepias family should be kept as a differential diagnosis in cases of acute corneal toxicity.

  1. In vitro regeneration from petiole explants of non-toxic Jatropha curcas

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish; Vijay Anand, K.G.; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas, a multipurpose shrub has acquired significant economic potential as biodiesel plant. The seeds or pressed cake is toxic due to the presence of toxic substances and is not useful as food/fodder despite having the best protein

  2. [Plants as a source of natural harmful substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiecki, Ludwik

    2005-01-01

    In this review the several data concerning phytotoxins as natural harmful substances of plants and phycotoxins--toxicants of algae were described. For example plants are source of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, glycoalkaloids, glucosinolates as well as glycosides, saponine and psolarens. Possible adverse effects of phytoestrogens as endocrine disruptors versus beneficial influence these substances on human organism were mentioned. About lectins as possible factors of some diseases was reported, as well as some proteins as allergens of soy and peanuts was mentioned. Accumulated by shellfish and fish the most important phycotoxins such as saxitoxin, okadaic acid, brevetoxins and ciguatoxins were described. Phycotoxins produced several poisoning symptoms. Microcystins and nodularin--cyanobacterial phycotoxins of freshwater, was mentioned. In conclusion, the need of limitation of permissible levels of some plant toxicants, development of analytical methods as well as knowledge of influence of some technological processes on toxic plant substances was highlighted. The importance of balanced diet as a tool of defense against plant toxicants was concluded.

  3. Software for handling MFME1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Merwe, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The report deals with SEMFIP, a computer code for determining magnetic field measurements. The program is written in FORTRAN and ASSEMBLER. The preparations for establishing SEMFIP, the actual measurements, data handling and the problems that were experienced are discussed. Details on the computer code are supplied in an appendix

  4. Welding method by remote handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashinokuchi, Minoru.

    1994-01-01

    Water is charged into a pit (or a water reservoir) and an article to be welded is placed on a support in the pit by remote handling. A steel plate is disposed so as to cover the article to be welded by remote handling. The welding device is positioned to the portion to be welded and fixed in a state where the article to be welded is shielded from radiation by water and the steel plate. Water in the pit is drained till the portion to be welded is exposed to the atmosphere. Then, welding is conducted. After completion of the welding, water is charged again to the pit and the welding device and fixing jigs are decomposed in a state where the article to be welded is shielded again from radiation by water and the steel plate. Subsequently, the steel plate is removed by remote handling. Then, the article to be welded is returned from the pit to a temporary placing pool by remote handling. This can reduce operator's exposure. Further, since the amount of the shielding materials can be minimized, the amount of radioactive wastes can be decreased. (I.N.)

  5. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The use of re espirometry in determining the inhibition produced by toxic substances in activated sludge; Empleo de la respirometria en la determinacion de la inhibicion provocada sobre lodos activados por sustancias toxicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quesada, I.; Jaureguil, U.; Menendz, C.

    2001-07-01

    In manufacturing pharmaceuticals processes such as synthesis, fermentation and extractions are commonly employed. Such processes generate waste waters, with an organic content that is not very biodegradable, as they also contain inhibiting substances. in the first place, inhibition due to formaldehyde on a sludge medium, as measured by its respiratory activity, was studied at concentrations of 90, 180 and 360 mg/l. The results obtained were plotted on a graph and an almost straight line was found to correlate the degree of inhibition to the concentration of formaldehyde. In view of the reliability of this method, also backed up by the literature, several more tests were carried out, this time using streptomycin as the inhibitor. In this case it was found that the respiratory activity of the activated sludge was reduced to 50% with a streptomycin concentration of 19 mg/l. A further study using inhibition halos showed that concentrations of <10 mg/l did not affect the organisms studied (E, coli, Ps aeruginosa and B, subtilis). However, inhibition was found at concentrations of the antibiotic of 30 mg/l especial in the case of B, subtilis. (Author) 17 refs.

  7. Nutrients and bioactive substances in aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devadasan, K.; Mukundan, M.K.; Antony, P.D.; Viswanathan Nair, P.G.; Perigreen, P.A.; Joseph, Jose

    1994-01-01

    The International Symposium on Nutrients and Bioactive Substances in Aquatic Organisms, was held during 16-17 September 1993 by the Society of Fisheries Technologists (India) to review the progress of research in this area in India and elsewhere. The papers presented indicate that scientific productivity in this field is substantial and that some of the bioactive materials isolated from aquatic organisms have potential application in human health, nutrition and therapy. The symposium focussed attention on toxicants, nutrients and bioactive substances in aquatic organisms in general, and also on pollution of aquatic systems due to thermal effluents. Paper relevant to INIS database is indexed separately. (M.K.V.)

  8. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. 1973 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it was considered an urgent task to provide users of radionuclides with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. The first edition of such a manual was published in 1958 and represented the first of the ''Safety Series'', a series of manuals and codes on health and safety published by the Agency. It was prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. This edition presents the second revision. In response to the suggestion made by some Member States, the term 'radioisotopes' has been changed to 'radionuclides' in the title and, as appropriate, in the text because the term 'radionuclides' includes the radioactive element itself as well as the isotopes. The series of manuals and codes published in the Safety Series and the Technical Reports Series give more complete advice to the user on specialized topics.

  9. Safe handling of cytotoxic compounds in a biopharmaceutical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensgen, Miriam I; Stump, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Handling cytotoxic drugs such as antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) in a biopharmaceutical environment represents a challenge based on the potency of the compounds. These derivatives are dangerous to humans if they accidentally get in contact with the skin, are inhaled, or are ingested, either as pure compounds in their solid state or as a solution dissolved in a co-solvent. Any contamination of people involved in the manufacturing process has to be avoided. On the other hand, biopharmaceuticals need to be protected simultaneously against any contamination from the manufacturing personnel. Therefore, a tailor-made work environment is mandatory in order to manufacture ADCs. This asks for appropriate technical equipment to keep potential hazardous substances contained. In addition, clearly defined working procedures based on risk assessments as well as proper training for all personnel involved in the manufacturing process are needed to safely handle these highly potent pharmaceuticals.

  10. Handling of final storage of unreprocessed spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In this report the various facilities incorporated in the proposed handling chain for spent fuel from the power stations to the final repository are discribed. Thus the geological conditions which are essential for a final repository is discussed as well as the buffer and canister materials and how they contribute towards a long-term isolation of the spent fuel. Furthermore one chapter deals with leaching of the deposited fuel in the event that the canister is penetrated as well as the transport mechanisms which determine the migration of the radioactive substances through the buffer material. The dispersal processes in the geosphere and the biosphere are also described together with the transfer mechanisms to the ecological systems as well as radiation doses. Finally a summary is given of the safety analysis of the proposed method for the handling and final storage of the spent fuel. (E.R.)

  11. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  12. Plume residence and toxic material accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Holpuch, R.

    1975-01-01

    Increased growth rates and 137 Cs concentrations in plume resident trout are thought to be the result of increased metabolism, food consumption, and activity caused by exposure to increased water temperature and flow in thermal discharges. These exposure conditions could contribute to increased accumulation of biologically active, toxic substances by primary forage and predator fish species in the Great Lakes. Uptake and retention of various toxic substances by predators depend on concentrations in forage species (trophic transfer), ambient water, and point source effluents (direct uptake). Contaminants of immediate concern in Great Lakes systems (e.g., chlorinated hydrocarbons) accumulate in adipose tissue, and body concentrations have been correlated with total lipid content in fish. In addition to direct toxic effects on fish, many lipophilic contaminants are known to cause severe human health problems when ingested at concentrations commonly found in Lake Michigan salmonids. Although power plants may or may not be the direct source of a toxic substance, the thermal discharge environment may contribute to the accumulation of toxic substances in fish and the transfer of these materials to man

  13. Experience in handling concentrated tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.

    1985-12-01

    The notes describe the experience in handling concentrated tritium in the hydrogen form accumulated in the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories Tritium Laboratory. The techniques of box operation, pumping systems, hydriding and dehydriding operations, and analysis of tritium are discussed. Information on the Chalk River Tritium Extraction Plant is included as a collection of reprints of papers presented at the Dayton Meeting on Tritium Technology, 1985 April 30 - May 2

  14. International handling of fissionable material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The opinion of the ministry for foreign affairs on international handling of fissionable materials is given. As an introduction a survey is given of the possibilities to produce nuclear weapons from materials used in or produced by power reactors. Principles for international control of fissionable materials are given. International agreements against proliferation of nuclear weapons are surveyed and methods to improve them are proposed. (K.K.)

  15. Confinement facilities for handling plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraman, W.J.; McNeese, W.D.; Stafford, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    Plutonium handling on a multigram scale began in 1944. Early criteria, equipment, and techniques for confining contamination have been superseded by more stringent criteria and vastly improved equipment and techniques for in-process contamination control, effluent air cleaning and treatment of liquid wastes. This paper describes the evolution of equipment and practices to minimize exposure of workers and escape of contamination into work areas and into the environment. Early and current contamination controls are compared. (author)

  16. Remote handling equipment for SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulten, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    This report gives information on the areas of the SNS, facility which become highly radioactive preventing hands-on maintenance. Levels of activity are sufficiently high in the Target Station Area of the SNS, especially under fault conditions, to warrant reactor technology to be used in the design of the water, drainage and ventilation systems. These problems, together with the type of remote handling equipment required in the SNS, are discussed

  17. Remote handling in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streiff, G.

    1984-01-01

    Remote control will be the rule for maintenance in hot cells of future spent fuel reprocessing plants because of the radioactivity level. New handling equipments will be developed and intervention principles defined. Existing materials, recommendations for use and new manipulators are found in the PMDS' documentation. It is also a help in the choice and use of intervention means and a guide for the user [fr

  18. Equipment for the handling of thorium materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisler, S.W. Jr.; Mihalovich, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) is the United States Department of Energy's storage facility for thorium. FMPC thorium handling and overpacking projects ensure the continued safe handling and storage of the thorium inventory until final disposition of the materials is determined and implemented. The handling and overpacking of the thorium materials requires the design of a system that utilizes remote handling and overpacking equipment not currently utilized at the FMPC in the handling of uranium materials. The use of remote equipment significantly reduces radiation exposure to personnel during the handling and overpacking efforts. The design system combines existing technologies from the nuclear industry, the materials processing and handling industry and the mining industry. The designed system consists of a modified fork lift truck for the transport of thorium containers, automated equipment for material identification and inventory control, and remote handling and overpacking equipment for material identification and inventory control, and remote handling and overpacking equipment for repackaging of the thorium materials

  19. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  20. A Risk Assessment Model for Water Resources: releases of dangerous and hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Anabela; Ferra, Isabel; Gonçalves, Isolina; Marques, Albertina M

    2014-07-01

    Many dangerous and hazardous substances are used, transported and handled daily in diverse situations, from domestic use to industrial processing, and during those operations, spills or other anomalous situations may occur that can lead to contaminant releases followed by contamination of surface water or groundwater through direct or indirect pathways. When dealing with this problem, rapid, technically sound decisions are desirable, and the use of complex methods may not be able to deliver information quickly. This work describes a simple conceptual model established on multi-criteria based analysis involving a strategic appraisal for contamination risk assessment to support local authorities on rapid technical decisions. The model involves a screening for environmental risk sources, focussing on persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) substances that may be discharged into water resources. It is a simple tool that can be used to follow-up actual accident scenarios in real time and to support daily activities, such as site-inspections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 18 CFR 1304.405 - Fuel storage tanks and handling facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... used to contain a regulated substance (such as a petroleum product) and has 10 percent or more of its... or remedy pollution or violations of law, including removal of the UST system, with costs charged to... flammable and combustible liquids storage tanks at marine service stations. (d) Fuel handling on private...

  2. Modeling Aquatic Toxicity through Chromatographic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pumarega, Alejandro; Amézqueta, Susana; Farré, Sandra; Muñoz-Pascual, Laura; Abraham, Michael H; Fuguet, Elisabet; Rosés, Martí

    2017-08-01

    Environmental risk assessment requires information about the toxicity of the growing number of chemical products coming from different origins that can contaminate water and become toxicants to aquatic species or other living beings via the trophic chain. Direct toxicity measurements using sensitive aquatic species can be carried out but they may become expensive and ethically questionable. Literature refers to the use of chromatographic measurements that correlate to the toxic effect of a compound over a specific aquatic species as an alternative to get toxicity information. In this work, we have studied the similarity in the response of the toxicity to different species and we have selected eight representative aquatic species (including tadpoles, fish, water fleas, protozoan, and bacteria) with known nonspecific toxicity to chemical substances. Next, we have selected four chromatographic systems offering good perspectives for surrogation of the eight selected aquatic systems, and thus prediction of toxicity from the chromatographic measurement. Then toxicity has been correlated to the chromatographic retention factor. Satisfactory correlation results have been obtained to emulate toxicity in five of the selected aquatic species through some of the chromatographic systems. Other aquatic species with similar characteristics to these five representative ones could also be emulated by using the same chromatographic systems. The final aim of this study is to model chemical products toxicity to aquatic species by means of chromatographic systems to reduce in vivo testing.

  3. Per and polyfluorinated substances in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posner, Stefan; Roos, Sandra; Brunn Poulsen, Pia

    This Tema Nord report presents a study based on open information and custom market research to review the most common perfluorinated substances (PFC) with less focus on PFOS and PFOA. The study includes three major parts: 1) Identification of relevant per-and polyfluorinated substances and their ......This Tema Nord report presents a study based on open information and custom market research to review the most common perfluorinated substances (PFC) with less focus on PFOS and PFOA. The study includes three major parts: 1) Identification of relevant per-and polyfluorinated substances...... and their use in various industrial sectors in the Nordic market by interviews with major players and database information 2) Emissions to and occurence in the Nordic environment of the substances described in 1) 3) A summary of knowledge of the toxic effects on humans and the environment of substances...

  4. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Gary Milton

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the characteristics and treatment of acute fluoride toxicity as well as the most common sources of overexposure, the doses that cause acute toxicity, and factors that can influence the clinical outcome. Cases of serious systemic toxicity and fatalities due to acute exposures are now rare, but overexposures causing toxic signs and symptoms are not. The clinical course of systemic toxicity from ingested fluoride begins with gastric signs and symptoms, and can develop with alarming rapidity. Treatment involves minimizing absorption by administering a solution containing calcium, monitoring and managing plasma calcium and potassium concentrations, acid-base status, and supporting vital functions. Approximately 30,000 calls to US poison control centers concerning acute exposures in children are made each year, most of which involve temporary gastrointestinal effects, but others require medical treatment. The most common sources of acute overexposures today are dental products - particularly dentifrices because of their relatively high fluoride concentrations, pleasant flavors, and their presence in non-secure locations in most homes. For example, ingestion of only 1.8 ounces of a standard fluoridated dentifrice (900-1,100 mg/kg) by a 10-kg child delivers enough fluoride to reach the 'probably toxic dose' (5 mg/kg body weight). Factors that may influence the clinical course of an overexposure include the chemical compound (e.g. NaF, MFP, etc.), the age and acid-base status of the individual, and the elapsed time between exposure and the initiation of treatment. While fluoride has well-established beneficial dental effects and cases of serious toxicity are now rare, the potential for toxicity requires that fluoride-containing materials be handled and stored with the respect they deserve. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Genetic and perinatal effects of abused substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.

  6. Certification Plan, low-level waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. This plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Waste Certification Specialist to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Waste generators have the primary responsibility for the proper characterization of LLW. The Waste Certification Specialist verifies and certifies that LBL LLW is characterized, handled, and shipped in accordance with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Certification is the governing process in which LBL personnel conduct their waste generating and waste handling activities in such a manner that the Waste Certification Specialist can verify that the requirements of WHC-WAC are met

  7. Lichen substances prevent lichens from nutrient deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Willenbruch, Karen; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The dibenzofuran usnic acid, a widespread cortical secondary metabolite produced by lichen-forming fungi, was shown to promote the intracellular uptake of Cu(2+) in two epiphytic lichens, Evernia mesomorpha and Ramalina menziesii, from acidic, nutrient-poor bark. Higher Cu(2+) uptake in the former, which produces the depside divaricatic acid in addition to usnic acid, suggests that this depside promotes Cu(2+) uptake. Since Cu(2+) is one of the rarest micronutrients, promotion of Cu(2+) uptake by lichen substances may be crucial for the studied lichens to survive in their nutrient-poor habitats. In contrast, study of the uptake of other metals in E. mesomorpha revealed that the intracellular uptake of Mn(2+), which regularly exceeds potentially toxic concentrations in leachates of acidic tree bark, was partially inhibited by the lichen substances produced by this species. Inhibition of Mn(2+) uptake by lichen substances previously has been demonstrated in lichens. The uptake of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), which fail to reach toxic concentrations in acidic bark at unpolluted sites, although they are more common than Cu(2+), was not affected by lichen substances of E. mesomorpha.

  8. 7 CFR 926.9 - Handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DATA COLLECTION, REPORTING AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.9 Handle. Handle...

  9. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Handling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records for all handling and measurement of Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. Live seals are handled and measured during a variety of events...

  10. Problems of substance abuse: exploitation and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, L

    1985-01-01

    The notion of substance abuse is highly problematic. There is considerable disagreement amongst 'experts' as to the relative hazards and addictive properties of both legally and illegally available substances. There are also widely divergent sub-cultural attitudes to the harmfulness or benefit of drug use. One can assume no social consensus as to the nature of the contemporary 'drug problem', nor about the most appropriate means of dealing with it. There is, however, considerable evidence that criminalization of drug use, and harsh penalties against users and suppliers, are ineffective and counter-productive. Other models of control need to be considered, and in particular the merits and de-merits of the medicalization of drug abuse require examination. However, this is only one aspect of the problem. On the other side are the national and international corporations and syndicates, both legitimate and criminal, that earn vast profits from trade in toxic substances. Tobacco is legally available in every country in the world, and the industry is rarely subject to strict control. Thus the issue of substance abuse and control should be seen in a global context, in which account is taken of both legitimate and underworld operations. In attempts to control international trade in toxic substances, the limited success and the problems of already existing legal controls should be acknowledged. Local awareness and regulation of trade in substances is essential, but not sufficient. Amongst other avenues to be explored is the possibility of diverting presently illicitly grown narcotics into indigenous pharmaceutical industries in the Third World. Some problems with this strategy are noted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. ERROR HANDLING IN INTEGRATION WORKFLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey M. Nazarenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation experiments performed while solving multidisciplinary engineering and scientific problems require joint usage of multiple software tools. Further, when following a preset plan of experiment or searching for optimum solu- tions, the same sequence of calculations is run multiple times with various simulation parameters, input data, or conditions while overall workflow does not change. Automation of simulations like these requires implementing of a workflow where tool execution and data exchange is usually controlled by a special type of software, an integration environment or plat- form. The result is an integration workflow (a platform-dependent implementation of some computing workflow which, in the context of automation, is a composition of weakly coupled (in terms of communication intensity typical subtasks. These compositions can then be decomposed back into a few workflow patterns (types of subtasks interaction. The pat- terns, in their turn, can be interpreted as higher level subtasks.This paper considers execution control and data exchange rules that should be imposed by the integration envi- ronment in the case of an error encountered by some integrated software tool. An error is defined as any abnormal behavior of a tool that invalidates its result data thus disrupting the data flow within the integration workflow. The main requirementto the error handling mechanism implemented by the integration environment is to prevent abnormal termination of theentire workflow in case of missing intermediate results data. Error handling rules are formulated on the basic pattern level and on the level of a composite task that can combine several basic patterns as next level subtasks. The cases where workflow behavior may be different, depending on user's purposes, when an error takes place, and possible error handling op- tions that can be specified by the user are also noted in the work.

  12. LACIE data-handling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waits, G. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Techniques implemented to facilitate processing of LANDSAT multispectral data between 1975 and 1978 are described. The data that were handled during the large area crop inventory experiment and the storage mechanisms used for the various types of data are defined. The overall data flow, from the placing of the LANDSAT orders through the actual analysis of the data set, is discussed. An overview is provided of the status and tracking system that was developed and of the data base maintenance and operational task. The archiving of the LACIE data is explained.

  13. The handling of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, H.F.; Orchard, H.C.; Walker, C.W.

    1977-04-01

    Some of the more interesting and important contributions to a recent International Symposium on the Handling of Radiation Accidents are discussed and personal comments on many of the papers presented are included. The principal conclusion of the Symposium was that although the nuclear industry has an excellent safety record, there is no room for complacency. Continuing attention to emergency planning and exercising are essential in order to maintain this position. A full list of the papers presented at the Symposium is included as an Appendix. (author)

  14. Substance use - cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance abuse - cocaine; Drug abuse - cocaine; Drug use - cocaine ... thinking clearly Mood and emotional problems, such as aggressive or violent behavior Restlessness and tremors Sleep problems ...

  15. Substance use - phencyclidine (PCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PCP; Substance abuse - phencyclidine; Drug abuse - phencyclidine; Drug use - phencyclidine ... a result, you may act strangely or become aggressive and violent. PCP's other harmful effects include: It ...

  16. FY 2000 report on the investigational study on the application of remote controlled robot to the field of treatment of toxic substances, etc.; 2000 nendo chosa hokokusho. Enkaku sosa robot no yugai busshitsu to shori bunya heno oyo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper studied a combination of the advanced robot remote controlled technology and the latest sensing/monitoring/failure diagnosis technology and investigated the application field of the integrated remote technology and items for the R and D. As to the construction of the common platform in the integrated remote technology making full use of the most up-to-date IT, extraction of element technology and study of developmental subjects were carried out for man-machine interface, remote control, sensing/monitoring, movement on nonlevel land, etc. Concerning the integrated remote technology in application fields, concepts for the development of the following technologies were constructed: integrated remote technology in the field of treatment of toxic substances/hazardous materials; integrated remote technology in the field of places to which personnel access is an impossibility; integrated remote technology in the field of remote/simultaneous treatment; integrated remote technology in the field of man substitution; integrated remote technology in the field of work at dangerous places. (NEDO)

  17. 7 CFR 58.443 - Whey handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whey handling. 58.443 Section 58.443 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.443 Whey handling. (a) Adequate sanitary facilities shall be provided for the handling of whey. If outside, necessary precautions shall be taken to minimize flies, insects and development of...

  18. Guidelines for safe handling of hazardous drugs: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu-Martínez, Mari A; Ramos Merino, Mateo; Santos Gago, Juan M; Álvarez Sabucedo, Luis M; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Sanz-Valero, Javier

    2018-01-01

    To review the scientific literature related to the safe handling of hazardous drugs (HDs). Critical analysis of works retrieved from MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, CINHAL, Web of Science and LILACS using the terms "Hazardous Substances", "Antineoplastic Agents" and "Cytostatic Agents", applying "Humans" and "Guidelines" as filters. Date of search: January 2017. In total, 1100 references were retrieved, and from those, 61 documents were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria: 24 (39.3%) documents related to recommendations about HDs; 27 (44.3%) about antineoplastic agents, and 10 (33.3%) about other types of substances (monoclonal antibodies, gene medicine and other chemical and biological agents). In 14 (23.3%) guides, all the stages in the manipulation process involving a risk due to exposure were considered. Only one guide addressed all stages of the handling process of HDs (including stages with and without the risk of exposure). The most described stages were drug preparation (41 guides, 67.2%), staff training and/or patient education (38 guides, 62.3%), and administration (37 guides, 60.7%). No standardized informatics system was found that ensured quality management, traceability and minimization of the risks associated with these drugs. Most of the analysed guidelines limit their recommendations to the manipulation of antineoplastics. The most frequently described activities were preparation, training, and administration. It would be convenient to apply ICTs (Information and Communications Technologies) to manage processes involving HDs in a more complete and simpler fashion.

  19. Modern toxic antipersonnel projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Yvan; Regenstreif, Philippe; Fanton, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    In the spring of 1944, Kurt von Gottberg, the SS police chief in Minsk, was shot and injured by 2 Soviet agents. Although he was only slightly injured, he died 6 hours later. The bullets were hollow and contained a crystalline white powder. They were 4-g bullets, semi-jacketed in cupronickel, containing 28 mg of aconitine. They were later known as akonitinnitratgeschosse. The Sipo (the Nazi security police) then ordered a trial with a 9-mm Parabellum cartridge containing Ditran, an anticholinergic drug with hallucinogenic properties causing intense mental confusion. In later years, QNB was used and given the NATO code BZ (3-quinuclidinyl-benzylate). It was proven that Saddam Hussein had this weapon (agent 15) manufactured and used it against the Kurds. Serbian forces used the same type of weapon in the Bosnian conflict, particularly in Srebrenica.The authors go on to list the Cold War toxic weapons developed by the KGB and the Warsaw pact countries for the discreet elimination of dissidents and proindependence leaders who had taken refuge in the West. These weapons include PSZh-13 launchers, the Troika electronic sequential pistol, and the ingenious 4-S110T captive piston system designed by the engineer Stechkin. Disguised as a cigarette case, it could fire a silent charge of potassium cyanide. This rogues gallery also includes the umbrella rigged to inject a pellet of ricin (or another phytalbumin of similar toxicity, such as abrin or crotin) that was used to assassinate the Bulgarian writer and journalist Georgi Markov on September 7, 1978, in London.During the autopsy, the discovery of a bullet burst into 4 or 5 parts has to make at once suspecting the use of a toxic substance. Toxicological analysis has to look for first and foremost aconitine, cyanide, suxamethonium, Ditran, BZ, or one of the toxic phytalbumins. The use of such complex weapons has to make suspect a powerful organization: army, secret service, terrorism. The existence of the Russian UDAR spray

  20. Radioactive Substances Act 1948

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1948-01-01

    This Act regulates the use of radioactive substances and radiation producing devices in the United Kingdom. It provides for the control of import, export, sale, supply etc. of such substances and devices and lays down the safety regulations to be complied with when dealing with them. (NEA) [fr

  1. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  2. Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    For many years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have shared with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) shipping containers and handling procedures. The information contained in this manual updates information contained in earlier issues. It covers the essential aspects of UF 6 handling, cylinder filling and emptying, general principles of weighing and sampling, shipping, and the use of protective overpacks. The physical and chemical properties of UF 6 are also described and tabulated. The nuclear industry is responsible for furnishing its own shipping cylinders and suitable protective overpacks. A substantial effort has been made by the industry to standardize UF 6 cylinders, samples, and overpacks. The quality of feed materials is important to the safe and efficient operation of the enriching facilities, and the UF 6 product purity from the enriching facilities is equally important to the fuel fabricator, the utilities, the operators of research reactors, and other users. The requirements have been the impetus for an aggressive effort by DOE and its contractors to develop accurate techniques for sampling and for chemical and isotopic analysis. A quality control program is maintained within the DOE enriching facilities to ensure that the proper degree of accuracy and precision are obtained for all the required measurements. The procedures and systems described for safe handling of UF 6 presented in this document have been developed and evaluated in DOE facilities during more than 40 years of handling vast quantities of UF 6 . With proper consideration for its nuclear properties, UF 6 may be safely handled in essentially the same manner as any other corrosive and/or toxic chemical

  3. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  4. Harmonizing human exposure and toxicity characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, O.; McKone, T.E.

    2017-01-01

    The UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative has launched a project to provide global guidance and build consensus on environmental life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) indicators. Human health effects from exposure to toxic chemicals was selected as impact category due to high relevance of human toxicity...... and harmonizing human toxicity characterization in LCIA. Building on initial work for the far-field and indoor air environments, and combining it with latest work on near-field consumer and occupational exposure assessment, dose-response and severity data, we aim at providing revised guidance on the development...... and use of impact factors for toxic chemicals. We propose to couple fate processes in consumer and occupational environments with existing environmental compartments and processes via a consistent and mass balance-based set of transfer fractions to quantify overall aggregated exposure to toxic substances...

  5. Safety of Cargo Aircraft Handling Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hlavatý

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to get acquainted with the ways how to improve the safety management system during cargo aircraft handling. The first chapter is dedicated to general information about air cargo transportation. This includes the history or types of cargo aircraft handling, but also the means of handling. The second part is focused on detailed description of cargo aircraft handling, including a description of activities that are performed before and after handling. The following part of this paper covers a theoretical interpretation of safety, safety indicators and legislative provisions related to the safety of cargo aircraft handling. The fourth part of this paper analyzes the fault trees of events which might occur during handling. The factors found by this analysis are compared with safety reports of FedEx. Based on the comparison, there is a proposal on how to improve the safety management in this transportation company.

  6. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    all chemicals and impact pathways characterizes the contribution of each factor to the total variation of 10–12 orders of magnitude in impacts per kg across all chemicals. This large variation between characterisation factors for different chemicals as well as the 3 orders of magnitude uncertainty....... As a whole, the assessment of toxicity in LCA has progressed on a very sharp learning curve during the past 20 years. This rapid progression is expected to continue in the coming years, focusing more on direct exposure of workers to chemicals during manufacturing and of consumers during product use...

  7. Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dianda, B.

    2004-01-01

    This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC--28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC--28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use of these components or their

  8. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park.

  9. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Beesley

    2005-04-21

    The purpose of this facility description document (FDD) is to establish requirements and associated bases that drive the design of the Canister Handling Facility (CHF), which will allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This FDD identifies the requirements and describes the facility design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This FDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This FDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The FDD follows the design with regard to the description of the facility. The description provided in this FDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  10. Bulk handling benefits from ICT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    The efficiency and accuracy of bulk handling is being improved by the range of management information systems and services available today. As part of the program to extend Richards Bay Coal Terminal, Siemens is installing a manufacturing execution system which coordinates and monitors all movements of raw materials. The article also reports recent developments by AXSMarine, SunGuard Energy, Fuelworx and Railworx in providing integrated tools for tracking, managing and optimising solid/liquid fuels and rail car maintenance activities. QMASTOR Ltd. has secured a contract with Anglo Coal Australia to provide its Pit to Port.net{reg_sign} and iFuse{reg_sign} software systems across all their Australians sites, to include pit-to-product stockpile management. 2 figs.

  11. Handling and transport problems (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarola, J.; Savouyaud, J.

    1960-01-01

    I. The handling and transport of radioactive wastes involves the danger of irradiation and contamination. It is indispensable: - to lay down a special set of rules governing the removal and transport of wastes within centres or from one centre to another; - to give charge of this transportation to a group containing teams of specialists. The organisation, equipment and output of these teams is being examined. II. Certain materials are particularly dangerous to transport, and for these special vehicles and fixed installations are necessary. This is the case especially for the evacuation of very active liquids. A transport vehicle is described, consisting of a trailer tractor and a recipient holding 500 litres of liquid of which the activity can reach 1000 C/l; the decanting operation, the route to be followed by the vehicle, and the precautions taken are also described. (author) [fr

  12. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesley. J.F.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this facility description document (FDD) is to establish requirements and associated bases that drive the design of the Canister Handling Facility (CHF), which will allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This FDD identifies the requirements and describes the facility design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This FDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This FDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The FDD follows the design with regard to the description of the facility. The description provided in this FDD reflects the current results of the design process

  13. Fuel Handling Facility Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.A. LaFountain

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the facility description document (FDD) is to establish the requirements and their bases that drive the design of the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) to allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. It identifies the requirements and describes the facility design as it currently exists, with emphasis on design attributes provided to meet the requirements. This FDD was developed as an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. It trails the design with regard to the description of the facility. This description is a reflection of the results of the design process to date

  14. Data Handling and Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist

    2016-01-01

    ,engineers, and professionals. However, it is also expected that they will be useful both for graduate teaching as well as a stepping stone for academic researchers who wish to expand their theoretical interest in the subject. For the models selected to interpret the experimental data, this chapter uses available models from...... literature that are mostly based on the ActivatedSludge Model (ASM) framework and their appropriate extensions (Henze et al., 2000).The chapter presents an overview of the most commonly used methods in the estimation of parameters from experimental batch data, namely: (i) data handling and validation, (ii......Modelling is one of the key tools at the disposal of modern wastewater treatment professionals, researchers and engineers. It enables them to study and understand complex phenomena underlying the physical, chemical and biological performance of wastewater treatment plants at different temporal...

  15. Toxic stress and child refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John S

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the phenomenon of toxic stress and its impact on the physical and mental health of child refugees. Almost two decades ago, researchers found that recurring adverse childhood events (ACEs; e.g., physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction such as substance abuse, mental illness, and criminal behavior) were associated with a significant increase in serious illnesses during adulthood. Illnesses include heart, lung, and liver disease, cancer, and bone fractures. The scientists reported that experiencing four or more ACEs during childhood significantly increases the risk for toxic stress. Toxic stress is defined as the exposure to extreme, frequent, and persistent adverse events without the presence of a supportive caretaker. There is a paucity of literature related to toxic stress and child refugees. However, it has been clearly established that the prolonged brutal and traumatizing war in Syria is having a profound impact on the physical and mental health of child refugees at a distressing rate. Prevention of toxic stress should be a primary goal of all pediatric healthcare professionals working with child refugees. While this seems daunting given the population, and the seemingly insurmountable stressors they experience, some basic interventions should be considered. Providing basic anticipatory guidance to parents and caregivers of child refugees, to encourage positive parenting and strengthening support networks, will be highly effective in developing the requisite buffers that mitigate the effects of stress and avoid toxic stress. Efforts should also be focused on addressing caregiver stress and improving their ability to provide safe, reliable, and nurturing care that will help to mitigate any stress response experienced by a child. It is critical that greater awareness be placed on the effects of toxic stress on child refugees who are exposed to significant adverse events early in life

  16. Regulating nanomedicine - can the FDA handle it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, Raj

    2011-05-01

    There is enormous excitement and expectation surrounding the multidisciplinary field of nanomedicine - the application of nanotechnology to healthcare - which is already influencing the pharmaceutical industry. This is especially true in the design, formulation and delivery of therapeutics. Currently, nanomedicine is poised at a critical stage. However, regulatory guidance in this area is generally lacking and critically needed to provide clarity and legal certainty to manufacturers, policymakers, healthcare providers as well as public. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of nanoproducts on the market for human use but little is known of their health risks, safety data and toxicity profiles. Less is known of nanoproducts that are released into the environment and that come in contact with humans. These nanoproducts, whether they are a drug, device, biologic or combination of any of these, are creating challenges for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as regulators struggle to accumulate data and formulate testing criteria to ensure development of safe and efficacious nanoproducts (products incorporating nanoscale technologies). Evidence continues to mount that many nanoproducts inherently posses novel size-based properties and toxicity profiles. Yet, this scientific fact has been generally ignored by the FDA and the agency continues to adopt a precautionary approach to the issue in hopes of countering future potential negative public opinion. As a result, the FDA has simply maintained the status quo with regard to its regulatory policies pertaining to nanomedicine. Therefore, there are no specific laws or mechanisms in place for oversight of nanomedicine and the FDA continues to treat nanoproducts as substantially equivalent ("bioequivalent") to their bulk counterparts. So, for now nanoproducts submitted for FDA review will continue to be subjected to an uncertain regulatory pathway. Such regulatory uncertainty could negatively impact venture funding, stifle

  17. Cask system design guidance for robotic handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesmeyer, J.M.; Drotning, W.D.; Morimoto, A.K.; Bennett, P.C.

    1990-10-01

    Remote automated cask handling has the potential to reduce both the occupational exposure and the time required to process a nuclear waste transport cask at a handling facility. The ongoing Advanced Handling Technologies Project (AHTP) at Sandia National Laboratories is described. AHTP was initiated to explore the use of advanced robotic systems to perform cask handling operations at handling facilities for radioactive waste, and to provide guidance to cask designers regarding the impact of robotic handling on cask design. The proof-of-concept robotic systems developed in AHTP are intended to extrapolate from currently available commercial systems to the systems that will be available by the time that a repository would be open for operation. The project investigates those cask handling operations that would be performed at a nuclear waste repository facility during cask receiving and handling. The ongoing AHTP indicates that design guidance, rather than design specification, is appropriate, since the requirements for robotic handling do not place severe restrictions on cask design but rather focus on attention to detail and design for limited dexterity. The cask system design features that facilitate robotic handling operations are discussed, and results obtained from AHTP design and operation experience are summarized. The application of these design considerations is illustrated by discussion of the robot systems and their operation on cask feature mock-ups used in the AHTP project. 11 refs., 11 figs

  18. Health risks in international container and bulk cargo transport due to volatile toxic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Xaver; Budnik, Lygia Therese; Zhao, Zhiwei; Bratveit, Magne; Djurhuus, Rune; Verschoor, Louis; Rubino, Federico Maria; Colosio, Claudio; Jepsen, Jorgen R

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the preservation and quality of the goods, physical (i.e. radiation) or chemical pest control is needed. The dark side of such consents may bear health risks in international transport and production sharing. In fact, between 10% and 20% of all containers arriving European harbors were shown to contain volatile toxic substances above the exposure limit values. Possible exposure to these toxic chemicals may occur not only for the applicators but also the receiver by off gassing from products, packing materials or transport units like containers. A number of intoxications, some with lethal outcome, occur not only during the fumigation, but also during freight transport (on bulk carriers and other transport vessels), as well as in the logistic lines during loading and unloading. Risk occupations include dock-workers, seafarers, inspectors, as well as the usually uninformed workers of importing enterprises that unload the products. Bystanders as well as vulnerable consumers may also be at risk. Ongoing studies focus on the release of these toxic volatile substances from various goods. It was shown that the half-lives of the off-gassing process range between minutes and months, depending on the toxic substance, its chemical reactivity, concentration, the temperature, the contaminated matrix (goods and packing materials), and the packing density in the transport units. Regulations on declaration and handling dangerous goods are mostly not followed. It is obvious that this hazardous situation in freight transport urgently requires preventive steps. In order to improve awareness and relevant knowledge there is a need for more comprehensive information on chemical hazards and a broader implementation of the already existing regulations and guidelines, such as those from ILO, IMO, and national authorities. It is also necessary to have regular controls by the authorities on a worldwide scale, which should be followed by sanctions in case of disregarding regulations

  19. Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bart, G.; Blanc, J.Y.; Duwe, R.

    2003-01-01

    The European Working Group on ' Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling' is firmly established as the major contact forum for the nuclear R and D facilities at the European scale. The yearly plenary meetings intend to: - Exchange experience on analytical methods, their implementation in hot cells, the methodologies used and their application in nuclear research; - Share experience on common infrastructure exploitation matters such as remote handling techniques, safety features, QA-certification, waste handling; - Promote normalization and co-operation, e.g., by looking at mutual complementarities; - Prospect present and future demands from the nuclear industry and to draw strategic conclusions regarding further needs. The 41. plenary meeting was held in CEA Saclay from September 22 to 24, 2003 in the premises and with the technical support of the INSTN (National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology). The Nuclear Energy Division of CEA sponsored it. The Saclay meeting was divided in three topical oral sessions covering: - Post irradiation examination: new analysis methods and methodologies, small specimen technology, programmes and results; - Hot laboratory infrastructure: decommissioning, refurbishment, waste, safety, nuclear transports; - Prospective research on materials for future applications: innovative fuels (Generation IV, HTR, transmutation, ADS), spallation source materials, and candidate materials for fusion reactor. A poster session was opened to transport companies and laboratory suppliers. The meeting addressed in three sessions the following items: Session 1 - Post Irradiation Examinations. Out of 12 papers (including 1 poster) 7 dealt with surface and solid state micro analysis, another one with an equally complex wet chemical instrumental analytical technique, while the other four papers (including the poster) presented new concepts for digital x-ray image analysis; Session 2 - Hot laboratory infrastructure (including waste theme) which was

  20. Development of commercial robots for radwaste handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colborn, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    The cost and dose burden associated with low level radwaste handling activities is a matter of increasing concern to the commercial nuclear power industry. This concern is evidenced by the fact that many utilities have begun to revaluate waste generation, handling, and disposal activities at their plants in an effort to improve their overall radwaste handling operations. This paper reports on the project Robots for Radwaste Handling, to identify the potential of robots to improve radwaste handling operations. The project has focussed on the potential of remote or automated technology to improve well defined, recognizable radwaste operations. The project focussed on repetitive, low skill level radwaste handling and decontamination tasks which involve significant radiation exposure

  1. 40 CFR 710.25 - Chemical substances for which information must be reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT TSCA CHEMICAL INVENTORY REGULATIONS 2002 Inventory Update Reporting... the Master Inventory File at the beginning of a reporting period described in § 710.33, unless the...

  2. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome (TASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Öner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is a sterile intraocular inflammation caused by noninfectious substances, resulting in extensive toxic damage to the intraocular tissues. Possible etiologic factors of TASS include surgical trauma, bacterial endotoxin, intraocular solutions with inappropriate pH and osmolality, preservatives, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVD, inadequate sterilization, cleaning and rinsing of surgical devices, intraocular lenses, polishing and sterilizing compounds which are related to intraocular lenses. The characteristic signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, corneal edema, hypopyon and nonreactive pupil usually occur 24 hours after the cataract surgery. The differential diagnosis of TASS from infectious endophthalmitis is important. The main treatment for TASS formation is prevention. TASS is a cataract surgery complication that is more commonly seen nowadays. In this article, the possible underlying causes as well as treatment and prevention methods of TASS are summarized. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2011; 41: 407-13

  3. Defining utility trace substance emissions and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrens, I.M.

    1993-01-01

    An update is presented on the activities of EPRI and other organizations, including DOE, aimed at improving the quality of available information on utility trace element emissions, control technologies and risks. Because of these efforts, the state of knowledge is advancing rapidly. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments aim to reduce emissions of 189 substances that they designate as hazardous air pollutants - commonly called air toxics. The more neutral term open-quotes trace substancesclose quotes is used in this paper, since most are emitted in extremely low concentrations from utility stacks. The degree of toxicity or hazard at these concentrations is subject to considerable uncertainty, and clarifying this is one of the objectives of the work in progress. The most clear and urgent need emanating from the CAAA has been to obtain reliable information on which of the substances on the CAAA list are emitted from different types of power plants - in what amounts, what risks they pose, how much is removed by today's pollution control equipment. EPRI is addressing the issue on several fronts, e.g.; developing a data base and tools that will enable utilities to estimate emissions levels from their power facilities, given the types of fuels burned and plant characteristics; developing a better understanding of how emissions are transported and transformed before they encounter humans and ecological systems; and assessing the risk to public health and the environment posed by utility releases of these substances

  4. Sequence trajectory generation for garment handling systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Honghai; Lin, Hua

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel generic approach to the planning strategy of garment handling systems. An assumption is proposed to separate the components of such systems into a component for intelligent gripper techniques and a component for handling planning strategies. Researchers can concentrate on one of the two components first, then merge the two problems together. An algorithm is addressed to generate the trajectory position and a clothes handling sequence of clothes partitions, which ar...

  5. Scheduling of outbound luggage handling at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barth, Torben C.; Pisinger, David

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the outbound luggage handling problem at airports. The problem is to assign handling facilities to outbound flights and decide about the handling start time. This dynamic, near real-time assignment problem is part of the daily airport operations. Quality, efficiency......). Another solution method is a decomposition approach. The problem is divided into different subproblems and solved in iterative steps. The different solution approaches are tested on real world data from Frankfurt Airport....

  6. ATA diagnostic data handling system: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, F.W.; Kallman, J.; McDonald, J.; Slominski, M.

    1984-01-01

    The functions to be performed by the ATA diagnostic data handling system are discussed. The capabilities of the present data acquisition system (System 0) are presented. The goals for the next generation acquisition system (System 1), currently under design, are discussed. Facilities on the Octopus system for data handling are reviewed. Finally, we discuss what has been learned about diagnostics and computer based data handling during the past year

  7. EFFECT OF SUBSTANCE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OF HEALTH OFFICER AND MEDICAL STUDENTS OF JIMMA. UNIVERSITY ... cannabis or marihuana and khat (2, 3). Reports showed that these substances ... mainly through cancer especially lung cancer, of which about 90% of cases are ...

  8. Data banks of chemical substances and their toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    Rapid proliferation in the development of new chemical compounds, coupled with the discovery and/or identification of those already in existence, has led to a significant need to investigate their physicochemical and biological properties, to document the knowledge gained, and to communicate that knowledge in as convenient a manner as possible. This paper presents and briefly discusses several prominent chemical databases

  9. A Biological Model of the Effects of Toxic Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-28

    show uner te hghes aenifia in (lwerrigh) te neron (arows ar ofte ovl i shpe nd "igh~up wih pace pti. mgniicaion Fig, 12 A neuron viewed under Hoffman...keyhole), the neurons seem to form a more substantial network . Scratches in the collagen surface controlled the direction of axon sprouting such that...Fig. 5). Templates could be removed without disturbing the neural network and hence might be a valuable tool in the future to focus the growth of

  10. Effect of fruiting on micronutrients, antinutrients and toxic substances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetable leaves were harvested at both market maturity (vegetative phase) and fruiting (reproductive phase), and were subjected to chemical analysis. ... at fruiting stage of vegetables grown on both control and nitrogen applied soil, while the nitrate and β-carotene concentration in T. occidentalis were significantly reduced ...

  11. Effect of fruiting on micronutrients, antinutrients and toxic substances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    fluted pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis Hook F.) Seed oil and tropical ... ecological, nutritional and social approach to small scale house food production. Publ. Centre for ... Lanyasunya TP, Wang HR, Kariuki ST, Kuria, DM, Check AL, Mukisira.

  12. Bioremediation of toxic substances by mercury resistant marine bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De, J.; Sarkar, A.; Ramaiah, N.

    : ramaiah@nio.org Introduction: The principal goal of bioremediation is to enhance the natural biological-chemical transformations that render pollutants harmless as minerals and thus to provide a relief and, if feasible, a permanent solution...). The combination of soil bioleaching and bioprecipitation of the leached metals, by sulfate reducing bacteria, proved to be effective in removing and concentrating a range of metals, including Zn, Cu and Cd from metal-contaminated soils (White et al., 1998...

  13. Welcome to the Department of Toxic Substances Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire Cleanup Helps Northern Californians Rebuild Report: Draft Evaluation and Analysis of Metal Shredding Facilities and Metal Shredder Wastes youtubebutton_2 twitter icon, button facebook icon button Metal Shredding Riverside Agricultural Park Riverside Neighborhood Evaluation Quemetco, Inc. Santa

  14. Toxic substances from coal combustion -- A comprehensive assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senior, C.L.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shan, N.; Yap, N.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Seames, W.; Ames, M.R.; Sarofim, A.F.; Swenson, S.; Lighty, J.; Kolker, A.; Finkelman, R.; Palmer, C.; Mroczkowski, S.; Helble, J.; Mamani-Paco, R.; Sterling, R.; Dunham, G.; Miller, S.

    2000-08-17

    The final program review meeting of Phase II was held on June 22 in Salt Lake City. The goals of the meeting were to present work in progress and to identify the remaining critical experiments or analyses, particularly those involving collaboration among various groups. The information presented at the meeting is summarized in this report. Remaining fixed bed, bench-scale experiments at EERC were discussed. There are more ash samples which can be run. Of particular interest are high carbon ash samples to be generated by the University of Arizona this summer and some ash-derived sorbents that EERC has evaluated on a different program. The use of separation techniques (electrostatic or magnetic) was also discussed as a way to understand the active components in the ash with respect to mercury. XAFS analysis of leached and unleached ash samples from the University of Arizona was given a high priority. In order to better understand the fixed bed test results, CCSEM and Moessbauer analyses of those ash samples need to be completed. Utah plans to analyze the ash from the single particle combustion experiments for those major elements not measured by INAA. USGS must still complete mercury analyses on the whole coals and leaching residues. Priorities for further work at the SHRIMP-RG facility include arsenic on ash surfaces and mercury in sulfide minerals. Moessbauer analyses of coal samples from the University of Utah were completed; samples from the top and bottom layers of containers of five different coals showed little oxidation of pyrite in the top relative to the bottom except for Wyodak.

  15. Acute Inhalation Toxicity and Blood Absorption of 2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-17

    light/dark cycle. A certified pesticide -free rodent chow (Harlan Teklad ® , 8728C Certified Rodent Diet) and drinking quality water were available ad...respiration, toxicity, blood, concentration, alternative, welfare, method, model, in vitro, pain, distress, simulate, video , computer, replacement, refinement...Prevention, Pesticides , and Toxic Substances. December 2002. Health Effects Test Guidelines: OPPTS 870.1000, Acute Toxicity Testing - Background. EPA

  16. Oxidative stress in chemical toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappus, H.

    1986-05-01

    The toxic effect of compounds which undergo redox cycling enzymatic one-electron reduction are reviewed. First of all, the enzymatic reduction of these compounds leads to reactive intermediates, mainly radicals which react with oxygen, whereby superoxide anion radicals are formed. Further oxygen metabolites are hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals. The role of these oxygen metabolites in toxicity is discussed. The occurrence of lipid peroxidation during redox cycling of quinonoide compounds, e.g., adriamycin, and the possible relationship to their toxicity is critically evaluated. It is shown that iron ions play a crucial role in lipid peroxidation induced by redox cycling compounds. DNA damage by metal chelates, e.g., bleomycin, is discussed on the basis of findings that enzymatic redox cycling of a bleomycin-iron complex has been observed. The involvement of hydroxyl radicals in bleomycin-induced DNA damage occurring during redox cycling in cell nuclei is claimed. Redox cycling of other substances, e.g., aromatic amines, is discussed in relation to carcinogenesis. Other chemical groups, e.g., nitroaromatic compounds, hydroxylamines and azo compounds are included. Other targets for oxygen radical attack, e.g., proteins, are also dealt with. It is concluded that oxygen radical formation by redox cycling may be a critical event in toxic effects of several compounds if the protective mechanisms of cells are overwhelmed.

  17. Thorium-applications and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, A.

    1993-01-01

    The most important aspects concerning the natural occurrence and extraction of thorium are presented the topics covered are: natural isotopes, occurence in minerals, thorium-activity-content of naturally occuring materials, the resulting radiation exposure, extraction of thorium from ores, time-dependent activity after separation. The sources of radiation exposure due to Thorium, caused by human activity, can be divided into two categories, namely, those in which thorium is deliberately added to (consumer) products in order to improve their usefullness, and those in which the thorium is present accidentally and unwanted due to the naturally occuring thorium in the material used in the manufacturing processes. Some examples of such products and substances will be presented and results about their specific thorium activity will be discussed. Experimental data from a currently running research programme, will be presented, and will include results concerning the radiation occupational exposure due to phosphate fertilizers, thorium impregnated gas mantles and the use of thoriated TIG-Electrodes in arc welding. (orig.) [de

  18. Determination of Substances Content of Soil Surface Using Fast Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elin Nuraini; Elisabeth; Sunardi

    2002-01-01

    Determination of substances content of soil surface using neutron activation analysis has been performed. The aim of this research is to determine whether there are any dangerous, hazardous and toxic substances that released from The Research and Development Center for Advanced Technology (RDCAT) as a government institution has possibility in releasing that substances to the environment by surface water, sewage or rain water that give any dangerous the environmental. The fast neutron activation analysis was used to analyze the type and concentration of substances qualitative and quantitatively. The quantitative analysis was performed using relative method. Samples were counted using NaI(TI) detector. The result showed that there are several substances such as Mn-55, Fe-56, P-31, Al-27. Zn,65 and Mg-24. And there are found any hazardous, dangerous and toxic substances in the samples that causing any danger to human and environment. (author)

  19. Protecting worker health and safety using remote handling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, D.K.; Merrill, R.D.; Reed, R.K.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently developing and installing two large-scale, remotely controlled systems for use in improving worker health and safety by minimizing exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials. The first system is a full-scale liquid feed system for use in delivering chemical reagents to LLNL's existing aqueous low-level radioactive and mixed waste treatment facility (Tank Farm). The Tank Farm facility is used to remove radioactive and toxic materials in aqueous wastes prior to discharge to the City of Livermore Water Reclamation Plant (LWRP), in accordance with established discharge limits. Installation of this new reagent feed system improves operational safety and process efficiency by eliminating the need to manually handle reagents used in the treatment processes. This was done by installing a system that can inject precisely metered amounts of various reagents into the treatment tanks and can be controlled either remotely or locally via a programmable logic controller (PLC). The second system uses a robotic manipulator to remotely handle, characterize, process, sort, and repackage hazardous wastes containing tritium. This system uses an IBM-developed gantry robot mounted within a special glove box enclosure designed to isolate tritiated wastes from system operators and minimize the potential for release of tritium to the atmosphere. Tritiated waste handling is performed remotely, using the robot in a teleoperational mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive operations. The system is compatible with an existing portable gas cleanup unit designed to capture any gas-phase tritium inadvertently released into the glove box during waste handling

  20. Should these potential CMR substances have been registered under REACH?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Dybdahl, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    (Q)SAR models were applied to screen around 68,000 REACH pre-registered substances for CMR properties (carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction). Predictions from 14 relevant models were combined to reach overall calls for C, M and R. Combining predictions may reduce “noise” and increase...

  1. Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Opening talk of the workshop 'Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling' was given by Marin Ciocanescu with the communication 'Overview of R and D Program in Romanian Institute for Nuclear Research'. The works of the meeting were structured into three sections addressing the following items: Session 1. Hot cell facilities: Infrastructure, Refurbishment, Decommissioning; Session 2. Waste, transport, safety and remote handling issues; Session 3. Post-Irradiation examination techniques. In the frame of Section 1 the communication 'Overview of hot cell facilities in South Africa' by Wouter Klopper, Willie van Greunen et al, was presented. In the framework of the second session there were given the following four communications: 'The irradiated elements cell at PHENIX' by Laurent Breton et al., 'Development of remote equipment for DUPIC fuel fabrication at KAERI', by Jung Won Lee et al., 'Aspects of working with manipulators and small samples in an αβγ-box, by Robert Zubler et al., and 'The GIOCONDA experience of the Joint Research Centre Ispra: analysis of the experimental assemblies finalized to their safe recovery and dismantling', by Roberto Covini. Finally, in the framework of the third section the following five communications were presented: 'PIE of a CANDU fuel element irradiated for a load following test in the INR TRIGA reactor' by Marcel Parvan et al., 'Adaptation of the pole figure measurement to the irradiated items from zirconium alloys' by Yury Goncharenko et al., 'Fuel rod profilometry with a laser scan micrometer' by Daniel Kuster et al., 'Raman spectroscopy, a new facility at LECI laboratory to investigate neutron damage in irradiated materials' by Lionel Gosmain et al., and 'Analysis of complex nuclear materials with the PSI shielded analytical instruments' by Didier Gavillet. In addition, eleven more presentations were given as posters. Their titles were: 'Presentation of CETAMA activities (CEA analytic group)' by Alain Hanssens et al. 'Analysis of

  2. Fuel handling problems at KANUPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, I; Mazhar Hasan, S; Mugtadir, A [Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), Karachi (Pakistan)

    1991-04-01

    KANUPP experienced two abnormal fuel and fuel handling related problems during the year 1990. One of these had arisen due to development of end plate to end plate coupling between the two bundles at the leading end of the fuel string in channel HO2-S. The incident occurred when attempts were being made to fuel this channel. Due to pulling of sticking bundles into the acceptor fuelling machine (north) magazine, which was not designed to accommodate two bundles, a magazine rotary stop occurred. The forward motion of the charge tube was simultaneously discovered to be restricted. The incident led to stalling of fuelling machine locked on to the channel HO2, necessitating a reactor shut down. Removal of the fuelling machine was accomplished sometime later after draining of the channel. The second incident which made the fuelling of channel KO5-N temporarily inexecutable, occurred during attempts to remove its north end shield plug when this channel came up for fuelling. The incident resulted due to breaking of the lugs of the shield plug, making its withdrawal impossible. The Plant however kept operating with suspended fuelling of channel KO5, until it could no longer sustain a further increase in fuel burnup at the maximum rating position. Resolving both these problems necessitated draining of the respective channels, leaving the resident fuel uncovered for the duration of the associated operation. Due to substantial difference in the oxidation temperatures Of UO{sub 2} and Zircaloy and its influence as such on the cooling requirement, it was necessary either to determine explicitly that the respective channels did not contain defective fuel bundles or wait for time long enough to allow the decay heat to reduce to manageable proportions. This had a significant bearing on the Plant down time necessary for the rectification of the problems. This paper describes the two incidents in detail and dwells upon the measures adopted to resolve the related problems. (author)

  3. Fuel handling problems at KANUPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.; Mazhar Hasan, S.; Mugtadir, A.

    1991-01-01

    KANUPP experienced two abnormal fuel and fuel handling related problems during the year 1990. One of these had arisen due to development of end plate to end plate coupling between the two bundles at the leading end of the fuel string in channel HO2-S. The incident occurred when attempts were being made to fuel this channel. Due to pulling of sticking bundles into the acceptor fuelling machine (north) magazine, which was not designed to accommodate two bundles, a magazine rotary stop occurred. The forward motion of the charge tube was simultaneously discovered to be restricted. The incident led to stalling of fuelling machine locked on to the channel HO2, necessitating a reactor shut down. Removal of the fuelling machine was accomplished sometime later after draining of the channel. The second incident which made the fuelling of channel KO5-N temporarily inexecutable, occurred during attempts to remove its north end shield plug when this channel came up for fuelling. The incident resulted due to breaking of the lugs of the shield plug, making its withdrawal impossible. The Plant however kept operating with suspended fuelling of channel KO5, until it could no longer sustain a further increase in fuel burnup at the maximum rating position. Resolving both these problems necessitated draining of the respective channels, leaving the resident fuel uncovered for the duration of the associated operation. Due to substantial difference in the oxidation temperatures Of UO 2 and Zircaloy and its influence as such on the cooling requirement, it was necessary either to determine explicitly that the respective channels did not contain defective fuel bundles or wait for time long enough to allow the decay heat to reduce to manageable proportions. This had a significant bearing on the Plant down time necessary for the rectification of the problems. This paper describes the two incidents in detail and dwells upon the measures adopted to resolve the related problems. (author)

  4. 77 FR 18752 - Benzidine-Based Chemical Substances; Di-n

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... those described by the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes 325-chemical... paraffins), which include the chemical substance covered by this proposed rule, as ``toxic'' under the... Benzidine-Based Chemical Substances; Di-n-pentyl phthalate (DnPP); and Alkanes, C[ihel1][ihel2]-[ihel1...

  5. Chemical substances as risk factors of nephropathy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Marchewka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Although diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease, does not fall into the group of diseases induced by toxic substances or environmental pollution, there is much evidence that some chemicals have considerable importance in its development. Exposure to substances with potential renal toxicity is especially dangerous for diabetics because it accelerates and intensifies diabetic nephropathy. This paper discusses the relationship between the xenobiotics and the development of diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy with particular emphasis on those substances that causes the greatest damage to the kidneys. These are cadmium, iron, lead, arsenic, polychlorinated organic compounds, nitrogen compounds, and contrast agents. In addition, the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus induction or kidney damage by these xenobiotics are described.

  6. 9 CFR 3.118 - Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.118 Section 3.118 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine...

  7. How to Handle Impasses in Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Robert E.

    Guidelines in an outline format are presented to school board members and administrators on how to handle impasses in bargaining. The following two rules are given: there sometimes may be strikes, but there always will be settlements; and on the way to settlements, there always will be impasses. Suggestions for handling impasses are listed under…

  8. Handling uncertainty through adaptiveness in planning approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, M.; Vlist, van der M.J.; Brink, van den A.

    2018-01-01

    Planners and water managers seek to be adaptive to handle uncertainty through the use of planning approaches. In this paper, we study what type of adaptiveness is proposed and how this may be operationalized in planning approaches to adequately handle different uncertainties. We took a

  9. Survey of postharvest handling, preservation and processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices along the camel milk chain in Isiolo district, Kenya. ... Despite the important contribution of camel milk to food security for pastoralists in Kenya, little is known about the postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices. In this study, existing ...

  10. PND fuel handling decontamination: facilities and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, R.Y.

    1996-01-01

    The use of various decontamination techniques and equipment has become a critical part of Fuel Handling maintenance work at Ontario Hydro's Pickering Nuclear Division. This paper presents an overview of the set up and techniques used for decontamination in the PND Fuel Handling Maintenance Facility and the effectiveness of each. (author). 1 tab., 9 figs

  11. Handling Kids in Crisis with Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushinski, Cari

    2018-01-01

    The Handle with Care program helps schools help students who experience trauma. While at the scene of an event like a domestic violence call, drug raid, or car accident, law enforcement personnel determine the names and school of any children present. They notify that child's school to "handle ___ with care" the next day, and the school…

  12. PND fuel handling decontamination: facilities and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, R Y [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The use of various decontamination techniques and equipment has become a critical part of Fuel Handling maintenance work at Ontario Hydro`s Pickering Nuclear Division. This paper presents an overview of the set up and techniques used for decontamination in the PND Fuel Handling Maintenance Facility and the effectiveness of each. (author). 1 tab., 9 figs.

  13. Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorthe; Huniche, Lotte; Brixen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Scand J Caring Sci; 2012 Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study The aim of this qualitative study was to increase understanding of the importance of osteoporosis information and knowledge for patients' ways of handling osteoporosis in their everyday lives. Interviews were...

  14. DDOS ATTACK DETECTION SIMULATION AND HANDLING MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sanmorino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we discuss how to handle DDoS attack that coming from the attacker by using detection method and handling mechanism. Detection perform by comparing number of packets and number of flow. Whereas handling mechanism perform by limiting or drop the packets that detected as a DDoS attack. The study begins with simulation on real network, which aims to get the real traffic data. Then, dump traffic data obtained from the simulation used for detection method on our prototype system called DASHM (DDoS Attack Simulation and Handling Mechanism. From the result of experiment that has been conducted, the proposed method successfully detect DDoS attack and handle the incoming packet sent by attacker.

  15. MRI of meniscal bucket-handle tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, T.H.; Hinson, G.W. [Menorah Medical Center, Overland Park, KS (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-09-01

    A meniscal bucket-handle tear is a tear with an attached fragment displaced from the meniscus of the knee joint. Low sensitivity of MRI for detection of bucket-handle tears (64% as compared with arthroscopy) has been reported previously. We report increased sensitivity for detecting bucket-handle tears with the use of coronal short tau inversion recovery (STIR) images. Results. By using four criteria for diagnosis of meniscal bucket-handle tears, our overall sensitivity compared with arthroscopy was 93% (28 of 30 meniscal bucket-handle tears seen at arthroscopy were detected by MRI). The meniscal fragment was well visualized in all 28 cases on coronal STIR images. The double posterior cruciate ligament sign was seen in 8 of 30 cases, the flipped meniscus was seen in 10 of 30 cases and a fragment in the intercondylar notch was seen in 18 of 30 cases. (orig.)

  16. Corneal Toxicity Following Exposure to Asclepias Tuberosa

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelsen, Lauge Hjorth; Hamoudi, Hassan; G?l, Cigdem Altuntas; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To present a case of corneal toxicity following exposure to milky plant latex from Asclepias tuberosa.METHODS: A 70-year-old female presented with blurred vision and pain in her left eye after handling an Ascepias tuberosa. Clinical examination revealed a corneal stromal oedema with small epithelial defects. The corneal endothelium was intact and folds in Descemets membrane were observed. The oedema was treated with chloramphenicol, dexamethasone and scopolamine.RESULTS: The corneal ...

  17. Handling Procedures of Vegetable Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. The primary goal of the Advanced Food System in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious, and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. Vegetable crops can provide the crew with added nutrition and variety. These crops do not require any cooking or food processing prior to consumption. The vegetable crops, unlike prepackaged foods, will provide bright colors, textures (crispy), and fresh aromas. Ten vegetable crops have been identified for possible use in long duration missions. They are lettuce, spinach, carrot, tomato, green onion, radish, bell pepper, strawberries, fresh herbs, and cabbage. Whether these crops are grown on a transit vehicle (e.g., International Space Station) or on the lunar or planetary surface, it will be necessary to determine how to safely handle the vegetables while maintaining acceptability. Since hydrogen peroxide degrades into water and oxygen and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), hydrogen peroxide has been recommended as the sanitizer. The objective of th is research is to determine the required effective concentration of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, it will be determined whether the use of hydrogen peroxide, although a viable sanitizer, adversely affects the quality of the vegetables. Vegetables will be dipped in 1 % hydrogen peroxide, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 5% hydrogen peroxide. Treated produce and controls will be stored in plastic bags at 5 C for up to 14 days. Sensory, color, texture, and total plate count will be measured. The effect on several vegetables including lettuce, radish, tomato and strawberries has been completed. Although each vegetable reacts to hydrogen peroxide differently, the

  18. The handling of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The symposium was attended by 204 participants from 39 countries and 5 international organizations. Forty-two papers were presented in 8 sessions. The purpose of the meeting was to foster an exchange of experiences gained in establishing and exercising plans for mitigating the effects of radiation accidents and in the handling of actual accident situations. Only a small number of accidents were reported at the symposium, and this reflects the very high standards of safety that has been achieved by the nuclear industry. No accidents of radiological significance were reported to have occurred at commercial nuclear power plants. Of the accidents reported, industrial radiography continues to be the area in which most of the radiation accidents occur. The experience gained in the reported accident situations served to confirm the crucial importance of the prompt availability of medical and radiological services, particularly in the case of uptake of radioactive material, and emphasized the importance of detailed investigation into the causes of the accident in order to improve preventative measures. One of the principal themes of the symposium involved emergency procedures related to nuclear power plant accidents, and several papers defining the scope, progression and consequences of design base accidents for both thermal and fast reactor systems were presented. These were complemented by papers defining the resultant protection requirements that should be satisfied in the establishment of plans designed to mitigate the effects of the postulated accident situations. Several papers were presented describing existing emergency organizational arrangements relating both to specific nuclear power plants and to comprehensive national schemes, and a particularly informative session was devoted to the topic of training of personnel in the practical conduct of emergency arrangements. The general feeling of the participants was one of studied confidence in the competence and

  19. Substance abuse in anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Guasch, Roser; Roigé, Jaume; Padrós, Jaume

    2012-04-01

    Anaesthesiologists have a significantly higher frequency of substance abuse by a factor of nearly 3 when compared with other physicians. This is still a current problem that must be reviewed. Many hypotheses have been formulated to explain why anaesthesiologists appear to be more susceptible to substance abuse than other medical professionals (genetic differences in sensitivity to opioids, stress, the association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology or the second-hand exposure hypothesis). Environmental exposure and sensitization may be an important risk factor in physician addiction. There is a long debate about returning to work for an anaesthetist who has been depending on opioid drugs, and recent debates are discussed. Institutional efforts have been made in many countries and physician health programmes have been developed. As drug abuse among anaesthesiologists has continued, new studies have been conducted to know the theories about susceptibility. Written substance abuse policies and controls must be taken in place and in all countries.

  20. Detection of diffusible substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warembourg, M [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France)

    1976-12-01

    The different steps of a radioautographic technique for the detection of diffusible substances are described. Using this radioautographic method, the topographic distribution of estradiol-concentrating neurons was studied in the nervous system and pituitary of the ovariectomized mouse and guinea-pig. A relatively good morphological preservation of structures can be ascertained on sections from unfixed, unembedded tissues prepared at low temperatures and kept-under relatively low humidity. The translocation or extraction of diffusible substances is avoided by directly mounting of frozen sections on dried photographic emulsion. Since no solvent is used, this technique excludes the major sources of diffusion artifacts and permits to be in favourable conditions for the localization of diffusible substances.

  1. Toxic phytoplankton in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kristine M.; Garrison, David L.; Cloern, James E.

    1996-01-01

    The Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) was conceived and designed to document the changing distribution and effects of trace substances in San Francisco Bay, with focus on toxic contaminants that have become enriched by human inputs. However, coastal ecosystems like San Francisco Bay also have potential sources of naturally-produced toxic substances that can disrupt food webs and, under extreme circumstances, become threats to public health. The most prevalent source of natural toxins is from blooms of algal species that can synthesize metabolites that are toxic to invertebrates or vertebrates. Although San Francisco Bay is nutrient-rich, it has so far apparently been immune from the epidemic of harmful algal blooms in the world’s nutrient-enriched coastal waters. This absence of acute harmful blooms does not imply that San Francisco Bay has unique features that preclude toxic blooms. No sampling program has been implemented to document the occurrence of toxin-producing algae in San Francisco Bay, so it is difficult to judge the likelihood of such events in the future. This issue is directly relevant to the goals of RMP because harmful species of phytoplankton have the potential to disrupt ecosystem processes that support animal populations, cause severe illness or death in humans, and confound the outcomes of toxicity bioassays such as those included in the RMP. Our purpose here is to utilize existing data on the phytoplankton community of San Francisco Bay to provide a provisional statement about the occurrence, distribution, and potential threats of harmful algae in this Estuary.

  2. Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) online resource provides high quality chemical structures and annotations in association with toxicity data....

  3. Substance abuse and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussas, G I; Papadopoulou, A G

    2017-01-01

    Substance abuse is a health problem with serious psychological and psychiatric dimensions and multiple social and economic consequences. Cancer is a disease that threatens not only life and physical integrity but mental health as well. Oncology patients suffer from mental disorders in high rates, especially from depression and anxiety. The role of substance abuse in the pathogenesis of cancer is studied systematically, since there are research data supporting the mutagenic effects of certain substances. It has been supported that a possible dysregulation of the immune system is linked to the oncogenic processes induced by substances of abuse. Specifically, opioids are the first addictive substances that have been identified as oncogenic factors. However, conflicting results have been offered by experimental animal studies, which showed that opioids, such as morphine, depending on the dosage administered, may not only enhance the process of tumor growth, but also inhibit it. Additionally, research data indicate that the use of cannabis may be associated with cancer, either as an independent factor or in relation to other mutagenics, although it is not yet clear to which extent these effects may be connected to the disease, especially once the consumption of tobacco and alcohol by these patients are taken into account. However, it has been argued that certain cannabinoids may have biological -anticancer- activities which could be used therapeutically without being accompanied by the corresponding 9-tetrahydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is well known that alcohol is a risk factor for developing head and neck cancer, and epidemiological studies indicate that the higher the consumption of alcohol, the more mortality due to cancer increases. In addition, it is suggested that there is no safety level for alcohol consumption regarding the risk of developing cancer; that is even a minimum daily consumption is associated with the occurrence of certain types of cancer

  4. Fuel handling machine and auxiliary systems for a fuel handling cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suikki, M.

    2013-10-01

    This working report is an update for as well as a supplement to an earlier fuel handling machine design (Kukkola and Roennqvist 2006). A focus in the earlier design proposal was primarily on the selection of a mechanical structure and operating principle for the fuel handling machine. This report introduces not only a fuel handling machine design but also auxiliary fuel handling cell equipment and its operation. An objective of the design work was to verify the operating principles of and space allocations for fuel handling cell equipment. The fuel handling machine is a remote controlled apparatus capable of handling intensely radiating fuel assemblies in the fuel handling cell of an encapsulation plant. The fuel handling cell is air tight space radiation-shielded with massive concrete walls. The fuel handling machine is based on a bridge crane capable of traveling in the handling cell along wall tracks. The bridge crane has its carriage provided with a carousel type turntable having mounted thereon both fixed and telescopic masts. The fixed mast has a gripper movable on linear guides for the transfer of fuel assemblies. The telescopic mast has a manipulator arm capable of maneuvering equipment present in the fuel handling cell, as well as conducting necessary maintenance and cleaning operations or rectifying possible fault conditions. The auxiliary fuel handling cell systems consist of several subsystems. The subsystems include a service manipulator, a tool carrier for manipulators, a material hatch, assisting winches, a vacuum cleaner, as well as a hose reel. With the exception of the vacuum cleaner, the devices included in the fuel handling cell's auxiliary system are only used when the actual encapsulation process is not ongoing. The malfunctions of mechanisms or actuators responsible for the motion actions of a fuel handling machine preclude in a worst case scenario the bringing of the fuel handling cell and related systems to a condition appropriate for

  5. Fuel handling machine and auxiliary systems for a fuel handling cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suikki, M. [Optimik Oy, Turku (Finland)

    2013-10-15

    This working report is an update for as well as a supplement to an earlier fuel handling machine design (Kukkola and Roennqvist 2006). A focus in the earlier design proposal was primarily on the selection of a mechanical structure and operating principle for the fuel handling machine. This report introduces not only a fuel handling machine design but also auxiliary fuel handling cell equipment and its operation. An objective of the design work was to verify the operating principles of and space allocations for fuel handling cell equipment. The fuel handling machine is a remote controlled apparatus capable of handling intensely radiating fuel assemblies in the fuel handling cell of an encapsulation plant. The fuel handling cell is air tight space radiation-shielded with massive concrete walls. The fuel handling machine is based on a bridge crane capable of traveling in the handling cell along wall tracks. The bridge crane has its carriage provided with a carousel type turntable having mounted thereon both fixed and telescopic masts. The fixed mast has a gripper movable on linear guides for the transfer of fuel assemblies. The telescopic mast has a manipulator arm capable of maneuvering equipment present in the fuel handling cell, as well as conducting necessary maintenance and cleaning operations or rectifying possible fault conditions. The auxiliary fuel handling cell systems consist of several subsystems. The subsystems include a service manipulator, a tool carrier for manipulators, a material hatch, assisting winches, a vacuum cleaner, as well as a hose reel. With the exception of the vacuum cleaner, the devices included in the fuel handling cell's auxiliary system are only used when the actual encapsulation process is not ongoing. The malfunctions of mechanisms or actuators responsible for the motion actions of a fuel handling machine preclude in a worst case scenario the bringing of the fuel handling cell and related systems to a condition appropriate for

  6. Handling of multiassembly sealed baskets between reactor storage and a remote handling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, J.V.; Kessler, J.H.; McSherry, A.J.

    1989-06-01

    The storage of multiple fuel assemblies in sealed (welded) dry storage baskets is gaining increasing use to augment at-reactor fuel storage capacity. Since this increasing use will place a significant number of such baskets on reactor sites, some initial downstream planning for their future handling scenarios for retrieving multi-assembly sealed baskets (MSBs) from onsite storage and transferring and shipping the fuel (and/or the baskets) to a federally operated remote handling facility (RHF). Numerous options or at-reactor and away-from-reactor handling were investigated. Materials handling flowsheets were developed along with conceptual designs for the equipment and tools required to handle and open the MSBs. The handling options were evaluated and compared to a reference case, fuel handling sequence (i.e., fuel assemblies are taken from the fuel pool, shipped to a receiving and handling facility and placed into interim storage). The main parameters analyzed are throughout, radiation dose burden and cost. In addition to evaluating the handling of MSBs, this work also evaluated handling consolidated fuel canisters (CFCs). In summary, the handling of MSBs and CFCs in the store, ship and bury fuel cycle was found to be feasible and, under some conditions, to offer significant benefits in terms of throughput, cost and safety. 14 refs., 20 figs., 24 tabs

  7. Safeguards information handling and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchon, R.; Liu, J.; Ruan, D.

    2001-01-01

    Many states are currently discussing the new additional protocol (INFCIRC/540). This expanded framework is expected to establish the additional confirmation that there are no undeclared activities and facilities in that state. The information collected by the IAEA mainly comes from three different sources: information either provided by the state, collected by the IAEA, and from open sources. This information can be uncertain, incomplete, imprecise, not fully reliable, contradictory, etc. Hence, there is a need for a mathematical framework that provides a basis for handling and treatment of multidimensional information of varying quality. We use a linguistic assessment based on fuzzy set theory, as a flexible and realistic approach. The concept of a linguistic variable serves the purpose of providing a means of approximated characterization of information that may be imprecise, too complex or ill-defined, for which the traditional quantitative approach does not give an adequate answer. In the application of this linguistic assessment approach, a problem arises on how to aggregate linguistic information. Two different approaches can be followed: (1) approximation approach using the associated membership function; (2) symbolic approach acting by the direct computation on labels, where the use of membership function and the linguistic approximation is unnecessary, which makes computation simple and quick. To manipulate the linguistic information in this context, we work with aggregation operators for combining the linguistic non-weighted and weighted values by direct computation on labels, like the Min-type and Max-type weighted aggregation operators as well as the median aggregation operator. A case study on the application of these aggregation operators to the fusion of safeguards relevant information is given. The IAEA Physical Model of the nuclear fuel cycle can be taken as a systematic and comprehensive indicator system. It identifies and describes indicators of

  8. Ergonomics: safe patient handling and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Beth; Mechan, Patricia; Shores, Lynne

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews and investigates the issues surrounding ergonomics, with a specific focus on safe patient handling and mobility. The health care worker of today faces many challenges, one of which is related to the safety of patients. Safe patient handling and mobility is on the forefront of the movement to improve patient safety. This article reviews the risks associated with patient handling and mobility, and informs the reader of current evidence-based practice relevant to this area of care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. How the NWC handles software as product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.

    1997-11-01

    This tutorial provides a hands-on view of how the Nuclear Weapons Complex project should be handling (or planning to handle) software as a product in response to Engineering Procedure 401099. The SQAS has published the document SQAS96-002, Guidelines for NWC Processes for Handling Software Product, that will be the basis for the tutorial. The primary scope of the tutorial is on software products that result from weapons and weapons-related projects, although the information presented is applicable to many software projects. Processes that involve the exchange, review, or evaluation of software product between or among NWC sites, DOE, and external customers will be described.

  10. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  11. Yellow substance (gelbstoff)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, A.

    1988-04-01

    The different values of the mean slope (S) of the absorption coefficient a(λ) of gelbstoff (yellow substance) for each region under the same hydrological conditions and the correlation between the quantity of absorption (CA) of gelbstoff and sea water parameter is discussed. 12 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  13. Options and processes for spent catalyst handling and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafi, M; Stanislaus, A

    2003-07-18

    The quantity of spent hydroprocessing catalysts discarded as solid wastes in the petroleum refining industries has increased remarkably in recent years due to a rapid growth in the hydroprocessing capacity to meet the rising demand for low-sulfur fuels. Due to their toxic nature, spent hydroprocessing catalysts have been branded as hazardous wastes, and the refiners are experiencing pressure from environmental authorities to handle them safely. Several alternative methods such as reclamation of metals, rejuvenation and reuse, disposal in landfills and preparation of useful materials using spent catalysts as raw materials are available to deal with the spent catalyst problem. The technical feasibility as well as the environmental and economic aspects of these options are reviewed. In addition, details of two bench-scale processes, one for rejuvenation of spent hydroprocessing catalysts, and the other for producing non-leachable synthetic aggregate materials that were developed in this laboratory, are presented in this paper.

  14. Management of transport and handling contracts

    CERN Document Server

    Rühl, I

    2004-01-01

    This paper shall outline the content, application and management strategies for the various contracts related to transport and handling activities. In total, the two sections Logistics and Handling Maintenance are in charge of 27 (!) contracts ranging from small supply contracts to big industrial support contracts. The activities as well as the contracts can generally be divided into four main topics "Vehicle Fleet Management"; "Supply, Installation and Commissioning of Lifting and Hoisting Equipment"; "Equipment Maintenance" and "Industrial Support for Transport and Handling". Each activity and contract requires different approaches and permanent adaptation to the often changing CERN's requirements. In particular, the management and the difficulties experienced with the contracts E072 "Maintenance of lifting and hoisting equipment", F420 "Supply of seven overhead traveling cranes for LHC" and S090/S103 "Industrial support for transport and handling" will be explained in detail.

  15. Travelling cranes for heavy reactor component handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champeil, M.

    1977-01-01

    Structure and operating machinery of two travelling cranes (600 t and 450 t) used in the Framatome factory for handling heavy reactor components are described. When coupled, these cranes can lift loads up to 1000 t [fr

  16. Remote handling for an ISIS target change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, T.A.; Holding, M.

    1989-01-01

    During 1987 two ISIS targets were changed. This document describes the main features of the remote handling aspects of the work. All the work has to be carried out using remote handling techniques. The radiation level measured on the surface of the reflector when the second target had been removed was about 800 mGy/h demonstrating that hands on operations on any part of the target reflector moderator assembly is not practical. The target changes were the first large scale operations in the Target Station Remote Handling Cell and a great deal was learned about both equipment and working practices. Some general principles emerged which are applicable to other active handling tasks on facilities like ISIS and these are discussed below. 8 figs

  17. Aerobot Sampling and Handling System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to: ?Derive and document the functional and technical requirements for Aerobot surface sampling and sample handling across a range of...

  18. Data handling systems and methods of wiring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, J.

    1981-01-01

    An improved data handling system, for monitoring and control of nuclear reactor operations, is described in which time delays associated with scanning are reduced and noise and fault signals in the system are resolved. (U.K.)

  19. Harvesting and handling agricultural residues for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, B.M.; Summer, H.R.

    1986-05-01

    Significant progress in understanding the needs for design of agricultural residue collection and handling systems has been made but additional research is required. Recommendations are made for research to (a) integrate residue collection and handling systems into general agricultural practices through the development of multi-use equipment and total harvest systems; (b) improve methods for routine evaluation of agricultural residue resources, possibly through remote sensing and image processing; (c) analyze biomass properties to obtain detailed data relevant to engineering design and analysis; (d) evaluate long-term environmental, social, and agronomic impacts of residue collection; (e) develop improved equipment with higher capacities to reduce residue collection and handling costs, with emphasis on optimal design of complete systems including collection, transportation, processing, storage, and utilization; and (f) produce standard forms of biomass fuels or products to enhance material handling and expand biomass markets through improved reliability and automatic control of biomass conversion and other utilization systems. 118 references.

  20. Handling of disused radioactive materials in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Manuel

    1999-10-01

    This paper describes the handling of disused radioactive sources. It also shows graphic information of medical and industrial equipment containing radioactive sources. This information was prepared as part of a training course on radioactive wastes. (The author)

  1. Foster parenting, human imprinting and conventional handling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Foster parenting, human imprinting and conventional handling affects survival and early .... bird may subsequently direct its sexual attention to those humans on whom it was imprinted (Bubier et al., ..... The mind through chicks' eyes: memory,.

  2. 30o inclination in handles of plastic boxes can reduce postural and muscular workload during handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. C. B. Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The handling of materials, which occurs in the industrial sector, is associated with lesions on the lumbar spine and in the upper limbs. Inserting handles in industrial boxes is a way to reduce work-related risks. Although the position and angle of the handles are significant factors in comfort and safety during handling, these factors have rarely been studied objectively. OBJECTIVE: To compare the handling of a commercial box and prototypes with handles and to evaluate the effects on upper limb posture, muscle electrical activity, and perceived acceptability using different grips while handling materials from different heights. METHOD: Thirty-seven healthy volunteers evaluated the handles of prototypes that allowed for changes in position (top and bottom and angle (0°, 15°, and 30°. Wrist, elbow, and shoulder movements were evaluated using electrogoniometry and inclinometry. The muscle electrical activity in the wrist extensors, biceps brachii, and the upper portion of the trapezius was measured using a portable electromyographer. The recorded data on muscle movements and electrical activity were synchronized. Subjective evaluations of acceptability were evaluated using a visual analog scale. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The prototypes with handles at a 30° angle produced the highest acceptability ratings, more neutral wrist positions, lower levels of electromyographic activity for the upper trapezius, and lower elevation angles for the arms. The different measurement methods were complementary in evaluating the upper limbs during handling.

  3. Regulatory process for material handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, S.; Agarwal, Kailash

    2017-01-01

    Atomic Energy (Factories) Rules (AEFR) 1996, Rule 35 states, 'Thorough inspection and load testing of a Crane shall be done by a Competent Person at least once every 12 months'. To adhere to this rule, BARC Safety Council constituted 'Material Handling Equipment Committee (MHEC)' under the aegis of Conventional Fire and Safety Review Committee (CFSRC) to carry out periodical inspection and certification of Material Handling Equipment (MHE), tools and tackles used in BARC Facilities at Trombay, Tarapur and Kalpakkam

  4. Stud bolt handling equipment for reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyan, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    Reactor vessel stud bolt handling equipment includes means for transferring a stud bolt to a carrier from a parking station, or vice versa. Preferably a number of stud bolts are handled simultaneously. The transfer means may include cross arms rotatable about extendable columns, and the equipment is mounted on a mobile base for movement into and out of position. Each carrier comprises a tubular socket and an expandable sleeve to grip a stud bolt. (author)

  5. Testing of FFTF fuel handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, D.W.; Grazzini, E.D.; Hill, L.F.

    1977-07-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility has several manual/computer controlled fuel handling machines which are exposed to severe environments during plant operation but still must operate reliably when called upon for reactor refueling. The test programs for two such machines--the Closed Loop Ex-Vessel Machine and the In-Vessel Handling Machine--are described. The discussion centers on those areas where design corrections or equipment repairs substantiated the benefits of a test program prior to plant operation

  6. Human factors issues in fuel handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, J.D.; Iwasa-Madge, K.M.; Tucker, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The staff of the Atomic Energy Control Board wish to further their understanding of human factors issues of potential concern associated with fuel handling in CANDU nuclear power stations. This study contributes to that objective by analysing the role of human performance in the overall fuel handling process at Ontario Hydro's Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, and reporting findings in several areas. A number of issues are identified in the areas of design, operating and maintenance practices, and the organizational and management environment

  7. About brachytherapy for the handling of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Tarcisio P.R.; Silva, Nilton O.; Damaso, Renato S.; Costa, Helder R.; Borges, Paulo H.R.; Mendes, Bruno M.

    2000-01-01

    The technique of brachytherapy is argued in this article. The 'hardware' and 'necessary software' for the handling are summarily presented. Being the macro-dosimetry an important stage in the radiation therapy procedure, a simplified method of doses evaluation in conventional brachytherapy is presented. In an illustrative form, isodoses of a three-dimensional distribution of linear sources are drawn on a digitalized X-ray picture, exemplifying the handling of breast brachytherapy by sources of iridium

  8. Development of standard components for remote handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Kou; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Ito, Akira

    1998-01-01

    The core of Fusion Experimental Reactor consists of various components such as superconducting magnets and forced-cooled in-vessel components, which are remotely maintained due to intense of gamma radiation. Mechanical connectors such as cooling pipe connections, insulation joints and electrical connectors are commonly used for maintenance of these components and have to be standardized in terms of remote handling. This paper describes these mechanical connectors developed as the standard component compatible with remote handling and tolerable for radiation. (author)

  9. Development of standard components for remote handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Kou; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Ito, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The core of Fusion Experimental Reactor consists of various components such as superconducting magnets and forced-cooled in-vessel components, which are remotely maintained due to intense of gamma radiation. Mechanical connectors such as cooling pipe connections, insulation joints and electrical connectors are commonly used for maintenance of these components and have to be standardized in terms of remote handling. This paper describes these mechanical connectors developed as the standard component compatible with remote handling and tolerable for radiation. (author)

  10. Safety Training: "Manual Handling" course in September

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Training, HSE Unit

    2016-01-01

    The next "Manual Handling" course will be given, in French, on 26 September 2016. This course is designed for anyone required to carry out manual handling of loads in the course of their work.   The main objective of this course is to adopt and apply the basic principles of physical safety and economy of effort. There are places available. If you are interested in following this course, please fill an EDH training request via our catalogue. 

  11. Corneal Toxicity Following Exposure to Asclepias Tuberosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lauge Hjorth; Hamoudi, Hassan; Gül, Cigdem Altuntas

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To present a case of corneal toxicity following exposure to milky plant latex from Asclepias tuberosa. METHODS: A 70-year-old female presented with blurred vision and pain in her left eye after handling an Ascepias tuberosa. Clinical examination revealed a corneal stromal oedema with small...... epithelial defects. The corneal endothelium was intact and folds in Descemets membrane were observed. The oedema was treated with chloramphenicol, dexamethasone and scopolamine. RESULTS: The corneal oedema had appeared after corneal exposure to the plant, Asclepias tuberosa, whose latex contains cardenolides...... that inhibit the Na+/ K+-ATPase in the corneal endothelium. The oedema resolved after 96 hours. After nine months the best corrected visual acuity was 20/20. CONCLUSION: Corneal toxicity has previously been reported for plants of the Asclepias family. This is a rare case describing severe corneal toxicity...

  12. Aversion substance(s) of the rat coagulating glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawienowski, Anthony M.; Berry, Iver J.; Kennelly, James J.

    1982-01-01

    The aversive substance(s) present in adult male urine were not found in castrate rat urine. Removal of the coagulating glands also resulted in a loss of the aversion compounds. The aversion substances were restored to the urine after androgen treatment of the castrate rats.

  13. Specialization and Flexibility in Port Cargo Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı KİŞİ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cargo handling appears to be the fundamental function of ports. In this context, the question of type of equipment and capacity rate need to be tackled with respect to cargo handling principles. The purpose of this study is to discuss the types of equipment to be used in ports, relating the matter to costs and capacity. The question is studied with a basic economic theoretical approach. Various conditions like port location, size, resources, cargo traffic, ships, etc. are given parameters to dictate the type and specification of the cargo handling equipment. Besides, a simple approach in the context of cost capacity relation can be useful in deciding whether to use specialized or flexible equipment. Port equipment is sometimes expected to be flexible to handle various types of cargo as many as possible and sometimes to be specialized to handle one specific type of cargo. The cases that might be suitable for those alternatives are discussed from an economic point of view in this article. Consequently, effectiveness and efficiency criteria play important roles in determining the handling equipment in ports.

  14. Religious Serpent Handling and Community Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, W Paul; Hood, Ralph W

    2015-01-01

    Christian serpent handling sects of Appalachia comprise a community that has long been mischaracterized and marginalized by the larger communities surrounding them. To explore this dynamic, this article traces the emergence of serpent handling in Appalachia and the emergence of anti-serpent-handling state laws, which eventually failed to curb the practice, as local communities gave serpent handling groups support. We present two studies to consider for improving community relations with serpent handling sects. In study 1, we present data relating the incidence of reported serpent-bite deaths with the rise of anti-serpent-handling laws and their eventual abatement, based on increasing acceptance of serpent handlers by the larger community. Study 2 presents interview data on serpent bites and death that provide explanations for these events from the cultural and religious perspective. We conclude that first-hand knowledge about serpent handlers, and other marginalized groups, helps to lessen suspicion and allows them to be seen as not much different, which are tendencies that are important for promoting inter-community harmony.

  15. Certification Plan, Radioactive Mixed Waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). RMW is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or transuranic (TRU) waste that is co-contaminated with dangerous waste as defined in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, 173-303-040 (18). This waste is to be transferred to the Hanford Site Central Waste Complex and Burial Grounds in Hanford, Washington. This plan incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF (Section 4); and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification

  16. Production of chemical substances in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boboev, Kh.E.; Nazarov, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Government of the Republic of Tajikistan has signed Convention "On prohibition of chemical weapon application"and no chemical weapon (CHW) is produced on the territory of republic. However, the potential production of CHW by individual persons or groups can be organized, using available production and obtaining chemical substances from other countries. Chemical substances, which have strong damage effect, easily, can be synthesized in chemical laboratories. These are general toxic substances, as hydrocyanic acid acid, phosgene, mustard gas, lewisite, sarin and others. The similar chemical substances of industrial significance are produced in Tajikistan: ammonia, chlorine, explosives, caustic soda, carbamide, formaldehyde and others. For industrial needs and agriculture from other countries Tajikistan is receiving the following: sodium cyanide and potassium for gold-mining; mineral acids; pesticides and others. Besides, there are different deposits in Tajikistan, reprocessing of which gives an opportunity to obtain different chemical substances. What can be obtained from chemicals produced in Tajikistan? Chlorine - from this reagent the fluoride chlorine, phosgene COCl_2 and many other compounds are easily synthesized, which are CHW components. Obtained cyanic compounds for gold mining can be used as precursor for neuroparalytic action. A big amount of metallic aluminum is produced in the republic. The Al powder for rocket fuel can be obtained from it. Obtained from other countries pesticides are potential components for CHW creation. A strong control and account of pesticides use is necessary. It is extremely important to control materials, equipment and technologies which allow countries and separate groups to create weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The most important factor is goods identification. Firstly - inspection of external view, labeling, packing specifications, license availability and etc. Strong control of checklists is necessary according

  17. New York hazardous substances emergency events surveillance: learning from hazardous substances releases to improve safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welles, Wanda Lizak; Wilburn, Rebecca E.; Ehrlich, Jenny K.; Floridia, Christina M.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1993, the New York State Department of Health, funded by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, has collected data about non-petroleum hazardous substances releases through the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (NYHSEES) project. This study investigates risk factors for hazardous substances releases that may result in public health consequences such as injury or reported health effects. The 6428 qualifying events that occurred during the 10-year-period of 1993-2002 involved 8838 hazardous substances, 842 evacuations, more than 75,419 people evacuated, and more than 3120 people decontaminated. These events occurred both at fixed facilities (79%) and during transport (21%). The causative factors most frequently contributing to reported events were equipment failure (39%) and human error (33%). Five of the 10 chemicals most frequently associated with injuries were also among the 10 chemicals most frequently involved in reported events: sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, ammonia, sodium hypochlorite, and carbon monoxide. The chemical categories most frequently associated with events, and with events with adverse health effects were volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and solvents, and acids. Events with releases of hazardous substances were associated with injuries to 3089 people including employees (37%), responders (12%), the general public (29%) and students (22%). The most frequently reported adverse health effects were respiratory irritation, headache, and nausea or vomiting. Most of the injured were transported to the hospital, treated, and released (55%) or treated at the scene (29%). These data have been used for emergency response training, planning, and prevention activities to reduce morbidity and mortality from future events

  18. Air toxics from heavy oil production and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipfert, F.W.; DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    This report assesses the potential impact of recent Federal and state regulations for airborne toxic substances on the production and consumption of heavy fuel oils. Emissions of nickel from heavy oil production in California are considered in some detail, in conjunction with California state regulations for toxic emissions. Although the use of thermal energy from heavy crude oils could in theory be impacted by toxic air pollution regulations, recent trends towards the use of natural gas for the required extraction energy appear to provide substantial relief, in addition to reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants. However, the consumption of residual fuel oils containing toxic metals could result in higher population exposures to these substances and their attendant risks may be worthy of more detailed analysis

  19. Psilocybin for treating substance use disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Veen, Bas T H; Schellekens, Arnt F A; Verheij, Michel M M; Homberg, Judith R

    2017-02-01

    Evidence based treatment for Substance use disorders (SUD) includes psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. However, these are only partially effective. Hallucinogens, such as psilocybin, may represent potential new treatment options for SUD. This review provides a summary of (human) studies on the putative therapeutic effects of psilocybin, and discusses the receptor systems, brain regions and cognitive and emotional processes mediating psilocybin's effects. Psilocybin's chemical structure is similar to that of serotonin. Dysregulations in the serotonin system are associated with alterations in stress hormones, such as cortisol, and mood disorders. After psilocybin administration cortisol levels spike and activate the executive control network, with subsequent increased control over emotional processes, and relief of negative thinking and persistent negative emotions. Preliminary data of ongoing alcohol and smoking addiction studies in humans shows promising effects of psilocybin administration on substance use. Importantly, psilocybin has a low risk of toxicity and dependence and can be used safely under controlled clinical conditions. Areas covered: This paper is a narrative review based on the search terms: psilocybin, substance use disorder, addiction, depression, serotonin. Literature on potential efficacy and mechanisms of action of psilocybin in SUD is discussed. Expert commentary: Recent positive findings with psilocybin need confirmation in well-designed placebo controlled randomized trials employing a large sample size.

  20. Preoperational checkout of the remote-handled transuranic waste handling at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This plan describes the preoperational checkout for handling Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Wastes from their receipt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to their emplacement underground. This plan identifies the handling operations to be performed, personnel groups responsible for executing these operations, and required equipment items. In addition, this plan describes the quality assurance that will be exercised throughout the checkout, and finally, it establishes criteria by which to measure the success of the checkout. 7 refs., 5 figs

  1. A Roadmap for the Development of Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Systemic Toxicity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new prod...

  2. ABILITY OF ECOSAR, TOPKAT, NEURAL NETWORKS, AND ASTER TO PREDICT TOXICITY OF CHEMICALS TO AQUATIC BIOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) which provides the basis for assessing and managing toxic substances in Canada, is being revised. Several new mandates have been introduced in the Act...

  3. Stroke And Substance Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    A Chitsaz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injec...

  4. Radiological safety aspects of handling plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Department of Atomic Energy in its scheme of harnessing the nuclear energy for electrical power generation and strategic applications has given a huge role to utilization of plutonium. In the power production programme, fast reactors with plutonium as fuel are expected to play a major role. This would require establishing fuel reprocessing plants to handle both thermal and fast reactor fuels. So in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities variety of chemical, metallurgical, mechanical operations have to be carried out involving significant inventories of "2"3"9 Pu and associated radionuclides. Plutonium is the most radiotoxic radionuclide and therefore any facility handling it has to be designed and operated with utmost care. Two problems of major concern in the protection of persons working in plutonium handling facilities are the internal exposure to the operating personnel from uptake of plutonium and transplutonic nuclides as they are highly radiotoxic and the radiation exposure of hands and eye lens during fuel fabrication operations especially while handling recycled high burn up plutonium. In view of the fact that annual limit for intake is very small for "2"3"9Pu and its radiation emission characteristics are such that it is a huge challenge for the health physicists to detect Pu in air and in workers. This paper discusses the principles and practices followed in providing radiological surveillance to workers in plutonium handling areas. The challenges in protecting the workers from receiving exposures to hands and eye lens in handling high burn up plutonium are also discussed. The sites having Pu fuel cycle facilities should have trained medical staff to handle cases involving excessive intake of plutonium. (author)

  5. Full scale tests on remote handled FFTF fuel assembly waste handling and packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.; Cash, R.J.; Dawson, S.A.; Strode, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Handling and packaging of remote handled, high activity solid waste fuel assembly hardware components from spent FFTF reactor fuel assemblies have been evaluated using full scale components. The demonstration was performed using FFTF fuel assembly components and simulated components which were handled remotely using electromechanical manipulators, shielding walls, master slave manipulators, specially designed grapples, and remote TV viewing. The testing and evaluation included handling, packaging for current and conceptual shipping containers, and the effects of volume reduction on packing efficiency and shielding requirements. Effects of waste segregation into transuranic (TRU) and non-transuranic fractions also are discussed

  6. LCIA selection methods for assessing toxic releases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2002-01-01

    the inventory that contribute significantly to the impact categories on ecotoxicity and human toxicity to focus the characterisation work. The reason why the selection methods are more important for the chemical-related impact categories than for other impact categories is the extremely high number......Characterization of toxic emissions in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is in many cases severely limited by the lack of characterization factors for the emissions mapped in the inventory. The number of substances assigned characterization factors for (eco)toxicity included in the dominating LCA....... The methods are evaluated against a set of pre-defined criteria (comprising consistency with characterization and data requirement) and applied to case studies and a test set of chemicals. The reported work is part of the EU-project OMNIITOX....

  7. Optimum ratio of AET, ATP and serotonin applied in combinations determined with a reference to their toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, D.K.; P''tev, I.Kh.

    1985-01-01

    In experiments on mice, a study was made of the quantitative dependence of toxicity of AET, ATP and serotonin applied in combinations. The toxicity decreased when ATP was combined with AET and increased when ATP of AET were combined with serotonin. The toxicity of a combination of all three substances was reduced by introducing high doses of ATP

  8. Analysis of reproductive toxicity and classification of glufosinate-ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Hermann, Rolf; Wogan, Gerald N; Berry, Colin; Brown, Nigel A; Czeizel, Andrew; Giavini, Erminio; Holmes, Lewis B; Kroes, Robert; Nau, Heinz; Neubert, Diether; Oesch, Franz; Ott, Tilmann; Pelkonen, Olavi; Robert-Gnansia, Elisabeth; Sullivan, Frank M

    2006-04-01

    animals is identified-inhibition of glutamine synthetase. Glutamine is essential to the viability of the embryo. The embryo is dependent on a maternal source of the amino acid. For embryo lethality to occur, a significant reduction of maternal glutamine is required. Such reduction in maternal glutamine depends on a significant inhibition of glutamine synthetase by GA. This can only occur when the mother is exposed to very high levels of GA. SPECIFICALLY: a. The reproductive toxicity of GA is confined to very short, early stages of reproduction, during which the conceptus is dependent on maternal glutamine; and b. In order for the effect to occur, significant reduction in maternal blood glutamine level is required, which in turn depends on a significant inhibition of glutamine synthetase, induced by high levels of GA in the maternal system. There is no evidence for accumulation of GA in the mammalian organism beyond a factor of two and no evidence for its metabolic toxification. To raise a concern in humans, women would have to be exposed to GA during the very limited time frame of preimplantation or implantation and the exposure would have to be to the exceedingly high levels necessary to alter the maternal metabolism and, correspondingly, result in glutamine levels in maternal tissue and blood plasma being drastically reduced. There is no basis to suggest that such exposures would occur under conditions of normal handling and use. SPECIFICALLY: a. Under conditions of normal handling and use, operators would never be exposed to GA levels that could potentially inhibit glutamine synthetase to the extent that this inhibition could impair preimplantation or implantation. b. All acceptable exposure measurements and predictive calculations confirm this conclusion, and in fact demonstrate that reasonably foreseeable exposure of workers would be to levels significantly below the AOEL. c. The evidence is also clear that there is no reproductive toxicity hazard to workers upon

  9. Substance use in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Suzanne; Ordean, Alice; Kahan, Meldon

    2011-04-01

    To improve awareness and knowledge of problematic substance use in pregnancy and to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of this challenging clinical issue for all health care providers. This guideline reviews the use of screening tools, general approach to care, and recommendations for clinical management of problematic substance use in pregnancy. Evidence-based recommendations for screening and management of problematic substance use during pregnancy and lactation. Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library were searched for articles published from 1950 using the following key words: substance-related disorders, mass screening, pregnancy complications, pregnancy, prenatal care, cocaine, cannabis, methadone, opioid, tobacco, nicotine, solvents, hallucinogens, and amphetamines. Results were initially restricted to systematic reviews and randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials. A subsequent search for observational studies was also conducted because there are few RCTs in this field of study. Articles were restricted to human studies published in English. Additional articles were located by hand searching through article reference lists. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline up to December 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was also identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on the Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for practice were ranked according to the method described in that report (Table 1). This guideline is intended to increase the knowledge and comfort level of health care providers caring for pregnant women who have substance use disorders. Improved access to

  10. Effective Teaching Practices in Handling Non Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacklyn S. Dacalos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study determined the effective teaching practices in handling nonreaders. This seeks to answer the following objectives: describe the adjustments, effective strategies, and scaffolds utilized by teachers in handling nonreaders; differentiate the teachers’ reading adjustments, strategies and scaffolds in teaching nonreaders; analyze the teaching reading efficiency of nonreaders using effective teaching reading strategies; and find significant correlation of nonreaders’ grades and reading teachers’ reading adjustments, strategies and scaffolds. This study utilized mixed methods of research. Case studies of five public schools teachers were selected as primary subjects, who were interviewed in handling nonreaders in the areas of adjustments, strategies, and reading scaffolds. Actual teaching observation was conducted according to the five subjects’ most convenient time. In ascertaining the nonreaders’ academic performance, the students’ grades in English subject was analyzed using T-Test within subject design. Handling nonreaders in order to read and understand better in the lesson is an arduous act, yet; once done with effectiveness and passion, it yielded a great amount of learning success. Effective teaching practices in handling nonreaders comprised the use of teachers’ adjustments, strategies, and scaffolds to establish reading mastery, exposing them to letter sounds, short stories, and the use of follow-up. WH questions enhanced their reading performance significantly. Variations of reading teachers’ nature as: an enabler, a facilitator, a humanist, a behaviorist, and an expert, as regards to their teaching practices, were proven significant to students’ reading effectiveness.

  11. Toxicity alarm: Case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, D.; Retallack, J.

    1993-01-01

    In late fall 1991, the Novacor petrochemical plant near Joffre, Alberta experienced a toxicity alarm, the first since its startup 14 years ago. Fish exposed to a normal toxicity test were stressed within 2 h and showed 100% mortality after 24 h. A history of the events leading up to, during, and after the toxicity alarm is presented. The major effluent sources were three cooling water systems. Although these sources are well characterized, the event causes were not immediately clear. Initial toxic screening indicated that one was very toxic, another moderately toxic, and the third not toxic at all. All three systems utilized the same chemical treatment program to avoid fouling: stabilized phosphates with minor variants. The most toxic of the cooling systems operated at 10-12 cycles, had three chemicals for biocide control, and had three makeup streams. Toxic and nontoxic system characteristics were compared. An in-depth modified toxicity identification and evaluation program was then performed to identify and evaluate the cause of the toxicity alarm for future prevention. The most probable causes of toxicity were identified by elimination. The combination of high numbers of cycles, hydrocarbons in the makeup water, and bromine added as an antifoulant resulted in formation of aromatic bromamines which are capable of causing the toxic condition experienced. 2 tabs

  12. Development of tritium-handling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmura, Hiroshi; Hosaka, Akio; Okamoto, Takahumi

    1988-01-01

    The overview of developing activities for tritium-handling techniques in IHI are presented. To establish a fusion power plant, tritium handling is one of the key technologies. Recently in JAERI, conceptual design of FER (Fusion Experimental Reactor) has been carried out, and the FER system requires a processing system for a large amount of tritium. IHI concentrate on investigation of fuel gas purification, isotope separation and storage systems under contract with Toshiba Corporation. Design results of the systems and each components are reviewed. IHI has been developing fundamental handling techniques which are the ZrNi bed for hydrogen isotope storage and isotope separation by laser. The ZrNi bed with a tritium storage capacity of 1000 Ci has been constructed and recovery capability of the hydrogen isotope until 10 -4 Torr {0.013 Pa} was confirmed. In laser isotope separation, the optimum laser wave length has been determined. (author)

  13. Automated system for handling tritiated mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, D.K.; Merrill, R.D.; Reitz, T.C.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM-developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely, using the robot in a teleoperational mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive operations. Initially, this system will be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous-phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this development program, provides background related to LLNL's robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans

  14. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance

  15. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance.

  16. MHSS: a material handling system simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomernacki, L.; Hollstien, R.B.

    1976-04-07

    A Material Handling System Simulator (MHSS) program is described that provides specialized functional blocks for modeling and simulation of nuclear material handling systems. Models of nuclear fuel fabrication plants may be built using functional blocks that simulate material receiving, storage, transport, inventory, processing, and shipping operations as well as the control and reporting tasks of operators or on-line computers. Blocks are also provided that allow the user to observe and gather statistical information on the dynamic behavior of simulated plants over single or replicated runs. Although it is currently being developed for the nuclear materials handling application, MHSS can be adapted to other industries in which material accountability is important. In this paper, emphasis is on the simulation methodology of the MHSS program with application to the nuclear material safeguards problem. (auth)

  17. Defusing the Toxics Threat: Controlling Pesticides and Industrial Waste. Worldwatch Paper 79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, Sandra

    The use of pesticides in agriculture and the discarding of industrial chemical waste into the air, soil, and water constitute two major pathways of human exposure to toxic substances. It is argued that these practices release hundreds of millions of tons of potentially hazardous substances into the environment each year. Speculation continues into…

  18. Fuel handling grapple for nuclear reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousar, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a fuel handling system for nuclear reactor plants. It comprises: a reactor vessel having an openable top and removable cover and containing therein, submerged in water substantially filling the reactor vessel, a fuel core including a multiplicity of fuel bundles formed of groups of sealed tube elements enclosing fissionable fuel assembled into units, the fuel handling system consisting essentially of the combination of: a fuel bundle handling platform movable over the open top of the reactor vessel; a fuel bundle handling mast extendable downward from the platform with a lower end projecting into the open top reactor vessel to the fuel core submerged in water; a grapple head mounted on the lower end of the mast provided with grapple means comprising complementary hooks which pivot inward toward each other to securely grasp a bail handle of a nuclear reactor fuel bundle and pivot backward away from each other to release a bail handle; the grapple means having a hollow cylindrical support shaft fixed within the grapple head with hollow cylindrical sleeves rotatably mounted and fixed in longitudinal axial position on the support shaft and each sleeve having complementary hooks secured thereto whereby each hook pivots with the rotation of the sleeve secured thereto; and the hollow cylindrical support shaft being provided with complementary orifices on opposite sides of its hollow cylindrical and intermediate to the sleeves mounted thereon whereby the orifices on both sides of the hollow cylindrical support shaft are vertically aligned providing a direct in-line optical viewing path downward there-through and a remote operator positioned above the grapple means can observe from overhead the area immediately below the grapple hooks

  19. Handling of biological specimens for electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, G.

    1987-01-01

    There are many different aspects of specimen preparation procedure which need to be considered in order to achieve good results. Whether using the scanning or transmission microscope, the initial handling procedures are very similar and are selected for the information required. Handling procedures and techniques described are: structural preservation; immuno-and histo-chemistry; x-ray microanalysis and autoradiography; dehydration and embedding; mounting and coating specimens for scanning electron microscopy; and sectioning of resin embedded material. With attention to detail and careful choice of the best available technique, excellent results should be obtainable whatever the specimen. 6 refs

  20. Human factors issues in fuel handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, J D; Iwasa-Madge, K M; Tucker, D A [Humansystems Inc., Milton, ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    The staff of the Atomic Energy Control Board wish to further their understanding of human factors issues of potential concern associated with fuel handling in CANDU nuclear power stations. This study contributes to that objective by analysing the role of human performance in the overall fuel handling process at Ontario Hydro`s Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, and reporting findings in several areas. A number of issues are identified in the areas of design, operating and maintenance practices, and the organizational and management environment. 1 fig., 4 tabs., 19 refs.

  1. Safe handling of plutonium: a panel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    This guide results from a meeting of a Panel of Experts held by the International Atomic Energy Agency on 8 to 12 November 1971. It is directed to workers in research laboratories handling plutonium in gram amounts. Contents: aspects of the physical and chemical properties of plutonium; metabolic features of plutonium; facility design features for safe handling of plutonium (layout of facility, working zones, decontamination room, etc.); glove boxes; health surveillance (surveillance of environment and supervision of workers); emergencies; organization. Annexes: types of glove boxes; tables; mobile ..cap alpha.. air sampler; aerosol monitor; bio-assay limits of detection; examples of contamination control monitors.

  2. Apparatus for handling control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, A.; Watanabe, M.; Yoshida, T.; Sugaya, Z.; Saito, T.; Ishii, Y.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus for handling control rod drives (CRD's) attached by detachable fixing means to housings mounted in a reactor pressure vessel and each coupled to one of control rods inserted in the reactor pressure vessel is described. The apparatus for handling the CRD's comprise cylindrical housing means, uncoupling means mounted in the housing means for uncoupling each of the control rods from the respective CRD, means mounted on the housing means for effecting attaching and detaching of the fixing means, means for supporting the housing means, and means for moving the support means longitudinally of the CRD

  3. Control panel handling of a nuclear simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Polo, F.; Jimenez Fraustro, L.A.; Banuelos Galindo, A.; Diamant Rubinstein, A.

    1985-01-01

    The handling of the control panels for a Nuclear Simulator for operating training is described. The control panels are handled by a set of intelligent controllers, each with at least two processors (8035 - Communications Controller and a 8085 - Master processor). The Controllers are connected to the main computers (Two dual processor Gould concept 32/6780 and a single processor Gould concept 32/6705) via serial asynchronous channels in a multidrop, star-like architecture. The controllers transmit to the main computers only the changes detected and receive the whole set of output variables as computed by the mathematical models of the Nuclear Plant

  4. Antitussives and substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns JM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jarrett M Burns, Edward W Boyer Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. Keywords: dextromethorphan, purple drank, sizzurp, codeine/promethazine

  5. Recommendations for cask features for robotic handling from the Advanced Handling Technology Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.

    1991-02-01

    This report describes the current status and recent progress in the Advanced Handling Technology Project (AHTP) initiated to explore the use of advanced robotic systems and handling technologies to perform automated cask handling operations at radioactive waste handling facilities, and to provide guidance to cask designers on the impact of robotic handling on cask design. Current AHTP tasks have developed system mock-ups to investigate robotic manipulation of impact limiters and cask tiedowns. In addition, cask uprighting and transport, using computer control of a bridge crane and robot, were performed to demonstrate the high speed cask transport operation possible under computer control. All of the current AHTP tasks involving manipulation of impact limiters and tiedowns require robotic operations using a torque wrench. To perform these operations, a pneumatic torque wrench and control system were integrated into the tool suite and control architecture of the gantry robot. The use of captured fasteners is briefly discussed as an area where alternative cask design preferences have resulted from the influence of guidance for robotic handling vs traditional operations experience. Specific robotic handling experiences with these system mock-ups highlight a number of continually recurring design principles: (1) robotic handling feasibility is improved by mechanical designs which emphasize operation with limited dexterity in constrained workspaces; (2) clearances, tolerances, and chamfers must allow for operations under actual conditions with consideration for misalignment and imprecise fixturing; (3) successful robotic handling is enhanced by including design detail in representations for model-based control; (4) robotic handling and overall quality assurance are improved by designs which eliminate the use of loose, disassembled parts. 8 refs., 15 figs

  6. 7 CFR 205.600 - Evaluation criteria for allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices... compatible with organic handling; (3) The nutritional quality of the food is maintained when the substance is... preservative or to recreate or improve flavors, colors, textures, or nutritive value lost during processing...

  7. Towards a proportionality assessment of risk reduction measures aimed at restricting the use of persistent and bioaccumulative substances.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, Frans; Brouwer, Roy; Janssen, Martien; Verhoeven, Julia; Luttikhuizen, Cees

    2017-01-01

    International chemicals legislation aims at adequately controlling persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and substances of very high concern (SVHCs), such as persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) and very persistent and very bioaccumulative (vPvB) substances, with a view to progressively

  8. Molecular biomonitoring of a population of nurses handling antineoplastic drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornetta, Tommaso [Department of Biology, ' Roma Tre' University, Viale Guglielmo Marconi, 446-00146 Rome (Italy); ' Don Carlo Gnocchi' Foundation, Rome (Italy); Padua, Luca [' Don Carlo Gnocchi' Foundation, Rome (Italy); Department of Neuroscience, Neurology Institute, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Testa, Antonella; Ievoli, Elena [Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences Section, ENEA Research Center, Casaccia (Rome) (Italy); Festa, Fabiola [Department of Biology, ' Roma Tre' University, Viale Guglielmo Marconi, 446-00146 Rome (Italy); Tranfo, Giovanna [Department of Occupational Hygiene, Italian Institute for Occupational Prevention and Safety, Monteporzio Catone (Rome) (Italy); Baccelliere, Luigi [S. Martino Hospital, Genova (Italy); Cozzi, Renata [Department of Biology, ' Roma Tre' University, Viale Guglielmo Marconi, 446-00146 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: cozzi@bio.uniroma3.it

    2008-02-01

    Many antineoplastic drugs have been found to have carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic activity and so hospital personnel handling these substances are potentially exposed to health risk. Understanding this risk derived from protracted occupational exposure has great relevance even if the workers normally adopt individual and environmental protective measures. To address this question we have studied the presence of DNA and chromosome damage in a population of nurses employed in Italian oncology units and in matched controls. We used the comet assay to evidence the presence of DNA strand breaks, due to both acute and chronic exposure, and the micronucleus (MN) test, which is a measure of clastogenic and aneugenic events. Furthermore, since the individual response to the exogenous insults may be genetically determined, we studied the possible influence of single nucleotide polymorphism in XRCC1 and XRCC3 DNA repair genes on induced genetic damage. We also considered the effects of confounding factors like smoking, age and gender. The results indicated that the exposed subjects had significantly high levels of genetic damage. Age and gender were associated with increased values in MN, both in control and in exposed groups; the smoking habit affects MN frequency in controls, but not in workers. Furthermore we found that exposed subjects bearing at least one XRCC1 variant allele (399Gln) show higher values of MN. The present data provide the evidence to show that occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs, even if in safety controlled conditions, represents a serious health risk. Furthermore we have shown that the presence of XRCC1 genetic polymorphism could contribute to increase the genetic damage in susceptible individuals who are occupationally exposed to dangerous substances.

  9. Molecular biomonitoring of a population of nurses handling antineoplastic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornetta, Tommaso; Padua, Luca; Testa, Antonella; Ievoli, Elena; Festa, Fabiola; Tranfo, Giovanna; Baccelliere, Luigi; Cozzi, Renata

    2008-01-01

    Many antineoplastic drugs have been found to have carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic activity and so hospital personnel handling these substances are potentially exposed to health risk. Understanding this risk derived from protracted occupational exposure has great relevance even if the workers normally adopt individual and environmental protective measures. To address this question we have studied the presence of DNA and chromosome damage in a population of nurses employed in Italian oncology units and in matched controls. We used the comet assay to evidence the presence of DNA strand breaks, due to both acute and chronic exposure, and the micronucleus (MN) test, which is a measure of clastogenic and aneugenic events. Furthermore, since the individual response to the exogenous insults may be genetically determined, we studied the possible influence of single nucleotide polymorphism in XRCC1 and XRCC3 DNA repair genes on induced genetic damage. We also considered the effects of confounding factors like smoking, age and gender. The results indicated that the exposed subjects had significantly high levels of genetic damage. Age and gender were associated with increased values in MN, both in control and in exposed groups; the smoking habit affects MN frequency in controls, but not in workers. Furthermore we found that exposed subjects bearing at least one XRCC1 variant allele (399Gln) show higher values of MN. The present data provide the evidence to show that occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs, even if in safety controlled conditions, represents a serious health risk. Furthermore we have shown that the presence of XRCC1 genetic polymorphism could contribute to increase the genetic damage in susceptible individuals who are occupationally exposed to dangerous substances

  10. Feasibility of Biodegradation of Polyfluoroalkyl and Perfluoroalkyl Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Nancy Shiao-lynn

    2012-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are highly stable organic compounds, which contain multiple carbon-fluorine bonds. They are used in various commercial products, including aqueous fire-fighting foams (AFFF) and products with non-stick coatings. However, these compounds are reproductive and developmental toxicants, endocrine disrupters, and potential human carcinogens. They are found globally as emerging contaminants in groundwater and surface water resources. The two most...

  11. Mushrooms as a source of substances with antiviral activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Kandefer-Szerszeń

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Water extracts the fructifications of 56 species of fungi were examined as a source of antiviral substances with activity against VS and vaccinia viruses. Extracts from 16 fungal species exhibited the antiviral activity. Water extracts from Boletus edulis active against vaccinia virus and extract from Armillariella mellea active against VS virus are particularly worth nothing. Both of them in applied concentrations were not toxic in chick embryo fibroblasts tissue culture.

  12. Toxic torts: science, law, and the possibility of justice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cranor, Carl F

    2006-01-01

    ..., lower deterrence for wrongful conduct and harmful products, and decrease the possibility of justice for citizens injured by toxic substances. Even if courts review evidence well, greater judicial scrutiny increases litigation costs and attorney screening of clients and decreases citizens' access to the law. This book introduces these issues, reveals ...

  13. Risk Assessment for Toxic Air Pollutants: A Citizen's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poisonous substances in the air that come from natural sources (for example, radon gas coming up from the ground) or from manmade sources (for example, chemical compounds given off by factory smokestacks) and can harm the environment or your health. Inhaling (or breathing) toxic air ...

  14. 40 CFR 797.1950 - Mysid shrimp chronic toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on the chronic toxicity of chemical substances and mixtures (“chemicals”) subject to environmental... with the test design into retention chambers within the test and the control chambers. Mysids in the... and experimental history. Mysids used for establishing laboratory cultures may be purchased...

  15. Personal ways of handling everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Meinert

    at variations in everyday life pursuits:  How does a person's pursuit of goals and concerns lead him/her to experience and handle breaks, interruptions, and variation in everyday activities?  The research project so far holds quantitative data.  A convenient sample of 217 persons were administered...

  16. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the advantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...

  17. 9 CFR 3.142 - Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.142 Section 3.142 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  18. WISE TECHNOLOGY FOR HANDLING BIG DATA FEDERATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn, E; Begeman, Kornelis; Belikov, Andrey; Boxhoorn, Danny; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; McFarland, John; Vriend, Willem-Jan; Williams, Owen; Soille, P.; Marchetti, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    The effective use of Big Data in current and future scientific missions requires intelligent data handling systems which are able to interface the user to complicated distributed data collections. We review the WISE Concept of Scientific Information Systems and the WISE solutions for the storage and

  19. 340 Waste Handling Facility interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    This document establishes the interim safety basis (ISB) for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (340 Facility). An ISB is a documented safety basis that provides a justification for the continued operation of the facility until an upgraded final safety analysis report is prepared that complies with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The ISB for the 340 Facility documents the current design and operation of the facility. The 340 Facility ISB (ISB-003) is based on a facility walkdown and review of the design and operation of the facility, as described in the existing safety documentation. The safety documents reviewed, to develop ISB-003, include the following: OSD-SW-153-0001, Operating Specification Document for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (WHC 1990); OSR-SW-152-00003, Operating Limits for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (WHC 1989); SD-RE-SAP-013, Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Railroad Liquid Waste Tank Cars (Mercado 1993); SD-WM-TM-001, Safety Assessment Document for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (Berneski 1994a); SD-WM-SEL-016, 340 Facility Safety Equipment List (Berneski 1992); and 340 Complex Fire Hazard Analysis, Draft (Hughes Assoc. Inc. 1994)

  20. 7 CFR 985.8 - Handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF...: Provided, That: (a) The preparation for market of salable oil by producers who are not dealers or users, (b...

  1. Handling system for nuclear fuel pellet inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.; McLemore, D.R.; Sturges, R.H.

    1978-11-01

    HEDL is developing automated fabrication equipment for fast reactor fuel. A major inspection operation in the process is the gaging of fuel pellets. A key element in the system has been the development of a handling system that reliably moves pellets at the rate of three per second without product damage or excessive equipment wear

  2. Combating wear in bulk solids handling plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    A total of five papers presented at a seminar on problems of wear caused by abrasive effects of materials in bulk handling. Topics of papers cover the designer viewpoint, practical experience from the steel, coal, cement and quarry industries to create an awareness of possible solutions.

  3. Emergency handling of radiation accident cases: firemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures for the emergency handling of persons exposed to radiation or radioactive contamination are presented, with emphasis on information needed by firemen. The types of radiation accident patients that may be encountered are described and procedures for first aid, for preventing the spread of radioactive contamination, and for reporting the accident are outlined

  4. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  5. 7 CFR 981.16 - To handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false To handle. 981.16 Section 981.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... in any other way to put almonds grown in the area of production into any channel of trade for human...

  6. Ergonomics intervention in manual handling of oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Motamedzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Conclusion: With the implementation of ergonomic intervention is casting unit, the risk of exposure to musculoskeletal disorders caused by manual handling of oxygen cylinders was eliminated and safety of employees against the risk of explosion of the cylinders in comparison with before the intervention was improved.

  7. PREPD O and VE remote handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theil, T.N.

    1985-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is designed for volume reduction and packaging of transuranic (TRU) waste. The PREPP opening and verification enclosure (O and VE) remote handling system, within that facility, is designed to provide examination of the contents of various TRU waste storage containers. This remote handling system will provide the means of performing a hazardous operation that is currently performed manually. The TeleRobot to be used in this system is a concept that will incorporate and develop man in the loop operation (manual mode), standardized automatic sequencing of end effector tools, increased payload and reach over currently available computer-controlled robots, and remote handling of a hazardous waste operation. The system is designed within limited space constraints and an operation that was originally planned, and is currently being manually performed at other plants. The PREPP O and VE remote handling system design incorporates advancing technology to improve the working environment in the nuclear field

  8. Intertextuality for Handling Complex Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byhring, Anne Kristine; Knain, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Nowhere is the need for handling complexity more pertinent than in addressing environmental issues. Our study explores students' situated constructs of complexity in unfolding discourses on socio-scientific issues. Students' dialogues in two group-work episodes are analysed in detail, with tools from Systemic Functional Linguistics. We identify…

  9. 7 CFR 996.4 - Handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 996.4 Section 996.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... consumption channels of commerce: Provided, That this term does not include sales or deliveries of peanuts by...

  10. 7 CFR 982.7 - To handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false To handle. 982.7 Section 982.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... hazelnuts, inshell or shelled, into the channels of trade either within the area of production or from such...

  11. Exploring Reflective Means to Handle Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Nikunj

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism has become widespread in the university teaching environment. This article presents practical wisdom from several years of experience handling plagiarism in two Information Systems (IS) courses with the exploratory use of reflective means such as dialogues and essays. There has been very little work on the use of reflective approaches…

  12. Remote technologies for handling spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear programme in India involves building and operating power and research reactors, production and use of isotopes, fabrication of reactor fuel, reprocessing of irradiated fuel, recovery of plutonium and uranium-233, fabrication of fuel containing plutonium-239, uranium-233, post-irradiation examination of fuel and hardware and handling solid and liquid radioactive wastes. Fuel that could be termed 'spent' in thermal reactors is a source for second generation fuel (plutonium and uranium-233). Therefore, it is only logical to extend remote techniques beyond handling fuel from thermal reactors to fuel from fast reactors, post-irradiation examination etc. Fabrication of fuel containing plutonium and uranium-233 poses challenges in view of restriction on human exposure to radiation. Hence, automation will serve as a step towards remotisation. Automated systems, both rigid and flexible (using robots) need to be developed and implemented. Accounting of fissile material handled by robots in local area networks with appropriate access codes will be possible. While dealing with all these activities, it is essential to pay attention to maintenance and repair of the facilities. Remote techniques are essential here. There are a number of commonalities in these requirements and so development of modularized subsystems, and integration of different configurations should receive attention. On a long-term basis, activities like decontamination, decommissioning of facilities and handling of waste generated have to be addressed. While robotized remote systems have to be designed for existing facilities, future designs of facilities should take into account total operation with robotic remote systems. (author)

  13. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to ensure that mixups, damage, deterioration...

  14. Guidance Counsellor Strategies for Handling Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power-Elliott, Michleen; Harris, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory-descriptive study was to examine how guidance counsellors in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador would handle a specific verbal-relational bullying incident. Also of interest was guidance counsellor involvement and training in bullying programmes and Positive Behaviour Supports. Data for this study was…

  15. Handling and disposing of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive waste has been separated by definition into six categories. These are: commercial spent fuel; high-level wastes; transuranium waste; low-level wastes; decommissioning and decontamination wastes; and mill tailings and mine wastes. Handling and disposing of these various types of radioactive wastes are discussed briefly

  16. Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide (Fifth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T.L.; McCormick, R.L.; Christensen, E.D.; Fioroni, G.; Moriarty. K.; Yanowitz, J.

    2016-11-08

    This document is a guide for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and biodiesel blends. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of biodiesel and biodiesel blends in engines and boilers, and is intended to help fleets, individual users, blenders, distributors, and those involved in related activities understand procedures for handling and using biodiesel fuels.

  17. Instrumentation to handle thermal polarized neutron beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate devices needed to handle the polarization of thermal neutron beams: Ï/2-flippers (to start/stop Larmor precession) and Ï-flippers (to reverse polarization/precession direction) and illustrate how these devices are used to investigate the properties of matter and of the

  18. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the ad- vantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...

  19. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people

  20. Remote-handled transuranic system assessment appendices. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of this report contains six appendices to the report: Inventory and generation of remote-handled transuranic waste; Remote-handled transuranic waste site storage; Characterization of remote-handled transuranic waste; RH-TRU waste treatment alternatives system analysis; Packaging and transportation study; and Remote-handled transuranic waste disposal alternatives.