WorldWideScience

Sample records for handling egg products

  1. Innovative layer genetics to handle global challenges in egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisinger, Rudolf

    2018-02-01

    1. In commercial layer breeding, extensive gene pools are tested and selected for market requirements which must be anticipated at least 5 years ahead. Field results confirm a continuous positive genetic trend in egg output and better feed efficiency which can be converted into land savings. 2. Animal welfare and cage-free housing dominate future needs of the market. Nesting behaviour and minimal tendency to develop feather-pecking or cannibalism without beak treatment are key trait complexes. Stronger shells for longer production cycles without moulting have to be combined with better bones. 3. No single big gene effect can be expected to control the multifactorial problem of feather-pecking. Adjusting the shape of the beak, with a heritability of .10-.25, can contribute to reducing the risk of severe cannibalism. 4. For better skeletal integrity, the assessment of bone quality in pedigree birds housed in enriched cages is done by keel bone palpation or ultrasound measurement of the humerus. Both traits show similar heritabilities in the range of .15-.30 and can be included in a balanced selection approach for performance, quality and welfare traits. 5. The combination of performance testing and genome-wide DNA marker analysis is a promising tool to generate more progress for a balanced performance and behaviour profile.

  2. 9 CFR 590.945 - Foreign egg products offered for importation; reporting of findings to customs; handling of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign egg products offered for... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.945 Foreign egg...

  3. 7 CFR 57.945 - Foreign eggs offered for importation; reporting of findings to customs; handling of products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign eggs offered for importation; reporting of... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.945 Foreign eggs offered for...

  4. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption. PMID:25730295

  5. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  6. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-02-26

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  7. Food Handling Behaviors Observed in Consumers When Cooking Poultry and Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Cates, Sheryl; Koppel, Kadri

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking poultry and eggs, which can lead to exposure to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Past research has been done primarily through surveys and interviews, rather than observations. The objective of this project was to determine through observations whether consumers follow food safety guidelines. Consumers (n = 101) divided among three locations (Manhattan, KS; Kansas City, MO area; and Nashville, TN) were observed as they prepared a baked whole chicken breast, a pan-fried ground turkey patty, a fried egg, and scrambled eggs. The end point temperature for the cooked products was taken (outside the view of consumers) within 30 s after the consumers indicated they were finished cooking. Thermometer use while cooking was low, although marginally higher than that of some previous studies: only 37% of consumers used a thermometer for chicken breasts and only 22% for turkey patties. No one used a thermometer for fried or scrambled eggs. Only 77% of the chicken and 69% of the turkey was cooked to a safe temperature (165°F [74°C]), and 77% of scrambled and 49% of fried eggs reached a safe temperature (160°F [71°C]). Safe hand washing was noted in only 40% of respondents after handling the chicken breast and 44% after handling the ground turkey patty. This value decreased to 15% after handling raw eggs for fried eggs and to 17% for scrambled eggs. These results show that there is a high prevalence of unsafe behaviors (undercooking and poor hand washing technique) when cooking poultry and eggs and a great need for improvement in consumer behavior with poultry and eggs.

  8. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled...

  9. Production management of window handles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Ingaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the chapter a company involved in the production of aluminum window and door handles was presented. The main customers of the company are primarily companies which produce PCV joinery and wholesalers supplying these companies. One chosen product from the research company - a single-arm pin-lift window handle - was described and its production process depicted technologically. The chapter also includes SWOT analysis conducted in the research company and the value stream of the single-arm pin-lift window handle.

  10. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight,

  11. Animal Products and Handling: A Caution for Consumers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reviewed pertinent literature on edible animal products and handling with respect to contaminations and adulterations. Animal products include eggs, meat, milk, fish, skin/hide that are processed into other by products for human consumption. There is the need for awareness campaignsto consumers and ...

  12. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products offered...

  13. Organic and free-range egg production

    OpenAIRE

    Hammershøj, M.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter includes information on the development of the free range and the organic egg production and their market shares in different countries. Consumer behaviour is investigated particularly in relation to the price and availability of non-cage eggs. Regulations on the production of free range and organic eggs and their present and future impact are examined. Nutrient supply, animal welfare, productivity, safety and environmental impact of the types of egg production are covered with a...

  14. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Handling Eggs in the Home: An Unexplored Food Safety Issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illness is a global public health issue, with food handling in the home identified as an underestimated source. In Australia, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of salmonellosis with the majority of outbreaks linked to eggs. This study investigated Australian eggs consumer attitudes, behaviours and risk perceptions associated with the handling of raw eggs in the home. It was identified that 67% of participants chose free range eggs, 11% kept poultry, 7% did not have any preference, 7% cage eggs, 4% barn eggs, 2% organic eggs and 1% pasteurized eggs. The majority of participants (91% reported they stored eggs in the fridge. It was identified that there is an underestimation of “risky behaviour” associated with the consumption of raw eggs in the home, as 84% of participants indicated that they did not consume raw eggs, but subsequently 86% indicated that they had eaten mixture/batter containing raw eggs. Participants’ responses relating to food safety were also examined in relation to their profession and gender. Safer food handling practices were identified by Environmental Health Officers (EHO and Food handlers compared to all other professions (p < 0.05. However, the gender of participants did not significantly affect (p > 0.05 their responses.

  15. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Handling Eggs in the Home: An Unexplored Food Safety Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Clarke, Beverley; Ross, Kirstin

    2017-01-06

    Foodborne illness is a global public health issue, with food handling in the home identified as an underestimated source. In Australia, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of salmonellosis with the majority of outbreaks linked to eggs. This study investigated Australian eggs consumer attitudes, behaviours and risk perceptions associated with the handling of raw eggs in the home. It was identified that 67% of participants chose free range eggs, 11% kept poultry, 7% did not have any preference, 7% cage eggs, 4% barn eggs, 2% organic eggs and 1% pasteurized eggs. The majority of participants (91%) reported they stored eggs in the fridge. It was identified that there is an underestimation of "risky behaviour" associated with the consumption of raw eggs in the home, as 84% of participants indicated that they did not consume raw eggs, but subsequently 86% indicated that they had eaten mixture/batter containing raw eggs. Participants' responses relating to food safety were also examined in relation to their profession and gender. Safer food handling practices were identified by Environmental Health Officers (EHO) and Food handlers compared to all other professions ( p 0.05) their responses.

  16. Consumer Shell Egg Consumption and Handling Practices: Results from a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Katherine M; Cates, Sheryl C; Bradley, Samantha; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores

    2015-07-01

    Numerous cases and outbreaks of Salmonella infection are attributable to shell eggs each year in the United States. Safe handling and consumption of shell eggs at home can help reduce foodborne illness attributable to shell eggs. A nationally representative Web survey of 1,504 U.S. adult grocery shoppers was conducted to describe consumer handling practices and consumption of shell eggs at home. Based on self-reported survey data, most respondents purchase shell eggs from a grocery store (89.5%), and these eggs were kept refrigerated (not at room temperature; 98.5%). As recommended, most consumers stored shell eggs in the refrigerator (99%) for no more than 3 to 5 weeks (97.6%). After cracking eggs, 48.1% of respondents washed their hands with soap and water. More than half of respondents who fry and/or poach eggs cooked them so that the whites and/or the yolks were still soft or runny, a potentially unsafe practice. Among respondents who owned a food thermometer (62.0%), only 5.2% used it to check the doneness of baked egg dishes when they prepared such a dish. Consumers generally followed two of the four core "Safe Food Families" food safety messages ("separate" and "chill") when handling shell eggs at home. To prevent Salmonella infection associated with shell eggs, consumers should improve their practices related to the messages "clean" (i.e., wash hands after cracking eggs) and "cook" (i.e., cook until yolks and whites are firm and use a food thermometer to check doneness of baked egg dishes) when preparing shell eggs at home. These findings will be used to inform the development of science-based consumer education materials that can help reduce foodborne illness from Salmonella infection.

  17. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS...

  18. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition on...

  19. A model for persistency of egg production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.; Gossman, T.N.; Koops, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to propose a new definition for persistency of egg production and to develop a mathematical model to describe the egg production curve, one that includes a new measure for persistency, based on the proposed definition, for use as a selection criterion to improve

  20. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection of...

  1. Morphological characteristics and egg production of forced-moult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The forced-moult groups T2 and T3 stopped egg production by 6 days of moult induction and resumed egg production by day 25. T2 and T3 attained a peak egg production of 71% by the second month following resumption of lay. On the other hand, in the T1 egg production progressively decreased with age.

  2. How the NWC handles software as product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.

    1997-11-01

    This tutorial provides a hands-on view of how the Nuclear Weapons Complex project should be handling (or planning to handle) software as a product in response to Engineering Procedure 401099. The SQAS has published the document SQAS96-002, Guidelines for NWC Processes for Handling Software Product, that will be the basis for the tutorial. The primary scope of the tutorial is on software products that result from weapons and weapons-related projects, although the information presented is applicable to many software projects. Processes that involve the exchange, review, or evaluation of software product between or among NWC sites, DOE, and external customers will be described.

  3. Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell quality of hens after peak laying period. ... Ninety Isa Brown layers from 51 to 61 weeks of age were allocated to three treatment groups, namely H0, H1 and H2. ... Egg production (% hen-day) in the H2 group was higher (P < 0.05) than control group.

  4. BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS (BEA IN EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Deže

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A conducted research analyzes two systems of egg production, the conventional, commercial egg production and the egg production with a higher nutritive value - PUFA n-3 enriched eggs. Financial result of eggs production with PUFA n-3 is significantly higher than that of the conventional production - profitability of the conventional production was 19.29% and the one with PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 36.10%. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the efficiency of the use of capital based on the profitability of capital that is in the conventional egg production 23.9%, and in the production of PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 56.1%. According to the results of investigation, it is necessary to produce 258 eggs in the conventional egg production, whereas in the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 breakeven point (BEP is lower and amounts 204 eggs per laying hen per year. A higher cover rate with a difference of 10% (42.99±53.07 confirms that the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 is economically more efficient.

  5. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs and...

  6. 9 CFR 590.840 - Identification of inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., unwholesome, or adulterated egg products. 590.840 Section 590.840 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human...

  7. 29 CFR 780.211 - Contract production of hatching eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract production of hatching eggs. 780.211 Section 780... eggs. It is common practice for hatcherymen to enter into arrangements with farmer poultry raisers for the production of hatching eggs which the hatchery agrees to buy. Ordinarily, the farmer furnishes the...

  8. Evaluating factors that influence egg production at Konsoni Poultry Company

    OpenAIRE

    Muje Gjonbalaj; Arben Musliu; Myrvete Badivuku-Pantina; Ilir Zenalaj

    2009-01-01

    The main focus of this research is to evaluate the factors thought to influence the monthly egg production of Konsoni Poultry Company. The linear regression employing different variables of interest is used to predict the future monthly egg production of the largest poultry farm in Kosovo. The general purpose of multiple regressions (the term was first used by Pearson, 1908) is to learn more about the relationship between egg price, local competitors and egg imports as independent or predicto...

  9. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official plants. 590.35 Section 590.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... official plant and are in violation of this part or any of said Federal Acts or any State or local law...

  10. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant in...

  11. Reciprocal crosses between Alabio and Mojosari ducks : early egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H Prasetyo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available alternative to increasing productivity and production efficiency. Crossbreeding has been used widely for increasing productivity, and in this experiment Alabio and Mojosari ducks were crossed reciprocally in order to evaluate their egg production and egg quality, when compared to their parental breeds. Four genotypes AA, AM, MA and MM were compared and each consisted of 50 layer ducks. Each animal was kept in individual cage, and individual egg production and egg quality were recorded. They were given layer feed containing 20% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg metabolisable energy. Results showed that the crossbred ducks (AM and MA laid eggs earlier than their parental breeds (AA and MM, and MA laid earlier than AM. The weight of first eggs of the crossbreeds did not differ significantly, AM was the same as MM and MA the same as AA. For the body weight at first lay, MA and AM weighed in between their parental breeds, AA was the heaviest and then followed by MA, AM and MM. For the 3-month egg production, MA ducks laid significantly more egg than the other 3 genotypes, and this is related to the age of first lay being the earliest. In terms of egg quality such as egg weight, yolk color, weight and thickness of shell, weight of the white and HU value, the crossbred ducks showed quality in between AA and MM. The AM ducks tended to be closer to MM and MA closer to AA, and this shows a strong influence of maternal effects. The average level of heterosis for weight of first egg is 2.41% and for 3-month egg production is 2.1%, but for MA cross the heterosis level is 11.69% for egg production. The overall results showed that crossbreeds between Alabio and Mojosari have the potential in improving production traits in the effort to increase productivity and production efficiency.

  12. Evaluating factors that influence egg production at Konsoni Poultry Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muje Gjonbalaj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this research is to evaluate the factors thought to influence the monthly egg production of Konsoni Poultry Company. The linear regression employing different variables of interest is used to predict the future monthly egg production of the largest poultry farm in Kosovo. The general purpose of multiple regressions (the term was first used by Pearson, 1908 is to learn more about the relationship between egg price, local competitors and egg imports as independent or predictor variables (xi and dependent or criterion variable, egg production (y. Y = B0 + B1*X1 + B2*X2 + …Bn*XnThe results of the research come from the observed fluctuations in egg production at Konsoni Poultry Company during the period of 24 months. Many factors that effect egg production are poorly understood from managers of Konsoni Poultry Company. This study examines the statistical results and identifies the relationships between depended and independent variables. The study shows that there is a strong relationships between depend variably (y and independent variables (xi. and low correlations among independent variables The adjusted R2 of the multiple linear regression model is 0.48 which tells us that 48% of variation in egg production are explained by evaluated variables.Konsoni Poultry Company covers 20% of the market share for eggs in Kosovo. In general, multiple regression is used to answer the general question what is the best predictor of Konsoni egg production.

  13. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations from..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS... § 94.6 Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

  14. Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... in cages in three tier batteries. Egg production (% hen-day) in the H2 group was higher (P < 0.05) than control group. Egg mass of H2 hens was ..... heavy metal ion toxicity to experimental animals is dependant on the technique of application and the applied dose. However, neither increased mortality nor.

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROLACTIN HORMONE LEVEL, MOLTING AND DUCK EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Susanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to obtain information on the mechanism of molting and the prolactin hormone levels affecting egg production. The study utilized AP (crossbred of Alabio ♂ with Peking ♀ and PA (crossbred of Peking ♂ and Alabio ♀ ducks with a total of 180 birds. The observed variables were the duration of cessation of egg production before and after molting, the prolactin hormone level in the period of molting, the egg production period before and after molting. The data was analyzed using ANOVA, regression and correlation. The results showed that AP crossbred had fewer molting (23.33% compared to PA (50.00%. The mechanism of molting is always preceded by cessation of egg production, molting and relaying. The prolactin hormone concentrations of AP and PA in the period before and after molting were significantly higher than in the period of molting. At the egg production period before molting, the prolactin hormone concentration of AP ducks was higher than the PA ducks. So that the egg production of AP before molting (0-16 weeks was higher than the PA. The egg production of AP was higher than PA, 256.66±6.00 vs 232.22±6.64 eggs for 48 weeks. So it can be concluded that the prolactin hormone affects the molting and egg production.

  16. Heat resistance of Salmonella in various egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibaldi, J A; Straka, R P; Ijichi, K

    1969-04-01

    The heat-resistance characteristics of Salmonella typhimurium Tm-1, a reference strain in the stationary phase of growth, were determined at several temperatures in the major types of products produced by the egg industry. The time required to kill 90% of the population (D value) at a given temperature in specific egg products was as follows: at 60 C (140 F), D = 0.27 min for whole egg; D = 0.60 min for whole egg plus 10% sucrose; D = 1.0 min for fortified whole egg; D = 0.20 min for egg white (pH 7.3), stabilized with aluminum; D = 0.40 min for egg yolk; D = 4.0 min for egg yolk plus 10% sucrose; D = 5.1 min for egg yolk plus 10% NaCl; D = 1.0 min for scrambled egg mix; at 55 C (131 F), D = 0.55 min for egg white (pH 9.2); D = 1.2 min for egg white (pH 9.2) plus 10% sucrose. The average Z value (number of degrees, either centigrade or fahrenheit, for a thermal destruction time curve to traverse one logarithmic cycle) was 4.6 C (8.3 F) with a range from 4.2 to 5.3 C. Supplementation with 10% sucrose appeared to have a severalfold greater effect on the heat stabilization of egg white proteins than on S. typhimurium Tm-1. This information should be of value in the formulation of heat treatments to insure that all egg products be free of viable salmonellae.

  17. Handling process disturbances in petroleum production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sten, T; Bodsberg, L; Ingstad, O; Ulleberg, T

    1988-06-01

    Factors of importance in successful handling of major disturbances and crisis situations in petroleum production are discussed. Case studies based on interviews, questionnaires and systematic observations have been undertaken to identify critical factors in human computer design, in operator competence and attitudes and in work organization. It is shown that certain features of the humancomputer interaction become critical when serious disturbances are encountered. Likewise focusing on requirements during disturbances in particular has highlighted some new aspects of operator competence and of the work organization. The results are considered to be useful input to safety management in petroleum process plants, in formation of design specifications and in identifying need for further research regarding safety in offshore production.

  18. Interrelationships existing between body weight and egg production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty 76 weeks old Olympia Black layers were randomly selected, individually caged and intensively reared for a period of 16 weeks to study the effect of body weight on some egg production traits. The analysis of variance revealed significant effect of body weight on production traits investigated (P<0.01) except egg index ...

  19. Effect of limestone particle size on egg production and eggshell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different limestone particle sizes had no effect on any of the tested egg production and eggshell quality parameters. These results suggested that larger particles limestone are not necessarily essential to provide sufficient Ca2+ to laying hens for egg production and eggshell quality at end-of-lay, provided that the dietary Ca ...

  20. 9 CFR 590.900 - Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States. 590.900 Section 590.900 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF...

  1. Introduction--the Socially Sustainable Egg Production project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J C; Mench, J A; Thompson, P B

    2011-01-01

    The social and political pressure to change egg production from conventional cage systems to alternative systems has been largely driven by the desire to provide more behavioral freedom for egg-laying hens. However, a change of this magnitude can affect other components of the production system and may result in unintended outcomes. To understand this issue, a Socially Sustainable Egg Production project was formed to 1) conduct a holistic and integrated systematic review of the current state of knowledge about various aspects of sustainable egg production, and 2) develop a coordinated grant proposal for future extramural funding based on the research priorities identified from the review. Expert study groups were formed to write evidence-based papers in 5 critical sustainability areas: hen health and welfare, economics, food safety and quality, public attitudes, and environmental impacts. These papers were presented as the PSA Emerging Issues Symposium on Social Sustainability of Egg Production at the 2010 Poultry Science Association meeting.

  2. Calanus finmarchicus egg production at its northern border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Eva Friis; Bohr, Magnus; Kjellerup, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    How the distribution of Calanus finmarchicus and its potential northward expansion will be affected by climate changes depends on the mechanisms and processes constraining their reproduction, recruitment and survival. Here we present measurements of C. finmarchicus egg production rates during...... the spring bloom in 2008, 2010 and 2011 in Disko Bay, West Greenland and validate four independently derived metabolic models to predict egg production rates. The spring bloom in 2008 was short and intense and supported lower cumulated specific egg production of C. finmarchicus than the longer blooms...... with lower peak biomass in 2011 and 2012. The models predicted different timing of initialization and development of egg production rates based on phytoplankton biomass and temperature and model performance varied from ‘poor’ to ‘very good’. Phytoplankton biomass controlled the changes in egg production...

  3. Prevalence of Pathogens Associated with Eggs and the Environment of Conventional Cage and Free Range Egg Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative egg production methods are becoming more popular with US consumers. As the drive to expand the retail shell egg market to accommodate consumer shifts proceeds, a need arises for additional information to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A study ...

  4. Nuclear hydrogen production and its safe handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Paek, Seungwoo; Kim, Kwang-Rag; Ahn, Do-Hee; Lee, Minsoo; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the hydrogen related research presently undertaken at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute are presented. These encompass nuclear hydrogen production, hydrogen storage, and the safe handling of hydrogen, High temperature gas-cooled reactors can play a significant role, with respect to large-scale hydrogen production, if used as the provider of high temperature heat in fossil fuel conversion or thermochemical cycles. A variety of potential hydrogen production methods for high temperature gas-cooled reactors were analyzed. They are steam reforming of natural gas, thermochemical cycles, etc. The produced hydrogen should be stored safely. Titanium metal was tested primarily because its hydride has very low dissociation pressures at normal storage temperatures and a high capacity for hydrogen, it is easy to prepare and is non-reactive with air in the expected storage conditions. There could be a number of potential sources of hydrogen evolution risk in a nuclear hydrogen production facility. In order to reduce the deflagration detonation it is necessary to develop hydrogen control methods that are capable of dealing with the hydrogen release rate. A series of experiments were conducted to assess the catalytic recombination characteristics of hydrogen in an air stream using palladium catalysts. (author)

  5. Scientific and technological aspects of the radiopasteurization of egg products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etienne, J C; Biltiau, J; Rombaux, J P

    1973-11-01

    A bibliographic review is presented of the scientific and technological problems in the thermal pasteurization of egg products and the possible advantages of the substitution of radiopasteurization. Current procedures of pasteurization are described. Conditioning of the egg products by congealing or dehydration prior to storage is discussed. A comparative examination is made of the physico-chemical properties of treated egg products and of the organoleptic qualities of the finished product. The present status of radiopasteurization, the problems to be solved, and the economic aspects are discussed. (JSR)

  6. ACTION EGG PRODUCTION C.F. Saunders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major changes have occurred in the structure and opera- tion of the egg ... small backyard flock supplying food to the family still exists. ... non-industry flock still influences seasonal de- mand. ... living and changing eating habits developing.

  7. Design for high productivity remote handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykes, N., E-mail: nick.sykes@ccfe.ac.uk [Culham Centre For Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Collins, S.; Loving, A.B.; Ricardo, V. [Culham Centre For Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Villedieu, E. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, DSM/IRFM, Saint Paul Les Durance (France)

    2011-10-15

    As the central part of a programme of enhancements in support of ITER, the Joint European Torus (JET) is being equipped with an all-metal wall. This enhancement programme requires the removal and installation of 6927 tile carriers and tiles, as well as the removal and installation of embedded diagnostics and antennas. The scale of this operation and the necessity to maximise operational availability of the facility added a requirement for high productivity in the remote activities to the existing exigencies of precision, reliability, cleanliness and operational security. This high productivity requirement has been incorporated into the design of the components and associated installation tooling, the design of the installation equipment, the development of installation procedures including the use of a mock-up for optimisation and training. Consideration of the remote handling installation process is vital during the design of the in vessel components. A number of features to meet the need of the high productivity while maintaining the function requirements have been incorporated into the metal wall components and associated tooling including kinematic design with guidance appropriate for remote operation. The component and tools are designed to guide the attachment of the installation tool, the installation path, and the interlocking with adjacent components without contact between the fragile castellated beryllium of the adjacent tiles. Other incorporated ergonomic features are discussed. At JET, the remote maintenance is conducted using end effectors, normally bi-lateral force feed back manipulator, mounted on driven, articulated booms. Prior to the current shutdown one long boom was used to conduct the installation and collect and deliver components to the 'short' boom which was linked to the tile carrier transfer facility. This led to loss of efficiency during these movements. The adoption of a new remote handling philosophy using 'point of

  8. Design for high productivity remote handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, N.; Collins, S.; Loving, A.B.; Ricardo, V.; Villedieu, E.

    2011-01-01

    As the central part of a programme of enhancements in support of ITER, the Joint European Torus (JET) is being equipped with an all-metal wall. This enhancement programme requires the removal and installation of 6927 tile carriers and tiles, as well as the removal and installation of embedded diagnostics and antennas. The scale of this operation and the necessity to maximise operational availability of the facility added a requirement for high productivity in the remote activities to the existing exigencies of precision, reliability, cleanliness and operational security. This high productivity requirement has been incorporated into the design of the components and associated installation tooling, the design of the installation equipment, the development of installation procedures including the use of a mock-up for optimisation and training. Consideration of the remote handling installation process is vital during the design of the in vessel components. A number of features to meet the need of the high productivity while maintaining the function requirements have been incorporated into the metal wall components and associated tooling including kinematic design with guidance appropriate for remote operation. The component and tools are designed to guide the attachment of the installation tool, the installation path, and the interlocking with adjacent components without contact between the fragile castellated beryllium of the adjacent tiles. Other incorporated ergonomic features are discussed. At JET, the remote maintenance is conducted using end effectors, normally bi-lateral force feed back manipulator, mounted on driven, articulated booms. Prior to the current shutdown one long boom was used to conduct the installation and collect and deliver components to the 'short' boom which was linked to the tile carrier transfer facility. This led to loss of efficiency during these movements. The adoption of a new remote handling philosophy using 'point of installation

  9. Effect of Fishmeal Supplementation on Egg Production of Rhode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fed on CD. Feed intake and egg production were significantly (P < 0.001) improved by jishmeal ... cost per egg was lower for layers fed on FMD compared with those fed on CD. Keywords: ... provide a good balance of essential amino acids ..... ovary. Gilbert (1972) divides the life of a follicle ..... work of Jensen et al. (1974).

  10. Egg Production Constrains Chemical Defenses in a Neotropical Arachnid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís M Nazareth

    Full Text Available Female investment in large eggs increases the demand for fatty acids, which are allocated for yolk production. Since the biosynthetic pathway leading to fatty acids uses the same precursors used in the formation of polyketides, allocation trade-offs are expected to emerge. Therefore, egg production should constrain the investment in chemical defenses based on polyketides, such as benzoquinones. We tested this hypothesis using the harvestman Acutiosoma longipes, which produces large eggs and releases benzoquinones as chemical defense. We predicted that the amount of secretion released by ovigerous females (OFs would be smaller than that of non-ovigerous females (NOF. We also conducted a series of bioassays in the field and in the laboratory to test whether egg production renders OFs more vulnerable to predation. OFs produce less secretion than NOFs, which is congruent with the hypothesis that egg production constrains the investment in chemical defenses. Results of the bioassays show that the secretion released by OFs is less effective in deterring potential predators (ants and spiders than the secretion released by NOFs. In conclusion, females allocate resources to chemical defenses in a way that preserves a primary biological function related to reproduction. However, the trade-off between egg and secretion production makes OFs vulnerable to predators. We suggest that egg production is a critical moment in the life of harvestman females, representing perhaps the highest cost of reproduction in the group.

  11. The development of regional markets of eggs production in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal'ya Anatol'evna Alekseeva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current state of regional markets development and the production of eggs and egg products for a long period — from 1990 to 2009 — is reviewed in this paper. The main research method is the method of statistical groupings. The variable amount of egg production was chosen as the grouping characteristic, since this figure fits well into research goals and has the property of the prevalence in the aggregate / total. To analyze the trends of the Russian regional markets involved into egg production, official statistics on consumer prices was used as well as producer prices, the volume of egg production per capita based on food import and export products. This allowed to group regions for comparison with average values of indicators carried out by different criteria, and to draw conclusions about trends in the development of regional markets. The most relevant factors influencing the development of egg production, among which the factor of vertical integration of production was especially noticed: building own plants and feed mills, joining the land in order to ensure the needs for higher quality raw materials and other activities were identified.

  12. Values and public acceptability dimensions of sustainable egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P B; Appleby, M; Busch, L; Kalof, L; Miele, M; Norwood, B F; Pajor, E

    2011-09-01

    The attributes of egg production that elicit values-based responses include the price and availability of eggs, environmental impacts, food safety or health concerns, and animal welfare. Different social groups have distinct interests regarding the sustainability of egg production that reflect these diverse values. Current scientifically based knowledge about how values and attitudes in these groups can be characterized is uneven and must be derived from studies conducted at varying times and using incomplete study methods. In general, some producer and consumer interests are translated through markets and are mediated by market mechanisms, whereas others are poorly reflected by economic behavior. An array of survey and focus group research has been performed to elicit consumer and activist beliefs about performance goals they would expect from an egg production system. These studies provide evidence that consumers' market behavior may be at odds with their ethical and political beliefs about performance goals.

  13. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi Emarat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15% and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37% and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined at the end of each period. The increased in dietary protein significantly increased egg production from 54 to 59.4 %. Egg weight, egg mass and feed intake increased by 1.7 g, 3.4 g, and 2.8 g, respectively during the whole experimental period. As the dietary protein increased, feed conversion, egg component (as a percent of whale egg and egg albumin percent were improved. However, the egg breaking, specific gravity and eggshell were significantly decreased with increased dietary protein. The egg yolk percent was not influenced by dietary protein levels. The increased in dietary methionine from 0.25% to 0.37% caused the overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and egg component to improve by about 8.2%, 4g, 6.6g, 8.7g, and 6.0g, respectively. Feed conversion, specific gravity, egg breakage, egg shell, and egg yolk and albumin percent were not influenced by dietary methionine levels.

  14. A Public Survey on Handling Male Chicks in the Dutch Egg Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, H.G.J.; Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Blok, V.; Stassen, E.N.

    2018-01-01

    In 2035 global egg demand will have risen 50% from 1985. Because we are not able to tell in the egg whether it will become a male or female chick, billons of one day-old male chicks will be killed. International research initiatives are underway in this area, and governments encourage the

  15. 9 CFR 590.930 - Imported egg products; retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement prior to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported egg products; retention in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.930 Imported egg products; retention in customs custody; delivery under bond...

  16. Carotenoids and retinoids in Finnish foods: dairy products and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollilainen, V; Heinonen, M; Linkola, E; Varo, P; Koivistoinen, P

    1989-09-01

    As part of an overall composition study of Finnish foods, the carotenoid and retinoid content of 20 dairy product samples and eggs were determined by HPLC. The total beta-carotene (all-trans beta-carotene plus 15-cis beta-carotene) was quantitated for dairy products. For egg and egg yolk, lutein content was also determined. Only traces of lycopene, cryptoxanthin, and alpha-carotene were present. All-trans retinol and 13-cis retinol were the major retinoids in dairy products. Small amounts of 9-cis, 11-cis, and 9,11-cis retinols were found. High values of both retinol and beta-carotene were found in full fat cheeses and whipping cream: from 179.0 (cheese, Edam-type) to 318.7 micrograms/100 g (whipping cream) and from 86.7 (cheese, Edam-type) to 186.5 micrograms/100 g (whipping cream) for all-trans retinol and total beta-carotene, respectively. The retinol content averaged 16.3, 32.6, and 52.2 and that of beta-carotene 9.6, 16.7, and 3.0 micrograms/100 g in milk (1.9% fat), milk (3.9% fat), and human milk, respectively. The major pigment in eggs and egg yolk was lutein, 619.5 micrograms/100 g in eggs and 1575.8 micrograms/100 g in egg yolk. According to this study, at the present level of consumption in Finland, milk, milk products (excluding butter), and eggs result in a daily intake of about 350 retinol equivalents, and consequently, are a major source of vitamin A.

  17. Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... including 30 and 90 ppm dietary humic acid in liquid form, respectively. ... shell strength without affecting egg production and feed efficiency compared to control ..... Caecal metabolites and microbial populations in chickens consuming ... tation on the performance of laying hens fed with diets based on corn.

  18. Application of probiotic on egg production and egg quality of chukar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... the yolk color. This increase in shell thickness, shell weight and albumen weight were significant (P 0.05), though value was greater in probiotic treated birds. Egg production and quality are important determi- nations of the ...

  19. 7 CFR 57.840 - Identification of inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... adulterated egg products. 57.840 Section 57.840 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing...

  20. A model for individual egg production in chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.; Koops, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Our primary objective was to improve on an existing model for the individual weekly egg production curve by modeling the curve as a sum of logistic functions: one for the increasing phase of production and a sum for the decreasing phases. To illustrate the model, we used four data sets from two

  1. Quality of foraging material and the effect on hens feed intake, egg production and - quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Hammershøj, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August......In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August...

  2. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  3. Economic Analysis of Small Scale Egg Production in Gombe Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the economic profitability of small-scale egg production in Gombe L.G.A. Gombe State. Data were collected from 36 famers using simple random sampling technique. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, gross margin and farm financial ratio analysis. The study ...

  4. Nutrient digestibility and egg production of laying hens fed graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 20-week feeding trial involving 72 Isa brown-laying birds, in a completely randomized design, evaluated the nutrient digestibility and egg production of layers fed diets containing biodegraded palm kernel meal (PKM) at dietary levels of 20 per cent undegraded and 20, 30 and 40 per cent biodegraded PKM, respectively.

  5. Egg production methdos in marine fisheries: An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernal, M.; Somarakis, S.; Witthames, P.R.; Damme, van C.J.G.; Uriarte, A.R.; Lo, N.C.H.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an introduction of the Fisheries Research special issue on egg production methods (EPM) that emerged from a dedicated workshop held in Athens, Greece, in 2010. The workshop considered if EPMs are still valid today, it reviewed recent developments in the methods and discussed the

  6. Reproductive ecology and egg production of the radiated tortoise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied reproduction of wild Geochelone radiata at the Cap Sainte Marie Special Reserve in southwestern Madagascar to gain insight into life history traits related to reproductive success. Reproductive behaviour was observed over two nesting seasons and egg production was studied by radiographing telemetered ...

  7. Non-parametric analysis of production efficiency of poultry egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-parametric analysis of production efficiency of poultry egg farmers in Delta ... analysis of factors affecting the output of poultry farmers showed that stock ... should be put in place for farmers to learn the best farm practices carried out on the ...

  8. Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lurthu Reetha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 104.0 egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Results: In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05 was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05 was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg.

  9. Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetha, T Lurthu; Rajeswar, J Johnson; Harikrishnan, T J; Sukumar, K; Srinivasan, P; Kirubakaran, J John

    2016-08-01

    To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND) oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken. The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 10(4.0) egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age. In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age. From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg.

  10. Factorial estimation of energy requirement for egg production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André

    1992-01-01

    Based on balance and respiration measurements with 60 White Leghorns during the laying period from 27 to 48 wk of age, a factorial method for estimating the energy requirement for egg production is proposed. The present experiment showed that the deposition of fat and energy increased during...... the laying period, but protein deposition slightly decreased. It has been shown that the efficiency of ME utilization for fat energy deposition is higher than for protein energy deposition in the egg. Because the proportions of protein and fat differ during the laying period, and because energy utilization...... is different between protein and fat, the ME requirement was calculated as the sum of ME for maintenance and the partial requirements for protein, fat, and carbohydrate deposition. For practical applications, functions for prediction of protein (OP), fat (OF), and energy (OE) in eggs during the laying period...

  11. Enumeration of Salmonellae in Table Eggs, Pasteurized Egg Products, and Egg-Containing Dishes by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakočiūnė, Džiuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares

    2014-01-01

    PCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between...... the numbers of salmonellae and the quantification cycle (Cq) values for all matrices used, with the exception of pasteurized egg white. Standard curves were constructed by using both stationary-phase cells and heat-stressed cells, with similar results. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the fate...

  12. Production, handling and characterization of particulate materials

    CERN Document Server

    Meesters, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    This edited volume presents most techniques and methods that have been developed by material scientists, chemists, chemical engineers and physicists for the commercial production of particulate materials, ranging from the millimeter to the nanometer scale.  The scope includes the physical and chemical background, experimental optimization of equipment and procedures, as well as an outlook on future methods. The books addresses  issues of industrial importance such as specifications, control parameter(s), control strategy, process models, energy consumption and discusses the various techniques in relation to potential applications. In addition to the production processes, all major unit operations and characterization methods are described in this book. It differs from other books which are devoted to a single technique or a single material. Contributors to this book are acknowledged experts in their field. The aim of the book is to facilitate comparison of the different unit operations leading to optimum...

  13. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SUPPLEMENTS INCLUSION OF THE ENRICHED DIET ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND EGG STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Trajan Gjorgovska; Kiril Filev; Vesna Levkov; Rodne Nastova; Vasil Kostov; Srekjko Gjorgjievski; Svetlana Grigorova

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional manipulation and genetic selection for egg size and production may lead to changes in egg components. This experiment was carried out to analyze the egg structure parameters of eggs produced by Hisex Brown laying hens fed with diet with different supplements inclusion. The intensity of egg production was significantly higher in the groups fed with enriched feed with iodine (90.00%), vitamin E (90.00%) and selenium (91.98%), and significantly lower in the group fed with DHA inclusi...

  14. Assessing the sustainability of egg production systems in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, E D; van Bussel, L G J; van Horne, P; van der Voet, H; van der Heijden, G W A M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2015-08-01

    Housing systems for laying hens have changed over the years due to increased public concern regarding animal welfare. In terms of sustainability, animal welfare is just one aspect that needs to be considered. Social aspects as well as environmental and economic factors need to be included as well. In this study, we assessed the sustainability of enriched cage, barn, free-range, and organic egg production systems following a predefined protocol. Indicators were selected within the social, environmental, and economic dimensions, after which parameter values and sustainability limits were set for the core indicators in order to quantify sustainability. Uncertainty in the parameter values as well as assigned weights and compensabilities of the indicators influenced the outcome of the sustainability assessment. Using equal weights for the indicators showed that, for the Dutch situation, enriched cage egg production was most sustainable, having the highest score on the environmental dimension, whereas free-range egg production gave the highest score in the social dimension (covering food safety, animal welfare, and human welfare). In the economic dimension both enriched cage egg and organic egg production had the highest sustainability score. When weights were attributed according to stakeholder outputs, individual differences were seen, but the overall scores were comparable to the sustainability scores based on equal weights. The provided method enabled a quantification of sustainability using input from stakeholders to include societal preferences in the overall assessment. Allowing for different weights and compensabilities helps policymakers in communicating with stakeholders involved and provides a weighted decision regarding future housing systems for laying hens. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. 78 FR 19182 - Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ...] Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products: Availability of..., and egg products through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). ACE is the Web- based portal for... products (21 U.S.C. 620, 466). The Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA) (21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.) prohibits...

  16. The influence of calcium and phosphorus levels on egg production, egg quality, tibia weight and 32P retention of layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardly, Y.S.; Hendratno, C.; Yuyu Wahyu

    1979-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the influence of three levels of calcium and three levels of dietary phosphorus on egg production, egg quality, tibia weight and 32 P retention of layers. Calcium levels of 3.0; 3.5 and 4.0 percent were used and phosphorus contest of the diet fed were either 0.6; 0.9 or 1.2 percent.Egg production was highest with rations containing 3.5% calcium and 0.9% phosphorus. A significant increase in egg production was found at 0.9% levels of phosphorus compared to levels of 0.6 and 1.2%. Egg quality was increased significantly (p 32 P retention was low at the highest calcium level. (author)

  17. Prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter associated with eggs and the environment of conventional cage and free range egg production

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a desired by US consumers for eggs produced by hens in alternative production systems. As the retail shell egg market offers these products to accommodate consumer demands, additional information is needed to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A stud...

  18. Egg production of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissling, Anders; Florin, Ann-Britt; Thorsen, Anders; Bergström, Ulf

    2013-11-01

    In the brackish water Baltic Sea turbot spawn at ~ 6-9 psu along the coast and on offshore banks in ICES SD 24-29, with salinity influencing the reproductive success. The potential fecundity (the stock of vitellogenic oocytes in the pre-spawning ovary), egg size (diameter and dry weight of artificially fertilized 1-day-old eggs) and gonad dry weight were assessed for fish sampled in SD 25 and SD 28. Multiple regression analysis identified somatic weight, or total length in combination with Fulton's condition factor, as main predictors of fecundity and gonad dry weight with stage of maturity (oocyte packing density or leading cohort) as an additional predictor. For egg size, somatic weight was identified as main predictor while otolith weight (proxy for age) was an additional predictor. Univariate analysis using GLM revealed significantly higher fecundity and gonad dry weight for turbot from SD 28 (3378-3474 oocytes/g somatic weight) compared to those from SD 25 (2343 oocytes/g somatic weight), with no difference in egg size (1.05 ± 0.03 mm diameter and 46.8 ± 6.5 μg dry weight; mean ± sd). The difference in egg production matched egg survival probabilities in relation to salinity conditions suggesting selection for higher fecundity as a consequence of poorer reproductive success at lower salinities. This supports the hypothesis of higher size-specific fecundity towards the limit of the distribution of a species as an adaptation to harsher environmental conditions and lower offspring survival probabilities. Within SD 28 comparisons were made between two major fishing areas targeting spawning aggregations and a marine protected area without fishing. The outcome was inconclusive and is discussed with respect to potential fishery induced effects, effects of the salinity gradient, effects of specific year-classes, and effects of maturation status of sampled fish.

  19. Egg production and egg quality in free-range laying hens housed at different outdoor stocking densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Lee, C; Hinch, G N; Roberts, J R

    2017-09-01

    Free-range laying hen systems are increasing in number within Australia. Variation in outdoor stocking densities has led to development of a national information standard on free-range egg labeling, including setting a maximum density of 10,000 hens per hectare. However, there are few data on the impacts of differing outdoor densities on production and egg quality. ISA Brown hens in small (150 hens) flocks were housed in identical indoor pens, each with access (from 21 weeks) to different sized ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities (2 replicates each: 2,000 hens/hectare (ha), 10,000 hens/ha, 20,000 hens/ha). Hen-day production was tracked from 21 through 35 weeks with eggs visually graded daily for external deformities. All eggs laid on one day were weighed each week. Eggs were collected from each pen at 25, 30, and 36 weeks and analyzed for egg quality. There were no effects of outdoor stocking density on average hen-day percentage production (P = 0.67), egg weight (P = 0.09), percentages of deformed eggs (P = 0.30), shell reflectivity (P = 0.74), shell breaking strength (P = 0.07), shell deformation (P = 0.83), or shell thickness (P = 0.24). Eggs from hens in the highest density had the highest percentage shell weight (P = 0.004) and eggs from the lowest density had the highest yolk color score (P egg quality is warranted. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SUPPLEMENTS INCLUSION OF THE ENRICHED DIET ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND EGG STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Trajan Gjorgovska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional manipulation and genetic selection for egg size and production may lead to changes in egg components. This experiment was carried out to analyze the egg structure parameters of eggs produced by Hisex Brown laying hens fed with diet with different supplements inclusion. The intensity of egg production was significantly higher in the groups fed with enriched feed with iodine (90.00%, vitamin E (90.00% and selenium (91.98%, and significantly lower in the group fed with DHA inclusion feed (76.00% in respect to the control group (82.00%, confidence interval of 95%. Concerning diet supplemented with selenium and diet supplemented with vitamin E, the egg yolk weight was statistically different compared with the control group (confidence interval of 95%. The yolk weight averaged 1.80 g and 1.29 g more than yolk weight in the control eggs, respectively. The egg shell weight was statistically different in diet enriched with iodine compared with the control. The egg shell weight averaged 1.48 g less per egg for the eggs enriched with iodine with 17.45% less underweight than the control eggs. Enriched eggs offer consumer a variety of value-added options for their egg purchase. Although enriched eggs may provide consumers with a specific quality attribute or healthful ingredient, they do not appear to provide quality and value in a traditional sense as defined by the standards of quality and grade.

  1. Effect of origin and composition of diet on ecological impact of the organic egg production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, S.E.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the potential to reduce the integral ecological impact (i.e. impact along the egg production chain per kg egg) of Dutch organic egg production by replacing currently used imported diet ingredients with Dutch diet ingredients. We realized this objective by

  2. Effect of Dietary Marine Microalgae ( Powder on Egg Production, Blood Lipid Profiles, Egg Quality, and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk in Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and sixteen Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA brown layers (40 wks of age were studied for 6 wks to examine the effect of microalgae powder (MAP on egg production, egg quality, blood lipid profile, and fatty acid concentration of egg yolk. Dietary treatments were as follows: i CON (basal diet, ii 0.5% MAP (CON+0.5% Schizochytrium powder, and iii 1.0% MAP (CON+1.0% Schizochytrium powder. From 44 to 46 wks, egg production was higher in 1.0% MAP treatment than in control treatment (linear, p = 0.034; however, there was no difference on the egg production from 40 to 43 wks (p>0.05. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly reduced in the groups fed with MAP, compared to those in groups fed with control diets (Quadratic, p = 0.034 and p = 0.039, respectively. Inclusion of 0.5% MAP in the diet of layers improved egg yolk color, compared with hens fed with basal diet at 46 wks (quadratic, p = 0.044. Eggshell thickness was linearly increased in MAP-fed treatments at 46th wk (p<0.05. Concentration of yolk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3 was increased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05. The n-6 fatty acids, n-6/n-3 fatty acid, and unsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid were decreased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05. These results suggest that MAP improved the egg production and egg quality, and may affect serum lipid metabolites in the layers. In addition, MAP increases yolk DHA levels, and deceases n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio.

  3. Sex ratios of Mountain Plovers from egg production to fledging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. Riordan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Skewed sex ratios can have negative implications for population growth if they do not match a species' life history. A skewed tertiary sex ratio has been detected in a population of Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus, a grassland shorebird experiencing population declines. To study the cause of the observed male skew, we examined three early life stages between egg and fledgling in eastern Colorado from 2010 to 2012. This allows us to distinguish between egg production and chick survival as an explanation for the observed skew. We examined the primary sex ratio in eggs produced and the secondary sex ratio in hatched chicks to see if the sex ratio bias occurs before hatching. We also determined the sex ratio at fledging to reveal sex-specific mortality of nestlings. The primary sex ratio was 1.01 (± 0.01 males per female. The secondary sex ratio consisted of 1.10 (± 0.02 males per female. The probability of a chick surviving to fledging differed between males (0.55 ± 0.13 and females (0.47 ± 0.15, but the precision of these survival estimates was low. Sex ratios in early life stages of the Mountain Plover do not explain the skewed sex ratio observed in adults in this breeding population.

  4. Microbiological Difference of Eggs From Traditional Cage and Free Range Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggs from alternative production systems are a growing market share in the US. Meeting consumer requests for greater diversity in retail egg options has resulted in some unique challenges such as understanding the food safety implications of eggs from alternative housing practices. A study was con...

  5. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk...

  6. Impacts of Limestone Multi-particle Size on Production Performance, Egg Shell Quality, and Egg Quality in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Y. Guo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of single or multi-particle size limestone on the egg shell quality, egg production, egg quality and feed intake in laying hens. A total of 280 laying hens (ISA brown were used in this 10-wk trial. Laying hens were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 14 replications per treatment and 5 adjacent cages as a replication (hens were caged individually. The experimental treatments were: i L, basal diet+10% large particle limestone; ii LS1, basal diet+8% large particle limestone+2% small particle limestone; iii LS2, basal diet+6% large particle limestone+4% small particle limestone; iv S, basal diet+10% small particle limestone. The egg production was unaffected by dietary treatments. The egg weight in S treatment was lighter than other treatments (p<0.05. The egg specific gravity in S treatment was lower than other treatments (p<0.05. The eggshell strength and eggshell thickness in S treatment were decreased when compared with other dietary treatments (p<0.05. The laying hens in LS1 and LS2 treatment had a higher average feed intake than the other two treatments (p<0.05. Collectively, the dietary multi-particle size limestone supplementation could be as efficient as large particle size limestone.

  7. EGG PRODUCTION AND HATCHABILITY OF LOCAL DUCKS UNDER SEMI INTENSIVE VS EXTENSIVE MANAGEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Widiyaningrum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the egg production and hatchability of local ducks under different management systems, namely semi-intensive and extensive. The research conducted was an experimental one-way classification with two treatments. Each treatment used 15 male and 120 females (mating ratio 1:8, and ducks aged 13-14 months. Eggs production was recorded during three weeks period. About 300 eggs were selected from each treatment to be hatched. Fertility was observed at 4th days of hatching process using egg candler. Data of eggs production, eggs weight, fertility, and hatchability were analyzed using unpaired two sample Student’s t-test. The results showed that average of egg weight, fertility and hatchability were not different under two management system, but egg production in the semi-intensive maintenance was significantly higher (P<0.05 than those in the extensive system. Egg production in the semi-intensive was 12.3% higher than those in the extensive. In conclusion, the semi-intensive system that is applied in this study the number of eggs production but did not affect the average of egg weight, fertility and hatchability.

  8. Characterization of lipids and antioxidant capacity of novel nutraceutical egg products developed with omega-3-rich oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Nissan M; Gigliotti, Joseph C; Beamer, Sarah K; Tou, Janet C; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2012-01-15

    Cardiovascular disease has had an unquestioned status of the number one cause of death in the US since 1921. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) have cardio-protective benefits. However, egg is typically a poor source of ω-3 PUFAs and, in general, the American diet is low in these cardio-protective fatty acids. Novel, nutritionally enhanced egg products were developed by substituting yolk with ω-3 PUFA-rich flaxseed, menhaden, algae, or krill oil. Experimental egg products matched composition of hen egg (whole egg). The experimental egg products, mixed whole egg, and a liquid egg product (Egg Beaters) were microwave-cooked and compared. Although fat, protein, and moisture contents of experimental egg products matched (P > 0.05) mixed whole egg, experimental egg products had more (P egg. Triglycerides were the main lipid class in all experimental egg products except those developed with krill oil, which had even more phospholipids than mixed whole egg. Analysis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances showed that lipid oxidation of experimental egg products was lower (P 0.05) to mixed whole egg, except for experimental egg products with krill oil. However, peroxide value showed that all egg samples had minimal oxidation. Experimental egg products developed with menhaden or flaxseed oil had the highest (P egg samples. However, experimental egg products with krill oil likely contained a natural antioxidant, astaxanthin. This study demonstrated an alternative approach to developing novel, nutraceutical egg products. Instead of dietary modification of chicken feed, yolk substitution with ω-3 PUFAs oils resulted in enhancement of ω-3 PUFAs beyond levels possible to achieve by modifying chicken feed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Environmental impacts and sustainability of egg production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, H; Gates, R S; Green, A R; Mitloehner, F M; Moore, P A; Wathes, C M

    2011-01-01

    As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified topics requiring further research. Currently, we know that 1) high-rise cage houses generally have poorer air quality and emit more ammonia than manure belt (MB) cage houses; 2) manure removal frequency in MB houses greatly affects ammonia emissions; 3) emissions from manure storage are largely affected by storage conditions, including ventilation rate, manure moisture content, air temperature, and stacking profile; 4) more baseline data on air emissions from high-rise and MB houses are being collected in the United States to complement earlier measurements; 5) noncage houses generally have poorer air quality (ammonia and dust levels) than cage houses; 6) noncage houses tend to be colder during cold weather due to a lower stocking density than caged houses, leading to greater feed and fuel energy use; 7) hens in noncage houses are less efficient in resource (feed, energy, and land) utilization, leading to a greater carbon footprint; 8) excessive application of hen manure to cropland can lead to nutrient runoff to water bodies; 9) hen manure on open (free) range may be subject to runoff during rainfall, although quantitative data are lacking; 10) mitigation technologies exist to reduce generation and emission of noxious gases and dust; however, work is needed to evaluate their economic feasibility and optimize design; and 11) dietary modification shows promise for mitigating emissions. Further research is needed on 1) indoor air quality, barn emissions, thermal conditions, and energy use in alternative hen housing systems (1-story floor, aviary, and enriched cage systems), along with conventional housing systems under different production conditions; 2) environmental footprint for different US egg production systems through life cycle assessment; 3) practical means to mitigate air

  10. Inactivation of low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus following pasteurization in liquid egg products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty seven million cases of shell eggs produced per year in the U.S. are processed as liquid egg product. The U.S. also exports a large amount of egg products. Although the U.S. is normally free of avian influenza, concern about contamination of egg product with these viruses has in the past result...

  11. Copepod egg production, moulting and growth rates and secondary production in the Skagerrak in August 1988

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, W.T.; Tiselius, P.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of hydrography, chlorophyll, moulting rates of juvenile copepods and egg production rates of adult female copepods were made at eight stations along a transect across the Skagerrak. The goals of the study were to determine (i) if there were correlations between spatial variations...... in hydrography, phytoplankton and copepod production rates, (ii) if copepod egg production rates were correlated with juvenile growth rates, and (iii) if there was evidence of food-niche separation among co-occurring female copepods. The 200 km wide Skagerrak had a stratified water column in the center...... is similar to maximum rates known from laboratory studies, thus were probably not food-limited. Egg production rates were food-limited with the degree of limitation varying among species: 75% of maximum for Centropages typicus, 50% for Calanus finmarchicus, 30% for Paracalanus parvus and 15% for Acartia...

  12. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g. Egg white weight was calculated. The thickness and strength of the egg shell were measured from the dried samples at 55 °C. From each egg shell were cut 3 pcs of samples in the equatorial plane, one sample from the blunt end and one sample from the sharp end. Egg shell thickness was measured by test instrument SOME, type 60/0.01mm with a range of 0 - 10 mm. Egg shell strength was measured according to test instrument Instron with the small body, having a diameter 4.48 mm to exert pressure on the egg shell. The obtained data were assessed in the program system SAS, version 8.2. Based on the results observed in egg weight of our experiment we can conclude that in the group with share 5% of rape cakes was non-statistically significant (p >0.05 decreased egg weight compared to the control group. Egg weight was reduced in the group with share 10% of rape cakes, which confirmed a statistically significant difference compared to egg weight of control group (p ˂0.05. The differences among experimental groups with share 5% and 10% of rape cakes in feed mixture and as well as to control group were not statistically significant (p >0.05 in weight of egg yolk, egg white, egg shell and egg shell strength. Egg shell thickness was no statistically significant (p >0.05 increased in experimental group with share 5% of rape cakes and decreased in experimental group with share 10% of rape cakes versus control group. Increase of egg shell thickness in experimental group with

  13. Effects of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of individual commercial layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, M Y; Song, E; Billard, L; Aggrey, S E; Pesti, G M; Sodsee, P

    2013-10-01

    The effects of a series of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of laying hens from 18 through 74 wk of age were investigated. One hundred forty-four pullets (Bovans) were randomly assigned to individual cages with separate feeders including 3 different protein level series of isocaloric diets. Diets were separated into 4 phases of 18-22, 23-32, 33-44, and 45-74 wk of age. The high protein (H) series contained 21.62, 19.05, 16.32, and 16.05% CP, respectively. Medium protein (M) and low protein (L) series were 2 and 4% lower in balanced dietary protein. The results clearly demonstrated that the balanced dietary protein level was a limiting factor for BW, ADFI, egg weight, hen day egg production (HDEP), and feed per kilogram of eggs. Feeding with the L series resulted in lower ADFI and HDEP (90.33% peak production) and more feed per kilogram of eggs compared with the H or M series (HDEP; 93.23 and 95.68% peak production, monthly basis). Egg weight responded in a linear manner to balanced dietary protein level (58.78, 55.94, and 52.73 g for H, M, and L, respectively). Feed intake of all hens, but especially those in the L series, increased considerably after wk 54 when the temperature of the house decreased due to winter conditions. Thus, hens fed the L series seemed particularly dependent on house temperature to maintain BW, ADFI, and HDEP. For egg quality parameters, percent yolk, Haugh units, and egg specific gravity were similar regardless of diets. Haugh units were found to be greatly affected by the variation of housing temperature (P = 0.025). Maximum performance cannot always be expected to lead to maximum profits. Contrary to the idea of a daily amino acid requirement for maximum performance, these results may be used to determine profit-maximizing levels of balanced dietary protein based on the cost of protein and returns from different possible protein levels that may be fed.

  14. Effect of superdosing phytase on productive performance and egg quality in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hyuk Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of superdosing phytase on productive performance and egg quality in laying hens. Methods A total of 200 42-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were allotted into 1 of 5 dietary treatments with 5 replicates consisting of 8 hens per replicate. The positive control (PC and negative control diets (NC were prepared based on the recommended P levels in layer diets. Supplemental phytase was added to the negative control diet at 10,000 (SD10, 20,000 (SD20, or 30,000 (SD30 fytase units (FTU/kg. Productive performance was summarized for 6 weeks from 42 weeks to 47 weeks of age. Egg quality was assessed from 4 eggs per replicate randomly collected at the conclusion of the experiment. Results The SD20 treatment had greater (p<0.05 hen-day egg production than PC, NC, and SD10 treatment groups. There was no difference in hen-day egg production between SD20 and SD30 treatment groups. However, SD30 treatment had greater (p<0.05 hen-day egg production than PC treatment, but showed no difference in hen-day egg production as compared to NC and SD10 treatment groups. However, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were not affected by dietary treatments. Egg quality including eggshell strength, eggshell color, egg yolk color, and haugh unit was not influenced by dietary treatments. Conclusion Superdosing level of 20,000 FTU/kg phytase in diets has a positive effect on egg production rate, but no beneficial effect on egg quality in laying hens.

  15. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  16. Effect of basic alkali-pickling conditions on the production of lysinoalanine in preserved eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Luo, Xuying; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Tu, Yonggang

    2015-09-01

    During the pickling process, strong alkali causes significant lysinoalanine (LAL) formation in preserved eggs, which may reduce the nutritional value of the proteins and result in a potential hazard to human health. In this study, the impacts of the alkali treatment conditions on the production of LAL in preserved eggs were investigated. Preserved eggs were prepared using different times and temperatures, and alkali-pickling solutions with different types and concentrations of alkali and metal salts, and the corresponding LAL contents were measured. The results showed the following: during the pickling period of the preserved egg, the content of LAL in the egg white first rapidly increased and then slowly increased; the content of LAL in the egg yolk continued to increase significantly. During the aging period, the levels of LAL in both egg white and egg yolk slowly increased. The amounts of LAL in the preserved eggs were not significantly different at temperatures between 20 and 25ºC. At higher pickling temperatures, the LAL content in the preserved eggs increased. With the increase of alkali concentration in the alkali-pickling solution, the LAL content in the egg white and egg yolk showed an overall trend of an initial increase followed by a slight decrease. The content of LAL produced in preserved eggs treated with KOH was lower than in those treated with NaOH. NaCl and KCl produced no significant effects on the production of LAL in the preserved eggs. With increasing amounts of heavy metal salts, the LAL content in the preserved eggs first decreased and then increased. The LAL content generated in the CuSO4 group was lower than that in either the ZnSO4 or PbO groups. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Egg production, growth and development of the cyclopoid copepod Oithona similis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabatini, Marina; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Egg production, growth and development rates of Oithona similis were measured in the laboratory as a function of food concentration and composition. On an optimum diet, development is isochronal and growth is near exponential. The maximum juvenile growth rate at 15 degree C (0.2 day-1) is similar...... to juvenile growth in calanoid copepods. The maximum weight-specific egg production rate (0.1 day-1), on the other hand, is substantially less than in free-spawning calanoids, but similar to that in egg-carrying calanoids. In the Kattegat, Oithona spp. egg production is strongly limited by food during summer...

  18. Resting egg production induced by food limitation in the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Hansen, Benni W.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Three populations of the copepod Acartia tonsa, two from the Baltic Sea and one from the U.S. East Coast, were compared for resting egg production at conditions of saturating and limiting food availability. All three populations produced eggs that hatched within 72 h when incubated at 17°C...... (subitaneous eggs), but the two Baltic populations in addition produced eggs that hatched at a much slower rate, in the course of a month (delayed hatching eggs [DHE]). Such eggs were not produced by the U.S. population. The fraction of DHE increased when food was limiting. Females from a Baltic population...... that were incubated individually all produced subitaneous eggs, but about half the females consistently also produced DHE. Cold storage that mimicked boreal winter conditions synchronized the hatching of DHE after extended storage, indicating that spring hatching of DHE might seed the water column...

  19. Radioisotope handling facilities and automation of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    If a survey is made of the advances in radioisotope handling facilities, as well as the technical conditions and equipment used for radioisotope production, it can be observed that no fundamental changes in the design principles and technical conditions of conventional manufacture have happened over the last several years. Recent developments are mainly based on previous experience aimed at providing safer and more reliable operations, more sophisticated maintenance technology and radioactive waste disposal. In addition to the above observation, significant improvements have been made in the production conditions of radioisotopes intended for medical use, by establishing aseptic conditions with clean areas and isolators, as well as by introducing quality assurance as governing principle in the production of pharmaceutical grade radioactive products. Requirements of the good manufacturing practice (GMP) are increasingly complied with by improving the technical and organizational conditions, as well as data registration and documentation. Technical conditions required for the aseptic production of pharmaceuticals and those required for radioactive materials conflicting in some aspects are because of the contrasting contamination mechanisms and due consideration of the radiation safety. These can be resolved by combining protection methods developed for pharmaceuticals and radioactive materials, with the necessary compromise in some cases. Automation serves to decrease the radiation dose to the operator and environment as well as to ensure more reliable and precise radiochemical processing. Automation has mainly been introduced in the production of sealed sources and PET radiopharmaceuticals. PC controlled technologies ensure high reliability for the production and product quality, whilst providing automatic data acquisition and registration required by quality assurance. PC control is also useful in the operation of measuring instruments and in devices used for

  20. Moulting patterns of Alabio and Mojosari ducks and their relation on blood lipids (tryglycerides, egg production and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Moulting is a biological condition that can happen in poultry. It is resulted from the complex interaction which involves the function of thyroxine hormone. Moulting can reduce or even stop the egg production. A study was conducted to observe the moulting patterns of local ducks (Alabio and Mojosari and to determine the relation of moulting with blood lipids (triglycerides, egg production and quality. Each breed consisted of ten female dukcs were observed for moulting pattern, blood triglycerides, egg production and quality. Fourty ducks were used for simulation of egg production. Data from moulting patterns,egg production and quality were analyzed using t-based on Least Square means with Statistical Analysis System. The relation of breeds and moulting patterns with triglycerides were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA for a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 2x2. The main factor was kind of breeds, while the subfactor was the period of moulting, before and during moulting. There were not interaction in every variables between both factors. The average moulting periode of Alabio was significantly (P<0.05 shorter than that of Mojosari (69 vs 76 days. There were 40% of Alabio ducks moulting for 61-70 days, while 40% of Mojosari ducks moulting for 71-80 days. Egg production of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were higher than those Mojosari ducks. The triglycerides content of Alabio and Mojosari ducks was decreased during moulting, in Alabio ducks they were 32.02 and 27.64 μg/ml before and during moulting, while in Mojosari ducks they were 32.83 and 29.32 μg/ml respectively. Egg weight, albumin weight, yolk weight, and haugh unit of the two breeds increased after moulting, while yolk colour decreased. The average yolk colour of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were 6.90 and 5.11, while in Mojosari ducks they were 7.90 and 4.60 respectively.

  1. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-19

    Eggs are one of nature's most nutritious and economical foods, but you must take special care when handling and preparing fresh eggs and egg products to avoid food poisoning.  Created: 8/19/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases (NCEZID/DFWED).   Date Released: 8/19/2010.

  2. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) : production, storage and handling. 7. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalra, S; Jaron, K; Adragna, M; Coyle, S; Foley, C; Hawryn, S; Martin, A; McConnell, J [eds.

    2003-07-01

    This Canadian Standard on the production, storage and handling of liquefied natural gas (LNG) was prepared by the Technical Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas under the jurisdiction of the Steering Committee on Oil and Gas Industry Systems and Materials. It establishes the necessary requirements for the design, installation and safe operation of LNG facilities. The Standard applies to the design, location, construction, operation and maintenance of facilities at any location of the liquefaction of natural gas and for the storage, vaporization, transfer, handling and truck transport of LNG. The training of personnel involved is also included as well as containers for LNG storage, including insulated vacuum systems. It includes non-mandatory guidelines for small LNG facilities but does not apply to the transportation of refrigerants, LNG by rail, marine vessel or pipeline. This latest edition contains changes in working of seismic design requirements and minor editorial changes to several clauses to bring the Standard closer to the US National Fire Protection Association's Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas Standard while maintaining Canadian regulatory requirements. The document is divided into 12 sections including: general requirements; plant site provisions; process equipment; stationary LNG storage containers; vaporization facilities; piping system and components; instrumentation and electrical services; transfer of LNG and refrigerants; fire protection, safety and security; and, operating, maintenance and personnel training. This Standard, like all Canadian Standards, was subject to periodic review and was most recently reaffirmed in 2003. 6 tabs., 6 figs., 3 apps.

  3. Efficacy of Several Pesticide Products on Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) Egg Sacs and Their Penetration Through the Egg Sac Silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Tarango, Jacob; Campbell, Kathleen A; Tham, Christine; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Information on pesticide effects on spiders is less common than for insects; similar information for spider egg sacs is scarcer in the open literature. Spider egg sacs are typically covered with a protective silk layer. When pesticides are directly applied to egg sacs, the silk might prevent active ingredients from reaching the eggs, blocking their insecticidal effect. We investigated the impact of six water-based pesticide sprays and four oil-based aerosol products against egg sacs of brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch. All water-based spray products except one failed to provide significant mortality to egg sacs, resulting in successful spiderling emergence from treated egg sacs at a similar rate to untreated egg sacs. In contrast to water-based sprays, oil-based aerosols provided almost complete control, with 94-100% prevention of spiderling emergence. Penetration studies using colored pesticide products indicated that oil-based aerosols were significantly more effective in penetrating egg sac silk than were the water-based sprays, delivering the active ingredients on most (>99%) of the eggs inside the sac. The ability of pesticides to penetrate spider egg sac silk and deliver lethal doses of active ingredients to the eggs is discussed in relation to the chemical nature of egg sac silk proteins. Our study suggests that pest management procedures primarily relying on perimeter application of water-based sprays might not provide satisfactory control of brown widow spider eggs. Determination of the most effective active ingredients and carrier characteristics warrant further research to provide more effective control options for spider egg sacs. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Microbiology of Shell Egg Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant proportion of human illnesses caused by Salmonella are linked to the consumption of contaminated eggs. Substantial government and industry resources have been committed to comprehensive Salmonella testing and risk reduction programs for commercial egg-laying flocks. The implementation ...

  5. Innovation for sustainable egg production: realigning production with societal demands in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, S.F.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Bos, A.P.; Elzen, B.; Leenstra, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an innovation trajectory for sustainability in egg production in The Netherlands in the period 2002-2012. In the approach as well as in the analyses, insights from scientific disciplines that have studied transformations towards sustainability were adopted. Central stage is the

  6. Bakery products from irradiated and unirradiated eggs - detection of irradiation in a processed food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfordt, J.; Grabowski, H.U. von

    1995-01-01

    The detection of radiation-specific degradation products in fat has become an established method which has successfully been applied to egg products. This study is making evident the detectability of irradiated eggs as an ingredient of specified processed foods. Tart layers were produced from both irradiated and non-irradiated liquid whole egg. When the fat components were isolated from the tart layers and investigated by GC/MS, the presence of irradiated eggs could clearly be shown. While the radiation-induced hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones could not be found in unirradiated samples, tart layers from irradiated eggs contained these substances. Especially for the hydrocarbons a satisfying correlation between radiation dose and concentration could be observed. The concentrations of radiation-induced compounds were generally lower in the tart layers than in the liquid egg samples they had been produced from. (orig.) [de

  7. Genetic analyses of partial egg production in Japanese quail using multi-trait random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, K; Zerehdaran, S; Barzanooni, B; Lotfi, E

    2017-12-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for average egg weight (EW) and egg number (EN) at different ages in Japanese quail using multi-trait random regression (MTRR) models. 2. A total of 8534 records from 900 quail, hatched between 2014 and 2015, were used in the study. Average weekly egg weights and egg numbers were measured from second until sixth week of egg production. 3. Nine random regression models were compared to identify the best order of the Legendre polynomials (LP). The most optimal model was identified by the Bayesian Information Criterion. A model with second order of LP for fixed effects, second order of LP for additive genetic effects and third order of LP for permanent environmental effects (MTRR23) was found to be the best. 4. According to the MTRR23 model, direct heritability for EW increased from 0.26 in the second week to 0.53 in the sixth week of egg production, whereas the ratio of permanent environment to phenotypic variance decreased from 0.48 to 0.1. Direct heritability for EN was low, whereas the ratio of permanent environment to phenotypic variance decreased from 0.57 to 0.15 during the production period. 5. For each trait, estimated genetic correlations among weeks of egg production were high (from 0.85 to 0.98). Genetic correlations between EW and EN were low and negative for the first two weeks, but they were low and positive for the rest of the egg production period. 6. In conclusion, random regression models can be used effectively for analysing egg production traits in Japanese quail. Response to selection for increased egg weight would be higher at older ages because of its higher heritability and such a breeding program would have no negative genetic impact on egg production.

  8. Egg detection and control of tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae) in powdered stored food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotse, Raphael Djoe Nuseli

    2017-07-01

    For safety and shelf-stability of powdered food products, it is important to detect and deal with any infestation during processing. The focus of this study was to detect the presence of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleopera: Tenebionidae) eggs in powdered food products, and where present, kill them using gamma irradiation. The study was carried out at the Radiation Entomology and Pest management Centre (REPMC), Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. Basic reproductive biology of T. castaneum in four different powdered food media (Wheat flour, Roasted corn powder, also known as ‘Tombrown’ powder, Cocoa powder and Fish powder) was studied. Seven (7) different stains (Bromocresol green, Malachite green, Carbol fuchsin, Basic fuchsin, Orange ‘G”, Gentian Violet and Crystal Violet) were evaluated for their ability to differentially stain T. castaneum eggs and background food particles using the American Association of Cereal Chemist, AACC (2000) staining technique. To control any egg infestation, the effect of gamma irradiation at 200Gy on egg hatchability was evaluated. Results indicate that egg production by T. casteneum within a three day period on Wheat flour, Cocoa powder and Tombrown was not significantly different but was significantly lower on fish powder (P = 0.255). Hatchability of T. castaneum eggs in the four food media was not significantly different (P = 0.046). Gamma irradiation at 200Gy was effective in controlling egg infestation by inhibiting hatchability. Bromocresol green and Malachite green differentially stained the eggs in all the four food products. The protocols for Bromocresol green and Malachite green are effective for detection of T. castaneum eggs in powdered foods and can be incorporated into production processes. Where insect eggs are detected and none of the processing steps can eliminate them, irradiation of the packaged products at 200Gy will kill any eggs and maintain the wholesomeness and safety of the product on the shelf

  9. Chasing Salmonella Typhimurium in free range egg production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chousalkar, Kapil; Gole, Vaibhav; Caraguel, Charles; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2016-08-30

    Free range production systems are becoming a major source of egg production in Australia and worldwide. This study investigated shedding and ecology of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella species in a free range layer flock, wild birds and foxes in the vicinity of the free range farm in different seasons. Shedding of Salmonella was significantly higher in summer. Within the shed, overall, Salmonella prevalence was highest in dust. Corticosterone level in faeces was highest in spring and lowest in winter. There was no direct association between the Salmonella shedding (MPN/gm) and corticosterone levels in faeces. Salmonella Typhimurium MLVA types isolated from fox and wild birds were similar to MLVA types isolated from layer flock and reported during human food borne illness. Wild birds and foxes appear to play an important role in S. Typhimurium ecology and food safety. Environmental factors could play a role in evolution of S. Typhimurium in free range environment. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of dietary calcium iodate on productive performance, egg quality and iodine accumulation in eggs of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshalinejad, R; Hassanabadi, A; Nassiri-Moghaddam, H; Zarghi, H

    2018-01-25

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of various levels of supplemental calcium iodate (CI) on productive performance, egg quality, blood indices and iodine (I) accumulation in the eggs in commercial laying hens. A total of 240 White Leghorn layers (Hy-line W36) were divided through a completely randomized design into six treatments with five replicates and eight hens per each at 32 weeks of age. This experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Concentrations of I in the mash diets were 0.74, 3.13, 5.57, 8.11, 10.65 and 12.94 mg I/kg of feed in treatments 1-6 respectively. The added doses of CI were included 0.0 (control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 mg/kg of diet for treatments 1-6 respectively. There were no significant differences in productive performance among the treatments. The highest eggshell strength was observed in group fed diet containing 3.13 mg I/kg (p = .014). The highest percentage of calcium and lowest percentage of phosphorus in eggshell were observed in group fed diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg (p = .0001). Feeding hens with diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg increased serum triiodothyronine-to-thyroxine ratio (p = .0001). Serum alanine aminotransferase activity in hens fed diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg was significantly more than control (p = .041). Blood Serum triglycerides in hens fed diet containing 8.11 mg I/kg were significantly higher than control (p = .0001). Edible fraction of the eggs of birds fed diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg was enriched by I almost 3 times more than those fed diet containing 0.74 mg I/kg. The results suggested that egg production, egg mass, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not significantly affected by dietary I levels. Iodine accumulation in the eggs were increased by increasing dietary I levels and the level of 10 mg/kg CI could supply I enrichment of the eggs. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøj, M; Steenfeldt, S

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and β-carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange xanthophyll, tended to be higher in kale and eggs from hens receiving kale. 5. In conclusion, forage material, especially basil and kale, resulted in increased egg production and eggs of high and differentiable quality.

  12. Effect of diatomaceous earth on parasite load, egg production, and egg quality of free-range organic laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D C; Yee, A; Rhee, Y-J; Cheng, K M

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of diatomaceous earth (DE) as a treatment against parasites and to increase feed efficiency and egg production of organically raised free-range layer hens was evaluated in 2 breeds of commercial egg layers [Bovan Brown (BB) and Lowmann Brown (LB)] that differ in their resistance to internal parasitic infections. Half the hens of each breed were fed diets supplemented with DE (2%). Their internal parasite loads were assessed by biweekly fecal egg counts (FEC) and by postmortem examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Supplementing DE in diets of LB hens, the more parasite-resistant breed, did not significantly affect their FEC and adult parasite load. However, BB hens treated with dietary DE had significantly lower Capillaria FEC, slightly lower Eimeria FEC, fewer birds infected with Heterakis, and significantly lower Heterakis worm burden than control BB hens. Both BB and LB hens fed the diet containing DE were significantly heavier, laid more eggs, and consumed more feed than hens fed the control diet, but feed efficiency did not differ between the 2 dietary treatments. Additionally, BB hens consuming the DE diet laid larger eggs containing more albumen and yolk than hens consuming the control diet. In a subsequent experiment, the effectiveness of DE to treat a Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation was tested. Relative to controls, both breeds of hens that were dusted with DE had reduced number of mites. The results of this study indicate the DE has the potential to be an effective treatment to help control parasites and improve production of organically raised, free-range layer hens.

  13. Propagation of planktonic copepods: production and mortality of eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, Flemming; Tiselius, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Data on fecundity and egg mortality of neritic copepods were collected in various seasons, areas and under various hydrographical conditions. On a seasonal basis variations in fecundity (F) were related to temperature rather than to the abundance of phytoplankton (P). However, a strong correlation...... between F and P was evident when water column stability varied horisontally or temporally (i.e. at a tidal front or subsequent to a storm). Estimated specific egg-mortalities were variable and occasionally very severe, up to 9.1 d−1, implying that down to 10−4% of the eggs survive to hatching...

  14. Sustainability of egg production in the United States--the policy and market context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mench, J A; Sumner, D A; Rosen-Molina, J T

    2011-01-01

    The US egg industry is being pressured from many directions to change its production practices, particularly to address concerns about hen welfare in conventional cage systems. Responding to similar pressures, in 1999, the European Union banned conventional laying cages starting in 2012. This now impending European ban has led to the development of several alternative housing systems. These include noncage systems like aviaries and modified (enriched or furnished) cages that include perches, areas in which the hens can forage and dustbathe, and nests. Understanding the European experience is valuable as the United States considers the future direction of the egg industry. In the United States, the proportion of eggs produced in alternative systems is small (less than 5% of output) but growing, in part due to market and political incentives for systems that provide hens with more behavioral freedom than conventional cages. Animal welfare, however, is only one element of a sustainable production system. Other elements include those related to public values, the environment, economics, worker health, and food safety and quality. Eggs are a primary source of animal protein globally, and the United States is the third largest producer of eggs in the world, behind China and the European Union. The national table egg flock comprises about 280 million hens housed in all regions but with approximately 60% of eggs produced in the 10 leading states. Adopting new housing systems will have substantial effects on costs and other aspects of egg production on both a regional and national scale, with some positive effects but also potential negative effects that need to be carefully considered. This paper discusses the US egg industry in the context of legislation and standards related to hen housing systems. It also addresses initiatives by retailers, nongovernmental organizations, and private certification organizations to shape production practices in the egg industry as well as

  15. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.115 Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the domestic...

  16. Egg Production Potentials of Muscovy Ducks ( Cairina moschata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ducks in intensive management systems came into lay significantly (P<0.05) earlier, (IO, 203 days and IW, 207 days) than ducks in semi-intensive management system (248 days). Eggs from ducks in IO and IW were significantly (P<0.05) heavier (76.35 and 76.27g, respectively) than eggs from those in SI. Clutch sizes were ...

  17. Body size and the timing of egg production in parasitoid wasps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellers, J.; Jervis, M.

    2003-01-01

    In insects several key fitness-related variables are positively correlated with intraspecific variation in body size, but little is known about size-related variation in the timing of egg production within species. Female insects are known to vary in the degree to which they concentrate egg

  18. The costs of egg production and incubation in great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.; Lessells, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The costs of egg production and incubation may have a crucial effect on avian reproductive decisions, such as clutch size and the timing of reproduction. We carried out a brood-size enlargement experiment on the great tit (Parus major), in which the birds had to lay and incubate extra eggs (full

  19. Economic and market issues on the sustainability of egg production in the United States: analysis of alternative production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, D A; Gow, H; Hayes, D; Matthews, W; Norwood, B; Rosen-Molina, J T; Thurman, W

    2011-01-01

    Conventional cage housing for laying hens evolved as a cost-effective egg production system. Complying with mandated hen housing alternatives would raise marginal production costs and require sizable capital investment. California data indicate that shifts from conventional cages to barn housing would likely cause farm-level cost increases of about 40% per dozen. The US data on production costs of such alternatives as furnished cages are not readily available and European data are not applicable to the US industry structure. Economic analysis relies on key facts about production and marketing of conventional and noncage eggs. Even if mandated by government or buyers, shifts to alternative housing would likely occur with lead times of at least 5 yr. Therefore, egg producers and input suppliers would have considerable time to plan new systems and build new facilities. Relatively few US consumers now pay the high retail premiums required for nonconventional eggs from hens housed in alternative systems. However, data from consumer experiments indicate that additional consumers would also be willing to pay some premium. Nonetheless, current data do not allow easy extrapolation to understand the willingness to pay for such eggs by the vast majority of conventional egg consumers. Egg consumption in the United States tends to be relatively unresponsive to price changes, such that sustained farm price increases of 40% would likely reduce consumption by less than 10%. This combination of facts and relationships suggests that, unless low-cost imports grew rapidly, requirements for higher cost hen housing systems would raise US egg prices considerably while reducing egg consumption marginally. Eggs are a low-cost source of animal protein and low-income consumers would be hardest hit. However, because egg expenditures are a very small share of the consumer budget, real income loss for consumers would be small in percentage terms. Finally, the high egg prices imposed by

  20. Production and deformation of Clonorchis sinensis eggs during in vitro maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Hafiz Uddin

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis is a carcinogenic human liver fluke. The present study monitored eggs produced by long-term maintained adult worms of C. sinensis to confirm their egg productivity in vitro. The worms from infected rabbits were incubated in vitro in 1× Locke's solution and broth media (RPMI-1640, DMEM and IMDM. Numbers of expelled eggs were counted sequentially and their morphological changes were monitored by microscopy after 1, 30, 60, and 90 days of cultivation. On the 1-3 days of cultivation, the eggs counted maximum 4,756±202 eggs/worm/day in IMDM medium. The number of eggs gradually decreased less than 1,000 at 7-14 days and below 100 at 21days but continued to pass eggs after 56 days in all media. Length of the eggs were reduced about 1 µm at 30 days, and the length/width ratio was maintained around 1.8 at 30 days but decreased to 1.7 at 60 days and 1.5 at 90 days. Faust-Meleney index (FMI decreased as the cultivation duration increased and lowest FMI (5662.9±974.7 observed in IMDM media at day 90 (P = 0.001. Microscopic findings of the eggs recognized the miracidium in most of eggs at 60 days but not in those at 90 days. Instead, the eggs contained dark granules or vacuoles in the deformed shell at 90 days. Scanning electron microscopy revealed partial loss of wrinkles on the deformed egg surface and prominent abopercular knob. Eggs viability decreased as the cultivation progressed and showed significant positive correlation with FMI and length/width ratio. In conclusion, the cultivated worms pass only the eggs which are preformed in their uterus before cultivation. One gravid C. sinensis contains about 37,000 eggs in its uterus and produces about 4,000 eggs every day. The deformed eggs with FMI less than 7,000 and length/width ratio lower than 1.7 are non-viable.

  1. The Effect of Calcium and Available Phosphorus Levels on Performance, Egg Quality and Bone Characteristics of Japanese Quails at End of the Egg-Production Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLN Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Calcium (Ca and available phosphorus (avP requirements for egg production are different between the beginning and the end of the egg-production cycle. The objective of this study was to estimate the Ca and avP requirements of Japanese quails at end of the production phase. In total, 256 Japanese quails with 48 weeks of age were randomly distributed in 2 x 2 factorial arrangement consisting of two Ca levels (29 and 38 g/kg and two avP levels (1.5 and 3.0 g/kg, totaling four treatments with eight replicates of eight hens each. The variables evaluated were feed intake (FI; egg production (EP; marketable egg production (MEP; egg weight (EW; egg mass (EM; feed conversion ratio per egg mass (FCRM; feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs (FCRD; livability (L; yolk weight (YW, albumen weight (AW, eggshell weight (SW; yolk percentage (YP, albumen percentage (AP, eggshell percentage (SP, specific egg weight (SEW; bone calcium percentage (BCa, bone phosphorus percentage (BP, bone ash weight (Bash and bone ash percentage (PBash. There was no interaction between Ca and avP levels for any of the evaluated parameters, except for SEW. Quail performance was not influenced by the treatments, except for MEP. Bone characteristics were not influenced by the tested dietary Ca and avP levels. However, SW and SP increased and AP decreased as dietary Ca level increased. The dietary supplementation of 38 g Ca/kg and 3.0 g avP/kg may increase marketable egg production and the egg quality of Japanese quails at end of the production cycle.

  2. Effect of Dietary Sodium Nitrate Consumption on Egg Production, Egg Quality Characteristics and Some Blood Indices in Native Hens of West Azarbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Safary

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitrate consumption on egg quality and quantity, and some blood parameters of native breeder hens of West Azerbaijan province. One hundred native hens were used from wk 25 to 32 of age. These birds were divided into two groups. One group was fed the control diet (CD but the other fed the same diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg sodium nitrate (ND. After 2 wks of adaptation, eggs were collected daily and egg mass and egg production were measured weekly for five weeks. To assess the egg quality parameters, two eggs from each replicate pen were collected for three consecutive days each week. At the end of experimental period (wk 32 of age, blood samples of 5 birds per replicate were collected from the wing vein into anticoagulant tubes. Dietary sodium nitrate didn’t affect the egg production, shell stiffness, shell thickness and Haugh unit (p>0.05 but it decreased the both egg production and egg mass during the last three weeks (wks 30, 31 and 32 (p0.05. No effect of time or treatment×time were observed for shell stiffness (p>0.05. Over time, shell thickness was decreased while Haugh unit increased (p0.05. Sodium nitrite decreased both the TAC and TC at wk 32 of age (p<0.001. It was concluded that the lower body antioxidant capacity of nitrate fed birds resulted in the lower performance (egg weight, egg production and egg mass.

  3. Identification of irradiated pasteurized egg products: a combined method to use in routine control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helle, N.; Schulzki, G.; Linke, B.; Spiegelberg, A.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A.; Grabowski, H.U. v.; Pfordt, J.; Mauermann, U.; Juelicher, S.; Bischoff, C.; Vater, N.; Heitmann, M.

    1993-01-01

    Pasteurized egg products (whole egg, egg yolk and egg white) were tested for irradiation treatment in the German food control laboratories in Oldenburg/Niedersachsen and Kassel/Hessen as well as in the food irradiation laboratory of the German federal health office. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric measurements on the fat components of egg-products showed clearly whether the product had been irradiated or not. While in unirradiated samples no traces of special hydrocarbons (according to the fatty acid composition of egg) and no traces of the irradiation-specific compound 2-Dodecyl-cyclobutanone were found, irradiated control samples as well as products of two belgian suppliers contained these substances. Additionally, regarding the rather high time consumption of gas chromatography, electron spin resonance (ESR)-measurements were carried out on the packaging material of egg products. Irradiated packaging material (cellulose) could be easily detected by the appearance of a signal pair in the ESR spectrum (cellulose radical). ESR measurements are very fast and easy to perform so that this method can be used for screening. Microbiological investigations showed remarkably reduced total numbers of microorganisms for some irradiated samples, but the microbiological status is influenced by other factors like storage-time and -temperature, so that microbiological tests can not be used successfully for screening on irradiation treatment [de

  4. Effects of the tricothecene mycotoxin diacetoxyscirpenol on egg production of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, J; Hamilton, P B; Kittrell, R S

    2002-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) on egg quality and egg production of broiler breeders. In Experiment 1, feed containing 0, 1.25, 2.5, or 5.0 mg DAS/ kg was fed from 67 to 69 wk of age followed by a 3-wk recovery period on a slat-litter floor. In Experiment 2, individually caged broiler breeder females were studied from 23 to 31 wk of age. The basal diet containing 0, 5, 10, or 20 mg DAS/kg was fed from 25 to 27 wk of age. In Experiment 3, individually caged broiler breeder hens were studied from 23 to 32 wk of age. DAS was fed at levels of 0 (basal), 5, 10, and 20 mg DAS/kg for 2 wk beginning at Week 24, followed by the basal breeder diet for 7 wk. Egg production was not affected by levels of up to 5 mg DAS/kg in the older hens of Experiment 1. When fed from 25 to 27 wk of age in Experiment 2, DAS decreased egg production at the 20 mg/kg level only. When fed from 24 to 25 wk of age in Experiment 3, DAS had no significant effect on egg production or egg quality. Short-term consumption of DAS at levels that might naturally occur appears to have little effect on broiler breeder egg production.

  5. Effect of production system and flock age on eggshell and egg internal quality measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, Sami; Omar, Amal Saleh; Roberts, Juliet; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality was measured in eggs from different flocks that were reared together and then allocated to different production systems. Eggs were processed for measurements of eggshell and egg internal quality variables, scoring of ultrastructural mammillary layer features, completeness of cuticle cover, and protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) quantification. There was a significant main effect (P egg weight, and egg internal quality and significant effects of flock age on most measurements. The mammillary layer ultrastructural variables showed no clear relationship with production system and flock age. However, there was a significant interaction between production system and flock age for mammillary cap, early and late fusions. Cuticle cover ([Formula: see text]), was significantly higher in barn eggs (19.20), followed by free range (17.57), and cage eggs (15.99). Completeness of cuticle cover was significantly higher in eggs from the 44 week old flock than for 64 week and 73 week old flocks. For eggshells with cuticle intact, there was a significant main effect of both production system and flock age, and significant interaction between the two, for shell reflectivity, L*a*b* values and amount of PP IX. For PP IX, when this difference was calculated for the cuticle alone, there were no statistically significant differences. In 1 g of shell with and without cuticle, there was more PP IX in cage eggs (9.49 × 10 -8 , 7.90 × 10 -8  mM) followed by free range (8.24 × 10 -8 , 6.90 × 10 -8  mM), and barn eggs (8.64 × 10 -8 , 7.28 × 10 -8  mM). Similar trends were recorded for the amount of PP IX in 1 g of cuticle, but the difference was not statistically significant. The amount of PP IX decreased significantly with increasing flock age. Comparing the cage and barn production systems at 68 week of flock age, there was no difference for the amount of PP IX in shell with or without cuticle, or in the cuticle alone. Eggs from the cage production system were darker in color

  6. Handling of quarry waste from schist production at Oppdal, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy Danielsen, Svein; Alnæs, Lisbeth; Azrague, Kamal; Suleng, Jon

    2017-04-01

    Handling of quarry waste from schist production at Oppdal, Norway Svein Willy Danielsen1), Lisbeth Alnæs2), Kamal Azrague2), Jon Suleng3) 1) Geomaterials Consultant, Trondheim Norway, 2) SINTEF, Trondheim, Norway, 3) AF Gruppen AS, Oppdal, Norway A significant amount of aggregate research in Norway has been focused on the recovery and use of surplus sizes from hard rock aggregate quarries. The use of sand sized quarry waste (QW) from crushing/processing has been motivated by the rapid depletion of traditional sand/gravel resources, increasing land-use conflicts, and the need to minimise QW deposits which for some quarries are becoming a critical factor for economy as well as for environmental reasons. With an annual aggregate production of 77 million tons, out of which approximately 83 % comes from hard rock, the annual volume of size market, the economic - and also environmental - potential will be considerable. Understanding the geological conditions and petrographic properties of the rock is vital. This is a quartz-feldspar rich metamorphic rock - a meta-arkose - containing rhythmically distributed planar lamina (less than 2 mm thick) or scattered occurrence of mica, separated by layers composed predominately of quartz and feldspar. The rock can be split along the lamina to slabs varying from 0.5 cm to more than 10 cm in thickness, and the microstructure can be characterized as being granoblastic to gneissic. . This makes it possible by well designed crushing process and careful selection of the in-going rock particles, to obtain well shaped aggregates up to at least 20 mm. The on-going project will also study the total cost situation depending on the QW utilisation, discuss the environmental and sustainability issues with a societal perspective, and also consider the market opportunities.

  7. PRODUCTIVITY OF LAYERS AND EGG QUALITY IN FREE RANGE AND CAGE SYSTEM OF HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đ. Senčić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted with two groups of Lohmann Brown hybrid layers. Production of eggs lasted for 52 weeks. A control group of layers was kept in the conventional housing system, that is, in cages, while experimental group was kept in the free range system. Layers from the free range system, compared to those kept in cages, laid fewer eggs, (266:295, they consumed more feed on daily basis (129 g : 115 g, more feed per kilogram of egg weight (2.83 kg : 2.35 kg, they had higher mortality rate (6.80 % : 5.50 % and lower end of lay body weight (1.95 kg : 2.10 kg. Eggs from free range layers, compared to those from the cages system, had significantly (P0.05 were determined between the free range and the cages system of housing hens. Considering somewhat lower productivity and higher mortality rate of hens, higher feed consumption per kilogram of egg mass, but also better quality of eggs, profitability of egg production in the free range system will depend, to the maximum extent, on market evaluation of the production.

  8. Effect of Fishmeal Supplementation on Egg Production of Rhode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cost per egg was lower for layers fed on FMD compared with those fed on CD. Keywords: Fishmeal, layers, lysine, sulfur-containing amino acids, supplementation. Introduction. F· ishmeal is a high quality animal feed used to . provide a good balance of essential amino acids, energy, vitamins, minerals and trace elel~1ents ...

  9. Radiation-induced oxidative chemical changes in dehydrated egg products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katusin-Rasem, B.; Mihaljevic, B.; Razem, D.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation-induced buildup of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and destruction of carotenoids were followed in whole egg powder and egg yolk powder as functions of dose, dose rate, and the presence of oxygen. In the absence of air the formation of LOOH was limited by the available oxygen, while destruction of carotenoids progressed linearly with dose; neither process depended on the dose rate. In the presence of air, the accumulation of LOOH and the destruction of carotenoids were strongly coupled and inversely proportional to the dose rate. The induction dose of 2.5 kGy was observed in air in both whole egg powder and egg yolk powder, independent of the dose rate. The practical consequence is that radiation decontamination can be carried out in the presence of air at the highest available dose rate by a dose not exceeding 2.5 kGy to avoid extensive degradation. This dose is adequate for a 10(3) reduction factor of Salmonella and well within the threshold dose of 3 kGy for organoleptic changes

  10. Stimulation of Egg Production in Japanese Quails by Enriching Feed with Residual Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letitia Oprean

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Quail eggs are more and more approved for consumers because they bring many benefits to the human body. Therefore, quails breeding for eggs production have become a very profitable business. Residual yeast may be a nutritional supplement, especially rich in vitamins and proteins. This article studies the influence of residual beer yeast on egg laying in Japanese quails. In order to be integrated into the diet of quails the yeast has undergone a process of autolysis; its influence has been examined on separate groups. The results were reported as a percentage compared with the control group, where the feed does not contain this supplement. Due to its content rich in vitamins and proteins, the residual beer yeast used in feeding the quails bred for eggs stimulates egg laying.

  11. Effects of energy concentration of the diet on productive performance and egg quality of brown egg-laying hens differing in initial body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bonilla, A; Novoa, S; García, J; Mohiti-Asli, M; Frikha, M; Mateos, G G

    2012-12-01

    The influence of AME(n) concentration of the diet on productive performance and egg quality traits was studied in Hy-Line brown egg-laying hens differing in initial BW from 24 to 59 wk of age. Eight treatments were arranged factorially with 4 diets varying in energy content (2,650, 2,750, 2,850, and 2,950 kcal of AME(n)/kg) and 2 initial BW of the hens (1,733 vs. 1,606 g). Each treatment was replicated 5 times (13 hens per replicate), and all diets had similar nutrient content per unit of energy. No interactions between energy content of the diet and initial BW of the hens were detected for any trait. An increase in energy concentration of the diet increased (linear, P feed conversion ratio per kilogram of eggs (linear, P Feed intake (114.6 vs. 111.1 g/hen per day), AME(n) intake (321 vs. 311 kcal/hen per day), egg weight (64.2 vs. 63.0 g), and egg mass (58.5 vs. 57.0 g) were higher for the heavier than for the lighter hens (P feed conversion ratio per kilogram of eggs and energy efficiency were not affected. Eggs from the heavier hens had a higher proportion of yolk and lower proportion of albumen (P hens. Consequently, the yolk-to-albumen ratio was higher (P hens. It is concluded that brown egg-laying hens respond with increases in egg production and egg mass to increases in AME(n) concentration of the diet up to 2,850 kcal/kg. Heavy hens had higher feed intake and produced heavier eggs and more egg mass than light hens. However, feed and energy efficiency were better for the lighter hens.

  12. Detection of Listeria spp. in liquid egg products and in the egg breaking plants environment and tracking of Listeria monocytogenes by PFGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoal, Katell; Fablet, Aurore; Courtillon, Céline; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Chemaly, Marianne; Protais, Jocelyne

    2013-08-16

    Human listeriosis, caused by Listeria monocytogenes, is a severe bacterial infection that can lead to meningitis, cerebromeningitis, bacteremia or septicemia, with acute lethality and potentially leading to death. A study has shown that 29.5% of the caged laying hens in France are contaminated by L. monocytogenes (Chemaly et al., 2008). However, very little information regarding egg and egg product contamination is currently available. The objective of this study is to determine the sanitary status of egg products and egg breaking plants in France regarding Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes contaminations. The sampling scheme performed in five egg breaking plants in Western France during one year have revealed that 8.5% of raw egg products were contaminated by L. monocytogenes. No pasteurized egg products have been shown to be contaminated by L. monocytogenes. However, a high level of contamination by Listeria spp., and particularly by L. innocua, has been shown with 26.2% and 1.8% of raw and pasteurized egg products contaminated, respectively. This work has also revealed the presence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in the environment of egg breaking plants with 65.1% and 8.0% of contaminated samples, respectively. The typing of 253 isolates of L. monocytogenes by PFGE using ApaI and AscI enzymes has revealed a high diversity with 46 different pulsotypes and has shown that the raw material is a source of contamination of egg breaking plants. One L. monocytogenes cluster was dominant in the 5 egg-breaking plants during the four seasons studied. The issue of which strains are better adapted to egg products must be considered and studied in depth by comparing them to pulsotypes from strains of other chains. However, the traceability of L. monocytogenes in plants during the various seasons has also made it possible to highlight the presence of strains that are specific to egg breaking plants. The study of cleaning and disinfection methods in these plants as well

  13. Limestone and oyster shell for brown layers in their second egg production cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of dietary calcium levels and the replacement of calcium sources with different particle size compositions on the performance and egg quality of brown layers in their second egg production cycle. A randomized block experimental design was applied with 12 treatments in a 3x4 factorial arrangement: three calcium levels (2.6, 3.2, 3.8 % and four combinations of calcium sources (1- 100% fine limestone (FL, 2- 50% FL + 50% coarse limestone (CL, 3- 50% FL and 50% oyster shell (OS, 4- 50% FL and 25% CL+ 25 %OS, with six replicates of eight birds each. Calcium sources were analyzed for geometric mean diameter (GMD and in-vitro solubility. The following performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated: egg weight (EW, g, egg production (% Eggs, egg mass (EM %, feed intake (FI g, feed conversion ratio (FCR kg/dz and FCR kg/kg, mortality (% Mort., specific egg gravity (SG, percentages of yolk (Y%, albumen (Alb% and eggshell (ES%, eggshell thickness (EST, eggshell breaking strength (BS, eggshell weight per surface area (EWSA, Haugh unit (HU, yolk index (YI and yolk color. Performance and internal egg quality were not affected by the treatments (p>0.05. Blocks had a significant effect on (p<0.05 FI and FCR (kg/dz and kg/kg. Treatments significantly influenced external egg quality, which improved as dietary calcium levels increases and when up to 50% fine limestone was replaced by combinations of coarse limestone with oyster shell.

  14. Improvement of foaming ability of egg white product by irradiation and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Binna; Choe, Jun-Ho; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Kyong-Su; Kim, Dong-Ho; Jo, Cheorun

    2009-03-01

    To investigate the enhancement of foaming abilities of liquid egg white (LEW) and egg white powder (EWP) by irradiation and its application for bakery product, LEW and EWP were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 5 kGy by Co-60 gamma ray. There was no pH change found among treatments in both LEW and EWP. The viscosity of LEW decreased significantly by irradiation ( Pcake baked with irradiated LEW were significantly higher than those of unirradiated control ( Pcake were greater at 2 kGy only than those of control. A significant decrease in hardness, chewiness, and gumminess values and an increase in Hunter L* value were observed in the angel cakes prepared from irradiated egg white products ( P<0.05). Results indicated that irradiation of egg white could offer advantages in increasing foaming ability and improving quality of final bakery products.

  15. Comparison of National and International Standards of Good Egg Production Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GP Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Egg production is an important economic activity in Brazil, with about 697 million eggs produced annually. The conventional cage system is commonly used for egg production. However, there has been a growing concern for the welfare of laying hens around the world. In this context, many countries have issued laws, protocols, and other normative technical specifications to ensure the welfare of layers. This study aims at identifying similarities and differences between international standards and Brazilian protocols using the Comparative Law perspective. This article reports an analytical study of selected protocols, performing three analyses using the Comparative Law method. The research concludes that some items of the Brazilian protocols of good egg production practices, such as farm inspection, treatment of diseases, temperature, ventilation, beak trimming, feed and water supply, correspond to international specifications, whereas others, such as housing, freedom movement, use of equipment, and transport, are less strict.

  16. Integration: valuing stakeholder input in setting priorities for socially sustainable egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J C; Lee, Y; Thompson, P B; Bawden, R; Mench, J A

    2011-09-01

    Setting directions and goals for animal production systems requires the integration of information achieved through internal and external processes. The importance of stakeholder input in setting goals for sustainable animal production systems should not be overlooked by the agricultural animal industries. Stakeholders play an integral role in setting the course for many aspects of animal production, from influencing consumer preferences to setting public policy. The Socially Sustainable Egg Production Project (SSEP) involved the development of white papers on various aspects of egg production, followed by a stakeholder workshop to help frame the issues for the future of sustainable egg production. Representatives from the environmental, food safety, food retail, consumer, animal welfare, and the general farm and egg production sectors participated with members of the SSEP coordination team in a 1.5-d workshop to explore socially sustainable egg production. This paper reviews the published literature on values integration methodologies and the lessons learned from animal welfare assessment models. The integration method used for the SSEP stakeholder workshop and its outcome are then summarized. The method used for the SSEP stakeholder workshop can be used to obtain stakeholder input on sustainable production in other farm animal industries.

  17. The effect of keel fractures on egg production, feed and water consumption in individual laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, M A F; Murrell, J; Nicol, C J

    2013-01-01

    The impact of keel bone fractures on egg production, egg weight and feed and water consumption in individual laying hens. A total of 165 Lohmann brown laying hens were obtained from a commercial farm that consisted of 105 with keel fractures and 60 without keel fractures. 2. After a 4-d period of acclimatisation, hens were individually housed and provided with ad libitum food and water for a 24-h period. The number of eggs laid, egg weight, feed and water consumption during this period were recorded. Keel bone strength was also assessed. 3. Hens free from keel fractures laid more eggs (91.7% vs. 84.9%) of significantly heavier weight (61.9 g vs. 60.2 g), ate less feed (139 g vs. 151 g) and drank less water (212 ml vs. 237 ml) than hens with fractures. 4. There was a significant positive association between keel fracture severity and water consumption, and a significant negative association between keel fracture severity and egg weight and keel bone strength. 5. This small-scale study on individual birds shows that keel bone fractures may have an impact on the economics of egg production.

  18. Effects of nanocalcium carbonate on egg production performance and plasma calcium of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjigohari, S; Ziaei, N; Ramzani Ghara, A; Tasharrofi, S

    2018-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of nanocalcium carbonate (NCC) instead of calcium carbonate (CC) on egg production, egg weight, egg mass, FCR, blood calcium and egg quality characteristics in laying hens. A total of 120 laying hens were used in a 10-weeks trial, from week 23 to 33 of age. Laying hens were randomly assigned to six treatments with four replications, five hens each. The experimental treatments involved replacing 50% of the CC in the diet by decreasing amounts of NCC and were T1 Basal diet (BD) with 8.06% CC; T2 (6.045% of CC as a negative control); T3 (4.03% of CC replaced by 2.015% NCC); T4 (4.03% of CC replaced by 1.01% NCC); T5 (4.03% of CC replaced by 0.252% NCC) and T6 (4.03 of CC replaced with 0.126%NCC).Egg weight was unaffected by dietary treatments (p > .05). However, the egg production percentage and egg mass in T6 were less than that of other treatments (p hens in the control group had the best average feed conversion ratio (p hens' blood was recorded for birds fed T6 (p hens. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Consumer attitudes to injurious pecking in free range egg production

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Richard M..; Jones, Philip J.; Nicol, Christine J.; Tranter, Richard B.; Weeks, Claire A.

    2016-01-01

    Free range egg producers face continuing problems from injurious pecking (IP) which has financial consequences for farmers and poor welfare implications for birds. Beak trimming has been practised for many years to limit the damage caused by IP, but with the UK Government giving notification that they intend to ban beak trimming in 2016, considerable efforts have been made to devise feasible housing, range and management strategies to reduce IP.A recent research project investigated the effic...

  20. Influence of holding temperature on the growth and survival of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus and the production of staphylococcal enterotoxin in egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S E; Yu, R C; Chou, C C

    2001-01-22

    In this study, growth and survival of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in steamed egg and scrambled egg held at 5, 18, 22, 37, 55 and 60 degrees C are investigated. The production of staphylococcal enterotoxin in steamed egg is also examined. Results reveal that Salmonella spp. and Staph. aureus in the egg products multiply best at 37 degrees C, followed closely by 22 and 18 degrees C. Neither pathogen showed growth in the egg products held at 5 degrees C. Initial inoculation dose, holding temperature and holding time affected the population of both organisms found in the egg products. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) and B (SEB) are detected only in the egg products held at 37 or 22 degrees C. After holding at 37 degrees C for 36 h, scrambled egg inoculated with ca. 5.0 log cfu/g Staph. aureus contains the highest levels of SEA (> 64 ng/g) and SEB (> 64 ng/g). Although Salmonella spp. and Staph. aureus grow better in steamed eggs than in scrambled eggs, production of staphylococcal enterotoxin, in general, was higher in scrambled eggs than in steamed eggs. On the other hand, a repaid destruction of the test organisms in steamed eggs held at 60 degrees C was observed. Holding the steamed eggs at 60 degrees C, Salmonella spp. and Staph. aureus with an initial population of ca. 5.9 and 5.6 log cfu/g, respectively, reduced to a non-detectable level in 1 h.

  1. Production and Purification Immunoglobulin against E. coli in Egg Yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Nassiri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chicken is the only avian species in which polyclonal antibodies, like IgG is transported from the hen to the egg yolk in a similar manner as the transport of mammalian IgG from the mother to the fetus. Immunoglobulin Y in the chicken is transported to the egg and accumulates in the egg yolk in large quantities. IgY is an egg yolk antibody that has been used widely for treatment and prevention of infections in humans and animal. IgY is used for passive protection of the pathogen infections such as Escherichia coli, bovine and human rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, salmonella, staphylococcus and Pseudomonas. IgY is a promising candidate as an alternative to antibiotics. Eschericha coli strains of serotype O157: H7 belongs to a family of pathogenic E. coli called enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC strains responsible for hemorrhagic colitis, bloody or non-bloody diarrhea, and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. This strain of E. coli pathogenises by adhering to host intestinal epithelium and forming bacterial colonies. The purpose of this study was to produce and purify immunoglobulin Y against E. coli O157:H7 and develop specific polyclonal anti E. coli antibody in the egg yolk. Materials and Methods Sixteen-week-old laying hens (Mashhad, Iran were kept in individual cages with food and water ad libitum. Immunization of hens was performed by intramuscularly injecting killed E. coli O157: H7 with an equal volume of Freund’s complete adjuvant into two sides of chest area (Sigma, USA for the first immunization. Two booster immunizations followed up using complete and incomplete Freund’s adjuvants in two weeks interval. Freund’s adjuvant without antigen was injected to the control group. Two weeks after the last injection, the eggs were collected daily for eight weeks, marked and stored at 4 ºC. In order to IgY purification, eggs were collected. Purification of IgY from egg yolk was based on Polson and using PEG6000. Finally, the

  2. PRODUCTIVITY OF LAYERS AND EGG QUALITY IN FREE RANGE AND CAGE SYSTEM OF HOUSING

    OpenAIRE

    Đ. Senčić; Danijela Butko

    2006-01-01

    The research was conducted with two groups of Lohmann Brown hybrid layers. Production of eggs lasted for 52 weeks. A control group of layers was kept in the conventional housing system, that is, in cages, while experimental group was kept in the free range system. Layers from the free range system, compared to those kept in cages, laid fewer eggs, (266:295), they consumed more feed on daily basis (129 g : 115 g), more feed per kilogram of egg weight (2.83 kg : 2.35 kg), they had higher mor...

  3. 3. Production of radionuclides, preparation and handling of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation of natural radioactive compounds and the manufacture of artificial radionuclides, the labelling of organic compounds, and the methods of radioactive substance separation are described. The principles are shown of handling radioactive materials and a brief description is given of the stability, packaging and storage of radiopharmaceuticals. (J.P.)

  4. A Reverse Logistics Network Model for Handling Returned Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Zaarour

    2014-07-01

    obtained the optimal solution at a fraction of the time used by the traditional nonlinear model and solution procedure, as well as the ability to handle up to 150 customers as compared to 30 in the conventional nonlinear model. As such, the proposed linear model is more suitable for actual industry applications than the existing models.

  5. Mobile materials handling platform interface architecture for mass production environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walker, A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial manufacturing systems achieve production stability due to near constant production processes e.g. mass production. Passive methods such as production flow analysis can produce plant layouts which optimise material flow within...

  6. The effect of the clove essential oil to the production and quality of lyaing hens eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate the effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum essential oil to the egg production parameters and egg quality of laying hens. A total of 40 Lohmann Brown laying hens were divided into 4 groups (n = 10. The laying hens were fed 20 weeks ad libitum. The control group was fed with complete feed mixtures without additives. The first group of hens was fed a diet with complete feed mixtures with 0.3 mg.kg-1 of clove essential oil. The second group of hens was fed a diet with complete feed mixtures with 0.6 mg.kg-1 of clove oil and the third group of hens was fed a diet with complete feed mixtures with 1 mg.kg-1 of clove oil. Egg production, egg weight (g, specific egg weight, albumen weight (g, albumen index, Haugh Units (HU, yolk weight (g, yolk index, yolk color (HLR were studied. The results show that the addition of clove oil, especially in the group of laying hens with the addition of 1 mg.kg-1 clove oil had no significantly different (P>0.05 to the egg production (the order of the groups: 90.3; 91.8; 91.3; 92.6 %. In egg weight were found no significant differences between groups. The addition of 1 mg.kg-1 clove oil had significant (P>0.05 influenced the albumen index and the addition of 0.6 mg.kg-1 and 1 mg.kg-1 clove oil had significant (P>0.05 influenced Haugh units. In the control group was found not significant (P>0.05 different in yolk weight compared with other groups. In the other parameters of egg quality (albumen weight, yolk index, yolk colour with the addition of clove oil were found no significant differences between groups.

  7. Effect of Different Levels of L-Carnitine on the Productive Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Parameters and Egg Yolk Cholesterol in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemi-Fard M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of L-carnitine on productive performance, egg quality and blood parameters in laying hens. Forty-eight Hy-Line W-36 egg Layers were weighed at 90 weeks of age and randomly allocated into 16 cages (three hens per cage. Four dietary treatments were prepared by supplementing L-carnitine (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of diet to corn-soybean meal diet and offered ad libitum to hens. After two weeks of acclimatization, the eggs were weighed daily and feed intake as well as egg quality traits were measured biweekly. At the end of the experiment, two hens from each cage were selected to determine blood parameters and two eggs from each replicate were collected for cholesterol analysis. Results showed that L-carnitine supplementation at 100 and 150 mg/kg significantly increased egg production and egg mass, but decreased yolk cholesterol content. Laying hens receiving diet containing 50 mg/kg L-carnitine had significantly higher Hough unit, but lower progesterone than the hens fed control diet (P < 0.05. The results of this study showed that supplementing hens' diet with L-carnitine had beneficial effects on productive performance and decreased yolk cholesterol concentration; so it can be used as an effective supplement in the diet of laying hens.

  8. MULTIPLE CRITERIA DECISION MAKING IN STRATEGIC PLANNING OF TABLE EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Crnčan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research objective was to analyze and evaluate different systems of table egg production by using the multiple criteria analysis, the method of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP in decision making within strategic planning of production. The survey involved 79 producers of table eggs registered in the Records on laying hens’ farms in the Republic of Croatia. In the first stage, the research defined the criteria and sub-criteria for system evaluation which were compared in pairs in order to determine the weight or importance for each of them. Alternatives were evaluation based on definition of priorities of examinees and the extent to which they meet each of the defined criteria and sub-criteria. Intensity of examinees’ preferences were entered into the Expert Choice software in order to evaluate ranking results of egg production systems. Defined model consisted of a quantitative criterion of economic indicators, and the other two referred to qualitative criteria, market indicators and technical-technological factors. Each criterion had its corresponding sub-criteria that were evenly distributed in numerical order. Based on individual assessments of the examinees, overall cumulative evaluation was obtained for the table egg production systems. Accordingly, the most acceptable alternative to egg production is the indoor keeping system (priority 0.301. It is followed by the free-range system of keeping laying hens (priority 0.253. The third-ranked alternative is egg production by hens kept in conventional cages (priority 0.226, while the fourth-ranked least acceptable alternative, as of the total evaluation, is the ecological system of egg production (priority 0.220. Taking into account the obtained results of multiple criteria evaluation as well as EU and world trends in changing consumers’ habits including food safety and quality as well as customers’ preferences towards local market and local products, it is recommended that eggs

  9. Assessing the role of food quality in the production and hatching of Temora longicornis eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Visser, Andre; Jespersen, C.

    2009-01-01

    We utilized the varying fatty acid composition of phytoplankton to create 19 different food treatments based on different ratios of 5 potentially important fatty acids and offered these to the copepod Temora longicornis. Egg production and hatching was monitored and related to ingested carbon......, dietary fatty acids and the utilization of maternal fatty acid reserves. Egg production rates depended on ingested carbon and the fatty acid 20:5n-3 from the diet and from the female reserves. Hatching success showed a significant dependence on the ingested and maternal fatty acids 22:6n-3, 18:5n-3 and 18......:3n-3. Production of nauplii as a combination of egg production and hatching was highly dependent on the fatty acid 22:6n-3 and carbon ingestion. The study confirms the importance of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for copepod reproduction and indicates that the female differentially utilizes its...

  10. Toxicity of pesticides associated with potato production, including soil fumigants, to snapping turtle eggs (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, Shane Raymond; Palonen, Kimberley Elizabeth; Martin, Pamela Anne

    2014-01-01

    Turtles frequently oviposit in soils associated with agriculture and, thus, may be exposed to pesticides or fertilizers. The toxicity of a pesticide regime that is used for potato production in Ontario on the survivorship of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs was evaluated. The following treatments were applied to clean soil: 1) a mixture of the pesticides chlorothalonil, S-metolachlor, metribuzin, and chlorpyrifos, and 2) the soil fumigant metam sodium. Turtle eggs were incubated in soil in outdoor plots in which these mixtures were applied at typical and higher field application rates, where the eggs were subject to ambient temperature and weather conditions. The pesticide mixture consisting of chlorothalonil, S-metolachlor, metribuzin, and chlorpyrifos did not affect survivorship, deformities, or body size at applications up to 10 times the typical field application rates. Hatching success ranged between 87% and 100% for these treatments. Metam sodium was applied at 0.1¯ times, 0.3¯ times, 1 times, and 3 times field application rates. Eggs exposed to any application of metam sodium had 100% mortality. At typical field application rates, the chemical regime associated with potato production does not appear to have any detrimental impacts on turtle egg development, except for the use of the soil fumigant metam sodium, which is highly toxic to turtle eggs at the lowest recommended application rate. © 2013 SETAC.

  11. Dynamics of nutrient utilization, heat production, and body composition in broiler breeder hens during egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Justina V; Hilton, Katie; Boonsinchai, Nirun; England, Judith A; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Coon, Craig N

    2018-04-24

    Changes in heat production (HP) and body composition (BC) in modern broiler breeders can provide means to understand nutrient utilization. Twelve Cobb 500 breeders were evaluated 10 times from 26 to 59 wk of age. The same wired caged breeders were moved to respiratory chambers connected to an indirect calorimetry to obtain oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2), HP, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER). The same hens were evaluated for BC using a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Data were analyzed during light (16 h) and dark (8 h) period using a mixed model to evaluate calorimetry parameters, a factorial design 2 × 10 for normalized calorimetry parameters, and Complete Randomized Design (CRD)-one way ANOVA for BC. Means were separated by Tukey-Honest Significant difference (HSD). HP increased with age (d) in 0.152 kcal/d, VO2 and VCO2 were 0.031 and 0.024 L/d per each increase in age (d), respectively. In the light period, hens consumed +17.4 L/d VO2 and produced +18.9 L/d VCO2 (P production. Lean body mass ranged from 642 to 783 g/kg during the whole study reaching the lowest at 37 and 50 wk and the highest at 26 to 33 wk (P production is reduced, and HP increased at 54 and 59 wk (P lean mass structure. Broiler breeders change nutrient fuel use during egg production. Indirect calorimetry and DEXA can be used to pursue further feed strategies to maximize egg production and maintain a healthy breeder.

  12. Genetic analysis of partial egg production records in Japanese quail using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Khadiga, G; Mahmoud, B Y F; Farahat, G S; Emam, A M; El-Full, E A

    2017-08-01

    The main objectives of this study were to detect the most appropriate random regression model (RRM) to fit the data of monthly egg production in 2 lines (selected and control) of Japanese quail and to test the consistency of different criteria of model choice. Data from 1,200 female Japanese quails for the first 5 months of egg production from 4 consecutive generations of an egg line selected for egg production in the first month (EP1) was analyzed. Eight RRMs with different orders of Legendre polynomials were compared to determine the proper model for analysis. All criteria of model choice suggested that the adequate model included the second-order Legendre polynomials for fixed effects, and the third-order for additive genetic effects and permanent environmental effects. Predictive ability of the best model was the highest among all models (ρ = 0.987). According to the best model fitted to the data, estimates of heritability were relatively low to moderate (0.10 to 0.17) showed a descending pattern from the first to the fifth month of production. A similar pattern was observed for permanent environmental effects with greater estimates in the first (0.36) and second (0.23) months of production than heritability estimates. Genetic correlations between separate production periods were higher (0.18 to 0.93) than their phenotypic counterparts (0.15 to 0.87). The superiority of the selected line over the control was observed through significant (P egg production in earlier ages (first and second months) than later ones. A methodology based on random regression animal models can be recommended for genetic evaluation of egg production in Japanese quail. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen so...

  14. Assessment of welfare and egg production of laying hens moravia ssl in small-scale breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the welfare of laying hens Moravia SSL housed in small-scale hen house with free range, behavior, egg production and selected physical indicators of eggs and chemical indicators of egg mass. The laying hens were kept in a hen house on deep litter. Breeding facility of hen house was within the meaning of recommendation for applying the principles of welfare, i.e. the space and breeding facility within the meaning of enriched breeding environment. Stocking density of the laying hens corresponded with recommendations for unrestricted movement and implementing natural activities. The hen house was equipped with the perch, nest, feeder and drinker. The commercial feed mixture was used for feeding, which is intended for laying hens. The kitchen remains were added to feed mixture, as are wet bread, the non-edible remains of foodstuffs. A feed mixture was served to laying hens 825 g per day. The laying hens had free access to drinking water, grazing, ground pecking, ground scratching and dust-bathing and in the free range. We focused investigation of on the egg laying intensity, selected parameters of physical egg quality and chemical egg contents. Time to relax of laying hens was adjusted according to the summer and winter breeding seasons. The main activities of free-range hens are grazing, ground pecking, ground scratching and dust-bathing. The main activities of free-range hens are grazing, ground pecking, ground scratching and dust-bathing. These activities were investigated in laying hens too in dependent of year period, more in the summer. Housing of the hens was equipped with the perch. The laying hens regularly used a perch. A beginning of occupation the perch was at the time of time growing dark, at the end of the light day. A nesting material was selected regular, monthly exchange. It was meadow hay of excellent quality for the collection of high quality and safe eggs from nests in the hen house

  15. Fermented feed for laying hens: effect on egg production, egg quality, plumage condition and composition and activity of the intestinal microflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Ricarda M; Hammershøj, M; Johansen, N F

    2009-01-01

    1. An experiment with a total of 480 hens (Babcock) was carried out from 16 to 38 weeks of age to evaluate the suitability of wet fermented feed (feed water ratio, 1:1·2-1:1·4) for layers, taking aspects of nutrition and gastrointestinal health into consideration. The production performance, egg...... mash. Presumably because of an extended adaptation time to the feed, the onset of lay occurred later when hens were fed on fermented feed, resulting in non-significantly reduced total egg production (75 vs. 82%). 5. There was no significant difference between groups with respect to the total egg mass...... with the dry mash (g feed DM/g egg mass, 2·28 vs. 2·53). 6. The use of fermented feed increased egg weight in the period from 34 to 37 weeks (61·4 vs. 60·0) and increased shell weight (g/100 g egg weight, 10·2 vs. 9·9) and shell stiffness (N/mm, 161 vs. 150) of eggs collected at 37 weeks. 7. The feeding...

  16. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to § 946.54(a)(6...

  17. Prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter associated with eggs and the environment of conventional cage and free-range egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E; Guard, J Y

    2012-05-01

    There is a desire by US consumers for eggs produced by hens in alternative production systems. As the retail shell-egg market offers these products to accommodate consumer demands, additional information is needed to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A study was conducted to determine if there were differences in the prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter on and within eggs and in the environment of a sister flock of conventional cage and free-range laying hens. Microbial sampling occurred approximately every 6 wk between 20 and 79 wk of age. A random sampling of typical coliform colonies produced 371 viable isolates for biochemical identification. Twenty-nine genera or species of bacteria were identified. There was a significantly greater (P free-range nest box swabs compared with that in the free-range grass and conventional cage swab samples (number of positives: 8 nest box, 1 grass, 0 cage). Seven isolates of Listeria innocua were detected with no significant difference in prevalence between the treatments. Isolates were associated with eggshells (2 free-range floor, 1 cage) and the free-range environment (2 nest box, 2 grass). There were 21 Salmonella isolates detected between all sample locations, with no significant difference in the prevalence of Salmonella detection between the treatments. Additional studies are needed to fully understand the effect of alternative production methods on the prevalence of pathogens and coliforms associated with nest-run eggs and the production environment.

  18. A Comparison of Carbon Footprint and Production Cost of Different Pasta Products Based on Whole Egg and Pea Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Nette

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed and food production are inter alia reasons for high greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by the replacement of animal components with plant components in processed food products, such as pasta. The main components currently used for pasta are semolina, and water, as well as additional egg. The hypothesis of this paper is that the substitution of whole egg with plant-based ingredients, for example from peas, in such a product might lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions (GHG and thus a reduced carbon footprint at economically reasonable costs. The costs and carbon footprints of two pasta types, produced with egg or pea protein, are calculated. Plant protein–based pasta products proved to cause 0.57 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq (31% per kg pasta less greenhouse gas emissions than animal-based pasta, while the cost of production increases by 10% to 3.00 €/kg pasta.

  19. A Comparison of Carbon Footprint and Production Cost of Different Pasta Products Based on Whole Egg and Pea Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nette, Antonia; Wolf, Patricia; Schlüter, Oliver; Meyer-Aurich, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Feed and food production are inter alia reasons for high greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by the replacement of animal components with plant components in processed food products, such as pasta. The main components currently used for pasta are semolina, and water, as well as additional egg. The hypothesis of this paper is that the substitution of whole egg with plant-based ingredients, for example from peas, in such a product might lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and thus a reduced carbon footprint at economically reasonable costs. The costs and carbon footprints of two pasta types, produced with egg or pea protein, are calculated. Plant protein–based pasta products proved to cause 0.57 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq) (31%) per kg pasta less greenhouse gas emissions than animal-based pasta, while the cost of production increases by 10% to 3.00 €/kg pasta. PMID:28231112

  20. A Comparison of Carbon Footprint and Production Cost of Different Pasta Products Based on Whole Egg and Pea Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nette, Antonia; Wolf, Patricia; Schlüter, Oliver; Meyer-Aurich, Andreas

    2016-03-04

    Feed and food production are inter alia reasons for high greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by the replacement of animal components with plant components in processed food products, such as pasta. The main components currently used for pasta are semolina, and water, as well as additional egg. The hypothesis of this paper is that the substitution of whole egg with plant-based ingredients, for example from peas, in such a product might lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and thus a reduced carbon footprint at economically reasonable costs. The costs and carbon footprints of two pasta types, produced with egg or pea protein, are calculated. Plant protein-based pasta products proved to cause 0.57 kg CO₂ equivalents (CO₂eq) (31%) per kg pasta less greenhouse gas emissions than animal-based pasta, while the cost of production increases by 10% to 3.00 €/kg pasta.

  1. Regulation of schistosome egg production by HMG CoA reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VandeWaa, E.A.; Bennett, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG CoA reductase) catalyzes the conversion of HMG CoA to mevalonate in the synthesis of steroids, isoprenoids and terpenes. Mevinolin, an inhibitor of this enzyme, decreased egg production in Schistosoma mansoni during in vitro incubations. This was associated with a reduction in the incorporation of 14 C-acetate into polyisoprenoids and a reduction in the formation of a lipid-linked oligosaccharide. In vivo, mevinolin in daily doses of 50 mg/kg (p.o., from days 30-48 post-infection) caused no change in gross liver pathology in S. mansoni infected mice. However, when parasites exposed to mevinolin or its vehicle in vivo were cultured in vitro, worms from mevinolin-treated mice produced six times more eggs than control parasites. When infected mice were dosed with 250 mg/kg mevinolin daily (p.o., from days 35-45 post-infection), liver pathology was reduced in comparison to control mice. Thus, during in vivo exposure to a high dose of the drug egg production is decreased, while at a lower dose it appears unaffected until the parasites are cultured in a drug-free in vitro system wherein egg production is stimulated to extraordinarily high levels. It may be that at low doses mevinolin, by inhibiting the enzyme, is blocking the formation of a product (such as an isoprenoid) which normally acts to down-regulate enzyme synthesis, resulting in enzyme induction. Induction of HMG CoA reductase is then expressed as increased egg production when the worms are removed from the drug. These data suggest that HMG CoA reductase plays a role in schistosome egg production

  2. Microbial diversity on commercial eggs as affected by the production system. A first approach using PGM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Carmen; Laca, Amanda; Laca, Adriana; Díaz, Mario

    2017-12-04

    A novel DNA-based technique (PGM) has been employed for first time to analyse commercial eggs with the advantage of allowing an exhaustive identification of the microbiota present. Eggs from two different production systems, i.e. a free range system and a cage system, were analysed. Twenty-one and twenty-two phyla were identified on the surface of cage system and free range system eggs, respectively. In both cases, Firmicutes was the dominant phylum (representing around 50% of total phyla), being found families frequently reported to be present in the intestinal microbiota of chickens or hens, such as Clostridiaceae, Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae. Additionally, other phyla and families not previously described in association with eggshells could also be identified in this work. Most of the potential pathogenic genera associated with eggs (Salmonella, Clostridium, Helicobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus) showed higher incidence in eggs coming from cage systems than in eggs coming from free range systems, although the abundance of these genera were very low in both cases (<5% of total bacteria). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Production and purification of IgY antibodies from chicken egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wala Ahmad Amro

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of polyclonal antibodies from the serum of immunized mammals has significantly contributed to scientific research and diagnosis. The fact that recent technologies allow the production of antibodies in the yolk of eggs laid by hens, has led to the development of an alternative method for antibody generation that is less stressful to animals. As hens are kept under almost all their natural conditions, antibodies are isolated from the collected eggs; this technology is expected to become an interesting alternative to the conventionally serum-based techniques that eventually require to sacrifice the animal.Here we present a modified protocol for the isolation of IgY antibodies from immunized chickens and provide comparison between two chicken breeds in relative to IgY yield per egg. Our results show the possibility of generating large quantities of highly pure IgY from chicken eggs and also show large differences in the yield of IgY production between the two studied breeds. The results of this work indicate that IgY technology can be used for the production of primary antibodies for immunological work and disease diagnosis. Keywords: IgY, Chicken egg yolk, Gel filtration chromatography, Salmonella typhimurium

  4. INFLUENCE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT SUPPLEMENTATION ON LAYING PRODUCTIVITY AND EGGS QUALITY IN JAPANESE QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Nickolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to examine the influence of Bulgarian phytoproduct VemoHerb T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris –TT on laying productivity of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica and their egg morphological and sensor properties. A trial was organized with 52 female and 16 male Japanese quails from the breed Faraon at the age of 44 days randomly divided in four groups – control and three experimental groups, 13 female and 4 male each. All birds were fed ad libitum the same compound feed for Japanese quails. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The experimental groups received with the drink water the tested product in following daily doses: 4mg/kg body weight (10weeks; 10mg/kg body weight (the first 5 weeks of the trial; 10mg/kg body weight (10 weeks for Ist, IInd , IIInd experimental groups respectively. The addition of TT-extract improved significantly the laying productivity. It was found significant higher values of egg weight, albumen - and yolk weight in quails from IInd and IIIrd experimental groups. There was a tendency to increase the egg shell weight and egg shell thickness in all treated groups in comparison to the control group. The usе of VemoHerb T did not aggravate the sensor properties of the quails’ eggs.

  5. Product Variant Master as a Means to Handle Variant Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildre, Hans Petter; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1996-01-01

    be implemented in the CAD system I-DEAS. A precondition for high degree of computer support is identification of a product variant master from which new variants can be derived. This class platform defines how a product build up fit certain production methods and rules governing determination of modules...

  6. Return handling options and order quantities for single period products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Vlachos (Dimitrios); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractProducts which are sold through E-commerce or mail sales catalogues tend to have a much higher return rate than traditional products. The returns are especially problematic for seasonal products. To support decision making in these situations we study various options, which may be

  7. PRODUCTION OF POULTRY MEAT AND EGGS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA AND IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Bošnjaković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat and eggs are a significant source of nutrients in the human diet. Poultry products are widely consumed because they are nutritionally valuable, there are no religious restrictions on consumption, it is relatively easy to prepare diverse meals based on poultry, and the price of such products is relatively low. The aim of this research was to investigate the development of poultry production in the Republic of Croatia in the period 2010-2014, comprising the period of two years after Croatia joined the EU. The paper also compares data of poultry production in Croatia and in the EU. Over the period in question, total meat production in Croatia was reduced by 23%, meat import was increased by 45%, poultry meat export was increased by 46%, and production of eggs decreased by 20%. At the same time, in the EU countries poultry production was increased by 8.8% on average, export was increased by 10%, and import was reduced by 3.7%, while the egg production stagnated. In 2014, consumption of poultry meat in Croatia was 18.3 kg per capita, and in the EU 26.8 kg per capita. Self-sufficiency in the poultry production over the analyzed period was not satisfactory, therefore in the coming years, Croatia will have to develop quickly this important branch of livestock breeding. In addition to conventional production, faster development refers to production of organic and functional poultry products.

  8. Effects of lighting pattern and photoperiod on egg production and egg quality of a native chicken under free-range condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, A L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Wang, H H; Chu, Q; Liu, H G

    2018-04-14

    The paper aimed to study the effects of lighting pattern and photoperiod alone and in combination on egg production, egg quality in Beijing You Chicken (BYC). A total of 630 19-wk-old BYC laying hens were randomly allocated to 6 groups with 105 birds each, 3 replicates per group, reared in individually lit floor pens with separate outdoor areas. A 2 × 3 factorial experiment (2 lighting patterns: continuous and intermittent lighting; 3 photoperiods: 16, 14, 12 h) was arranged, including 16L:8D (6:00 to 22:00) for group 1; 12L:2D:4L:6D (6:00 to 18:00, 20:00 to 24:00) for group 2; 14L:10D (6:00 to 20:00) for group 3; 10L:2D:4L:8D (6:00 to 16:00, 18:00 to 22:00) for group 4; 12L:12D (6:00 to 18:00) for group 5, and 8L:4D:4L:8D (6:00 to 14:00, 18:00 to 22:00) for group 6, respectively. Egg production parameters were calculated for 22 to 43, 44 to 57, and 22 to 57 wk, and egg quality parameters were measured at the end of 37 and 57 wk. The results showed that the egg production of BYC was not significantly affected by lighting pattern, photoperiod alone, or in combination during 22 to 43 and 22 to 57 wk (P > 0.05), but average feed intake in 12 h groups was significantly higher than those in 14 and 16 h groups during 22 to 43 and 22 to 57 wk (P Egg mass and feed egg ratio were significantly affected by lighting pattern, photoperiod alone, and in combination during 44 to 57 wk (P Egg mass was significantly higher (P = 0.05) and feed egg ratio was significantly lower (P = 0.03) in continuous groups than in intermittent groups. There were significant effects for eggshell thickness, albumen height, haugh unit, and egg grade by lighting pattern alone (P egg production was not significantly affected by lighting pattern alone during 22 to 57 wk (P > 0.05), but the photoperiod significantly affected average feed intake (P egg production during 44 to 57 wk, and intermittent lighting is better for egg quality of the native bird at 37 wk; 3) 12 h lighting is enough for meeting

  9. Egg quality in layers housed in different production systems and submitted to two environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAD Barbosa Filho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The production system using cages is a highly polemical issue in Europe, because of the space restriction imposed to laying hens. It is considered that the cage system might compromise important comfort movements, welfare and egg quality. This study evaluated egg quality and welfare of two strains of hens housed in a conventional system (battery laying cages or litter system with nest and perches, and submitted to heat stress or comfort conditions. Two groups of 20 birds (10 Hy-line W36 and 10 Hy-line Brown were submitted to two environmental conditions (26°C and 60% RH or 35°C and 70% RH and two housing systems (cages or litter in the early production phase. Egg quality was analyzed based on egg weight, eggshell thickness, specific gravity, and Haugh units. Yolk and shell contamination by Salmonella sp was also assessed. A significant (p<0.05 reduction in quality parameters was observed in eggs produced by laying hens under heat stress, mainly in the birds housed in cages.

  10. Sand intake by laying hens and its effect on egg production parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, J; Kwakernaak, C; Kan, C A

    2008-08-01

    Soil intake may be the most prominent source of environmental contaminants for free range and organic hens, but there are no quantitative data concerning soil intake by domestic hens. Consumption of soil of 14-32 g a day can be estimated from literature, but such a dilution of nutrient intake seems incompatible with high productivity. In this study laying hens were fed pelleted diets with 0%, 10%, 20%, 25% and 30% of sand addition to determine its effect on productivity. Feed intake, feed and nutrient (feed minus sand) conversion ratio, egg production, egg weight and body weight gain were measured over a 4-week period. Acid insoluble ash concentration in the faeces was measured to determine the accuracy of estimating the soil ingestion by the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife as a way to determine soil ingestion of free range and organic hens under practical circumstances. The hens were able to compensate the dilution of the diet with 20%, 25% and 30% of sand by increasing their feed intake. Feed intake increased significantly and feed to egg conversion ratio decreased significantly with increasing sand levels in the diet. The nutrient to egg conversion ratio of the diet without sand tended to be worse than for the diets with sand, presumably due to the total absence of coarse material in the diet. There were no differences in egg production and egg weight between hens fed the different diets but body weight gain was significantly lower for the hens fed the diets with 20%, 25% and 30% of sand. Estimation of sand ingestion was done by the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife. Provided that the actual dry matter digestibility coefficient of the nutrient part of the diet is taken into account, estimating the soil ingestion according to the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife seems an appropriate way to determine soil ingestion for free range and organic hens under practical circumstances.

  11. Sensory and physico-chemical characteristics of desserts prepared with egg products processed by freeze and spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Nunes de Jesús

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, three freeze-dried (FD egg products (whole egg (WE, egg yolk (EY and egg white (EW were obtained and the acceptability of confections prepared with each was evaluated. Sensory analyses for confections were performed by hedonic testing with fifty panelists in each evaluation. The studied confections were: Condensed Milk Pudding (P, Quindim (Q and Meringue (M. The results obtained for confections made with FD egg products were compared with the achieved through other formulations of the same desserts made with fresh (F or spray-dried (SD egg products. The sensory analysis results for confections made with FD egg products showed good acceptance by panelists. A principal component analysis of the sensory evaluation data was carried out to identify similarities between the different egg products. The PCA supported the conclusion that FD egg products can substitute their fresh and SD counterparts in dessert formulations with good acceptability while keeping the advantages conferred by the freeze-drying method.

  12. Effects of adult stocking density on egg production and viability in cultures of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Andersen, Nikolaj; Holm, Thue

    2007-01-01

    was 84.7±4.8% and was never observed below 76.1%, with no significant differences across the stocking densities. Conclusively, as a practical recommendation for the aquaculture industry, copepod cultures with densities ranging from 100 to 600 adults L−1 and presumably even more dense cultures......The effect of stocking density of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa was evaluated in a 96 h rearing experiment. Possible density-dependent egg production and egg viability were analysed at stocking densities of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 600 adults L−1. Temperature, oxygen saturation and algal...... concentration were kept optimal. A non-density-dependent mortality rate of 15–19% day−1 was documented. A non-significant density-dependent egg production was observed between 100 and 600 adults L−1. The average egg production was 22.5±8.8 egg female−1 day−1 in all densities. The average egg hatching success...

  13. Position of Serbia on the international market of milk, dairy products, eggs and wool

    OpenAIRE

    Đorović Milutin; Stevanović Simo; Lazić Verica

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the major indicators of both world and domestic markets of milk, dairy products, eggs and wool. Namely, for the past 20 years, for the observed subperiods, the method of comparative analysis was used to study quantitative and structural differences in the production and trade of analyzed product groups, at both the world and at the level of continents and some countries. The leading manufacturers and flows of international trade and the leading ex...

  14. COST OF PRODUCTION, GROSS RETURN AND NET PROFIT IN COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahoor-ul-Haq1, M.A. Mian, F.R. Durrani and M. Syed

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Chakwal, Pakistan by collecting data from randomly selected 109 flocks to investigate cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer. Majority of the buildings in the study area were rented therefore, rent per layer was added to the total cost of production instead of depreciation on building and equipments. Overall total cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer was Rs. 393.88 ± 5.36, 432.14 ± 8.01 and 38.26 ± 6.66, respectively. Rate of return over the invested capital was 27%. Mean feed cost per layer was Rs. 302.23 ± 5.01, including Rs. 10.27 ± 0.24, 29.19 ± 0.42 and 262.77 ± 5.08 for starter, grower and layer ration, respectively. Feed cost was the major component contributing 76.73% to the total cost of production. Average cost of labor, day-old chick, building rent, vaccination, therapy, miscellaneous item, electricity, bedding material and transportation was Rs. 19.90 ± 0.45, 19.75 ± 0.05, 16.25 ± 0.26, 12.80 ± 0.10, 10.90 ± 2.32, 4.35 ± 0.09, 3.15 ± 0.07, 2.65 ± 0.09 and 1.90 ± 0.08, respectively, contributing 5.05, 5.01, 4.13, 3.25, 2.77, 1.10, 0.80, 0.67 and 0.48 % to the total cost of production. Gross return from the sale of marketable eggs, culled eggs, spent/culled bird, empty bags and manure was Rs. 388.84 ± 7.91, 3.85 ± 0.01, 35.80 ± 0.23, 2.20 ± 0.04 and 1.45 ± 0.01, respectively, contributing 89.98, 0.89, 8.28, 0.51 and 0.34% to the total return. Determining the effect of different parameters on the cost of production and net profit, large flocks, Hisex strain, brood-grow and lay system of rearing, good hygienic conditions of the farm, normal stocking rate and cage system of housing wee found to give maximum gross return as well as net profit.

  15. Effects of housing system on the costs of commercial egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, W A; Sumner, D A

    2015-03-01

    This article reports the first publicly available egg production costs compared across 3 hen-housing systems. We collected detailed data from 2 flock cycles from a commercial egg farm operating a conventional barn, an aviary, and an enriched colony system at the same location. The farm employed the same operational and accounting procedures for each housing system. Results provide clear evidence that egg production costs are much higher for the aviary system than the other 2 housing systems. Feed costs per dozen eggs are somewhat higher for the aviary and lower for the enriched house compared with the conventional house. Labor costs are much lower for the conventional house than the other 2, and pullet costs are much higher for the aviary. Energy and miscellaneous costs are a minimal part of total operating costs and do not differ by housing system. Total capital investments per hen-capacity are much higher for the aviary and the enriched house. Capital costs per dozen eggs depend on assumptions about appropriate interest and depreciation rates. Using the same 10% rate for each housing system shows capital costs per dozen for the aviary and the enriched housing system are much higher than capital costs per dozen for the conventional house. The aviary has average operating costs (feed, labor, pullet, energy, and miscellaneous costs that recur for each flock and vary with egg production) about 23% higher and average total costs about 36% higher compared with the conventional house. The enriched housing system has average operating costs only about 4% higher compared with the conventional house, but average total costs are 13% higher than for the conventional house. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  16. Effects of housing system on the costs of commercial egg production1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, W. A.; Sumner, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the first publicly available egg production costs compared across 3 hen-housing systems. We collected detailed data from 2 flock cycles from a commercial egg farm operating a conventional barn, an aviary, and an enriched colony system at the same location. The farm employed the same operational and accounting procedures for each housing system. Results provide clear evidence that egg production costs are much higher for the aviary system than the other 2 housing systems. Feed costs per dozen eggs are somewhat higher for the aviary and lower for the enriched house compared with the conventional house. Labor costs are much lower for the conventional house than the other 2, and pullet costs are much higher for the aviary. Energy and miscellaneous costs are a minimal part of total operating costs and do not differ by housing system. Total capital investments per hen-capacity are much higher for the aviary and the enriched house. Capital costs per dozen eggs depend on assumptions about appropriate interest and depreciation rates. Using the same 10% rate for each housing system shows capital costs per dozen for the aviary and the enriched housing system are much higher than capital costs per dozen for the conventional house. The aviary has average operating costs (feed, labor, pullet, energy, and miscellaneous costs that recur for each flock and vary with egg production) about 23% higher and average total costs about 36% higher compared with the conventional house. The enriched housing system has average operating costs only about 4% higher compared with the conventional house, but average total costs are 13% higher than for the conventional house. PMID:25480736

  17. Effects of temperature and food availability on feeding and egg production of Calanus hyperboreus from Disko Bay, Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marie Vestergaard; Jung-Madsen, Signe; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2012-01-01

    The effects of temperature and food availability on feeding and egg production of the Arctic copepod Calanus hyperboreus were investigated in Disko Bay, western Greenland, from winter to spring 2009. The abundance of females in the near bottom layer and the egg production of C. hyperboreus prior...... reproduction, the females migrated to the surface layer to exploit the bloom and refill their lipid stores. In 2 laboratory experiments, initiated before and during the spring bloom, mature females were kept with and without food at 5 different temperatures ranging from 0 to 10°C and the fecal pellet and egg...... production were monitored. Food had a clear effect on fecal pellet production but no effect on egg production, while temperature did not have an effect on egg or fecal pellet production in any of the experiments. Analyses of carbon and lipid content of the females before and after the experiments did...

  18. Position of Serbia on the international market of milk, dairy products, eggs and wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the major indicators of both world and domestic markets of milk, dairy products, eggs and wool. Namely, for the past 20 years, for the observed subperiods, the method of comparative analysis was used to study quantitative and structural differences in the production and trade of analyzed product groups, at both the world and at the level of continents and some countries. The leading manufacturers and flows of international trade and the leading exporters and importers of milk, dairy products, eggs and wool were defined, with special emphasis on importance of Serbia, i.e. its position in the global market for these products. Pursuant to the above, and importance of analyzed product groups for the domestic market, i.e. agroindustry and the economy as a whole, this paper specially studies balances, structure, dynamics and regional orientation of foreign trade in milk, dairy products, eggs and wool. In addition, the paper points to the needs, capabilities, measures and directions of further development of domestic production and export of products analyzed.

  19. Expressed microRNA associated with high rate of egg production in chicken ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N; Gaur, U; Zhu, Q; Chen, B; Xu, Z; Zhao, X; Yang, M; Li, D

    2017-04-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a highly conserved class of small noncoding RNA about 19-24 nucleotides in length that function in a specific manner to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in organisms. Tissue miRNA expression studies have discovered a myriad of functions for miRNAs in various aspects, but a role for miRNAs in chicken ovarian tissue at 300 days of age has not hitherto been reported. In this study, we performed the first miRNA analysis of ovarian tissues in chickens with low and high rates of egg production using high-throughput sequencing. By comparing low rate of egg production chickens with high rate of egg production chickens, 17 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were found (P chickens with high rates of egg production, suggesting that these miRNAs have an important role in ovary development and reproductive management of chicken. Furthermore, we uncovered that a significantly up-regulated miRNA-gga-miR-200a-3p-is ubiquitous in reproduction-regulation-related pathways. This miRNA may play a special central role in the reproductive management of chicken, and needs to be further studied for confirmation. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  20. Where do egg production methods for estimating fish biomass go from here?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickey-Collas, M.; Somarakis, S.; Witthames, P.R.; Damme, van C.J.G.; Uriarte, A.R.; Lo, N.C.H.; Bernal, M.

    2012-01-01

    The special theme volume of Fisheries Research is intended to synthesise the current understanding of the methods and applicability of egg production methods (EPM). It originates from a workshop in Athens which also focused on the future challenges to both the science and logistics of carrying out

  1. THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS DIETARY LEVEL ON EGG PRODUCTION OF THE BANTUL LOCAL DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sasongko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of various calcium and phosphorus levels on the production performance of Bantul Duck. A total of 270 female ducks, 26 weeks age, were used in the study with a 3x3 factorial treatment, which is a combination of three levels of Ca: 3.75; 3.25 and 2.75% and three levels of P: 0.45, 0.35 and 0.25%. Each treatment occupied three replication cages, each of which consisted of 10 ducks. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks.. Data recorded were: (a feed intake (g/duck/day, (b egg production (% HDA, and (c feed conversion. All quantitative data obtained during the study were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using SPSS computer program. The results of the variables recorded did not show significantly difference. Increasing Ca level on feed showed an increasing trend of egg production. The average feed consumption ranged at 151-159 g/duck/day; egg production was 75-84%, and the feed conversion was 184-212 g/egg.

  2. Identifying sustainability issues using participatory SWOT analysis - A case study of egg production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, H.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to demonstrate how participatory strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis can be used to identify relevant economic, ecological and societal (EES) issues for the assessment of sustainable development. This is illustrated by the case of egg production

  3. Effect of dietary fatty acid saturation on egg production at end-of-lay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During weeks 58, 62, 66, 70 and 74 of age (end-of-lay period), all eggs produced were recorded and individually weighed while feed intake, as well as body weights of birds, were determined. Data for the respective collection weeks were pooled to calculate and statistical analyse production parameter means for the ...

  4. Detection of Egg Production of Tegal Duck by Blood Protein Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismoyowati Ismoyowati

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of transfferine, albumine, and haemoglobine loci to egg production characteristic of Tegal duck.  100 lying of Tegal ducks keeping by batteray-pen were used in this study.  Individual egg production was recorded until period of 120 days. Blood protein polymorphism analysed by electrophoresis method, and blood sample taken from each ducks.. Egg production and transfferine albumine, and haemoglobine phenotipe on electrophoresis gel were observed in this study.  Genotipe and gene frequencies and genetic variant were applied in data analysis. The result showed that (1 in the transferine locus were identified 3 aleles forming 4 genotipes (TfAA,TfAB, TfBB, and TfBC, (2 in albumine were identified 3 aleles forming 5 genotipes (AlbAA, AlbAB, AlbAC, AlbBB and AlbBC and (3 haemoglobine locus were identified 6 aleles forming 4 genotipes ((HbAA, HbAB, HbAC, HbBB, HbBC dan HbCC.  This study demostrated that B gene frequenci in transfferine, albumine and haemoglonine loci was highest than A and C gene frequency.  Tegal Duck with AA genotipe on all loci had higher egg production than BB and CC homozigote.  This research revealed that the most efective of selection method by haemoglobine protein polymorphism. (Animal Production 10(2: 122-128 (2008   Key Words: Tegal duck, egg production, selection, blood protein polymorphism

  5. Diet composition and quality for Calanus finmarchicus egg production and hatching success off south-west Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Gudfinnsson, H.G.; Gislason, A.

    2002-01-01

    Egg production and hatching success of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus was measured during spring and summer in the waters south-west of Iceland. Egg-production rates varied greatly, both temporally and spatially, with highest average rates found at a station with low chlorophyll-a concentrations...

  6. Energy utilization and heat production of embryos from eggs originating from young and old broiler breeder flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangsuay, A; Meijerhof, R; Ruangpanit, Y; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2013-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the interaction between breeder age and egg size on the energy utilization (experiment 1) and heat production (experiment 2) of broiler embryos. In experiment 1, a total of 4,800 Ross-308 hatching eggs from 2 breeder ages (29 and 53 wk of age, or young and old) and, within each age, 2 egg sizes (57 to 61 g and 66 to 70 g, or small and large) were used. In experiment 2, a total of 240 Ross-308 hatching eggs from 2 breeder flocks at 29 (young) and 53 (old) wk of age, and which were selected from the same egg weight range (58 to 61 g), were tested in 2 replicate chambers. In experiment 1, it was shown that the amount of yolk relative to albumen was higher in the old flock eggs, and this effect was more pronounced in the large eggs. The old flock eggs, especially the larger egg size, contained more energy as a result of a greater yolk size. Energy utilization of the embryos was positively related to yolk size and the amount of energy transferred to yolk-free body (YFB) was largely determined by the available egg energy. The efficiency of converting egg energy into chick body energy (E(YFB)) was equal for both egg sizes and both breeder age groups. Chick YFB weight of young and old flock eggs was equal. However, dry YFB weight of chicks from old flock eggs was higher than in chicks from young flock eggs, which was associated with more protein and fat content and thus more energy accumulated into YFB. As a consequence, embryos derived from old flock eggs produced more heat from d 16 of incubation onward than those of the young flock eggs. In conclusion, the higher energy deposition into chick YFB of old flock eggs, leading to higher embryonic heat production, is the result of a higher amount of available energy in the egg and is not due to changes in E(YFB).

  7. Identification of Promising Mutants Associated with Egg Production Traits Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Yuan

    Full Text Available Egg number (EN, egg laying rate (LR and age at first egg (AFE are important production traits related to egg production in poultry industry. To better understand the knowledge of genetic architecture of dynamic EN during the whole laying cycle and provide the precise positions of associated variants for EN, LR and AFE, laying records from 21 to 72 weeks of age were collected individually for 1,534 F2 hens produced by reciprocal crosses between White Leghorn and Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken, and their genotypes were assayed by chicken 600 K Affymetrix high density genotyping arrays. Subsequently, pedigree and SNP-based genetic parameters were estimated and a genome-wide association study (GWAS was conducted on EN, LR and AFE. The heritability estimates were similar between pedigree and SNP-based estimates varying from 0.17 to 0.36. In the GWA analysis, we identified nine genome-wide significant loci associated with EN of the laying periods from 21 to 26 weeks, 27 to 36 weeks and 37 to 72 weeks. Analysis of GTF2A1 and CLSPN suggested that they influenced the function of ovary and uterus, and may be considered as relevant candidates. The identified SNP rs314448799 for accumulative EN from 21 to 40 weeks on chromosome 5 created phenotypic differences of 6.86 eggs between two homozygous genotypes, which could be potentially applied to the molecular breeding for EN selection. Moreover, our finding showed that LR was a moderate polygenic trait. The suggestive significant region on chromosome 16 for AFE suggested the relationship between sex maturity and immune in the current population. The present study comprehensively evaluates the role of genetic variants in the development of egg laying. The findings will be helpful to investigation of causative genes function and future marker-assisted selection and genomic selection in chickens.

  8. The potential of Mythimna sequax Franclemont eggs for the production of Trichogramma spp. after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Fernanda Paixão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cryopreservation of noctuid eggs in liquid nitrogen has proved be a promising tool in the mass production of Trichogramma, however studies into this technique have only just begun. This study evaluated the response of different densities of the female of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley to the parasitism of Mythimna sequax eggs stored and not stored in liquid nitrogen, and the performance of females reared only in cryopreserved eggs. The study evaluated the influence of the number of T. pretiosum females (4, 8 and 12 released to parasitise 40 M. sequax eggs, stored and not stored for 15 days in liquid nitrogen, as well as the performance of T. pretiosum females reared in eggs stored for three generations and females reared in non-stored eggs. Parasitism by T. pretiosum in stored eggs was 84%, twice the value obtained in previous studies. The emergence of parasitoids was greater than 95% in both experiments. The performance of females raised in stored eggs did not differ from that of females raised in non-stored eggs. The data show that the technique of cryopreservation of M. sequax eggs may be a viable alternative in the mass production of T. pretiosum.

  9. Improvement of foaming ability of egg white product by irradiation and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Binna; Choe, Jun-Ho; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Kyong-Su; Kim, Dong-Ho; Jo, Cheorun

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the enhancement of foaming abilities of liquid egg white (LEW) and egg white powder (EWP) by irradiation and its application for bakery product, LEW and EWP were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 5 kGy by Co-60 gamma ray. There was no pH change found among treatments in both LEW and EWP. The viscosity of LEW decreased significantly by irradiation (P<0.05), whereas that of EWP was not affected by irradiation. The foaming ability of LEW and EWP was significantly increased by irradiation as a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). The volume and the height of angel cake baked with irradiated LEW were significantly higher than those of unirradiated control (P<0.05). For EWP, the volume and the height of angel cake were greater at 2 kGy only than those of control. A significant decrease in hardness, chewiness, and gumminess values and an increase in Hunter L* value were observed in the angel cakes prepared from irradiated egg white products (P<0.05). Results indicated that irradiation of egg white could offer advantages in increasing foaming ability and improving quality of final bakery products

  10. THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS DIETARY LEVEL ON EGG PRODUCTION OF THE BANTUL LOCAL DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sasongko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of various calcium and phosphorus levels on theproduction performance of Bantul Duck. A total of 270 female ducks, 26 weeks age, were used in thestudy with a 3x3 factorial treatment, which is a combination of three levels of Ca: 3.75; 3.25 and 2.75%and three levels of P: 0.45, 0.35 and 0.25%. Each treatment occupied three replication cages, each ofwhich consisted of 10 ducks. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks.. Data recorded were: (a feedintake (g/duck/day, (b egg production (% HDA, and (c feed conversion. All quantitative dataobtained during the study were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using SPSS computerprogram. The results of the variables recorded did not show significantly difference. Increasing Ca levelon feed showed an increasing trend of egg production. The average feed consumption ranged at 151-159g/duck/day; egg production was 75-84%, and the feed conversion was 184-212 g/egg.

  11. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çabuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM or antibiotics (ANTs, a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed, and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed. Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage, amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp., laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L., sage leaf (Salvia triloba L., myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis, fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare, and citrus peel (Citrus sp.. In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P<0.001. However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio.

  12. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) bioaccumulation and effect on heat production on salmon eggs at different stages of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeenpaeae, Kimmo A.; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka; Kukkonen, Jussi V.K

    2004-05-28

    In this study, pentachlorophenol (PCP) bioaccumulation and its effect on heat dissipation was studied in eggs of the lake salmon (Salmo salar m. sebago). In bioaccumulation studies, the eggs were exposed to low concentrations (0.051-0.056 {mu}mol/l, 13.583-14.915) of waterborne [{sup 14}C]-labeled PCP at two developmental stages: (1) 3 weeks after fertilization, and (2) just before hatching. The effect of PCP on egg heat dissipation was measured by a microcalorimeter after exposing the eggs to gradual concentrations (0-0.992 {mu}mol/l) of PCP for 48 h. After both the bioaccumulation and heat dissipation experiments, the eggs were dissected and the concentrations of PCP in tissue were determined separately for eggshell, yolk and embryo. The bioaccumulation studies showed that PCP accumulates more in the eggs at the late developmental stage. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) for different tissues were 3-42 times higher for the eggs at the late developmental stage compared with the eggs that were incubated only for 3 weeks. In early developmental stage, the eggshell adsorbs a large portion of the chemical. In late developmental stage, the actual embryo accumulated both proportionately and totally more than other dissected tissues in the beginning of the exposure, but eventually the yolk accumulated highest total amount of the chemical. A probable reason for the higher PCP body burden in the late developmental stage is that the respiration rate and metabolic activity of the embryo increases as it grows. The salmon eggs responded to an exposure to PCP with an elevated rate of heat dissipation. The threshold concentration above which the embryo heat dissipation was amplified was 29.64 {mu}mol/kg embryo wet weight (ww) or 0.28 {mu}mol/l. The highest embryo heat production was measured at the exposure concentration of 0.992 {mu}mol/l. At higher exposure concentrations the heat dissipation decreased. The basic findings of the study are that PCP accumulates in growing embryonic

  13. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports...

  14. Influence of grinding size of the main cereal of the diet on egg production and eggs quality of brown egg laying hens from 33 to 65 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J; Saldaña, B; Cámara, L; Berrocoso, J D; Mateos, G G

    2018-04-17

    The influence of grinding size of the main cereal of the diet on production and egg quality traits was studied in brown hens from 33 to 65 wk of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 6 treatments arranged as a 3 × 2 factorial with 3 main cereals (barley, corn, and wheat) and 2 grinding size of the cereal (6 and 10 mm screen). Each treatment was replicated 11 times (10 hens/replicate). Diets were isonutritive and contained 2,740 kcal/kg AMEn and 16.8% CP. Egg production, ADFI, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined by period (4 wk) and for the entire experiment. Egg quality traits (percentage of undergrades, Haugh units, thickness, strength, color of the shell, and proportion of albumen, yolk, and shell) were measured also by period. No interactions between main cereal and grinding size of the main cereal of the diet were observed for any of the traits studied. Feed intake, egg production, and BW gain were not affected by diet or grinding size. Eggs were heavier (P < 0.01) in hens fed barley than in hens fed corn or wheat, probably because of the higher fat content of the barley diets. Also, FCR tended to improve in hens fed barley compared with hens fed corn or wheat (P = 0.07). Diet did not affect any of the egg quality traits studied. In summary, barley and wheat conveniently supplemented with enzymes, can be used in substitution of corn at levels of up to 55% in diets for laying hens, without any adverse effect on egg production or egg quality traits. Moreover, the substitution of corn by a combination of barley and supplemental fat increased egg size. Consequently, the inclusion of one or other cereal in the diet will depend primarily on their relative cost. Within the range studied, screen size (6 vs. 10 mm) of the cereal had limited effects on hen production.

  15. Determinants of table egg production in Abia state, Nigeria | Njoku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The elasticity of production to input use was found to be elastic while the returns to sale was increasing. Number of birds and cost of feed were being used below their economic optimum level, while labor and poultry equipment were being over-utilized above their economic optimum. Recommendations were suggested on ...

  16. Growth and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in egg products held at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S E; Chou, C C

    2000-07-01

    Growth and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in steamed eggs and scrambled eggs held at different temperatures (5, 18, 22, 37, 55, and 60 degrees C) were investigated in the present study. Among the holding temperatures tested, both pathogens multiplied best at 37 degrees C followed by 22, 18, and 5 degrees C. In general, E. coli O157:H7 grew better in the egg products than L. monocytogenes did at all the storage temperatures tested except at 5 degrees C. E. coli O157:H7 did not grow in steamed eggs and scrambled eggs held at 5 degrees C. L. monocytogenes showed a slight population increase of approximately 0.6 to 0.9 log CFU/g in these egg products at the end of the 36-h storage period at 5 degrees C. The population of both pathogens detected in the egg products was affected by the initial population, holding temperature, and length of the holding period. It was also noted that L. monocytogenes was more susceptible than E. coli O157:H7 in steamed eggs held at 60 degrees C. After holding at 60 degrees C for 1 h, no detectable viable cells of L. monocytogenes with a population reduction of 5.4 log CFU/g was observed in steamed eggs, whereas a lower population reduction of only approximately 0.5 log CFU/ml was noted for E. coli O157:H7.

  17. Handling of Ammonium Nitrate Mother-Liquid Radiochemical Production - 13089

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherebtsov, Alexander; Dvoeglazov, Konstantine; Volk, Vladimir; Zagumenov, Vladimir; Zverev, Dmitriy; Tinin, Vasiliy; Kozyrev, Anatoly; Shamin, Dladimir; Tvilenev, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the work is to develop a basic technology of decomposition of ammonium nitrate stock solutions produced in radiochemical enterprises engaged in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel and fabrication of fresh fuel. It was necessary to work out how to conduct a one-step thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate, select and test the catalysts for this process and to prepare proposals for recycling condensation. Necessary accessories were added to a laboratory equipment installation decomposition of ammonium nitrate. It is tested several types of reducing agents and two types of catalyst to neutralize the nitrogen oxides. It is conducted testing of modes of the process to produce condensation, suitable for use in the conversion of a new technological scheme of production. It is studied the structure of the catalysts before and after their use in a laboratory setting. It is tested the selected catalyst in the optimal range for 48 hours of continuous operation. (authors)

  18. The cost analysis of material handling in Chinese traditional praying paper production plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, H.; Budiman, I.; Salim, A.

    2018-02-01

    Chinese traditional praying paper industry is an industry which produced Chinese traditional religion praying paper. This kind of industry is rarely examined since it was only in Small and Medium Enterprise (SME’s- form). This industry produced various kinds of Chinese traditional paper products. The purpose of this research is to increase the amount of production, reduce waiting time and moving time, and reduce material handling cost. The research was conducted at prime production activities, consists of: calculate the capacity of the material handler, the frequency of movement, cost of material handling, and total cost of material handling. This displacement condition leads to an ineffective and inefficient production process. The alternative was developed using production judgment and aisle standard. Based on the observation results, it is possible to reduce displacement in the production. Using alternative which by-passed displacement from a rolled paper in the temporary warehouse to cutting and printing workstation, it can reduce material handling cost from 2.26 million rupiahs to 2.00 million rupiahs only for each batch of production. This result leads to increasing of production quantity, reducing waiting and moving time about 10% from the current condition.

  19. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg whites. 160.145 Section 160.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.145 Dried egg whites. (a) The food dried egg whites, egg white solids, dried egg albumen, egg albumen solids is...

  20. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in egg and egg products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanca, Burcu; Cakirogullari, Gul Celik; Ucar, Yunus; Kirisik, Dursun; Kilic, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in eggs from cage hens without soil contact, pasteurized egg samples and imported egg yolk powder samples in Turkey. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs in eggs and pasteurized egg samples are in the range of 0.247-1.527 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.282-1.762 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 202-1,235 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. For egg yolk powder samples, concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are in the range of 0.122-0.494 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.214-0.640 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 217-1,498 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. All results for PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are below the values of 2.5 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 5.0 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 40 ng g(-1) fat imposed in Turkish Regulation for eggs and egg products, respectively. In all samples 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and PCB126 are the most prominent congeners. Mean estimated daily exposure to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs for Turkish population from egg is 0.011 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)d(-1)kg body weight (bw)(-1). Although the exposure levels are below the TDI of 2 pg WHO-TEQ(1998)kg bw(-1), the results were based only on consumption of egg. In order to estimate total dietary intake for Turkish population, various food items should be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of dietary fatty acids on the production and quality of eggs and larvae of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Støttrup, Josianne; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) entering their first year of gamete maturation were fed diets with different levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for 6.5 months prior to commencement of spawning. Gravid females were stripped three times: at the beginning, peak......–173% higher in eggs than in diets. Cod fed the diet with the lowest EPA/ARA ratio had the greatest egg production. Eggs from fish on a diet with high ARA level had significantly higher fertilization and hatching success than those fed low levels of ARA. This diet produced on average 71 viable eggs g 1 female...

  2. Decision method for optimal selection of warehouse material handling strategies by production companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, P.; Tamás, P.; Illés, B.

    2016-11-01

    Adequate establishment and operation of warehouse logistics determines the companies’ competitiveness significantly because it effects greatly the quality and the selling price of the goods that the production companies produce. In order to implement and manage an adequate warehouse system, adequate warehouse position, stock management model, warehouse technology, motivated work force committed to process improvement and material handling strategy are necessary. In practical life, companies have paid small attantion to select the warehouse strategy properly. Although it has a major influence on the production in the case of material warehouse and on smooth costumer service in the case of finished goods warehouse because this can happen with a huge loss in material handling. Due to the dynamically changing production structure, frequent reorganization of warehouse activities is needed, on what the majority of the companies react basically with no reactions. This work presents a simulation test system frames for eligible warehouse material handling strategy selection and also the decision method for selection.

  3. The effects of laying hen housing systems on egg safety and quality. In: Achieving sustainable production of eggs, Vol 1: Safety and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transitions in laying hen management and housing systems have constantly occurred throughout the history of commercial egg production. Around the world, there has been a rapid shift in hen housing requirements since the turn of the current century. In most cases, the changes in hen housing require...

  4. Demonstration of persistent contamination of a cooked egg product production facility with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee and characterization of the persistent strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakociune, D.; Bisgaard, M.; Pedersen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate whether continuous contamination of light pasteurized egg products with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee (S. Tennessee) at a large European producer of industrial egg products was caused by persistent contamination of the production facility......, members of the persistent clone were weak producers of H2S in laboratory medium. S. Tennessee isolated from the case was able to grow better in pasteurized egg product compared with other serovars investigated. Conclusions: It was concluded that the contamination was caused by a persistent strain...... in the production facility and that this strain apparently had adapted to grow in the relevant egg product. Significance and Impact of the Study: S. Tennessee has previously been associated with persistence in hatching facilities. This is the first report of persistent contamination of an egg production facility...

  5. Energy utilization and heat production of embryos from eggs originating from young and old broiler breeder flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.; Meijerhof, R.; Ruangpanit, Y.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the interaction between breeder age and egg size on the energy utilization (experiment 1) and heat production (experiment 2) of broiler embryos. In experiment 1, a total of 4,800 Ross-308 hatching eggs from 2 breeder ages (29 and 53 wk of age, or young and

  6. Bioconversion of nitrogen in an eco-technical system for egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gencheva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The present paper aims to assess nitrogen circulation in an eco-technical system for egg production. The experiments were conducted in modelled conditions in an anthropogenic ecosystem of the “mesocosm” type, in which the unit of the bio-consumers and three eco-technological chains modelling the unit of the bio-decomposers are modelled: manure storing for decontamination /a recommendation on good farming practices/, composting and anaerobic decomposition in an installation for biogas production. A new criterion was implemented for the assessment of the chemical heterogeneity in the biogenic nitrogen cycle in the modified trophic chain – retention coefficient /k/, which is defined as the ratio of nitrogen introduced into the system / nitrogen content in the feed: its quantity in the secondary biological production x 100. The chemical heterogeneity at the level of organisms /differences in the individual components of eggs/ and at the biocenotic level is established. The biogenic nitrogen cycle in the eco-technical chain for egg production is characterized by an uneven distribution in both products of the outflow. The largest amount of nitrogen is found in the egg whites (k = 0.45, while it decreases significantly in egg yolks (k = 0.17 and reaches k = 0.03 in the egg shell, a.k.a. heterogeneity on the level of organisms is established. The nitrogen compounds introduced through the feed ration are concentrated in manure (k = 25.33. Losses of nitrogen are established in two of the manure utilization technologies. The quantity of /k/ in the compost is 20.32, a.k.a. the loss of nitrogen compounds is 19.8%. The biggest losses are found in manure storage; according to the recommendations on good farming practices (k = 18.82 or the reduction of nitrogen is 25.7% compared with fresh manure. Due to redistribution of the chemical elements /a significant part of C, H and O are included in biogas/, there is nitrogen concentration in bio slime

  7. Effect of mercuric chloride feeding on sexual maturity, egg production and fertility in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1973-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) were fed 0, 8, 16 or 32 p.p.m. of mercury as mercuric chloride from 3 days of age through 20 weeks of age. The onset of egg production generally occurred earlier for hens fed HgCl2. Average age in days at first oviposition for the control, 8 p.p.m., 16 p.p.m. and 32 p.p.m. was 48.4, 50.9, 46.9 and 44.0 respectively. The average rate of egg productivity from first oviposition to attainment of full growth (9 weeks of age) correlated positively with in increased dietary mercury (controls, 8 p.p.m., 16 p.p.m., 32 p.p.m. ? 75.2, 69.3, 86.1 and 93.3% respectively). By 20 weeks of age productivity was 81.0, 80.6, 87.5 and 92.9% for control, 8, 16 and 32 p.p.m. groups respectively. Fertility was depressed when hens were fed HgCl2. At 9 weeks of age average control fertility was 59% contrasted with 25% for the 32 p.p.m. group. At 12 weeks fertility increased to 89% and 57% for these groups. From this study it is apparent. that the onset and rate of egg production was stimulated by HgCl2, but fertility was adversely affected.

  8. Pilot material handling system for radiation processing of agricultural and medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandha, R.S.; Nageswar Rao, J; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Petwal, V.C.; Soni, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    A 10 MeV, 10 kW electron LINAC based radiation processing facility is being constructed at Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore for radiation processing of various food products like potatoes, onion, spices, home pack items and medical sterilization. A pilot material handling system has been designed, manufactured, and installed at CAT to verify process parameters viz. conveying speed, dose uniformity, and to study the effect of packing shape and size for radiation processing of different product. This paper describes various features of pilot material handling system. (author)

  9. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) as non-antibiotic production enhancers for use in swine production: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Lili; Zhen, Yuhong; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the use of in-feed antibiotics for growth and disease prevention in livestock production has been under severe scrutiny. The use and misuse of in-feed antibiotics has led to problems with drug residues in animal products and increased bacterial resistance. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) have attracted considerable attention as an alternative to antibiotics to maintain swine health and performance. Oral administration of IgY possesses many advantages over mammalian IgG such...

  10. On the influence of storage duration on rheological properties of liquid egg products and response of eggs to impact loading - Japanese quail eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumbár, V.; Trnka, Jan; Nedomová, Š.; Buchar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 166, May (2015), s. 86-94 ISSN 0260-8774 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : egg quality * japanese quail * haugh units * storage duration * non-Newtonian fluid * non-destructive impact * surface displacement Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 3.199, year: 2015

  11. Bakery products from irradiated and non-irradiated eggs - analytical problems associated with the detection of irradiation in processed foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, H.U. von; Pfordt, J.

    1993-01-01

    In spring and early summer 1992, a number of irradiated egg products were illegally imported into Germay. To prove the irradiation of these egg products, mainly combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied. With this present study we wanted to answer the question if we were also able to detect the use of irradiated eggs in processed foods. The processed food we chose to produce and to investigate was a tart layer. For this product, dilution effects are of minor importance as no extra fat was added. Thus, the layers' fat almost exclusively came from the eggs. To study the influence of emulsifiers, we produced batters both with and without adding an emulsifer. The unsaturted hydrocarbons C14:1, C16:3, C16:2, C17:2, and C17:1 served as markers for an irradiation. In the non-irradiated egg samples and in the tart layers produced from them, these compounds could not be detected (or in some cases only in small amounts). They were, however, detectable in all irradiated samples. DCB could be found in all irradiated egg samples and in the tart layers that were baked from irradiated eggs. It was not present in non-irradiated eggs and in tart layers produced from them. (orig./Vhe)

  12. Identification of transcripts related to high egg production in the chicken hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Yow-Ling; Chen, Lih-Ren; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Yi-Ling; Ju, Jhy-Phen; Chao, Ching-Hsien; Lin, Yuan-Ping; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Tang, Pin-Chi; Lee, Yen-Pai

    2006-09-15

    To identify transcripts related to high egg production expressed specifically in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland of the chicken, two subtracted cDNA libraries were constructed. Two divergently selected strains of Taiwan Country Chickens (TCCs), B (sire line) and L2 (dam line) were used; they had originated from a single population and were further subjected (since 1982) to selection for egg production to 40 wk of age and body weight/comb size, respectively. A total of 324 and 370 clones were identified from the L2-B (L2-subtract-B) and the B-L2 subtracted cDNA libraries, respectively. After sequencing and annotation, 175 and 136 transcripts that represented 53 known and 65 unknown non-redundant sequences were characterized in the L2-B subtracted cDNA library. Quantitative reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR was used to screen the mRNA expression levels of 32 randomly selected transcripts in another 78 laying hens from five different strains. These strains included the two original strains (B and L2) used to construct the subtracted cDNA libraries and an additional three commercial strains, i.e., Black- and Red-feather TCCs and Single-Comb White Leghorn (WL) layer. The mRNA expression levels of 16 transcripts were significantly higher in the L2 than in the B strain, whereas the mRNA expression levels of nine transcripts, BDH, NCAM1, PCDHA@, PGDS, PLAG1, PRL, SAR1A, SCG2 and STMN2, were significantly higher in two high egg production strains, L2 and Single-Comb WL; this indicated their usefulness as molecular markers of high egg production.

  13. Helminth infection is associated with hen mortality in Danish organic egg production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Lena Karina; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Engberg, Ricarda M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether two highly prevalent helminth infections (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis species) are associated with an increased mortality rate for hens at the peak of lay. An observational event study with 11 farms was conducted between 2012 and 2013, with weekl...... that the mortality in organic egg production may be reduced by measures to control A galli and Heterakis species infections....

  14. Nest predation, clutch size, and physiological costs of egg production in the song sparrow (Melospiza melodia)

    OpenAIRE

    Travers, Marc Simon

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of nest predation on both clutch size and the physiological cost of egg production using a clutch removal experiment in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), inducing “high nest predation” (HNP) females to produce many replacement clutches compared to “low nest predation” (LNP) females. In a preliminary analysis we investigated the utility of multiple measures to assess “physiological condition”, including inter-correlations between physiological traits, sex d...

  15. Combined application of Product Lifecycle and Software Configuration Management systems for ITER remote handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Ali; Esque, Salvador; Aha, Liisa; Mattila, Jouni; Siuko, Mikko; Vilenius, Matti; Jaervenpaeae, Jorma; Irving, Mike; Damiani, Carlo; Semeraro, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) systems are widely understood among the industry and hence a PLM system is already in use by International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Organization (IO). However, with the increasing involvement of software in the development, the role of Software Configuration Management (SCM) systems have become equally important. The SCM systems can be useful to meet the higher demands on Safety Engineering (SE), Quality Assurance (QA), Validation and Verification (V and V) and Requirements Management (RM) of the developed software tools. In an experimental environment, such as ITER, the new remote handling requirements emerge frequently. This means the development of new tools or the modification of existing tools and the development of new remote handling procedures or the modification of existing remote handling procedures. PLM and SCM systems together can be of great advantage in the development and maintenance of such remote handling system. In this paper, we discuss how PLM and SCM systems can be integrated together and play their role during the development and maintenance of ITER remote handling system. We discuss the possibility to investigate such setup at DTP2 (Divertor Test Platform 2), which is the full scale mock-up facility to verify the ITER divertor remote handling and maintenance concepts.

  16. Contribution of midgut bacteria to blood digestion and egg production in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenta Paulo FP

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insect gut harbors a variety of microorganisms that probably exceed the number of cells in insects themselves. These microorganisms can live and multiply in the insect, contributing to digestion, nutrition, and development of their host. Recent studies have shown that midgut bacteria appear to strengthen the mosquito's immune system and indirectly enhance protection from invading pathogens. Nevertheless, the physiological significance of these bacteria for mosquitoes has not been established to date. In this study, oral administration of antibiotics was employed in order to examine the contribution of gut bacteria to blood digestion and fecundity in Aedes aegypti. Results The antibiotics carbenicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, gentamycin and kanamycin, were individually offered to female mosquitoes. Treatment of female mosquitoes with antibiotics affected the lysis of red blood cells (RBCs, retarded the digestion of blood proteins and reduced egg production. In addition, antibiotics did not affect the survival of mosquitoes. Mosquito fertility was restored in the second gonotrophic cycle after suspension of the antibiotic treatment, showing that the negative effects of antibiotics in blood digestion and egg production in the first gonotrophic cycle were reversible. Conclusions The reduction of bacteria affected RBC lysis, subsequently retarded protein digestion, deprived mosquito from essential nutrients and, finally, oocyte maturation was affected, resulting in the production of fewer viable eggs. These results indicate that Ae. aegypti and its midgut bacteria work in synergism to digest a blood meal. Our findings open new possibilities to investigate Ae. aegypti-associated bacteria as targets for mosquito control strategies.

  17. Egg Shell and Oyster Shell Powder as Alternatives for Synthetic Phosphate: Effects on the Quality of Cooked Ground Pork Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Guk; Bae, Su Min; Jeong, Jong Youn

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimal ratio of natural calcium powders (oyster shell and egg shell calcium) as synthetic phosphate replacers in pork products. Ground pork samples were subjected to six treatments, as follows: control (-) (no phosphate added), control (+) (0.3% phosphate blend added), treatment 1 (0.5% oyster shell calcium powder added), treatment 2 (0.3% oyster shell calcium powder and 0.2% egg shell calcium powder added), treatment 3 (0.2% oyster shell calcium powder and 0.3% egg shell calcium powder added), and treatment 4 (0.5% egg shell calcium powder added). The addition of natural calcium powders resulted in an increase in the pH values of meat products, regardless of whether they were used individually or mixed. The highest cooking loss was observed ( p cooking loss in samples with natural calcium powder added was similar ( p >0.05) to that in the positive control samples. CIE L* values decreased as the amount of added egg shell calcium powder increased. CIE a* values were higher ( p egg shell powder (treatment 2 or 3) was effective for the improvement of textural properties of the pork products. The findings show that the combined use of 0.2% oyster shell calcium and 0.3% egg shell calcium should enable the replacement of synthetic phosphate in the production of cooked pork products with desirable qualities.

  18. Elevated corticosterone during egg production elicits increased maternal investment and promotes nestling growth in a wild songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, E Keith; Bowden, Rachel M; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids circulating in breeding birds during egg production accumulate within eggs, and may provide a potent form of maternal effect on offspring phenotype. However, whether these steroids affect offspring development remains unclear. Here, we employed a non-invasive technique that experimentally elevated the maternal transfer of corticosterone to eggs in a wild population of house wrens. Feeding corticosterone-injected mealworms to free-living females prior to and during egg production increased the number of eggs that females produced and increased corticosterone concentrations in egg yolks. This treatment also resulted in an increase in the amount of yolk allocated to eggs. Offspring hatching from these eggs begged for food at a higher rate than control offspring and eventually attained increased prefledging body condition, a trait predictive of their probability of recruitment as breeding adults in the study population. Our results indicate that an increase in maternal glucocorticoids within the physiological range can enhance maternal investment and offspring development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of dietary zinc for egg production and antioxidant capacity in Chinese egg-laying ducks fed a diet based on corn-wheat bran and soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Wang, S; Zhang, H X; Ruan, D; Xia, W G; Cui, Y Y; Zheng, C T; Lin, Y C

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on productive performance and antioxidant status in laying ducks. Five-hundred-four laying ducks were divided into 7 treatments, each containing 6 replicates of 12 ducks. The ducks were caged individually and fed a corn-soybean meal and wheat bran basal diet (37 mg Zn/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, or 90 mg Zn/kg (as zinc sulfate). During the early laying period of 10 d (daily egg production 80%). Average egg weight and feed intake did not differ among the groups of graded Zn supplementation.The egg quality was not affected by dietary Zn, including the egg shape index, Haugh unit, yolk color score, egg composition, and shell thickness. The activities of plasma activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) increased in a quadratic manner (P < 0.001) with increasing supplemental Zn. Plasma concentration of Zn increased quadratically (P < 0.05) as dietary Zn increased. The hepatic activity of Cu/Zn-SOD and GSH-PX increased quadratically (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary Zn. Plasma Zn concentrations were positively correlated with activities of T-SOD (P < 0.05), and positively with plasma Cu. Plasma concentration of reduced glutathione was correlated with plasma Cu. In conclusion, supplementation of Zn at 30 or 45 mg/kg to a corn-wheat bran and soybean basal diet may improve the productive performance and enhance the antioxidant capacity. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Functional and organic eggs as an alternative to conventional production: a conjoint analysis of consumers' preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesías, Francisco J; Martínez-Carrasco, Federico; Martínez, José M; Gaspar, Paula

    2011-02-01

    In the current context of growing consumer demand for foodstuffs that are healthy and safe and that are obtained in a manner respectful to the welfare of animals, the analysis of consumer preferences towards attributes of this type takes on particular importance. These trends are especially clear in the case of the consumption of eggs because of their strong negative association with cholesterol levels and their extremely intensive systems of production. The introduction of variants that are more in harmony with current consumer demands represents an interesting market alternative. The present study was aimed at investigating the preferences of Spanish consumers for these alternative types of egg that are entering the market. The survey was conducted with 361 consumers from October 2007 to March 2008. The conjoint analysis allowed us to estimate the relative importance of the main attributes that affect consumer preferences for eggs and to distinguish segments of consumers with similar preference profiles. It was found that price is the most important attribute determining consumer preferences, followed by the hens' feed and their rearing conditions. It was also found that only some groups of consumers are willing to pay the premium necessary for alternative methods of production. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs. ...

  2. Factors affecting remote handling productivity during installation of the ITER-like wall at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.; Matthews, G.; Thomas, J.; Hermon, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The paper describes the challenges to achieve the installation of the ILW beryllium sliced wall. ► Examines the factual difference between estimated remote handling in-vessel durations and those achieved, with a view to quantifying the typical disparity between the two. ► The paper will elaborate and highlight the contributing factors. This offers an opportunity to provide provenance for availability estimates of devices such as ITER and DEMO. ► The paper will identify and describe the factors influencing the ratio between estimated versus the actual durations for remote handling operations. -- Abstract: Remote handling operations at JET have encountered many challenges to achieve the installation of the ILW beryllium sliced wall during the Enhanced Performance stage 2 (EP2) shutdown of JET. This was a demanding and challenging activity which was based on the experience gained from a period of over 15 years (20,000 h operations) of JET In-Vessel remote handling operations. This paper describes the difference between estimated remote handling in-vessel durations and those actually achieved with a view to quantifying the typical disparity between them. There are many factors that affect productivity of the remote handling operations and it is important to accommodate these either in the design of the component or within the production of the operational procedures with a view to minimise all impact on the final task duration. Some factors that affect the efficiency are outside the control of the design and operational procedures. These are unforeseen anomalies that were encountered during the removal, naked wall survey and installation of the components. Recoveries from these anomalies are extremely challenging and need to be addressed efficiently in order to minimise the impact on the shutdown duration and prevent optimised panned activities from becoming inefficient by fragmentation

  3. Effect of dietary inclusion of sugar syrup on production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Hussein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary inclusion of sugar syrup on quality of egg, cholesterol level, production performance, serum total protein and blood biochemical parameters were evaluated in laying hens. A total of 300 commercial Lohmann LSL hens (30 weeks of age were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatments which consisted of a normal corn diet containing corn–soy and 2 diets containing 5% and 10% sugar syrup. Each treatment was replicated 5 times (n = 20. Egg production, feed intake, body weight and egg weight of laying hens fed different diets were recorded. The experiment lasted for 20 weeks. The Haugh unit scores of hens fed diets with sugar syrup were significantly increased (P < 0.05 compared with the control treatment. The sugar syrup had no significant effect on liver enzymes, total protein, blood glucose and creatinine in all treatments. The eggs laid by hens fed sugar syrup diets had lower cholesterol level (P < 0.05 compared with those laid by hens fed the control diet. Electrophoresis analysis showed that comparable electrophoretic patterns were noticed between serum proteins of treatment groups. From the results, it can be concluded that sugar syrup diets and corn diets have similar effects on feed intake, body weight, production of eggs and blood biochemical parameters in layer hens, which suggests sugar syrup can be used as an energy source for replacing part of corn in poultry layer diets. Keywords: Cholesterol, Sugar syrup diet, Egg, Egg quality, Protein

  4. Effects of dietary combination of chromium and biotin on egg production, serum metabolites, and egg yolk mineral and cholesterol concentrations in heat-distressed laying quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, K; Onderci, M; Sahin, N; Gursu, M F; Vijaya, J; Kucuk, O

    2004-11-01

    Chromium picolinate is used in the poultry diet because of its antistress effects in addition to the fact that the requirement for it is increased during stress. This study was conducted to determine if the negative effects of high ambient temperature (34 degrees C) on egg production, egg quality, antioxidant status, and cholesterol and mineral content of egg yolk could be alleviated by combination of chromium picolinate and biotin (0.6/2.0; Diachrome, as formulated by Nutrition 21 Inc.), in laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japanica). Quails (n= 240; 50 d old) were divided into 8 groups, 30 birds per group. The quails were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 2, 4, or 8 mg of Diachrome/kg diet. Birds were kept at 22 degrees C and 53% relative humidity (RH). At 14 wk of age, the thermoneutral (TN) group remained in the same temperature as at the beginning of experiment, whereas the heat stress (HS) group was kept in an environment-controlled room (34 degrees C and 41% RH) for 3 wk. Heat exposure decreased performance when the basal diet was fed (p = 0.001). Diachrome supplementation at 4 and 8 mg/kg diet, increased feed intake (p = 0.05), egg production (p = 0.05), feed efficiency (p = 0.01), egg weight (p = 0.05), and Haugh unit (p = 0.01) in quails reared under heat stress conditions. Heat exposure increased concentrations of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) (p = 0.001), glucose, and cholesterol (p = 0.01), which were elevated by supplemental Diachrome (p < or = 0.05). Egg yolk Cr, Zn, and Fe (p = 0.01) concentrations increased linearly, whereas MDA and cholesterol concentrations decreased (p = 0.05) as dietary Diachrome supplementation increased in HS groups. Similar effects of supplementation on serum levels of glucose and cholesterol (p = 0.05) and egg yolk concentrations of cholesterol (p = 0.05) and Cr (p = 0.01) were observed in TN groups. No significant differences in other values were observed in the TN groups. Results of the

  5. Efficacy of fluralaner flavored chews (Bravecto) administered to dogs against the adult cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis and egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Michael W; Smith, Vicki; Bennett, Tashina; Math, Lisa; Kallman, James; Heaney, Kathleen; Sun, Fangshi

    2015-07-11

    Fluralaner is a potent insecticide and acaricide with rapid and persistent efficacy. This study measured the efficacy of fluralaner flavored chews (Bravecto®, Merck Animal Health) administered to dogs against adult Ctenocephalides felis felis and egg production. Twelve purpose-bred dogs were randomly allocated to two groups of six dogs each. Dogs in treatment group 1 were administered a single fluralaner flavored chew to achieve a minimum dose of at least 25 mg/kg while treatment group 2 served as untreated controls. On Days -2, 28, 56, 84, 91, 98, 105, 112, and 120 post-treatment, each dog was infested with approximately 200 unfed cat fleas, C. felis felis (KS1 strain). Forty-eight hours after treatment and 48 h after each infestation, eggs were collected over a 3-h period, counted and viability determined. Dogs were combed to remove any remaining fleas. Treatment of dogs with oral fluralaner provided a 100% reduction in flea counts 48 h after treatment and within 48 h of every post-treatment infestation through Day122. Egg production from fluralaner treated dogs was reduced by 99.9% (two eggs from one dog) within 48 h after treatment and not a single egg (100% efficacy) was thereafter collected from treated dogs. Adult flea counts and egg production from the fluralaner-treated dogs were significantly lower than for non-treated controls at all post-treatment evaluations (P dog 48 h after treatment did not produce any adult fleas. As no additional eggs were collected from treated dogs, no viability assessment was performed. A single oral dose of fluralaner flavored chews provided 100% efficacy against repeated flea infestations on dogs for 4 months. Fluralaner reduced egg production of activity reproducing female fleas by 99.9% and then killed every single female flea before any eggs could be produced following each subsequent re-infestation for the entire 122-day evaluation period.

  6. 9 CFR 590.411 - Requirement of formulas and approval of labels for use in official egg products plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... composition) is added to a liquid or frozen egg product or to an ingredient of such products (in excess of the... bulk packaged product. Nutrition labeling is required when nutrients, such as proteins, vitamins, and... consumers in such bulk form or containers. (2) Products containing an added vitamin, mineral, or protein, or...

  7. Effect of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on the productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late-phase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nassiri Moghaddam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production. A completely randomized design with a 3×2×2 factorial arrangement, with three levels (0.34, 0.31, and 0.27% of methionine (MET, two levels (12.8 and 14.7% of protein (PRO and two levels (1 and 3% of tallow (TAL with constant level of linoleic acid (1.55 ± 0.02%, was used. A number of 144 Hi-Line W-36 layers from 70 to 76 wk of age was randomly distributed into 12 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 3 hens each. Egg production and egg weight were daily recorded and feed intake and egg quality traits were recorded every 2 wk. There was a significant interaction between PRO levels and TAL for egg weight. Low levels of TAL and PRO decreased egg weight throughout the experiment. High levels of MET and TAL with concomitant reduced PRO, increased eggshell thickness, and a significant interaction between levels of MET, PRO and TAL was observed during the experiment (70 to 76 wk. Low level of protein (12.8% significantly decreased albumen weight in the third 2-wk period. Yolk color increased when hens were fed low levels of PRO and TAL. Results of this experiment indicated that the simultaneous reduction of dietary PRO and MET in diets of Hi-Line W-36 laying hens in the late phase of production, reduced egg weight (P<0.05. Productive performance and egg quality were not affected by 12 and 20% reduction of PRO and MET, respectively. It seems that decreasing the levels of MET and PRO to lower than the recommended values can decrease egg weight without negative effects on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production.

  8. Feeding Diets Containing Different Forms of Duckweed on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was undertaken to study the feeding effect of diets containing different forms of duckweed for local ducks on their productive performance and egg quality or egg yolk pigmentation. A total of 90 birds of 24 wk old ducks were randomly divided into 18 experimental units of 2.0 x 1.0 m2 of cages. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design (3 treatments with 6 replicates, 5 birds each. There were 3 dietary treatments, namely P1= ducks fed a complete diet containing 20 % of dried duckweed and given in the form of dry-mash; P2= a complete diet in P1 but it was offered in wet form (slurry; and P3= ducks were offered basal diet in the form of dry-mash and fresh duckweed was offered separately ad libitum. Diets were formulated to have similar nutritional contents. Feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and egg yolk pigmentation were measured. The result of the study showed that these three parameters were affected by the feeding different forms of duckweed. Feeding diet with fresh duckweed brought about the best pigmentation than did the dry one. Fresh duckweed offers a promise as a potential feedstuff for ducks and has a good implication in reducing feed processing cost.

  9. Biological control of Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on finished stored products using egg and larval parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, Matthew J; Flinn, Paul W; Nechols, James R

    2006-08-01

    Biological control using hymenopteran parasitoids presents an attractive alternative to insecticides for reducing infestations and damage from the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in retail and warehouse environments. We examined the potential for using combinations of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma deion Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), and the larval parasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for preventing infestations of P. interpunctella in coarse-ground cornmeal as well as the influence of packaging on parasitoid effectiveness. Treatments included one or both parasitoids and either cornmeal infested with P. interpunctella eggs or eggs deposited on the surface of plastic bags containing cornmeal. H. hebetor had a significant impact on the number of live P. interpunctella, suppressing populations by approximately 71% in both unbagged and bagged cornmeal. In contrast, T. deion did not suppress P. interpunctella in unbagged cornmeal. However, when released on bagged cornmeal, T. deion significantly increased the level of pest suppression (87%) over bagging alone (15%). When H. hebetor was added to bagged cornmeal, there was a significant reduction of live P. interpunctella compared with the control (70.6%), with a further reduction observed when T. deion was added (96.7%). These findings suggest that, in most situations, a combined release of both T. deion and H. hebetor would have the greatest impact; because even though packaging may protect most of the stored products, there are usually areas in the storage landscape where poor sanitation is present.

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation with Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dairon Más-Toro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the dietary supplementation of powdered leaves of Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens, a total of 160 White Leghorn birds (Hybrid L-33 of 27 weeks of age were allotted during 70 days, according to completely randomized design. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet fed without or with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia. Supplementation of 1.0 and 1.5% of M. citrifolia powder increased the egg weight (P0.05 among treatments. Also, supplementation of 0.5 and 1.0% of M. citrifolia increased the shell thickness and the yolk color was pigmented by this medicinal plant. It recommended the dietary supplementation of 1.0% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia on laying hen diets to improve the egg weight, shell thickness and yolk color.

  11. Effect of marine by-product meals on hen egg production parameters, yolk lipid composition and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyes-Vargas, E; Ortega-Pérez, R; Espinoza-Villavicencio, J L; Arellano-Pérez, M; Civera, R; Palacios, E

    2018-04-01

    The effect of including 5% marine by-product meals in feeds of laying hens on egg production, composition and sensory characteristics was tested. Marine by-product meals were prepared using two methods: (i) cooking (100°C/10 min) followed by drying (60°C/24 hr) or (ii) grinding followed by drying. The raw materials used for meal production were scallop or squid viscera, shrimp heads or whole mackerel. A total of 108 laying hens were allocated to nine diet treatments; one control diet (corn and soya bean based) and eight experimental diets, containing 95% of the control feed and 5% of the experimental meal for three weeks. Daily intake was higher in hens fed the dried mackerel and cooked shrimp meals. All the experimental treatments showed significantly higher concentration of n-3 HUFA in yolk reserves and phospholipids compared to the control (0.12-0.13 g per 100 g), especially those with scallop or squid prepared by both methods (0.53-0.95 g per 100 g). Scallop, squid and shrimp meal inclusion in the feed produced eggs with more astaxanthin (0.22 mg per 100 g) while this carotenoid was absent in the control and mackerel treatments. Visual evaluation of raw yolk colour increased with the inclusion of marine by-product meals with higher values in hens fed shrimp heads (13), followed by scallop viscera (11), squid viscera (9), and with similar values for mackerel and control (4). The taste, aroma, texture and colour of cooked eggs from different treatments were not statically different when evaluated by a panel of 60 untrained people. These results suggest that meals from marine by-products are a better alternative for improving egg yolk composition by increasing n-3 HUFA when compared to fishmeal as they also increase astaxanthin and yolk pigmentation without affecting egg sensory characteristics. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Pre- and post-hatch trophic egg production in the subsocial burrower bug, Canthophorus niveimarginatus (Heteroptera: Cydnidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Lisa; Baba, Narumi; Inadomi, Koichi; Yanagi, Takao; Hironaka, Mantaro; Nomakuchi, Shintaro

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, three terrestrial bugs, Adomerus triguttulus and Sehirus cinctus (Cydnidae) and the closely related Parastrachia japonensis (Parastrachiidae), have been the focus of several fascinating studies because of the remarkable, extensive parental care they were found to display. This care includes egg and nymph guarding, production of trophic eggs, unfertilized, low cost eggs that are used as food by newly hatched nymphs, and progressive provisioning of the host seed. In this study, we have investigated yet a third related Asian cydnid, Canthophorus niveimarginatus, with regard to the possible occurrence of some or all of these complex traits in order to assess how widespread these maternal investment patterns are in this group of insects and to better understand the implications of their manifestations from an evolutionary context. Manipulative experiments were carried out in the lab to determine whether females provision nests. Observational and egg removal studies were carried out to determine whether trophic eggs are produced, and, if they are, their possible impact on nymphal success. The findings revealed that C. niveimarginatus does, in fact, progressively provision young, and this species also displays all of the other behaviors associated with extended parental care in subsocial insects. Moreover, unlike the other two related species, which place trophic eggs on the surface of the original egg mass, C. niveimarginatus produces both pre- and post-hatch trophic eggs. Nymphs deprived of access to post-hatch trophic eggs had significantly lower body weight and survival rate than those that fed on them. To our knowledge, this is the first time the production of both pre- and post-hatch trophic eggs has been demonstrated in insects outside the Hymenoptera. In this paper, we qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrate the provisioning behavior and patterns of trophic egg production in C. niveimarginatus. When and how trophic eggs are produced and

  13. A Remote Controlled Robotic Arm That Reads Barcodes and Handles Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ying Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a 6-axis robotic arm, which was controlled by an embedded Raspberry Pi with onboard WiFi, was developed and fabricated. A mobile application (APP, designed for the purpose, was used to operate and monitor a robotic arm by means of a WiFi connection. A computer vision was used to read common one-dimensional barcode (EAN code for the handling and identification of products such as milk tea drinks, sodas and biscuits. The gripper on the end of the arm could sense the clamping force and allowed real-time control of the amount of force used to hold and handle the products. The packages were all made of different material and this control allowed them to be handled without danger of damage or deformation. The maximum handling torque used was ~1.08 Nm and the mechanical design allowed the force of the gripper to be uniformly applied to the sensor to ensure accurate measurement of the force.

  14. Assessment of the risks associated with Iodine-125 handling production sources for brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Daiane C.B.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.; Vicente, Roberto; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Souza, Carla D.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Souza, Anderson S.; Batista, Talita Q.; Melo, Emerson R.; Camargo, Anderson R., E-mail: dcsouza@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam Junior, Dib, E-mail: dib.karam@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil, prostate cancer is the second most frequent disease, with an estimated 68,800 new cases in 2013. This type of cancer can be treated with brachytherapy, which uses sealed sources of Iodine-125 implanted permanently in the prostate. These sources are currently imported at a high cost, making public treatment in large scale impractical. To reduce costs and to meet domestic demand, the laboratory for production of brachytherapy sources at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) is currently nationalizing the production of this radioisotope. Iodine is quite volatile making the handling of its radioactive isotopes potentially dangerous. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the risks to which workers are exposed during the production and handling of the sources. The research method consisted initially of a literature review on the toxicity of iodine, intake limits, related physical risks, handling of accidents, generation of radioactive wastes, etc. The results allowed for establishing safety and radioprotection policies in order to ensure efficient and safe production in all stages and the implementation of good laboratory practices. (author)

  15. Assessment of the risks associated with Iodine-125 handling production sources for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Daiane C.B.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.; Vicente, Roberto; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Souza, Carla D.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Souza, Anderson S.; Batista, Talita Q.; Melo, Emerson R.; Camargo, Anderson R.; Karam Junior, Dib

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, prostate cancer is the second most frequent disease, with an estimated 68,800 new cases in 2013. This type of cancer can be treated with brachytherapy, which uses sealed sources of Iodine-125 implanted permanently in the prostate. These sources are currently imported at a high cost, making public treatment in large scale impractical. To reduce costs and to meet domestic demand, the laboratory for production of brachytherapy sources at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) is currently nationalizing the production of this radioisotope. Iodine is quite volatile making the handling of its radioactive isotopes potentially dangerous. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the risks to which workers are exposed during the production and handling of the sources. The research method consisted initially of a literature review on the toxicity of iodine, intake limits, related physical risks, handling of accidents, generation of radioactive wastes, etc. The results allowed for establishing safety and radioprotection policies in order to ensure efficient and safe production in all stages and the implementation of good laboratory practices. (author)

  16. The low-level waste handling challenge at the Feed Materials Production Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, J.E.; Diehl, D.E.; Gardner, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The management of low-level wastes from the production of depleted uranium at the Feed Materials Production Center presents an enormous challenge. The recovery of uranium from materials contaminated with depleted uranium is usually not economical. As a result, large volumes of wastes are generated. The Westinghouse Materials Company of Ohio has established an aggressive waste management program. Simple solutions have been applied to problems in the areas of waste handling and waste minimization. The success of this program has been demonstrated by the reduction of low-level waste inventory at the Feed Materials Production Center

  17. The low-level waste handling challenge at the Feed Materials Production Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, J.E.; Diehl, D.E.; Gardner, R.L.

    1988-02-01

    The management of low-level wastes from the production of depleted uranium at the Feed Materials Production Center presents an enormous challenge. The recovery of uranium from materials contaminated with depleted uranium is usually not economical. As a result, large volumes of wastes are generated. The Westinghouse Materials Company of Ohio has established an aggressive waste management program. Simple solutions have been applied to problems in the areas of waste handling and waste minimization. The success of this program has been demonstrated by the reduction of low-level waste inventory at the Feed Materials Production Center. 8 refs., 4 figs

  18. Dynamics of Salmonella Shedding and Welfare of Hens in Free-Range Egg Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Vaibhav C.; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Caraguel, Charles; Moyle, Talia; Rault, Jean-Loup; Sexton, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The current study investigated the effect of environmental stressors (i.e., weather changes) on Salmonella shedding in free-range production systems and the correlations with behavioral and physiological measures (i.e., fecal glucocorticoid metabolites). This involved longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella shedding and environmental contamination on four commercial free-range layer farms. The shedding of Salmonella was variable across free-range farms and in different seasons. There was no significant effect of season on the Salmonella prevalence during this investigation. In this study, the combined Salmonella most probable number (MPN) counts in environmental (including feces, egg belt, dust, nest box, and ramp) samples were highest in samples collected during the summer season (4th sampling, performed in February). The predominant serovars isolated during this study were Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage types 135 and 135a. These two phage types were involved in several egg product-related Salmonella outbreaks in humans. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) results indicated that MLVA types detected from human food poisoning cases exhibited MLVA patterns similar to the strains isolated during this study. All Salmonella isolates (n = 209) were tested for 15 different genes involved in adhesion, invasion, and survival of Salmonella spp. We also observed variations for sopA, ironA, and misL. There were no positive correlations between fecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM) and Salmonella prevalence and/or shedding in feces. Also, there were no positive correlations between Salmonella prevalence and Salmonella count (log MPN) and any of the other welfare parameters. IMPORTANCE In this study, the welfare of laying hens and Salmonella shedding were compared over a prolonged period of time in field conditions. This study investigated the long-term shedding of Salmonella

  19. Retention and egg production of Microphallus pygmaeus in mice: the influence of the adrenal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R A; James, B L; Kamis, A B

    1986-01-01

    Fewer adult Microphallus pygmaeus are recovered from the small intestine of adrenalectomized male mice than from sham-operated counterparts. Preinfection intraperitoneal injection of 2 IU or 4 IU ACTH daily for 7 days increases the initial primary worm burden in male mice. Preinfection intramuscular injection of 325 micrograms corticosterone daily for 7 days increases the initial worm burden and alters the subsequent rate of decline and duration of the primary infection. However, egg production is unaffected. The changes in parasite numbers are attributed to the immunosuppressive action of corticosterone.

  20. Dynamics of Salmonella Shedding and Welfare of Hens in Free-Range Egg Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Vaibhav C; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Caraguel, Charles; Moyle, Talia; Rault, Jean-Loup; Sexton, Margaret; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2017-03-01

    The current study investigated the effect of environmental stressors (i.e., weather changes) on Salmonella shedding in free-range production systems and the correlations with behavioral and physiological measures (i.e., fecal glucocorticoid metabolites). This involved longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella shedding and environmental contamination on four commercial free-range layer farms. The shedding of Salmonella was variable across free-range farms and in different seasons. There was no significant effect of season on the Salmonella prevalence during this investigation. In this study, the combined Salmonella most probable number (MPN) counts in environmental (including feces, egg belt, dust, nest box, and ramp) samples were highest in samples collected during the summer season (4th sampling, performed in February). The predominant serovars isolated during this study were Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage types 135 and 135a. These two phage types were involved in several egg product-related Salmonella outbreaks in humans. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) results indicated that MLVA types detected from human food poisoning cases exhibited MLVA patterns similar to the strains isolated during this study. All Salmonella isolates ( n = 209) were tested for 15 different genes involved in adhesion, invasion, and survival of Salmonella spp. We also observed variations for sopA , ironA , and misL There were no positive correlations between fecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM) and Salmonella prevalence and/or shedding in feces. Also, there were no positive correlations between Salmonella prevalence and Salmonella count (log MPN) and any of the other welfare parameters. IMPORTANCE In this study, the welfare of laying hens and Salmonella shedding were compared over a prolonged period of time in field conditions. This study investigated the long-term shedding of Salmonella serovars in

  1. Manual on safe production, transport, handling and storage of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document includes a description of the physical, chemical and radiological properties of UF 6 and related products, including information concerning their production, handling, storage and transportation and the management of the wastes which result. All the operations of UF 6 management are considered form a safety point of view. The IAEA organized a series of meetings to consider the hazards of UF 6 transport since considerable quantities of depleted, natural and enriched UF 6 are transported between nuclear fuel sites. Storage of depleted UF 6 is another important issue. Factors affecting long term storage are presented, especially site choice and cylinder corrosion. Other topics such as waste management, quality assurance and emergency preparedness which contribute to the overall safety of UF 6 handling, are included. The intention of this document is to provide analysis of the safety implications of all stages of UF 6 operations and to draw attention to specific features and properties of importance. 38 refs, figs, tabs

  2. Operative experience in handling enriched uranium compounds in an U3O8 production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedenthal, M.; Cardenas Yucra, H.R.; Cinat, E.; Pino, H.F.; Surin, C.

    1987-01-01

    The design of a nuclear installation associated with chemical processes depends fundamentally on the risks derived from the materials and process used. The operative experience brings useful data mainly related to the ventilation and equipment design that allow to improve the handling of operational incidents and maintenance work. The paper presents the results extracted from a production campaign; ambient and personal monitoring results from monitorings performed routinely and during special interventions are commented. (Author)

  3. Surrogate production of eggs and sperm by intrapapillary transplantation of germ cells in cytoablated adult fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullip Kumar Majhi

    Full Text Available Germ cell transplantation (GCT is a promising assisted reproductive technology for the conservation and propagation of endangered and valuable genetic resources. In teleost fish, GCT in adult gonads has been achieved only in male recipients, limiting greatly the usefulness of this technique in situations where both sexes need equal and timely attention for conservation and/or propagation. Here we describe a simplified GCT approach that ultimately leads to production of donor-derived eggs and sperm in considerably short time. Donor germ cells isolated from young pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis (Atherinopsidae were transplanted non-surgically through the genital papilla into the sexually mature gonads of Patagonian pejerrey O. hatcheri recipients whose gonads have been depleted of endogenous GCs by heat (26°C and chemical treatment (four doses of Busulfan at 30 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg for females and males, respectively. Transplanted spermatogonial and oogonial cells were able to recolonize the recipients' gonads and produce functional donor origin eggs and sperm within 7 months from the GCT. We confirmed the presence of donor-derived gametes by PCR in 17% and 5% of the surrogate O. hatcheri fathers and mothers, respectively. The crosses between surrogate fathers and O. bonariensis mothers yielded 12.6-39.7% pure O. bonariensis and that between a surrogate mother and an O. bonariensis father yielded 52.2% pure O. bonariensis offspring. Our findings confirm that transplantation of germ cells into sexually competent adult fish by non-surgical methods allows the production of functional donor-derived eggs and sperm in a considerably short time. The methods described here could play a vital role in conservation and rapid propagation of endangered fish genetic resources.

  4. Surrogate production of eggs and sperm by intrapapillary transplantation of germ cells in cytoablated adult fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, Sullip Kumar; Hattori, Ricardo Shohei; Rahman, Sheikh Mustafizur; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Germ cell transplantation (GCT) is a promising assisted reproductive technology for the conservation and propagation of endangered and valuable genetic resources. In teleost fish, GCT in adult gonads has been achieved only in male recipients, limiting greatly the usefulness of this technique in situations where both sexes need equal and timely attention for conservation and/or propagation. Here we describe a simplified GCT approach that ultimately leads to production of donor-derived eggs and sperm in considerably short time. Donor germ cells isolated from young pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis (Atherinopsidae) were transplanted non-surgically through the genital papilla into the sexually mature gonads of Patagonian pejerrey O. hatcheri recipients whose gonads have been depleted of endogenous GCs by heat (26°C) and chemical treatment (four doses of Busulfan at 30 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg for females and males, respectively). Transplanted spermatogonial and oogonial cells were able to recolonize the recipients' gonads and produce functional donor origin eggs and sperm within 7 months from the GCT. We confirmed the presence of donor-derived gametes by PCR in 17% and 5% of the surrogate O. hatcheri fathers and mothers, respectively. The crosses between surrogate fathers and O. bonariensis mothers yielded 12.6-39.7% pure O. bonariensis and that between a surrogate mother and an O. bonariensis father yielded 52.2% pure O. bonariensis offspring. Our findings confirm that transplantation of germ cells into sexually competent adult fish by non-surgical methods allows the production of functional donor-derived eggs and sperm in a considerably short time. The methods described here could play a vital role in conservation and rapid propagation of endangered fish genetic resources.

  5. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Egg production in a coastal seabird, the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens, declines during the last century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise K Blight

    Full Text Available Seabirds integrate information about oceanic ecosystems across time and space, and are considered sensitive indicators of marine conditions. To assess whether hypothesized long-term foodweb changes such as forage fish declines may be reflected in a consumer's life history traits over time, I used meta-regression to evaluate multi-decadal changes in aspects of egg production in the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens, a common coastal bird. Study data were derived from literature searches of published papers and unpublished historical accounts, museum egg collections, and modern field studies, with inclusion criteria based on data quality and geographic area of the original study. Combined historical and modern data showed that gull egg size declined at an average of 0.04 cc y(-1 from 1902 (108 y, equivalent to a decline of 5% of mean egg volume, while clutch size decreased over 48 y from a mean of 2.82 eggs per clutch in 1962 to 2.25 in 2009. There was a negative relationship between lay date and mean clutch size in a given year, with smaller clutches occurring in years where egg laying commenced later. Lay date itself advanced over time, with commencement of laying presently (2008-2010 7 d later than in previous studies (1959-1986. This study demonstrates that glaucous-winged gull investment in egg production has declined significantly over the past ∼50-100 y, with such changes potentially contributing to recent population declines. Though gulls are generalist feeders that should readily be able to buffer themselves against food web changes, they are likely nutritionally constrained during the early breeding period, when egg production requirements are ideally met by consumption of high-quality prey such as forage fish. This study's results suggest a possible decline in the availability of such prey, and the incremental long-term impoverishment of a coastal marine ecosystem bordering one of North America's rapidly growing urban areas.

  7. Egg Production in a Coastal Seabird, the Glaucous-Winged Gull (Larus glaucescens), Declines during the Last Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blight, Louise K.

    2011-01-01

    Seabirds integrate information about oceanic ecosystems across time and space, and are considered sensitive indicators of marine conditions. To assess whether hypothesized long-term foodweb changes such as forage fish declines may be reflected in a consumer's life history traits over time, I used meta-regression to evaluate multi-decadal changes in aspects of egg production in the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), a common coastal bird. Study data were derived from literature searches of published papers and unpublished historical accounts, museum egg collections, and modern field studies, with inclusion criteria based on data quality and geographic area of the original study. Combined historical and modern data showed that gull egg size declined at an average of 0.04 cc y−1 from 1902 (108 y), equivalent to a decline of 5% of mean egg volume, while clutch size decreased over 48 y from a mean of 2.82 eggs per clutch in 1962 to 2.25 in 2009. There was a negative relationship between lay date and mean clutch size in a given year, with smaller clutches occurring in years where egg laying commenced later. Lay date itself advanced over time, with commencement of laying presently (2008–2010) 7 d later than in previous studies (1959–1986). This study demonstrates that glaucous-winged gull investment in egg production has declined significantly over the past ∼50–100 y, with such changes potentially contributing to recent population declines. Though gulls are generalist feeders that should readily be able to buffer themselves against food web changes, they are likely nutritionally constrained during the early breeding period, when egg production requirements are ideally met by consumption of high-quality prey such as forage fish. This study's results suggest a possible decline in the availability of such prey, and the incremental long-term impoverishment of a coastal marine ecosystem bordering one of North America's rapidly growing urban areas. PMID

  8. Interpreting experimental data on egg production--applications of dynamic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, J; Lopez, S; Kebreab, E; Dijkstra, J

    2013-09-01

    This contribution focuses on applying mathematical models based on systems of ordinary first-order differential equations to synthesize and interpret data from egg production experiments. Models based on linear systems of differential equations are contrasted with those based on nonlinear systems. Regression equations arising from analytical solutions to linear compartmental schemes are considered as candidate functions for describing egg production curves, together with aspects of parameter estimation. Extant candidate functions are reviewed, a role for growth functions such as the Gompertz equation suggested, and a function based on a simple new model outlined. Structurally, the new model comprises a single pool with an inflow and an outflow. Compartmental simulation models based on nonlinear systems of differential equations, and thus requiring numerical solution, are next discussed, and aspects of parameter estimation considered. This type of model is illustrated in relation to development and evaluation of a dynamic model of calcium and phosphorus flows in layers. The model consists of 8 state variables representing calcium and phosphorus pools in the crop, stomachs, plasma, and bone. The flow equations are described by Michaelis-Menten or mass action forms. Experiments that measure Ca and P uptake in layers fed different calcium concentrations during shell-forming days are used to evaluate the model. In addition to providing a useful management tool, such a simulation model also provides a means to evaluate feeding strategies aimed at reducing excretion of potential pollutants in poultry manure to the environment.

  9. Food crystallization and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egg products can be utilized to control crystallization in a diverse realm of food products. Albumen and egg yolk can aid in the control of sugar crystal formation in candies. Egg yolk can enhance the textural properties and aid in the control of large ice crystal formation in frozen desserts. In...

  10. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification of...

  11. The Regulation of Behavioral Plasticity by Performance-Based Feedback and an Experimental Test with Avian Egg Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockman, Keith W

    2016-05-01

    Optimizing plasticity in behavioral performances requires the abilities to regulate physiological effort and to estimate the effects of the environment. To describe how performance-based feedback could play a role in regulating recursive or continuous behavioral performances, I developed two models, one (environmental feedback) that assumes an initial ability to regulate effort but not to predict the effects of the environment and the other (effort feedback) that assumes an initial ability to predict the effects of the environment but not to regulate effort. I tested them by manipulating feedback on egg production, using an egg-substitution experiment in wild, free-ranging Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii). I discovered that females adjusted the size of their clutches' third laid eggs in response to the size of an experimentally substituted first laid egg, such that the size of the third laid egg increased with the size of the substitute. Results were largely consistent with the environmental feedback model, though small portions of the response surface were consistent with the effort feedback model or with neither. Regardless, such feedback-based regulation predicted by either model may help females maximize net benefits of egg production and may be a basis for mechanisms regulating a wide range of other behavioral performances, as well.

  12. Production of Bio-omega-3 eggs through the supplementation of extruded flaxseed meal in hen diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nazir; Khan, Muhammad Kamran; Mushtaq, Zarina; Hussain, Shahzad

    2015-10-09

    The full-fat flaxseed meal has obtained relatively new flourished concept as staple chicken feedstuff for the production of designer eggs. However, unprocessed flaxseed also encloses well documented anti-nutritional factors which are associated with growth depression of laying hens. The present research work was carried out to evaluate the impact of full-fat extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diets on productivity performance of hens and production of modified ω-3 fatty acids-enriched eggs. The full-fat flaxseed meal was extruded at barrel exit temperature (140 °C), screw speed (160 rpm) and feed rate (25 kg/h) for reduction of anti-nutritional compounds. One hundred and sixty, Babcock hens (age 24 weeks old) were selected at random from a large flock and ten hens were placed in each of 16 wire-mesh pens. The experimental diets prepared by supplementation of extruded flaxseed at 10%, 20% and 30% level were fed to hens along with control. The extruded flaxseed contained 86% and 76% less hydrocyanic compounds and tannin, respectively than the initial material. The hens fed with control diet consumed more feed, possessed heavy body weight and showed higher egg production as compared to hens fed on extruded flaxseed supplemented diets. The loss in body weight and egg production was recorded less for hens fed on 10% extruded flaxseed supplemented diets as compared to those fed on 30% extruded flaxseed supplemented diets. None of the experimental diets resulted in significant increase or decrease the total lipids and cholesterol content in egg yolk of hens. The extruded flaxseed supplemented diets resulted in a significant improvement of α-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid in egg yolk with a concomitant reduction in arachidonic acid. The sensory scores were assigned higher to control eggs. Increasing level of extruded flaxseed in experimental diets decreased the scores for all sensory attributes of eggs. The present study suggested that extruded flaxseed meal up to

  13. Direct application of geothermal energy at the L'eggs Product Plant, Las Cruces, New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The study program to determine the feasibility of interfacing a potential geothermal resource of Dona Ana County, New Mexico L'eggs Product industrial process is discussed in this final report. Five separate sites were evaluated initially as to geothermal potential and technical feasibility. Preliminary analysis revealed that three sites were considered normal, but that two sites (about three miles from the L'eggs Plant) had very high shallow subsurface temperature gradients (up to 14.85/sup 0/F/100 ft). An initial engineering analysis showed that to meet the L'eggs plant temperature and energy requirements a geothermal fluid temperature of about 250/sup 0/F and 200 gpm flow rate would be necessary. A brief economic comparison indicated that the L'eggs plant site and a geothermal site approximately four miles from the plant did merit further investigation. Detailed engineering and economic design and analysis of these two sites (including the drilling of an 1873 feet deep temperature gradient test hole at the L'eggs Plant) showed that development of the four mile distant site was technically feasible and was the more economic option. It was determined that a single-stage flash system interface design would be most appropriate for the L'eggs Plant. Approximately 39 billion Btu/yr of fossil fuel could be replaced with geothermal energy at the L'eggs facility for a total installed system cost of slightly over $2 million. The projected economic payback period was calculated to be 9.2 years before taxes. This payback was not considered acceptable by L'eggs Products, Inc., to merit additional design or construction work at this time.

  14. Fermented feed for laying hens: effects on egg production, egg quality, plumage condition and composition and activity of the intestinal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, R M; Hammershøj, M; Johansen, N F; Abousekken, M S; Steenfeldt, S; Jensen, B B

    2009-03-01

    1. An experiment with a total of 480 hens (Babcock) was carried out from 16 to 38 weeks of age to evaluate the suitability of wet fermented feed (feed water ratio, 1:1.2-1:1.4) for layers, taking aspects of nutrition and gastrointestinal health into consideration. The production performance, egg shell quality, plumage condition, litter dry matter (DM) content, as well as the composition and activity of the intestinal microbial flora were analysed. 2. Fermented feed was characterised by a high concentration of lactic acid (160-250 mmol/kg feed) and a moderate level of acetic acid (20-30 mmol/kg feed), high numbers of lactic acid bacteria (log 9-10 CFU/g feed) and a pH of approximately 4.5. Feed fermentation reduced the concentration of dietary sugar from 32.1 to 7.3 g/kg DM and the phytate bound phosphorus from 2.7 to 1.9 g/kg DM. 3. Fermented feed seemed to loose attractiveness for the birds quite rapidly, resulting in a more aggressive behaviour and a poorer plumage condition than in birds given dry feed. The use of fermented feed reduced the litter DM content. 4. During the experimental period, the body weight gain of hens receiving fermented feed was 80 g higher than of hens fed the dry mash. Presumably because of an extended adaptation time to the feed, the onset of lay occurred later when hens were fed on fermented feed, resulting in non-significantly reduced total egg production (75 vs. 82%). 5. There was no significant difference between groups with respect to the total egg mass production (g/d/hen, 42 and 45 for fermented feed and dry mash, respectively). Throughout the experimental period, the feed DM intake of hens fed with fermented feed was lower than that of hens receiving the dry mash (110 vs. 125 g). From week 26 to 37, fermented feed improved the feed conversion as compared with the dry mash (g feed DM/g egg mass, 2.28 vs. 2.53). 6. The use of fermented feed increased egg weight in the period from 34 to 37 weeks (61.4 vs. 60.0) and increased shell

  15. Growth and subsequent egg production performance of shika-brown pullets fed graded levels of cooked Lablab purpureus beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeke, F O; Ogundipe, S O; Sekoni, A A; Dafwvang, I I; Adeyinka, I A; Oni, O O; Abeke, A

    2007-04-01

    The lablab seeds were cooked for 30 min, sundried for three days and thereafter milled and incorporated into chickens' diets. Six treatments, comprising of six dietary levels of lablab at 0.0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, 30.0 and 37.5%, respectively was fed during the grower's phase. Results obtained for the growers phase indicate that final weight (g/bird), weight gain (g/bird) and feed cost (N kg(-1)) decreased significantly (p cooked lablab beans to pullets. Results obtained during the laying phase indicates that feeding lablab seed meal up to 22.5% in the diets at the growers stage had no significant adverse effect (p egg production, percent production at peak, kilogramme feed per twelve eggs, feed cost per twelve eggs, Haugh Unit and yolk index. However, age of birds at first egg, age at 50% production and age at peak egg production were increased significantly (p > 0.05) with increase in the level of lablab seed meal in the growers diets.

  16. Economic Appraisal of Small and Medium Scale Poultry Egg Production in Ife and Ilesha Metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busari Ahmed Olugbenga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study appraised the economic performance of small and medium scale poultry egg production in Ife and Ilesha metropolis, Osun State Nigeria. A purposive sampling was used to select one hundred and twenty poultry egg farmers, cluster sampling was used to select areas where small and medium scale were concentrated in the study area then sixty (60 small scale and sixty (60 medium scale were randomly selected to form the population of the study. Data were collected through structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics such as means and percentages were employed for budgetary analysis and economic performance. The ordinary least square was used to determine the significant variables influencing the gross margin of poultry egg farmers at different levels of scale of production. The study shows that the gross margin of small farms was ₦575.65 while the gross margin of medium farms was ₦43672.62. The total production cost of small and medium farms were ₦1480.25 and ₦29654.43 respectively. The results further reveal that costs of feed constituted the largest share of the total costs for the two categories of farm size. The amount spent on drug and feed were the only significant determining factors of revenue accruable to both categories of poultry egg farmers. Although, poultry egg production was profitable in the study area, the level of profit depended on the scale of operation.

  17. The relationship between thyroxine secretion rate and egg production in chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Asminah; Soewarsono, M.; Djojosoebagio, S.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment was carried out in 24 female White Leghorn Chickens by using 131 I as tracer. The chickens were initially and intraperitoneally injected with 10μCi of 131 I and then counted by means of a Gamma Well Type Scintillation Counter every 48 hours. A dose of 0,3 μg of thyroxine per 100 gr body weight was given as the first administration. After every two administrations of similar dose, the dose of the thyroxine was increased by 0,1 μg/100g body weight until the thyroxine secretion rate was reached. The injections were given in the neck region subcutaneously. The thyroxine secretion rate was found to be within the range from 0,5μg to 0,8μg per 100 g body weight. It also showed that the higher the thyroxine secretion rate, the higher the egg production became. This phenomenon occured both with the 7 and 9 months old chickens. However there was neither ralationship between the thyroxine secretion rate and the weight of eggs produced nor with the body weight of the chickens themselves. (author)

  18. The effects of production water, WAF or CEWAF on the fertilization success of Atlantic cod eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burridge, L; Wong, D.; Trippel, E.

    2010-01-01

    Production water (PW), dispersed oil, and oil released from offshore oil and gas platforms can adversely affect fish populations. In this study, eggs from Atlantic cod were fertilized in the presence of PW collected from the Terra Nova and Hibernia offshore platforms in 2008. Cod eggs were also fertilized in the presence of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) and chemically enhanced water accommodated fraction (CEWAF) of Alaskan North Slope oil (ANS). Results of the study showed that exposure to the Terra Nova PW at 12 per cent (V/V) or higher resulted in significantly lower fertilization rates than those observed in controls. Exposure to Hibernia PW at 0.5 per cent (V/V) also resulted in significantly lower fertilization rates. The WAF of ANS up to 25 per cent (V/V) had no effect on fertilization rates. At 50 per cent (V/V), the fertilization rate for WAF ANS was much lower than rates observed in controls. The CEWAF significantly reduced fertilization at all tested concentrations.

  19. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing...

  20. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg yolks. 160.185 Section 160.185 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.185 Dried egg yolks. (a) Dried egg yolks, dried yolks is the food prepared by drying egg yolks that conform to...

  1. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks that...

  2. Life-stage-specific differences in exploitation of food mixtures: diet mixing enhances copepod egg production but not juvenile development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Breteler, W.K.; Schogt, N.

    2006-01-01

    , the copepods failed to moult past the first copepodite stage, and the mortality was high. In sharp contrast, mixing two nutritionally poor food species often resulted in egg production which was not significantly different from nutritionally high quality food, although hatching success in many mixtures was low......Development, egg production and hatching success of the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus elongatus were measured in food mixtures to test their ability to obtain a complete nutrition by combining different nutritionally poor food species. In all the food mixtures used....... Whereas egg production was significantly correlated with particulate organic nitrogen in the diet, and independent of the highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), hatching increased with increasing DHA and EPA concentration. Growth and juvenile...

  3. Egg production and welfare of laying hens kept in different housing systems (conventional, enriched cage, and free range).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz Dikmen, B; İpek, A; Şahan, Ü; Petek, M; Sözcü, A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare egg production performance and welfare traits of laying hens kept in conventional cage (CC), enriched cage (EC), and free range (FR). Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 480 with 160 per housing type) were studied across a production cycle from placement at 17 wk until depopulation at 66 wk. The hens were randomly allocated into cages or pens of housing system groups; within each system there were four replicates with 40 hens in each pen or cage. The hen day egg production (P = 0.037), feed intake (FI) (P 0.05). The hens in the FR system had additional space for optimum comfort and better feather and bone traits, but the dirty egg ratio, feed consumption, and foot lesions were higher than in CC and EC systems. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Novel genetic markers of the carbonic anhydrase II gene associated with egg production and reproduction traits in Tsaiya ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M-T; Cheng, Y-S; Huang, M-C

    2013-02-01

    In our previous cDNA microarray study, we found that the carbonic anhydrase II (CA2) gene is one of the differentially expressed transcripts in the duck isthmus epithelium during egg formation period. The aim of this study was to identify the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CA2 gene of Tsaiya ducks. The relationship of SNP genotype with egg production and reproduction traits was also investigated. A total of 317 ducks from two lines, a control line with no selection and a selected line, were employed for testing. Three SNPs (C37T, A62G and A65G) in the 3'-untranslated region of the CA2 gene were found. SNP-trait association analysis showed that SNP C37T and A62G were associated with duck egg weight besides fertility. The ducks with the CT and AG genotypes had a 1.46 and 1.62 g/egg lower egg weight as compared with ducks with the CC and AA genotypes, respectively (p ducks with CT and AG genotypes had 5.20% and 4.22% higher fertility than those with CC and AA genotypes, respectively (p duck fertility, and the diplotype H1H4 was dominant for duck fertility. These findings might provide the basis for balanced selection and may be used in marker-assisted selection to improve egg weight and fertility simultaneously in the Tsaiya ducks. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. The effect of dietary protein and lysine on egg quality and production of laying hens during 28-42 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mohammadi Emarat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and lysine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets consisted of 3 levels of protein (14, 15 and 16% and 5 levels of lysine (0.71, 0.74, 0.77, 0.80 and 0.83 % in a 35 factorial arrangement were provided. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 12 birds, during four periods of 4 weeks (28-44wks of age. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined for each period. Eggs from each replicate were weighed at the end of three consecutive days of each period and six eggs were used to measure the egg quality characteristics. Although the feed intake did not affected by dietary protein but the egg production, egg mass and feed conversion were improved significantly (p

  6. Influence of algal diet on feeding and egg-production of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Jensen, Johanne

    1990-01-01

    Threshold concentration, retention efficiency and egg-production in the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana were examined using the algal species Isochrysis galbana clone T-iso, Dunalietta tertiolecta Butcher, Rhodomonas baltica Karsten, Ditylum brightwellii Grunow and Thalassiosira weissflogii...... Grun. Feeding and egg-production in A. tonsa was shown to be influenced by the size, quantity and quality of the food particles. The small I. galbana (4.8 μm) were inefficiently retained by A. tonsa and maximum ingestion rates on this species were first obtained at algal concentrations s> 1 μg C · ml−1...

  7. Demonstration of persistent contamination of a cooked egg product production facility with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee and characterization of the persistent strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakočiūnė, D; Bisgaard, M; Pedersen, K; Olsen, J E

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether continuous contamination of light pasteurized egg products with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee (S. Tennessee) at a large European producer of industrial egg products was caused by persistent contamination of the production facility and to characterize the persistent strains. Seventy-three S. Tennessee isolates collected from products over a 3-year period with intermittent contamination, and 15 control strains were compared by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using two enzymes. Forty-five case isolates distributed throughout the full period were shown to belong to one profile type. Isolates representing different PFGE profiles were all assigned to ST 319 by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The case isolates did not show a higher ability to form biofilm on a plastic surface than noncase isolates. Characteristically, members of the persistent clone were weak producers of H2 S in laboratory medium. S. Tennessee isolated from the case was able to grow better in pasteurized egg product compared with other serovars investigated. It was concluded that the contamination was caused by a persistent strain in the production facility and that this strain apparently had adapted to grow in the relevant egg product. S. Tennessee has previously been associated with persistence in hatching facilities. This is the first report of persistent contamination of an egg production facility with this serovar. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. 9 CFR 381.201 - Means of conveyance and equipment used in handling poultry products offered for entry to be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.201... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Means of conveyance and equipment used in handling poultry products offered for entry to be maintained in sanitary condition. 381.201...

  9. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Egg Allergy KidsHealth / For Teens / Egg Allergy What's in ... but it's worth it. What Happens With an Egg Allergy? Eggs aren't bad. But when you' ...

  10. Optimization of the process of egg omelet production with fillings with extended storage period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sukmanov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Optimization of the egg omelets (EO production using high pressure (HP will allow to produce a minimum cost product during manufacturing and also to obtain a product with high consumer properties. Materialsand methods. The concerned product is -EO -a mixture of liquid egg with grated or chopped cheese, xanthan gum, water or milk and spices. The EO manufacturing process consisted of packing the mixture in an airtight container with heating and processing in the high pressure installation. The EO suitability for long-term storage was evaluated by the "water activity" term. The EO quality was evaluated by an expert. There was used the undetermined Lagrange multipliers method to obtain the optimal process parameters. Results. As a result of the central composite rotatabel plan there was developed optimization model allowed to obtain the optimal EO HP processing parameters: pressure – 690 МPа, temperature –1220С, treatment duration –7×60s, 14g of water on 100 g of melange, 13 g of dry milk on 100 g of melange, xanthan gum content -0,75% of the total mixture mass, 25 g of cheese on 100 g of melange. These indicators allow to obtain the EO process parameters with the next indicators: water activity -0.704 and comprehensive quality Score - 0.98 that characterize the product as a product with high quality indicators stable over a long period of storage. The developed model analysis with using of Student's t test, Fisher dyspepsia and predicted optimization values calculation errors confirmed the reliability of the optimization parameters obtained values and the optimization model reliability. The calculations results for the given optimization parameters are presented as confidence intervals, confirming that their experimental values do not exceed the respective intervals and thus confirm the results authenticity . Conclusions. These results have practical significance and were adopted as the basis for the technical documentation

  11. Manual on safe production, transport, handling and storage of uranium hexafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    This document includes a description of the physical, chemical and radiological properties of UF{sub 6} and related products, including information concerning their production, handling, storage and transportation and the management of the wastes which result. All the operations of UF{sub 6} management are considered form a safety point of view. The IAEA organized a series of meetings to consider the hazards of UF{sub 6} transport since considerable quantities of depleted, natural and enriched UF{sub 6} are transported between nuclear fuel sites. Storage of depleted UF{sub 6} is another important issue. Factors affecting long term storage are presented, especially site choice and cylinder corrosion. Other topics such as waste management, quality assurance and emergency preparedness which contribute to the overall safety of UF{sub 6} handling, are included. The intention of this document is to provide analysis of the safety implications of all stages of UF{sub 6} operations and to draw attention to specific features and properties of importance. 38 refs, figs, tabs.

  12. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG...

  13. System expansion for handling co-products in LCA of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to establish a procedure for handling co-products in life cycle assessment (LCA) of a typical sugar cane system. The procedure is essential for environmental assessment of ethanol from molasses, a co-product of sugar which has long been used mainly for feed. We compare system...... expansion and two allocation procedures for estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of molasses ethanol. As seen from our results, system expansion yields the highest estimate among the three. However, no matter which procedure is used, a significant reduction of emissions from the fuel stage...... in the abatement scenario, which assumes implementation of substituting bioenergy for fossil-based energy to reduce GHG emissions, combined with a negligible level of emissions from the use stage, keeps the estimate of ethanol life cycle GHG emissions below that of gasoline. Pointing out that indirect land use...

  14. Using egg production data to quantify within-flock transmission of low pathogenic avian influenza virus in commercial layer chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales, J.L.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Goot, van der J.A.; Bontje, D.M.; Koch, G.; Wit, de J.J.; Stegeman, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Even though low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIv) affect the poultry industry of several countries in the world, information about their transmission characteristics in poultry is sparse. Outbreak reports of LPAIv in layer chickens have described drops in egg production that appear to be

  15. Effect of using radiation and some growth promoters on the economics of egg production during the second production season in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solieman, M.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    Layer chicken farms are considered important projects which play a major role in the national economy, for their fast money cycles and their high profits. Many breeders have shared in animal production and egg production through the private projects in Egypt. Our government also established many layer chicken farms to solve the production problems and actual consumption food problems in egypt are due to a lack of food quality and quantity as well as in food calory. The egyptian consumer dose not obtain the same quantity of protein as his counter parts in the developed countries: Particular egg protein which considers a cheap source. 36 tabs.,5 figs.,21 refs

  16. Biodiversity and springtime patterns of egg production and development for parasites of the Chisana Caribou herd, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryanne Hoar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biodiversity and springtime patterns of parasite egg/oocyst and larval production from feces and parasite development in the environment for the Chisana caribou herd in the southwest Yukon Territory, Canada from 29 March to 14 June 2006. Fecal samples from 50 adult cows that were housed in a temporary enclosure within the herd’s natural range at Boundary Lake, Yukon Territory were collected and analyzed during 5 sampling periods. A minimum of 6 parasite genera were recovered: eggs of Trichostrongylidae species (most likely Ostertagia gruehneri and Teladorsagia boreoarcticus, Marshallagia sp., Anoplocephalidae cestodes, and Skrjabinema sp.; oocysts of Eimeria spp.; and dorsal-spined first-stage protostrongylid larvae, including Parelaphostrongylus andersoni. Prevalence of Trichostrongylidae spp. eggs in fresh fecals was at or near 100% throughout the sampling period, however, the median intensity increased significantly from 8 to 34 eggs per gram (epg at the peak of calving and then decreased to 12 epg 2 weeks post-calving (P = 2.83e-07. Three plots of feces collected from these animals were established outside of the enclosure on 4 May 2006 and monitored every 10 days to investigate patterns of parasite development under natural conditions. The total number of Trichostrongylidae spp. (eggs + larvae in fecal plots did not change over time, but as the number of larvae increased, egg counts decreased. The presence of other parasite species in the fecal plots remained constant over time. This study is the first to document the parasite diversity for the Chisana caribou herd and to exam¬ine the development and survival of eggs and larvae in feces throughout the spring and early summer. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Parasitters artssammensetning og forløp av eggproduksjon og parasittutvikling om våren hos Chisanavillreinen i Yukon, Canada I en periode fra 29. mars til 14. juni 2006 tok vi prøver fra reinmøkk og under

  17. Effect of long-term selection for egg production on eggshell quality of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, M M; El-Dlebshany, A E; El-Deen, M Bahie; Radwan, L M; Rayan, G N

    2016-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate egg quality and ultrastuctural measurements of eggshell using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in 2 lines (selected and control) of Japanese quail. A selection program was applied over 22 consecutive generations for higher egg production and lower broken egg percentage. The results revealed that the females of the selected line produced significantly (P < 0.01) higher egg mass compared to that of the control line. Also, the selection procedure significantly improved feed conversion ratio. The eggshells of the selected line had a higher breaking strength compared to those of the control line, although there was no difference between them in shell thickness. Significantly higher wet (P < 0.01) and dry (P < 0.05) eggshell percentages were found in the selected line. In general, the eggshells of the selected line had a lower total score (good) of ultrastructural evaluation compared to the control line. According to scanning electron microscope data, the incidence of certain structural variants was more common in eggshells of the control line suggesting poor shell strength. The incidence of alignment was more prevalent in control eggshells compared to selected ones, suggesting lower resistance to breakage. Late fusion and large interstitial spaces of the palisade layer indicating decreased resistance to fracture were observed in control eggshells. It could be concluded that the improvement eggshell quality may be caused by the long-term selection for lower cracked and broken egg rates from generation to generation. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Egg production and hatching success of Paracartia grani (Copepoda, Calanoida, Acartiidae) in two hypersaline ponds of a Tunisian Solar Saltern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annabi-Trabelsi, Neila; Rebai, Rayda Kobbi; Ali, Mohammad; Subrahmanyam, M. N. V.; Belmonte, Genuario; Ayadi, Habib

    2018-04-01

    Reproductive traits of Paracartia grani [percentage of spawning females, egg production rate (EPR), and hatching success (HS)] were investigated for the first time at high salinities (39-121 psu) to examine the impact of such a particular situation. The study was done in two hypersaline ponds [A1 (39-46 psu) and C31 (70-121 psu)] in Sfax Solar Saltern, central-eastern coast of Tunisia. These ponds also differed in terms of the composition and concentrations of nutritional parameters. The EPR differed significantly between the ponds (ANOVA, F = 29.45, p eggs female- 1 day- 1 (7 December 2009) and 14 ± 1 eggs female- 1 day- 1 (19 January 2010) with an average of 13.3 ± 0.44 eggs female- 1 day- 1. HS after 48 h of incubation were significantly higher than those after 24 h. The mean values of HS after 48 h were 42.72 ± 2.58% at pond A1 and 41.67 ± 3.92% at pond C31. The two peaks of HS (after 48 h) were observed at 15 °C in pond A1 (21 December 2009, 45.18% nauplii eggs- 1) and in C31 (4 January 2010, 48.78%) at the same temperature. This study confirms that a broad salinity tolerance allows P. grani to settle itself in environments, which are normally hostile to the development of other Acartiidae.

  19. Modelling of control options for an outbreak of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in egg production: a decision support tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R M; McClement, I; McFarlane, I D; Parker, C D

    2013-12-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a bacterium that causes respiratory disease in chickens, leading to reduced egg production. A dynamic simulation model was developed that can be used to assess the costs and benefits of control using antimicrobials or vaccination in caged or free range systems. The intended users are veterinarians and egg producers. A user interface is provided for input of flock specific parameters. The economic consequence of an MG outbreak is expressed as a reduction in expected egg output. The model predicts that either vaccination or microbial treatment can approximately halve potential losses from MG in some circumstances. Sensitivity analysis is used to test assumptions about infection rate and timing of an outbreak. Feedback from veterinarians points to the value of the model as a discussion tool with producers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Furan Levels and Sensory Profiles of Commercial Coffee Products Under Various Handling Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeesoo; Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the levels of furan in coffee with consideration towards common coffee consumption was investigated. The concentration of furan in brewed coffee was the highest among the coffee types studied, with an average of 110.73 ng/mL, followed by canned coffee (28.08 ng/mL) and instant coffee (8.55 ng/mL). In instant and brewed coffee, the furan levels decreased by up to an average of 20% and 22%, after 5 min of pouring in a cup without a lid. The degree of reduction was greater when coffee was served without a lid, regardless of coffee type (P coffee, the level of furan decreased by an average of 14% after storage at 60 °C without a lid, and the degree of furan reduction in coffee was greater in coffee served warm (60 °C) than in coffee served cold (4 °C). A time-dependent intensities of sensory attributes in commercial coffees with various handling condition were different (P coffee kept in a cup with lid closed, holds the aroma of coffee longer than coffee in a cup without a lid. Consumption of coffee has increased rapidly in Korea over the past few years. Consequently, the probability of exposure to chemical hazards presence in coffee products increases. Furan is a heterocyclic compound, formed mainly from Maillard reaction, therefore present in coffee products. This work demonstrated the strategy to reduce the levels of furan in coffee products at individual consumer level, by investigating the levels of furan served in common handling scenarios of coffee in Korea: canned coffee, instant coffee, and brewed coffee. Findings of this study can practically guide industry, government, and consumer agencies to reduce the risk exposure to furan during coffee consumptions. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Effect of storage duration on the rheological properties of goose liquid egg products and eggshell membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumbár, V.; Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Buchar, J.; Pytel, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 7 (2016), s. 1693-1701 ISSN 0032-5791 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : egg yolk * albumen * liquid whole egg * rheology * eggshell membrane Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.908, year: 2016 http://ps.oxfordjournals.org/

  2. Pyrethroids in chicken eggs from commercial farms and home production in Rio de Janeiro: Estimated daily intake and diastereomeric selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Cláudio E T; Lestayo, Julliana; Guida, Yago S; Azevedo-Silva, Claudio E; Torres, João Paulo M; Meire, Rodrigo O; Malm, Olaf

    2017-10-01

    In this study, pyrethroids were determined in chicken eggs from commercial farm (n = 60) and home egg production (n = 30). These pyrethroids were investigated: bifenthrin, phenothrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate, including most diastereomers. Quantification was done using GC-MS in a negative chemical ionization mode. Pyrethroids residues were found in 79% of the analyzed samples. Cypermethrin presented the highest occurrence, being quantified in 62 samples (69%) in concentrations (lipid weight - l w.) varying between 0.29 and 6408 ng g -1 , followed by phenothrin (24%), 21-3910 ng g -1 , permethrin (14%), 2.96-328 ng g -1 , and bifenthrin (11%), 3.77-16.7 ng g -1 . Cyfluthrin and fenvalerate were not detected. Home-produced eggs had a higher occurrence of pyrethroids (97%), with a greater predominance of phenothrin. In commercial production, 70% of the samples presented pyrethroid residues (predominantly cypermethrin). This is the first report about the presence of pyrethroids in home-produced eggs and the first description of a selectivity pattern with the predominance of cis diastereomers in chicken eggs. In general, estimated daily intake does not present a risk to human consumption, according to Brazilian and international standards (FAO/WHO). However, one third of the samples (30 eggs) had concentrations above the maximum residue limits (MRLs). The maximum cypermethrin concentration was 66 times the MRL, while the maximum phenothrin concentration was 11 times the limit. Further studies about transfer dynamics, bioaccumulation and metabolic degradation of stereoisomers are required, as well as determining if this selectivity pattern in food can increase consumer's health risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P eggs (P egg yolk total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. New egg shipping container for decentralized medfly sterile male pupae production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozanek, M.; Vidlicka, L.; Paskova, M.; Eyles, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new double-walled container with an internal shelf system for the shipment of medfly eggs. It allows the eggs to be packed in plastic bags for shipment without the addition of any transportation medium. The size of this container can be adapted to the volume of eggs required. This container can maintain a constant internal temperature for 72 hours. Simulation of shipping conditions for 72 hours found no negative influence on the quality of eggs. The cost of the new container is comparable or even lower than the cost of commonly available commercial containers. The main advantages of this egg shipment container are: a) good thermo-insulation properties, b) variable size and c) low cost. (author)

  5. New egg shipping container for decentralized medfly sterile male pupae production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozanek, M.; Vidlicka, L.; Paskova, M., E-mail: milan.kozanek@savba.s, E-mail: lubomir.vidlicka@savba.s, E-mail: martina.paskova@savba.s [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Zoology; Moravek, I., E-mail: Moravek@kvs.sif.stuba.s [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Fac. of Mechanical Engineering; Quintal, C., E-mail: celioquintal.sra@gov-madeira.p [Programa Madeira-Med, Madeira (Portugal); Eyles, D.K., E-mail: dke@liverpool.ac.u [The University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes a new double-walled container with an internal shelf system for the shipment of medfly eggs. It allows the eggs to be packed in plastic bags for shipment without the addition of any transportation medium. The size of this container can be adapted to the volume of eggs required. This container can maintain a constant internal temperature for 72 hours. Simulation of shipping conditions for 72 hours found no negative influence on the quality of eggs. The cost of the new container is comparable or even lower than the cost of commonly available commercial containers. The main advantages of this egg shipment container are: a) good thermo-insulation properties, b) variable size and c) low cost. (author)

  6. Producing chicken eggs containing isoflavone as functional food due to feeding effect of soy sauce by-product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfudz, L. D.; Sarjana, T. A.; Muryani, R.; Suthama, N.

    2018-01-01

    The present study was aimed to verify the impact of feeding soy sauce by-product in producing isoflavone-enriched chicken eggs as functional food. Experiment used 200 laying hens of 80-week old with average body weight of 1,932.75±189.50 g. Experimental diets were formulated using yellow corn, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal, meat bone meal, poultry meal, premix, CaCO3, and soy sauce by-product (SSBP). A completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 replication (10 birds each), was assigned in this experiment. Inclusion levels of SSBP were the treatments, namely, none (T0), 10 (T1), 12.5 (T2), and 15.0% (T3). Parameters observed were colour, index, and weight of egg yolk, and isoflavone content. Analysis of variance was applied and continued to Duncan test at 5% probability. Results indicated that yolk colour index and weight were not affected by the treatments, but isoflavone content was significantly (P<0.05) increased by feeding SSBP. Egg yolk isoflavone in T2 (0.41 mg/g) and T3 (0.47 mg/g) were higher than those in T0 (0.31 mg/g) and T1 (0.35 mg/g). In conclusion, dietary inclusion of soy sauce by-product at higher level (12.5 and 15.0%) can produce isoflavone-enriched eggs as functional food.

  7. Production, characterization and applications for Toxoplasma gondii-specific polyclonal chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Ferreira Júnior

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii may cause abortions, ocular and neurological disorders in warm-blood hosts. Immunized mammals are a wide source of hyperimmune sera used in different approaches, including diagnosis and the study of host-parasite interactions. Unfortunately, mammalian antibodies present limitations for its production, such as the necessity for animal bleeding, low yield, interference with rheumatoid factor, complement activation and affinity to Fc mammalian receptors. IgY antibodies avoid those limitations; therefore they could be an alternative to be applied in T. gondii model.In this study we immunized hens with soluble tachyzoite antigens of T. gondii (STAg and purified egg yolk antibodies (IgY by an inexpensive and simple method, with high yield and purity degree. IgY anti-STAg antibodies presented high avidity and were able to recognize a broad range of parasite antigens, although some marked differences were observed in reactivity profile between antibodies produced in immunized hens and mice. Interestingly, IgY antibodies against Neospora caninum and Eimeria spp. did not react to STAg. We also show that IgY antibodies were suitable to detect T. gondii forms in paraffin-embedded sections and culture cell monolayers.Due to its cost-effectiveness, high production yield and varied range of possible applications, polyclonal IgY antibodies are useful tools for studies involving T. gondii.

  8. Population Dynamics of Salmonella enterica Serotypes in Commercial Egg and Poultry Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Steven L.; Nayak, Rajesh; Hanning, Irene B.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Han, Jing; Ricke, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    Fresh and processed poultry have been frequently implicated in cases of human salmonellosis. Furthermore, increased consumption of meat and poultry has increased the potential for exposure to Salmonella enterica. While advances have been made in reducing the prevalence and frequency of Salmonella contamination in processed poultry, there is mounting pressure on commercial growers to prevent and/or eliminate these human pathogens in preharvest production facilities. Several factors contribute to Salmonella colonization in commercial poultry, including the serovar and the infectious dose. In the early 1900s, Salmonella enterica serovars Pullorum and Gallinarum caused widespread diseases in poultry, but vaccination and other voluntary programs helped eradicate pullorum disease and fowl typhoid from commercial flocks. However, the niche created by the eradication of these serovars was likely filled by S. Enteritidis, which proliferated in the bird populations. While this pathogen remains a significant problem in commercial egg and poultry production, its prevalence among poultry has been declining since the 1990s. Coinciding with the decrease of S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg and S. Kentucky have emerged as the predominant serovars in commercial broilers. In this review, we have highlighted bacterial genetic and host-related factors that may contribute to such shifts in Salmonella populations in commercial poultry and intervention strategies that could limit their colonization. PMID:21571882

  9. A trim-loss minimization in a produce-handling vehicle production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apichai Ritvirool

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available How to cut out the required pieces from raw materials by minimizing waste is a trim-loss problem. The integer linear programming (ILP model was developed to solve this problem. In addition, this ILPmodel could be used for planning an order over some future time period. Time horizon of ordering raw material including weekly, monthly, quarterly, and annually could be planned to reduce the trim loss. Thenumerical examples using an industrial case study of a produce-handling vehicle production plant were presented to illustrate how the proposed ILP model could be applied to actual systems and the types ofinformation that was obtained relative to implementation. The results showed that the proposed ILP model can be used as a decision support tool for selecting time horizon of order planning and cutting patterns todecrease material cost and waste from cutting raw material.

  10. The effect of dry caper (capparis spinosa) fruit on egg production and quality characteristics of laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, A.; Tahtali, Y.; Sen, M. I.; Duman, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary inclusion of dry Caper (Capparis spinosa) fruit (DCF) on egg production and quality characteristics of laying hens between 20 and 32 weeks of age. Four groups of commercial hens (ATAK-S) were fed with diets containing 0, 5, 10 and 15 g DCF/kg. The results showed that final body weight, feed intake, shape index (SI) and morning hen - day egg yield were influenced by dietary supplementation of DCF (P 0.05) during the entire experiment. The lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values for egg shell color were similar (P>0.05) in the DCL supplemented groups as compared to the control group. The yellowness (b*), Hue angle (H), chroma (C*) and E* values were lower (P<0.05) in 15 g DFC/kg group when compared with the control. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolics amount of DCF were 43.75+-0.680 mmol trolox/kg, 60.03+-3.710 mmol TEAC/kg and 3.16+-0.060 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/kg, respectively. Based on the results from the current study, the dietary supplementation with dry DCF had adverse effects on productivity performance traits and egg quality. (author)

  11. Disruption of egg production by triclabendazole-resistant Fasciola hepatica following treatment with a commercial preparation of myrrh (Mirazid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaal, Mohamed M O; Brennan, Gerard P; Hanna, Robert E B; Abdel-Aziz, Ahmed; Fairweather, Ian

    2017-06-01

    An in vitro study has been carried out to monitor changes to the female reproductive system in adult triclabendazole (TCBZ)-resistant Fasciola hepatica following treatment with a commercial preparation of myrrh ("Mirazid"). Flukes were immersed for 6 h and 24 h in myrrh extract at a concentration of 200 µg/ml, then processed for histological and transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination of the uterus, Mehlis' gland, ovary and vitellaria. Egg production had become abnormal at 6 h post-treatment (pt), with the uterine lumen being filled with free vitelline cells and masses of shell protein material; few eggs were present. At 24 h pt, no eggs were present. Distinct changes to the ovary and Mehlis' gland were only observed after 24 h incubation in Mirazid. The ovary contained numbers of apoptotic oogonia and oocytes. In the Mehlis' gland, the S1 cells were disorganised and the processes from them were vacuolated, although the disruption was not significant. More severe changes were observed in the vitelline cells and follicles. After 6 h incubation in Mirazid, although the gross organisation of the vitelline follicles appeared to be normal, nuclear changes indicative of the early stages of apoptosis were observed in the stem cells and shell protein production by the mature cells had decreased. At 24 h pt, a distinct shift in cell population was evident, with the follicles containing mainly mature cells and spaces were present between the cells. The shell globule clusters in the mature cells were disorganised. In more severely-affected follicles, cells were seen to be breaking down, with karyolytic nuclei and disintegrating cytoplasm. Overall, the results have shown that exposure to Mirazid treatment had a severe impact on egg production by TCBZ-resistant flukes, an effect that was mediated by disruption of the vitelline cells and of the mechanism co-ordinating egg formation in the ootype.

  12. The influence on biogas production of three slurry-handling systems in dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Coppolecchia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Handling systems can influence the production of biogas and methane from dairy farm manures. A comparative work performed in three different Italian dairy farms showed how the most common techniques (scraper, slatted floor, flushing can change the characteristics of collected manure. Scraper appears to be the most neutral choice, as it does not significantly affect the original characteristics of manure. Slatted floor produces a manure that has a lower methane potential in comparison with scraper, due to: a lower content of volatile solids caused by the biodegradation occurring in the deep pit, and a lower specific biogas production caused by the change in the characteristics of organic matter. Flushing can produce three different fluxes: diluted flushed manure, solid separated manure and liquid separated manure. The diluted fraction appears to be unsuitable for conventional anaerobic digestion in completely stirred reactors (CSTR, since its content of organic matter is too low to be worthwhile. The liquid separated fraction could represent an interesting material, as it appears to accumulate the most biodegradable organic fraction, but not as primary substrate in CSTR as the organic matter concentration is too low. Finally, the solid-liquid separation process tends to accumulate inert matter in the solid separated fraction and, therefore, its specific methane production is low.

  13. Individually variable energy management during egg production is repeatable across breeding attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tony D; Vézina, François; Speakman, John R

    2009-04-01

    It is axiomatic that whole-animal metabolism, measured for example as daily energy expenditure (DEE), plays a central role in determining reproductive success and survival (fitness) in all organisms. Nevertheless, strong evidence for consistent systematic relationships between DEE and either individual traits (age, sex, body size), environmental factors (e.g. food availability, temperature) or 'fitness' traits (e.g. number of offspring, survival) remains far from compelling in birds and mammals. Recently, we suggested that female birds might utilise complex, individually variable energy management strategies to meet the metabolic demands of reproduction, generating a wide spectrum of effects on reproductive DEE, from overcompensation (net decrease in DEE) to additive effects (net increase in DEE). Here we show that this individually variable adjustment or 'plasticity' in energy expenditure associated with egg production is repeatable among individuals between successive breeding attempts in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Our study highlights the importance (a) of measuring 'plasticity' or change associated with transitions of physiological state (e.g. non-breeding to breeding) based on multiple measurements of the same individual, and (b) of extending consideration of how selection might drive the evolution of phenotypic plasticity per se to include physiological and metabolic traits.

  14. Baseline levels of melamine in food items sold in Canada. II. Egg, soy, vegetable, fish and shrimp products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Lau, Benjamin P-Y; Ménard, Cathie; Corrigan, Catherine; Sparling, Melissa; Gaertner, Dean; Cao, Xu-Liang; Dabeka, Bob; Hilts, Carla

    2010-01-01

    A variety of egg-containing, soy-based, fish, shrimp and vegetable products sold in Canada were analysed for melamine (MEL) using a sensitive solid-phase extraction LC-MS/MS analytical method. MEL was detected above the method quantification limit of 0.004 mg/kg in 98 of the 378 samples analysed. Concentrations in the various food product groups ranged 0.00507-0.247 mg/kg (egg-containing items), 0.00408-0.0479 mg/kg (soy-based meat substitutes), 0.00409-1.10 mg/kg (fish and shrimp products), and 0.00464-0.688 mg/kg (vegetable products). MEL was detected less frequently in egg- and soy-containing products. The presence of MEL in most of the Canadian Total Diet Study shrimp composites collected after 2001 suggested the residues in shrimp were caused by a relatively recent exposure to MEL. All concentrations of MEL reported were lower than the 2.5 mg/kg interim standard established for MEL in items containing milk and milk-derived ingredients and the respective maximum residue limits for cyromazine and its metabolite, melamine, in vegetables set by the Canadian Government (2009; http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/chem-chim/melamine/qa-melamine-qr-eng.php#8 ). The consumption of foods containing these low levels of MEL does not constitute a health risk for consumers.

  15. Effect of gamma-radiated males on egg production in Acarus siro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlendak, E.; Boczek, J.; Bruce, W.; Davis, R.

    1985-01-01

    Mating of unirradiated Acarus siro L. females with normal and gamma irradiated males was studied. Females usually laid eggs throughout their life span if they were mated at least once a week with normal males. Females paired with treated males contained spermatophores but did not lay any eggs. Previously mated fertile females of A. siro subsequently mated with irradiated, sterilized males ceased egg-laying during the next 1-2 weeks. There was no significant difference when compared to the untreated control in the number of eggs laid when females were mated for one week with irradiated males and then with normal males. Weekly alternation of mating with irradiated and normal males reduced significantly the number of eggs laid by the females and significantly reduced their longevity. Because this mite species mates many times during its life span, it is doubtful that it could be eradicated solely by the introduction of sterile males into a natural population. However, the presence of such males would decrease the number of eggs laid by normal females and it would lead to the decrease in the number of offspring in the next generation

  16. Dominance genetic and maternal effects for genetic evaluation of egg production traits in dual-purpose chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasouri, M; Zamani, P; Alijani, S

    2017-10-01

    1. A study was conducted to study direct dominance genetic and maternal effects on genetic evaluation of production traits in dual-purpose chickens. The data set consisted of records of body weight and egg production of 49 749 Mazandaran fowls from 19 consecutive generations. Based on combinations of different random effects, including direct additive and dominance genetic and maternal additive genetic and environmental effects, 8 different models were compared. 2. Inclusion of a maternal genetic effect in the models noticeably improved goodness of fit for all traits. Direct dominance genetic effect did not have noticeable effects on goodness of fit but simultaneous inclusion of both direct dominance and maternal additive genetic effects improved fitting criteria and accuracies of genetic parameter estimates for hatching body weight and egg production traits. 3. Estimates of heritability (h 2 ) for body weights at hatch, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of age (BW0, BW8 and BW12, respectively), age at sexual maturity (ASM), average egg weights at 28-32 weeks of laying period (AEW), egg number (EN) and egg production intensity (EI) were 0.08, 0.21, 0.22, 0.22, 0.21, 0.09 and 0.10, respectively. For BW0, BW8, BW12, ASM, AEW, EN and EI, proportion of dominance genetic to total phenotypic variance (d 2 ) were 0.06, 0.08, 0.01, 0.06, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.07 and maternal heritability estimates (m 2 ) were 0.05, 0.04, 0.03, 0.13, 0.21, 0.07 and 0.03, respectively. Negligible coefficients of maternal environmental effect (c 2 ) from 0.01 to 0.08 were estimated for all traits, other than BW0, which had an estimate of 0.30. 4. Breeding values (BVs) estimated for body weights at early ages (BW0 and BW8) were considerably affected by components of the models, but almost similar BVs were estimated by different models for higher age body weight (BW12) and egg production traits (ASM, AEW, EN and EI). Generally, it could be concluded that inclusion of maternal effects (both genetic and

  17. Effects of housing system and age of laying hens on egg performance in fresh pasta production: pasta cooking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamprese, Cristina; Casiraghi, Ernestina; Rossi, Margherita

    2011-03-30

    Very few studies concern the effects of layer housing systems and age on egg technological properties. Thus the aim of this work was to study the influence of these two factors on egg performance in fresh pasta production, focusing on pasta cooking behaviour. Samples of pasta subjected to analysis were prepared with eggs laid by Hy-Line Brown hens (from 27 to 68 weeks old) housed in cage, barn and organic systems. Higher average values of weight increase and matter loss during pasta cooking were observed for samples prepared with eggs laid by older hens. Such cooking behaviour indicated the development of a weaker pasta protein network, resulting from a decrease in the quantity of albumen protein and an increase in fat content, which is due to the reduction in albumen/yolk ratio during hen aging. The housing system had a significant effect only on matter loss in cooking water, but differences between samples were so small as to be unlikely perceived by consumers. Both hen age and housing system significantly affected pasta cooking behaviour, but the greatest effect was exerted by the hen age. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Li, H; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens' activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  19. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems–Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Shepherd, T. A.; Li, H.; Xin, H.

    2015-01-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens’ activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  20. Predicting the environmental impacts of chicken systems in the United Kingdom through a life cycle assessment: egg production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Wiseman, J; Guy, J; Kyriazakis, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply a life cycle assessment (LCA) method, from cradle to gate, to quantify the environmental burdens per 1,000 kg of eggs produced in the 4 major hen-egg production systems in the United Kingdom: 1) cage, 2) barn, 3) free range, and 4) organic. The analysis was based on an approach that applied a structural model for the industry and mechanistic submodels for animal performance, crop production, and nutrient flows. Baseline feeds representative of those used by the UK egg production industry were used. Typical figures from the UK egg production industry, feed intake, mortality of birds, farm energy, and material use in different systems were applied. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainties in the outputs and allow for comparisons between the systems. The number of birds required to produce 1,000 kg of eggs was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system; similarly, the amount of feed consumed per bird was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system. These general differences in productivity largely affected the differences in the environmental impacts between the systems. Feed production, processing, and transport caused greater impacts compared with those from any other component of production; that is, 54 to 75% of the primary energy use and 64 to 72% of the global warming potential of the systems. Electricity (used mainly for ventilation, automatic feeding, and lighting) had the second greatest impact in primary energy use (16-38%). Gas and oil (used mainly for heating in pullet rearing and incineration of dead layer birds) used 7 to 14% of the total primary energy. Manure had the greatest impact on the acidification and eutrophication potentials of the systems because of ammonia emissions that contributed to both of these potentials and nitrate leaching that only affected eutrophication potential. The LCA method allows for comparisons between systems and for the identification of hotspots

  1. The use of statistical procedures for comparison of the production of eggs considering different treatments and lines of quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Marcelo Rossi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To make inferences concerning a population, parametric methods are traditionally used for sample data analysis assuming that these come from ordinary populations, which not always happens. Most of the times such assumption leads to inadequate conclusions and decisions, especially when the data are distributed asymmetrically. It was aimed on this work to adjust some plausible models for this type of data, aiming to compare eggs productions in quails of different lines through frequentist and Bayesian methods. In the analyzed data it could be verified that the parametric and non-parametric frequentist procedures were, in general, equally conclusive. The Bayesian procedure was the only one which detected difference between the yellow and red lines, regarding the preconized energy diet, and between the blue and yellow for the second eclosion group. By the frequentist methods differences between the blue and red lines were not found; however, given a Poisson distribution for the eggs production, through multiple comparisons between the posterior mean under the Bayesian focus, differences were found between all lines. For being more sensitive, besides flexible, such procedure detected differences not observed by the traditional methods between the yellow and red lines, in the higher energy diet; between the blue and the red one in the second eclosion group and in general. It was concluded that quails of the yellow line showed bigger eggs production, regardless of the eclosion group and diet. Such results raise the discussion on the appropriate use of methods and procedures for statistical data analysis.

  2. Vision Technology for Automated Characterization of Parasite Eggs in a Medicinal Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Johan Musaeus

    Eggs from the pig whipworm, Trichuris suis ova, constitute the active pharmaceutical ingredient in a drug candidate targeting immune-mediated diseases such as Crohn’s disease, multiple sclerosis, a.o. The drug candidate is currently being evaluated in clinical trials around the world. In the pres......Eggs from the pig whipworm, Trichuris suis ova, constitute the active pharmaceutical ingredient in a drug candidate targeting immune-mediated diseases such as Crohn’s disease, multiple sclerosis, a.o. The drug candidate is currently being evaluated in clinical trials around the world....... In the present PhD project, a microscopy-based vision instrument has been developed to automate the characterization of egg suspension quantity and quality. The instrument uses digital image analysis and statistical classification to detect and count the eggs and to characterize the developmental stages...... of the larvae inside the eggs based on morphology and darkfield scattering. The novel application of this technology is described in a patent application. The assessed concentration and embryonation percentage is used in the preparation of medicinal doses for the patients. The instrument has been evaluated...

  3. Identification of eggs from different production systems based on hyperspectra and CS-SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J; Cong, S L; Mao, H P; Zhou, X; Wu, X H; Zhang, X D

    2017-06-01

    1. To identify the origin of table eggs more accurately, a method based on hyperspectral imaging technology was studied. 2. The hyperspectral data of 200 samples of intensive and extensive eggs were collected. Standard normalised variables combined with a Savitzky-Golay were used to eliminate noise, then stepwise regression (SWR) was used for feature selection. Grid search algorithm (GS), genetic search algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimisation algorithm (PSO) and cuckoo search algorithm (CS) were applied by support vector machine (SVM) methods to establish an SVM identification model with the optimal parameters. The full spectrum data and the data after feature selection were the input of the model, while egg category was the output. 3. The SWR-CS-SVM model performed better than the other models, including SWR-GS-SVM, SWR-GA-SVM, SWR-PSO-SVM and others based on full spectral data. The training and test classification accuracy of the SWR-CS-SVM model were respectively 99.3% and 96%. 4. SWR-CS-SVM proved effective for identifying egg varieties and could also be useful for the non-destructive identification of other types of egg.

  4. Time-dependent postirradiation oxidative chemical changes in dehydrated egg products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katusin-Razem, B.; Mihaljevic, B.; Razem, D.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation-induced oxidative chemical changes in whole egg and egg yolk powder were followed in time after irradiation as a function of dose, dose rate, and storage atmosphere. In evacuated samples of whole egg powder the decay of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) was pseudo-first order (kappa = 0.088 day-1), while carotenoids did not decay at all. In the presence of air both lipid hydroperoxides and carotenoids decayed during postirradiation storage. The decay of LOOH could be treated by dispersive kinetics with the measure of dispersion, alpha = 0.51 +/- 0.05, independent of dose, and the effective lifetime tau inversely related to dose. The decay of carotenoids could also be treated by dispersive kinetics, with the values of alpha decreasing with increasing dose. The effective lifetimes of carotenoids did not depend on dose in samples irradiated in vacuum. In samples irradiated and stored in air the effective lifetimes decreased with dose, faster in egg yolk than in whole egg powder. The complex nature of postirradiation kinetics in solid food systems is discussed

  5. Impact of cooking and handling conditions on furanic compounds in breaded fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palacios, T; Petisca, C; Henriques, R; Ferreira, I M P L V O

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of cooking and handling conditions on the quantity of furanic compounds (furan, 2-furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 2-pentylfuran, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) in breaded fish products. Oven-baking and reheating in the microwave lead to low furanic compounds formation in comparison with deep-frying. The use of olive oil for deep-frying promoted higher levels of furanic compounds than sunflower oil. The amounts of these compounds diminished as the temperature and time of deep-frying decreased as well as after a delay after deep-frying. Thus, the generation of furanic compounds can be minimized by adjusting the cooking method and conditions, such as using an electric oven, deep-frying in sunflower oil at 160°C during 4min, or waiting 10min after cooking. However, these conditions that reduce furanic compounds levels also reduce the content of volatile compounds related to the aroma and flavour of fried foods. In this sense, new efforts should be done to reduce the formation of furanic compounds without being detrimental to the volatile profile. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of supplementing diets with propolis on productive performance, egg quality traits and some haematological variables of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kareem, A A A; El-Sheikh, T M

    2017-06-01

    One hundred and twenty eight, 28-weeks-old Lohmann LSL hybrid layers were used in this experiment, which lasted 12 weeks to investigate the effect of propolis supplementation on the productive performance, egg quality traits and haematological variables of laying hens. All hens were randomly classified into four equal experimental groups, eight replicates (4 birds/each). Hens in group 1 were fed on a commercial diet and considered as control group, while those in groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed on the same commercial diet and supplemented with 250, 500 and 1000 mg propolis/kg diet. The obtained results revealed that daily feed consumption/hen increased insignificantly with increasing propolis level than that of the control group. Regarding the means of egg mass and egg production rate, it was observed that the laying hens fed diets containing 250 and 1000 mg propolis/kg significantly (p hens as compared to those in the control. Concerning the haematological parameters, the results showed that the levels of total protein and globulin increased significantly with increasing propolis level, while cholesterol and liver enzymes were significantly decreased (p hens in the treated groups significantly decreased, whereas the lymphocyte count significantly increased, resulting in a decreased H/L ratio than that of the control group. Thus, it could be concluded that the supplementation of 250 mg propolis/kg diet is highly recommended to improving egg production, blood constituent and haematological parameters of the commercial laying hens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Analysis of manual material handling activity to increase work productivity (Case study: manufacturing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryoputro Muhammad Ragil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual material handling is one of work activities that have an effect on the physical aspect of workers in manufacturing industry, it is necessary to do the analysis of the risks from such activities. Analysis was performed on worker when performing manual lifting activity and when using two tools (Automatic Handlift and Manual Handlift. In addition to analyse in ergonomics aspect, time study analysis and productivity measurement were carried out to determine the effects of the equipment. Nordic Body Map (NBM questionnaire on worker using Automatic Handlift showed declining level of musculoskeletal disorders by 22%. REBA method obtained score of 10 and was declined to 4 after using these tool. The results of MPL method showed declining of Fc value from 4756.37 N to 1346.56 N. The results of RWL method showed declining of LI value (Lifting Index origin and destination from 1.84 and 1.18 to 1.12 and 0.89 respectively. As for worker using Manual Handlift, NBM questionnaire result shows declining level of musculoskeletal disorders by 57%. REBA method obtained scores of 8 and was reduced to 5. For MPL methode result, the Fc value is 4906.99 N and reduced to 2047.88 N. RWL method results showed declining of LI value (Lifting Index origin and destination from 1.02 and 0.67 to 0.74 and 0.58. The results of time study analysis showed declining of Standard Time when use the two tools and make the increasing productivity of 9% by worker using Automatic Hadlift and 4% by worker using Manual Handlift.

  8. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...-0178] Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron... electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. This action... CFR part 579) to provide for the safe use of electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of...

  9. 76 FR 20509 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ...'' or to ``fully develop the facts'' does not meet this test (Georgia-Pacific Corp. v. U.S. EPA, 671 F... there is no indication in the egg irradiation rule or its references that such tests were conducted or.... Boyd, W.S. Muller, et al. ``Radiation resistance of Salmonella,'' Journal of Industrial Microbiology, 5...

  10. Effect of Different Heat Treatments on In Vitro Digestion of Egg White Proteins and Identification of Bioactive Peptides in Digested Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefen; Qiu, Ning; Liu, Yaping

    2018-04-01

    Chicken eggs are ingested by people after a series of processes, but to date, only a few studies have explored the nutrient variations caused by different heat treatments. In this work, the impacts of different heat treatments (4, 56, 65, and 100 °C on the in vitro digestibility of egg white proteins were investigated by hydrolysis with pepsin or pepsin + pancreatin to simulate human gastrointestinal digestion, and the digested products were identified using Nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. Egg white proteins treated at 65 °C had the highest in vitro pepsin digestibility value whereas the pepsin + pancreatin digestibility increased significantly (P cooking temperature was raised. The molecular weight distribution of the digested products indicated that, when compared to pepsin-treated samples, pepsin + pancreatin-treated samples contained more low-molecular-weight peptides (m/z egg white digested products, especially in samples treated at 4 and 100 °C. These findings may facilitate a better understanding of nutritive values of egg white proteins and their digested products under different cooking temperatures, such as antibacterial and antioxidant peptides identified in the digestion samples treated, respectively at 4 and 100 °C. This study also provided information for improving the applications of eggs in the food industry as well as a theoretical basis for egg consumption. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Short and long-term effects of azadirachtin A on development and egg production of Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloi S. Garcia

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachtin A was given through a blood meal to 4th-instar larvae and to adult females of Rhodnius prolixus. Development (ecdysis and egg production were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Long-term experiments with subsequent four feedings on azadirachtin-free blood were performed with 4th-instar larvae and with adult females. Only in the low-dose azadirachtin larval groups (0.01 and 0.1 microng/ml of blood, development was partially restored; after a single 1.0 microng/ml treatment about 50% of the treated larvae were still alive 120 days later without any adult emergence. Similarly fed females had a dose-dependent lower survival and egg deposition rate. The results are discussed in relation to the mode of azadirachtin A action.

  12. Effect of production system, supermarket and purchase date on the vitamin D content of eggs at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Kliem, Kirsty E; Lovegrove, Julie A; Givens, D I

    2017-04-15

    The vitamin D content of eggs from three retail outlets was measured over five months to examine the effects of production system (organic vs. free range vs. indoor), supermarket and purchase date on the concentration of vitamin D 3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 . Results demonstrated a higher vitamin D 3 concentration in free range (57.2±3.1μg/kg) and organic (57.2±3.2μg/kg) compared with indoor (40.2±3.1μg/kg) (Psupermarket for both forms of vitamin D may relate to some incorrect labelling. Concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 was higher (P<0.05) in July and September than in August . The results indicate variations in vitamin D concentrations in eggs from different sources, thus highlighting the importance of accurate labelling. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. [Assessment of production of eggs of Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) on the basis of long-term ichthyoplankton data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaseva, E M

    2011-01-01

    Proceeding from long-term data on the numbers of eggs of cod in ichthyoplankton, the total annual production of cod eggs at four main spawning grounds of the Baltic Sea was calculated. It was shown that the long-term fluctuations of cod egg production were positively related to the dynamics of the volume of waters coming to the Baltic Sea in years of the North Sea advections. It is suggested that this dependence was determined by a set of adaptations providing the extension of cod reproduction upon the improvement of the environment.

  14. How the Monte Carlo production of a wide variety of different samples is centrally handled in the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Corti, G; Clemencic, M; Closier, J; Couturier, B; Kreps, M; Mathe, Z; O'Hanlon, D; Robbe, P; Romanovsky, V; Stagni, F; Zhelezov, A

    2015-01-01

    In the LHCb experiment a wide variety of Monte Carlo simulated samples needs to be produced for the experiment's physics program. Monte Carlo productions are handled centrally similarly to all massive processing of data in the experiment. In order to cope with the large set of different types of simulation samples, necessary procedures based on common infrastructures have been set up with a numerical event type identification code used throughout. The various elements in the procedure, from writing a configuration for an event type to deploying them on the production environment, from submitting and processing a request to retrieving the sample produced as well as the conventions established to allow their interplay will be described. The choices made have allowed a high level of automation of Monte Carlo productions that are handled centrally in a transparent way with experts concentrating on their specific tasks. As a result the massive Monte Carlo production of the experiment is efficiently processed on a ...

  15. Laying traits and underlying transcripts, expressed in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, that were associated with egg production variability in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Yen, Cheng-Ju; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chang, Hui-Chiu; Lee, Yen-Pai

    2007-12-01

    The objective was to characterize the potential laying traits and underlying transcripts expressed in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland that were associated with egg production variability in five genetic stocks of chickens: two commercial lines, Red- (n=12) and Black-feather (n=14) Taiwan country chickens (TCCs); two selected lines of TCCs, B (high body weight/comb size; n=17) and L2 (high-egg production; n=14); and a commercial single comb White Leghorn (WL; n=17). Six laying traits, age at first egg, clutch length, pause length, oviposition lag within clutch, follicle rapid growth period, and rate of yolk accumulation were measured. The significance of differential values among five chicken stocks and correlation coefficients between laying traits and number of eggs to 50 weeks of age or laying rate after first egg, and the expression level of 33 transcripts were determined. Longer clutch length and shorter oviposition lag within clutch contributed to a higher number of eggs to 50 weeks of age or laying rate after first egg in L2 (Pdifferent, indicating the accumulation of different alleles after long-term, independent selection. Across all five strains, numbers of eggs to 50 weeks of age were positive correlated with average clutch length (P<0.05) as well as the rate of yolk accumulation (P<0.05). Expressions of PLAG1, STMN2, PGDS, PARK7, ANP32A, PCDHA@, SCG2, BDH and SAR1A transcripts contributed to number of eggs to 50 weeks of age (P<0.05) or laying rate after first egg (P<0.05). Analysis of correlation coefficients indicated that PLAG1 additionally played roles in decreasing average pause length. Two transcripts, PRL and GARNL1, specifically contributed to number of eggs to 50 weeks of age or laying rate after first egg by reducing oviposition lag within clutch (P<0.05) and/or increasing average clutch length (P<0.05), respectively. Expression level of NCAM1, contributed to laying rate after first egg by association with a shorter oviposition lag within

  16. Effects of Enzyme Supplementation on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Whole Date Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torki M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to determine the effects of β-mannanase-based enzyme (Hemicell® on productive performance and egg quality in diets containing graded levels of Whole date waste (WDW fed to laying hens. A total of 336 Hy-line leghorn hens after production peak were randomly divided into 56 cages. Eight iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement including four levels of WDW (0, 10, 20 and 30% and 2 concentrations of supplemental β-mannanase (0 or 0.06 % were prepared. Each dietary treatment was fed to 7 cages (6 birds/cage from 32 to 38 wk of age. During the experiment, daily egg production, egg weight and feed intake were measured. At the 6th wk, egg quality traits were also recorded. The results showed that there was no interaction between WDW inclusion and enzyme supplementation on performance and egg traits. Dietary supplementation of WDW more than 10% significantly decreased egg production and egg mass compared to no WDW recipient hens (control diet during the entire experiment (P. Inclusion of 30% WDW to the diet, significantly increased overall feed conversion ratio compared to the control group (P. The treatment with 20 and 30% WDW also resulted in lower eggshell thickness as compared to 10% WDW (P. The dietary inclusion of 10% WDW also increased yolk index as compared to the control and 30% WDW groups (P. Enzyme supplementation had no significant effect on productive performance as well as egg quality characteristics. Based on the results of this experiment, it can be concluded that WDW could be included to laying hens diets up to 10% with no deleterious effects on performance and egg quality characteristics.

  17. Effect of dietary protein sources on production performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; low-gossypol cottonseed meal, LCSM; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM on laying performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens. Methods A total of 432 32-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The birds were fed diets containing SBM, LCSM100, or DRM100 individually or in combination with an equal amount of crude protein (CP (LCSM50, DRM50, and LCSM50-DRM50. The experimental diets, which were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.11 MJ/kg and isonitrogenous (CP, 16.5%, had similar digestible amino acid profile. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. Results The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups (p0.05 and showed increased yolk color at the end of the trial (p0.05. Conclusion Together, our results suggest that the LCSM100 or DRM100 diets may produce the adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality after feeding for 8 more weeks. The 100.0 g/kg LCSM diet or the148.7 g/kg DRM diet has no adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality.

  18. Shelf Stable Egg-Based Products Processed By Ultra High Pressure Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-03

    found with the colorimeter (table 7). Since egg patties were previously heat formed, it is not surprising that there were no significant differences...675 MPa) agreed with the color ratings by the descriptive panel. Table 7. Color and appearance of patty formulation #1 as indicated by colorimeter

  19. Robustness of egg production methods as a fishery independent alternative to assess the Eastern Baltic cod stock (Gadus morhua callarias L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Gerd; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Voss, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    potential (SRP). Eastern Baltic cod (Gad us morhua callarias L) has severely declined throughout the 2nd half of the 1980s and 1st half of the 1990s due to climate-driven adverse hydrographic conditions and high fishing intensity. Since 2007 the stock is managed under a long-term management plan and showed...... signs of recovery in most recent years. Since 1986. egg surveys have been carried! out regularly in the Bornholm Basin, the most important spawning area of Eastern Baltic cod since mid-1980s. In the present paper the robustness of EPM towards simplification of spawning parameters and toward; reduction...... of the number of egg surveys is tested applying three different methods requiring different numbers of egg surveys. We applied the annual egg production method (AEPM) requiring full egg survey coverage of the spawning season to estimate cod abundances in the Bornholm Basin. In addition, the daily fecundity...

  20. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Polymorphism of some Candidate Genes from Growth Hormone Axis on Egg Production Traits in Mazandaran Native Fowls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Enayati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the allelic polymorphisms of GH, GHR and TGFβ3 genes and its association with egg production traits were investigated. Blood samples randomly were collected from breeder hens of Mazandaran native fowls breeding station and transported to the laboratory in cold chain condition. DNA was extracted using modified salting out method and the desired loci were amplified by specific primers. All samples genotyping were carried out by RFLP-PCR method. The frequency of each (+ and (- alleles was estimated at 0.7981 and 0.2019 for GH, 0.9937 and 0.0063 for GHR and 0.8037 and 0.1961 for TGFβ3 loci, respectively. The heterozygote genotype was detected in both GH and TGFβ3 loci but all individuals showed homozygote genotype in GHR marker site. The chi-squared test showed that all individuals in both GH and TGFβ3 loci were in HW equilibrium. Statistical analysis of showed that GH marker site had a significant effect on both phenotypic and breeding values of egg weight at puberty (EWM and age at first laying egg (AFE, respectively. The mean comparison showed that individuals with -/- genotype in GH marker site had higher phenotypic values for EWM but lower breeding values for AFE trait. The GHR and TGFβ3 loci and also the interaction between GH×TGFβ3 loci were not statistically significant on phenotypic and breeding values of mentioned traits..

  2. Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's egg pasteurization processes on the inactivation of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus and velogenic Newcastle disease virus in processed egg products

    Science.gov (United States)

    High pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/1983 (H5N2), and velogenic Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) AMPV-1/California/212676/2002 were inoculated into various egg products then heat treated at various temperatures for 0 to 30 min to determine thermal inactivation p...

  3. Egg origin determination efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, A.; Futo, I.; Vodila, G.; Palcsu, L.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. As a co-operation with the Poultry Product Board, egg and drinking water samples were received in order to investigate whether the country of origin of the egg can be determined based on its stable isotope composition with the aim of market protection of the Hungarian eggs against the mislabelled foreign ones. The scientific background is that drinking water of egg laying hens is assumed to reflect the composition of regional precipitation, and it is also an input data in the process of egg formation. In the first sampling, altogether 23 sets of egg and drinking water samples were received from different production sites covering the whole area of Hungary. The egg white samples were vacuum distilled and frozen out by liquid nitrogen at -196 deg C. The process was monitored by two vacuum gauges. Water frozen out together with the drinking water samples was measured were measured by a Thermo Finnigan Delta PLUS XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer using a GasBench II peripheral unit equipped with a GC-autosampler. As a second issue, additionally, elemental composition of egg shells were also performed for series of Hungarian, Czech and Polish egg samples by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The drinking waters fit well to the Global Meteoric Water Line indicating their precipitation origin. It was experienced that the water in egg white gets enriched compared to the drinking water (Δ 18 O = -4.9 ± 1.0 per thousand and Δ D = -21.8 ± 6.4 per thousand), however, this shift is independent of the type of the hens, since the mean shifts in the eggs of Tetra and Hy-line hens are similar within error bar. For more depleted drinking water, the shift of the egg white was higher than for more enriched ones. This can be due to the contribution of the nutriment isotopic composition. The water isotope composition of the Hungarian eggs investigated was δ 18 O = -4.8 - -7.3 per thousand and δD = -46.0 - -70.7 per thousand, therefore egg

  4. Effect of Supplementation Purslane (Portulaca oleracea as a Source of Alpha-Linolenic Acid on Production Performance and Physical Quality of Egg of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Kartikasari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion plant source of n 3 fat in the form of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3 on the diets of layers on production performance and physical quality of eggs. A total of  125 Hy-Line Brown hens (38 weeks old were placed at individual cages and assigned to five dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0% purslane meal. Laying hens were fed for five weeks following a seven day adaptation period. Water and feed were provided ad libitum. Feed intake (FI measured weekly and feed consumption ratio (FCR was calculated at the end of the trial. A total of 25 egg yolk samples of day 35 (n = 5 egg yolks for each treatment were collected to analyse physical quality of eggs. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Differences between treatment means were further analyzed using Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Results showed that the incorporation of plants rich in ALA did not modify FI, FCR, and egg production. Supplementation of purslane meal in the diets had no effect on physical quality of eggs, including egg weight, yolk weight, albumen index, yolk index and Haugh Unit (HU. The average of egg weight and yolk weight were 60,5 and 15.3 g, respectively. Diet containing purslane meal increased yolk colour. In conclusion, laying hens that fed diet supplemented with purslane meal rich in ALA improved yolk colour and did not change the production performance of the laying hens or the qualities of the eggs.

  5. Influence of the method of production of eggs on the daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine contaminants: an independent study in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Rodríguez-Hernández, Angel; Quesada-Tacoronte, Yohana; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Almeida-González, Maira; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

    2013-10-01

    Analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were performed on eggs from three different production types (conventional, free-run and organic) collected from the markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). Unlike other studies we did not found differences in the content of PCBs or OCPs of eggs in relation to its production type. Median ∑OCPs content was 3.87 ng g⁻¹ fat, being dieldrin, dicofol, hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT the most frequently detected. Median ∑PCBs value was 3.93 ng g⁻¹ fat, with 79.9% of this amount coming from the marker PCBs. Two samples, one free-run and one organic, greatly exceeded the current European Commission (EC) limit of 2.5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F) g⁻¹ lipid, but the rest were well below of this limit. The concentrations of PAHs in conventionally produced eggs were almost 4 times higher than in free-run or organic eggs. Mean dietary intake estimates of the organochlorine contaminants based on consumption of eggs, regardless of the type chosen, is negligible for the Canary Islands' population. However, the median dietary intake estimates of PAHs greatly depend on the type of eggs chosen, being much lower when free-run and organic eggs are consumed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bacterial Infection of Fly Ovaries Reduces Egg Production and Induces Local Hemocyte Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Stephanie M.; Schneider, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Morbidity, the state of being diseased, is an important aspect of pathogenesis that has gone relatively unstudied in fruit flies. Our interest is in characterizing how bacterial pathogenesis affects various physiologies of the fly. We chose to examine the fly ovary because we found bacterial infection had a striking effect on fly reproduction. We observed decreased egg laying after bacterial infection that correlated with increased bacterial virulence. We also found that bacteria colonized th...

  7. How does co-product handling affect the carbon footprint of milk? Case study of milk production in New Zealand and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Cederberg, Christel; Henriksson, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This paper investigates different methodologies of handling co-products in life cycle assessment (LCA) or carbon footprint (CF) studies. Co-product handling can have a significant effect on final LCA/CF results, and although there are guidelines on the preferred order for different methods...... (when slaughtered), calves, manure, hides, etc., the environmental burden (here GHG emissions) must be distributed between these outputs (in the present study no emissions are attributed to hides specifically, or to manure which is recycled on-farm). Different methodologically approaches, (1) system...

  8. Effect of an artificial Ascaridia galli infection on egg production, immune response, and liver lipid reserve of free-range laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N; Hunt, P W; Hine, B C; McNally, J; Sharma, N K; Iqbal, Z; Normant, C; Andronicos, N M; Swick, R A; Ruhnke, I

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of Ascaridia galli infection on free-range laying hens. Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 200) at 17 wk of age were allocated to 4 treatment groups (n = 50 per group), each with 5 replicate pens of 10 hens. Hens in 3 treatment groups were orally inoculated with different doses of embryonated A. galli eggs: low (250 eggs), medium (1,000 eggs), and high (2,500 eggs) levels, whereas hens of the control group were not infected. Infection levels were monitored using excreta egg counts and mature A. galli worm counts in the intestine. Anti A. galli antibody titers (IgY) in the serum were measured prior to infection, and at 6, 11, 15, and 20 wk post infection (PI) and in egg yolk at 11 and 20 wk PI. Parameters evaluated included feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, FCR, liver weight, liver fat, and intra epithelial immune cell infiltration. The results showed no difference in feed intake, body weight, or FCR among any treatment groups (P > 0.05). Egg production was lower in the low infection group compared to other groups at 20 wk of age (P < 0.01). Serum IgY was higher in the infected groups' hens at 20 wk PI compared to control group hens (P < 0.01). Yolk IgY increased significantly over time and was higher in infected hens compared to hens of the control group at 11 and 20 wk PI (P < 0.001). No differences were observed in liver lipid content or intraepithelial lymphocytes infiltration among treatment groups. Ascaridia galli eggs in the coprodeum content and adult A. galli worm count were higher in infected hens compared to hens of the control group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the effects of artificial infection with A. galli on the parameters investigated were minor, and egg yolk antibody may be a more reliable indicator of A. galli infection than serum antibody or excreta egg count. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production, revealed using EST-sequencing and microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonassen Inge

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepeophtheirus salmonis is an ectoparasitic copepod feeding on skin, mucus and blood from salmonid hosts. Initial analysis of EST sequences from pre adult and adult stages of L. salmonis revealed a large proportion of novel transcripts. In order to link unknown transcripts to biological functions we have combined EST sequencing and microarray analysis to characterize female salmon louse transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production. Results EST sequence analysis shows that 43% of the ESTs have no significant hits in GenBank. Sequenced ESTs assembled into 556 contigs and 1614 singletons and whenever homologous genes were identified no clear correlation with homologous genes from any specific animal group was evident. Sequence comparison of 27 L. salmonis proteins with homologous proteins in humans, zebrafish, insects and crustaceans revealed an almost identical sequence identity with all species. Microarray analysis of maturing female adult salmon lice revealed two major transcription patterns; up-regulation during the final molting followed by down regulation and female specific up regulation during post molting growth and egg production. For a third minor group of ESTs transcription decreased during molting from pre-adult II to immature adults. Genes regulated during molting typically gave hits with cuticula proteins whilst transcripts up regulated during post molting growth were female specific, including two vitellogenins. Conclusion The copepod L.salmonis contains high a level of novel genes. Among analyzed L.salmonis proteins, sequence identities with homologous proteins in crustaceans are no higher than to homologous proteins in humans. Three distinct processes, molting, post molting growth and egg production correlate with transcriptional regulation of three groups of transcripts; two including genes related to growth, one including genes related to egg production. The function of the regulated

  10. Balancing Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  11. Effects of rough handling on short chain fatty acid production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of stress due to rough handling (RH) on gastrointestinal tract (GIT) environmental pH, concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and modulatory roles of two Lactobacillus strains was investigated in broiler chickens. Equal number of chicks was randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups; ...

  12. 7 CFR 205.201 - Organic production and handling system plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED... or handling operation, except as exempt or excluded under § 205.101, intending to sell, label, or... implemented to comply with the requirements established in § 205.103; (5) A description of the management...

  13. Storage of Pentatomid Eggs in Liquid Nitrogen and Dormancy of Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston) and Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) Adults as a Method of Mass Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetzer, A K; Foerster, L A

    2013-10-01

    The eggs of pentatomid species were evaluated to parasitism by Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston) and Telenomus podisi Ashmead after storage in liquid nitrogen. Adults which emerged from stored eggs were kept at 18°C for 120 and 180 days to investigate whether adult dormancy could be associated with host egg storage in liquid nitrogen as a method of mass production of these egg parasitoids. Eggs of Nezara viridula (L.) and Acrosternum pengue (Rolston) were successfully parasitized by T. basalis, as well as Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) and Dichelops furcatus (F.) by T. podisi. The eggs of Edessa meditabunda (F.) were not parasitized by T. basalis. The emergence of T. podisi from eggs of Euschistus heros (F.) and Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) stored for 6 months was lower than the control. Females of T. basalis and T. podisi that emerged from stored eggs were kept in dormancy at 18°C. Longevity of T. basalis was influenced by the storage time and sex, but not by the interaction of sex and storage time. For T. podisi, longevity was influenced by the storage time, sex, and by the interaction of sex and storage time. For T. basalis, storage in liquid nitrogen did not affect the fecundity of quiescent females, while the number of parasitized eggs by T. podisi decreased after storage. By the joint use of these techniques, it is possible to optimize mass production of T. basalis so that its life cycle can be monitored and synchronized with the life cycle and availability of hosts.

  14. Eggs and Poultry Purchase, Storage, and Preparation Practices of Consumers in Selected Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Koppel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to begin characterizing purchase, storage, handling, and preparation of poultry products and eggs by selected consumers in three Asian countries: India, Korea, and Thailand. Approximately 100 consumers in each location were recruited to participate in this study. The consumers were surveyed about eggs and poultry purchase behavior characteristics, such as temperatures and locations, storage behavior, such as storage locations in the refrigerator or freezer, preparation behavior, such as washing eggs and poultry before cooking, and handling behavior, such as using cutting boards during cooking. The results indicated differences in purchase and storage practices of raw eggs. Most Korean consumers purchased refrigerated eggs and stored the eggs in the refrigerator, while Indian and Thai consumers bought eggs that were stored at room temperature, but would refrigerate the eggs at home. Approximately half of the consumers in each country froze raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Food preparation practices showed potential for cross-contamination during cooking, such as using the same cutting board for different kinds of foods or not washing hands with soap and water. The results presented in this pilot study may lead to development of educational messages and raising consumer awareness of food safety practices in Asian countries.

  15. Eggs and Poultry Purchase, Storage, and Preparation Practices of Consumers in Selected Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri; Suwonsichon, Suntaree; Chitra, Uma; Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to begin characterizing purchase, storage, handling, and preparation of poultry products and eggs by selected consumers in three Asian countries: India, Korea, and Thailand. Approximately 100 consumers in each location were recruited to participate in this study. The consumers were surveyed about eggs and poultry purchase behavior characteristics, such as temperatures and locations, storage behavior, such as storage locations in the refrigerator or freezer, preparation behavior, such as washing eggs and poultry before cooking, and handling behavior, such as using cutting boards during cooking. The results indicated differences in purchase and storage practices of raw eggs. Most Korean consumers purchased refrigerated eggs and stored the eggs in the refrigerator, while Indian and Thai consumers bought eggs that were stored at room temperature, but would refrigerate the eggs at home. Approximately half of the consumers in each country froze raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Food preparation practices showed potential for cross-contamination during cooking, such as using the same cutting board for different kinds of foods or not washing hands with soap and water. The results presented in this pilot study may lead to development of educational messages and raising consumer awareness of food safety practices in Asian countries. PMID:28234307

  16. Egg shell waste as heterogeneous nanocatalyst for biodiesel production: Optimized by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Priti R; Fulekar, M H

    2017-08-01

    Worldwide consumption of hen eggs results in availability of large amount of discarded egg waste particularly egg shells. In the present study, the waste shells were utilized for the synthesis of highly active heterogeneous calcium oxide (CaO) nanocatalyst to transesterify dry biomass into methyl esters (biodiesel). The CaO nanocatalyst was synthesied by calcination-hydration-dehydration technique and fully characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), brunauer-emmett-teller (BET) elemental and thermogravimetric analysis. TEM image showed that the nano catalyst had spherical shape with average particle size of 75 nm. BET analysis indicated that the catalyst specific surface area was 16.4 m 2  g -1 with average pore diameter of 5.07 nm. The effect of nano CaO catalyst was investigated by direct transesterification of dry biomass into biodiesel along with other reaction parameters such as catalyst ratio, reaction time and stirring rate. The impact of the transesterification reaction parameters and microalgal biodiesel yield were analyzed by response surface methodology based on a full factorial, central composite design. The significance of the predicted mode was verified and 86.41% microalgal biodiesel yield was reported at optimal parameter conditions 1.7% (w/w), catalyst ratio, 3.6 h reaction time and stirring rate of 140.6 rpm. The biodiesel conversion was determined by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The fuel properties of prepared biodiesel were found to be highly comply with the biodiesel standard ASTMD6751 and EN14214. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Entomopathogenic fungi for control of arthropod pests in egg production facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole

    Beauveria bassiana and other species of entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for microbial control of major pests in egg layers, e.g. the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), the housefly (Musca domestica) and the darkling beetle (Alphitobius diaperinus). We have selected an isolate...... of B. bassiana with high efficacy against all target pests in laboratory assays, and will review the existing information on the natural occurrence of these fungi in farms with confined animals and discuss the possibilities and constraints for exploitation of entomopathogenic fungi as control agents...

  18. Effect of a Dietary Herbal Mixture Supplement on the Growth Performance, Egg Production and Health Status in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasko GERZILOV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out with dual-purpose fowls developed for rural backyard farming – indigenous Katunitsa chicken (line “AN”, in a free range management system from hatching to 52 weeks of age. The purpose of the investigation was to establish the influence of a blend of herbs as a dietary supplement on some serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, gamma-glutamyl transferase, triglycerides and creatinine, growth performance, egg production, egg fatty acid composition, and health status. The composition of this blend of herbs included: 0.05% garlic powder (Allium sativum, 0.3% cinnamon powder (Cinnamomum verum and 0.03% of each of the following dried herbs: yarrow (Achillea millefolium, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus serpyllum, basil (Ocimum basilicum and oregano (Origanum vulgare. The birds were divided into two groups – control (n=60 without supplemental mixture to the diet and experimental (n=700 with supplemental mixture to the diet from the first day of age to the end of the experiment. The results showed that the herbal mixture supplement decreased significantly the blood serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels – at 7 (P0.05. Over the entire investigation period the chickens from the experimental group had a better feed conversion ratio (with 3.37% and a higher egg laying capacity (with 1.79%. At the end of experiment (52 weeks of age, hens from the control group exhibited generalised fatty degeneration of liver parenchyma, while these in experimental group, the major part of hepatocytes had no fat droplets in their cytoplasm. The death rate from 0 to 7, from 8 to 21 and from 22 to 52 weeks of age was 18.33%, 0% and 8.57% in the control group and 1.00%, 0.26% and 2.62% in the experimental group, respectively. Therefore in conclusion, it can be affirmed that the use of this blend of herbs had a beneficial effect in the treated fowls and

  19. Repair in fertilized eggs of mice and its role in the production of chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1979-01-01

    The fertilized egg may influence the yield of dominant-lethal mutations produced from chemical treatment of male postmeiotic germ cells to a small or large extent depending upon the mutagen used and the competence of the egg to repair the premutational lesions induced. The strain of females has small influence on the yield of dominant-lethal mutations induced by TEM or EMS in spermatids and spermatozoa. On the contrary, it has large influence in the case of IMS. In addition to this difference, TEM and EMS induce high levels of heritable translocations at these germ cell stages while IMS is practically ineffective even though doses of these chemicals used produced comparable levels of dominant-lethal mutations. These differences between EMS and TEM on one hand and IMS on the other, were explained as a function of the types of chromosomal lesions present at the time of repair activity and whether or not chromosomal aberrations are already fixed at the time of postfertilization pronuclear DNA synthesis

  20. European Model Code of safe practice in the storage and handling of petroleum products. Part I. Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    This safe practice code was prepared by a working group consisting of experts from 10 Western European countries. It consists of short guidelines and technical advice on general precautions, injuries and medical services, permits to work, fire prevention and fighting, jetties, pipework, storage tanks, static electricity, electrical equipment, road vehicles, tank cars, handling of bitumen products, liquefied petroleum gases, packed products and training of personnel. The code is supplemented by 10 appendices, including a suggested syllabus for a 2-day course on fire prevention and emergency action for managers of oil installations.

  1. Digestibility, productive performance, and egg quality of laying hens as affected by dried cassava pulp replacement with corn and enzyme supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khempaka, Sutisa; Maliwan, Prapot; Okrathok, Supattra; Molee, Wittawat

    2018-02-24

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the potential use of dried cassava pulp (DCP) supplemented with enzymes as an alternative feed ingredient in laying hen diets. In experiment 1, 45 laying hens (Isa Brown) aged 45 weeks were placed in individual cages to measure nutrient digestibility for 10 days. Nine dietary treatments were control and DCP as a replacement for corn at 20, 25, 30, and 35% supplemented with mixed enzymes (cellulase, glucanase, and xylanase) at 0.10 and 0.15%. Results showed that the use of DCP at 20-35% added with mixed enzymes had no negative effects on dry matter digestibility, while organic matter digestibility and nitrogen retention decreased with increased DCP up to 30-35% in diets. Both enzyme levels (0.10 and 0.15%) showed similar results on nutrient digestibility and retention. In experiment 2, a total of 336 laying hens aged 32 weeks were randomly allocated to seven dietary treatments (control and DCP-substituted diets at 20, 25, and 30%) supplemented with mixed enzymes (0.10 and 0.15%). Diets incorporated with 20-30% of DCP and supplemented with mixed enzymes at both levels had no significant effects on egg production, egg weight, feed intake, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, or egg quality, except for egg yolk color being decreased with an increase of DCP in diets (P digestibility, productive performance, or egg quality.

  2. Annual egg production rates of calanoid copepod species on the continental shelf of the Eastern Tropical Pacific off Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Eva R.; Franco-Gordo, Carmen; Palomares-García, Ricardo; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    We provide the first estimations of calanoid copepod egg production rates (EPR) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific over an annual cycle (January-December 2011). Gravid females were collected twice monthly and incubated for 12 h without food to estimate EPR, weight-specific fecundity (Gf), spawning success (SS, percentage of females to spawn out of the total species incubated per month and season) and egg hatching success (EHS). This study reports the average EPR of 10 species and the monthly EPR and Gf of four planktonic calanoid copepods (Centropages furcatus, Temora discaudata, Pontellina sobrina, and Nannocalanus minor) that spawned with enough frequency to infer their seasonal reproductive patterns. These species showed distinct seasonal reproductive strategies. Most copepod species spawned sporadically with large EPR variability, while three copepod species reproduced throughout the year (C. furcatus, T. discaudata and P. sobrina) and N. minor spawned only during the mixed period (Feb-May). The four species had relatively similar average EPR (C. furcatus 16, T. discaudata 18, P. sobrina 13, and N. minor 12 eggs fem-1 day-1). These are the first EPR estimations of P. sobrina and its previously known reproductive period is expanded. A Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to analyze EPR and species abundance of all calanoid copepods (40 spp.) collected throughout the time series in relation to temperature, salinity, mixed layer depth (MLD), dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentrations to identify the variables that best explained the copepod abundance variability. Temperature, Chl-a, and salinity had the strongest effect on the biological variables, linked to seasonal and episodic upwelling-downwelling processes in the surveyed area. As a result of moderate upwelling events and seasonal variation of environmental conditions, it appears relatively few species are capable of maintaining continuous reproduction under the relatively higher

  3. Avian Egg and Egg Coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  4. Kisspeptin-10 Enhanced Egg Production in Quails Associated with the Increase of Triglyceride Synthesis in Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Our previous results showed that kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10 injections via intraperitoneal (i.p. once daily for three weeks notably promoted the egg laying rate in quails. In order to investigate the mechanism behind the effects of Kp-10 on enhancing the egg laying rate in birds, this study focused on the alternations of lipids synthesis in liver after Kp-10 injections. 75 female quails (22 d of age were allocated to three groups randomly, and subjected to 0 (control, Con, 10 nmol (low dosage, L and 100 nmol (high dosage, H Kp-10 injections via i.p. once daily for three weeks, respectively. At d 52, quails were sacrificed and sampled for further analyses. Serum E2 concentration was increased by Kp-10 injections, and reached statistical significance in H group. Serum triglyceride (TG concentrations were increased by 46.7% in L group and 36.8% in H group, respectively, but did not reach statistical significance, and TG contents in liver were significantly elevated by Kp-10 injections in a dose-dependent manner. Serum total cholesterol (Tch concentrations significantly decreased in H group, while in H group the hepatic Tch content was markedly increased. The level of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA, apolipoprotein A1 and B (apoA1 and apoB were not altered by Kp-10 injections. The genes expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1, fatty acid synthetase (FAS, apolipoprotein VLDL-II (apoVLDL-II, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1 and vitellogenin II (VTG-II were significantly up-regulated by high but not low dosage of Kp-10 injection compared to the control group. However, the expression of SREBP-2, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCα, malic enzyme (ME, stearoyl-CoA (Δ9 desaturase 1 (SCD1, apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1, fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2, 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A reductases (HMGCR, estrogen receptor α, β (ERα and β mRNA were not affected by Kp-10 treatment. In line with hepatic mRNA abundance, hepatic SREBP

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF OREGANO ESSENTIAL OIL AND BEE PRODUCTS ON QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF TABLE EGGS CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytobiotics are a new group of natural products. They are defined as products derived from plants, which may have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oil, propolis and pollen extract addition on physical and microbiological egg parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=40 were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks with diets with oregano essential oiland propolis or pollen supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first experimental groups was supplemented with 0.5 g/kg oregano essential oil. The feed for second and third experimental groups of birds consisted of basal diet supplemented with propolis extract and pollen extract of the same dose at 0.5 g/kg. The results suggest that the most of qualitative parameters of egg internal content were not significantly influenced with oregano oil or bee products addition (P>0.05. A statistically significant differencein favor of the experimental groups compared with the control group was observed in two indicators of albumen quality. In the index of albumen and in the Haugh Units was significantly higher difference in favor of the experimental group with addition of oregano essential oilat a dose of0.5 g/kg and in the group with pollen supplement (P<0.05. The highest total number of bacteria and count of coliforms bacteria was found in the control group. The number of lactobacilli was zero in all groups.

  6. The efficacy of using exogenous enzymes cocktail on production, egg quality, egg nutrients and blood metabolites of laying hens fed distiller's dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, M E; Chaudhry, M T; Mahrose, K M; Noreldin, A; Emam, M; Alagawany, M

    2018-04-01

    An experiment was performed using 120 Hisex Brown laying hens for evaluating the effects of different inclusion levels of corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with or without enzyme cocktail on performance, egg quality, egg nutrients and blood metabolites in laying hens through 22-42 weeks of age. A 4 × 2 factorial design experiment was performed including four substitution levels of DDGS (0, 250, 500 and 750 g/kg respectively) and two enzyme cocktail levels (0 and 250 mg/kg diet). The used enzyme in this study "Gallazyme" composed of xylanase, Trichoderma longibrachiatum (600 units/g), protease, Bacillus subtilis (8,000 units/g) and amylase and Bacillus amyloliquofaciens (800 units/g). The control diet showed the best feed efficiency followed by the intermediate levels of DDGS. The lowest value of feed efficiency was found in the group fed the highest level of DDGS. Enzyme addition improved feed efficiency and decreased laying rate. Increasing DDGS levels was associated with albumin and shell thickness increases. Dietary DDGS depressed all egg components except the organic matter which maximised in enzyme-treated groups. Increasing DDGS level was accompanied by increase in yolk cholesterol and total lipids. No significant impacts were detected with enzymes supplementation on yolk lipids profile. Excepting serum calcium and phosphorous, all serum constituents increased with increasing level of DDGS. Using enzyme markedly depressed serum ammonia by 15.02% and increased calcium by 6.44% compared with enzyme-free diets. Interaction between DDGS and enzyme was significant on most of studied parameters. It could be concluded that using enzyme cocktail in DDGS-based diets may improve feed efficiency and egg quality, in addition to lowering blood ammonia and increasing blood calcium. It is recommended to substitute SBM by DDGS up to 500 g/kg diet. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. New alternatives on the control of plagues in the handling of the residuals in agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Buenaventura, L.

    1995-01-01

    A recount of the historical evolution of the agriculture is made in the country and the use of agricultural inputs with tendency to the mono cultivations that drove to a biological imbalance and the escalation of the plagues in the main cultivations, that which forced to the integrated handling of plagues. The strategies are described using in the control integrated as they are: the use of the adverse environmental factors to the plagues, the use of the natural enemies, the cultural practices, the use of traps, the employment of resistant varieties and measures of legal type

  8. Bacterial Infection of Fly Ovaries Reduces Egg Production and Induces Local Hemocyte Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Stephanie M.; Schneider, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Morbidity, the state of being diseased, is an important aspect of pathogenesis that has gone relatively unstudied in fruit flies. Our interest is in characterizing how bacterial pathogenesis affects various physiologies of the fly. We chose to examine the fly ovary because we found bacterial infection had a striking effect on fly reproduction. We observed decreased egg laying after bacterial infection that correlated with increased bacterial virulence. We also found that bacteria colonized the ovary in a previously undescribed manner; bacteria were found in the posterior of the ovary, adjacent to the lateral oviduct. This local infection in the ovary resulted in melanization and activation of the cellular immune response at the site of infection. PMID:17400292

  9. Production, crystallization and X-ray characterization of chemically glycosylated hen egg-white lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Jaramillo, F. J.; Pérez-Banderas, F.; Hernández-Mateo, F.; Santoyo-González, F.

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of glycosylation post-purification has been demonstrated by introducing glucose into the model protein lysozyme via a novel reaction that is compatible with biological samples. The crystallization of glycoproteins is one of the challenges to be confronted by the crystallographic community in the frame of what is known as glycobiology. The state of the art for the crystallization of glycoproteins is not promising and removal of the carbohydrate chains is generally suggested since they are flexible and a source of heterogeneity. In this paper, the feasibility of introducing glucose into the model protein hen egg-white lysozyme via a post-purification glycosylation reaction that may turn any protein into a model glycoprotein whose carbohydrate fraction can be manipulated is demonstrated

  10. Removal of Total Coliforms, Thermotolerant Coliforms, and Helminth Eggs in Swine Production Wastewater Treated in Anaerobic and Aerobic Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias Sylvestre, Silvia Helena; Lux Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme; de Oliveira, Roberto Alves

    2014-01-01

    The present work evaluated the performance of two treatment systems in reducing indicators of biological contamination in swine production wastewater. System I consisted of two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, with 510 and 209 L in volume, being serially arranged. System II consisted of a UASB reactor, anaerobic filter, trickling filter, and decanter, being also organized in series, with volumes of 300, 190, 250, and 150 L, respectively. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) applied in the first UASB reactors were 40, 30, 20, and 11 h in systems I and II. The average removal efficiencies of total and thermotolerant coliforms in system I were 92.92% to 99.50% and 94.29% to 99.56%, respectively, and increased in system II to 99.45% to 99.91% and 99.52% to 99.93%, respectively. Average removal rates of helminth eggs in system I were 96.44% to 99.11%, reaching 100% as in system II. In reactor sludge, the counts of total and thermotolerant coliforms ranged between 105 and 109 MPN (100 mL)−1, while helminth eggs ranged from 0.86 to 9.27 eggs g−1 TS. PMID:24812560

  11. Phenotypic characteristics of upright and pendulous comb among chicken breeds and association with growth rate and egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Wang, Zhicheng; Guo, Xing; Ma, Chendong; Fang, Qi; Geng, Zhaoyu; Chen, Xingyong; Jiang, Runshen

    2018-01-01

    Upright and pendulous combs commonly exist in most single-comb chicken breeds. Here, the phenotypic characteristics of upright and pendulous combs in chickens and association with growth rate and egg production were analyzed. Phenotypic frequencies of upright and pendulous comb were investigated in five chicken breeds; the phenotypic frequencies of complete pendulous comb (CPC) and partial pendulous comb (PPC) ranged from 10.1% to 29.0% and 21.8% to 65.3%, respectively. CPC hens produced more eggs than PPC hens (P chickens have greater (P chickens. There was no significant difference in comb phenotypic frequency distribution between the offspring from UC(♂) × CPC(♀) and CPC(♂) × UC(♀); however, it differed (χ² = 45.12, P < 0.01) between offspring from UC(♂) × UC(♀) and CPC(♂) × CPC(♀). These results suggested that the comb phenotype does not appear to be Z-linked; the effective loci influencing the trait could be estimated in a further study. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Irradiation of liquid egg, frozen egg, powdered egg, egg yolk and white of egg: reducing the population of Salmonella enteritidis and sensory aspects and physico-chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Eggs and their products have been incriminated in foodborne disease outbreaks due to Salmonella enteritidis contamination. Irradiation is a food preservation technology that could be applied to minimize the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of irradiation in liquid and frozen egg as well as in powdered egg, egg yolk and egg white spiked with Salmonella enteritidis. Spiked samples of liquid egg, egg white and egg yolk were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 kGy and spiked samples of frozen and powdered egg were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy. Raw odour, cooked odour and taste of non inoculated and irradiated samples and non irradiated samples of egg and egg products were analysed by a trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation (malonaldehyde concentration) were also determined. Doses of 2,0; 3,0; 3,5; 3,0 e 3,5 kGy reduced in 5 log the population of S. Enteritidis in liquid and frozen egg, powdered egg yolk, egg white and egg, respectively, with moderate alterations in relation to non irradiated samples detected by the trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation in the powdered products, however, showed more intense alterations. Therefore, irradiation can be considered a feasible process for liquid and frozen egg while when applied to powdered products it should be considered the type of food product to which they will be added due to alterations in viscosity. (author)

  13. Microbiological Safety and Food Handling Practices of Seed Sprout Products in the Australian State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Sally; Goldsmith, Paul; Haines, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Seed sprouts have been implicated as vehicles for numerous foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Seed sprouts pose a unique food safety concern because of the ease of microbiological seed contamination, the inherent ability of the sprouting process to support microbial growth, and their consumption either raw or lightly cooked. To examine seed sprout safety in the Australian state of Victoria, a survey was conducted to detect specific microbes in seed sprout samples and to investigate food handling practices relating to seed sprouts. A total of 298 seed sprout samples were collected from across 33 local council areas. Escherichia coli was detected in 14.8%, Listeria spp. in 12.3%, and Listeria monocytogenes in 1.3% of samples analyzed. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. A range of seed sprout handling practices were identified as potential food safety issues in some food businesses, including temperature control, washing practices, length of storage, and storage in proximity to unpackaged ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods.

  14. 9 CFR 381.148 - Processing and handling requirements for frozen poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for frozen poultry products. 381.148 Section 381.148 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  15. Evaluation of hygiene practices and microbiological quality of cooked meat products during slicing and handling at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, F; Castro, R; Posada-Izquierdo, G D; Valero, A; Carrasco, E; García-Gimeno, R M; Zurera, G

    2010-10-01

    Cooked meat ready-to-eat products are recognized to be contaminated during slicing which, in the last years, has been associated with several outbreaks. This work aimed to find out possible relation between the hygiene practice taking place at retail point during slicing of cooked meat products in small and medium-sized establishments (SMEs) and large-sized establishments (LEs) and the microbiological quality of sliced cooked meat products. For that, a checklist was drawn up and filled in based on scoring handling practice during slicing in different establishments in Cordoba (Southern Spain). In addition, sliced cooked meats were analyzed for different microbiological indicators and investigated for the presence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results indicated that SMEs showed a more deficient handling practices compared to LEs. In spite of these differences, microbiological counts indicated similar microbiological quality in cooked meat samples for both types of establishments. On the other hand, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria inocua were isolated from 7.35% (5/68) and 8.82% (6/68) of analyzed samples, respectively. Positive samples for Listeria spp. were found in establishments which showed acceptable hygiene levels, though contamination could be associated to the lack of exclusiveness of slicers at retail points. Moreover, Listeria spp presence could not be statistically linked to any microbiological parameters; however, it was observed that seasonality influenced significantly (Phygiene practices, focused specially on SMEs. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal Scheduling of Material Handling Devices in a PCB Production Line: Problem Formulation and a Polynomial Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Che

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern automated production lines usually use one or multiple computer-controlled robots or hoists for material handling between workstations. A typical application of such lines is an automated electroplating line for processing printed circuit boards (PCBs. In these systems, cyclic production policy is widely used due to large lot size and simplicity of implementation. This paper addresses cyclic scheduling of a multihoist electroplating line with constant processing times. The objective is to minimize the cycle time, or equivalently to maximize the production throughput, for a given number of hoists. We propose a mathematical model and a polynomial algorithm for this scheduling problem. Computational results on randomly generated instances are reported.

  17. Stability studies needed to define the handling and transport conditions of sensitive pharmaceutical or biotechnological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Claude

    2011-12-01

    Many pharmaceutical or biotechnological products require transport using temperature-controlled systems to keep their therapeutic properties. There are presently no official guidelines for testing pharmaceutical products in order to define suitable transport specifications. After reviewing the current guidance documents, this paper proposes a methodology for testing pharmaceutical products and defining appropriate transport conditions.

  18. Gamma radiation treatment applied to microbial decontamination of products derived from eggs collected from the retail market in São Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, S.; Lui, C.C., E-mail: siaq06@hotmail.com [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Corrêa, B. [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    The quality of products derived from eggs depends on the quality of the raw material source and the industrial production. The contamination by fungi and bacteria can occur after exposure of the product in the retail market. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of 60 samples of derived egg products and evaluate the effects of gamma radiation of cobalt-60, using the dose of 5 and 10 kGy, for decontamination of products collected in the retail market in the São Paulo city. The bacterial count was performed by the most probable number (MPN) and the fungal counts by serial dilution after plating surface. It was observed a decrease in the humidity and water activity (Aw) values of irradiated whole egg powder and white egg powder samples (p<0.05), but there was no significant change in the pH of the same samples irradiated with 5 and 10 kGy (p>0.05). In the powdered yolk the values of pH and Aw presented a significant difference (p<0.05), but no significant difference in the humidity values of 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples (p>0.05). Effective microbial sterilization of all products occurred at the dose of 10 kGy. (author)

  19. Gamma radiation treatment applied to microbial decontamination of products derived from eggs collected from the retail market in São Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, S.; Lui, C.C.; Corrêa, B.

    2017-01-01

    The quality of products derived from eggs depends on the quality of the raw material source and the industrial production. The contamination by fungi and bacteria can occur after exposure of the product in the retail market. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of 60 samples of derived egg products and evaluate the effects of gamma radiation of cobalt-60, using the dose of 5 and 10 kGy, for decontamination of products collected in the retail market in the São Paulo city. The bacterial count was performed by the most probable number (MPN) and the fungal counts by serial dilution after plating surface. It was observed a decrease in the humidity and water activity (Aw) values of irradiated whole egg powder and white egg powder samples (p<0.05), but there was no significant change in the pH of the same samples irradiated with 5 and 10 kGy (p>0.05). In the powdered yolk the values of pH and Aw presented a significant difference (p<0.05), but no significant difference in the humidity values of 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples (p>0.05). Effective microbial sterilization of all products occurred at the dose of 10 kGy. (author)

  20. Biogeography of key mesozooplankton species in the North Atlantic, by manual counting methods, and egg production of Calanus finmarchicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, W.; Runge, J. A.; Head, E.

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a new, pan-Atlantic compilation of data on key mesozooplankton species, including the possibly most important copepod, Calanus finmarchicus. Distributional data of ten representative zooplankton taxa, from recent (2000–2009) Continuous Plankton Recorder data, are presented, along...... with basin-scale data of the phytoplankton colour index. Then we present a compilation of data on C. finmarchicus including observations of abundance, demography, egg production and female size with accompanying data on temperature and chlorophyll. This is a contribution by Canadian, European and US...... scientists and their institutions. http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.820732, http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.824423, http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.828393....

  1. LCA of Egg Phospholipids

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts. The aim of this study is ...

  2. Synthesis of solid catalyst from egg shell waste and clay for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadji, S.; Sundari, C. D. D.; Munir, M.; Fitriyah, S.

    2018-05-01

    Until now, energy consumption in Indonesia is almost entirely fulfilled by fossil fuels, thus, its availability will be limited and continue to decrease. To overcome these problems, development and utilization of renewable energy are required, one of which is biodiesel. Biodiesel can be prepared through transesterification reaction of vegetable oil using catalyst. In this research, a solid catalyst for biodiesel synthesis was prepared from chicken egg shell waste and clay. Optimization of the transesterification reaction of coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil to obtain biodiesel was also carried out. The formation of CaO/kaolin catalyst was confirmed based on the results of XRD and SEM-EDS. This catalyst is suitable for biodiesel synthesis from vegetable oils with lower FFA (free fatty acid) levels, i.e. coconut oil with FFA level of 0.18%. Based on FTIR result, FFA level and flame tests, it was found that biodiesel was successfully formed. Synthesis of biodiesel has the optimum conditions on reaction time of 16 hours and temperature of 64 °C, with oil: methanol ratio of 1: 15 and CaO/kaolin catalyst concentration of 0.9% in a reflux system.

  3. 7 CFR 57.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 57.800 Section 57... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  4. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities § 57.35...

  5. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection of...

  6. Productive performance, egg quality, blood constituents, immune functions, and antioxidant parameters in laying hens fed diets with different levels of Yucca schidigera extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagawany, Mahmoud; Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; El-Kholy, Mohamed S

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Yucca schidigera extract on productive performance, egg quality, blood metabolites, immune function, and antioxidant parameters in laying hens. A total of 96 36-week-old hens were allocated into four groups, the control diet or the diet supplemented with 50, 100, or 150 mg/kg of yucca extract, from 36 to 52 weeks of age. Hens were divided into four equal groups replicated six times with four hens per replicate. As a result of this study, there were no linearly or quadratically differences in body weight change (BWC), feed consumption (FC), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and egg weight (EW) due to yucca treatments at different ages, except FCR and EW that were improved with yucca supplementation during 36-40 weeks of age. Supplemental dietary yucca up to 100 mg/kg diet led to significant improvement in egg number (EN) and egg mass (EM). Egg qualities were not linearly or quadratically affected by yucca treatments except shell thickness was quadratically (P hen diets resulted in a significant linear (P feed additive to improve productive performance, blood profile, and antioxidant enzyme activities in laying hens.

  7. Productivity and selenium concentrations in egg and tissue of laying quails fed selenium from hydroponically produced selenium-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinrasri, Orawan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Maneetong, Sarunya; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee; Chantiratikul, Anut

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Se from hydroponically produced Se-enriched kale sprout (HPSeKS) on productive performance, egg quality, and Se concentrations in egg and tissue of laying quails. Two-hundred quails, 63 days of age, were divided into four groups. Each group consisted of five replicates and each replicate had ten birds, according to a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were T1 (control diet), T2 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite), T3 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched yeast), T4 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from HPSeKS). The findings revealed that productive performance and egg quality of quails were not altered (p > 0.05) by Se sources. Whole egg Se concentrations of quails fed Se from HPSeKS and Se-enriched yeast were higher (p  0.05), but higher (p < 0.05) than that of quails fed Se from sodium selenite. The results reveal that Se from HPSeKS did not change the performance and egg quality of quails. The effectiveness of Se from HPSeKS was comparable to that of Se-enriched yeast, which was higher than that of Se from sodium selenite.

  8. EGG QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS IN SECOND CYCLE OF POSTURE FED WITH AMINOACID CHELATED TRACE MINERALS

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Souza Silva Carvalho; Daniela Reis Vilela; Naiara Simarro Fagundes; Yara Lucia Silva Souza; Evandro de Abreu Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The goal of this research was to evaluate egg quality and performance of laying hens at the second laying cycle, fed with minerals from an organic source. The  control treatment consisted of  basal diet with inorganic trace minerals, whereas the other treatments consisted of organic copper, iron, manganese, and zinc at levels of 100%, 90%, 80%, and 70%. Physical and chemical analyses were performed to evaluate egg quality. The average egg weight reduced in the test diet; however, ...

  9. PRODUCTION OF POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY TO THE COAT PROTEIN OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS IN CHICKEN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhadi Nurhadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV is one of the most destructive diseases in many citrus growing areas of Indonesia. Effective strategies for controlling CTV depend on diagnostic procedure namely enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Study aimed to purify the CTV antigen and produced its polyclonal antibody. Virion of the severe CTV isolate designated UPM/ T-002 was concentrated by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation combined with low speed centrifugation. Semipurified antigen was further purified by sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The specific coat protein (CP band of CTV with molecular weight of 25 kD was excised and eluted using elution buffer containing 0.25 M Tris-HCl pH 6.8 + 0.1% SDS, then used as antigen for injection into 6-month-old female of White Leghorn chicken. Results, showed than the specific polyclonal antibody raised against the 25-kDa CP had a titer of approximately 104, gave low background reaction with healthy plant sap and reacted specifically with CTV isolates. The reaction was equally strong for a severe, a moderate, a mild, and a symptomless isolate, suggesting a broad reaction range of this antibody toward different CTV isolates. Optimal virus titer can be obtained since virus loss during purification could be minimized and the highly purified antigen as an immunogen could be obtained by cutting out the CP band from SDS-PAGE gels. Large amount of highly titer of CTV antibody can be produced in chicken egg. The simplicity of the procedure makes it economically acceptable and technically adoptable because the antibody can be produced in basic laboratory.

  10. 77 FR 71312 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    .... FDA-1999-F-4617 (Formerly Docket No. 1999F-5321)] Irradiation in the Production, Processing and... Administration (FDA) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of a 4.5 kilogray (kGy... meat, meat byproducts, and certain meat food products to reduce levels of foodborne pathogens and...

  11. Characterization of Emissions from Building Products: Selection Criteria, Storage and Handling of Indoor Materials for Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Ulla Dorte; Nielsen, Peter A.; Marcussen, Lis

    1996-01-01

    In research projects it is usually impossible to study more than a very limited aount of different products. Care and consideration must therefore be taken in the selection. The following criteria were used to select five products for chemical and sensory emission testing: The products should...... be indoor climate relevant, meaning that they should be in direct contact with indoor air when used in buildings, and their emission should contribute significantly to the indoor air concentrations for instance due to a large surface area. They should be representative in terms of being widely used, now...... that the emission mechanisms do not change as a consequence of physical processes or chemical reactions. The five products selected were PVC flooring, waterborne varnish on beechwood parquet, carpet, sealant, and waterborne paint on gypsum board. The products were brought to the laboratory immediately after...

  12. An isotopic assessment of protein from diet and endogenous stores: Effects on egg production and incubation behaviour of geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, J.A.; Hobson, K.A.; Morse, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Little empirical information exists to assess to what degree geese use a capital versus income breeding strategy for investing nutrients into eggs. We used stable isotope methods to directly estimate the sources of protein deposited into egg yolks of Brent Branta bernicla and Emperor Geese Anser canagicus on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, USA. Approximately 59 and 45% of protein in egg yolks of Brent and Emperor Geese, respectively, was derived from exogenous sources (i.e. food plants on the local breeding area). Within clutches of Brent Goose eggs, first-laid eggs exhibited slightly higher contributions from endogenous reserves than last-laid eggs. This pattern was less clear for Emperor Geese, which may have been a consequence of possibly analyzing eggs that were laid by intraspecific nest parasites rather than by hosts. For both these species, individuals exhibited large variability in the percent contribution of exogenous versus endogenous stores to eggs, and future studies should identify ecological factors related to this variation. Those Emperor Geese in poor body condition incubated their nests less constantly, and based on δ13C values, they fed on terrestrial foods while off their nests. Although not a pure capital breeder, Emperor Geese used nutrients garnered on spring staging areas to fuel virtually all their own maintenance during incubation and to contribute half or more of the nutrients in eggs. These results highlight the ecological importance of these spring staging habitats to geese.

  13. Effect of fluorescent vs. poultry-specific light-emitting diode lights on production performance and egg quality of W-36 laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Xin, Hongwei; Sekhon, Jasreen; Wang, Tong

    2018-03-01

    More energy-efficient, durable, affordable, and dimmable light-emitting diode (LED) lights are finding applications in poultry production. However, data are lacking on controlled comparative studies concerning the impact of such lights during the pullet rearing and subsequent laying phase. This study evaluated two types of poultry-specific LED light (PS-LED) vs. fluorescent light (FL) with regards to their effects on hen laying performance. A total of 432 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were tested in two batches using four environmental chambers (nine cages per chamber and 6 birds per cage) from 17 to 41 weeks of age (WOA). Dim-to-red PS-LED and warm-white FL were used in the laying phase. The hens had been reared under a dim-to-blue PS-LED or a warm-white FL from 1 to 16 WOA. The measured performance variables included 1) timing of sexual maturity, 2) egg production performance, 3) egg quality, and 4) egg yolk cholesterol. Results showed that the two types of light used during the laying phase had comparable performance responses for all response parameters (P > 0.05) with a few exceptions. Specifically, eggs laid from hens in the PS-LED treatment had lower shell thickness (P = 0.01) and strength (P = 0.03) than those in the FL treatment at 41 WOA. The two types of light used during the rearing phase did not influence the 17 to 41 WOA laying performance, except that hens reared under the PS-LED laid eggs with lower shell thickness (P = 0.02) at 32 WOA as compared to hens reared under the FL. This study demonstrates that the emerging poultry-specific LED lights yield comparable production performance and egg quality of W-36 laying hens to the traditional fluorescent lights.

  14. MEMS product engineering handling the diversity of an emerging technology best practices for cooperative development

    CERN Document Server

    Ortloff, Dirk; Hahn, Kai; Bieniek, Tomasz; Janczyk, Grzegorz; Bruck, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the methodological background to directing cooperative product engineering projects in a micro and nanotechnology setting. The methodology is based on well-established methods like PRINCE2 and StageGate, which are supplemented by best practices that can be individually tailored to the actual nature and size of the project at hand. This book is intended for everyone who takes an active role in either practical product engineering or in teaching it. This includes project and product management staff and program management offices in companies working on innovation projects, those active in innovation, as well as professors and students in engineering and management.

  15. Egg production and hatching success in the calanoid copepods Calanus helgolandicus and Calanus finmarchicus in the North Sea from March to September 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Trung, N. H.; Hansen, F.

    2005-01-01

    of seston fatty acids. Seasonal and spatial distribution and production differed between the species. Calanus finmarchicus was found only offshore of the 50-m isobath, with decreasing E-r (37-28 eggs female(-1) day(-1)) from March to July. Calanus helgolandicus had two abundance peaks, in spring and autumn...

  16. Effect of Supplemental Roughage on Behavior, Physiological Stress Response, and Egg Production Parameters of Farmed Partridges (Perdix perdix)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Jørgen B.; Hansen, Bente Krogh

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that supplemental feeding of roughages (maize silage, rucola salad, or wheat sprouts) would reduce behavioral and physiological signs of stress and increase egg production. A total of 160 adult partridge breeder birds were housed...... concentrate only or concentrate with supplements of maize silage or fresh rucola salad...

  17. Effect of BioSentry 904 and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-tris disinfecting during incubation of chicken eggs on microbial levels and productivity of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S E; Sander, J E

    2004-01-01

    Proper sanitation practices and the use of efficacious disinfectants in a hatchery have an effect on chick quality. Aerosol bacterial counts, egg moisture loss, hatchability, chick quality, and broiler productivity were evaluated when egg surfaces were contaminated by immersion of each egg into a broth medium containing a field isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and incubated with exposure to one of three disinfectant treatments administered by fine spray: distilled water, BioSentry 904 (904), and a 1:1 ratio of 904 and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-Tris. The aerosol bacteria levels were statistically greater on day 21 of incubation in the group treated with distilled water than in those receiving disinfectants. Overall hatch of fertile eggs and egg moisture loss were comparable among all three treatments. At 1 day of age, the chicks incubated with 904 had a statistically lower yolk sac contamination rate than those incubated with 904+EDTA-Tris or distilled water. The 2-wk mortality rates, body weights, feed conversion ratios, yolk sac weights, and yolk sac contamination rates were all similar among the three treatments.

  18. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with eggs. Prevention is the name of the game with food allergies, so it's important for kids ... protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, poultry, fish, and legumes (beans and peanuts). If ...

  19. Prediction of heterosis using genome-wide SNP-marker data: application to egg production traits in white Leghorn crosses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amuzu-Aweh, E.N.; Bijma, P.; Kinghorn, B.P.; verreijken, A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of heterosis has a long history with mixed success, partly due to low numbers of genetic markers and/or small data sets. We investigated the prediction of heterosis for egg number, egg weight and survival days in domestic white Leghorns, using ~400¿000 individuals from 47 crosses and

  20. Review on Sources and Handling Method of Pesticide Residues in Animal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Field studies and literature search showed that some pesticide residues either organochlorines (OC or organophosphates (OP were detected in animal products (meat and milk . Pesticide residues in meat collected from West Java were detected at the level of 0 .8 ppb lindane and 62 ppb diazinon . While in meat from Lampung was detected at the level of 7 ppb lindane . 2 .7 heptachlor, 0 .8 endosulfan and 0 .5 ppb aldrin . Furthermore, pesticide residues were also detected in the milk collected from West, Central and East Java . The levels of lindane were 2,3 ; 15,9 ; 0,2 ppb ; heptachlor 8 ; 0 .4 and 0,05 ppb; diazinon 8 ; 0 and 1,8 ppb; CPM 0,4 ; 0,8 and 0 ppb ; endosulfan 0,1 ; 0,04 and 0,05 ppb for West, Central and East Java, respectively . The source of pesticide contamination in animal products is generally originated from feed materials, fodders . contaminated soils and water around the farm areas . Minimalization approach of pesticide residues in animal products could be conducted integratedly, such as through chemical process, biodegradation using microorganisms . Organic farming system is recognised as an alternative that may be applied to minimise contamination on agricultural land, eventually reducing pesticide residues in the agricultural products . Feeding with organic agricultural by-products with low pesticide residues appears to reduce pesticide residues in animal products . In order to eliminate pesticide contamination in soil, it has to be conducted progressively by implementing sustainable organic farming .

  1. Effects of two different rearing systems (organic and barn on production performance, animal welfare traits and egg quality characteristics in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Guidobono Cavalchini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative housing systems for hen eggs production represents clear evidence of the trend in animal housing and husbandry towards extensive rearing methods. Consumer demand is oriented towards healthy foods controlled not only under a safety point of view, but also under a welfare assessment of the animals’ living conditions. Among the different alternative systems deep litter and organic production in recent years have been improved in Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether different housing systems (barn B and organic O for laying hens may influence productive performance, fear responses and egg quality characteristics. A total of 4,745 birds were housed in the B system and 2,016 in the O system, both of which were commercial facilities. In each system the same strain (Hy-Line Brown was housed and layer performance, external and internal egg characteristics, mortality and feed consumption were recorded weekly. Animal reactivity was recorded monthly with the approaching test. Moreover, the Tonic Immobility test was conducted at 70 weeks of age; feather and foot pad conditions were also investigated at the same time. The peak of laying was reached in both housing systems at 25 weeks of age and was higher in organic hens (94.5% than in barn hens (93.0%. Feed conversion rate during the overall laying period was 2.36 vs 2.20, respectively, in O and B housing systems. There was a significant difference concerning the eggs classified as very dirty, dirty and cracked between the two systems. The dirty eggs were higher in O system probably due to laying eggs in a free range area, while the higher number of cracked eggs in B system may be due to a significantly less shell thickness in this system. Egg weight increased with layer age in both housing systems. Animals reared in O system showed less fearfulness than in B emphasised by the approaching and Tonic Immobility test results. Feather scoring did not evidence any severe plumage

  2. Virtual water content for meat and egg production through livestock farming in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Ouda, Omar K. M.; Papadopoulou, Maria P.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of virtual water content (VWC) may facilitate an understanding of total water demand for commodity production. The water consumption for livestock production forms a significant fraction of freshwater demand in arid regions, i.e., Saudi Arabia. In this paper, VWC was estimated for different livestocks in the 13 regions of Saudi Arabia. The VWC for camel production was also estimated, which has not been investigated in the previous studies. The overall VWC for livestock in Saudi Arabia was about 10.5 and 8.9 billion m3 in 2006 and 2010, respectively. This study shows the decreasing trend of overall VWC in producing livestock in Saudi Arabia. The VWC were highest in Riyadh followed by Eastern region, Qaseem, Hail, and Makkah with ranges of 3587-4112, 1684-2044, 1007-1331, 644-810, and 504-715 million m3/year, respectively. The results demonstrate that a shift in diet from the high VWC meat to low VWC meat may reduce the overall VWC for livestock production. The findings of this analysis provide an assessment of the quantity and trend of water demand for livestock production in Saudi Arabia, which is useful to assess the development of an information-based agricultural water management strategy.

  3. Egg production and hatching success of Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa in the northern Chile upwelling zone (23°S), Humboldt Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, Paula M.; Hidalgo, Pamela; Yáñez, Sonia; Escribano, Rubén; Keister, Julie E.

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ's) are expanding and intensifying as result of climate change, affecting Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems. Local effects of vertical movements of OMZ's that result from changes in upwelling intensity could reduce or expand the oxygenated surface layer that most zooplanktonic species inhabit in coastal areas. Using the copepods Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa as model organisms, an experimental test of the impact of different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (between 0.5 and 5 ml L- 1) on egg production and hatching success was carried out and compared with field estimations of egg production, female and egg abundance in Mejillones Bay (23°S). Abundance of C. chilensis was highly variability and no consistent pattern in egg production and hatching success was found across DO levels, whereas A. tonsa egg production had maximum values between 2.6 and 4.7 ml O2 L- 1 and hatching success was positively correlated with DO (r = 0.75). In the field, temperature was the main factor controlling the dynamics of both species, while Chl-a and DO were also correlated with C. chilensis and A. tonsa, respectively. Principal Component Analysis showed that abundances of both copepods were controlled by temperature, stratification, OMZ depth, and Ekman transport, which together explained more than 70% of the total variance and were the main factors that modulated the populations of C. chilensis and A. tonsa in the upwelling zone of northern Chile (23°S). The differential responses of C. chilensis and A. tonsa to changes in DO concentrations associated with vertical movements of the OMZ suggest that C. chilensis may be better adapted to hypoxic conditions than A. tonsa, however both species are successful and persistent all year-round. We suggest that physiological responses of copepods could be used to evaluate population dynamics affected by the shoaling of OMZ's and the repercussions to trophic food webs of eastern boundary current systems.

  4. Management Systems for Organic EggProduction - Aiming to Improve AnimalHealth and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene

    one production period. In the second part of the project a generic HACCP system was developed, using an expert panel analysis. The two management tools have very different approaches to improving animal health and welfare, and subsequently different methods, cost and advantages. This makes them...

  5. Microbial Differences of Eggs from Traditional Cage and free Range Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumers have become more aware of the agricultural practices utilized in producing foods. Food producers have, in many instances, made efforts to provide consumers with a variety of social choices in the grocery store. As alternative products arrive in retail, there is need to understand the app...

  6. Irradiation in the production, processing and handling of food. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of a 4.5 kilogray (kGy) maximum absorbed dose of ionizing radiation to treat unrefrigerated (as well as refrigerated) uncooked meat, meat byproducts, and certain meat food products to reduce levels of foodborne pathogens and extend shelf life. This action is in response to a petition filed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA/FSIS).

  7. Quality assurance system in the production process of the gamma shielding devices used for transport and handling of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds at Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga Santana, Juan F.; Fernandez Rondon, Manuel; Viante Garrido, Enrique; Berdeguez, Mirta B.T.; Rodriguez Perez, Hilario

    1999-01-01

    The paper shows how a Quality Assurance System for the process of production of gamma shielding devices has been conceived, designed and implemented. Special emphasis is given to the necessity of utilizing tools of control statistic in order to guaranteed the quality in the serial production process of such devices used in the transport, storage and handling of radioactive materials.(author)

  8. Polymorphism of Microsatellite markers and ‎Their Association with Egg Production Traits in ‎Iraqi Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israa Luay AL-jaryan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on local Iraqi chickens and two strains of commercial laying hens (ISA Brawn and Ross Hen as control. To estimate genetic Diversity using microsatellites and their association with egg production traits, three microsatellites markers, located on 1, 5 and E5C10 chromosomes were used in pesent study. A total of 100 varieties of three chicken populations were genotyped for three microsatellite markers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR to evaluate the genetic Diversity (GD among populations using Nei Index similarity mean.  The present study show that local chicken populations were more diverse than control populations. Genetic Diversity among populations was obtained using Nei Index similarity mean. The present results indicate that the Highest GD among local chickens (0.82 and the lowest GD (0.4 and when comper local chickens with control strains found that the highest GD was (0.76 when comper with ISA Brawn, and (0.702 when comper the study population with Ross Hen strain and the lowest GD was (0.673 when comper with ISA Brawn strain, (0.661 when comper the study population with Ross Hen  strain, that’s mean the Three microsatellite genetic markers applied in the present study success to reveal high degree of similarity among the three population used here. The genetic distance revealed that local chickens are mostly related to ISA Brawn strain more than Ross Hen strain

  9. The impact of production type and region on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations in Canadian chicken egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Sadler, Amy R; Quade, Sue C; Sun, Wing-Fung; Kosarac, Ivana; Hayward, Stephen; Ryan, J Jake

    2012-11-01

    Chicken eggs from five different production types (conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range, organic and free run) were collected, when available, from three regions (west, central and east) of Canada to determine persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (∑37 congeners) in yolks from the eggs ranged from 0.162 ng g(-1) lipid to 24.8 ng g(-1) lipid (median 1.25 ng g(-1) lipid) while the concentration of the sum of the 6 indicator PCBs ranged from 0.100 ng g(-1) lipid to 9.33 ng g(-1) lipid (median 0.495 ng g(-1) lipid). Total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations ranged from 2.37 pg g(-1) lipid to 382 pg g(-1) lipid (median 9.53 pg g(-1) lipid). The 2005 WHO toxic equivalency (TEQ) ranged from 0.089 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+dioxin-like[DL]-PCB) g(-1) lipid to 12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid (median 0.342 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations were significantly different (pcollection. In contrast to observations in Europe, PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in Canadian egg yolks were not impacted solely by the production type (e.g., conventional, free range, organic, etc.) used to maintain the laying chickens. Additionally, only one Canadian free range yolk from western Canada (12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid) exceeded the European toxic equivalent concentration limits for eggs (5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). This differs from observations in Europe where free range/home produced eggs frequently have higher POP concentrations than eggs from other production types. Median PCB dietary intake estimates based on consumption of eggs were less than 10 ng d(-1) while median PCDD/F intakes were less than 45 pg d(-1). Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcriptomic changes underlie altered egg protein production and reduced fecundity in an estuarine model fish exposed to bifenthrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brander, Susanne M; Jeffries, Ken M; Cole, Bryan J; DeCourten, Bethany M; White, J Wilson; Hasenbein, Simone; Fangue, Nann A; Connon, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    PCR demonstrated that bifenthrin downregulates a number of estrogen-related transcripts, particularly at the lowest exposure level. Choriogenin protein also decreased with exposure to increasing concentrations of bifenthrin, and adult M. beryllina exposed to 0.5ng/L had significantly reduced reproductive output (fertilized eggs per female). This reduction in fecundity is consistent with observed changes in endocrine-related gene expression and choriogenin production. Taken together, our results demonstrate that environmental concentrations of bifenthrin have potential to interfere with metabolic processes, endocrine signaling, and to decrease reproductive output. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. DSM/DMM-based Methodology for Handling Changes in Product Development Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growing complexity of the business context, companies are confronting more challenging Product Development (PD projects because of the potential risks externally brought by the partners’ participation and internally accumulated through the activities’ execution. In this paper, we formulate and decompose a PD project in a hierarchical way, and the obtained end elements perceived as objects are built into a number of Design Structure Matrices (DSMs and Domain Mapping Matrices (DMMs. We also propose a conceptual model of change occurring and change propagation, base on which the potential change propagating channels are discovered through observing and tracking change occurring and change propagation in DSMs and DMMs. Associated with the depth-first and breath-first search methods executed in matrices the critical objects during change propagation are discovered and the implicit change propagating channels cross multiple fields are identified. As the exploratory results, the critical objects taking account of change propagation are highlighted as the contribution to change management in PD project.

  12. Identification of irradiated foods prospects for post-irradiation estimate of irradiation dose in irradiated dry egg products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katusin-Raxem, B.; Mihaljievic, B.; Razem, D.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation-induced chemical changes in foods are generally very small at the usual processing doses. Some exception is radiation degradation of lipids, which are the components most susceptible to oxidation. A possible use of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) as indicators of irradiation is described for whole egg and egg yolk powders. A sensitive and reproducible spectrophotometric method for LOOH measurement based on feric thiocyanate, as modified in our laboratory, was applied. This method enabled the determination of LOOH, including oleic acid hydroperoxides, which is usually not possible with some other frequently used methods. The lowest limit of 0.05 mmol LOOH/kg lipid could be measured. The measurements were performed in various batches of whole egg and egg yolk powders by the same producer, as well as in samples supplied by various producers. Baseline level in unirradiated egg powder 0.110 ± 0.067 mmol LOOH /kgL was established. The formation of LOOH with dose, as well as the influence of age, irradiation conditions, storage time and storage conditions on LOOH were investigated. The irradiation of whole egg and egg yolk powders in the presence of air revealed an initially slow increase of LOOH, caused by an inherent antioxidative capacity, followed by a fast linear increase after the inhibition dose (D o ). In all investigated samples D o of 2 kGy was determined. Hydroperoxides produced in irradiated materials decay with time. In whole egg and egg yolk powders, after an initially fast decay, the level of LOOH continued to decrease by the first-order decay. Nevertheless, after a six months storage it was still possible to unambiguously identify samples which had been irradiated with 2 kGy in the presence of air. Reirradiation of these samples revealed a significant reduction of D o to 1 kGy. In samples irradiated with 4 kGy and kept under the same conditions, the shortening of D o to 0.5 kGy was determined by reirradiation. This offers a possibility for the

  13. The Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health related research. Volume 4: Production and materials handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume 4 is to describe record series pertaining to production and materials handling activities at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE's Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI's role in the project, provides a history of production and materials handling practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to production and materials handling policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of the guide and the organization to contact for access to these records

  14. Assessing the impact of egg sweating on Salmonella Enteritidis penetration into shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Janet A; Curtis, Patricia A; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2017-07-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevalence in eggs is a major concern to the egg industry. Some research has shown that egg sweating can increase Salmonella penetration into egg contents when refrigerated eggs are moved to a warmer temperature. This occurs when eggs are tempered before wash, to minimize thermal cracks. The effect of egg sweating on SE penetration into shell eggs over a 6 week storage period at 4°C was assessed. A 2 × 2 factorial of SE inoculation and egg sweating was utilized. Treatments included (SES) nalidixic acid (NA)-resistant SE inoculated and sweated, (SENS) NA-resistant SE inoculated and not sweated, (NSES) buffered peptone water (BPW) inoculated and sweated, and (NSENS) BPW inoculated and not sweated. Eggs were inoculated with 108 SE. Eggs formed condensation for approximately 17 min in a 32°C incubator. Shell rinse, shell emulsion, and egg contents were sampled then enumerated and assessed for prevalence of SE over a 6 wk storage period at 4°C. After wk 1, the SENS shell rinse had higher SE counts (0.32 log10 CFU/mL) than the other 3 treatments, where no SE was enumerated. A significant week by treatment interaction was found for the shell rinse SE detection (P egg shell rinse, shell emulsion, or egg contents. The SENS shell rinses had significantly higher SE prevalence than the SES rinses in weeks 1 (100% vs. 34.3%), 2 (57.6% vs. 22.2%), and 3 (38.2% vs. 11.1%) (P Egg sweating did not increase SE penetration into the shell emulsion across treatment or week (P egg sweating occurring under common US egg handling practices is not harmful to egg safety. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Potential use of chicken egg shells and cacao pod husk as catalyst for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andherson, T.; Rachmat, D.; Risanti, Doty D.

    2018-04-01

    Chicken eggshells and cacao pod husk are known as waste materials that can be used to produce catalyst of CaO and K2CO3, respectively. Waste cooking oil (WCO) is an alternative raw material to produce economical and cheaper biodiesel. WCO first undergoes a pre-treatment process that aims to remove free fatty acid (FFA). Biodiesel was produced by transesterification between triglyceride and alcohol with the presence of a catalyst. To obtain the catalyst, eggshell was calcined in a furnace at temperatures of 600 °C, 700 °C, 800 °C, and 900 °C for 6 hours. On the other hand, K2CO3 catalyst synthesis was carried out by carbonization cacao pod husk at temperature of 650°C and subsequently extracted using aquadest solvent. Catalysts were then characterized by XRD and FTIR. The biodiesel synthesis in this research was conducted at 65°C with molar ratio of 1: 6 WCO to methanol, reaction time for 1 and 2 hours, for K2CO3 and CaO, respectively. The optimum condition for the reaction using CaO was obtained for CaO that carbonized at 900°C. It produced 81.43% conversion of biodiesel. On the other hand, reaction using K2CO3 could reach a higher conversion of 85%. From the results it was clear that the biodiesel fuel production was within the recommended SNI 7182: 2015 standard.

  16. Effect of Dietary L-ascorbic Acid (L-AA on Production Performance, Egg Quality Traits and Fertility in Japanese Quail ( at Low Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shit

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stress boosts the levels of stress hormones and accelerates energy expenditure which subsequently imbalance the body’s homeostasis. L-ascorbic acid (L-AA has been recognized to mitigate the negative impact of environmental stress on production performances in birds. The present investigation was carried out to elucidate the effect of different dietary levels of L-AA on production performance, egg quality traits and fertility in Japanese quail at low ambient temperature. Sixty matured females (15 wks were equally divided into three groups (20/group based on the different dietary levels of L-AA (0, 250 and 500 ppm and coupled with an equal number of males (1:1 obtained from the same hatch. They were managed in uniform husbandry conditions without restriction of feed and water at 14 h photo-schedule. Except for feed efficiency, body weight change, feed consumption and hen-day egg production were recorded highest in 500 ppm L-AA supplemented groups. Among the all egg quality traits studied, only specific gravity, shell weight and thickness differed significantly (p<0.05 in the present study. Fertility was improved significantly (p<0.01 to a dose dependent manner of L-AA. The findings of the present study concluded that dietary L-AA can be a caring management practice at least in part to alleviate the adverse effect of cold induced stress on production performance in Japanese quail.

  17. NAA Comparison of Nutriens in Egg Yolk and Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruangdit, S.; Maijan, P.; Channuie, J.; Picha, R.

    2014-01-01

    Food we eat has significant effects on our wellbeing. Eggs are among food products widely consumed and contain many essential nutrients. Yet eggs often are involved in dietary controversy regarding benefit versus risk. The fear of serum cholesterol has driven a large number of people away from consuming egg yolks. In this study, we assessed the nutritional importance of eggs using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique at Thai Research Reactor, operating at 1.2 MW. We investigated whether consumers miss any health benefits by choosing to eat only egg whites or yolks rather than whole natural eggs. Essential minerals such as sodium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, copper, selenium, iron and zinc are studied using three NAA loading methods: short-term individual pneumatic transfer system loading using inner-core tubes, medium-term CA3 loading and long-term Lazy Susan (LS) loading for 10 s, 7 h and 3 d, respectively. Two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were used to find the nutrient concentrations and validate the method. From the study, we found significant differences in nutritional contents between egg yolks and egg whites. Along with literature review conducted as part of this study, we evaluated the consumption choice when it comes to eggs.

  18. 9 CFR 327.13 - Foreign products offered for importation; reporting of findings to customs; handling of articles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... importation; reporting of findings to customs; handling of articles refused entry. 327.13 Section 327.13... customs; handling of articles refused entry. (a)(1) Program inspectors shall report their findings as to... extreme circumstances warrant it; e.g., a dock workers' strike or an unforeseeable vessel delay. (6) If...

  19. The influence of Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and Starfish (Asterias rubens) meals on production performance, egg quality and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients of laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afrose, Sadia; Hammershøj, Marianne; Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate mussel meal and starfish meals as protein sources for organic layers by studying the effect on production performance, nutrient digestibility and egg quality. A total of 300 Hisex white laying hens (20-week old) were distributed randomly to 6 dietary treatment....... The egg weight was not different from the egg weights of control diets, but the inclusion of 4 g mussel meal resulted in a lower (P colour was lower (P ... 100 g feed can be used in diets as a high quality protein source for egg production. These meals can replace fish meal; however, an inclusion level higher than 8 g/100 g of mussel or starfish meal may result in a fishy smell of the eggs....

  20. Egg to Fry - Chinook Egg-to-Fry Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Few estimates of Chinook egg-to-fry survival exist despite the fact that this is thought to be one of the life stages limiting production of many listed Chinook...

  1. Property Assessment of Sponge Cake Added with Egg Replacer

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqiang He; Linlin Wang; Qian Lu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg which is always used in sponge cake production is likely to deteriorate during storage or transportation. This weakness prevents the wide use of chicken egg in sponge cake making. In order to solve this problem, egg replacer has been developed. In this study, effect of egg replacer on the property of sponge cake was analyzed. The result indicated egg replacer could improve the yield rate and specific volume of sponge cake. However, high content of egg replacer would negatively imp...

  2. Applying the Principles of Lean Production to Gastrointestinal Biopsy Handling: From the Factory Floor to the Anatomic Pathology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugianto, Jessica Z; Stewart, Brian; Ambruzs, Josephine M; Arista, Amanda; Park, Jason Y; Cope-Yokoyama, Sandy; Luu, Hung S

    2015-01-01

    To implement Lean principles to accommodate expanding volumes of gastrointestinal biopsies and to improve laboratory processes overall. Our continuous improvement (kaizen) project analyzed the current state for gastrointestinal biopsy handling using value-stream mapping for specimens obtained at a 487-bed tertiary care pediatric hospital in Dallas, Texas. We identified non-value-added time within the workflow process, from receipt of the specimen in the histology laboratory to the delivery of slides and paperwork to the pathologist. To eliminate non-value-added steps, we implemented the changes depicted in a revised-state value-stream map. Current-state value-stream mapping identified a total specimen processing time of 507 minutes, of which 358 minutes were non-value-added. This translated to a process cycle efficiency of 29%. Implementation of a revised-state value stream resulted in a total process time reduction to 238 minutes, of which 89 minutes were non-value-added, and an improved process cycle efficiency of 63%. Lean production principles of continuous improvement and waste elimination can be successfully implemented within the clinical laboratory.

  3. The reproductive effort of Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae): insights into the egg production strategy of parasitic copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, D G; Santos, M J; Cavaleiro, F I

    2016-01-01

    The reproductive effort of Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Müller O. F., 1776), a caligid copepod, which is commonly found infecting the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), is studied in detail for the first time. Seasonal variation in body dimensions and reproductive effort are analysed. Data for 120 ovigerous females, 30 from each season of the year, were considered in the analyses. Females were larger and produced a larger number of smaller eggs in winter, than during the summer. The relationship between egg number and egg size is similar to that recorded for other copepods exploiting fish hosts. Much of the recorded variation was also similar to that reported for a copepod parasitic on an invertebrate host, which suggests the possibility of a general trend in copepod reproduction. Overall, our results provide further support for the hypothesis that there is an alternation of summer and winter generations.

  4. Technical efficiency and its determinants in garden egg (Solanum spp production in Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm A. Enete

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the technical efficiency and its determinants in garden egg production in Uyo metropolis using stochastic frontier analysis. A cost route approach was adopted in eliciting information from 90 garden egg farmers selected through simple random sampling technique. The results show that all the production variables analyzed were positive and statistically significant except capital. The implication is that the production function was an increasing function. The major determinants of efficiency were identified to be farm size and gender. Smaller farms were found to be more efficient than larger ones. This further supports Schultz’s (1964 hypothesis that small farms in developing countries are poor but efficient, and Mkhabela’s (2005 observation that small farmers are more efficient than large ones. In addition, men were found to be less technically efficient than women, perhaps also because women generally control smaller farm size than men. The results further revealed that the farmers were not fully technically efficient with a mean efficiency of 0.86. The mean efficiency could therefore be improved by 14% through better use of available resources. These observations suggest that providing an enabling environment for urban smallholder farmers and perhaps resource rationalization between men and women could enhance their productivity and hence help in reducing urban poverty.Cette étude analyse l’efficience technique et ses déterminants dans la production d’aubergines dans la métropole d’Uyo au moyen de l’analyse de frontière stochastique. C’est la méthode de l’enquête à visites multiples (cost-route qui a été choisie pour recueillir les informations auprès de 90 producteurs d’aubergines sélectionnés grâce à une technique d'échantillonnage aléatoire simple. Les résultats montrent que toutes les variables de production analysées sont positives et statistiquement significatives, sauf le capital

  5. Scalable 96-well Plate Based iPSC Culture and Production Using a Robotic Liquid Handling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Michael K; Gerger, Michael J; Balay, Erin E; O'Connell, Rachel; Hanson, Seth; Daily, Neil J; Wakatsuki, Tetsuro

    2015-05-14

    Continued advancement in pluripotent stem cell culture is closing the gap between bench and bedside for using these cells in regenerative medicine, drug discovery and safety testing. In order to produce stem cell derived biopharmaceutics and cells for tissue engineering and transplantation, a cost-effective cell-manufacturing technology is essential. Maintenance of pluripotency and stable performance of cells in downstream applications (e.g., cell differentiation) over time is paramount to large scale cell production. Yet that can be difficult to achieve especially if cells are cultured manually where the operator can introduce significant variability as well as be prohibitively expensive to scale-up. To enable high-throughput, large-scale stem cell production and remove operator influence novel stem cell culture protocols using a bench-top multi-channel liquid handling robot were developed that require minimal technician involvement or experience. With these protocols human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were cultured in feeder-free conditions directly from a frozen stock and maintained in 96-well plates. Depending on cell line and desired scale-up rate, the operator can easily determine when to passage based on a series of images showing the optimal colony densities for splitting. Then the necessary reagents are prepared to perform a colony split to new plates without a centrifugation step. After 20 passages (~3 months), two iPSC lines maintained stable karyotypes, expressed stem cell markers, and differentiated into cardiomyocytes with high efficiency. The system can perform subsequent high-throughput screening of new differentiation protocols or genetic manipulation designed for 96-well plates. This technology will reduce the labor and technical burden to produce large numbers of identical stem cells for a myriad of applications.

  6. Using a feed-grade zinc propionate to achieve molt induction in laying hens and retain postmolt egg production and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S Y; Kim, W K; Birkhold, S G; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C

    2004-11-01

    A commercial-feed-grade form of zinc propionate was examined as a potential feed amendment at a concentration of 1% zinc to induce molt in 90-wk-old hens. Dietary treatments consisted of 4 treatment groups of 28 birds each randomly assigned to either (1) molted conventionally by feed withdrawal, (2) 1% zinc as Zn acetate, (3) 1% zinc as Zn propionate, or (4) nonmolted control for 9 d. Ovary weights of hens fed Zn acetate or Zn propionate were not significantly different from each other, but hens fed Zn acetate or Zn propionate were significantly (phens. Zinc concentrations in the kidney and liver were significantly (phens when compared to either nonmolted control-fed hens or feed-withdrawal molted hens. Over the entire 3-mo postmolt period, there were no significant differences in interior or exterior egg qualities among the four treatments. Egg production of hens fed Zn acetate was significantly lower than feed-withdrawal hens, Zn propionate-fed hens, or nonmolted control hens (pfeeding a feed grade of Zn propionate (1% Zn)-supplemented diet can induce molt and retain postmolt egg quality and production comparable to hens molted by feed withdrawal.

  7. Developing a HACCP-like system for improving animal health and welfare in organic egg production - based on an expert panel analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2007-01-01

    In the process of developing a generic Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)-like system for securing animal health and welfare in organic egg production, an expert panel analysis was used to perform the initial hazard analysis. Eighteen advisers and researchers in organic egg...... specific systems. An expert panel analysis based on questionnaires was a useful tool during the first steps of developing a HACCP plan, conducting a hazard analysis and suggesting control points. However, care should be taken regarding the panel's size and fields of expertise in order to assure...... that the panel fully covers the field of interest throughout the study. A further development of the hazard analysis into a farm-specific HACCP system would include assembling an on-farm HACCP team consisting of farmers and advisors for the practical application of control points, alarm values and monitoring...

  8. Reproductive variability of the Amazon River prawn, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Caridea, Palaemonidae: influence of life cycle on egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Meireles

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diverse reproductive strategies may be adopted by different species of Macrobrachium prawns, and even among different populations of the same species. The present study evaluated the influence of differences in the reproductive strategies of two geographically isolated populations of Macrobachium amazonicum, upon female fecundity, reproductive output and the chemical content of prawns and eggs. One prawn population from Pará only completes its life cycle in brackish water, whereas another from Mato Grosso do Sul only inhabits freshwater. Pará female prawns exhibited a larger average size and weight and produced more eggs than females from Mato Grosso do Sul. However, the Mato Grosso do Sul population produced eggs that were larger in volume than those of females from the other population. Furthermore, eggs produced by Pará prawns were composed primarily of water (56%, whereas those produced in Mato Grosso do Sul were composed mostly of organic matter (80%. This difference in the eggs' chemical compositions did not apply to the chemical compositions of the females, as individuals from both sites were composed primarily of water. Mato Grosso do Sul females invested a higher amount of energy in brood formation (14% of their wet weight than individuals from Pará (only 10%. It is possible that M. amazonicum populations show a higher degree of plasticity in their reproductive activity due to habitat conditions and genetic differences. Although the brackish population produces larger individuals, and exhibits higher fecundity, the freshwater population exhibited a higher reproductive investment. These results suggest a high reproductive capacity to adapt to different environmental conditions for this species, which should be considered in the context of aquaculture activities.

  9. Ergonomics and patient handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoskey, Kelsey L

    2007-11-01

    This study aimed to describe patient-handling demands in inpatient units during a 24-hour period at a military health care facility. A 1-day total population survey described the diverse nature and impact of patient-handling tasks relative to a variety of nursing care units, patient characteristics, and transfer equipment. Productivity baselines were established based on patient dependency, physical exertion, type of transfer, and time spent performing the transfer. Descriptions of the physiological effect of transfers on staff based on patient, transfer, and staff characteristics were developed. Nursing staff response to surveys demonstrated how patient-handling demands are impacted by the staff's physical exertion and level of patient dependency. The findings of this study describe the types of transfers occurring in these inpatient units and the physical exertion and time requirements for these transfers. This description may guide selection of the most appropriate and cost-effective patient-handling equipment required for specific units and patients.

  10. On the importance of processing conditions, product thickness and egg addition for the glycaemic and hormonal responses to pasta: a comparison with bread made from 'pasta ingredients'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granfeldt, Y; Björck, I; Hagander, B

    1991-10-01

    The importance of processing conditions, product thickness and effect of egg addition for the glycaemic and hormonal responses to pasta was studied. Healthy subjects were given test meals with an equivalent amount of available carbohydrate from extruded high-temperature dried spaghetti and three varieties of fresh roll-sheeted linguine (thick, thin, thin with egg) made from the same ingredients (durum wheat, water and monoglycerides). As a reference bread was baked from the same ingredients as in the pasta products. Glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels were measured over a 3 h period. Glycaemic, insulin and C-peptide indexes (GI, II, CI) were calculated using 120 min areas under the curves. Glycaemic index was also calculated using the 90 min area. Also studied were the rates of in vitro starch digestion. The four pasta products produced significantly lower peak values (glucose, insulin, C-peptide) and lower GI (90 min), II (120 min) and CI (120 min) than the corresponding bread. The rate of in vitro starch digestion in pasta was also slower than in bread. In contrast to the pasta products, bread resulted in a prominent hypoglycaemia in the late phase, that is a drop below fasting blood glucose level. Minor differences in metabolic responses also appeared in the pasta products. In particular, the insulin and C-peptide response to the thin linguine was accentuated in the phase around 120 min.

  11. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

  12. Influence of Dietary Zinc and Vitamin C Supplementation on Some Blood Biochemical Parameters and Egg Production in Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasko GERZILOV

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to follow out the effect of antistress dietary supplements Zinteral 35 and vitamin C on the levels of some blood biochemical parameters (corticosterone, total cholesterol, glucose, total protein and creatinine and egg production in laying hens during cold (7o C, thermoneutral (19o C and hot (31o C periods. The fowls were divided in three groups (26 females and 3 males in each group. They were reared in a free-range management system with elements of organic production. The experimental treatments were as followed: first (control group without dietary supplement, second group with 100 mg Zinteral 35 per kg diet containing 35 mg/kg zinc oxide, third group with the same amount of Zinteral 35 together with 250 mg vitamin C per kg diet. During the three periods with different ambient temperature, the hens supplemented either with zinc alone (second group or co-administered zinc + vitamin C (third group had significantly lower levels of plasma corticosterone (P<0.001, serum cholesterol (P<0.05 and glucose (P<0.05 than those from the first (control group. The differences between the third and the first groups were bigger versus those between the second and the first groups. For the entire period (March 1 and June 21, egg production was higher by 2.22 % and 4.60 % in the second and third groups respectively in comparison to the first group. The combination of 100 mg Zinteral 35 and 250 mg vitamin C per 1 kg diet exhibited a synergistic effect in reducing cold and heat stress in laying hens and increased their egg production.

  13. Compilation of Requirements for Safe Handling of Fluorine and Fluorine-Containing Products of Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Hightower, J.R.; Begovich, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Public Law (PL) 105--204 requires the U.S. Department of Energy to develop a plan for inclusion in the fiscal year 2000 budget for conversion of the Department's stockpile of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) to a more stable form over an extended period. The conversion process into a more stable form will produce fluorine compounds (e.g., elemental fluorine or hydrofluoric acid) that need to be handled safely. This document compiles the requirements necessary to handle these materials within health and safety standards, which may apply in order to ensure protection of the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public

  14. 75 FR 18849 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production... ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation--Small... requiring shell egg producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) from...

  15. 78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... style for the strength units describing radiation sources. This correction is being made to improve the...). That document used incorrect style for the strength units describing radiation sources. This correction... HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part 579 continues to read as...

  16. System expansion for handling co-products in LCA of sugar cane bio-energy systems: GHG consequences of using molasses for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Hermansen, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → A challenging issue in LCA is how to account for co-products' environmental burdens. → The two most commonly used procedures are system expansion and allocation. → System expansion appears to be more appropriate than allocation. → Indirect land use change is a consequence of diverting molasses from feed to fuel. → The inclusion of land use change worsens the GHG balance of molasses ethanol. -- Abstract: This study aims to establish a procedure for handling co-products in life cycle assessment (LCA) of a typical sugar cane system. The procedure is essential for environmental assessment of ethanol from molasses, a co-product of sugar which has long been used mainly for feed. We compare system expansion and two allocation procedures for estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of molasses ethanol. As seen from our results, system expansion yields the highest estimate among the three. However, no matter which procedure is used, a significant reduction of emissions from the fuel stage in the abatement scenario, which assumes implementation of substituting bioenergy for fossil-based energy to reduce GHG emissions, combined with a negligible level of emissions from the use stage, keeps the estimate of ethanol life cycle GHG emissions below that of gasoline. Pointing out that indirect land use change (ILUC) is a consequence of diverting molasses from feed to fuel, system expansion is the most adequate method when the purpose of the LCA is to support decision makers in weighing the options and consequences. As shown in the sensitivity analysis, an addition of carbon emissions from ILUC worsens the GHG balance of ethanol, with deforestation being a worst-case scenario where the fuel is no longer a net carbon saver but carbon emitter.

  17. 7 CFR 57.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs for importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs for importation. 57.950... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  18. 7 CFR 57.801 - Nest run or washed ungraded eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. 57.801 Section 57... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  19. 7 CFR 57.700 - Prohibition on disposition of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on disposition of restricted eggs. 57.700... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  20. 7 CFR 57.45 - Prohibition on eggs not intended for use as human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs not intended for use as human food...) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  1. Trichuris trichiura egg (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the classical appearance of the Trichuria (whipworm) egg. The eggs are highly infectious. After a person eats contaminated food, the worms hatch from the eggs and live in the intestine, causing vomiting and ...

  2. Mathematical Model to Compare Egg Production C Modelo Matemático para Comparar Curvas de Produção de Ovos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FB Fialho

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A segmented polynomial model was used on several egg production curves in an attempt to analyze the differences between the curves in a more descriptive manner. Production curves from different commercial and experimental genetic lines of layers were used. The parameters of the model include the age and level of peak production, rate of decrease in production after the peak and time between start and peak of production. These and other derived variables were compared between the curves using contrasts. The methodology used allowed an easier interpretation of the curves, and the detection of differences in sexual maturity, uniformity and peak of production. This work validates the segmented polynomial model for use in future research dealing with analysis of egg production curves.Um modelo polinomial segmentado foi usado em diversas curvas de produção de ovos, numa tentativa de analisar as diferenças entre as curvas de um modo mais descritivo. Foram usadas curvas de produção de diferentes linhagens comerciais e experimentais de poedeiras. Os parâmetros do modelo incluem a idade e nível do pico de produção, a taxa de decréscimo na produção após o pico e o tempo entre o início e o pico de produção. Essas e outras variáveis derivadas pelo modelo foram comparadas entre as curvas usando contrastes. A metodologia usada facilitou a interpretação das curvas e a detecção de diferenças na maturidade sexual, uniformidade e pico de produção. Esse trabalho valida o modelo de polinômios segmentados para uso em pesquisas futuras que tratem de análise de curvas de produção de ovos.

  3. Drop of egg production in chickens by experimental infection with an avian metapneumovirus strain PLE8T1 derived from swollen head syndrome and the application to evaluate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Miki; Koimaru, Hiroyuki; Shiba, Masahiro; Ono, Eriko; Nagata, Tadashi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2006-08-01

    Decreases in egg production and increased incidence of abnormal eggs due to malformation of egg shells were observed in specific pathogen free (SPF) 173-day-old laying hens inoculated intravenously with an avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) strain PLE8T1. This strain was derived from an isolate from broiler birds exhibiting swollen head syndrome (SHS). Some SPF birds inoculated with the virus showed, slight diarrhea without any respiratory symptoms. Thus, the PLE8T1 strain was used as a challenge virus to evaluate efficacy of aMPV vaccines. SPF chickens which received a live attenuated aMPV vaccine (NEMOVAC; Merial) at 7 or 77 days old and an inactivated aMPV vaccine (OVO-4; Merial) at 105 days old were protected against poor egg production caused by the challenge with the PLE8T1 strain. Thus, aMPV, the PLE8T1 strain passaged 22 times after isolation, from birds exhibiting SHS, could induce a drop in egg production in laying hens accompanied by malformation of egg shells. It was suggested that this challenge system could be applied to evaluate the efficacy of aMPV vaccine.

  4. Egg hatchability in high Arctic breeding wader species Charadriiformes is not affected by determining incubation stage using the egg flotation technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Jannik; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Reneerkens, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    Capsule By following the fate of both floated and non-floated eggs from individual clutches of four Arctic wader (shorebird) species, we show that the use of the flotation method for determining incubation stage of eggs (which involves both the submersion and handling of eggs) does not negatively

  5. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs means...

  6. COMPARISON OF TWO 4.7-MILLIGRAM TO ONE 9.4-MILLIGRAM DESLORELIN ACETATE IMPLANTS ON EGG PRODUCTION AND PLASMA PROGESTERONE CONCENTRATIONS IN JAPANESE QUAIL (COTURNIX COTURNIX JAPONICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petritz, Olivia A; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Hawkins, Michelle G; Kass, Philip H; Conley, Alan J; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2015-12-01

    Reproductive disease in captive avian species is common, and medical management is often chosen over surgical removal of the reproductive tract. In a previous study with Japanese quail, a single 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implant reversibly decreased egg production in 6 out 10 birds for 70 days. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of two 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implants versus one 9.4-mg implant on egg production and plasma progesterone concentrations in Japanese quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica). Following a 10-day period of consistent egg laying, 30 adult female Japanese quail were anesthetized and received two 4.7-mg deslorelin implants (n = 10), one 9.4-mg deslorelin implant (n = 10), or a single, identical placebo implant (n = 10) s.c. between the scapulae. Egg production was monitored daily, and plasma progesterone concentrations were measured on days 0, 14, 29, 120, 148, and 182 via enzyme-linked immunoassay. All birds were weighed periodically and euthanized at day 182, after which their reproductive tracts were evaluated at gross necropsy. Seven out of 10 birds treated with two 4.7-mg implants ceased egg laying 1 wk after implantation and remained nonovulatory for approximately 100 days. Cessation of egg laying for the 9.4-mg treatment group occurred in 7 out of 10 birds; onset was variable (weeks 5-12) and continued for the remainder of the study period. Plasma progesterone concentrations for deslorelin treatment groups were not significantly different compared to the placebo group at any time point. In conclusion, the two 4.7-mg and the one 9.4-mg implant treatments ceased egg laying in a similar number of birds, but the 9.4-mg implant had a slower onset of action and the effects on egg laying were inconsistent throughout the study period. Further studies evaluating use of deslorelin acetate in other avian species are needed.

  7. The effects of mixed algal diets on population growth, egg productivity and nutritional profiles in cyclopoid copepods (Thermocyclops hyalinus and Mesocyclops aspericornis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vidhya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of mixed algal diet on dietary profiles of copepods. The microalgae like Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata were mass cultured in artificial medium for a period of 20 days, cells are harvested, dried, powdered and used as feed. The small freshwater cyclopoids Thermocyclops hyalinus were compared to Mesocyclops aspericornis a species of copepod genera commonly preferred by most of the fish larvae. Both species are easily maintained in culture, when fed with mixed algal diets of equal ratios (1:1:1. Biochemical composition, egg production ratios, growth performance and fatty acids profile of the two different species were analyzed after an experimental period of 15 days, all the nutritional values were found to be high and statistically variable. On the basis of biochemical composition, egg production ratio, growth performance, amino acids and fatty acids profile it is found that M. aspericornis was the suitable candidate for larval fish diets.

  8. Sequence Identification, Recombinant Production, and Analysis of the Self-Assembly of Egg Stalk Silk Proteins from Lacewing Chrysoperla carnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenfeldt, Martin; Scheibel, Thomas

    2017-06-13

    Egg stalk silks of the common green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea likely comprise at least three different silk proteins. Based on the natural spinning process, it was hypothesized that these proteins self-assemble without shear stress, as adult lacewings do not use a spinneret. To examine this, the first sequence identification and determination of the gene expression profile of several silk proteins and various transcript variants thereof was conducted, and then the three major proteins were recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli encoded by their native complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences. Circular dichroism measurements indicated that the silk proteins in aqueous solutions had a mainly intrinsically disordered structure. The largest silk protein, which we named ChryC1, exhibited a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior and self-assembled into fibers or film morphologies, depending on the conditions used. The second silk protein, ChryC2, self-assembled into nanofibrils and subsequently formed hydrogels. Circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed conformational changes of both proteins into beta sheet rich structures upon assembly. ChryC3 did not self-assemble into any morphology under the tested conditions. Thereby, through this work, it could be shown that recombinant lacewing silk proteins can be produced and further used for studying the fiber formation of lacewing egg stalks.

  9. Gamma radiation induces growth retardation, impaired egg production, and oxidative stress in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mortality was increased with a dose dependent manner in ovigerous females of Paracyclopina nana. • Developmental impairments were observed in gamma irradiated nauplii. • Ovigerous females exposed to more than 50 Gy could not have normal two bilateral egg sacs. • Oxidative levels increased with antioxidant enzyme activities in the gamma irradiated P. nana. • The molecular indices (antioxidant enzymes and heat shock protein) were also increased. - Abstract: Accidental nuclear radioisotope release into the ocean from nuclear power plants is of concern due to ecological and health risks. In this study, we used the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana to examine the effects of radioisotopes on marine organisms upon gamma radiation, and to measure the effects on growth and fecundity, which affect population and community structure. Upon gamma radiation, mortality (LD50 – 96 h = 172 Gy) in P. nana was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner in ovigerous P. nana females. For developmental impairment of gamma-irradiated nauplii, we observed growth retardation; in over 30 Gy-irradiated groups, offspring did not grow to adults. Particularly, over 50 Gy-irradiated ovigerous P. nana females did not have normal bilateral egg sacs, and their offspring did not develop normally to adulthood. Additionally, at over 30 Gy, we found dose-dependent increases in oxidative levels with elevated antioxidant enzyme activities and DNA repair activities. These findings indicate that gamma radiation can induce oxidative stress and DNA damage with growth retardation and impaired reproduction

  10. Maize kernel size and texture: production parameters, quality of eggs of the laying hens and electricity intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javer Alves Vieira Filho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of maize corn size and texture on the performance parameters of laying hens and power consumption required for grinding maize corn were evaluated. The experiment was carried out on 384 Isa Brown hens, 36 weeks old, penned in a conventional aviary with 562.5 cm2 bird-1 stocking rate. The treatments were distributed in a completely randomized 2 x 3 factorial design (maize textures: flint and dent; and milling degree: fine, medium and coarse with eight replicates of eight birds per plot. Data were evaluated with SISVAR and means were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% probability. Difference was reported for the variable texture and flint increased the variables feed intake and egg weight. Significant difference in the characteristics of egg quality occurred only for the colorof the yolk. Larger corn sizes consumed less electricity during grinding. The maize flint cultivar had a lower 31.7% power consumption when compared to that of the dent cultivar.

  11. Gamma radiation induces growth retardation, impaired egg production, and oxidative stress in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: jslee2@skku.edu

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Mortality was increased with a dose dependent manner in ovigerous females of Paracyclopina nana. • Developmental impairments were observed in gamma irradiated nauplii. • Ovigerous females exposed to more than 50 Gy could not have normal two bilateral egg sacs. • Oxidative levels increased with antioxidant enzyme activities in the gamma irradiated P. nana. • The molecular indices (antioxidant enzymes and heat shock protein) were also increased. - Abstract: Accidental nuclear radioisotope release into the ocean from nuclear power plants is of concern due to ecological and health risks. In this study, we used the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana to examine the effects of radioisotopes on marine organisms upon gamma radiation, and to measure the effects on growth and fecundity, which affect population and community structure. Upon gamma radiation, mortality (LD50 – 96 h = 172 Gy) in P. nana was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner in ovigerous P. nana females. For developmental impairment of gamma-irradiated nauplii, we observed growth retardation; in over 30 Gy-irradiated groups, offspring did not grow to adults. Particularly, over 50 Gy-irradiated ovigerous P. nana females did not have normal bilateral egg sacs, and their offspring did not develop normally to adulthood. Additionally, at over 30 Gy, we found dose-dependent increases in oxidative levels with elevated antioxidant enzyme activities and DNA repair activities. These findings indicate that gamma radiation can induce oxidative stress and DNA damage with growth retardation and impaired reproduction.

  12. Egg-laying rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-31

    Dec 31, 2008 ... production of oocytes to egg-laying on selected sites (Alle- mand 1976b; Yang et al. .... (vii) Is the egg-laying rhythm regulated by hormones? .... were shown to be induced by factors synthesized in the re- productive tract of the ...

  13. King eiders use an income strategy for egg production: a case study for incorporating individual dietary variation into nutrient allocation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N; O'Brien, Diane M

    2010-09-01

    The use of stored nutrients for reproduction represents an important component of life-history variation. Recent studies from several species have used stable isotopes to estimate the reliance on stored body reserves in reproduction. Such approaches rely on population-level dietary endpoints to characterize stored reserves ("capital") and current diet ("income"). Individual variation in diet choice has so far not been incorporated in such approaches, but is crucial for assessing variation in nutrient allocation strategies. We investigated nutrient allocation to egg production in a large-bodied sea duck in northern Alaska, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis). We first used Bayesian isotopic mixing models to quantify at the population level the amount of endogenous carbon and nitrogen invested into egg proteins based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. We then defined the isotopic signature of the current diet of every nesting female based on isotope ratios of eggshell membranes, because diets varied isotopically among individual king eiders on breeding grounds. We used these individual-based dietary isotope signals to characterize nutrient allocation for each female in the study population. At the population level, the Bayesian and the individual-based approaches yielded identical results, and showed that king eiders used an income strategy for the synthesis of egg proteins. The majority of the carbon and nitrogen in albumen (C: 86 +/- 18%, N: 99 +/- 1%) and the nitrogen in lipid-free yolk (90 +/- 15%) were derived from food consumed on breeding grounds. Carbon in lipid-free yolk derived evenly from endogenous sources and current diet (exogenous C: 54 +/- 24%), but source contribution was highly variable among individual females. These results suggest that even large-bodied birds traditionally viewed as capital breeders use exogenous nutrients for reproduction. We recommend that investigations of nutrient allocation should incorporate individual variation into

  14. King eider use an income strategy for egg production: a case study for incorporating individual dietary variation into nutrient allocation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.; O'Brien, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of stored nutrients for reproduction represents an important component of life-history variation. Recent studies from several species have used stable isotopes to estimate the reliance on stored body reserves in reproduction. Such approaches rely on population-level dietary endpoints to characterize stored reserves (“capital”) and current diet (“income”). Individual variation in diet choice has so far not been incorporated in such approaches, but is crucial for assessing variation in nutrient allocation strategies. We investigated nutrient allocation to egg production in a large-bodied sea duck in northern Alaska, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis). We first used Bayesian isotopic mixing models to quantify at the population level the amount of endogenous carbon and nitrogen invested into egg proteins based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. We then defined the isotopic signature of the current diet of every nesting female based on isotope ratios of eggshell membranes, because diets varied isotopically among individual king eiders on breeding grounds. We used these individual-based dietary isotope signals to characterize nutrient allocation for each female in the study population. At the population level, the Bayesian and the individual-based approaches yielded identical results, and showed that king eiders used an income strategy for the synthesis of egg proteins. The majority of the carbon and nitrogen in albumen (C: 86 ± 18%, N: 99 ± 1%) and the nitrogen in lipid-free yolk (90 ± 15%) were derived from food consumed on breeding grounds. Carbon in lipid-free yolk derived evenly from endogenous sources and current diet (exogenous C: 54 ± 24%), but source contribution was highly variable among individual females. These results suggest that even large-bodied birds traditionally viewed as capital breeders use exogenous nutrients for reproduction. We recommend that investigations of nutrient allocation should incorporate individual

  15. 9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.208... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry and....208 Section 381.208 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. Compilation of Requirements for Safe Handling of Fluorine and Fluorine-Containing Products of Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2000-04-03

    Public Law (PL) 105-204 requires the U.S. Department of Energy to develop a plan for inclusion in the fiscal year 2000 budget for conversion of the Department's stockpile of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) to a more stable form over an extended period. The conversion process into a more stable form will produce fluorine compounds (e.g., elemental fluorine or hydrofluoric acid) that need to be handled safely. This document compiles the requirements necessary to handle these materials within health and safety standards, which may apply in order to ensure protection of the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public. Fluorine is a pale-yellow gas with a pungent, irritating odor. It is the most reactive nonmetal and will react vigorously with most oxidizable substances at room temperature, frequently with ignition. Fluorine is a severe irritant of the eyes, mucous membranes, skin, and lungs. In humans, the inhalation of high concentrations causes laryngeal spasm and broncospasms, followed by the delayed onset of pulmonary edema. At sublethal levels, severe local irritation and laryngeal spasm will preclude voluntary exposure to high concentrations, unless the individual is trapped or incapacitated. A blast of fluorine gas on the shaved skin of a rabbit causes a second degree burn. Lower concentrations cause severe burns of insidious onset, resulting in ulceration, similar to the effects produced by hydrogen fluoride. Hydrofluoric acid is a colorless, fuming liquid or gas with a pungent odor. It is soluble in water with release of heat. Ingestion of an estimated 1.5 grams produced sudden death without gross pathological damage. Repeated ingestion of small amounts resulted in moderately advanced hardening of the bones. Contact of skin with anhydrous liquid produces severe burns. Inhalation of AHA or aqueous hydrofluoric acid mist or vapors can cause severe respiratory tract irritation that may be fatal. Based on the extreme chemical

  17. 9 CFR 327.8 - Import products; equipment and means of conveyance used in handling to be maintained in sanitary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION... other means of conveyance transporting any product to the United States, and all trucks, chutes...

  18. Exigência de lisina para poedeiras semipesadas durante o pico de postura Lysine requeriment of semi-heavy laying hens during the peak of egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jordão Filho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando determinar as exigências nutricionais de lisina para 252 poedeiras semipesadas, foi conduzido um experimento em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com sete tratamentos, constituídos de seis repetições de seis aves. As dietas, isoprotéicas (17,1% de PB e isocalóricas (2.800 kcal/kg-EM, foram formuladas para atender às exigências das aves em todos os nutrientes, exceto lisina, que foi suplementada com L-lisina • HCl (78,4% de lisina, resultando nos seguintes níveis: 0,79; 0,83; 0,87; 0,91; 0,95; 0,99 e 1,03% de lisina total. As características de desempenho foram avaliadas no período de 30 a 46 semanas de idade, que corresponde ao pico de postura. Foi observado efeito quadrático dos níveis de lisina sobre a produção, o peso e a conversão alimentar por dúzia de ovos. As exigências de lisina total foram de 0,92; 0,91 e 0,90%, que correspondem, respectivamente, a 0,84; 0,83 e 0,82% de lisina digestível. Recomenda-se 0,92 ou 0,84%, ou 996 ou 910 mg, de lisina total e digestível/ave/dia para poedeiras semipesadas durante o pico de postura.An experiment was carried out as a completely randomized design, with seven treatments, and six replicates of six birds to determine the lysine nutritional requeriments for 252 semi-heavy laying hens. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (17.1%CP and isoenergy (2,800 kcal/kg-ME and to meet all bird nutrient requeriments, with the exception of lysine, that was supplemented with L-lysine • HCl (78.4% of lysine and resulted in the following levels: 0.79, 0.83, 0.87, 0.91, 0.95, 0.99, and 1.03% of total lysine. The performance variables were evaluated from 30 to 46 weeks of age, that correspond to the peak of egg production in commercial hens. Quadract effect of treatments on egg production, egg weight and egg dozen:feed ratio was observed. The total lysine requeriments were of 0.92, 0.91, and 0.90, that was correspondent to the estimate of 0.84, 0.83, and 0.82% of digestible

  19. Effects of replacing maize meal with rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal on growth and egg production performance in Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Kanyinji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing maize in quail diets with graded levels of rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal (FCM on growth and egg production performances. Cassava meal (CM was mixed with dried manure of layer at 75 g/kg CM, which was mixed with freshly collected rumen filtrate (at 1 L/5 kg CM, and finally fermented in sealed bags for 14 days. It was then sun-dried and added in grower or finisher diets at 0, 50, 75 and 100%. Then, 84 three weeks-old Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica were divided into four equal groups; the birds were randomly assigned to 0, 50, 75 and 100% FCM grower/layers diets, and were reared until 56 days of age. Daily feed consumption, weekly body weights, weight gains, feed conversion ratios (FCR, hen-day, and egg weights were monitored. The quails fed with 75% FCM were found to be superior (p0.05 effect on feed intake, body weight, and weight gain, as compared to those of fed control diets. Thus, replacing maize with FCM had no deleterious effects on growth performance, but depressed hen-day. However, better growth performance was obtained when maize was replaced at 75% FCM.

  20. Airborne engineered nanomaterials in the workplace—a review of release and worker exposure during nanomaterial production and handling processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yaobo [Institute for Work and Health (IST), Universities of Lausanne and Geneva, Route de la Corniche 2, 1066, Epalinges (Switzerland); Kuhlbusch, Thomas A.J. [Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology Unit, Bliersheimer Straße 58-60, 47229 Duisburg (Germany); Centre for Nanointegration (CENIDE), University Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg (Germany); Van Tongeren, Martie; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez [Centre for Human Exposure Science, Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), Research Avenue North, Edinburgh EH14 4AP (United Kingdom); Tuinman, Ilse [TNO, Lange Kleiweg 137, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Chen, Rui [CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety & CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Beijing 100190 (China); Alvarez, Iñigo Larraza [ACCIONA Infrastructure, Materials Area, Innovation Division, C/Valportillo II 8, 28108, Alcobendas (Spain); Mikolajczyk, Urszula [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Nickel, Carmen; Meyer, Jessica; Kaminski, Heinz [Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology Unit, Bliersheimer Straße 58-60, 47229 Duisburg (Germany); Wohlleben, Wendel [Dept. Material Physics, BASF SE, Advanced Materials Research, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Stahlmecke, Burkhard [Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology Unit, Bliersheimer Straße 58-60, 47229 Duisburg (Germany); Clavaguera, Simon [NanoSafety Platform, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, 38054 (France); and others

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Release characteristics can be grouped by the type of occupational activities. • Release levels may be linked to process energy. • A better data reporting practice will facilitate exposure assessment. • The results help prioritize industrial processes for human risk assessment. - Abstract: For exposure and risk assessment in occupational settings involving engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), it is important to understand the mechanisms of release and how they are influenced by the ENM, the matrix material, and process characteristics. This review summarizes studies providing ENM release information in occupational settings, during different industrial activities and using various nanomaterials. It also assesses the contextual information — such as the amounts of materials handled, protective measures, and measurement strategies — to understand which release scenarios can result in exposure. High-energy processes such as synthesis, spraying, and machining were associated with the release of large numbers of predominantly small-sized particles. Low-energy processes, including laboratory handling, cleaning, and industrial bagging activities, usually resulted in slight or moderate releases of relatively large agglomerates. The present analysis suggests that process-based release potential can be ranked, thus helping to prioritize release assessments, which is useful for tiered exposure assessment approaches and for guiding the implementation of workplace safety strategies. The contextual information provided in the literature was often insufficient to directly link release to exposure. The studies that did allow an analysis suggested that significant worker exposure might mainly occur when engineering safeguards and personal protection strategies were not carried out as recommended.

  1. Airborne engineered nanomaterials in the workplace—a review of release and worker exposure during nanomaterial production and handling processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yaobo; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A.J.; Van Tongeren, Martie; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez; Tuinman, Ilse; Chen, Rui; Alvarez, Iñigo Larraza; Mikolajczyk, Urszula; Nickel, Carmen; Meyer, Jessica; Kaminski, Heinz; Wohlleben, Wendel; Stahlmecke, Burkhard; Clavaguera, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Release characteristics can be grouped by the type of occupational activities. • Release levels may be linked to process energy. • A better data reporting practice will facilitate exposure assessment. • The results help prioritize industrial processes for human risk assessment. - Abstract: For exposure and risk assessment in occupational settings involving engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), it is important to understand the mechanisms of release and how they are influenced by the ENM, the matrix material, and process characteristics. This review summarizes studies providing ENM release information in occupational settings, during different industrial activities and using various nanomaterials. It also assesses the contextual information — such as the amounts of materials handled, protective measures, and measurement strategies — to understand which release scenarios can result in exposure. High-energy processes such as synthesis, spraying, and machining were associated with the release of large numbers of predominantly small-sized particles. Low-energy processes, including laboratory handling, cleaning, and industrial bagging activities, usually resulted in slight or moderate releases of relatively large agglomerates. The present analysis suggests that process-based release potential can be ranked, thus helping to prioritize release assessments, which is useful for tiered exposure assessment approaches and for guiding the implementation of workplace safety strategies. The contextual information provided in the literature was often insufficient to directly link release to exposure. The studies that did allow an analysis suggested that significant worker exposure might mainly occur when engineering safeguards and personal protection strategies were not carried out as recommended.

  2. 9 CFR 381.202 - Poultry products offered for entry; reporting of findings to customs; handling of articles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry... procedures. 381.202 Section 381.202 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...

  3. Developing a HACCP-like system for improving animal health and welfare in organic egg production - based on an expert panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelund, L; Sørensen, J T

    2007-08-01

    In the process of developing a generic Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)-like system for securing animal health and welfare in organic egg production, an expert panel analysis was used to perform the initial hazard analysis. Eighteen advisers and researchers in organic egg production were included in the expert panel. In a series of four questionnaires, the expert panel first scored 34 health and welfare problems seen in Danish organic egg production. Based on scorings of severity and occurrence, 10 problems were selected for further analysis. The experts subsequently suggested and scored risk factors for those problems and finally suggested control points, alarm values indicating the need for corrective actions in order to control the risk factors and monitoring frequencies of these. The 10 selected problems were hunger, thirst, piling, crop impaction, blackhead, pasteurellosis, bone fractures, cannibalism, predators and red mites. A total of 154 different risk factors were suggested for these problems. The 41 risk factors which rated highest in a combined scoring of importance and occurrence were selected for further analysis. There was a high degree of consensus between experts when scoring both problems and risk factors. The level of consensus, as defined by an interquartile range 1, was 79% to 100% when scoring the health and welfare problems (scale 1-5) and 77% to 95% when scoring the risk factors (scale 1-4). On average, 5.8 control points were suggested for every risk factor. Alarm values were often not detailed enough to be of practical significance and further analysis is needed in order to define these. The experts were highly diverse in their suggested monitoring frequencies and establishment of monitoring schemes should be part of developing the farm specific systems. An expert panel analysis based on questionnaires was a useful tool during the first steps of developing a HACCP plan, conducting a hazard analysis and suggesting control

  4. A protocol for storage and long-distance shipment of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs. II. Assessment of the optimal temperature and the substrate for male-only production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maman, E.; Caceres, C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study has been conducted to assess the effect and interaction of various storage substrates and conditions on eggs of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Tests were carried out with the genetic sexing strain VIENNA 8/D53, a strain that carries a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation that allows the selective killing of female zygotes. This study identifies strategies to enhance the storage and transport conditions through assessment of effect on egg, pupal and adult survival in order to facilitate the establishment of satellite mass rearing facilities for the production of male medflies. Eggs were immersed in two different substrates and stored at different temperatures and for different time periods. Findings from this study suggest that egg storage periods, and to some extent, the storage substrates have significant effects on pupal and adult survival. For 72-h storage periods, the eggs preserved in agar solution at 10 deg. C produced the most pupae. There was an inverse relationship between the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the substrate during storage and the quality and survival of the stored/transported eggs. Apparently low levels of dissolved oxygen reduce metabolic rates, allowing the storage period to be prolonged. (author) [es

  5. Waffle production: influence of batter ingredients on sticking of fresh egg waffles at baking plates-Part I: effect of starch and sugar components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Regina; Schoenlechner, Regine

    2017-05-01

    Fresh egg waffles are a sweet convenience product typically baked from eggs, water, sugar, flour, fat, leavening agents, emulsifiers, preservatives, and flavors. In industrial production, waffles are baked continuously in high amounts of up to 200 kg raw material per hour. Therefore, it is important that the waffles do not stick onto the baking plates, which can cause significant product loss and increased costs due to interruption of the baking process, required cleaning procedures, and restarting of the energy-consuming start-up phase. Sticking of waffles is greatly influenced not only by baking plate material, release agent, baking temperature, and time, but also by the batter ingredients. In this study, effects of different starches and sugar components were investigated. Within the selected starches, potato starch demonstrated the highest effects on increasing waffle stability and releasing properties compared to wheat and lupine flour (less than 7% sticking waffles). Rice flour performed worst, with almost 50% of sticking waffles. Most of these waffles were broken during take-off, due to their crumbly texture. Within the sugar components, glycerine was better suitable than sorbitol and crystal sugar was superior compared to powdered sugar. They required less take-off force. It could be demonstrated that waffles with increased stability and texture were those that showed the least number of sticking waffles, thus the main aim of batter ingredients was to improve waffle quality. Waffle quality was influenced by batter parameters, significant correlations could be found, for example, a positive correlation between pH- and L-value, negative correlations between pH- and a-value, or density and aw-value. This resulted in significant correlations with take-off-force, which was correlated with L*- and b*-value (negative) and positive to a*-value. Sticking behavior was strongly associated with b*-value (positive) and to a*-value (negative).

  6. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization facilities: The facilities for pasteurization of egg products shall be adequate and of approved construction so...

  7. Report of the Scientific Committee of the Spanish Agency for Consumer Affairs, Food Safety and Nutrition (AECOSAN) in relation to the risk of the presence of sulphonamide residues in eggs resulting from cross-contamination in feed production

    OpenAIRE

    Scientific Committee

    2017-01-01

    Sulphonamides can be administered by adding them to feed within the framework of legal use to treat diseases in animals intended for use in the production of foods, except laying hens. Furthermore, in feed production, cross-contaminations can occur from medicated feed that lead to the appearance of residues of these medicines in animal by-products. In particular, on some occasions, sulphonamide residues have been detected in eggs resulting from cross-contamination in feed production. The Scie...

  8. Stochastic modelling of optimum initial body weight, daily weight gain and effect of genetic changes in ovulation rate and age at sexual maturity on total egg production of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R; Hocking, P M

    2009-01-01

    1. A model that simulates the total production of eggs (TEP) in broiler breeders was used to predict the optimum initial (20 week) body weight (IBWexp), daily weight gains from 20 to 30 (DWGexp(20-30)) and 31 to 62 weeks of age (DWGexp(31-62)), age at photostimulation (affecting age at first egg, AFEexp), coefficients of variation of initial body weight (CV-IBWexp) and age at first egg (CV-AFEexp), and the effect of genetically increasing the numbers of yellow follicles at the onset of lay. 2. The results suggest that TEP in broiler breeders is very sensitive to changes in body weight gain during the first 10 weeks of the production period and body weight at the start of egg production, whereas changes in body weight gain after peak rate of lay showed only minor effects on TEP. Increasing CV-IBWexp was associated with a linear decrease in the mean and increased variability of TEP. 3. Decreasing AFEexp was negatively associated with TEP, whereas higher CV-AFEexp increased variability of TEP and had a trivial affect on the mean. 4. Results of the simulation suggested that reducing ovarian yellow follicle numbers by means of genetic selection could reduce the degree of feed restriction currently used in broiler breeder commercial stocks while maintaining total egg production. Higher numbers of yellow follicles associated with selection for higher growth rate would not result in lower egg production if the body weight target was maintained at the currently recommended commercial level and the effect on TEP of increasing the target in proportion to potential body weight may be relatively small.

  9. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hen egg yolk antibodies (IgY, production and use for passive immunization against bacterial enteric infections in chicken: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalghoumi R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteric infections caused by Salmonella remain a major public health burden worldwide. Poultry, particularly chickens, are known to be the main reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. Therefore, the prevention and monitoring of Salmonella infection during the live phase may greatly reduce the contamination of poultry meat during slaughter and processing. With the ban on sub-therapeutic antibiotic usage in Europe and the increasingly strictness of the European legislation on food hygiene, passive immunization by oral administration of pathogen-specific hen egg yolk antibody (IgY may be a useful and attractive alternative. This review offers summarized information about IgY production and the use of these antibodies for passive immunization, particularly in poultry.

  11. 14 CFR 193.17 - How must design and production approval holders handle information they receive from the FAA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How must design and production approval... REGULATIONS PROTECTION OF VOLUNTARILY SUBMITTED INFORMATION § 193.17 How must design and production approval... under § 193.9(a)(2) to the holders of design approvals of production approvals issued by the FAA, the...

  12. Comparison of egg and high yielding MDCK cell-derived live attenuated influenza virus for commercial production of trivalent influenza vaccine: in vitro cell susceptibility and influenza virus replication kinetics in permissive and semi-permissive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Althaf I; Cordeiro, Melissa; Sevilla, Elizabeth; Liu, Jonathan

    2010-05-14

    Currently MedImmune manufactures cold-adapted (ca) live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from specific-pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. Difficulties in production scale-up and potential exposure of chicken flocks to avian influenza viruses especially in the event of a pandemic influenza outbreak have prompted evaluation and development of alternative non-egg based influenza vaccine manufacturing technologies. As part of MedImmune's effort to develop the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) using cell culture production technologies we have investigated the use of high yielding, cloned MDCK cells as a substrate for vaccine production by assessing host range and virus replication of influenza virus produced from both SPF egg and MDCK cell production technologies. In addition to cloned MDCK cells the indicator cell lines used to evaluate the impact of producing LAIV in cells on host range and replication included two human cell lines: human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and human muco-epidermoid bronchiolar carcinoma (NCI H292) cells. The influenza viruses used to infect the indicators cell lines represented both the egg and cell culture manufacturing processes and included virus strains that composed the 2006-2007 influenza seasonal trivalent vaccine (A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2) and B/Malaysia/2506/04). Results from this study demonstrate remarkable similarity between influenza viruses representing the current commercial egg produced and developmental MDCK cell produced vaccine production platforms. MedImmune's high yielding cloned MDCK cells used for the cell culture based vaccine production were highly permissive to both egg and cell produced ca attenuated influenza viruses. Both the A549 and NCI H292 cells regardless of production system were less permissive to influenza A and B viruses than the MDCK cells. Irrespective of the indicator cell line used the replication properties were similar between egg and the cell produced

  13. Molecular and functional characterization of Anopheles gambiae inward rectifier potassium (Kir1) channels: a novel role in egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphemot, Rene; Estévez-Lao, Tania Y; Rouhier, Matthew F; Piermarini, Peter M; Denton, Jerod S; Hillyer, Julián F

    2014-08-01

    Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels play essential roles in regulating diverse physiological processes. Although Kir channels are encoded in mosquito genomes, their functions remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified the members of the Anopheles gambiae Kir gene family and began to investigate their function. Notably, we sequenced the A. gambiae Kir1 (AgKir1) gene and showed that it encodes all the canonical features of a Kir channel: an ion pore that is composed of a pore helix and a selectivity filter, two transmembrane domains that flank the ion pore, and the so-called G-loop. Heterologous expression of AgKir1 in Xenopus oocytes revealed that this gene encodes a functional, barium-sensitive Kir channel. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments then showed that relative AgKir1 mRNA levels are highest in the pupal stage, and that AgKir1 mRNA is enriched in the adult ovaries. Gene silencing of AgKir1 by RNA interference did not affect the survival of female mosquitoes following a blood meal, but decreased their egg output. These data provide evidence for a new role of Kir channels in mosquito fecundity, and further validates them as promising molecular targets for the development of a new class of mosquitocides to be used in vector control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multi-disciplinary engineering for cyber-physical production systems data models and software solutions for handling complex engineering projects

    CERN Document Server

    Lüder, Arndt; Gerhard, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses challenges and solutions for the required information processing and management within the context of multi-disciplinary engineering of production systems. The authors consider methods, architectures, and technologies applicable in use cases according to the viewpoints of product engineering and production system engineering, and regarding the triangle of (1) product to be produced by a (2) production process executed on (3) a production system resource. With this book industrial production systems engineering researchers will get a better understanding of the challenges and requirements of multi-disciplinary engineering that will guide them in future research and development activities. Engineers and managers from engineering domains will be able to get a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of applicable methods, architectures, and technologies for selected use cases. IT researchers will be enabled to identify research issues related to the development of new methods, arc...

  15. Single and combined effects of peppermint and thyme essential oils on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding peppermint essential oil (PEO), thyme essential oil (TEO), or their combination to diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-lite laying hens. Significant interactions between PEO and TEO on FCR, EP, and EM were observed (P hens fed the diets supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. Also, increased EW and FI were observed in the laying hens fed the diet added by PEO compared to the birds fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between PEO and TEO on the serum level of cholesterol, shell thickness, and Hough unit of egg (P hens fed the diet supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined form of PEO and TEO could have beneficial effects on performance parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  16. Single and combined effects of peppermint and thyme essential oils on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding peppermint essential oil (PEO), thyme essential oil (TEO), or their combination to diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-lite laying hens. Significant interactions between PEO and TEO on FCR, EP, and EM were observed ( P hens fed the diets supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. Also, increased EW and FI were observed in the laying hens fed the diet added by PEO compared to the birds fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between PEO and TEO on the serum level of cholesterol, shell thickness, and Hough unit of egg ( P hens fed the diet supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined form of PEO and TEO could have beneficial effects on performance parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  17. Have eggs. Will travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Feminist scholars have critically questioned the practices and ethics of reproductive mobility. While the reproductive mobility of fertility patients has been foregrounded, little is known of egg donor mobility including the experiences of travelling internationally to donate eggs. Based on written...... stories and photographic material provided by forty-two egg donors, this article uses feminist cluster analysis and the concept of eggpreneurship to illustrate how global egg donors negotiate reproductive agency and choice when they travel internationally to donate their eggs. In their stories, global egg...

  18. Plaice egg mortality: can we determine survivorschip?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickey-Collas, M.; Fox, C.J.; Nash, R.D.M.; O'Brien, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The daily mortality rate of cohorts of plaice eggs in the Irish Sea is estimated throughout the spawning season in 1995 and 2000, using general additive models of egg production. Daily mortality (z) was found to vary between 0.15 and 0.29. Mortality rates declined through the season in 1995 but not

  19. Evaluation of a handling system for ley crop used in biogas production. Capacities and costs for a centralised system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaagstroem, Lena

    2005-07-01

    Within the Vaextkraft project in Vaesteraas, Sweden, biogas is to be produced out of ley crop and organic waste. The aim of this study has been to estimate the capacities within the handling system used for the ley crop harvest, and the resources needed. For this purpose a model in the form of a calculation program in Excel was built. The model makes it possible to vary parameters such as transport system design, distance from fields to storage, dry matter content and yield. The results showed that it is essential to match the capacities between chopper and transport to minimise the time and cost connected to the harvest. To avoid creating costly bottlenecks in the Vaextkraft case the transport system has to consist of at least two trucks with trailers. The estimates made with the model suggests that the distance to storage is strongly linked to the dimensioning of the transport system, whereas the number of fields and their size has a lesser impact on harvest time and cost. Variation of the dry matter yield from a base scenario had an impact on the cost for harvesting, but not on the choice of transport system. The model couldn't detect any reliable differences in total costs due to the variation of dry matter content between 25-45%. The choice of chopping machinery in the Vaextkraft project leads to small timeliness costs. Together with a reasonable choice of transport system they will only constitute a few percent of the total costs for harvesting.

  20. Effects of Supplementation of Alkaloid and Non Alkaloid from Sauropus androgynus Leaves on Egg Production and Lipid Profil in Layer Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Santoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate effects of supplementation of alkaloid or non alkaloid from Sauropus androgynus leaves on productive performance and the contents of lipid fractions in layer chickens. Forty two layer chickens aged 30 weeks were distributed to seven treatment groups. Each treatment group contained six layer chickens maintained in an individual cage, respectively. The present experiment used completely randomized experimental design. The seven treatment groups were as follows: 1 Control, layer chickens were fed diet without supplementation of alkaloid or non alkaloid extracted from Sauropus androgynus (P0; 2 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 30 mg non alkaloid/kg diet (P1; 3 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 60 mg non alkaloid/kg diet (P2; 4 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 90 mg non alkaloid/kg diet (P3; 5 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 30 mg alkaloid/kg diet (P4; 6 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 60 mg alkaloid/kg diet (P5; 7 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 90 mg alkaloid/kg diet (P6. Layer chickens were fed experimental diet with 2,750 kcal/kg Metabolizable Energy (ME and 16.0% protein. Diet and drinking water were fed ad libitum. Experimental results showed that supplementation of alkaloid or non alkaloid from Sauropus androgynus leaves significantly affected productive performance in layer chickens. It appear that non alkaloid supplementation had no advantage in improving productive performance, whereas supplementation of 30 mg alkaloid/kg diet might have advantages in improving productive performance as indicated by better egg production and lower feed conversion ratio. Treatment had no effect on glucose and triglyceride concentration in serum, but it affected total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL+VLDL-cholesterol and atherogenic index in serum. Cholesterol concentration in serum was significantly increased in P4 and P6, whereas HDL-cholesterol concentration was

  1. 7 CFR 57.930 - Imported eggs; retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement prior to inspection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported eggs; retention in customs custody; delivery... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  2. Uranium hexafluoride handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF 6 from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride

  3. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Investigation of In-Package Ozonation: The Effectiveness of Ozone to Inactive Salmonella enteritidis on Raw, Shell Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Donner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Food production, handling, and distribution practices pose a constant threat to the quality and safety of food products. The objective of this research is to evaluate an innovative in-package ozonation process to reduce Salmonella enteritidis on raw, shell eggs. Previous research has shown that in-package ozonation eliminates contaminants from outside sources, reduces pathogens, and extends shelf life. In this study, raw, shell eggs were inoculated with Salmonella enteritidis and exposed to ozonation treatment. Microbial recoveries were then tested to determine bacterial reductions. Measurements included: relative humidity (34 percent at 5oC, surface temperatures (oC, ozone concentrations, bacterial reductions of Salmonella enteritidis, and quality assessment of eggs (Haugh Unit [HU], color, pH, and weight. After a 24-hour storage period, all treated samples indicated 3 log10 reductions on average (previous research has achieved up to 6log10. These results show effective in-package ozonation treatment reducing Salmonella enteritidis on raw, shell eggs without significant effect on measured egg quality over time. Benefits of in-package ozonation include no heating, low power requirements (less or equal to 50 Watts, short treatment time (seconds to minutes, and adaptability into existing processes. Given its ability to ensure the safety and longevity of food products, this technology has great potential for utilization in the food processing industry.

  5. Biological activity of egg-yolk protein by-product hydrolysates obtained with the use of non-commercial plant protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zambrowicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic hydrolysis leads to improved functional and biological properties of protein by-products, which can be further used as nutraceuticals and protein ingredients for food applications.The present study evaluated ACE-inhibitory, antioxidant and immunostimulating activities in hydrolysates of egg-yolk protein by-product (YP, generated during industrial process of delipidation of yolk. The protein substrate was hydrolyzed using non-commercial protease from Asian pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia. The reaction was conducted in 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0 at temperature of 37°C for 4 hours using different enzyme doses (100-1000 U/mg of substrate. The protein degradation was monitored by the determination of the degree of hydrolysis (DH, release of free amino groups (FAG and by RP-HPLC. In the obtained hydrolysates we also evaluated biological activities. It was shown that the highest DH of substrate (46.6% was obtained after 4h of reaction at the highest amount of enzyme. This hydrolysate exhibited antioxidant activity, including ferricion reducing (FRAP (56.41 μg Fe2+/mg, ferric ion chelating (695.76 μg Fe2+/mg and DPPH free radical scavenging (0.89 μmol troloxeq/mg as well as ACE-inhibitory (IC50=837.75 μg/mL activities.The research showed improved biological properties of enzymatically modified YP by-product.

  6. Scrambled eggs: Proteomic portraits and novel biomarkers of egg quality in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Patinote, Amélie; Nguyen, Thao Vi; Com, Emmanuelle; Lavigne, Regis; Pineau, Charles; Sullivan, Craig V; Bobe, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained spectra were searched against a zebrafish proteome database and detected proteins were annotated, categorized and quantified based on normalized spectral counts. Manually curated and automated enrichment analyses revealed poor quality eggs to be deficient of proteins involved in protein synthesis and energy and lipid metabolism, and of some vitellogenin products and lectins, and to have a surfeit of proteins involved in endo-lysosomal activities, autophagy, and apoptosis, and of some oncogene products, lectins and egg envelope proteins. Results of pathway and network analyses suggest that this aberrant proteomic profile results from failure of oocytes giving rise to poor quality eggs to properly transit through final maturation, and implicated Wnt signaling in the etiology of this defect. Quantitative comparisons of abundant proteins in good versus poor quality eggs revealed 17 candidate egg quality markers. Thus, the zebrafish egg proteome is clearly linked to embryo developmental potential, a phenomenon that begs further investigation to elucidate the root causes of poor egg quality, presently a serious and intractable problem in livestock and human reproductive medicine.

  7. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, Christy A. [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom); Elliott, John E. [Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada); Ormerod, Stephen J., E-mail: ormerod@cf.ac.u [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in delta{sup 13}C (C. cinclus) or delta{sup 15}N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. - Changes in laying diet influences contaminant deposition in bird eggs.

  8. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, Christy A.; Elliott, John E.; Ormerod, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in δ 13 C (C. cinclus) or δ 15 N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. - Changes in laying diet influences contaminant deposition in bird eggs.

  9. Equipment for the handling of thorium materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisler, S.W. Jr.; Mihalovich, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) is the United States Department of Energy's storage facility for thorium. FMPC thorium handling and overpacking projects ensure the continued safe handling and storage of the thorium inventory until final disposition of the materials is determined and implemented. The handling and overpacking of the thorium materials requires the design of a system that utilizes remote handling and overpacking equipment not currently utilized at the FMPC in the handling of uranium materials. The use of remote equipment significantly reduces radiation exposure to personnel during the handling and overpacking efforts. The design system combines existing technologies from the nuclear industry, the materials processing and handling industry and the mining industry. The designed system consists of a modified fork lift truck for the transport of thorium containers, automated equipment for material identification and inventory control, and remote handling and overpacking equipment for material identification and inventory control, and remote handling and overpacking equipment for repackaging of the thorium materials

  10. Influence of the natural dyes bixin and curcumin in the shelf life of eggs from laying hens in the second production cycle - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i2.12096

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Salgado Politi Braga Saldanha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to evaluate the effect of adding natural pigments on the storage of eggs from laying hens in the second production cycle submitted to diets based on corn and low-tannin sorghum. A total of 160 eggs from Hy-Line Brown laying hens at 90 - weeks old after forced molting were used. The study evaluated the isolated effect and the interaction of two factors: the inclusion of natural pigments (control diet - 50% low-tannin sorghum replacing the corn; RC - 2% powdered dry turmeric rhizome; PU - 2% dry annatto powder; RCPU - 1% turmeric rhizome + 1% dry annatto powder combined with the storage period (0, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. The studied variables were: specific gravity, percentages of yolk, albumen and shell in relation to the egg weight, and yolk color. Yolk color was more intense with increasing percentage of annatto. The inclusion of 2% annatto powder promotes and maintains an adequate pigmentation of egg yolk when stored for up to 21 days. Regardless of natural pigment supplementation, the egg quality decreases as storage time increases. 

  11. Effects of temperature and nonionizing ultraviolet radiation treatments of eggs of five host insects on production of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for biological control applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichogramma are used worldwide as biological control against insect pests, attacking eggs of over 200 species. Eggs of Spodoptera litura, Corcyra cephalonica, Plutella xylostella and Helicoverpa armigera were tested to consider the effect of temperature and radiation on parasitization, emergence of...

  12. Performance and egg quality of aged laying hens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    receiving OSM produced more eggs and egg mass along with considerably greater feed intake than those on all the other .... initiation of the second egg production period, were housed in cages located in a three-deck battery-type cage block. .... Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption.

  13. 7 CFR 57.720 - Disposition of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decharacterant, such as FD&C brown, blue, black, or green colors, meat and fish by-products, grain and milling by... part. (4) By coloring the shells of loss and inedible eggs with a sufficient amount of FD&C color to... the egg meat. Except that, lots of eggs containing significant percentages of blood spots or meat...

  14. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed...

  15. Competitiveness of the EU egg sector, base year 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this report the impact of reducing or removing import levies on the competitiveness of the EU egg sector is studied, for both shell eggs and whole egg powder. As a result of the costs of transportation, import levies and the effects on product quality and safety, there will barely be imports of

  16. Producing and marketing a specialty egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michella, S M; Slaugh, B T

    2000-07-01

    Eggland's Best, Inc. markets premium quality shell eggs under the Eggland's Best (EB) brand name. The company, started in 1988, is comprised of a franchise network of established egg producers and covers most of the United States. Eggland's Best provides its franchisees with marketing and technical support. The franchisees produce, process, and distribute EB eggs according to the strict program established and monitored by EB. Production follows the all-natural vegetarian feed program in accordance with the company's US patent entitled "Eggs Compatible with a Cholesterol Reducing Diet and Method of Producing the Same." The EB program excludes animal fat and other animal byproducts. Eggland's Best eggs have seven times the generic level of vitamin E, nearly three times more omega-3 fatty acids and iodine, and 25% less saturated fat than regular generic eggs. Eggland's Best has one of the finest shell egg quality assurance programs anywhere. Eggland's Best franchisees submit weekly egg samples that are analyzed for shell quality, interior quality, vitamin E, iodine, cholesterol and fatty acids. Samples of feed and the EB-patented feed supplement are also analyzed. Approximately 28,000 total laboratory tests are conducted annually. Nationwide product and display retail evaluations are contracted through an outside audit company (40 to 50 cities evaluated four times per year). All EB eggs are USDA graded according to EB's strict quality standards. Producers must follow a food safety quality assurance program (United Egg Producers Association 5-Star or equivalent state or company program). Each egg is stamped "EB" as assurance of meeting EB's highest standards of flavor, quality, and nutrition. Eggland's Best has enjoyed record sales growth for the past 3 yr.

  17. 7 CFR 56.37 - Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs. 56.37... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Identifying and Marking Products § 56.37...

  18. 7 CFR 57.900 - Requirements for importation of restricted eggs into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for importation of restricted eggs into... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing...

  19. Effect of egg washing and correlation between cuticle and egg penetration by various Salmonella strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Vaibhav C; Roberts, Juliet R; Sexton, Margaret; May, Damian; Kiermeier, Andreas; Chousalkar, Kapil K

    2014-07-16

    In Australia, Europe and the United States, eggs and egg products are frequently associated with Salmonella food poisoning outbreaks. Many of the egg-associated Salmonella outbreaks have been due to the products such as mayonnaise, ice-cream and cold desserts which are eaten without cooking following the addition of raw egg. The ability of four Salmonella isolates (one each of S. Singapore, S. Adelaide, S. Worthington and S. Livingstone) to penetrate washed and unwashed eggs using whole egg and agar egg penetration methods was investigated in the current study. The results of the agar penetration experiment indicated that all the isolates used in the present study have the capacity to penetrate the eggshell. Eggshell penetration by the S. Worthington isolate was higher but not significant (p=0.06) in washed eggs compared to unwashed eggs. However, for all other isolates (S. Singapore, S. Adelaide and S. Livingstone), there was no significant difference in penetration of washed and unwashed eggs. Statistical analysis indicated that cuticle score was a significant linear predictor of Salmonella eggshell penetration. Whole egg penetration results showed that all of the Salmonella isolates used in the present study were capable of surviving on the eggshell surface after 21days of incubation (at 20°C) following a high dose of inoculation (10(5)CFU/mL). The combined data of all isolates demonstrated that, the survival rate of Salmonella on eggshells (inoculated with 10(5)CFU/mL) was significantly higher (p=0.002) at 20°C as compared to 37°C. S. Singapore, S. Worthington, and S. Livingstone were not detected in egg internal contents whereas S. Adelaide was detected in one egg's internal contents. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased (P terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

  1. Effects of salinity on egg and fecal pellet production, development and survival, adult sex ratio and total life span in the calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa: a laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayegan, Majid; Esmaeili Fereidouni, Abolghasem; Agh, Naser; Jani Khalili, Khosrow

    2016-07-01

    The effects of salinity on the copepod, Acartia tonsa in terms of daily egg production rate (EPR), hatching success, fecal pellet production rate (FPR), naupliar development time and survival, sex ratio, and total life span were determined in laboratory conditions through three experiments. In experiment 1, EPR, hatching success, and FPR of individual females were monitored at salinities of 13, 20, 35 and 45 during short-periods (seven consecutive days). Results show EPR was affected by salinity with the highest outputs recorded at 20 and 35, respectively, which were considerably higher than those at 13 and 45. Mean FPR was also higher in 35 and 20. In experiment 2, the same parameters were evaluated over total life span of females (long-term study). The best EPR and FPR were observed in 35, which was statistically higher than at 13 and 20. In experiment 3, survival rates of early nauplii until adult stage were lowest at a salinity of 13. The development time increased with increasing of salinity. Female percentage clearly decreased with increasing salinity. Higher female percentages (56.7% and 52.2%, respectively) were significantly observed at two salinities of 13 and 20 compared to that at 35 (25%). Total longevity of females was not affected by salinity increment. Based on our results, for mass culture we recommend that a salinity of 35 be adopted due to higher reproductive performances, better feeding, and faster development of A. tonsa.

  2. Dietary tea polyphenol supplementation improved egg production performance, albumen quality, and magnum morphology of Hy-Line Brown hens during the late laying period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Cui; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Wu, Shu-Geng; Qi, Guang-Hai

    2018-02-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary supplementation of tea polyphenols (TP) and tea catechins (TC) affect laying performance, albumen quality, ovomucin composition, and magnum morphology of laying hens in the late phase of production. Two hundred seventy Hy-Line Brown laying hens (64 wk old) were assigned to a basal diet (the control), the basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg tea polyphenols (TP200) or 200 mg/kg tea catechins (TC200). Each treatment had 6 replicates with 15 hens each. The feeding trial lasted 10 wks. Over the course of the trial, dietary supplementation with TP200 significantly increased the egg production (EP) and improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) in wk 6 to 10 and wk 1 to 10 (P hens fed TP200 were higher than those of hens fed the control diet at wks 8 and 10 (P 0.05). The SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that bands of the ovomucin fractions in the TP200 group had the highest intensity compared with those of the control and TC200 groups. Compared with the control, there was a significant increase in protein sulfhydryl (SH) content of the albumen in the TP200 group at the end of experiment, while a significant decrease in protein carbonyl content and protein surface hydrophobicity (P hens. In addition, TP rather than TC could improve the health status of the magnum for aged layers.

  3. Food-cooking processes modulate allergenic properties of hen's egg white proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Feng, Bai-Sui; Kong, Xiaoli; Xu, Hong; Li, Xiumin; Yang, Ping-Chang; Liu, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the allergenicity of food allergens can suppress the clinical symptoms of food allergy. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of processing on the allergenic properties of hen's egg white proteins. Eggs were processed by traditional Chinese cooking, including steaming, water boiling, frying, spicing and tea boiling. The contents of processed egg protein were assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; the allergenicity was evaluated by Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme allergosorbent test inhibition. Circular dichroism spectrum analysis of four major egg allergens from various egg products was performed as well. A mouse model of food allergy was developed to test the allergenicity of processed egg protein in vivo. Protein degradation was significant following tea boiling and spiced-tea boiling. The total allergenic potential of water-boiled egg and fried egg was relatively higher than that of steamed egg, spiced egg and tea-boiled egg. Challenge with proteins from raw egg, water-boiled egg and fried egg induced skewed T-helper 2 pattern responses (Th2 responses) in the intestine of mice sensitized to egg proteins; however, when the mice sensitized to egg proteins were challenged with proteins from steamed egg, spiced egg and tea-boiled egg, respectively, only weak Th2 responses were induced in their intestine. Processing by steaming, spicing, or tea boiling can weaken the allergenicity of egg proteins. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  5. Ostrich eggs geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise quantification of the profile of egg can provide a powerful tool for the analysis of egg shape for various biological problems. A new approach to the geometry of a Ostrich’s egg profile is presented here using an analysing the egg’s digital photo by edge detection techniques. The obtained points on the eggshell counter are fitted by the Fourier series. The obtained equations describing an egg profile have been used to calculate radii of curvature. The radii of the curvature at the important point of the egg profile (sharp end, blunt end and maximum thickness are independent on the egg shape index. The exact values of the egg surface and the egg volume have been obtained. These quantities are also independent on the egg shape index. These quantities can be successively estimated on the basis of simplified equations which are expressed in terms of the egg length, L¸ and its width, B. The surface area of the eggshells also exhibits good correlation with the egg long circumference length. Some limitations of the most used procedures have been also shown.

  6. Producción y beneficio de semilla de cilantro Production and Post-harvest Handling of Coriander Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Enrique Puga Santos

    2008-10-01

    .42 kg hour-1, followed by threshing by beating with a stick (36.97 kg hour-1 and use of a threshing board (11.41 kg hour-1. Threshing by beating produced the cleanest material with the fewest fissures. The percentage of broken fruits was similar for the three threshing systems. Winnowing produced the lowest seed loss (92.3% recovery and the highest index of removal of inert material (78.1%. Plant population, harvest method, threshing system, and post-harvest handling did not affect the physical and physiological quality of coriander seed. Average germination was 92%, and plant vigor, measured as the speed of emergence index, was, on average, 8 seedlings day-1. Average seed moisture was 11.9%.

  7. AN EXPERIENCE OF HANDLING MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION OF PRODUCT WATER AT A HAEMODIALYSIS UNIT IN NORTH KARNATAKA OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Aravindrao Dambal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dialysis units need regular prophylactic disinfection of the dialysis water production and distribution circuit without which there can be chronic inflammation among patients using the facility. The aim of the study is to present here our experience in containing an episode of microbial contamination of dialysis water. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our haemodialysis unit had a single pass reverse osmosis plant with facility for pretreatment of raw water and a distribution loop of medical grade PVC (polyvinyl chloride feeding haemodialysis machines, bicarbonate preparation and dialyser reprocessing areas. After installation, the Reverse Osmosis (RO membranes and distribution loop were disinfected every fortnight using formalin. Cultures of product water were sent from various sites in the product water loop every month. RESULTS From January to April 2011, 15 water samples out of 52 water samples grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a colony count over 200 Colony-Forming Units (CFU. The average monthly number of haemodialysis was reduced from 84.75 to 65. Two patients had intradialytic pyrexia and two others had mild lower respiratory infection. So, the reverse osmosis plant and product water distribution system were repeatedly disinfected using 2% formalin and 1% bleach ensuring contact time and thorough rinsing to address persistent cultures. When these measures could not eradicate microbial growth, the system was sanitised with Gramicid (48% w/w H2O2 + 500 ppm Ag and all traces of the disinfectant were rinsed away before resuming haemodialysis. CONCLUSION The microbial contamination of dialysis water was eradicated by Gramicid and not by bleach or formalin without any adverse effects after thorough rinsing.

  8. Specific corrosion product on interior surface of a bronze wine vessel with loop-handle and its growth mechanism, Shang Dynasty, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yang; Bao Zhirong; Wu Taotao; Jiang, Junchun; Chen Guantao; Pan Chunxu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of specific stalactitic product was found on the interior surface of a covered bronze wine vessel with loop-handle (Chinese name is you), which was fabricated in Shang Dynasty (1700 B.C.–1100 B.C.) and now is collected in Xiaogan Museum, Hubei province of China. The microstructures of the product were characterized systematically by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and Raman microscopy. The experimental results revealed that the product belonged to a kind of malachite with high purity and high crystallinity. The growth of the product was considered to be a possible reason that the vessel was overly airtight within a museum display cabinet besides a lid of the vessel, which made the excess of H 2 O and CO 2 gas concentrations inside the vessel during long-term storage. This corrosion product is very harmful to bronze cultural relics, because of a large amount of copper consumption from the matrix which will reduce its life. The growth mechanism of the specific stalactitic product and the suggestions for preservation of the similar bronze relics in museum were proposed. - Highlights: ► The stalactitic product was the high purity and good crystallinity malachite. ► Its growth was related to the excess of H 2 O and CO 2 gas concentrations in museum. ► It is harmful to the bronzes, because copper will be consumed from the matrix. ► The suggestions for preservation of the similar bronzes in museum were proposed.

  9. Specific corrosion product on interior surface of a bronze wine vessel with loop-handle and its growth mechanism, Shang Dynasty, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yang; Bao Zhirong; Wu Taotao [School of Physics and Technology, Center for Electron Microscopy and MOE Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jiang, Junchun [Xiaogan Museum, Xiaogan 432000 (China); Chen Guantao [Center for Archaeometry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Pan Chunxu, E-mail: cxpan@whu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, Center for Electron Microscopy and MOE Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Center for Archaeometry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2012-06-15

    In this paper, a kind of specific stalactitic product was found on the interior surface of a covered bronze wine vessel with loop-handle (Chinese name is you), which was fabricated in Shang Dynasty (1700 B.C.-1100 B.C.) and now is collected in Xiaogan Museum, Hubei province of China. The microstructures of the product were characterized systematically by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and Raman microscopy. The experimental results revealed that the product belonged to a kind of malachite with high purity and high crystallinity. The growth of the product was considered to be a possible reason that the vessel was overly airtight within a museum display cabinet besides a lid of the vessel, which made the excess of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} gas concentrations inside the vessel during long-term storage. This corrosion product is very harmful to bronze cultural relics, because of a large amount of copper consumption from the matrix which will reduce its life. The growth mechanism of the specific stalactitic product and the suggestions for preservation of the similar bronze relics in museum were proposed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The stalactitic product was the high purity and good crystallinity malachite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Its growth was related to the excess of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} gas concentrations in museum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is harmful to the bronzes, because copper will be consumed from the matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The suggestions for preservation of the similar bronzes in museum were proposed.

  10. Salmonella spp. isolated from ready-to-eat pasteurized liquid egg produce: thermal resistance, biochemical profile, and fatty acid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 requires that egg products in the U.S. must be pasteurized prior to release into commerce. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for regulating egg products. Salmonellae are infrequently isolated from pasteurized egg products by f...

  11. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Akbari, Mohsen; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding zinc (Zn), cinnamon essential oil (Ci), or their combination in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (8.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens. Significant interactions between Ci and Zn on FCR, EW, EP, or EM were observed ( P hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (as single or combined form) compared to those fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between Ci and Zn on the serum level of glucose and triglycerides as well as plasma concentration of zinc ( P hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (together) compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by the combined form of Ci and Zn could have beneficial effects on performance and blood parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  12. Effects of Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz Root Meal in Diets Containing Corn Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles on Production Performance, Egg Quality, and Excreta Noxious Gas Emission in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XJ Lei

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate effects of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz root meal (CRM in laying hen diets containing corn dried distiller grains with soluble (DDGS on production performance, egg quality, and excreta noxious gas emission. Two hundred and forty Hy-Line brown laying hens (40 weeks of age were randomly divided into 1 of 4 dietary treatments (10 replications with 6 hens per replication for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were as follows: 1 corn-based diet (CON; 2 diet containing 10% CRM and 8% DDGS (CRM10; 3 diet containing 20% CRM and 8% DDGS (CRM20; 4 diet containing 30% CRM and 8% DDGS (CRM30. The inclusion of 30% CRM in the diet containing 8% DDGS significantly decreased (p0.05 the egg quality with the exception of decreased (p<0.05 egg yolk color when 30% of CRM was included in laying hens diet. CRM20 and CRM30 dietary treatments tended to decrease ammonia emission compared with CON dietary treatment (p=0.08. In conclusion, the results of the current study demonstrated that CRM may be incorporated to a concentration of 20% in laying hen diets containing 8% DDGS without detrimental effects on production performance and egg quality. Furthermore, the addition of 20% and 30% CRM in laying hen diets containing 8% DDGS tended to reduce the excreta ammonia emission.

  13. Impact of egg disinfection of hatching eggs on the eggshell microbiome and bacterial load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, R.; Kudirkiene, E.; Thofner, I.

    2017-01-01

    Disinfection of hatching eggs is essential to ensure high quality production of broilers. Different protocols are followed in different hatcheries; however, only limited scientific evidence on how the disinfection procedures impact the microbiome is available. The aim of the present study...... was to characterize the microbiome and aerobic bacterial load of hatching eggs before disinfection and during the subsequent disinfection steps. The study included a group of visibly clean and a group of visibly dirty eggs. For dirty eggs, an initial wash in chlorine was performed, hereafter all eggs were submitted...... to two times fumigation and finally spray disinfection. The eggshell microbiome was characterized by sequencing of the total amount of 16S rRNA extracted from each sample, consisting of shell surface swabs of five eggs from the same group. In addition, the number of colony forming units (cfu) under...

  14. Payment for egg donation and surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbock, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This article examines the ethics of egg donation. It begins by looking at objections to noncommercial gamete donation, and then takes up criticism of commercial egg donation. After discussing arguments based on concern for offspring, inequality, commodification, exploitation of donors, and threats to the family, I conclude that some payment to donors is ethically acceptable. Donors should not be paid for their eggs, but rather they should be compensated for the burdens of egg retrieval. Making the distinction between compensation for burdens and payment for a product has the advantages of limiting payment, not distinguishing between donors on the basis of their traits, and ensuring that donors are paid regardless of the number or quality of eggs retrieved.

  15. First Results of a Detection Sensor for the Monitoring of Laying Hens Reared in a Commercial Organic Egg Production Farm Based on the Use of Infrared Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of a monitoring system to identify the presence of laying hens, in a closed room of a free-range commercial organic egg production farm, was the aim of this study. This monitoring system was based on the infrared (IR technology and had, as final target, a possible reduction of atmospheric ammonia levels and bacterial load. Tests were carried out for three weeks and involved 7 ISA (Institut de Sélection Animale brown laying hens. The first 5 days was used to set up the detection sensor, while the other 15 days were used to evaluate the accuracy of the resulting monitoring system, in terms of sensitivity and specificity. The setup procedure included the evaluation of different color background (CB thresholds, used to discriminate the information contents of the thermographic images. At the end of this procedure, a CB threshold equal to an increase of 3 °C from the floor temperature was chosen, and a cutoff level of 196 colored pixels was identified as the threshold to use to classify a positive case. The results of field tests showed that the developed monitoring system reached a fine detection accuracy (sensitivity = 97.9% and specificity = 94.9% and the IR technology proved to be a possible solution for the development of a detection sensor necessary to reach the scope of this study.

  16. First Results of a Detection Sensor for the Monitoring of Laying Hens Reared in a Commercial Organic Egg Production Farm Based on the Use of Infrared Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Redaelli, Veronica; Tirloni, Erica; Bernardi, Cristian; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni

    2016-10-21

    The development of a monitoring system to identify the presence of laying hens, in a closed room of a free-range commercial organic egg production farm, was the aim of this study. This monitoring system was based on the infrared (IR) technology and had, as final target, a possible reduction of atmospheric ammonia levels and bacterial load. Tests were carried out for three weeks and involved 7 ISA (Institut de Sélection Animale) brown laying hens. The first 5 days was used to set up the detection sensor, while the other 15 days were used to evaluate the accuracy of the resulting monitoring system, in terms of sensitivity and specificity. The setup procedure included the evaluation of different color background (CB) thresholds, used to discriminate the information contents of the thermographic images. At the end of this procedure, a CB threshold equal to an increase of 3 °C from the floor temperature was chosen, and a cutoff level of 196 colored pixels was identified as the threshold to use to classify a positive case. The results of field tests showed that the developed monitoring system reached a fine detection accuracy (sensitivity = 97.9% and specificity = 94.9%) and the IR technology proved to be a possible solution for the development of a detection sensor necessary to reach the scope of this study.

  17. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dosanjh, Amrita

    2017-01-01

    Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinica...

  18. Insulin-egg yolk dispersions in self microemulsifying system

    OpenAIRE

    Singnurkar P; Gidwani S

    2008-01-01

    Formulation of insulin into a microemulsion very often presents a physicochemical instability during their preparation and storage. In order to overcome this lack of stability and facilitate the handling of these colloidal systems, stabilization of insulin in presence of hydrophobic components of a microemulsion appears as the most promising strategy. The present paper reports the use of egg yolk for stabilization of insulin in self microemulsifying dispersions. Insulin loaded egg yolk self m...

  19. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  20. Eggs: good or bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.