Sample records for handling cytostatic agents

  1. Intrathecal chemotherapy. Selection of cytostatic agents.

    Hayakawa, T; Yamada, R; Kanai, N; Kuroda, R; Ushio, Y; Higashi, H; Mogami, H


    Selection of cytostatic agents for intrathecal administration is the subject of this paper.Both the toxic side effects-destruction of blood-brain barrier and change of body weight-and the cytostatic effects on intracranially transplanted Yoshida ascites sarcoma were investigated of intrathecal administration of various cytostatic agents. As a result, it may be concluded that Methotrexate and Endoxan and lower dose of mitomycin C are suitable drugs for intrathecal chemotherapy.Based on these findings, clinical cases of malignant brain tumours were treated with intrathecal chemotherapy.Grateful acknowledgement is made to Professor Dennosuke Jinnai for his constant interest and guidance in this investigation.

  2. Assessment of genotoxic effects in nurses handling cytostatic drugs.

    Ladeira, C; Viegas, S; Pádua, M; Gomes, M; Carolino, E; Gomes, M C; Brito, M


    Several antineoplastic drugs have been classified as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) on the basis of epidemiological findings, animal carcinogenicity data, and outcomes of in vitro genotoxicity studies. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), which is easily absorbed through the skin, is the most frequently used antineoplastic agent in Portuguese hospitals and therefore may be used as an indicator of surface contamination. The aims of the present investigation were to (1) examine surface contamination by 5-FU and (2) assess the genotoxic risk using cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in nurses from two Portuguese hospitals. The study consisted of 2 groups: 27 nurses occupationally exposed to cytostatic agents (cases) and 111 unexposed individuals (controls). Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were collected in order to measure micronuclei (MN) in both groups. Hospital B showed a higher numerical level of contamination but not significantly different from Hospital A. However; Hospital A presented the highest value of contamination and also a higher proportion of contaminated samples. The mean frequency of MN was significantly higher in exposed workers compared with controls. No significant differences were found among MN levels between the two hospitals. The analysis of confounding factors showed that age is a significant variable in MN frequency occurrence. Data suggest that there is a potential genotoxic damage related to occupational exposure to cytostatic drugs in oncology nurses.

  3. [Interactions of cytostatic agents with other drugs].

    Sauter, C


    With the degree of polypharmacy currently practiced in the field of oncology, there are undoubtedly many drug interactions. In the present study the influence of "non-cytotoxic" drugs on anticancer drugs is discussed, but not the reverse. Not only is the augmentation (reversal of multidrug resistance) or the reduction of antitumor properties of cytotoxic drugs observed, but also cytostatic activities of "non-cytotoxic" drugs themselves. Examples are calmodulin inhibitors such as phenothiazines and tricyclic antidepressants. Interactions may also increase side effects of cytostatic drugs or even neutralize the antitumoral activity. To ensure that interactions are not overlooked, all medicaments being administered should be listed. It is, however, not feasible yet to determine serum concentrations of all the drugs given to the patient. The antitumor activity of supportive care could be evaluated in randomized studies (e.g. cytostatic drugs +/- antidepressants).

  4. [Extravasation of cytostatic agents: a serious complication of oncological treatment].

    Alfaro-Rubio, Alberto; Sanmartín, Onofre; Requena, Celia; Llombart, Beatriz; Botella-Estrada, Rafael; Nagore, Eduardo; Serra-Guillén, Carlos; Hueso, Luis; Guillén, Carlos


    The extravasation of cytostatic agents is a known, serious situation that can easily occur and cause chronic, irreversible damage. The incidence of extravasation ranges from 0.1 %-6.5 %, according to different studies. Many cases of extravasation can be prevented by systematizing the administration techniques for cytostatic agents. We present the clinical and histological characteristics of a series of patients with extravasation lesions. Included in the study were all patients treated with chemotherapy who developed localized lesions in the area of the cytostatic injection after extravasation was detected during administration. The patients were studied and followed up for a three-year period, from January 2000 to December 2003, inclusive. We found nine cases of extravasation among the 2,186 patients who were treated with chemotherapy, which represents an incidence of 0.41 %, and 3.4 % of all chemotherapy-induced skin lesions. The cytostatic agent most often involved was vinorelbine, and the most frequent location was the antecubital fossa. The intensity of the lesions made it necessary to delay the next cycle of treatment in 55 % of the cases. The histological findings varied depending on when the biopsy was done, showing panniculitis with low cellularity together with epidermal lesions attributable to direct cytotoxicity. The best treatment for extravasation is prevention, but when it has already occurred, measures vary depending on the cytostatic drug extravasated and the intensity of the lesions. Conservative measures are advisable before surgery.

  5. [Holter monitoring of patients treated with cytostatic agents].

    Kozáková, M; Beńesová, E; Cieslar, P; Sálková, J


    After cytostatic treatment severe arrhythmias, the development of angina pectoris and even the development of acute myocardial infarction and sudden death were observed. Therefore we made in 42 patients with malignant haematological disease treated with cytostatics 96 Holter monitorings of the electrocardiographic signal. The monitoring was made during the administration of cytostatics as well as during the time interval between the administration of combinations of cytostatics. In both instances (during the administration and during the interval between administration) we recorded a surprisingly high, mean all-day as well as maximal, heart rate. In the group monitored during administration of chemotherapeutic drugs we observed 5-8 hours after administration of cytostatics serious ventricular arrhythmias [incl. ventricular tachycardia], denivelization of the ST segment, paroxysms of supraventricular tachycardia. In the group monitored during the interval between administration of cytostatics the sick-sinus syndrome was recorded, as well as a passive nodal rhythm, disorders of the intraventricular conduction. The described changes are explained by the release of vasoactive substances after administration of cytostatics, by a change of the transmembrane calcium transport leading to an increased excitability of the heart muscle and possibly to coronary spasms and direct irreversible damage of the conduction system.

  6. Use of personal protective equipment under occupational exposure to cytostatics

    Sylwia Krzemińska; Małgorzata Pośniak; Małgorzata Szewczyńska


    Background: A growing number of cancer cases enhances the usage of cytostatic agents and thereby contributes to the increase in the number of health care workers occupationally exposed to cytostatics. Material and Methods: This article presents the results of the survey aimed at obtaining data on the reduction of occupational exposure through using personal protective equipment by the medical and pharmaceutical personnel involved in handling cytostatics. The questionnaires were sent by mail o...

  7. Correlation between size and external temperature of the ISIS 130 tumour after treatment with cytostatic agents.

    Nickers, P; Oosters, L; Brasseur, F; Deckers-Passau, L; Maisin, H; Deckers, C


    The reduction in size of the experimental ISIS 130 tumour has been investigated in LOU rats under the influence of increasing doses of cytostatic agents belonging to different classes. External temperatures of tumours as well as rectal temperatures have been measured at the same time, twice daily, during the whole experiment. The greater the decrease in the tumour size after drug administration, the larger was the decrease in external temperature of tumour. The rectal temperatures remained fairly stable, thus differences between the tumour and rectal temperatures increased. A possible correlation between the reduction of tumour size and the decrease of external temperature of tumour has been traced for every cytostatic agent, and the same linear relationship has been found to link these two parameters. The decrease in external temperature of tumour may, moreover, predict the decrease in tumour size within a term of 1-2 days. Measurement of the magnitude of the transient tumour hypothermia of ISIS 130, following chemotherapy, would represent a new method for measuring the efficiency and duration of action of cytostatic agents.

  8. Correlation between size and external temperature in four rat tumours after treatment with cytostatic agents.

    Nickers, P; Oosters, L; Brasseur, F; Kunkler, I; Maisin, H; Deckers, C


    The reduction in size of four experimental tumours (ISIS 130 and ISIS 208 immunocytomas, S 437 mammary adenocarcinoma, S 447 colon adenocarcinoma) was investigated in LOU rats under the influence of cytostatic agents belonging to different classes (5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, vinblastine, cisplatin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide). External tumour and rectal temperatures were measured at the same time, twice daily, during the whole experiment. With the rectal temperature of the rats kept constant, the reduction in tumour dimensions following chemotherapy correlated via a linear relationship with the duration and degree of tumour hypothermia for the three tumours S 437, ISIS 208, ISIS 130. However, for the same reduction in tumour volume following chemotherapy, the duration and degree of transient tumour hypothermia varied according to the type of tumour and cytostatic agent studied. There was not correlation between the decrease in size of S 447 and external tumour hypothermia. Even when the reduction in tumour size was statistically significant, the hypothermic tumour phase after drug administration was not sufficient to be significant, except for vinblastine. However, the temperature of this slowly growing tumour before chemotherapy was particularly low. The measurement of the degree and duration of external tumour hypothermia of tumours following chemotherapy would represent a new physiological technique for measuring the efficacy and duration of action of cytostatic agents.

  9. Using serum CA125 to assess the activity of potential cytostatic agents in ovarian cancer.

    Hall, Marcia R; Petruckevitch, Ann; Pascoe, Joanna; Persic, Mojca; Tahir, Saad; Morgan, Jamie S; Gourley, Charlie; Stuart, Nick; Crawford, S Michael; Kornbrot, Diana E; Qian, Wendi; Rustin, Gordon J


    New strategies are required to rapidly identify novel cytostatic agents before embarking on large randomized trials. This study investigates whether a change in rate of rise (slope) of serum CA125 from before to after starting a novel agent could be used to identify cytostatic agents. Tamoxifen was used to validate this hypothesis. Asymptomatic patients with relapsed ovarian cancer who had responded to chemotherapy were enrolled and had CA125 measurements taken every 4 weeks, then more frequently when rising. Once levels reached 4 times the upper limit of normal or nadir, they started continuous tamoxifen 20 mg daily, as well as fortnightly CA125 measurements until symptomatic progression. Because of the potentially nonlinear relationship of CA125 over time, it was felt that to enable normal approximations to be utilized a natural logarithmic standard transformation [ln(CA125)] was the most suitable to improve linearity above the common logarithmic transformation to base 10. From 235 recruited patients, 81 started tamoxifen and had at least 4 CA125 measurements taken before and 4 CA125 measurements taken after starting tamoxifen, respectively. The mean regression slopes from using at least 4 1n(CA125) measurements immediately before and after starting tamoxifen were 0·0149 and 0·0093 [ln(CA125)/d], respectively. This difference is statistically significant, P = 0·001. Therefore, in a future trial with a novel agent, at least as effective as tamoxifen, using this effect size, the number of evaluable patients needed, at significance level of 5% and power of 80%, is 56. Further validation of this methodology is required, but there is potential to use comparison of mean regression slopes of ln(CA125) as an interim analysis measure of efficacy for novel cytostatic agents in relapsed ovarian cancer.

  10. Strategies of reducing the carcinogenic risk of cytostatic agents on the basis of bioassay evaluation.

    Berger, M R


    This article described strategies that can be used to reduce the carcinogenic risk of cytostatic chemotherapy and summarizes our recent experimental results. Reduction of neoplasms caused by the carcinogenic potency inherent in cytostatic agents can be obtained. (A) by chemical modifications such as: (1) exchanging a chlorine atom in N, N'-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea (BCNU) in the chloroethyl group at N'-position for a hydroxyl group to form the less carcinogenic analog N-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N-nitrosourea (HECNU); (2) linking chlorambucil to the steroid prednisolone to obtain a conjugate (prednimustine) with distinctly lower carcinogenic potential than chlorambucil; (3) progressive ring halogenation of phenyl-triazenes to generate agents with decreased long-term toxic risk; (B) by replacing cyclophosphamide within the carcinogenic drug combination of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) by vincristine to form the combination VMF which has no detectable carcinogenic potential; (C) by coadministration of cyclophosphamide and mesna to achieve a dose-related reduction of cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder carcinomas; (D) by administration of dinaline, a compound which reduces the spontaneous incidence of malignant tumors in rats. These examples demonstrate that the carcinogenic risk of single agents and drug combinations used for antineoplastic chemotherapy has successfully been reduced, as assessed in long-term bioassays. Such strategies should be considered in the treatment of patients with long life expectancy following cytotoxic chemotherapy.

  11. [Nephrotoxicity evaluation of cytostatic agents in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Tomaszewska, B; Zoch-Zwierz, W M


    Urinary excretion of the markers of tubular nephrotoxicity, total NAG and isoenzymes A and B and B-2-M, were evaluated in urine of 21 children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia after the first injection of cytostatic administrated according to the BFM scheme: VCR + Rub, L-aspa, CY, Ara-C. Every administrated drug caused temporary elevation in urinary excretion of total NAG and isoenzyme B and B-2-M. GFR was unchanged. These results point to nephrotoxicity of cytostatics. Peak total NAG, isoenzyme B and B-2-M excretion was observed on the third day after L-aspa and Ara-C injection.

  12. [Selective toxicity of cytostatic agents: studies on the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin, its pathogenesis and contraindications].

    Lenzhofer, R


    In the past few years the medical treatment of malignant diseases has steadily increased in scope and importance. However, the tumor regimens described in the textbooks still are rather schematic recommendations, which are inadequately tailored to the needs of the individual case. Current tumor therapy is based on the results of the statistical analysis using empirical data collected in randomized trials. While patients can today be given a statistical value which expresses their computed chance of a cure versus that of a defined population, there is still no generally valid method which could serve as a rational basis for individualized counselling. But cytostatic chemotherapy has yet another major shortcoming: the collective assessment of toxicity, which is related to one of the basic properties of cytostatic drugs, i.e. their extremely low therapeutic index. Many of the side effects of cytostatics may cause severe irreversible, at times even fatal, organ dysfunction. Consequently, the definition of the therapeutic risks involved on the basis of an objective identification of potential organ toxicity is a major challenge. "Surgery without a knife", as K.H. Spitzy has called chemotherapy, should be subjected to objective criteria for its indications and contraindications so that patients can truly benefit from what are become increasingly aggressive measures. The principle of weighing the benefits desired in the individual case against the potential risks involved in a specific treatment, which Paul Ehrlich postulated for antibacterial chemotherapy, should also be applied to cytostatic chemotherapy with a view to facilitating the decision for or against therapy in borderline cases. The present contribution which is designed to shed light on the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin should be interpreted in light of this situation. Pathogenetic aspects and animal experiments on drug-induced lipid peroxidation will be discussed and clinical trials on both acute and chronic

  13. Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer: new cytostatic agents.

    Sorensen, J B


    The literature on new cytostatic drugs in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and on new methods for administration of established drugs has been reviewed back to 1985. Two well-known cytostatic drugs, ifosfamide and etoposide, have been evaluated in trials using oral administration instead of the usual intravenous route, and a total of 26 new investigative drugs has also been evaluated. Oral administration of etoposide is associated with an accumulated response rate of 17% in four studies using a dose of 50 mg/m2 daily for 2-3 weeks, followed by 1 week's rest. Oral administration of ifosfamide yields an accumulated response rate of 18% when the dose intensity is 7 g or more during a 4-week period. Among the new drugs tested, the most promising seem to be campthothecin-11, gemcitabine, vinorelbine, taxol, fotemustine, and zeniplatin which have all shown response rates above 20% among previously untreated patients. Also, the antimetabolites 10-EDAM and trimetrexate and the platinum analogues carboplatin and (glycolate-0,0) diammine-platinum(II) are of interest, with cumulative response rates above 15% in previously untreated patients.

  14. [Changes in blood lymphocytes and their subpopulation in patients with myeloblastic leukemia treated with cytostatic agents].

    Urasiński, I; Proniewska, M; Schumacher, K


    Quantitative determinations of lymphocytas were done in the active period of the disease, immediately after treatment by the COAP schedule and during remission. In 6 patients the determinations were done several times during 20 weeks of maintenance treatment. It was found that independently of the stage of the disease the absolute lymphocyte count and the counts of B and T populations were low, while that of lymphocyte O population was raised. It was observed that the reduced count concerned all 4 subclasses of lymphocytes B, that is those with surface receptors for IgA, IgM, IgG and IgE immunoglobulins. In remission the values of lymphocytes and their T and B subpopulations increased, failing, however, to reach the normal values. This rise was more pronounced in the case of lymphocytes T. Lymphocyte depression in these patients is explained by the authors as due mainly to intensive cytostatic treatment.

  15. [Resistance to cytostatic agents in patients with refractory multiple myeloma and possible ways to control it].

    Adam, Z; Vorlícek, J


    At present several mechanisms responsible for the resistance of tumour cells to cytostatics are known. Most explored is the resistance conditioned by glycoprotein-P. Under laboratory conditions it proved possible to inhibit the resistance caused by glycoprotein-P by many substances which, however, on clinical administration have serious adverse side-effects. In practice verapamil was used, its effect was most marked in haematological malignant diseases. Side-effects of verapamil, however, do not permit to attain the necessary concentration. Obviously better results will be achieved by cyclosporin A which can attain a concentration in the organism which is necessary to inhibit glycoprotein-P without serious undesirable consequences. In the submitted paper the author reviews clinical studies concerned with possible inhibition of glycoprotein-P in patients with refractory myeloma.

  16. Changes in the antitumour effect of some cytostatic agents applied under conditions of morphine-induced hyperthermia.

    Ovtcharov, R; Mircheva, Y; Yakimova, K; Stoichkov, Y


    The effect of the cytostatic agents bleomycetin, vincristine and methotrexate on the growth of the Lewis lung carcinoma was investigated under conditions of normothermia and morphine-induced hyperthermia. Morphine was administered 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 days after the tumour transplantation (in a single of 20 mg/kg), 75 min prior to the administration of bleomycetin (in a single dose of 2 mg/kg), vincristine (in a single dose of 0.3 mg/kg) and methotrexate (in a single dose of 5 mg/kg). The therapeutic effect was assessed on the 24th hour after the end of the treatment through determining the tumour growth inhibition. The administration of morphine to mice was found to be accompanied by the development of a hyperthermal reaction, with a maximum between the 90th and 120th min after the treatment, the change in the rectal temperature of the animals being of the order of 2.2 +/- 0.14 degrees C. Hyperthermia potentiates the effect of the antitumour antibiotic bleomycetin which, unlike bleomycin, does not manifest a threshold effect of interaction with the hyperthermia. Temperatures of the order of 40 degrees C are found to result in sensitization of the relatively resistant cells of the Lewis lung carcinoma to the antitumour effect of vincristine. Hyperthermia did not affect the activity of methotrexate. The analysis of the data obtained suggests that morphine-induced hyperthermia is a convenient model in mice for testing the behaviour of the cytostatic agents under conditions of increased temperature.

  17. Use of personal protective equipment under occupational exposure to cytostatics

    Sylwia Krzemińska


    Full Text Available Background: A growing number of cancer cases enhances the usage of cytostatic agents and thereby contributes to the increase in the number of health care workers occupationally exposed to cytostatics. Material and Methods: This article presents the results of the survey aimed at obtaining data on the reduction of occupational exposure through using personal protective equipment by the medical and pharmaceutical personnel involved in handling cytostatics. The questionnaires were sent by mail or e-mail to oncology hospitals and pharmacies preparing cytostatic drugs. Responses were received from 94 people employed in these workplaces. The main questions concerned the forms of cytostatics; job activities; types of personal protective equipment used and working time under exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Results: The majority (over 90% of the healthcare personnel declared the use of personal protective equipment when working under conditions of exposure to cytostatic drugs. Depending on the type of protection, 15–35% of people reported that the most frequent time of their single use of the apron, the overalls, the gloves, the cap, the goggles or the respirators did not exceed few minutes. Gloves were changed most frequently. However, half of the responses indicated that the time after which the respondents removed protection equipment greatly differed. Conclusions: Almost the whole group of respondents applied personal protective equipment when working under exposure to cytostatics. However, personal protective equipment was not used every time in case of exposure. The medical and pharmaceutical staff worked under exposure to cytostatics for a few or even dozen hours during the working day. Med Pr 2016;67(4:499–508

  18. Drugs targeting the mitochondrial pore act as citotoxic and cytostatic agents in temozolomide-resistant glioma cells

    Benvenuti Lucia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High grade gliomas are one of the most difficult cancers to treat and despite surgery, radiotherapy and temozolomide-based chemotherapy, the prognosis of glioma patients is poor. Resistance to temozolomide is the major barrier to effective therapy. Alternative therapeutic approaches have been shown to be ineffective for the treatment of genetically unselected glioma patients. Thus, novel therapies are needed. Mitochondria-directed chemotherapy is an emerging tool to combat cancer, and inner mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT represents a target for the development of cytotoxic drugs. A number of agents are able to induce MPT and some of them target MPT-pore (MPTP components that are selectively up-regulated in cancer, making these agents putative cancer cell-specific drugs. Objective The aim of this paper is to report a comprehensive analysis of the effects produced by selected MPT-inducing drugs (Betulinic Acid, Lonidamine, CD437 in a temozolomide-resistant glioblastoma cell line (ADF cells. Methods EGFRvIII expression has been assayed by RT-PCR. EGFR amplification and PTEN deletion have been assayed by differential-PCR. Drugs effect on cell viability has been tested by crystal violet assay. MPT has been tested by JC1 staining. Drug cytostatic effect has been tested by mitotic index analysis. Drug cytotoxic effect has been tested by calcein AM staining. Apoptosis has been assayed by Hoechst incorporation and Annexine V binding assay. Authophagy has been tested by acridine orange staining. Results We performed a molecular and genetic characterization of ADF cells and demonstrated that this line does not express the EGFRvIII and does not show EGFR amplification. ADF cells do not show PTEN mutation but differential PCR data indicate a hemizygous deletion of PTEN gene. We analyzed the response of ADF cells to Betulinic Acid, Lonidamine, and CD437. Our data demonstrate that MPT-inducing agents produce concentration

  19. In search of a cytostatic agent derived from the alkaloid lycorine: synthesis and growth inhibitory properties of lycorine derivatives.

    Evdokimov, Nikolai M; Lamoral-Theys, Delphine; Mathieu, Véronique; Andolfi, Anna; Frolova, Liliya V; Pelly, Stephen C; van Otterlo, Willem A L; Magedov, Igor V; Kiss, Robert; Evidente, Antonio; Kornienko, Alexander


    As a continuation of our studies aimed at the development of a new cytostatic agent derived from an Amaryllidaceae alkaloid lycorine, we synthesized 32 analogues of this natural product. This set of synthetic analogues included compounds incorporating selective derivatization of the C1 versus C2 hydroxyl groups, aromatized ring C, lactamized N6 nitrogen, dihydroxylated C3-C3a olefin functionality, transposed olefin from C3-C3a to C2-C3 or C3a-C4, and C1 long-chain fatty esters. All synthesized compounds were evaluated for antiproliferative activities in vitro in a panel of tumor cell lines including those exhibiting resistance to proapoptotic stimuli and representing solid cancers associated with dismal prognoses, such as melanoma, glioblastoma, and non-small-cell lung cancer. Most active analogues were not discriminatory between cancer cells displaying resistance or sensitivity to apoptosis, indicating that these compounds are thus able to overcome the intrinsic resistance of cancer cells to pro-apoptotic stimuli. 1,2-Di-O-allyllycorine was identified as a lycorine analogue, which is 100 times more potent against a U373 human glioblastoma model than the parent natural product. Furthermore, a number of synthetic analogues were identified as promising for the forthcoming in vivo studies.

  20. Drotaverine - a Concealed Cytostatic!

    Pavel, Ioana Z; Heller, Lucie; Sommerwerk, Sven; Loesche, Anne; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Csuk, René


    Drotaverine (also known as dihydroperparine or No-Spa(®) ) is an antispasmodic drug closely related to papaverin. Drotaverin also acts as a cytostatic compound for several human tumor cell lines and nonmalignant mouse fibroblasts, and EC50 values as low as 3.0 μM were observed in SRB assays for HT-29 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Small structural changes (e.g., aromatization, benzylic oxidation) led to a reduced activity or a complete loss of cytotoxicity. Staining of the cells with acridine orange showed the cell membrane of the dead cells to be still intact, and a slight G1/G0 arrest in the treated cells was observed after 24 h. Extra annexin V-FITC/PI assays and flow cytometry revealed drotaverine mainly to act as a cytostatic and only to a minor extent as cytotoxic agent.

  1. Wittig Derivatization of Sesquiterpenoid Polygodial Leads to Cytostatic Agents with Activity Against Drug Resistant Cancer Cells and Capable of Pyrrolylation of Primary Amines

    Dasari, Ramesh; De Carvalho, Annelise; Medellin, Derek C.; Middleton, Kelsey N.; Hague, Frédéric; Volmar, Marie N. M.; Frolova, Liliya V.; Rossato, Mateus F.; De La Chapa, Jorge J.; Dybdal-Hargreaves, Nicholas F.; Pillai, Akshita; Kälin, Roland E.; Mathieu, Véronique; Rogelj, Snezna; Gonzales, Cara B.; Calixto, João B.; Evidente, Antonio; Gautier, Mathieu; Munirathinam, Gnanasekar; Glass, Rainer; Burth, Patricia; Pelly, Stephen C.; van Otterlo, Willem A. L.; Kiss, Robert; Kornienko, Alexander


    Many types of cancer, including glioma, melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), among others, are resistant to proapoptotic stimuli and thus poorly responsive to current therapies based on the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. The current investigation describes the synthesis and anticancer evaluation of unique C12-Wittig derivatives of polygodial, a terpenenoid dialdehyde isolated from Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delabre. These compounds were found to undergo an unprecedented pyrrole formation with primary amines in a chemical model system, a reaction that could be relevant in the biological environment and lead to the pyrrolation of lysine residues in the target proteins. The anticancer evaluation of these compounds revealed their promising activity against cancer cells displaying various forms of drug resistance, including resistance to proapoptotic agents. Mechanistic studies indicated that compared to the parent polygodial, which displays fixative general cytotoxic action against human cells, the C12-Wittig derivatives exerted their antiproliferative action mainly through cytostatic effects explaining their activity against apoptosis-resistant cancer cells. The possibility for an intriguing covalent modification of proteins through a novel pyrrole formation reaction, as well as useful activities against drug resistant cancer cells, make the described polygodial-derived chemical scaffold an interesting new chemotype warranting thorough investigation. PMID:26360047

  2. [Extravasation of cytostatic drugs].

    Pikó, Béla; Puskásné Szatmári, Klára; Bassam, Ali; Csiffári, Margit; Dimák, Sándor; Szabó, Zsolt; Ocsai, Henriette; Csotye, János


    Paravasation of cytostatic drugs during peripheral intravenous administration is a well known complication. In the United States of America it occurs in seven percent of cases with different severity and consequences. Although methods to completely avoid this complication are still unavailable, we are able to decrease the risks by identifying the patient- and procedure-related factors. The educated patient is a good indicator of paravasation in case he or she can cooperate and call the nurse. When the patient is unable to cooperate, the risks of extravasation is higher and closer nursing surveillance is indicated. The extent of injury depends mainly on the chemical structure of the extravasant substance (vesicant, irritant or non-vesicant) which may be modified by other factors. There is no strong evidence-based guidance for the management of complication. Abrupt cessation of the infusion and drawing back on the inserted venous catheter as well as elevating and resting the affected limb are necessary measures. In the available literature cooling or warming of the affected area is controversial. Similarly there are still open questions regarding the value of using antidotes as dexrazoxane, dimethylsulfoxide, thiosulfate and hyaluronidase (which is not registered as medicament in Hungary). In the event of extravasation early multidisciplinary dermatological and surgical assessment is essential for definitive diagnosis and setting the optimal management.

  3. The chemical reactivity of BNP7787 and its metabolite mesna with the cytostatic agent cisplatin: comparison with the nucleophiles thiosulfate, DDTC, glutathione and its disulfide GSSG.

    Verschraagen, M.; Kedde, MA; Hausheer, FH; Vijgh, van der W.J.F.


    PURPOSE: BNP7787 is a new chemoprotective agent presently under clinical investigation to protect against cisplatin-induced toxicities, especially nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. In the kidneys BNP7787 is postulated to undergo selective conversion into mesna, which can locally detoxify cisplatin.

  4. The chemical reactivity of BNP7787 and its metabolite mesna with the cytostatic agent cisplatin: comparison with the nucleophiles thiosulfate, DDTC, glutathione and its disulfide GSSG.

    Verschraagen, M.; Kedde, MA; Hausheer, FH; Vijgh, van der W.J.F.


    PURPOSE: BNP7787 is a new chemoprotective agent presently under clinical investigation to protect against cisplatin-induced toxicities, especially nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. In the kidneys BNP7787 is postulated to undergo selective conversion into mesna, which can locally detoxify cisplatin.

  5. Safe handling and administration considerations of oral anticancer agents in the clinical and home setting.

    Lester, Joanne


    The use of hormonal, chemotherapeutic, and targeted biologic oral agents has exponentially increased since the early 2000s. Oral therapies have the advantage of persistent exposure of the cytotoxic drug to tumor cells and the tumor environment. The use of oral anticancer agents provides therapeutic drug treatment for patients with cancer in the comfort of their home or alternative settings, such as retirement homes and assisted living or extended-care facilities. Practices to ensure safe storage, handling, administration, and disposal of oral agents are necessary to prevent additional exposure of hazardous substances to the environment, professionals, patients, family members, and caretakers. Providers should consider potential barriers to adherence and compliance, and develop strategies to ensure optimal therapeutic benefit prior to initiation of oral agents.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Cypriot nurses on the handling of antineoplastic agents.

    Kyprianou, Maro; Kapsou, Margarita; Raftopoulos, Vasilios; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S


    Antineoplastic agents have been associated with major concerns among health professionals. The objective of our study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Cypriot nurses on their exposure to antineoplastic agents. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was distributed among oncology nurses in three hospitals in Nicosia. The questionnaire was originally compiled by Turk et al., in order to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and safe behaviours of nurses' handling cytotoxic drugs and was translated from Turkish to Greek by two bilingual volunteers. A total of 88 nurses participated in the survey (20 male and 68 female). The mean age of the nurses was 33 years (age range 21-60). The majority of nurses were aware of the potential hazards associated with handling of chemotherapy. The mean score of the participants' knowledge was 79.43 out of 100. Most of the participants reported high levels of compliance with the use of personal protective equipment such as gloves and protective gown (95.4%, and 84.5%) during reconstitution of antineoplastic agents, respectively. Almost all nurses (98.8%) reported use of a safety cabinet during preparation, however only 53.4% reported that they have annual medical checkups and only 33% reported having received specialized training. While the level of knowledge about antineoplastic agents is high among nurses, along with the level of personal protective equipment use, medical surveillance and employee training seems to be lagging behind. Further research may help us identify the reasons for such discrepancy.

  7. Study of Cytostatic and Cytotoxic Activity of Several Polyphenolic Extracts Obtained from Vitis vinifera

    Ancuta NECHITA


    Full Text Available The study of polyphenolic extracts from skins, seeds, grape pomace and lees is justified by the huge amount of information from specialized literature, drawing attention to the many pharmacological effects of these biomolecules. The concentrated vegetal extracts obtained from seeds, skins, grape pomace and lees (yeast deposit after fermentation were characterized according to their content of total polyphenols, anthocyanins, dry matter, ash and pH. The biological material used in the in vitro testing experiments in order to study cytostatic and cytotoxic effects were stabilized cultures of HeLa cancer cells, uncontaminated with mycoplasma and derived from a human uterine cervix carcinoma. Another action of the cytostatic substances could be exerted upon the cell proliferation process. The cell division process of the HeLa cell cultures treated with seeds by-product showed remarkable quantitative changes. The study has also evidenced a great number of dead cells in the composition of the treated HeLa cell cultures, their existence pointing out that the bioactive agent induced a major decrease of the cells viability. The obtained results in the context of the complex evaluation of the in vitro antitumoral property of the extracts, obtained from seeds, skins, grape pomace and wine lees from the ‘Arcaş’ grape variety, on HeLa cells cultures, have demonstrated the significant cytostatic and cytotoxic potential of the seeds polyphenolic biopreparate. The results obtained show that polyphenolic extracts from Vitis vinifera seeds act as cytostatic and cytotoxic agents.


    Cosmin Mihai


    model, intensity and type of electromagnetic field, exposure time, metabolic state and type of the exposed cells. This primary characterization of the low intensity and frequency fields as cytostatic agent justifies the study of their effect upon cell proliferation and viability in order to enlarge the reasoning basis for the introduction of this physical agent in the in vivo antitumoral screening program on different experimental tumoral systems.

  9. Handling Disruptions in Supply Chains: An Integrated Framework and an Agent-based Model

    Behdani, B.


    The degree of supply chain risk faced by many companies has risen dramatically and the impact of disruptions can cascade easily across companies’ and countries’ borders. To handle this increased vulnerability, systematic approaches and decision making tools are needed to provide support in managing

  10. Evidence of exposure to cytostatic drugs in healthcare staff: a review of recent literature

    Pablo Martín Lancharro


    Full Text Available Objective: Provide updated evidence and learn about the actions that must be implemented in order to prevent the occupational exposure to cytostatic drugs. Method: A bibliographic search was carried out on the MEDLINE, COCHRANE PLUS and WEB OF SCIENCE databases, with the terms “surface contamination”, “cytostatic drug”, “drug preparation”, “occupational exposure”, “safe handling” and “closed-system transfer device”, within the 2010-2015 period. Results: Thirteen articles were selected for review. These articles are from hospitals in U.S.A., Canada, Japan, Australia, Spain, Portugal and Germany. In all of them, surface contamination by cytostatic agents was found in over 15 different surfaces, with concentrations ranging from 1.69 ng/cm2 to 4-784 μg/cm2. The specific drugs were cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, paclitaxel, cisplatin, gemcitabine, and docetaxel. Closed-system transfer devices can reduce the contamination in work surfaces significantly, but do not eliminate it. Conclusions: Presence of contamination by cytostatic drugs was confirmed in many hospitals across all 5 continents. In all cases, contamination was found in the cabinet, on the floor in front of the cabinet, and in other places of the Hospital Pharmacy. The drug most frequently found was cyclophosphamide. The most effective action used to reduce contamination was the closed-system transfer devices (CSTDs.

  11. Handling uncertainty of resource division in multi agent system using game against nature

    Skrzypczyk Krzysztof


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of resource division for robotic agents in the framework of Multi-Agent System. Knowledge of the environment represented in the system is uncertain, incomplete and distributed among the individual agents that have both limited sensing and communication abilities. The pick-up-and-collection problem is considered in order to illustrate the idea presented. In this paper a framework for cooperative task assignment to individual agents is discussed. The process of negotiating access to common resources by intercommunicating agents is modeled and solved as a game against Nature. The working of the proposed system was verified by multiple simulations. Selected, exemplary simulations are presented in the paper to illustrate the approach discussed

  12. Safety aspects in biotechnology. Classifications and safety precautions for handling of biological agents.

    Frommer, W; Krämer, P


    The term "biotechnology" is today used much more widely than 10 years ago. According to the modern definition, biotechnology represents the "conveyor belt" which brings advances in the fields of molecular biology, cell biology, molecular genetics, microbiology, biochemistry and process engineering, etc., into the areas of application. It is attempted to indicate the development of safety standards concerning biotechnology. This development is in a state of flux, and the finding that the risks in handling r-DNA organisms are not larger than those arising when handling the known pathogens is becoming more accepted. Accordingly, these r-DNA organisms can also be classified into the known risk groups I-IV and handled under the corresponding safety conditions according to this classification: In the laboratory under the laboratory safety measures L1-L4 described in the BMFT-Guidelines or guidelines for occupational health and hygiene (UVV Biotechnologie) and on a process scale under the process safety measures described in the OECD report. The discussion of aspects on waste disposal, education/training and public perception in the field of biological safety completes the report.

  13. Hypercalcaemia of malignancy: evidence for a nonparathyroid humoral agent with an effect on renal tubular handling of calcium.

    Ralston, S H; Fogelman, I; Gardner, M D; Dryburgh, F J; Cowan, R A; Boyle, I T


    The renal handling of calcium was examined in 31 patients with hypercalcaemia of malignancy. Results were compared with those from patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, and normal controls rendered hypercalcaemic by calcium infusion. On relating the urinary calcium excretion indices to serum calcium values, inappropriately low rates of urinary calcium excretion were generally found in patients with malignancy associated hypercalcaemia. Further, the pattern of urinary calcium excretion in these subjects was similar to that found in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. These observations suggest that, in many solid tumours, the development of hypercalcaemia may be attributable to a humoral mediator with a parathyroid hormone-like effect on renal tubular calcium reabsorption. The relatively frequent occurrence of hypercalcaemia in malignant disease thus may be partially explained by the presence of this humoral agent, which may impair the renal excretion of an increase in filtered calcium load, whether due to bone metastases, or humorally mediated osteolysis.

  14. The effects of handling and anesthetic agents on the stress response and carbohydrate metabolism in northern elephant seals.

    Cory D Champagne

    Full Text Available Free-ranging animals often cope with fluctuating environmental conditions such as weather, food availability, predation risk, the requirements of breeding, and the influence of anthropogenic factors. Consequently, researchers are increasingly measuring stress markers, especially glucocorticoids, to understand stress, disturbance, and population health. Studying free-ranging animals, however, comes with numerous difficulties posed by environmental conditions and the particular characteristics of study species. Performing measurements under either physical restraint or chemical sedation may affect the physiological variable under investigation and lead to values that may not reflect the standard functional state of the animal. This study measured the stress response resulting from different handling conditions in northern elephant seals and any ensuing influences on carbohydrate metabolism. Endogenous glucose production (EGP was measured using [6-(3H]glucose and plasma cortisol concentration was measured from blood samples drawn during three-hour measurement intervals. These measurements were conducted in weanlings and yearlings with and without the use of chemical sedatives--under chemical sedation, physical restraint, or unrestrained. We compared these findings with measurements in adult seals sedated in the field. The method of handling had a significant influence on the stress response and carbohydrate metabolism. Physically restrained weanlings and yearlings transported to the lab had increased concentrations of circulating cortisol (F(11, 46 = 25.2, p<0.01 and epinephrine (F(3, 12 = 5.8, p = 0.01. Physical restraint led to increased EGP (t = 3.1, p = 0.04 and elevated plasma glucose levels (t = 8.2, p<0.01. Animals chemically sedated in the field typically did not exhibit a cortisol stress response. The combination of anesthetic agents (Telazol, ketamine, and diazepam used in this study appeared to alleviate a

  15. Albumin-heparin microspheres as carriers for cytostatic agents

    Cremers, H.F.M.; Feijen, J.; Kwon, G.; Bae, Y.H.; Kim, S.W.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; McVie, J.G.


    Much work has been done on adriamycin-loaded albumin microspheres (Alb-MS) for chemoembolization [1–4], the rationale being that site-specific drug delivery may increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Alb-Ms are being investigated because of their biocompatibility and because the degradation

  16. Albumin-heparin microspheres as carriers for cytostatic agents

    Cremers, Harry; Feijen, Jan; Kwon, G.; Bae, Y.H.; Kim, S.W.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Mcvie, J.G.


    Much work has been done on adriamycin-loaded albumin microspheres (Alb-MS) for chemoembolization [1–4], the rationale being that site-specific drug delivery may increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Alb-Ms are being investigated because of their biocompatibility and because the degradation

  17. Removal of cytostatic drugs from aquatic environment: A review

    Zhang, Jiefeng [Division of Environmental and Water Resources, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Chang, Victor W.C., E-mail: [Division of Environmental and Water Resources, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Giannis, Apostolos [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre (R3C), Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Cleantech Loop, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); Wang, Jing-Yuan [Division of Environmental and Water Resources, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre (R3C), Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Cleantech Loop, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore)


    Cytostatic drugs have been widely used for chemotherapy for decades. However, many of them have been categorized as carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic compounds, triggering widespread concerns about their occupational exposure and ecotoxicological risks to the environment. This review focuses on trace presence, fate and ecotoxicity of various cytostatic compounds in the environment, with an emphasis on the major sources contributing to their environmental concentrations. Past records have documented findings mainly on hospital effluents though little effort has been directed to household discharges. There is also a lack in physico-chemical data for forecasting the chemodynamics of cytostatics in natural waters along with its human metabolites and environmental transformation products. In this light, obtaining comprehensive ecotoxicity data is becoming pressingly crucial to determine their actual impacts on the ecosystem. Literature review also reveals urinary excretion as a major contributor to various cytostatic residues appeared in the water cycle. As such, engaging urine source-separation as a part of control strategy holds a rosy prospect of addressing the “emerging” contamination issue. State-of-the-art treatment technologies should be incorporated to further remove cytostatic residues from the source-separating urine stream. The benefits, limitations and trends of development in this domain are covered for membrane bio-reactor, reverse/forward osmosis and advanced oxidation processes. Despite the respective seeming advantages of source separation and treatment technology, a combined strategy may cost-effectively prevent the cytostatic residues from seeping into the environment. However, the combination calls for further evaluation on the associated technological, social-economic and administrative issues at hand. Highlights: ► We review the environmental occurrence, fate and ecotoxicity of cytostatic drugs. ► Four major sources contributing to

  18. Removal of cytostatic drugs from aquatic environment: a review.

    Zhang, Jiefeng; Chang, Victor W C; Giannis, Apostolos; Wang, Jing-Yuan


    Cytostatic drugs have been widely used for chemotherapy for decades. However, many of them have been categorized as carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic compounds, triggering widespread concerns about their occupational exposure and ecotoxicological risks to the environment. This review focuses on trace presence, fate and ecotoxicity of various cytostatic compounds in the environment, with an emphasis on the major sources contributing to their environmental concentrations. Past records have documented findings mainly on hospital effluents though little effort has been directed to household discharges. There is also a lack in physico-chemical data for forecasting the chemodynamics of cytostatics in natural waters along with its human metabolites and environmental transformation products. In this light, obtaining comprehensive ecotoxicity data is becoming pressingly crucial to determine their actual impacts on the ecosystem. Literature review also reveals urinary excretion as a major contributor to various cytostatic residues appeared in the water cycle. As such, engaging urine source-separation as a part of control strategy holds a rosy prospect of addressing the "emerging" contamination issue. State-of-the-art treatment technologies should be incorporated to further remove cytostatic residues from the source-separating urine stream. The benefits, limitations and trends of development in this domain are covered for membrane bio-reactor, reverse/forward osmosis and advanced oxidation processes. Despite the respective seeming advantages of source separation and treatment technology, a combined strategy may cost-effectively prevent the cytostatic residues from seeping into the environment. However, the combination calls for further evaluation on the associated technological, social-economic and administrative issues at hand.

  19. Co-cultivation of Streptomyces californicus and Stachybotrys chartarum stimulates the production of cytostatic compound(s) with immunotoxic properties.

    Penttinen, Piia; Pelkonen, Jukka; Huttunen, Kati; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta


    We have recently shown that the actinobacterium Streptomyces californicus and the fungus Stachybotrys chartarum originating from moisture damaged buildings possess both immunotoxic and immunostimulatory characteristics, which are synergistically potentiated by microbial interaction. In the search for the causative agent(s) behind the immunotoxicity, the cytostatic effects of the co-cultivated spores of S. californicus and S. chartarum were compared to those caused by widely used cytostatic agents produced by streptomycetes. The RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to four doses of doxorubicin (DOX), actinomycin D (AMD), mitomycin C (MMC) or phleomycin (PHLEO) for 24 h. Kinetics of the spores of the co-cultivated and the separately cultivated microbes (1x10(6) spores/ml) was compared to DOX (0.15 muM). Apoptotic responses were analyzed by measuring DNA content and mitochondria membrane depolarization with flow cytometer, and by the fluorometric caspase-3 assay. The present data indicate that interactions during co-cultivation of S. californicus and S. chartarum stimulate the production of an unidentified cytostatic compound(s) capable of inducing mitochondria mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at S-G(2)/M. The spores of co-cultivated microbes caused a 4-fold collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and an almost 6-fold caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation when compared to control. Similar responses were induced by DNA cleaving compounds, especially DOX and AMD, at the relatively low concentrations, but not the spores of the same microbes when they were grown separately. These data suggest that when growing in the same habitat, interactions between S. californicus and S. chartarum stimulates the production of an unknown cytostatic compound(s) which evoke immunotoxic effects similar to those by chemotherapeutic drugs.

  20. [Extravasation of Cytostatic Drugs - Prevention and Best Practices].

    Maňásek, V


    Extravasation is the leakage of a drug (intended primarily for intravenous administration) into tissues surrounding the vascular system. The damage to surrounding varies depending on the nature and volume of extravasation. Cytostatic extravasation is associated with poor outcomes for patients. This paper summarizes the types of risk associated with cytostatic extravasation, and the preventative measures that can be used when such an event occurs. We also provide information on potential treatments. However, justification for their use has only been substantiated in papers with different levels of significance and these papers are not available in all countries. We summarize current international recommendations for actions to be taken in the event of extravasation.

  1. Quantitative Evaluation of Primordial Follicles in Rat Ovaries during the Early and Delayed Terms after Different Cytostatic Exposures.

    Borovskaya, T G; Dygai, A M; Fomina, T I; Vychuzhanina, A V


    Experiments on female Wistar rats showed that cytostatic agents (farmorubicin, platidiam, carboplatin, and etoposide) induce an initial significant decrease in the number of primordial follicles. Over the next 2-3 estrous cycles after administration of farmorubicin, platidiam, and carboplatin, this index practically did not differ from the control. The number of primordial follicles in the third and fourth estrous cycles after farmorubicin administration, as well as in the second and sixth estrous cycles after etoposide administration was much higher than the follicular reserve after cytostatic treatment (first estrous cycle). The ovarian reserve was exhausted in the delayed period after the start of the experiment. This dynamics of the pool of primordial follicles suggests that the ovary of rats in the postnatal period of life contains a limited number of female germline stem cells.

  2. Screening of Venezuelan medicinal plant extracts for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines.

    Taylor, Peter; Arsenak, Miriam; Abad, María Jesús; Fernández, Angel; Milano, Balentina; Gonto, Reina; Ruiz, Marie-Christine; Fraile, Silvia; Taylor, Sofía; Estrada, Omar; Michelangeli, Fabian


    There are estimated to be more than 20,000 species of plants in Venezuela, of which more than 1500 are used for medicinal purposes by indigenous and local communities. Only a relatively small proportion of these have been evaluated in terms of their potential as antitumor agents. In this study, we screened 308 extracts from 102 species for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against a panel of six tumor cell lines using a 24-h sulphorhodamine B assay. Extracts from Clavija lancifolia, Hamelia patens, Piper san-vicentense, Physalis cordata, Jacaranda copaia, Heliotropium indicum, and Annona squamosa were the most cytotoxic, whereas other extracts from Calotropis gigantea, Hyptis dilatata, Chromolaena odorata, Siparuna guianensis, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Tapirira guianensis, Xylopia aromatica, Protium heptaphyllum, and Piper arboreum showed the greatest cytostatic activity. These results confirm previous reports on the cytotoxic activities of the above-mentioned plants as well as prompting further studies on others such as C. lancifolia and H. dilatata that have not been so extensively studied.

  3. Synthesis, enzymatic stability and in vitro cytostatic effect of Daunorubicin-GnRH-III derivative dimers.

    Schreier, Verena Natalie; Mező, Gábor; Orbán, Erika; Dürr, Claudia; Marquardt, Andreas; Manea, Marilena


    Bioconjugates containing chemotherapeutic agents attached to peptide hormones, such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), are developed as drug delivery systems for targeted cancer chemotherapy. We report here the synthesis and biochemical characterization of disulfide bond-linked dimeric bioconjugates in which daunorubicin was coupled via an oxime linkage to aminooxyacetylated GnRH-III ([Glp-His-Trp-Ser-His-Asp-Trp-Lys(DauAoa-Cys)-Pro-Gly-NH2]2; where Glp is pyroglutamic acid and Aoa is aminooxyacetyl) and its derivatives modified in position four by N-Me-Ser and Lys(Ac). The in vitro stability/degradation of the bioconjugates was determined in human serum, as well as in the presence of rat liver lysosomal homogenate and digestive enzymes. All compounds were stable at least for 24h in human serum and in the presence of pepsin and trypsin, while they were degraded by lysosomal enzymes. The daunorubicin-GnRH-III derivative dimers were partly digested by α-chymotrypsin; however, they had increased stability compared to the corresponding monomers, making them potential candidates for oral administration. The in vitro cytostatic effect of the compounds was determined on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. All daunorubicin-GnRH-III derivative dimers exerted slightly increased in vitro cytostatic effect (IC50 values in low μM range) than the corresponding monomeric bioconjugates.

  4. Highly potent extranuclear-targeted luminescent iridium(iii) antitumor agents containing benzimidazole-based ligands with a handle for functionalization.

    Yellol, Jyoti; Pérez, Sergio A; Yellol, Gorakh; Zajac, Juraj; Donaire, Antonio; Vigueras, Gloria; Novohradsky, Vojtech; Janiak, Christoph; Brabec, Viktor; Ruiz, José


    A series of 6 substitutionally inert and luminescent iridium(iii) antitumor agents of the type [Ir(C(∧)N)2(N(∧)N)][PF6] containing a benzimidazole N(∧)N ligand with an ester group as a handle for further functionalization has been prepared. They exhibit IC50 values in the high nanomolar range in some ovarian and breast cancer cell lines (approximately 100× more cytotoxic than cisplatin (CDDP) in MDA-MB-231) and are located in the actin cortex predominantly as shown by confocal luminescence microscopy. This discovery could open the door to a new large family of drug bioconjugates with diverse and simultaneous functions.

  5. [Plant extracts with cytostatic properties growing in Cuba. II].

    Lopez Abraham, A M; Rojas Hernandez, N M; Jimenez Misas, C A


    The study of the cytostatic activity of aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts from 18 parts of 9 species of superior plants of the families Araceae, Borraginacease, Burseraceae, Cesalpinaceae, Meliaceae, Compositae, Rebiaceae, Cruciferaceae and Verbenaceae using the microbiologic method of described by Kubas in 1972 is pursued. The best results were obtained from Hamelia patens. Lippia alba, Lepidium virginicum, Cassia ligustrina, Bursera simaruba and Heliotropium campechianum extracts.

  6. Scintigraphic control of blood vessels in regional perfusion with cytostatics

    Blazek, J.; Broz, J. (Krajska Nemocnice s Poliklinikou, Ceske Budejovice (Czechoslovakia))


    After administration of sup(99m)Tc-MAA or sup(113m)In-MAA into the perfusion system during regional perfusion therapy with cytostatics of malignomas in the maxillo-facial area it is possible to obtain by subsequent scintigraphic visualization of the distribution of radioactivity an accurate topographic picture of the perfusion in the appropriate area. The method is free from complications and there are no contraindications. The paper is supplemented by scintigrams.

  7. The Effects of Handling and Anesthetic Agents on the Stress Response and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Northern Elephant Seals

    Champagne, Cory D.; Houser, Dorian S.; Costa, Daniel P.; Crocker, Daniel E.


    Free-ranging animals often cope with fluctuating environmental conditions such as weather, food availability, predation risk, the requirements of breeding, and the influence of anthropogenic factors. Consequently, researchers are increasingly measuring stress markers, especially glucocorticoids, to understand stress, disturbance, and population health. Studying free-ranging animals, however, comes with numerous difficulties posed by environmental conditions and the particular characteristics of study species. Performing measurements under either physical restraint or chemical sedation may affect the physiological variable under investigation and lead to values that may not reflect the standard functional state of the animal. This study measured the stress response resulting from different handling conditions in northern elephant seals and any ensuing influences on carbohydrate metabolism. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) was measured using [6-3H]glucose and plasma cortisol concentration was measured from blood samples drawn during three-hour measurement intervals. These measurements were conducted in weanlings and yearlings with and without the use of chemical sedatives—under chemical sedation, physical restraint, or unrestrained. We compared these findings with measurements in adult seals sedated in the field. The method of handling had a significant influence on the stress response and carbohydrate metabolism. Physically restrained weanlings and yearlings transported to the lab had increased concentrations of circulating cortisol (F11, 46 = 25.2, phandling in the field without altering carbohydrate metabolism. Measures of hormone concentrations and metabolism made under these conditions are more likely to reflect basal values. PMID:22693622

  8. Intraperitoneal cytostatics impair early post-operative collagen synthesis in experimental intestinal anastomosesP6.

    Martens, M F; Hendriks, T; Wobbes, T; DE PONT J.J.


    Collagen synthesis in intestinal anastomoses has been measured in rats after in vivo administration of cytostatics. The cytostatics were administered during 5 consecutive days either intravenously or intraperitoneally. On day 3 of the course the rats received both an ileal and a colonic anastomosis. The animals were sacrificed 3 and 7 days after operation. The cytostatics regimen used was a combination of 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin and cisplatinum in a dose of 10, 2 and 0.35 mg kg-1 day-1, res...

  9. Handling machine breakdown for dynamic scheduling by a colony of cognitive agents in a holonic manufacturing framework

    T. K. Jana


    Full Text Available There is an ever increasing need of providing quick, yet improved solution to dynamic scheduling by better responsiveness following simple coordination mechanism to better adapt to the changing environments. In this endeavor, a cognitive agent based approach is proposed to deal with machine failure. A Multi Agent based Holonic Adaptive Scheduling (MAHoAS architecture is developed to frame the schedule by explicit communication between the product holons and the resource holons in association with the integrated process planning and scheduling (IPPS holon under normal situation. In the event of breakdown of a resource, the cooperation is sought by implicit communication. Inspired by the cognitive behavior of human being, a cognitive decision making scheme is proposed that reallocates the incomplete task to another resource in the most optimized manner and tries to expedite the processing in view of machine failure. A metamorphic algorithm is developed and implemented in Oracle 9i to identify the best candidate resource for task re-allocation. Integrated approach to process planning and scheduling realized under Multi Agent System (MAS framework facilitates dynamic scheduling with improved performance under such situations. The responsiveness of the resources having cognitive capabilities helps to overcome the adverse consequences of resource failure in a better way.

  10. Effects of sulfur-based hemostatic agents and gingival retraction cords handled with latex gloves on the polymerization of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials

    Carlos Eduardo Palhares Machado


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the possible interactions between three addition silicone materials (Express®, Aquasil Ultra® and Adsil®, three hemostatic agents (ferric sulfate, StatGel FS®; aluminum sulfate, GelCord®; and aluminum chloride, Hemostop® and gingival retraction cords previously handled with latex gloves to determine whether direct contact with medicaments or indirect contamination by latex in conditions similar to those found in clinical practice inhibit or affect the setting of the impression materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A portable device for the simultaneous test of several specimens was specifically developed for this study. Polymerization inhibition was analyzed by examination of the impressions and the molded surface. Ten trials were performed for each addition silicone material used in the study, at a total of 240 study samples. RESULTS: All the samples tested (N=240 were nonreactive regardless of the type of combination used. CONCLUSIONS: Aluminum sulfate, ferric sulfate and aluminum chloride hemostatic solutions did not show any inhibitory potential on the addition silicone samples under study, and there were no changes in polymerization as a result of contact between addition silicone and retraction cords handled with latex gloves.

  11. The use anesthetic agents to promote welfare in anemonefish aquaculture: Case study to handling and long-distance transport

    João Chambel


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three anaesthetic agents (80 to 110 mg/L of MS-222, 10 to 30 mg/L of clove oil and 100 to 350 mg/L of 2-phenoxyethanol in anaesthesia and the success of use different clove oil concentrations (1, 3 and 10 mg/L on water quality and survival of an ornamental anemonefish, Amphiprion percula, during long-distance transport in closed system for 48 hours. The lowest effective concentrations based on the efficacy criteria of complete anaesthetic induction within 180s, recovery within 300s and survival when exposed 30 min to anaesthetic was 15 mg/l for clove oil, 200 µl/L for 2-phenoxyethanol and 85 mg/L for MS-222. Above the concentrations of 30 mg/L, 300 µl/L and 100 mg/L of clove oil, 2-phenoxyethanol and MS-222 respectively, fish did not recovery when exposed to anaesthetic during 30min. During long-distance transport, clove oil slowed the increase on the ammonia concentration and the decrease on oxygen level, but did not affect the pH and only at concentration of 10 mg/L increase de mortality at 36 and 48 hours after packed. All concentrations showed a significance increase on water quality, reducing total ammonia from 9.31 ± 0.58 mg/L (control group to 5.43 ± 0.56 mg/L (1mg/L, 4.97 ± 0.59 mg/L (3mg/L and 3.88 ± 0.14 mg/L (10mg/L. This study showed that all anaesthetic agents under study can be used in anaesthesia of percula clownfish with optimal doses varied according to the anaesthetic, 15 to 25 mg/L of clove oil, 200 to 250 of 2-phenoxyethanol and 85 to 90 mg/L of MS-222, but clove oil was the anaesthetic agent more effectiveness and with major margin of safety for percula clownfish, and this anaesthesic (clove oil can be used in ornamental fish transportation, reducing the deterioration in water quality and ensuring a better transport environment and reduced stress for the fish. However must be careful related the dose in use, because an excess anesthesic may reduce dissolved oxygen and cause high

  12. Flow Injection Analysis with Electrochemical Detection for Rapid Identification of Platinum-Based Cytostatics and Platinum Chlorides in Water

    Marketa Kominkova


    Full Text Available Platinum-based cytostatics, such as cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin are widely used agents in the treatment of various types of tumors. Large amounts of these drugs are excreted through the urine of patients into wastewaters in unmetabolised forms. This phenomenon leads to increased amounts of platinum ions in the water environment. The impacts of these pollutants on the water ecosystem are not sufficiently investigated as well as their content in water sources. In order to facilitate the detection of various types of platinum, we have developed a new, rapid, screening flow injection analysis method with electrochemical detection (FIA-ED. Our method, based on monitoring of the changes in electrochemical behavior of analytes, maintained by various pH buffers (Britton-Robinson and phosphate buffer and potential changes (1,000, 1,100 and 1,200 mV offers rapid and cheap selective determination of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides, which can also be present as contaminants in water environments.

  13. Flow injection analysis with electrochemical detection for rapid identification of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides in water.

    Kominkova, Marketa; Heger, Zbynek; Zitka, Ondrej; Kynicky, Jindrich; Pohanka, Miroslav; Beklova, Miroslava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene


    Platinum-based cytostatics, such as cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin are widely used agents in the treatment of various types of tumors. Large amounts of these drugs are excreted through the urine of patients into wastewaters in unmetabolised forms. This phenomenon leads to increased amounts of platinum ions in the water environment. The impacts of these pollutants on the water ecosystem are not sufficiently investigated as well as their content in water sources. In order to facilitate the detection of various types of platinum, we have developed a new, rapid, screening flow injection analysis method with electrochemical detection (FIA-ED). Our method, based on monitoring of the changes in electrochemical behavior of analytes, maintained by various pH buffers (Britton-Robinson and phosphate buffer) and potential changes (1,000, 1,100 and 1,200 mV) offers rapid and cheap selective determination of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides, which can also be present as contaminants in water environments.

  14. Kollektiv Handling

    Toubøl, Jonas


    Boganmeldelse af Flemming Ibsen, Laust Høgedahl & Steen Sheuer: Kollektiv Handling. Faglig organisering og skift af fagforening. Nyt fra Samfundsvidenskaberne, Frederiksberg, 2012.......Boganmeldelse af Flemming Ibsen, Laust Høgedahl & Steen Sheuer: Kollektiv Handling. Faglig organisering og skift af fagforening. Nyt fra Samfundsvidenskaberne, Frederiksberg, 2012....

  15. Interactions between inflammatory mediators in expression of antitumor cytostatic activity of macrophages

    I.L. Bonta; S. Ben-Efraim


    markdownabstractAbstract Antitumor properties and participation in inflammatory events are important characteristics of activated macrophages. We show here that both antitumor cytostatic function of macrophages and participation of these cells at inflammatory sites are controlled by two main group

  16. The stage of offspring of female rats after treatment with cytostatics of various groups.

    Borovskaya, T G; Perova, A V; Pachomova, A V; Poluektova, M E; Gol'dberg, V E


    We examined the offspring of female rats that were mated with intact males in the delayed period after administration of cytostatic drugs Farmorubicin, platidiam, carboplatin, etoposide, and paclitaxel (1, 3, and 6 months post-treatment). Toxicity of these drugs in the offspring decreased in the following order: paclitaxel > etoposide > carboplatin > platidiam > Farmorubicin. The toxic effect depended not only on the type of cytostatic treatment, but also on the period of conception.

  17. Cellular and biomolecular responses of human ovarian cancer cells to cytostatic dinuclear platinum(II) complexes.

    Lin, Miaoxin; Wang, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Jianhui; Fan, Damin; Zhang, Yangmiao; Zhang, Junfeng; Guo, Zijian


    Polynuclear platinum(II) complexes represent a class of potential anticancer agents that have shown promising pharmacological properties in preclinical studies. The nature of cellular responses induced by these complexes, however, is poorly understood. In this research, the cellular responses of human ovarian cancer COC1 cells to dinuclear platinum(II) complexes {[cis-Pt(NH₃)₂Cl]₂L¹}(NO₃)₂ (1) and {[cis-Pt(NH₃)₂Cl]₂L²}(NO₃)₂ (2) (L¹ = α,α'-diamino-p-xylene, L² = 4,4'-methylenedianiline) has been studied using cisplatin as a reference. The effect of platinum complexes on the proliferation, death mode, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cell cycle progression has been examined by MTT assay and flow cytometry. The activation of cell cycle checkpoint kinases (CHK1/2), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) of the cells by the complexes has also been analyzed using phospho-specific flow cytometry. Complex 1 is more cytotoxic than complex 2 and cisplatin at most concentrations; complex 2 and cisplatin are comparably cytotoxic. These complexes kill the cells through an apoptotic or apoptosis-like pathway characterized by exposure of phosphatidylserine and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Complex 1 shows the strongest inductive effect on the morphological changes of the cells, followed by cisplatin and complex 2. Complexes 1 and 2 arrest the cell cycle in G2 or M phase, while cisplatin arrests the cell cycle in S phase. The influence of these complexes on CHK1/2, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK varies with the dose of the drugs or reaction time. Activation of phospho-ERK1/2 and phospho-p38 MAPK by these complexes is closely related to the cytostatic activity. The results demonstrate that dinuclear platinum(II) complexes can induce some cellular responses different from those caused by cisplatin.

  18. Effects of cytostatic drugs on plasma level and renal excretion of beta-acetyldigoxin.

    Kuhlmann, J; Zilly, W; Wilke, J


    Mucosal defects decrease digoxin absorption in patients with malabsorption syndromes. Since the intestinal mucosa can be damaged by cytostatic drugs, we investigated their effects on digoxin plasma levels and urinary digoxin excretion. In six patients with malignant lymphoma who received 0.8 mg beta-acetyldigoxin before and 24 hr after treatment with a combination of cyclophosphamide, oncovin, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP) or cyclophosphamide, oncovin, and prednisone (COP), plasma digoxin concentrations were measured 0 to 8 hr after the dose and areas under the plasma concentration-time curves were calculated. In 15 patients on 0.3 mg of beta-acetyldigoxin daily, plasma glycoside concentrations and renal excretion were measured daily before and after COPP, COP, cyclophosphamide, oncovin, cytosine-arabinosine, and prednisone (COAP), or adriamycin, bleomycin, and prednisone (ABP) treatment schemes. The diminished steady-state glycoside plasma concentrations and daily renal glycoside excretion during the 24 to 168 hr after the cytostatic drug established reversible impairment of digoxin absorption. The delayed time to peak after a single dose of digoxin during cytostatic drug therapy shows that extent and rate of digoxin absorption are reduced. To maintain adequate control of digoxin therapy in patients treated with cytostatic drugs, plasma levels should be monitored.

  19. Formulation, quality control and shelf life of the experimental cytostatic drug cyclopentenyl cytosine

    K. Schimmel; H.J. Guchelaar; E. van Kan


    This paper describes the formulation and quality control of an aqueous sterilized formulation of the experimental cytostatic drug cyclopentenyl cytosine (CPEC) to be used in Phase I/II clinical trials. The raw drug substance was extensively tested. A High Pressure Liquid Chromotography (HPLC) method

  20. Slurry photocatalytic membrane reactor technology for removal of pharmaceutical compounds from wastewater: Towards cytostatic drug elimination.

    Janssens, Raphael; Mandal, Mrinal Kanti; Dubey, Kashyap Kumar; Luis, Patricia


    The potential of photocatalytic membrane reactors (PMR) to degrade cytostatic drugs is presented in this work as an emerging technology for wastewater treatment. Cytostatic drugs are pharmaceutical compounds (PhCs) commonly used in cancer treatment. Such compounds and their metabolites, as well as their degraded by-products have genotoxic and mutagenic effects. A major challenge of cytostatic removal stands in the fact that most drugs are delivered to ambulant patients leading to diluted concentration in the municipal waste. Therefore safe strategies should be developed in order to collect and degrade the micro-pollutants using appropriate treatment technologies. Degradation of cytostatic compounds can be achieved with different conventional processes such as chemical oxidation, photolysis or photocatalysis but the treatment performances obtained are lower than the ones observed with slurry PMRs. Therefore the reasons why slurry PMRs may be considered as the next generation technology will be discussed in this work together with the limitations related to the mechanical abrasion of polymeric and ceramic membranes, catalyst suspension and interferences with the water matrix. Furthermore key recommendations are presented in order to develop a renewable energy powered water treatment based on long lifetime materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytostatic activity of some compounds from the unsaponifiable fraction obtained from virgin olive oil.

    Saenz, M T; Garcia, M D; Ahumada, M C; Ruiz, V


    Oleuropein, tyrosol, squalene and the fraction of sterols and triterpenoid dialcohols from the unsaponifiable fraction obtained from virgin olive oil have been tested for possible cytostatic activity against McCoy cells, using 6-mercaptopurine as a positive control. The samples of sterols and triterpenic dialcohols showed a strong activity.

  2. Handling Metalloproteinases.

    Fridrich, Sven; Karmilin, Konstantin; Stöcker, Walter


    Substrate cleavage by metalloproteinases involves nucleophilic attack on the scissile peptide bond by a water molecule that is polarized by a catalytic metal, usually a zinc ion, and a general base, usually the carboxyl group of a glutamic acid side chain. The zinc ion is most often complexed by imidazole nitrogens of histidine side chains. This arrangement suggests that the physiological pH optimum of most metalloproteinases is in the neutral range. In addition to their catalytic metal ion, many metalloproteinases contain additional transition metal or alkaline earth ions, which are structurally important or modulate the catalytic activity. As a consequence, these enzymes are generally sensitive to metal chelators. Moreover, the catalytic metal can be displaced by adventitious metal ions from buffers or biological fluids, which may fundamentally alter the catalytic function. Therefore, handling, purification, and assaying of metalloproteinases require specific precautions to warrant their stability. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Enhanced anti-tumour effects of Vinca alkaloids given separately from cytostatic therapies

    Ehrhardt, H; Pannert, L; Pfeiffer, S; Wachter, F; Amtmann, E; Jeremias, I


    Background and Purpose In polychemotherapy protocols, that is for treatment of neuroblastoma and Ewing sarcoma, Vinca alkaloids and cell cycle-arresting drugs are usually administered on the same day. Here we studied whether this combination enables the optimal antitumour effects of Vinca alkaloids to be manifested. Experimental Approach Vinca alkaloids were tested in a preclinical mouse model in vivo and in vitro in combination with cell cycle-arresting drugs. Signalling pathways were characterized using RNA interference. Key Results In vitro, knockdown of cyclins significantly inhibited vincristine-induced cell death indicating, in accordance with previous findings, Vinca alkaloids require active cell cycling and M-phase transition for induction of cell death. In contrast, anthracyclines, irradiation and dexamethasone arrested the cell cycle and acted like cytostatic drugs. The combination of Vinca alkaloids with cytostatic therapeutics resulted in diminished cell death in 31 of 36 (86%) tumour cell lines. In a preclinical tumour model, anthracyclines significantly inhibited the antitumour effect of Vinca alkaloids in vivo. Antitumour effects of Vinca alkaloids in the presence of cytostatic drugs were restored by caffeine, which maintained active cell cycling, or by knockdown of p53, which prevented drug-induced cell cycle arrest. Therapeutically most important, optimal antitumour effects were obtained in vivo upon separating the application of Vinca alkaloids from cytostatic therapeutics. Conclusion and Implications Clinical trials are required to prove whether Vinca alkaloids act more efficiently in cancer patients if they are applied uncoupled from cytostatic therapies. On a conceptual level, our data suggest the implementation of polychemotherapy protocols based on molecular mechanisms of drug–drug interactions. Linked Article This article is commented on by Solary, pp 1555–1557 of this issue. To view this commentary visit

  4. Biotin-tagged platinum(iv) complexes as targeted cytostatic agents against breast cancer cells.

    Muhammad, Nafees; Sadia, Nasreen; Zhu, Chengcheng; Luo, Cheng; Guo, Zijian; Wang, Xiaoyong


    A biotin-guided platinum(IV) complex is highly cytotoxic against breast cancer cells but hypotoxic against mammary epithelial cells. The mono-biotinylated Pt(IV) complex is superior to the di-biotinylated one and hence a promising drug candidate for the targeted therapy of breast cancer.

  5. Hemopoiesis-stimulating activity of immobilized oligonucleotides and hyaluronidase during cytostatic-induced myelosuppression.

    Dygai, A M; Skurikhin, E G; Pershina, O V; Zhdanov, V V; Khmelevskaya, A M; Andreeva, T V; Poponina, A M; Zjuzkov, G N; Udut, E V; Khrichkova, T Ju; Simanina, E V; Miroshnichenko, L A; Stavrova, L A; Tchaikovsky, A S; Markova, T S; Gurto, R V; Brjushinina, O S; Slepichev, V A


    The hemopoiesis-stimulating effect of combined treatment with immobilized oligonucleotides and hyaluronidase preparations was studied during cytostatic-induced myelosuppression caused by cyclophosphamide administration. Immobilized hyaluronidase was shown to increase the efficiency of correction of changes in the erythroid and granulocytic hemopoietic stems with immobilized oligonucleotides. This potentiation of the effect of immobilized oligonucleotides by immobilized hyaluronidase was related to an increase in functional activity of committed hemopoietic precursors.

  6. Participation of signaling cascades in the regulation of erythropoiesis under conditions of cytostatic treatment.

    Dygai, A M; Zhdanov, V V; Miroshnichenko, L A; Udut, E V; Zyuz'kov, G N; Simanina, E V; Chaikovskii, A V; Stavrova, L A; Trofimova, E S; Burmina, Ya V


    We studied the role of signaling pathways in the regulation of erythropoiesis against the background of myelosuppression caused by administration of 5-fluorouracil. The important role of cyclic AMP in the maturation of erythroid progenitors after cytostatic treatment was demonstrated. The secretory activity of myelokaryocytes during the period of erythroid hemopoiesis recovery is mainly regulated via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway; non-erythropoietin factors are involved in the formation of erythropoietic activity of adherent cells of the microenvironment.

  7. Responses of Spermatogenous Tissue and Mechanisms of Their Development Upon Cytostatic Exposure.

    Dygai, A M; Chaikovskii, A V; Zhdanov, V V; Zyuz'kov, G N; Stavrova, L A; Udut, V V; Miroshnichenko, L A; Simanina, E V; Borovskaya, T G; Poluektova, M E


    A decrease in the total number of sperm cells and reduction of spermatogonium population were observed upon cytostatic damage of spermatogenous tissue caused by single paclitaxel administration. It was established that the paclitaxel-induced damage to the testicular tissue is underlain by reduction of its regenerative potential consisting in depletion of regional precursor pool. Changes in functional activity of progenitor cells were caused not only by direct action of paclitaxel, but also by suppression of the secretory function of the tissue microenvironment.

  8. Cytostatic and genotoxic effect of temephos in human lymphocytes and HepG2 cells.

    Benitez-Trinidad, A B; Herrera-Moreno, J F; Vázquez-Estrada, G; Verdín-Betancourt, F A; Sordo, M; Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Bernal-Hernández, Y Y; Medina-Díaz, I M; Barrón-Vivanco, B S; Robledo-Marenco, M L; Salazar, A M; Rojas-García, A E


    Temephos is an organophosphorus pesticide that is used in control campaigns against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which transmit dengue. In spite of the widespread use of temephos, few studies have examined its genotoxic potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic effects of temephos in human lymphocytes and hepatoma cells (HepG2). The cytotoxicity was evaluated with simultaneous staining (FDA/EtBr). The cytostatic and genotoxic effects were evaluated using comet assays and the micronucleus technique. We found that temephos was not cytotoxic in either lymphocytes or HepG2 cells. Regarding the cytostatic effect in human lymphocytes, temephos (10 μM) caused a significant decrease in the percentage of binucleated cells and in the nuclear division index as well as an increase in the apoptotic cell frequency, which was not the case for HepG2 cells. The comet assay showed that temephos increased the DNA damage levels in human lymphocytes, but it did not increase the MN frequency. In contrast, in HepG2 cells, temephos increased the tail length, tail moment and MN frequency in HepG2 cells compared to control cells. In conclusion, temephos causes stable DNA damage in HepG2 cells but not in human lymphocytes. These findings suggest the importance of temephos biotransformation in its genotoxic effect.

  9. Riproximin modulates multiple signaling cascades leading to cytostatic and apoptotic effects in human breast cancer cells.

    Pervaiz, Asim; Zepp, Michael; Adwan, Hassan; Berger, Martin R


    Riproximin, a type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), has shown significant cytotoxic effects in diverse types of cancer cells. To better understand its therapeutic potential, elaborated investigations on the mechanistic aspects of riproximin deem crucial. In this study, we focused on riproximin-mediated changes in cellular properties and corresponding molecular pathways in breast cancer cells. Cytotoxicity of riproximin was determined by MTT assay, while the clonogenic and migratory effects were determined by colony formation, migration, and scratch assays. Cytostatic and apoptotic effects were studied by flow cytometry and nuclear staining procedures. Alterations at molecular levels were scrutinized by means of microarray and qRT-PCR methodologies. Riproximin induced significant cytotoxic effects in the selected human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Profound inhibition of migration and colony formation were observed in both cell lines in response to riproximin exposure. Concomitantly, a significant arrest in S phase and nuclear fragmentation were observed as causes for its cytostatic and apoptotic effects, respectively. Genetic profiling revealed pronounced induction of the anticancer cytokine IL24/MDA-7 and ER-stress-related GADD genes. In addition, prominent inhibition of the genes relevant to migration (RHO GTPases), anti-apoptotic activities (BCL family), and cell cycle (cyclins) was also noticed. Riproximin, with its significant antineoplastic effects, modulates multiple cytostatic and apoptotic pathways in breast cancer cells. Results from these investigations highlight the future therapeutic potential of this naturally occurring compound for breast cancer.

  10. Atypical cell populations associated with acquired resistance to cytostatics and cancer stem cell features: the role of mitochondria in nuclear encapsulation.

    Díaz-Carballo, David; Gustmann, Sebastian; Jastrow, Holger; Acikelli, Ali Haydar; Dammann, Philip; Klein, Jacqueline; Dembinski, Ulrike; Bardenheuer, Walter; Malak, Sascha; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Schultheis, Beate; Aldinger, Constanze; Strumberg, Dirk


    Until recently, acquired resistance to cytostatics had mostly been attributed to biochemical mechanisms such as decreased intake and/or increased efflux of therapeutics, enhanced DNA repair, and altered activity or deregulation of target proteins. Although these mechanisms have been widely investigated, little is known about membrane barriers responsible for the chemical imperviousness of cell compartments and cellular segregation in cytostatic-treated tumors. In highly heterogeneous cross-resistant and radiorefractory cell populations selected by exposure to anticancer agents, we found a number of atypical recurrent cell types in (1) tumor cell cultures of different embryonic origins, (2) mouse xenografts, and (3) paraffin sections from patient tumors. Alongside morphologic peculiarities, these populations presented cancer stem cell markers, aberrant signaling pathways, and a set of deregulated miRNAs known to confer both stem-cell phenotypes and highly aggressive tumor behavior. The first type, named spiral cells, is marked by a spiral arrangement of nuclei. The second type, monastery cells, is characterized by prominent walls inside which daughter cells can be seen maturing amid a rich mitochondrial environment. The third type, called pregnant cells, is a giant cell with a syncytium-like morphology, a main nucleus, and many endoreplicative functional progeny cells. A rare fourth cell type identified in leukemia was christened shepherd cells, as it was always associated with clusters of smaller cells. Furthermore, a portion of resistant tumor cells displayed nuclear encapsulation via mitochondrial aggregation in the nuclear perimeter in response to cytostatic insults, probably conferring imperviousness to drugs and long periods of dormancy until nuclear eclosion takes place. This phenomenon was correlated with an increase in both intracellular and intercellular mitochondrial traffic as well as with the uptake of free extracellular mitochondria. All these cellular

  11. Low in vivo toxicity of a novel cisplatin-ursodeoxycholic derivative (Bamet-UD2) with enhanced cytostatic activity versus liver tumors.

    Dominguez, M F; Macias, R I; Izco-Basurko, I; de La Fuente, A; Pascual, M J; Criado, J M; Monte, M J; Yajeya, J; Marin, J J


    Cisplatin-bile acid derivatives belonging to the Bamet-family maintain both liver organotropism and cytostatic activity. "In vivo" toxicity and usefulness as chemotherapeutic agent versus liver tumors of a novel drug, Bamet-UD2 [cis-diamminechlorocholylglycinate platinum (II)], with enhanced "in vitro" cytostatic activity was investigated. Using orthotopically implanted mouse Hepa 1-6 hepatoma in the liver of Nude mice, the antitumor effect of Bamet-UD2 was compared with that of a previously characterized compound of this family, Bamet-R2 [cis-diamminebis-ursodeoxycholate platinum(II)], and cisplatin. Life span was significantly prolonged in mice treated with both Bamets (Bamet-UD2 > Bamet-R2), compared with animals receiving saline or cisplatin. All these drugs inhibit tumor growth (Bamet-UD2 = cisplatin > Bamet-R2). However, toxicity-related deaths only occurred under cisplatin treatment. Using rats maintained in metabolic cages, organ-specific toxicity and drug accumulation in tissues were investigated. The amount of both Bamets in the liver was severalfold higher than that of cisplatin. By contrast, a significantly higher amount of cisplatin in kidney and nerve was found. In lung, heart, muscle, brain, and bone marrow the amount of drug was small and also significantly lower in animals receiving Bamets. Signs of neurotoxicity (altered nerve conduction velocity), nephrotoxicity (increased serum urea and creatinine concentrations and decreased creatinine clearance), and bone marrow toxicity (decreased platelet and white blood counts) in animals treated with cisplatin but not with the Bamets were found. These results indicate that, owing to strong antitumor activity together with absence of side effects, Bamet-UD2 may be useful in the treatment of liver tumors.

  12. A Cytostatic Ruthenium(II)-Platinum(II) Bis(terpyridyl) Anticancer Complex That Blocks Entry into S Phase by Up-regulating p27(KIP1).

    Ramu, Vadde; Gill, Martin R; Jarman, Paul J; Turton, David; Thomas, Jim A; Das, Amitava; Smythe, Carl


    Cytostatic agents that interfere with specific cellular components to prevent cancer cell growth offer an attractive alternative, or complement, to traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a new binuclear Ru(II) -Pt(II) complex [Ru(tpy)(tpypma)Pt(Cl)(DMSO)](3+) (tpy=2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and tpypma=4-([2,2':6',2''-terpyridine]-4'-yl)-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)aniline), VR54, which employs the extended terpyridine tpypma ligand to link the two metal centres. In cell-free conditions, VR54 binds DNA by non-intercalative reversible mechanisms (Kb =1.3×10(5)  M(-1) ) and does not irreversibly bind guanosine. Cellular studies reveal that VR54 suppresses proliferation of A2780 ovarian cancer cells with no cross-resistance in the A2780CIS cisplatin-resistant cell line. Through the preparation of mononuclear Ru(II) and Pt(II) structural derivatives it was determined that both metal centres are required for this anti-proliferative activity. In stark contrast to cisplatin, VR54 neither activates the DNA-damage response network nor induces significant levels of cell death. Instead, VR54 is cytostatic and inhibits cell proliferation by up-regulating the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1) and inhibiting retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation, which blocks entry into S phase and results in G1 cell cycle arrest. Thus, VR54 inhibits cancer cell growth by a gain of function at the G1 restriction point. This is the first metal-coordination compound to demonstrate such activity.

  13. Ozonation of hospital raw wastewaters for cytostatic compounds removal. Kinetic modelling and economic assessment of the process

    Ferre-Aracil, J. [Universitat Politècnica de València – EPSA, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering. Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety (ISIRYM), Pl. Ferrandiz i Carbonell, 03801 Alcoi, Alicante (Spain); Valcárcel, Y. [Environmental Health and Ecotoxicology Research Group, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Avd. Atenas s/n, Móstoles, 28922 Alcorcón (Spain); Negreira, N.; López de Alda, M. [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, D. [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain); Cardona, S.C. [Universitat Politècnica de València – EPSA, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering. Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety (ISIRYM), Pl. Ferrandiz i Carbonell, 03801 Alcoi, Alicante (Spain); Navarro-Laboulais, J., E-mail: [Universitat Politècnica de València – EPSA, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering. Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety (ISIRYM), Pl. Ferrandiz i Carbonell, 03801 Alcoi, Alicante (Spain)


    The kinetics of the ozone consumption for the pretreatment of hospital wastewater has been analysed in order to determine the reaction rate coefficients between the ozone and the readily oxidisabled organic matter and cytostatic compounds. The wastewater from a medium size hospital was treated with ozone and peroxone methodologies, varying the ozone concentration, the reaction time and the hydrogen peroxide doses. The analysis shows that there are four cytostatic compounds, i.e. irinotecan, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide and capecitabine, detected in the wastewaters and they are completely removed with reasonably short times after the ozone treatment. Considering the reactor geometry, the gas hydrodynamics, the mass transfer of ozone from gas to liquid and the reaction of all oxidisable compounds of the wastewater it is possible to determine the chemical ozone demand, COzD, of the sample as 256 mg O{sub 3} L{sup −1} and the kinetic rate coefficient with the dissolved organic matter as 8.4 M{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The kinetic rate coefficient between the ozone and the cyclophosphamide is in the order of 34.7 M{sup −1} s{sup −1} and higher for the other cytostatics. The direct economic cost of the treatment was evaluated considering this reaction kinetics and it is below 0.3 €/m{sup 3} under given circumstances. - Highlights: • 17 cytostatic compounds were analysed and 4 detected by SPE-LC/MS-MS. • The ozonation is 100% effective on the removal of the detected cytostatics. • The kinetics of cytostatic ozonation reaction is modeled by competitive kinetics. • The economic cost of the treatment of hospital wastewater was assessed.

  14. [Morpho-functional characteristic of oral mucosal epithelium after treatment with a cytostatic drug].

    Leont'eva, I V; Bykov, V L


    The effect of cytostatic drug cyclophosphamide (CY) on lingual epithelium was studied in 90 female mice using histological, morphometric, quantitative histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. CY (400 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally three times with a 48 h interval. Material was obtained 2 days after injections and 10-20 days after their discontinuation. CY treatment was shown to result in the damage of both surface epithelium of the tongue and the epithelium of minor lingual salivary glands. Damage to the surface epithelium was more pronounced on the ventral surface of the tongue and was associated mainly with the disturbances of its proliferation. Changes were less severe on the dorsal surface and were seen as the disturbances of epithelial differentiation and desquamation. Glandular epithelium was damaged to a lesser extent than the surface one, with serocytes being more sensitive to the cytotoxic injury than mucocytes. After cytostatic drug discontinuation, the tendency for the normalization of the epithelial characteristics was noted. Most persistent changes in the surface epithelium were found on the dorsal surface of the tongue and in the glandular epithelium--in the serous secretory portions of the salivary glands.

  15. Cytostatic drugs are without significant effect on digitoxin plasma level and renal excretion.

    Kuhlmann, J; Wilke, J; Rietbrock, N


    In three patients with malignant lymphoma who received 0.5 mg digitoxin before and 24 hr after combination therapy with cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP) or cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, and prednisone (COP), plasma glycoside concentrations and renal excretion were measured 0 to 168 hr after digitoxin and the areas under plasma concentration-time curves *(AUCs) were calculated. In 10 patients receiving 0.1 mg digitoxin, daily plasma glycoside concentration and daily renal excretion were measured before and after COPP, COP, or cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, cytosine-arabinoside, and prednisone (COAP) treatment schemes. In contrast to previous reports on digoxin, cytostatic drug therapy does not lead to a reduction in steady-state digitoxin plasma levels and daily renal excretion. During cytostatic therapy attainment of peak digitoxin level was delayed after a single dose, showing that the rate of digitoxin absorption was reduced, but that the AUCs and renal excretion of digitoxin (parameters of the extent of digitoxin absorption) were not diminished. Since the absorption rate is not clinically relevant in patients on long-term glycoside therapy, our results indicate that digitoxin is preferable to digoxin in such patients.

  16. Withania somnifera Induces Cytotoxic and Cytostatic Effects on Human T Leukemia Cells.

    Turrini, Eleonora; Calcabrini, Cinzia; Sestili, Piero; Catanzaro, Elena; de Gianni, Elena; Diaz, Anna Rita; Hrelia, Patrizia; Tacchini, Massimo; Guerrini, Alessandra; Canonico, Barbara; Papa, Stefano; Valdrè, Giovanni; Fimognari, Carmela


    Cancer chemotherapy is characterized by an elevated intrinsic toxicity and the development of drug resistance. Thus, there is a compelling need for new intervention strategies with an improved therapeutic profile. Immunogenic cell death (ICD) represents an innovative anticancer strategy where dying cancer cells release damage-associated molecular patterns promoting tumor-specific immune responses. The roots of Withania somnifera (W. somnifera) are used in the Indian traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, neuroprotective, and anticancer activities. The present study is designed to explore the antileukemic activity of the dimethyl sulfoxide extract obtained from the roots of W. somnifera (WE). We studied its cytostatic and cytotoxic activity, its ability to induce ICD, and its genotoxic potential on a human T-lymphoblastoid cell line by using different flow cytometric assays. Our results show that WE has a significant cytotoxic and cytostatic potential, and induces ICD. Its proapoptotic mechanism involves intracellular Ca(2+) accumulation and the generation of reactive oxygen species. In our experimental conditions, the extract possesses a genotoxic potential. Since the use of Withania is suggested in different contexts including anti-infertility and osteoarthritis care, its genotoxicity should be carefully considered for an accurate assessment of its risk-benefit profile.

  17. Handling sharps and needles

    ... this page: // Handling sharps and needles To use the sharing features ... Health Administration. OSHA fact sheet: protecting yourself when handling contaminated sharps. Updated January 2011. Available at: www. ...

  18. Statins potentiate cytostatic/cytotoxic activity of sorafenib but not sunitinib against tumor cell lines in vitro.

    Bil, Jacek; Zapala, Lukasz; Nowis, Dominika; Jakobisiak, Marek; Golab, Jakub


    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential cytostatic/cytotoxic effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and two orphan drugs registered for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma, i.e. sorafenib and sunitinib against several different tumor cell lines. Cytostatic/cytotoxic effects were measured using crystal violet or MTT reduction assays. Cell cycle regulation was investigated using flow cytometry and Western blotting. The combination of lovastatin and sorafenib (but not sunitinib) produced synergistic cytostatic/cytotoxic effects against all tested tumor cell lines. In this study, an impairment of the protein prenylation, especially geranylgeranylation, resulted predominantly in the potentiation of the cytostatic/cytotoxic activity of sorafenib, in cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, and, in poor induction of apoptosis. Moreover, due to the fact that it has been well documented that sorafenib compromises the heart function, we studied the interaction of lovastatin and sorafenib using rat cardiomyoblast line H9c2. The combination showed strong synergistic cardiotoxic effects. Statins and tyrosine kinase inhibitors were used at doses that are achievable clinically, which makes the combination promising for future studies, especially in urooncology, bearing in mind possible cardiotoxic effects.

  19. Quantum-chemical examination of interaction of cytostatic-fluorouracil with deoxyribonucleic acids

    Yuldasheva, Gulnara; Zhidomirov, Georgii M.

    Within the framework of semiempirical method of quantum chemical PM3, the possibility of formation of paired stack structures under interaction of fluorouracil with pyrimidine and purine nitrogenous bases of nucleotides has been examined. Possible mechanism of transformation of 2-deoxyuridine-5-monophosphate into metabolite-5-fluorin-2-deoxyuridine-5-monophosphate has been given. The calculations that were made allow to suppose that biotransformation of 5-FU in 5-fluorin-2-deoxyuridine-5-monophosphate, most likely, is carried out not in free nucleotides, but in the structure of DNA in two nucleotide triplets UUC and UGU, including the case when directly two nucleotides of deoxyuridine monophosphate, are transformed into 5-fluorin-2-deoxyuridine-5-monophosphate. Cytostatic ability of 5-FU is increased by its capacity to be selectively embedded into nucleotide triplets creating new chemical compounds that violate matrix RNA formation and accordingly violate protein synthesis.0

  20. Urea and carbamate derivatives of primaquine: synthesis, cytostatic and antioxidant activities.

    Simunović, M; Perković, I; Zorc, B; Ester, K; Kralj, M; Hadjipavlou-Litina, D; Pontiki, E


    The novel urea primaquine derivatives 3 were prepared by aminolysis of primaquine benzotriazolide 2 with several hydroxyamines and ethylendiamine, while carbamates 4 were synthesized from the same precursor 2 and alcohols. All compounds are fully chemically characterized and evaluated for their cytostatic and antioxidant activities. The most prominent antiproliferative activity was obtained by compounds 3c, 3d, 3g, and 5b (IC(50)=9-40 microM). 1-(5-Hydroxypentyl)-3-[4-(6-methoxy-quinolin-8-ylamino)-pentyl]urea (3c) showed extreme selectivity toward SW 620 colon cancer cells (IC(50)=0.2 microM) and a bit less toward lung cancer cells H 460. Hydroxyurea 3h showed the highest interaction with DPPH. Primaquine twin drug 3g showed very significant inhibition on LOX soybean (IC(50)=62 microM). Almost all the tested derivatives highly inhibited lipid peroxidation, significantly stronger than primaquine phosphate.

  1. Butanol is cytotoxic to Lactococcus lactis while ethanol and hexanol are cytostatic

    Hviid, Anne-Mette Meisner; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Kilstrup, Mogens


    Lactic acid bacteria currently used extensively by the dairy industry have a superior tolerance towards small chain alcohols, which makes them interesting targets for use in future bio-refineries. The mechanism underlying the alcohol tolerance of lactic acid bacteria has so far received little...... resistant lactic acid bacteria. Combined results from alcohol survival rate, live/dead staining, and a novel usage of the beta-galactosidase assay, revealed that while high concentrations of ethanol and hexanol were cytostatic to L. lactis, high concentrations of butanol were cytotoxic, causing irreparable...... attention. In the present study the physiological alcohol stress response of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 towards the primary, even-chain alcohols; ethanol, butanol, and hexanol was characterized. The alcohol tolerance of L. lactis was found comparable to those reported for highly alcohol...

  2. [Tissue and cell interactions in the oral mucosa after cytostatic drugs administration].

    Bykov, V L; Leont'eva, I V


    In the preceding work ("Morphology", 2011, issue 2), the regularities of oral mucosal (OM) epithelium injury after the cytostatic drug (CSD) treatment and its further regeneration, were reviewed. This paper presents the systematized summary of current literature data and the authors' own findings on the regularities of CSD effect on non-epithelial OM cell populations and their interactions with each other and the epithelium. The changes of intraepithelial tissue homeostasis, associated with CSD effect on intraepithelial lymphocytes, granulocytes, dendritic antigen presenting cells and melanocytes, interacting with epitheliocytes, are described. The data are presented, indicating that along with the epithelium, the cell populations of lamina propria and submucosal connective tissue, as well as the small blood vessels, are important targets of CSD in the OM tissues. The concept of a unifying model, describing tissue, cellular and molecular mechanisms of the oral mucositis development after CSD treatment, is reviewed.

  3. Carbohydrate antigen 549 in metastatic breast cancer during cytostatic treatment and follow-up

    Sölétormos, G; Nielsen, D; Schiøler, V


    This study was designed to investigate whether the serum tumour marker CA 549 gave early and reliable information about disease activity among metastatic breast cancer patients during cytostatic treatment and follow-up. 50 females with metastatic breast cancer were monitored clinically...... clinical progression followed marker progression after the end of the study, and in 11 progressive disease was established by clinical investigation alone. CA 549 response excluded clinical progression in bone or viscera and reversed. Clinical progression within 2 months in viscera and bone was predicted...... among 91% by marker progression. Clinical progression was excluded among 93% without marker progression. In conclusion, monitoring of metastatic breast cancer patients could include CA 549 if standardised criteria for marker evaluation are used....

  4. Robust ASPNET Exception Handling

    Dumond, Lee


    This Wrox Blox will teach you how to unravel the mysteries of exception handling in ASP.NET.   First, you'll get a thorough introduction to structured exception handling in the .NET Framework, learn about the Exception class, the related C# language constructs, and how exceptions propagate up the call stack. Then, you'll delve into a variety of practical topics such as: when, where, and how to properly throw, catch, and handle exceptions in your code; how to employ "defensive programming" techniques to avoid triggering the most common CLR exceptions; adopting exception handling "best practices

  5. Socialanalyse og handling

    Henriksen, Kirsten; Alminde, Rikke; Stevnsgaard Andersen, Mona

    Social analyse og handling er et redskab beregnet til at inspirere socialarbejdere til at arbejde analytisk, systematisk samt refleksivt med konkrete problemstillinger i socialt arbejde.......Social analyse og handling er et redskab beregnet til at inspirere socialarbejdere til at arbejde analytisk, systematisk samt refleksivt med konkrete problemstillinger i socialt arbejde....

  6. Practices of Handling

    Ræbild, Ulla

    area within fashion research. This paper proposes an understanding of the work process of fashion designers as practices of handling comprising a number of embodied methodologies tied to both spatial and temporal dimensions. The term handling encompasses four meanings. As a verb it is literally...... to touch, pick up, carry, or feel with the hands. Figuratively it is to manage, deal with, direct, train, or control. Additionally, as a noun, a handle is something by which we grasp or open up something. Lastly, handle also has a Nordic root, here meaning to trade, bargain or deal. Together all four...... meanings seem to merge in the fashion design process, thus opening up for an embodied engagement with matter that entails direction giving, organizational management and negotiation. By seeing processes of handling as a key fashion methodological practice, it is possible to divert the discourse away from...

  7. [Injury and reparative regeneration of the oral mucosal epithelium after cytostatic drugs administration (tissue, cell and molecular mechanisms)].

    Bykov, V L; Leont'eva, I V


    This paper presents the systematized summary of current literature data and the authors' own findings on the regularities of human and animal surface oral mucosal epithelium (OME) injury caused by cytostatic drugs (CSD) administration, and on the ways of its regeneration after the cytostatic chemotherapy (CSCT) discontinuation. Tissue, cell and molecular mechanisms of CSCT effects on OME, are described. The direct effects of CSD included the epithelial layer attenuation with the derangement of its architecture, epitheliocyte proliferation suppression, apoptosis activation, and differentiation disturbances (involving the broad spectrum of cytological, cytochemical, ultrastructural and molecular-biological changes). In severe cases, these processes resulted in the loss of the epithelial layer integrity with the development of ulceration. Complete epithelial regeneration requires a long period after the CSCT discontinuation. Indirect effects of CSD on OME are associated with the microbial invasion and the diffusion of microbial vital activity products into the epithelium with concurrent leukopenia, immunosuppression and decreased salivary secretion.

  8. XTEN as Biological Alternative to PEGylation Allows Complete Expression of a Protease-Activatable Killin-Based Cytostatic.

    Akvile Haeckel

    Full Text Available Increased effectiveness and reduced side effects are general goals in drug research, especially important in cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to design a long-circulating, activatable cytostatic drug that is completely producible in E. coli. Crucial for this goal was the novel unstructured polypeptide XTEN, which acts like polyethylene glycol (PEG but has many important advantages. Most importantly, it can be produced in E. coli, is less immunogenic, and is biodegradable. We tested constructs containing a fragment of Killin as cytostatic/cytotoxic element, a cell-penetrating peptide, an MMP-2 cleavage site for specific activation, and XTEN for long blood circulation and deactivation of Killin. One of three sequence variants was efficiently expressed in E. coli. As typical for XTEN, it allowed efficient purification of the E. coli lysate by a heat step (10 min 75°C and subsequent anion exchange chromatography using XTEN as purification tag. After 24 h XTEN-Killin reduced the number of viable cells of HT-1080 tumor cell line to 3.8 ±2.0% (p<0.001 compared to untreated controls. In contrast, liver derived non-tumor cells (BRL3A did not show significant changes in viability. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of completely producing a complex protease-activatable, potentially long-circulating cytostatic/cytotoxic prodrug in E. coli-a concept that could lead to efficient production of highly multifunctional drugs in the future.

  9. CHR -- Character Handling Routines

    Charles, A. C.; Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Jenness, T.

    This document describes the Character Handling Routine library, CHR, and its use. The CHR library augments the limited character handling facilities provided by the Fortran 77 standard. It offers a range of character handling facilities: from formatting Fortran data types into text strings and the reverse, to higher level functions such as wild card matching, string sorting, paragraph reformatting and justification. The library may be used simply for building text strings for interactive applications or as a basis for more complex text processing applications.

  10. Microparticles prepared from biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoates as matrix for encapsulation of cytostatic drug.

    Murueva, A V; Shishatskaya, E I; Kuzmina, A M; Volova, T G; Sinskey, A J


    Microparticles made from degradable polyhydroxyalkanoates of different chemical compositions a homopolymer of 3-hydroxybutyric acid, copolymers of 3-hydroxybutyric and 4-hydroxybutyric acids (P3HB/4HB), 3-hydroxybutyric and 3-hydroxyvaleric acids (P3HB/3HV), 3-hydroxybutyric and 3-hydroxyhexanoic acids (P3HB/3HHx) were prepared using the solvent evaporation technique, from double emulsions. The study addresses the influence of the chemical compositions on the size and ξ-potential of microparticles. P3HB microparticles loaded with doxorubicin have been prepared and investigated. Their average diameter and ξ-potential have been found to be dependent upon the level of loading (1, 5, and 10 % of the polymer mass). Investigation of the in vitro drug release behavior showed that the total drug released from the microparticle into the medium increased with mass concentration of the drug. In this study mouse fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells were cultivated on PHA microparticles, and results of using fluorescent DAPI DNA stain, and MTT assay showed that microparticles prepared from PHAs of different chemical compositions did not exhibit cytotoxicity to cells cultured on them and proved to be highly biocompatible. Cell attachment and proliferation on PHA microparticles were similar to those on polystyrene. The cytostatic drug encapsulated in P3HB/3HV microparticles has been proven to be effective against HeLa tumor cells.

  11. Microbial flora in the gastrointestinal tract abolishes cytostatic effects of alpha-difluoromethylornithine in vivo

    Hessels, J.; Kingma, A.W.; Ferwerda, H.; Keij, J.; van den Berg, G.A.; Muskiet, F.A.


    Although treatment with the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) leads to depletion of intracellular polyamines and to related growth inhibition in vitro, its cytostatic effects in vivo are disappointing. This may be due to abolition of DFMO-induced growth inhibition by polyamines released during normal body cell turnover, to dietary polyamines, or to putrescine synthesized by the microbial flora in the GI tract. We studied selectively (aerobic) and totally (aerobic + anaerobic) GI tract-decontaminated LI210-bearing mice fed with 3 types of diet differing in their polyamine and carbohydrate residue contents and treated with combinations of intraperitoneal DFMO and oral deuterium-labelled putrescine. Our data show that, irrespective of diet type, total decontamination markedly potentiates the moderate tumor growth inhibition that is caused by DFMO alone. During total decontamination, growth-inhibited L1210 cells accumulate in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Although orally administered deuterium-labelled putrescine gave rise to deuterium labelling of L1210 putrescine, spermidine and spermine, the polyamine levels in our diets played only a minor role.

  12. Bulbispermine: A Crinine-Type Amaryllidaceae Alkaloid Exhibiting Cytostatic Activity towards Apoptosis-Resistant Glioma Cells

    Luchetti, Giovanni; Johnston, Robert; Mathieu, Véronique; Lefranc, Florence; Hayden, Kathryn; Andolfi, Anna; Lamoral-Theys, Delphine; Reisenauer, Mary R.; Champion, Cody; Pelly, Stephen C.; van Otterlo, Willem A. L.; Magedov, Igor V.; Kiss, Robert; Evidente, Antonio; Rogelj, Snezna; Kornienko, Alexander


    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloid bulbispermine was derivatized to produce a small group of synthetic analogues. These, together with bulbispermine’s natural crinine-type congeners, were evaluated in vitro against a panel of cancer cell lines with various levels of resistance to proapoptotic stimuli. Bulbispermine, haemanthamine and haemanthidine showed the most potent antiproliferative activities as determined by the MTT colorimetric assay. Among the synthetic bulbispermine analogues, only the C1,C2-dicarbamate derivative exhibited noteworthy growth inhibitory properties. All active compounds were found not to discriminate between the cancer cell lines based on the apoptosis sensitivity criterion and displayed comparable potencies in both cell types, indicating that apoptosis induction is not the primary mechanism responsible for antiproliferative activity in this series of compounds. It was also found that bulbispermine inhibits the proliferation of glioblastoma cells through cytostatic effects, possibly arising from the rigidification of the actin cytoskeleton. These findings lead us to argue that crinine-type alkaloids are potentially useful drug leads for the treatment of apoptosis resistant cancers and glioblastoma in particular. PMID:22389235

  13. Bulbispermine: a crinine-type Amaryllidaceae alkaloid exhibiting cytostatic activity toward apoptosis-resistant glioma cells.

    Luchetti, Giovanni; Johnston, Robert; Mathieu, Véronique; Lefranc, Florence; Hayden, Kathryn; Andolfi, Anna; Lamoral-Theys, Delphine; Reisenauer, Mary R; Champion, Cody; Pelly, Stephen C; van Otterlo, Willem A L; Magedov, Igor V; Kiss, Robert; Evidente, Antonio; Rogelj, Snezna; Kornienko, Alexander


    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloid bulbispermine was derivatized to produce a small group of synthetic analogues. These, together with bulbispermine's natural crinine-type congeners, were evaluated in vitro against a panel of cancer cell lines with various levels of resistance to pro-apoptotic stimuli. Bulbispermine, haemanthamine, and haemanthidine showed the most potent antiproliferative activities as determined by the MTT colorimetric assay. Among the synthetic bulbispermine analogues, only the C1,C2-dicarbamate derivative exhibited notable growth inhibitory properties. All active compounds were found not to discriminate between the cancer cell lines based on the apoptosis sensitivity criterion; they displayed similar potencies in both cell types, indicating that the induction of apoptosis is not the primary mechanism responsible for antiproliferative activity in this series of compounds. It was also found that bulbispermine inhibits the proliferation of glioblastoma cells through cytostatic effects, possibly arising from rigidification of the actin cytoskeleton. These findings lead us to argue that crinine-type alkaloids are potentially useful drug leads for the treatment of apoptosis-resistant cancers and glioblastoma in particular.

  14. Synthesis, cytostatic evaluation and structure activity relationships of novel bis-indolylmethanes and their corresponding tetrahydroindolocarbazoles.

    El Sayed, Mardia T; Ahmed, Khadiga M; Mahmoud, Kazem; Hilgeroth, Andreas


    BIMs (bis-indolylmethanes) (1a-n) were synthesized using glacial acetic acid as a protic acid for promotion of the condensation reaction of indoles with aldehydes in high yields (86-98 %). Corresponding tetrahydroindolo[2,3-b]carbazoles (2a-m) were synthesized via condensation of BIMs with aldehydes. Ten synthesized compounds have been submitted to the national cancer institute in the USA where all the submitted samples have been selected for one dose screening. As a result of the one dose screening of BIMs (1e,f,h,i,n) and of the indolocarbazoles (2e,f,h,i,j) the average highest cytostatic effects was recorded here for the BIM 1h and the indolocarbazole (2e) that showed the lowest mean values of "47.39%" and of "21.63%" respectively. Both compounds (1h and 2e) were further tested in five dose screening with the tested substance (1h) being significantly more sensitive for several cancers cell line as corresponding to their GI50 values. Furthermore, the basically substituted derivative 2e showed the highest antipoliferative activity in a nanomolar scale towards the three selected cancers cell lines Non small lung cell NCI-H460 with GI50 "616 nM", Ovarian Cancer cell line OVCAR-4 with GI50 "562 nM" and Breast Cancer cell line MCF7 with GI50 "930 nM".

  15. Helping Kids Handle Worry

    ... Child What Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Community Service: A Family's Guide to Getting Involved ... With Stress Teens Talk About Stress (Video) Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Childhood Stress How Can I Help My Child ...

  16. Handling Pyrophoric Reagents

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Haynie, Todd O.


    Pyrophoric reagents are extremely hazardous. Special handling techniques are required to prevent contact with air and the resulting fire. This document provides several methods for working with pyrophoric reagents outside of an inert atmosphere.


    Groupe ST/HM


    A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

  18. The cytostatic activity of NUC-3073, a phosphoramidate prodrug of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine, is independent of activation by thymidine kinase and insensitive to degradation by phosphorolytic enzymes.

    Vande Voorde, Johan; Liekens, Sandra; McGuigan, Christopher; Murziani, Paola G S; Slusarczyk, Magdalena; Balzarini, Jan


    A novel phosphoramidate nucleotide prodrug of the anticancer nucleoside analogue 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (5-FdUrd) was synthesized and evaluated for its cytostatic activity. Whereas 5-FdUrd substantially lost its cytostatic potential in thymidine kinase (TK)-deficient murine leukaemia L1210 and human lymphocyte CEM cell cultures, NUC-3073 markedly kept its antiproliferative activity in TK-deficient tumour cells, and thus is largely independent of intracellular TK activity to exert its cytostatic action. NUC-3073 was found to inhibit thymidylate synthase (TS) in the TK-deficient and wild-type cell lines at drug concentrations that correlated well with its cytostatic activity in these cells. NUC-3073 does not seem to be susceptible to inactivation by catabolic enzymes such as thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and uridine phosphorylase (UP). These findings are in line with our observations that 5-FdUrd, but not NUC-3073, substantially loses its cytostatic potential in the presence of TP-expressing mycoplasmas in the tumour cell cultures. Therefore, we propose NUC-3073 as a novel 5-FdUrd phosphoramidate prodrug that (i) may circumvent potential resistance mechanisms of tumour cells (e.g. decreased TK activity) and (ii) is not degraded by catabolic enzymes such as TP which is often upregulated in tumour cells or expressed in mycoplasma-infected tumour tissue.

  19. Update of the stability of drugs cytostatic drugs by applying the methodology of the matrix of risk for the manufacture of sterile drugs

    Ángela Usarralde-Pérez


    Full Text Available Objective: To establish limits of validity to opened or reconstituted vials and cytostatic mixtures according to their physico- chemical stability and the level of risk and preparation requirements. The level of risk and preparation requirements were assigned by the risk matrix the Guide of Good Practice of Preparation of Drugs in Hospital Pharmacy Services. Method: A table of stabilities of cytostatic drugs was developed. Physicochemical stability data were obtained from data sheets and literature reviews. The level of risk was assigned by the matrix of risk depending on the requirements of each preparation. When the physico-chemical stability was equal to or higher than indicated by the matrix, it is assumed the terms of validity of the matrix; otherwise, validity periods coincided with the peak period of physicochemical stability. Results: 61 drugs were reviewed. It was assumed the chemical term of validity in 45.9% of opened/reconstituted vials and 50.8% of cytostatic mixtures, and indicated by the risk in the rest array, respectively. According to the matrix, the level of risk was medium in most of cytostatic drugs. Only one preparation was high risk. No preparation obtained low-risk. Conclusions: To assign the term of validity of opened/reconstituted vials and cytostatic mixtures not only it is necessary to consider physical and chemical stability. The level of risk and preparation requirements are also important, allowing more adequate validity periods

  20. Colonic potassium handling

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby; Matos, Joana E.; Prætorius, Helle


    Homeostatic control of plasma K+ is a necessary physiological function. The daily dietary K+ intake of approximately 100 mmol is excreted predominantly by the distal tubules of the kidney. About 10% of the ingested K+ is excreted via the intestine. K+ handling in both organs is specifically...

  1. Improving coal handling effectiveness

    Walker, S.


    Appropriate coal handling systems are essential for successful coal utilisation. The paper looks at some of the options available, including crushers and hammer mills, wear-resistant liners for chutes and wagons, and dewatering systems. These are individual components within larger systems such as stockyard stacking and reclaiming installations. 5 photos.

  2. Solid waste handling

    Parazin, R.J.


    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  3. [Cytogenetic analysis of the effects of selected 2d generation cytostatics (iproplatin and oxoplatin) on human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro].

    Srb, V; Vancurová, R; Kubzová, E


    Cytostatic effect of Iproplatinum (CHIP, cis-dichlorotrans-dihydroxy-bis-isopropylaminoplatinic complex) and Oxoplatinum (oxo-Pt, cis-diamin-dichloro-trans-dihydroxyplatinic complex) is studied as influencing genetic structures of in vitro human peripheral lymphocytes. Both mentioned substances are classed as prospective cytostatics with satisfactory effect on various tumors, and both undergo now preclinical tests in our country. They are supposed to cause less undesired side effects in comparison with previous preparation of this range--cisplatinum (cis-DDP; Platidiam). The genotoxicity of both substances is examined using the short-term test (72 hrs.), which means a cultivation of raw human peripheral blood modified according to Macek (1965). To set the testing scheme, five concentrations of substances (0, 5, 12, 60 and 120 mumol.l-1) were selected as well as three time intervals of action of a substance (3, 6 and 24 hrs.) prior the expiration of cultivation time, i.e. before the mitotic cycle stop in c-metaphase. Concentrations were determined estimating cisplatinum's dosage to patients. The concentration value 120 mumol.l-1 responds in theory to a single therapeutic dose administration of Platidiam. However, in praxis this concentration is never achieved in organism (resp. protein-binding effect). In accordance with mice LD50 values, both the Iproplatinum and Oxoplatinum showed experimentally 10 times less toxicity than cis-DDP. Cytogenetic changes were evaluated by microscopy in peripheral lymphocytes (predominantly the occurrence of chromosome abnormalities in metaphase), and mitotic activity was as well identified.

  4. A new pharmacological approach to gastrointestinal cancer at high risk of relapse based on maintenance of the cytostatic effect.

    Nicolini, Andrea; Conte, Massimo; Rossi, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Paola; Carpi, Angelo; Miccoli, Paolo


    In metastatic colorectal and other locally advanced gastrointestinal cancers, the mechanisms of tumor growth and/or immune escape by residual cancer cells after curative resection often provoke tumor recurrence. Current adjuvant therapy is based on pharmacological administration up to 6-8 months after surgery. We hypothesized that the long-term, cytostatic action from repeated post-adjuvant administration of 5-fluorouracil (FU)-leucovorin (LV) cycles, as a result of the downregulation of the above-mentioned cellular mechanisms, could halt tumor progression. An active prospective cohort, including 19 patients (study group) at high risk of relapse, was considered. All patients received repeated post-adjuvant administration of 5-FU-LV cycles for up to 52-60 months following curative surgery (total cumulative dose of about 90 g and mean follow-up of 70.6 ± 49.7 months). The 5-year disease-free interval (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 80.4 ± 10.2% and 87.1 ± 8.6%, respectively, which is very different from the recent literature that has reported 5-year DFS and OS values of 31.8% and 40.1%, respectively. These findings suggest that this new pharmacological approach based on the long-term maintenance of a cytostatic effect with 5-FU-LV can produce a relevant improvement in the outcome of this population.

  5. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings


    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.


    J. D. Bigbee


    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

  7. Basics for Handling Food Safely

    ... o a rm ct a s tion Basics for Handling Food Safely Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and storage are essential to prevent foodborne ... and soap for 20 seconds before and after handling food. · Don’t cross-contaminate. Keep raw meat, ...

  8. Students' Strategies for Exception Handling

    Rashkovits, Rami; Lavy, Ilana


    This study discusses and presents various strategies employed by novice programmers concerning exception handling. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: we provide an analysis tool to measure the level of assimilation of exception handling mechanism; we present and analyse strategies to handle exceptions; we present and analyse…

  9. Intratumoral pharmacokinetic analysis by 19F-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and cytostatic in vivo activity of gemcitabine (dFdC) in two small cell lung cancer xenografts

    Kristjansen, P E; Quistorff, B; Spang-Thomsen, M;


    BACKGROUND: Gemcitabine, 2'2'difluoro-deoxycytidine (dFdC), has shown activity in several preclinical models, and presently the compound is being clinically evaluated in patients with lung cancer and other solid tumors. DESIGN: The cytostatic in vivo activity of dFdC was tested in the two human...... the same single dose of the drug....

  10. Effects of combined selenium and vitamin E administration on DNA in Walker tumor bearing Wistar rat exposed to cytostatic acute treatment.

    Mihalache, Daria; Preoteasa, V; Barca, V


    Previous studies have showed that organic Se and Vitamin E have a significant protective effect when administered in combination with cytostatics. This paper reports the investigation on effects of mixed administration Orgasel 50 and Vitamin E in Wistar rat with experimentally induced Walker tumor under acute cytostatic treatment, with emphasis on two aspects: a) the influence of antioxidants upon liver unscheduled DNA biosynthesis under cytostatic (Lomustin) acute aggression; and b) the potential improvement of cytostatic effects by antioxidants treatment in tumor. Two lots of animals were used: lot 1 - Orgasel 50 and Vitamin E administered 7 days before the initiation of tumor induction and lot 2 - the antioxidants were concomitantly administered with tumor cell inoculation. The Walker tumor (an epithelial carcinoma) cells were subcutaneously injected (5 x 10(6) cells/0.5 ml in isotonic saline solution); the first tumor nodules appeared in 4 days; the tumor has reached the appropriate dimensions in 12 days. The unscheduled DNA biosynthesis caused by Lomustin in rat liver as well as the replicative DNA biosynthesis taking place in Walker tumor cells were assessed radioisotopically by measuring the uptake of 3H-Thymidine (200 microCi / 100 g.b.w.). Our observations regarding the role of antioxidant treatment suggest: 1) a benefic effect on DNA alkylant-induced lesions, expressed by a decrease in the level of 3H-Thymidine uptake in liver and, 2) an increase of the inhibitory activity of cytostatic on DNA replication biosynthesis in tumor cells, suggested by lower 3H-Thymidine incorporation in tumor cells. The most significant results were showed in both analyzed tissues, when the Orgasel 50 + Vitamin E administration begins at the same time with the tumor cell inoculation. These findings clearly show the organic Se salts and Vitamin E constitute a valuable adjuvant in anticancer medication, increasing the interest for the application of these antioxidants in cancer

  11. The novel primaquine derivatives of N-alkyl, cycloalkyl or aryl urea: synthesis, cytostatic and antiviral activity evaluations.

    Dzimbeg, G; Zorc, B; Kralj, M; Ester, K; Pavelić, K; Andrei, G; Snoeck, R; Balzarini, J; De Clercq, E; Mintas, M


    The novel urea primaquine derivatives 3a-i were prepared by aminolysis of benzotriazolide 2 with the corresponding amine in the presence or absence of triethylamine. Compound 2 was prepared by acylation of primaquine with 1-benzotriazole carboxylic acid chloride. Among all compounds evaluated, the pyridine derivative 3h exhibited the best cytostatic activities against colon carcinoma, human T-lymphocyte and murine leukemia. However, this compound showed also rather marked cytotoxicity towards human normal fibroblasts. The highest selectivity in the inhibitory effects on human malignant tumor cell lines vs. normal fibroblasts was found for ureas 3c, 3d and 3g. Results of broad antiviral evaluation showed that pyridine and phenethyl derivatives of urea 3h and 3g exhibited some selective inhibition against cytomegalovirus.

  12. Cytostatic action of aspirin and its effect on mitomycin C activity. A study in vitro under irradiation

    Kammerer, Cornelia; Getoff, Nikola E-mail:


    Experiments in vitro using E. coli bacteria (AB 1157) proved that aspirin possesses a cytostatic ability under various experimental condition (pH=7.4) in airfree, aerated as well as in media containing N{sub 2}O (converting e{sub aq}{sup -} into OH- radicals). In the last case the highest effect of aspirin was observed. The combination of aspirin with the well-known cytostaticum, mitomycin C (MMC) leads in airfree as well as in aerated media to a significant decrease of the MMC activity. However, the mixture of aspirin and MMC in the presence of N{sub 2}O causes a synergistic effect, resulting in an enhancement of the MMC activity by a factor of 1.5. Probable reaction steps are presented and discussed. Using the pulse radiolysis method the rate constants for the reactions of e{sub aq}{sup -}, H and OH- species with aspirin were also determined.

  13. Effect of immobilized granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on hemopoietic precursors of various classes during cytostatic-induced myelosuppression.

    Dygai, A M; Skurikhin, E G; Andreeva, T V; Madonov, P G; Vereshagin, E I; Kinsht, D N; Pershina, O V; Khmelevskaya, E S


    Experiments were performed on the model of cytostatic myelosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide. We compared the effect of immobilized granulocyte CSF (the preparation was created in Russia) and reference standard preparation of granulocyte CSF on the development of neutrophilic leukopenia and hemopoietic precursors of various classes. It was found that preparations of granulocyte CSF decreased the duration and degree of peripheral blood neutropenia. The granulocytopoiesis-stimulating effect was related to stimulation of multipotent hemopoietic precursors, granulocyte-erythroid-macrophage-megakaryocyte precursors, and granulocyte precursors. Induction of division and maturation of multipotent hemopoietic precursors, granulocyte-erythroid-macrophage-megakaryocyte precursors, and granulocyte precursors and recovery of cellularity of the granulocytic hemopoietic stem after administration of immobilized granulocyte CSF were observed at later terms compared to treatment with the reference preparation of granulocyte CSF.

  14. Gold(I) complex of 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino) ferrocene-quinoline conjugate: a virostatic agent against HIV-1.

    Gama, Ntombenhle; Kumar, Kamlesh; Ekengard, Erik; Haukka, Matti; Darkwa, James; Nordlander, Ebbe; Meyer, Debra


    HIV infection is known for replicating in proliferating CD(+) T-cells. Treatment of these cells with cytostatic (anti-proliferation) compounds such as hydroxyurea interferes with the cells's ability support HIV replication. Combinations of such cytostatic compounds with proven anti-retroviral drugs (like ddI) are known as virostatic, and have been shown to aid in the control of the infection. The use of two different drugs in virostatic combinations however, carries the risk of adverse effects including drug-drug interactions, which could lead to augmented toxicities and reduced efficacy. Here, a novel digold(I) complex of ferrocene-quinoline (3) was investigated for cytostatic behaviour as well as anti-viral activity which if demonstrated would eliminate concerns of drug-drug interactions. The complex was synthesized and characterized by NMR, FT-IR and mass spectroscopy and the molecular structure was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Bio-screening involved viability dyes, real time electronic sensing and whole virus assays. The complex showed significant (p = 0.0092) inhibition of virus infectivity (83 %) at 10 ug/mL. This same concentration caused cytostatic behaviour in TZM-bl cells with significant (p < 0.01) S and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. These data supports 3 as a virostatic agent, possessing both anti-viral and cytostatic characteristics. In the absence of 3, TZM-bl cells were infected by a pseudovirus and this was demonstrated through luminescence in a luciferase assay. Pre-incubation of the virus with 3 decreased luminescence, indicating the anti-viral activity of 3. Complex 3 also showed cytostatic behavior with increased S-phase and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest.

  15. Reactions and interactions in handling anticancer drugs.

    D'Arcy, P F


    The clinical toxicity of anticancer drugs has been well documented with regard to the adverse effects of treatment in patients. However, many of these drugs have a direct irritant effect on the skin, eyes, mucous membranes, and other tissues. Handled without due care, especially when being prepared for injection, most cytotoxic drugs can cause local toxic or allergic reactions; they also present hazards of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. This spectrum of potential risk should be kept in mind by personnel administering or handling these drugs, especially in oncology units where just a few individuals may routinely and frequently reconstitute many doses of cytotoxic agents. This is work in which the hospital pharmacist should and must be involved; indeed, many of the techniques and skills required are identical with those used in standard aseptic procedures for preparing pharmaceutical products. Pharmacy departments should take the initiative in making hospital staff aware of the potential risks of handling neoplastic agents, and they should spearhead a multidisciplinary assessment for producing local guidelines for working with these drugs. This article warns practitioners about the inherent dangers of these practitioner-drug interactions and suggests ways in which they may be reduced. Information is given in tabular form regarding recommended procedures for reconstituting 24 anticancer drugs and precautions to protect the personnel handling them, especially when there is spillage of powdered or liquid drugs. Also, guidelines are given about incompatibilities with admixtures of such drugs, and the literature is reviewed relative to recent developments in hospital pharmacy departments where reconstitution of anticancer drugs has been incorporated into existing intravenous fluid preparation/admixture units. Not only has this been shown to be safer and more effective in terms of time and labor, but also it has cut the cost of injectable cytotoxic drugs by an

  16. New transport and handling contract

    SC Department


    A new transport and handling contract entered into force on 1.10.2008. As with the previous contract, the user interface is the internal transport/handling request form on EDH: To ensure that you receive the best possible service, we invite you to complete the various fields as accurately as possible and to include a mobile telephone number on which we can reach you. You can follow the progress of your request (schedule, completion) in the EDH request routing information. We remind you that the following deadlines apply: 48 hours for the transport of heavy goods (up to 8 tonnes) or simple handling operations 5 working days for crane operations, transport of extra-heavy goods, complex handling operations and combined transport and handling operations in the tunnel. For all enquiries, the number to contact remains unchanged: 72202. Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 72672 - 160319

  17. Trends in Modern Exception Handling

    Marcin Kuta


    Full Text Available Exception handling is nowadays a necessary component of error proof information systems. The paper presents overview of techniques and models of exception handling, problems connected with them and potential solutions. The aspects of implementation of propagation mechanisms and exception handling, their effect on semantics and general program efficiency are also taken into account. Presented mechanisms were adopted to modern programming languages. Considering design area, formal methods and formal verification of program properties we can notice exception handling mechanisms are weakly present what makes a field for future research.


    Ginns, D.W.


    A means for handling remotely a sample pellet to be irradiated in a nuclear reactor is proposed. It is comprised essentially of an inlet tube extending through the outer shield of the reactor and being inclined so that its outer end is at a higher elevation than its inner end, an outlet tube extending through the outer shield being inclined so that its inner end is at a higher elevation than its outer end, the inner ends of these two tubes being interconnected, and a straight tube extending through the outer shield and into the reactor core between the inlet and outlet tubes and passing through the juncture of said inner ends. A rod-like member is rotatably and slidely operated within the central straight tube and has a receptacle on its inner end for receiving a sample pellet from the inlet tube. The rod member is operated to pick up a sample pellet from the inlet tube, carry the sample pellet into the irradiating position within the core, and return to the receiving position where it is rotated to dump the irradiated pellet into the outlet tube by which it is conveyed by gravity to the outside of the reactor. Stop members are provided in the inlet tube, and electrical operating devices are provided to control the sequence of the operation automatically.

  19. Worm-like thrombus in left main coronary artery after cytostatic treatment.

    Karavelioglu, Yusuf; Ekicibasi, Erkan; Tanalp, Ali C; Karapinar, Hekim; Aung, Soe M


    This paper reports a 43-year-old patient who had a large, mobile, worm-like thrombus in the left main coronary artery after receiving a chemotherapy regimen containing cisplatin, bleomycin and etoposide for a nonseminomatous testes tumor. The patient was successfully treated with thrombolytic therapy. Physicians should be aware that thrombotic events may be observed after the administration of certain chemotherapeutic agents, particularly cisplatin.

  20. Parallel Handling of Integrity Constraints

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Flokstra, Jan; Apers, Peter M.G.


    Integrity constraints form an important part of a data model. Therefore, a complete integrity constraint handling subsystem is considered an important part of any modern DBMS. In implementing an integrity constraint handling subsystem, there are two major problem areas: providing enough functionalit

  1. Assessment of Issue Handling Efficiency

    Luijten, B.; Visser, J.; Zaidman, A.


    We mined the issue database of GNOME to assess how issues are handled. How many issues are submitted and resolved? Does the backlog grow or decrease? How fast are issues resolved? Does issue resolution speed increase or decrease over time? In which subproject are issues handled most efficiently? To

  2. Assessment of Issue Handling Efficiency

    Luijten, B.; Visser, J.; Zaidman, A.


    We mined the issue database of GNOME to assess how issues are handled. How many issues are submitted and resolved? Does the backlog grow or decrease? How fast are issues resolved? Does issue resolution speed increase or decrease over time? In which subproject are issues handled most efficiently? To

  3. Steroidal saponins from the aerial parts of Dracaena draco and their cytostatic activity on HL-60 cells.

    Mimaki, Y; Kuroda, M; Ide, A; Kameyama, A; Yokosuka, A; Sashida, Y


    Chemical examination of the aerial parts of Dracaena draco has led to the isolation of a total of nine steroidal saponins, including five new ones. The structures of the new saponins were determined by spectral data and a few chemical transformations to be (23S,24S)-spirosta-5,25(27)-diene-1 beta,3 beta,23,24-tetrol 1-O-{O-(2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1-->2)-alpha-L -arabinopyranosyl} 24-O-beta-D-fucopyranoside, (23S,24S)-spirosta-5,25(27)-diene-1 beta,3 beta, 23,24-tetrol 1-O-{O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L -arabinopyranoside}, (23S,24S)-spirosta-5,25(27)-diene-1 beta,3 beta,23,24-tetrol 1-O-{O-(4-O- acetyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyransoide} , (23S)-spirosta-5,25(27)-diene-1 beta,3 beta,23-triol 1-O-{O-alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl)-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside} and (23S,24S)-spirosta-5,25(27)-diene-1 beta,3 beta,23-triol 1-O-{O-(4-O-acetyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1-->2)-alpha-L- arabinopyranoside}. The isolated saponins were evaluated for their cytostatic activity on leukemia HL-60 cells.

  4. Exposure of CD34+ precursors to cytostatic anthraquinone-derivatives induces rapid dendritic cell differentiation: implications for cancer immunotherapy.

    van de Ven, Rieneke; Reurs, Anneke W; Wijnands, Pepijn G J T B; van Wetering, Sandra; Kruisbeek, Ada M; Hooijberg, Erik; Scheffer, George L; Scheper, Rik J; de Gruijl, Tanja D


    Appropriate activation of dendritic cells (DC) is essential for successful active vaccination and induction of cell-mediated immunity. The scarcity of precursor cells, as well as long culture methods, have hampered wide-scale application of DC vaccines derived from CD34(+) precursors, despite their suggested superior efficacy over the more commonly applied monocyte-derived DC (MoDC). Here, employing the CD34(+)/CD14(+) AML-derived human DC progenitor cell line MUTZ3, we show that cytostatic anthraquinone-derivatives (i.e., the anthracenedione mitoxantrone and the related anthracyclin doxorubicin) induce rapid differentiation of CD34(+) DC precursors into functional antigen-presenting cells (APC) in a three-day protocol. The drugs were found to act specifically on CD34(+), and not on CD14(+) DC precursors. Importantly, these observations were confirmed for primary CD34(+) and CD14(+) DC precursors from peripheral blood. Mitoxantrone-generated DC were fully differentiated within three days and after an additional 24 h of maturation, were as capable as standard 9-day differentiated and matured DC to migrate toward the lymph node-homing chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, to induce primary allogeneic T cell proliferation, and to prime functional MART1-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Our finding that anthraquinone-derivatives like mitoxantrone support rapid high-efficiency differentiation of DC precursors may have consequences for in vitro production of DC vaccines as well as for novel immunochemotherapy strategies.

  5. DESI-MS2: a rapid and innovative method for trace analysis of six cytostatic drugs in health care setting.

    Fabrizi, Giovanni; Fioretti, Marzia; Rocca, Lucia Mainero; Curini, Roberta


    With the aim of establishing exposure levels for hospital personnel preparing and administering cytostatic drugs (CDs), here, we present an innovative screening method based on the use of the desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) interface coupled with a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer. A rapid, simple, and sensitive procedure was developed for the simultaneous surface monitoring of cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, methotrexate, vincristine, gemcitabine, and cytarabine. Since analytes were in the solid state, a novel approach based on the use of passive samplers was combined with the direct analysis of wipes. A PTFE-printed glass slide was used as a passive sampler, while hydrophobic centers of Swiffer® cloths were judged extremely efficient as wipe samplers. After the sampling period, the CD collectors were directly processed with the DESI-MS system without any further treatment. MS/MS confirmatory analysis was conducted using selected reaction monitoring in the positive ion mode and detection limits were evaluated. Values were at the picograms per square millimeter levels on the passive collector and at the picograms per square centimeter levels for the wipe ones. Direct determination on solid-state samples combined with mass spectrometry selectivity provided a powerful tool so far unapplied to occupational hygiene.

  6. Lunar Materials Handling System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of lunar soil into and out of process equipment in support of in situ resource utilization...

  7. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    Gill, J.T. [Monsanto Research Corp., Miamisburg, OH (United States). Mound Facility; Coffin, D.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  8. Solidex 88: solids handling conference


    Papers are presented under the session headings: BMHB (British Materials Handling Board) - tackling user problems; feeding pneumatic conveying systems - matching the hardware to the product; and solutions to some operational problems.

  9. Lunar Materials Handling System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of bulk materials and products into and out of process equipment in support of lunar and Mars in...

  10. Order Handling in Convergent Environments

    Vrtanoski, Jordan


    The rapid development of IT&T technology had big impact on the traditional telecommunications market, transforming it from monopolistic market to highly competitive high-tech market where new services are required to be created frequently. This paper aims to describe a design approach that puts order management process (as part of enterprise application integration) in function of rapid service creation. In the text we will present a framework for collaborative order handling supporting convergent services. The design splits the order handling processes in convergent environments in three business process groups: order capture, order management and order fulfillment. The paper establishes abstract framework for order handling and provides design guidelines for transaction handling implementation based on the checkpoint and inverse command strategy. The proposed design approach is based in a convergent telecommunication environment. Same principles are applicable in solving problems of collaboration in fun...

  11. Towards integrated microliquid handling systems

    Elwenspoek, M.; Lammerink, T.S.J.; Miyake, R.; Fluitman, J.H.J.


    In this paper we describe components for integrated microliquid handling systems such as fluid injection analysis, and first results of planar integration of components. The components discussed are channels, passive and active valves, actuators for micropumps, micromixers, microflow sensors, optica

  12. Grain Handling and Storage Safety

    Webster, Jill, Ph.D.


    Agricultural Health and Safety Fact Sheet AHS-02 Grain Handling and Storage Safety Jill Webster Ph.D., S. Christian Mariger, Graduate Assistant Agricultural Systems Technology and Education There are several hazards that should be considered when working with grain. Storage structures, handling equipment, and the grain itself have all caused serious injuries and deaths. Storage structures (bins, silos, and granaries), like all confined spaces, have significant hazards associated with them. Be...

  13. Civilsamfundets ABC: H for Handling

    Lund, Anker Brink; Meyer, Gitte


    Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til H for Handling.......Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til H for Handling....

  14. Palladium(II) complexes with tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine, structure, reactions and cytostatic activity.

    Pruchnik, Hanna; Lis, Tadeusz; Latocha, Małgorzata; Zielińska, Aleksandra; Pruchnik, Florian P


    Water soluble and air stable P(RCOOH)3 (R=C2H4) (TCEP) is an efficient reducing agent used in biochemistry to break S-S bond in peptides, proteins and other compounds containing S-S bonds. The similarity between the coordination chemistry of Pd(II) and Pt(II) led to the investigations of antitumor activity of palladium(II) compounds however the Pd(II) complexes with TCEP were not investigated. New palladium(II) complexes with (TCEP): trans-[PdCl2(TCEP)2] (1) and trans-[Pd2(μ-Cl)2Cl2(TCEP)2] (2) were fully characterized by (1)H, (13)C, (31)P NMR, IR and ESI-MS spectroscopic techniques. Complexes are stable in non-aqueous DMSO and DMF. In aqueous solutions Cl ligands are substituted by COO groups of phosphines. Complex 2, after crystallization from water gives polymeric compound with bridging phosphine ligand [PdCl{P(RCOO-κO-μ-O')(RCOOH)2-κP}] (3). Structures of trans-[PdCl2{P(RCOOD)3}2] (1a), trans-[Pd2(μ-Cl)2PdCl2{P(RCOOD)3}2] (2a), and [PdCl{P(RCOO-κO-μ-O')(RCOOD)2-κP}]n (3a) have been determined by X-ray crystallography. NMR and ESI-MS spectra reveal that [PdP2(RCOO-κO)2(RCOO)n(RCOOH)4-n](n)(-) complexes are formed in aqueous solution of 1. Geometry optimization in the gas phase at the B3LYP/3-21G** level indicated that complex 2 with butterfly structure is more stable than that with coplanar coordination. In aqueous solution of 2, the main products [Pd2{P(RCOO-κO-μ-O')(RCOO-κO)(RCOOH)}2] and [Pd{P(RCOO-κO)2(RCOOH)}(H2O)] exist in equilibrium which depends on temperature: content of mononuclear compound increases as the temperature is raised. Complexes 1 and 2 are active agents against melanoma and breast cancer cells.

  15. Performance of Orius insidiosus after storage, exposure to dispersal material, handling and shipment processes

    Bueno, V.H.P.; Carvalho, L.M.; Lenteren, van J.C.


    Storage, handling and shipment procedures are important factors influencing the quality of biological control agents. This study aimed to evaluate biological parameters and performance of Orius insidiosus (Say) after different storage periods at low temperatures, after exposure to different

  16. Síndrome HaNDL / HaNDL Syndrome / Síndrome HaNDL

    Camilo Ernesto Barros-Gutiérrez, MD., Esp.


    Full Text Available Introducción: El Síndrome HaNDL (Headache and neurologic deficits with cerebroespinal fluid lymphocytosis por sus siglas en inglés, es una patología que cursa con cefalea, focalización neurológica y linfocitosis en el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Objetivo: este artículo busca presentar un caso de Síndrome de HaNDL, puesto que esta condición nosológica implica un reto diagnóstico. Resultados y conclusiones: Se presenta el caso de un paciente con diagnóstico de síndrome de HaNDL los hallazgos al examen físico y del líquido cefalorraquídeo. [Barros-Gutiérrez CE, Silva-Monsalve E, Gualtero-Trujillo S. Síndrome HaNDL. MedUNAB 2015; 17(3: xx-xx]. Introduction: The syndrome of transient Headache and Neurological Deficits with cerebrospinal fluid Lymphocytosis, is a pathology that presents cephalalgia, neurological focalization and lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid. Objective: This article presents a HaNDL Syndrome case, since this nosological condition implies a diagnostic challenge. Results and conclusions: A case of a patient with HaNDL syndrome diagnosis, physical examination findings and cerebrospinal fluid are presented. [Barros-Gutiérrez CE, Silva-Monsalve E, Gualtero-Trujillo S. HaNDL Syndrome. MedUNAB 2015; 17(3: xx-xx]. Introdução: A síndrome de HaNDL (Headache and neurologic déficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis por sua sigla em inglês é uma doença que causa dor de cabeça, foco neurológico e linfocitose no líquido cefalorraquidiano. Objetivo: Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar um caso de Síndrome de HaNDL, uma vez que esta condição nosológica envolve um desafio diagnóstico. Resultados e conclusões: Apresenta-se o caso de um paciente diagnosticado com a síndrome de HaNDL, o encontrado no exame físico e o líquido cefalorraquidiano. [Barros-Gutiérrez CE, Silva-Monsalve E, Gualtero-Trujillo S. Síndrome HaNDL. MedUNAB 2015; 17(3: xx-xx].

  17. Tool handling robot system; Tool handling robot system



    As an example of the delivery of industrial use automation equipment by Meidensha Corp., the paper introduced a tool handling robot system. The system is a tool handling robot of case processing use FMS (flexible manufacturing system). This is a system which exchanges tool automatically according to the From To order from the managing computer using the ceiling running robot between five horizontal type machining centers and more than 800 collective tool stockers. The structure of the system is as follows: tool handling robot (MHR-400), robot controller (meirocs-F), tool hand, robot running unit, tool stocker (for 844 tools), five life tool exchange trucks, tool truck lifting unit, system control panel. (NEDO)

  18. Genotoxic and cytostatic effects of 6-pentadecyl salicylic anacardic acid in transformed cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Alam-Escamilla, David; Estrada-Muñiz, Elizabet; Solís-Villegas, Erik; Elizondo, Guillermo; Vega, Libia


    In Mexico, as in many other countries, traditional medicine is used for the treatment of several diseases. In particular, Amphipterygium adstringens infusion is used for gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric cancer. Extracts from this tree have microbicidal effects against Helicobacter pylori, an important risk factor for gastric cancer development. Anacardic acids are constituents of A. adstringens, and 6-pentadecyl salicylic acid (6-PSA) is the most abundant. However, there is a lack of information regarding the effects of 6-PSA on cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated whether 6-PSA has differential effects on the induction of genotoxicity, cytostaticity, and apoptosis in normal human peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs), bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of Balb/c mice, and human transformed cell lines derived from both gastric cancer (AGS cells) and leukaemia (K562 cells). Treatment with 6-PSA (30-150 μM) reduced the viability of AGS and K562 cells together with a moderate, but significant, increase in the frequency of micronucleated cells and the induction of DNA breakage (Comet Assay). Moreover, 6-PSA increased the apoptosis rate in both the AGS and K562 cell lines in a caspase 8-dependent manner. In contrast, neither cytotoxicity nor genotoxicity were observed in PBMCs or bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of Balb/c mice after treatment with low doses of 6-PSA (0.2-2.0 mg/Kg). Instead, 6-PSA treatment resulted in the inhibition of PBMC proliferation, which was reversible after the compound was removed. Additionally, 6-PSA treatments (2-20 mg/Kg) increased the frequency of mature polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow, suggesting a possible effect on the differentiation process of immune cells. The present results indicate that 6-PSA induces cytotoxicity and moderate genotoxicity, together with an increase in the apoptosis rate, in a caspase 8-dependent manner in gastric cancer cells. In contrast, a low toxicity was observed when

  19. Værk som handling

    Jalving, Camilla

    Hvordan kan et kunstværk være en handling? Hvad er performativ billedkunst, og hvad menes der egentlig med ordet ´performativitet´? Det er nogle af de spørgsmål, bogen Værk som handling griber fat i. Mens performativitet i løbet af de sidste ti år er blevet et bredt anvendt begreb i kulturteorien...... mellem værket som objekt og som handling. Bogens værkanalyser orienterer sig derfor både mod, hvad kunstværket er, og hvordan det er: Hvordan virker det, hvordan stiller det sig frem, hvordan producerer det betydning, hvordan skaber det en situation, og ikke mindst hvordan interagerer det med betragteren?...

  20. The handling of chemical data

    Lark, P D; Bosworth, R C L


    The Handling of Chemical Data deals with how measurements, such as those arrived at from chemical experimentation, are handled. The book discusses the different kinds of measurements and their specific dimensional characteristics by starting with the origin and presentation of chemical data. The text explains the units, fixed points, and relationships found between scales, the concept of dimensions, the presentation of quantitative data (whether in a tabular or graphical form), and some uses of empirical equations. The book also explains the relationship between two variables, and how equatio

  1. How Retailers Handle Complaint Management

    Hansen, Torben; Wilke, Ricky; Zaichkowsky, Judy


    as to the links between CM and redress of consumers’ complaints. The results suggest that retailers who attach large negative consequences to consumer dissatisfaction are more likely than other retailers to develop a positive strategic view on customer complaining, but at the same time an increase in perceived......This article fills a gap in the literature by providing insight about the handling of complaint management (CM) across a large cross section of retailers in the grocery, furniture, electronic and auto sectors. Determinants of retailers’ CM handling are investigated and insight is gained...... negative consequences of customer dissatisfaction leads to a more negative view on interacting with complaining customers....

  2. Cytostatic and pro-apoptotic effects of a novel phenylacetate-dextran derivative (NaPaC) on breast cancer cells in interactions with endothelial cells.

    Malherbe, Séverine; Crépin, Michel; Legrand, Chantal; Wei, Ming Xing


    We have tested a novel hybrid molecule made of carboxymethylbenzylamide dextran (CMDB) and sodium phenylacetate (NaPa) groups, called the CMDB-NaPa ester (NaPaC), on the proliferation of breast cancer and endothelial cells as well as paracrine effects between these two cell types. Our results showed that NaPaC inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells and MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. NaPaC was 20-fold more active on highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells than the NaPa parental molecule. On MCF-7 cells, which present a less aggressive phenotype, NaPaC was only 3-fold more active than the NaPa parental molecule. Furthermore, NaPaC had only a slight effect on the proliferation of primary cultured endothelial cells (HUVEC). A cytostatic effect of NaPaC on tumor cells was observed with cells accumulating in G0/G1 phase after 96 h of treatment. In addition, NaPaC induced a strong apoptotic effect on the two breast cancer cell lines. Conditioned media (CM) from tumor cells inhibited HUVEC proliferation, and this effect was enhanced in the presence of NaPaC (6 mM) and NaPa (10 mM). In addition to this cytostatic effect, CM from tumor cells induced a HUVEC early apoptosis which was increased, mainly, in the presence of NaPa (15 mM). Thus, this study shows that NaPaC is a more powerful anti-proliferative molecule than its parental NaPa molecule, with cytostatic and pro-apoptotic effects on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 tumor cells. Also, both molecules increased a pro-apoptotic effect of tumor cells on HUVEC.

  3. Integrin-mediated targeting of protein polymer nanoparticles carrying a cytostatic macrolide

    Shi, Pu

    Cytotoxicity, low water solubility, rapid clearance from circulation, and offtarget side-effects are common drawbacks of conventional small-molecule drugs. To overcome these shortcomings, many multifunctional nanocarriers have been proposed to enhance drug delivery. In concept, multifunctional nanoparticles might carry multiple agents, control release rate, biodegrade, and utilize target-mediated drug delivery; however, the design of these particles presents many challenges at the stage of pharmaceutical development. An emerging solution to improve control over these particles is to turn to genetic engineering. Genetically engineered nanocarriers are precisely controlled in size and structure and can provide specific control over sites for chemical attachment of drugs. Genetically engineered drug carriers that assemble nanostructures including nanoparticles and nanofibers can be polymeric or nonpolymeric. This chapter summarizes the recent development of applications in drug and gene delivery utilizing nanostructures of polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as elastin-like polypeptides, silk-like polypeptides, and silk-elastin-like protein polymers, and non-polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as vault proteins and viral proteins. This chapter explores an alternative encapsulation strategy based on high-specificity avidity between a small molecule drug and its cognate protein target fused to the corona of protein polymer nanoparticles. With the new strategy, the drug associates tightly to the carrier and releases slowly, which may decrease toxicity and promote tumor accumulation via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. To test this hypothesis, the drug Rapamycin (Rapa) was selected for its potent anti-proliferative properties, which give it immunosuppressant and anti-tumor activity. Despite its potency, Rapa has low solubility, low oral bioavailability, and rapid systemic clearance, which make it an excellent candidate for

  4. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling. Each..., contamination, or other adverse effects to product do not occur during handling. ...

  5. 7 CFR 58.443 - Whey handling.


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whey handling. 58.443 Section 58.443 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.443 Whey handling. (a) Adequate sanitary facilities shall be provided for the handling of... objectionable odors. (b) Whey or whey products intended for human food shall at all times be handled in a...

  6. Cytostatic activity of the duplex drug linking 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5FdU) with 3'-C-ethynylcytidine (ECyd) against gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    Weinreich, Jürgen; Schott, Sarah; Königsrainer, Ingmar; Zieker, Derek; Königsrainer, Alfred; Schott, Herbert


    The cytostatic potential of the new duplex drug 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridylyl-(5'5')-3'-C-ethynylcytidine (5FdU(5'-5')ECyd) was evaluated in comparison to those of 5-fluorouracil (5FU), 2'-deoxy-5-fluorourindine (5FdU), 3'-C-ethynylycytidine (ECyd), cisplatin, an equimolar mixture of 5FdU + ECyd and a three component-mixture of 0.75 μM epirubicin/0.90 μM cisplatin/3.0 μM 5FU (ECF) by incubation of the two human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines 23132/87 and MKN-45. The molar composition of ECF was taken from data of a triple combination chemotherapy for human gastric cancer. Time and dose depending inhibition of cell growth was determinated using the CASY technology. A growth decrease of both cell lines from 100% to about 20% was observed by treatment with ECF over a course of 14 days. This result provided basis to estimate the cytostatic potential of all tested drugs and combinations thereof. Corresponding high activities in respect to ECF were achieved by incubation of 23132/87 cells with single drugs 49 μM 5FU, 10 μM cisplatin, 3.4 μM 5FdU, 0.65 μM ECyd, the mixture 0.32 μM 5FdU + 0.32 μM ECyd and 0.32 μM 5FdU(5'-5')ECyd. The less sensitive MKN-45 cells require a 1.5-4 fold higher dose of the standard chemotherapeutics in order to achieve an equivalent cytostatic effect, in respect to the 23132/87 cell line,. However, the effect of the duplex drugs on MKN-45 cells was gained with a 5-fold lower dose than ECF. Due to its high cytostatic potential the duplex drug, which covalently links two active anticancer compounds, could be a new therapeutic alternative for chemotherapy in gastric cancer, currently treated with different combinations.

  7. Seven Ways to Handle Pressure



    1.Take care of your body.Exercise, eat healthily,and get plenty of sleep.You’ll handle stress much better. 2.Take down your thoughts.Recording your thoughts in a diary will help you choose your feelings and relieve~* stress. 3.Talk about it.If possible,find someone

  8. The Dφ Data Handling System

    V.White; D.Adams; 等


    In this paper we highlight strategies and choices that make the Dφ Data Handling system markedly different from many other experiments' systems,We emphasize how far the Dφ system has come in innovating and implementing a Dφ-specific Data Grid system.We discuss experiences during the first months of detector commissioning and give some future plans for the system.

  9. Handling nu eller skru ned

    Kjærsgaard, Poul Søren


    Søgningen til fremmedsprogstudier er faldende, samtidig med at Region Syddanmark har lanceret en plan, der forudsætter et sprogligt beredskab. Hvis regionen skal klare sig i konkurrencen, må den og det regionale universitet handle, så at der er sproguddannelser. Ellers må regionen og universitetet...

  10. Data Handling and Parameter Estimation

    Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist


    literature that are mostly based on the ActivatedSludge Model (ASM) framework and their appropriate extensions (Henze et al., 2000).The chapter presents an overview of the most commonly used methods in the estimation of parameters from experimental batch data, namely: (i) data handling and validation, (ii...

  11. At skabe handling og forandring


    ” (Investigation-Vision-Action-Change, på dansk Undersøgelse-Vision-Handling-Forandring). Forskning i anvendelsen af IVAC i pædagogiske udviklingsprojekter i skoler viser, at lærere kan tilpasse IVAC det konkrete sundhedsemne, de beskæftiger sig med, ligesom metoden kan afpasses pensumkravene, klassetrin og...

  12. TNO reticle handling test platform

    Crowcombe, W.E.; Hollemans, C.L.; Fritz, E.C.; Donck, J.C.J. van der; Koster, N.B.


    Particle free handling of EUV reticles is a major concern in industry. For reaching economically feasible yield levels, it is reported that Particle-per-Reticle-Pass (PRP) levels should be better than 0.0001 for particles larger than 18 nm. Such cleanliness levels are yet to be reported for current

  13. Cargo handling know-how

    Bachman, T.; Fischer, M. [Liebherr-Werk Nenzing GmbH (Austria)


    The paper reviews recent bulk handling crane orders from Liebherr. These include mobile harbour cranes at the Port of Dunkirk, a four-rope grab crane at Phu My Port, Vietnam and CBG cranes at Balikpapan Coal Terminal, Indonesia. 4 figs.




    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  15. Acute toxic and genotoxic activities of widely used cytostatic drugs in higher plants: Possible impact on the environment.

    Mišík, Miroslav; Pichler, Clemens; Rainer, Bernhard; Filipic, Metka; Nersesyan, Armen; Knasmueller, Siegfried


    Cytostatic drugs are highly toxic pharmaceuticals and it was repeatedly postulated that they may cause adverse effects in ecosystems. The acute toxic and genotoxic properties of these drugs have not been adequately investigated in higher plants so far; therefore, we studied the most widely used drugs (5-flurouracil, 5FU; etoposide, Et; cisplatin, CisPt; carboplatin, CaPt; vincristine sulfate, VinS and cyclophosphamide monohydrate, CP) in micronucleus (MN) assays with meiotic pollen tetrad cells of Tradescantia and with root cells from Allium cepa. MNi are formed as a consequence of chromosome breaks and aneuploidy. We monitored also the acute toxic properties of the drugs, i.e. inhibition of cell division (mitotic indices and retardation of root growth) in the latter species. All compounds caused in both indicator plants genotoxic effects. The order of genotoxic potencies expressed as NOELs in µM was CisPt (0.1)≥ Et (0.5)>CP (1.0)>CaPt (10)>5FU (30)>VinS (100) in Tradescantia. A similar order was seen in Allium MN but Et was less active (5.0µM). Four compounds caused alterations of the mitotic indices under the present conditions namely CisPt (0.5), Et (10.0), 5FU (10.0) and VinS (100). Inhibition of root growth decreased in the order CisPt (0.5)>Et (1.0)≥VinS (1.0)>5FU (5.0)>CaPt (33.0)>CP (>1000). Comparisons of the NOELs with the predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) show that the latter values are at least 5 orders of magnitude lower and indicate that it is unlikely that their release in the environment may cause adverse effects in higher plants. However, it is notable that the levels of both platinum compounds and of 5FU in hospital effluents may reach levels which may induce damage of the genetic material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Handling Software Faults with Redundancy

    Carzaniga, Antonio; Gorla, Alessandra; Pezzè, Mauro

    Software engineering methods can increase the dependability of software systems, and yet some faults escape even the most rigorous and methodical development process. Therefore, to guarantee high levels of reliability in the presence of faults, software systems must be designed to reduce the impact of the failures caused by such faults, for example by deploying techniques to detect and compensate for erroneous runtime conditions. In this chapter, we focus on software techniques to handle software faults, and we survey several such techniques developed in the area of fault tolerance and more recently in the area of autonomic computing. Since practically all techniques exploit some form of redundancy, we consider the impact of redundancy on the software architecture, and we propose a taxonomy centered on the nature and use of redundancy in software systems. The primary utility of this taxonomy is to classify and compare techniques to handle software faults.

  17. Advances in cobalt complexes as anticancer agents.

    Munteanu, Catherine R; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan


    The evolution of resistance to traditional platinum-based anticancer drugs has compelled researchers to investigate the cytostatic properties of alternative transition metal-based compounds. The anticancer potential of cobalt complexes has been extensively studied over the last three decades, and much time has been devoted to understanding their mechanisms of action. This perspective catalogues the development of antiproliferative cobalt complexes, and provides an in depth analysis of their mode of action. Early studies on simple cobalt coordination complexes, Schiff base complexes, and cobalt-carbonyl clusters will be documented. The physiologically relevant redox properties of cobalt will be highlighted and the role this plays in the preparation of hypoxia selective prodrugs and imaging agents will be discussed. The use of cobalt-containing cobalamin as a cancer specific delivery agent for cytotoxins will also be described. The work summarised in this perspective shows that the biochemical and biophysical properties of cobalt-containing compounds can be fine-tuned to produce new generations of anticancer agents with clinically relevant efficacies.

  18. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine


    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P < .0001). All 3 EFS handling techniques displayed low bacterial growth. RTH was superior in bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs. Since not all pediatric formulas are available in RTH, we conclude that refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  19. Orion Entry Handling Qualities Assessments

    Bihari, B.; Tiggers, M.; Strahan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Sullivan, K.; Stephens, J. P.; Hart, J.; Law, H., III; Bilimoria, K.; Bailey, R.


    The Orion Command Module (CM) is a capsule designed to bring crew back from the International Space Station (ISS), the moon and beyond. The atmospheric entry portion of the flight is deigned to be flown in autopilot mode for nominal situations. However, there exists the possibility for the crew to take over manual control in off-nominal situations. In these instances, the spacecraft must meet specific handling qualities criteria. To address these criteria two separate assessments of the Orion CM s entry Handling Qualities (HQ) were conducted at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) using the Cooper-Harper scale (Cooper & Harper, 1969). These assessments were conducted in the summers of 2008 and 2010 using the Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) six degree of freedom, high fidelity Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) simulation. This paper will address the specifics of the handling qualities criteria, the vehicle configuration, the scenarios flown, the simulation background and setup, crew interfaces and displays, piloting techniques, ratings and crew comments, pre- and post-fight briefings, lessons learned and changes made to improve the overall system performance. The data collection tools, methods, data reduction and output reports will also be discussed. The objective of the 2008 entry HQ assessment was to evaluate the handling qualities of the CM during a lunar skip return. A lunar skip entry case was selected because it was considered the most demanding of all bank control scenarios. Even though skip entry is not planned to be flown manually, it was hypothesized that if a pilot could fly the harder skip entry case, then they could also fly a simpler loads managed or ballistic (constant bank rate command) entry scenario. In addition, with the evaluation set-up of multiple tasks within the entry case, handling qualities ratings collected in the evaluation could be used to assess other scenarios such as the constant bank angle

  20. Cation-anionicpalladium Complexes- New Types of Antitumor, Immune Response-modulating and Radioprotective Agents



    Here we report results of our investigations of new class of bioactive palladium compounds (AHn)m[PdC14],which were discovered as a result of systematic study of correlations between composition,structure and bioactivity of different types of platinum metals coordination compounds.For the first time we demonstrated in vivoa possibility of development of palladium compounds,which exceed cisplatin in antitumor activity and do not show immunosuppressive effects,and palladium compounds with immunostimulating and radioprotective activities.Combinations of cytostatic agents or radiation with palladium complexes lead to significant synergism of their activities and high therapeutic efficiency exceeded an efficiency of their separated use.

  1. 7 CFR 1207.307 - Handle.


    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack,...

  2. Proper Handling and Storage of Human Milk

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Proper Handling and Storage of Human Milk Recommend on Facebook ... sure to wash your hands before expressing or handling breast milk. When collecting milk, be sure to ...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.312 - Handle.


    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.312 Handle. Handle means to harvest, gin, warehouse, compress, purchase, market, transport, or otherwise acquire ownership or control of cotton....

  4. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Handling Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records for all handling and measurement of Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. Live seals are handled and measured during a variety of events...

  5. 7 CFR 983.14 - Handle.


    ... NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.14 Handle. Handle means to engage in: (a) Receiving pistachios; (b... of interstate or foreign commerce; and/or (d) Placing pistachios into the current of commerce...

  6. Relationships between the renal handling of DMPS and DMSA and the renal handling of mercury.

    Zalups, Rudolfs K; Bridges, Christy C


    Within the body of this review, we provide updates on the mechanisms involved in the renal handling mercury (Hg) and the vicinal dithiol complexing/chelating agents, 2,3-bis(sulfanyl)propane-1-sulfonate (known formerly as 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate, DMPS) and meso-2,3-bis(sulfanyl)succinate (known formerly as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinate, DMSA), with a focus on the therapeutic effects of these dithiols following exposure to different chemical forms of Hg. We begin by reviewing briefly some of the chemical properties of Hg, with an emphasis on the high bonding affinity between mercuric ions and reduced sulfur atoms, principally those contained in protein and nonprotein thiols. A discussion is provided on the current body of knowledge pertaining to the handling of various mercuric species within the kidneys, focusing on the primary cellular targets that take up and are affected adversely by these species of Hg, namely, proximal tubular epithelial cells. Subsequently, we provide a brief update on the current knowledge on the handling of DMPS and DMSA in the kidneys. In particular, parallels are drawn between the mechanisms participating in the uptake of various thiol S-conjugates of Hg in proximal tubular cells and mechanisms by which DMPS and DMSA gain entry into these target epithelial cells. Finally, we discuss factors that permit DMPS and DMSA to bind intracellular mercuric ions and mechanisms transporting DMPS and DMSA S-conjugates of Hg out of proximal tubular epithelial cells into the luminal compartment of the nephron, and promoting urinary excretion.

  7. Feedstock storage, handling and processing

    Egg, R.P.; Coble, C.G.; Engler, C.R. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Lewis, D.H. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology)


    This paper is a review of the technology and research covering components of a methane from biomass system between the field and the digester. It deals primarily with sorghum as a feedstock and focuses on research conducted by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. Subjects included in this paper are harvesting, hay storage, ansiling, materials handling, pumping and hydraulic characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, pressure/density relationship, and biological pretreatment. This paper is not a comprehensive design manual; however, design equations and coefficients for sorghum are presented, where available, along with references describing the development and application of design models. (author)

  8. Logik, mening, handling og tale

    Widell, Peter


    skal ses i relation til sandheds- og meningstilskrivning, sådan som den finder sted ikke i først og fremmest i sproget, men i tanken, sådan som den åbenbarer sig i instrumentelle handling. Det er på baggrund af denne pragmatisering af logikken, talehandlingsbegrebet skal ses: Først og fremmest som den...... instrumentelle handleverdens møde med den sociale verden i assertivet. Dernæst som assertivets nødvendige udspaltninger i normativet og konstativet. Og endelig som de perlokutionære handlinger kommissiv, direktiv og informativ....

  9. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... employees exist tag lines or other suitable devices shall be used to control loads being handled by hoisting...

  10. 50 CFR 14.111 - Handling.


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Handling. 14.111 Section 14.111 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION... and Birds to the United States § 14.111 Handling. (a) Care shall be exercised to avoid handling the...

  11. 9 CFR 3.118 - Handling.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.118 Section 3.118 Animals... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.118 Handling. (a) Carriers and intermediate handlers moving marine...

  12. 7 CFR 985.152 - Handling report.


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling report. 985.152 Section 985.152 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Administrative Rules and Regulations § 985.152 Handling...

  13. 9 CFR 3.142 - Handling.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.142 Section 3.142 Animals... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of... Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.142 Handling. (a) Carriers and intermediate handlers shall move live...

  14. Scheduling of outbound luggage handling at airports

    Barth, Torben C.; Pisinger, David


    This article considers the outbound luggage handling problem at airports. The problem is to assign handling facilities to outbound flights and decide about the handling start time. This dynamic, near real-time assignment problem is part of the daily airport operations. Quality, efficiency and rob...

  15. Effects of orally administered antioxidants on micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange frequency in workers professionally exposed to antineoplastic agents.

    Mrđanović, Jasminka; Jungić, Saša; Šolajić, Slavica; Bogdanović, Višnja; Jurišić, Vladimir


    The widespread use of antineoplastic drugs in cancer treatment increased concern about possible hazard to workers involved in the preparation and administration of these drugs. In the present study, the effects of commercial antioxidative drug Oligogal Se on genome protection were analyzed in 15 nurses handling the antineoplastic drugs at the Oncology Department in comparison to twenty healthy volunteers. The nurses took antioxidant mixture Oligogal Se, consisting of vitamins C, E, A and selenium, one capsule per day, over a period of 6 months. Genome damage was measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes by usage of sister chromatid exchange test and the cytokinesis-block micronuclei test. The frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronuclei (MN) in the exposed group was significantly higher when compared to the control group (SCE, p<0.05; MN, p<0.01 respectively). After antioxidant supplementation, the frequency of sister chromatid exchange and micronuclei decreased (p<0.05) when compared with the values from the beginning of the study, but were still above the values of the control group. The effects of confounding factors such as cigarette smoking and cytostatics exposure time were also evaluated. The data indicated that Oligogal Se contributed to the decreasing of genome damages in workers handling the cytostatics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel Coumarin Derivatives Containing 1,2,4-Triazole, 4,5-Dicyanoimidazole and Purine Moieties: Synthesis and Evaluation of Their Cytostatic Activity

    Mladen Mintas


    Full Text Available We report here on the synthesis and in vitro anti-tumor effects of a series of novel 1,2,4-triazole (compounds 3–6, 4,5-dicyanoimidazole (compound 7, and purine (compounds 8–13 coumarin derivatives and their acyclic nucleoside analogues 14–18. Structures of novel compounds 3–18 were deduced from their 1H- and 13C-NMR and corresponding mass spectra. Results of anti-proliferative assays performed on a panel of selected human tumor cell lines revealed that compound 6 had moderate cytostatic activity against the HeLa cell line (IC50 = 35 µM, whereas compound 10 showed moderate activity against the HeLa (IC50 = 33 µM, HepG2 (IC50 = 25 µM and SW620 (IC50 = 35 µM cell lines. These compounds showed no cytotoxic effects on normal (diploid human fibroblasts.

  17. Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation

    B. Dianda


    This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use

  18. Teriflunomide (Leflunomide Promotes Cytostatic, Antioxidant, and Apoptotic Effects in Transformed Prostate Epithelial Cells: Evidence Supporting a Role for Teriflunomide in Prostate Cancer Chemoprevention

    Numsen Hail, Jr


    Full Text Available Teriflunomide (TFN is an inhibitor of de novo pyrimidine synthesis and the active metabolite of leflunomide. Leflunomide is prescribed to patients worldwide as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory disease-modifying prodrug. Leflunomide inhibited the growth of human prostate cancer xenographs in mice, and leflunomide or TFN promoted cytostasis and/or apoptosis in cultured cells. These findings suggest that TFN could be useful in prostate cancer chemoprevention. We investigated the possible mechanistic aspects of this tenet by characterizing the effects of TFN using premalignant PWR-1E and malignant DU-145 human prostate epithelial cells. TFN promoted a dose- and time-dependent cytostasis or apoptosis induction in these cells. The cytostatic effects of TFN, which were reversible but not by the presence of excess uridine in the culture medium, included diminished cellular uridine levels, an inhibition in oxygen consumption, a suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, S-phase cell cycle arrest, and a conspicuous reduction in the size and number of the nucleoli in the nuclei of these cells. Conversely, TFN's apoptogenic effects were characteristic of catastrophic mitochondrial disruption (i.e., a dissipation of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential, enhanced ROS production, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and cytoplasmic vacuolization and followed by DNA fragmentation. The respiration-deficient derivatives of the DU-145 cells, which are also uridine auxotrophs, were markedly resistant to the cytostatic and apoptotic effects of TFN, implicating de novo pyrimidine synthesis and mitochondrial bioenergetics as the primary targets for TFN in the respiration competent cells. These mechanistic findings advocate a role for TFN and mitochondrial bioenergetics in prostate cancer chemoprevention.

  19. MPI Debugging with Handle Introspection

    Brock-Nannestad, Laust; DelSignore, John; Squyres, Jeffrey M.;

    The Message Passing Interface, MPI, is the standard programming model for high performance computing clusters. However, debugging applications on large scale clusters is difficult. The widely used Message Queue Dumping interface enables inspection of message queue state but there is no general...... interface for extracting information from MPI objects such as communicators. A developer can debug the MPI library as if it was part of the application, but this exposes an unneeded level of detail. The Tools Working Group in the MPI Forum has proposed a specification for MPI Handle Introspection....... It defines a standard interface that lets debuggers extract information from MPI objects. Extracted information is then presented to the developer, in a human readable format. The interface is designed to be independent of MPI implementations and debuggers. In this paper, we describe our support...

  20. Liberalisation of municipal waste handling

    Busck, Ole Gunni


    of price reductions in stead of quality demands in both environmental and working environmental terms. A recent study showed major deficits in the capacities of the municipalities to administer qualitative requirements in the tender process and to manage the contracts as an integral part of a scheme...... for improved performance of municipal waste management. The study stresses the need for training and guidance of municipal administrators. Highlighting ‘best practice’ examples the study shows, however, that it is perfectly possible to end up with quality service on contract. It takes a mixture of careful......Liberalisation of municipal waste handling: How are sustainable practices pursued? In the process of liberalization of public services in Europe contracting out the collection of municipal waste has surged. Research in Denmark has shown that municipalities in general have pursued a narrow policy...

  1. Interaction between the cytostatic effects of quercetin and 5-fluorouracil in two human colorectal cancer cell lines

    Boersma, H H; Woerdenbag, H J; Bauer, Joseph; Scheithauer, W; Kampinga, H H; Konings, A W


    Therapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as a single agent has only limited success in palliative treatment of cancer of the large bowel. In the current study, the effect of quercetin on the action of 5-FU in the human colorectal cancer cell lines COLO 320 DM and COLO 205 was evaluated using the MTT and

  2. Interaction between the cytostatic effects of quercetin and 5-fluorouracil in two human colorectal cancer cell lines

    Boersma, H H; Woerdenbag, H J; Bauer, Joseph; Scheithauer, W; Kampinga, H H; Konings, A W


    Therapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as a single agent has only limited success in palliative treatment of cancer of the large bowel. In the current study, the effect of quercetin on the action of 5-FU in the human colorectal cancer cell lines COLO 320 DM and COLO 205 was evaluated using the MTT and c

  3. Ergonomics: safe patient handling and mobility.

    Hallmark, Beth; Mechan, Patricia; Shores, Lynne


    This article reviews and investigates the issues surrounding ergonomics, with a specific focus on safe patient handling and mobility. The health care worker of today faces many challenges, one of which is related to the safety of patients. Safe patient handling and mobility is on the forefront of the movement to improve patient safety. This article reviews the risks associated with patient handling and mobility, and informs the reader of current evidence-based practice relevant to this area of care.

  4. Enclosure for handling high activity materials

    Jimeno de Osso, F.


    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With this purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. In this report a description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (Author)

  5. Ergonomic handle for an arthroscopic cutter.

    Tuijthof; van Engelen; Herder; Goossens; Snijders; van Dijk


    From an analysis of the routinely performed meniscectomy procedures, it was concluded that a punch with a side-ways steerable tip would improve the reachability of meniscal tissue. This potentially leads to a safer and more efficient meniscectomy. Furthermore, the current scissors handles of arthroscopic punches are ergonomically not sufficient. An ergonomic handle is designed with one lever that enables opening and closing of the instrument tip, and side-ways steering of the instrument tip. The design of the handle complies with ergonomic guidelines that were found in the literature. A model of the instrument tip was added to the new handle for comparison with conventional handles. Experiments were performed with a knee joint model, using objective and subjective criteria. The results show that the concept of a side-ways steerable punch is promising, since faster task times are achieved without increasing the risk of damaging healthy tissue. The current design of the ergonomic handle incorporates two degrees of freedom in an intuitive way, the handle is more comfortable to hold, and easy to control. The external memory capabilities of the new handle could be improved. Further development of this handle and the addition of a sufficient instrument tip and force transmission are recommended.

  6. Handling S/MAR vectors.

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Baiker, Armin; Postberg, Jan; Ehrhardt, Anja; Lipps, Hans J


    Nonviral episomal vectors represent attractive alternatives to currently used virus-based expression systems. In the late 1990s, it was shown that a plasmid containing an expression cassette linked to a scaffold/matrix attached region (S/MAR) replicates as a low copy number episome in all cell lines tested, as well as primary cells, and can be used for the genetic modification of higher animals. Once established in the cell, the S/MAR vector replicates early during S-phase and, in the absence of selection, is stably retained in the cells for an unlimited period of time. This vector can therefore be regarded as a minimal model system for studying the epigenetic regulation of replication and functional nuclear architecture. In theory, this construct represents an almost "ideal" expression system for gene therapy. In practice, S/MAR-based vectors stably modify mammalian cells with efficiencies far below those of virus-based constructs. Consequently, they have not yet found application in gene therapy trials. Furthermore, S/MAR vector systems are not trivial to handle and several critical technical issues have to be considered when modifying these vectors for various applications.

  7. Research on Event Handling Models of Java

    WU Yue; WU Jing; ZHOU Ming-tian


    A new event-handling paradigm and its application model are proposed. The working mechanism and principle of event listener model is given in detail. Finally, the launching event mechanisms,the choosing event handling models and the dispatching mechanism are illustrated.

  8. 9 CFR 3.19 - Handling.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.19 Section 3.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs...

  9. 9 CFR 3.41 - Handling.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.41 Section 3.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  10. 9 CFR 3.92 - Handling.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.92 Section 3.92 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  11. 9 CFR 3.66 - Handling.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.66 Section 3.66 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of...

  12. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.


    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  13. 38 CFR 1.660 - Expeditious handling.


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expeditious handling. 1.660 Section 1.660 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Inventions by Employees of Department of Veterans Affairs § 1.660 Expeditious handling. No patent...

  14. 30 CFR 715.16 - Topsoil handling.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Topsoil handling. 715.16 Section 715.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 715.16 Topsoil handling. To prevent topsoil from being...

  15. 7 CFR 1219.11 - Handle.


    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.11 Handle. Handle means to pack, process, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause Hass...

  16. Information Handling, Organizational Structure, and Power.

    Buckland, Michael K.


    Uses examples from military strategic communications to demonstrate that organizational structures and the distribution of power within organizational structures adapt to changes in information handling capability. It is concluded that delegation and decentralization can be viewed as indicative of inadequate information handling and that improved…

  17. Storage and Handling of Commercially Packaged Foods

    Villalba, Abigail; Boyer, Renee Raiden; Bazemore, Sherry


    Proper selection of foods at the grocery store and appropriate storage and handling practices at home are necessary to maintain the quality and safety of commercially processed foods and perishable foods. This brochure offers some guidelines to follow when buying, handling, and storing packaged foods.

  18. Material Handling Equipment Evaluation for Crater Repair


    material handling equipment with a reduced logistical footprint for use by crater repair teams in airfield damage repair (ADR) scenarios. A market ...compared to currently utilized material handling equipment. This report presents the results of the market survey and equipment evaluations. Results...1 1.2 Objective and scope

  19. Feasibility of Upper Port Plug tube handling

    Koning, J.F.; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.; Ronden, D.M.S.; Klinkhamer, J.F.F.; Biel, W.; Krasikov, Y.; Walker, C.I.


    Central, retractable tubes are proposed in several Upper Port Plugs (UPPs) designs for ITER, to enable fast exchange of specific components of diagnostics housed in these UPPs. This paper investigates into possible designs to enable the efficient handling of tubes. The feasibility of tube handling i

  20. 7 CFR 765.151 - Handling payments.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling payments. 765.151 Section 765.151 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-REGULAR Borrower Payments § 765.151 Handling payments. (a) Borrower...

  1. Reducing Mouse Anxiety during Handling: Effect of Experience with Handling Tunnels

    Kelly Gouveia; Hurst, Jane L.


    Handling stress is a well-recognised source of variation in animal studies that can also compromise the welfare of research animals. To reduce background variation and maximise welfare, methods that minimise handling stress should be developed and used wherever possible. Recent evidence has shown that handling mice by a familiar tunnel that is present in their home cage can minimise anxiety compared with standard tail handling. As yet, it is unclear whether a tunnel is required in each home c...

  2. [Uricosuric agent].

    Ohno, Iwao


    Urate lowering treatment is indicated in patients with recurrent acute attacks, tophi, gouty arthropathy, radiographic changes of gout, multiple joint involvement, or associated uric acid nephrolithiasis. Uricosuric agents like benzbromarone and probenecid are very useful to treat hyperuricemia as well as allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor). Uricosuric agents act the urate lowering effect through blocking the URAT1, an urate transporter, in brush border of renal proximal tubular cells. In order to avoid the nephrotoxicity and urolithiasis due to increasing of urinary urate excretion by using uricosuric agents, the proper urinary tract management (enough urine volume and correction of aciduria) should be performed.

  3. Anchor handling tug operations: a practical guide to the operation of modern anchor handling tugs engaged in anchor handling and towing operations

    Clark, I.C; Hancox, M


    ... --Turning and manoeuvring modern anchor handling vessels --The AHTS design and towing operations --The dangers of very high speed loads during deep water anchor handling operations --The dangers...

  4. Vasoactive Agents

    Husedzinovic, Ino; Bradic, Nikola; Goranovic, Tanja


    This article is a short review of vasoactive drugs which are in use in todays clinical practice. In the past century, development of vasoactive drugs went through several phases. All of these drugs are today divided into several groups, depending on their place of action, pharmacological pathways and/or effects on target organ or organ system. Hence, many different agents are today in clinical practice, we have shown comparison between them. These agents provide new directions in the treatmen...

  5. How the NWC handles software as product

    Vinson, D.


    This tutorial provides a hands-on view of how the Nuclear Weapons Complex project should be handling (or planning to handle) software as a product in response to Engineering Procedure 401099. The SQAS has published the document SQAS96-002, Guidelines for NWC Processes for Handling Software Product, that will be the basis for the tutorial. The primary scope of the tutorial is on software products that result from weapons and weapons-related projects, although the information presented is applicable to many software projects. Processes that involve the exchange, review, or evaluation of software product between or among NWC sites, DOE, and external customers will be described.

  6. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    Shamlou, P A


    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  7. Reducing mouse anxiety during handling: effect of experience with handling tunnels.

    Gouveia, Kelly; Hurst, Jane L


    Handling stress is a well-recognised source of variation in animal studies that can also compromise the welfare of research animals. To reduce background variation and maximise welfare, methods that minimise handling stress should be developed and used wherever possible. Recent evidence has shown that handling mice by a familiar tunnel that is present in their home cage can minimise anxiety compared with standard tail handling. As yet, it is unclear whether a tunnel is required in each home cage to improve response to handling. We investigated the influence of prior experience with home tunnels among two common strains of laboratory mice: ICR(CD-1) and C57BL/6. We compared willingness to approach the handler and anxiety in an elevated plus maze test among mice picked up by the tail, by a home cage tunnel or by an external tunnel shared between cages. Willingness to interact with the handler was much greater for mice handled by a tunnel, even when this was unfamiliar, compared to mice picked up by the tail. Once habituated to handling, C57BL/6 mice were most interactive towards a familiar home tunnel, whereas the ICR strain showed strong interaction with all tunnel handling regardless of any experience of a home cage tunnel. Mice handled by a home cage or external tunnel showed less anxiety in an elevated plus maze than those picked up by the tail. This study shows that using a tunnel for routine handling reduces anxiety among mice compared to tail handling regardless of prior familiarity with tunnels. However, as home cage tunnels can further improve response to handling in some mice, we recommend that mice are handled with a tunnel provided in their home cage where possible as a simple practical method to minimise handling stress.

  8. Behavior of some enzymatic systems to the action of the cytostatic active EGlCP glucanic biopreparation upon HeLa neoplastic cells

    Daniela Gherghel


    Full Text Available Interference of an autochthonous cytostatic active EGlCP glucanic biopreparation (in dose of 1.5 mg/mL with the activity of some key enzymes, involved in the development of active transmembranary transport, of the intermediary and energetic metabolism, as well as in cellular answer to the oxidative stress, of HeLa neoplastic cells has been investigated. The study revealed: the intensification of the membranary Na+-K+-ATP-ase, of the cellular Mg2+-ATP-ase, of the superoxide dismutase activities; the operating level attenuation of the of catalase, peroxidase, glutathion peroxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase; the diminution of the malondialdehyde content. This functional interference with some cell enzymatic biomolecules has also induced the perturbation of the diverse membrane and metabolic processes, which was incompatible with the survival of HeLa tumoral cells The modulations of the cellular enzymatic equipment activity can be the consequences of the glucanic components direct (with the molecules of the miscellaneous enzymes or indirect interactions ( with membrane or genetic apparatus with some cell, subcell and molecular structures, implicated in the control and regulation of the biosynthesis and activity of the enzymatic biomolecules. The central element, which induces this enzymatic imbalance, appears to be the excess generation of the free radicals in the tumoral cells’ metabolism aggressed by glucanic constituents.

  9. Determination of Anthracycline Drug Residual in Cleaning Validation Swabs of Stainless-Steel Equipment after Production of Cytostatic Injections Using HPLC Analytical Method

    Zuzana Slivová


    Full Text Available Standard cleaning procedures of production line equipment were verified after manufacture of cytostatic injections containing Anthracycline derivate substance. Residual content of Anthracycline drug substance on stainless-steel equipment surface was determined using swab sampling with a specific HPLC-DAD analysis. The acceptance limit was decided as 200.0 μg/100 cm2. Recovery from the stainless-steel surface was 90.1%. Linearity of the method was observed in the concentration range of 0.155–194 μg/mL when estimated using Zorbax TMS (5 μm, 0.25 m × 4.6 mm ID column at 1.3 mL/min flow rate and 254 nm (DAD 190–600 nm. The mobile phase consisted of lauryl hydrogen sulphate solution (3.7 g/L : methanol : acetonitrile (54 : 16 : 30, v/v/v with pH adjusted to 2.5 using phosphoric acid (85%. The LOD and LOQ for Anthracycline derivate were found to be 0.047 and 0.155 μg/mL, respectively. The method validation confirmed the method provides acceptable degree of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, and precision for the intended purposes.

  10. The complex clinical picture of presumably allergic side effects to cytostatic drugs: symptoms, pathomechanism, reexposure, and desensitization.

    Pagani, Mauro


    The number of drugs used for the treatment of different types of cancers is constantly increasing and actually exceeds 100 distinct chemical formulations. The use of most cytotoxic agents is associated with potential hypersensitivity reactions, and the constant increase of their administration has caused an increase in incidence of these adverse effects, thus becoming a relevant problem for clinicians. Hypersensitivity reactions are common with platinum compounds, L-asparaginase, taxanes, procarbazine, and epipodophyllotoxins, whereas they are unusual, but always possible, with the other chemotherapeutic drugs. Reactions associated with individual drugs are discussed in detail. The mechanism underlying these hypersensitivity reactions involves IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions, nonallergic hypersensitivity reactions, and a few pathogenetically unclear reactions. More studies are needed to better understand, diagnose, treat, and prevent these reactions. To achieve this goal, a multidisciplinary approach to treat patients with cancer who have potential allergies is needed.

  11. [Inotropic agents].

    Sasayama, Shigetake


    Depression of myocardial contractility plays an important role in the development of heart failure and many inotropic agents were developed to improve the contractile function of the failing heart. Agents that increase cyclic AMP, either by increasing its synthesis or reducing its degradation, exerted dramatic short-term hemodynamic benefits, but these acute effects were not extrapolated into long-term improvement of the clinical outcome of heart failure patients. Administration of these agents to an energy starved failing heart would be expected to increase myocardial energy use and could accelerate disease progression. The role of digitalis in the management of heart failure has been controversial, however, the recent large scale clinical trial has ironically proved that digoxin reduced the rate of hospitalization both overall and for worsening heart failure. More recently, attention was paid to other inotropic agents that have a complex and diversified mechanism. These agents have some phosphodiesterase-inhibitory action but also possess additional effects, including cytokine inhibitors, immunomodulators, or calcium sensitizers. In the Western Societies these agents were again shown to increase mortality of patients with severe heart failure in a dose dependent manner with the long-term administration. However, it may not be the case in the Japanese population in whom mortality is relatively low. Chronic treatment with inotropic agent may be justified in Japanese, as it allows optimal care in the context of relief of symptoms and an improved quality of life. Therefore, each racial group should obtain specific evidence aimed at developing its own guidelines for therapy rather than translating major guidelines developed for other populations.

  12. Management of transport and handling contracts

    Rühl, I


    This paper shall outline the content, application and management strategies for the various contracts related to transport and handling activities. In total, the two sections Logistics and Handling Maintenance are in charge of 27 (!) contracts ranging from small supply contracts to big industrial support contracts. The activities as well as the contracts can generally be divided into four main topics "Vehicle Fleet Management"; "Supply, Installation and Commissioning of Lifting and Hoisting Equipment"; "Equipment Maintenance" and "Industrial Support for Transport and Handling". Each activity and contract requires different approaches and permanent adaptation to the often changing CERN's requirements. In particular, the management and the difficulties experienced with the contracts E072 "Maintenance of lifting and hoisting equipment", F420 "Supply of seven overhead traveling cranes for LHC" and S090/S103 "Industrial support for transport and handling" will be explained in detail.

  13. Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study

    Nielsen, Dorthe; Huniche, Lotte; Brixen, Kim


    Scand J Caring Sci; 2012 Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study The aim of this qualitative study was to increase understanding of the importance of osteoporosis information and knowledge for patients' ways of handling osteoporosis in their everyday lives. Interviews were...... performed with 14 patients recruited from two English university hospitals and 12 patients from a Danish university hospital. Critical psychology was used as a theoretical framework for the data analysis, which aimed at shedding light on patients' ways of conducting everyday life with osteoporosis....... The themes that emerged from the analysis showed that life conditions influenced the way in which risk, pain and osteoporosis were handled. Everyday life was also influenced by patients' attitude to treatment. The patients who were experiencing emotional difficulties in handling osteoporosis were not those...

  14. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  15. Aerobot Sampling and Handling System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to: ?Derive and document the functional and technical requirements for Aerobot surface sampling and sample handling across a range of...

  16. 7 CFR 926.9 - Handle.



  17. How Do Search Engines Handle Chinese Queries?

    Hong Cui


    Full Text Available The use of languages other than English has been growing exponentially on the Web. However, the major search engines have been lagging behind in providing indexes and search features to handle these languages. This article explores the characteristics of the Chinese language and how queries in this language are handled by different search engines. Queries were entered in two major search engines (Google and AlltheWeb and two search engines developed for Chinese (Sohu and Baidu. Criteria such as handling word segmentation, number of retrieved documents, and correct display and identification of Chinese characters were used to examine how the search engines handled the queries. The results showed that the performance of the two major search engines was not on a par with that of the search engines developed for Chinese.

  18. GeoLab Sample Handling System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop  a robotic sample handling/ manipulator system for the GeoLab glovebox. This work leverages from earlier GeoLab work and a 2012 collaboration with a...

  19. Sunscreening Agents

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.


    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  20. 30o inclination in handles of plastic boxes can reduce postural and muscular workload during handling

    Luciana C. C. B. Silva


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The handling of materials, which occurs in the industrial sector, is associated with lesions on the lumbar spine and in the upper limbs. Inserting handles in industrial boxes is a way to reduce work-related risks. Although the position and angle of the handles are significant factors in comfort and safety during handling, these factors have rarely been studied objectively. OBJECTIVE: To compare the handling of a commercial box and prototypes with handles and to evaluate the effects on upper limb posture, muscle electrical activity, and perceived acceptability using different grips while handling materials from different heights. METHOD: Thirty-seven healthy volunteers evaluated the handles of prototypes that allowed for changes in position (top and bottom and angle (0°, 15°, and 30°. Wrist, elbow, and shoulder movements were evaluated using electrogoniometry and inclinometry. The muscle electrical activity in the wrist extensors, biceps brachii, and the upper portion of the trapezius was measured using a portable electromyographer. The recorded data on muscle movements and electrical activity were synchronized. Subjective evaluations of acceptability were evaluated using a visual analog scale. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The prototypes with handles at a 30° angle produced the highest acceptability ratings, more neutral wrist positions, lower levels of electromyographic activity for the upper trapezius, and lower elevation angles for the arms. The different measurement methods were complementary in evaluating the upper limbs during handling.

  1. Development of standard components for remote handling

    Taguchi, Kou; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Ito, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    The core of Fusion Experimental Reactor consists of various components such as superconducting magnets and forced-cooled in-vessel components, which are remotely maintained due to intense of gamma radiation. Mechanical connectors such as cooling pipe connections, insulation joints and electrical connectors are commonly used for maintenance of these components and have to be standardized in terms of remote handling. This paper describes these mechanical connectors developed as the standard component compatible with remote handling and tolerable for radiation. (author)

  2. Safety Training: "Manual Handling" course in September

    Safety Training, HSE Unit


    The next "Manual Handling" course will be given, in French, on 26 September 2016. This course is designed for anyone required to carry out manual handling of loads in the course of their work.   The main objective of this course is to adopt and apply the basic principles of physical safety and economy of effort. There are places available. If you are interested in following this course, please fill an EDH training request via our catalogue. 


    Fabiana Fonseca Fortes


    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify handling and storage impact in iron ore quality, in their physical and chemical characteristics most important for a mining. It is tried to show the interferences in iron ore quality caused by the handling equipment and stockpiling. The research is restricted to Complexo Vargem Grande (Vale. The timeline was demarcated based on the formation of stockpiling. The fieldwork enables data collection and distinction of the routine procedures of casual operations handling. The quantitative analysis is conducted by the statistical method. As a conclusion, handling and storage identified are able to insert changes in physical and chemical characteristics of iron ore. Storage contributes to reduce variability of silica and alumina concentrations, but contributes too particle size deterioration. The handling induces degradation and segregation. However, there is the possibility to decrease handling of the ore and to establish the ideal size of stocks on the system in study, improving the efficiency of the system and consequent in global costs.

  4. Mobile Agents

    Satoh, Ichiro

    Mobile agents are autonomous programs that can travel from computer to computer in a network, at times and to places of their own choosing. The state of the running program is saved, by being transmitted to the destination. The program is resumed at the destination continuing its processing with the saved state. They can provide a convenient, efficient, and robust framework for implementing distributed applications and smart environments for several reasons, including improvements to the latency and bandwidth of client-server applications and reducing vulnerability to network disconnection. In fact, mobile agents have several advantages in the development of various services in smart environments in addition to distributed applications.


    S. C. Khamankar


    The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System handles radioactive waste products that are generated at the geologic repository operations area. The waste is collected, treated if required, packaged for shipment, and shipped to a disposal site. Waste streams include low-level waste (LLW) in solid and liquid forms, as-well-as mixed waste that contains hazardous and radioactive constituents. Liquid LLW is segregated into two streams, non-recyclable and recyclable. The non-recyclable stream may contain detergents or other non-hazardous cleaning agents and is packaged for shipment. The recyclable stream is treated to recycle a large portion of the water while the remaining concentrated waste is packaged for shipment; this greatly reduces the volume of waste requiring disposal. There will be no liquid LLW discharge. Solid LLW consists of wet solids such as ion exchange resins and filter cartridges, as-well-as dry active waste such as tools, protective clothing, and poly bags. Solids will be sorted, volume reduced, and packaged for shipment. The generation of mixed waste at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) is not planned; however, if it does come into existence, it will be collected and packaged for disposal at its point of occurrence, temporarily staged, then shipped to government-approved off-site facilities for disposal. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System has equipment located in both the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) and in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). All types of liquid and solid LLW are processed in the WTB, while wet solid waste from the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is packaged where received in the WHB. There is no installed hardware for mixed waste. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System receives waste from locations where water is used for decontamination functions. In most cases the water is piped back to the WTB for processing. The WTB and WHB provide staging areas for storing and shipping LLW

  6. Solidex 84 - modern technology in bulk solids handling


    Proceedings from Conference on solids handling. Sections which are of interest include coal and ash handling, and flow problems and explosion hazards in bulk handling plant. 14 papers have been abstracted separately.

  7. 7 CFR 948.23 - Handling for special purposes.


    ... Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 948.23 Handling for special purposes. Upon the basis of....77, or any combination thereof, to facilitate handling of potatoes for (a) Relief or charity; (b...

  8. 7 CFR 959.53 - Handling for special purposes.


    ... Regulating Handling Regulations § 959.53 Handling for special purposes. Regulations in effect pursuant to §§ 959.42, 959.52, or 959.60 may be modified, suspended, or terminated to facilitate handling of...

  9. 7 CFR 929.60 - Handling for special purposes.


    ... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Reports and Records § 929.60 Handling... facilitate handling of excess cranberries for the following purposes: (a) Charitable institutions;...

  10. Antibiotic Agents

    ... agents. A recent survey reported that 76% of liquid soaps from 10 states in the US contained triclosan ... regulated depends upon its intended use and its effectiveness. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates antibacterial soaps and antibacterial substances that will either be used ...

  11. Handling Qualities Optimization for Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    Lawrence, Ben; Theodore, Colin R.; Berger, Tom


    Over the past decade, NASA, under a succession of rotary-wing programs has been moving towards coupling multiple discipline analyses in a rigorous consistent manner to evaluate rotorcraft conceptual designs. Handling qualities is one of the component analyses to be included in a future NASA Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization framework for conceptual design of VTOL aircraft. Similarly, the future vision for the capability of the Concept Design and Assessment Technology Area (CD&A-TA) of the U.S Army Aviation Development Directorate also includes a handling qualities component. SIMPLI-FLYD is a tool jointly developed by NASA and the U.S. Army to perform modeling and analysis for the assessment of flight dynamics and control aspects of the handling qualities of rotorcraft conceptual designs. An exploration of handling qualities analysis has been carried out using SIMPLI-FLYD in illustrative scenarios of a tiltrotor in forward flight and single-main rotor helicopter at hover. Using SIMPLI-FLYD and the conceptual design tool NDARC integrated into a single process, the effects of variations of design parameters such as tail or rotor size were evaluated in the form of margins to fixed- and rotary-wing handling qualities metrics as well as the vehicle empty weight. The handling qualities design margins are shown to vary across the flight envelope due to both changing flight dynamic and control characteristics and changing handling qualities specification requirements. The current SIMPLI-FLYD capability and future developments are discussed in the context of an overall rotorcraft conceptual design process.

  12. Agent-based transportation planning compared with scheduling heuristics

    Mes, Martijn; Heijden, van der Matthieu; Harten, van Aart


    Here we consider the problem of dynamically assigning vehicles to transportation orders that have di¤erent time windows and should be handled in real time. We introduce a new agent-based system for the planning and scheduling of these transportation networks. Intelligent vehicle agents schedule thei

  13. Agent-based transportation planning compared with scheduling heuristics

    Mes, Martijn R.K.; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; van Harten, Aart


    Here we consider the problem of dynamically assigning vehicles to transportation orders that have di¤erent time windows and should be handled in real time. We introduce a new agent-based system for the planning and scheduling of these transportation networks. Intelligent vehicle agents schedule

  14. Rotorcraft handling-qualities design criteria development

    Aiken, Edwin W.; Lebacqz, J. Victor; Chen, Robert T. N.; Key, David L.


    Joint NASA/Army efforts at the Ames Research Center to develop rotorcraft handling-qualities design criteria began in earnest in 1975. Notable results were the UH-1H VSTOLAND variable stability helicopter, the VFA-2 camera-and-terrain-board simulator visual system, and the generic helicopter real-time mathematical model, ARMCOP. An initial series of handling-qualities studies was conducted to assess the effects of rotor design parameters, interaxis coupling, and various levels of stability and control augmentation. The ability to conduct in-flight handling-qualities research was enhanced by the development of the NASA/Army CH-47 variable-stability helicopter. Research programs conducted using this vehicle include vertical-response investigations, hover augmentation systems, and the effects of control-force characteristics. The handling-qualities data base was judged to be sufficient to allow an update of the military helicopter handling-qualities specification, MIL-H-8501. These efforts, including not only the in-house experimental work but also contracted research and collaborative programs performed under the auspices of various international agreements. The report concludes by reviewing the topics that are currently most in need of work, and the plans for addressing these topics.

  15. Handling Qualities Implications for Crewed Spacecraft Operations

    Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Arthur, J. J.


    Abstract Handling qualities embody those qualities or characteristics of an aircraft that govern the ease and precision with which a pilot is able to perform the tasks required in support of an aircraft role. These same qualities are as critical, if not more so, in the operation of spacecraft. A research, development, test, and evaluation process was put into effect to identify, understand, and interpret the engineering and human factors principles which govern the pilot-vehicle dynamic system as they pertain to space exploration missions and tasks. Toward this objective, piloted simulations were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center and Ames Research Center for earth-orbit proximity operations and docking and lunar landing. These works provide broad guidelines for the design of spacecraft to exhibit excellent handling characteristics. In particular, this work demonstrates how handling qualities include much more than just stability and control characteristics of a spacecraft or aircraft. Handling qualities are affected by all aspects of the pilot-vehicle dynamic system, including the motion, visual and aural cues of the vehicle response as the pilot performs the required operation or task. A holistic approach to spacecraft design, including the use of manual control, automatic control, and pilot intervention/supervision is described. The handling qualities implications of design decisions are demonstrated using these pilot-in-the-loop evaluations of docking operations and lunar landings.

  16. Effective Teaching Practices in Handling Non Readers

    Jacklyn S. Dacalos


    Full Text Available The study determined the effective teaching practices in handling nonreaders. This seeks to answer the following objectives: describe the adjustments, effective strategies, and scaffolds utilized by teachers in handling nonreaders; differentiate the teachers’ reading adjustments, strategies and scaffolds in teaching nonreaders; analyze the teaching reading efficiency of nonreaders using effective teaching reading strategies; and find significant correlation of nonreaders’ grades and reading teachers’ reading adjustments, strategies and scaffolds. This study utilized mixed methods of research. Case studies of five public schools teachers were selected as primary subjects, who were interviewed in handling nonreaders in the areas of adjustments, strategies, and reading scaffolds. Actual teaching observation was conducted according to the five subjects’ most convenient time. In ascertaining the nonreaders’ academic performance, the students’ grades in English subject was analyzed using T-Test within subject design. Handling nonreaders in order to read and understand better in the lesson is an arduous act, yet; once done with effectiveness and passion, it yielded a great amount of learning success. Effective teaching practices in handling nonreaders comprised the use of teachers’ adjustments, strategies, and scaffolds to establish reading mastery, exposing them to letter sounds, short stories, and the use of follow-up. WH questions enhanced their reading performance significantly. Variations of reading teachers’ nature as: an enabler, a facilitator, a humanist, a behaviorist, and an expert, as regards to their teaching practices, were proven significant to students’ reading effectiveness.

  17. Ascorbic acid and a cytostatic inhibitor of glycolysis synergistically induce apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Saleha B Vuyyuri

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid (AA exhibits significant anticancer activity at pharmacologic doses achievable by parenteral administration that have minimal effects on normal cells. Thus, AA has potential uses as a chemotherapeutic agent alone or in combination with other therapeutics that specifically target cancer-cell metabolism. We compared the effects of AA and combinations of AA with the glycolysis inhibitor 3-(3-pyridinyl-1-(4-pyridinyl-2-propen-1-one (3-PO on the viability of three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines to the effects on an immortalized lung epithelial cell line. AA concentrations of 0.5 to 5 mM caused a complete loss of viability in all NSCLC lines compared to a <10% loss of viability in the lung epithelial cell line. Combinations of AA and 3-PO synergistically enhanced cell death in all NSCLC cell lines at concentrations well below the IC50 concentrations for each compound alone. A synergistic interaction was not observed in combination treatments of lung epithelial cells and combination treatments that caused a complete loss of viability in NSCLC cells had modest effects on normal lung cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS levels. Combination treatments induced dramatically higher ROS levels compared to treatment with AA and 3-PO alone in NSCLC cells and combination-induced cell death was inhibited by addition of catalase to the medium. Analyses of DNA fragmentation, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage, annexin V-binding, and caspase activity demonstrated that AA-induced cell death is caused via the activation of apoptosis and that the combination treatments caused a synergistic induction of apoptosis. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of AA against NSCLC cells and that combinations of AA with 3-PO synergistically induce apoptosis via a ROS-dependent mechanism. These results support further evaluation of pharmacologic concentrations of AA as an adjuvant treatment for NSCLC and that combination of AA with

  18. Radioprotective Agents


    claimed to be effective are gallic acid derivatives, eg, sodium gallate 12053-21-61 (295-297) and propyl gallate 1121-79-91 (298). p...inhibition of a-adrenergic receptors can be achieved through the use of the antiradiation agents 2-(5-aminopentylamino)ethanephos- phorothioic acid ...tissue was ap- preciated immediately as a potential medical set, and they were put to use en- thusiastically. Early workers did notice an erythematous

  19. Randomly removing g handles at once

    Borradaile, Glencora; Sidiropoulos, Anastasios


    Indyk and Sidiropoulos (2007) proved that any orientable graph of genus $g$ can be probabilistically embedded into a graph of genus $g-1$ with constant distortion. Viewing a graph of genus $g$ as embedded on the surface of a sphere with $g$ handles attached, Indyk and Sidiropoulos' method gives an embedding into a distribution over planar graphs with distortion $2^{O(g)}$, by iteratively removing the handles. By removing all $g$ handles at once, we present a probabilistic embedding with distortion $O(g^2)$ for both orientable and non-orientable graphs. Our result is obtained by showing that the nimum-cut graph of Erickson and Har Peled (2004) has low dilation, and then randomly cutting this graph out of the surface using the Peeling Lemma of Lee and Sidiropoulos (2009).

  20. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage



    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance.

  1. Handling of fuel chips - a health problem

    Stroemquist, L.H.; Blomqvist, G.; Karlsson, E.; Vincent, A.; Lundgren, R.; Eliasson, L.


    An investigation has been made about health problems and occurrence of mold in connection with handling of fuel chips. The investigation was composed of three different parts. First, an inquiry was made to chip stokers about handling, storage etc. of chips as well as possible medical trouble. The answers indicated that symptoms on allergic alveolitis are common among chip stokers, 13% of the answers. Second, a determination of the proportion of living airborne colony-forming mold fungi was made at some chip using units. Third, a pilot study was made to examine the possibilities to improve storability of fuel chips using high-temperature drying.

  2. Remote-handled transuranic system assessment appendices. Volume 2



    Volume 2 of this report contains six appendices to the report: Inventory and generation of remote-handled transuranic waste; Remote-handled transuranic waste site storage; Characterization of remote-handled transuranic waste; RH-TRU waste treatment alternatives system analysis; Packaging and transportation study; and Remote-handled transuranic waste disposal alternatives.

  3. Remote-handled transuranic system assessment appendices. Volume 2



    Volume 2 of this report contains six appendices to the report: Inventory and generation of remote-handled transuranic waste; Remote-handled transuranic waste site storage; Characterization of remote-handled transuranic waste; RH-TRU waste treatment alternatives system analysis; Packaging and transportation study; and Remote-handled transuranic waste disposal alternatives.

  4. 30 CFR 77.1303 - Explosives, handling and use.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives, handling and use. 77.1303 Section... MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1303 Explosives, handling and use. (a) Persons who use or handle... treated and handled with the same safety precautions as blasting caps and electric detonators. (o) Capped...

  5. Trading Agents

    Wellman, Michael


    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  6. Efficient compensation handling via subjective updates

    J. Dedeić (Jovana); J. Pantović (Jovanka); J.A. Pérez Parra (Jorge)


    textabstractProgramming abstractions for compensation handling and dynamic update are crucial in specifying reliable interacting systems, such as Collective Adaptive Systems (CAS). Compensations and updates both specify how a system reacts in response to exceptional events. Prior work showed that


    Shaidatul Shida Razali


    Full Text Available As in many other developing countries, the generation of clinical waste in Malaysia has increased significantly over the last few decades. Even though the serious impact of the clinical waste on human beings and the environment is significant, only minor attention is directed to its proper handling and legal aspects. This study seeks to examine the management of clinical waste in Selangor’s government hospitals as well as problems that arise from the current practice of clinical waste management. A depth interview with the responsible concession who handles the clinical waste management in those hospitals also has been taken. In general, it was found that the consortium’s administration was reasonably aware of the importance of clinical waste management. However, significant voids were presented that need to be addressed in future including efficient segregation, better handling and transfer means, as well as the need for training and awareness programs for the personnel. Other obstacles faced by consortiums were to handle the clinical waste including the operational costs. Waste minimizing and recycling, as well as the alternative treatment methods for incineration are regarded to be major challenges in the future.

  8. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne


    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the ad- vantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified corre...

  9. Materials handling centre: making business more efficient

    B. Bollen (Brian)


    textabstractThe aim of the Materials Handling Forum at RSM is to narrow the gap between research and practice by promoting and disseminating academic knowledge, sharing innovative ideas, generating research questions, and co-developing new research themes with industry partners.

  10. Waiting on More than 64 Handles


    parameter stuct is comprised of an array of handles with a maximum size of MAX_WAIT_OBJECTS and an integer holding the total quantity. Once all the...GIDEP Operations Center P.O. Box 8000 Corona , CA 91718-8000 UNCLASSIFIED Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 4 Patricia Alameda Patricia Alameda Andrew Pskowski

  11. Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide (Fifth Edition)

    Alleman, Teresa L.; McCormick, Robert L.; Christensen, Earl D.; Fioroni, Gina; Moriarty, Kristi; Yanowitz, Janet


    This document is a guide for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and biodiesel blends. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of biodiesel and biodiesel blends in engines and boilers, and is intended to help fleets, individual users, blenders, distributors, and those involved in related activities understand procedures for handling and using biodiesel fuels.

  12. Australia: round module handling and cotton classing

    Round modules of seed cotton produced via on-board module building harvesters are the reality of the cotton industry, worldwide. Although round modules have been available to the industry for almost a decade, there is still no consensus on the best method to handle the modules, particularly when th...

  13. Laboratory rearing and handling of cerambycids

    Melody A. Keena


    Lack of suitable rearing and handling techniques has hampered research on the biology and control of many species of cerambycids that feed on host species of economic importance. Furthermore, because cerambycids spend most or all of their pre-adult life cycle inside the host plant, the biology of many is not well-known and would be dif

  14. Intertextuality for Handling Complex Environmental Issues

    Byhring, Anne Kristine; Knain, Erik


    Nowhere is the need for handling complexity more pertinent than in addressing environmental issues. Our study explores students' situated constructs of complexity in unfolding discourses on socio-scientific issues. Students' dialogues in two group-work episodes are analysed in detail, with tools from Systemic Functional Linguistics. We identify…

  15. Railcar handling systems - designs for individual solutions



    The article examines the latest state of the art developments in railcar handling technology, with profiles of leading equipment suppliers in this field and recent projects completed worldwide. Equipment covered includes: railcar discharge systems; rotary dumpers; side discharge dumpers; and railcar loading systems. 2 figs., 7 photos.

  16. 7 CFR 915.10 - Handle.


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 915.10 Section 915.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... prepared for market. In the event a grower sells his avocados to a handler who is not so registered...

  17. 340 Waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Stordeur, R.T.


    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  18. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    VAIL, T.S.


    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  19. Intertextuality for Handling Complex Environmental Issues

    Byhring, Anne Kristine; Knain, Erik


    Nowhere is the need for handling complexity more pertinent than in addressing environmental issues. Our study explores students' situated constructs of complexity in unfolding discourses on socio-scientific issues. Students' dialogues in two group-work episodes are analysed in detail, with tools from Systemic Functional Linguistics. We identify…

  20. Goods handling: tugs, trailers and tractors.

    Grayson, H


    Ease of handling ought to be a priority in any supply and disposal system. Hazel Grayson, senior research officer at the Medical Architecture Research Unit, Polytechnic of North London, suggests that even where driver-operated electric tow tractors cannot be used, other types of electric pulling device should be considered.

  1. 'Safe handling of nanotechnology' ten years on

    Maynard, Andrew D.; Aitken, Robert J.


    In 2006, a group of scientists proposed five grand challenges to support the safe handling of nanotechnology. Ten years on, Andrew Maynard and Robert Aitken -- two of the original authors -- look at where we have come, and where we still need to go.

  2. Caution required for handling genome editing technology.

    Araki, Motoko; Nojima, Kumie; Ishii, Tetsuya


    Genome-editing technology, although a robust tool for genetic engineering, is creating indistinct regulatory boundaries between naturally occurring and modified organisms. However, researchers must act with caution in research and development to avoid misleading society. Furthermore, appropriate regulations should be proactively discussed and established for handling genome-editing technology.

  3. Tips for Handling Gourds this Fall Season

    Bratsch, Tony


    Each year, more direct market and wholesale growers are adding gourds to their fall sales mix, along with pumpkins, ornamental corn and fall mums. Proper harvest timing, handling and curing are important to ensure maximum longevity of gourds once the consumer brings them home.

  4. Instrumentation to handle thermal polarized neutron beams

    Kraan, W.H.


    In this thesis we investigate devices needed to handle the polarization of thermal neutron beams: Ï/2-flippers (to start/stop Larmor precession) and Ï-flippers (to reverse polarization/precession direction) and illustrate how these devices are used to investigate the properties of matter and of the

  5. Ergonomics intervention in manual handling of oxygen

    M Motamedzadeh


    Conclusion: With the implementation of ergonomic intervention is casting unit, the risk of exposure to musculoskeletal disorders caused by manual handling of oxygen cylinders was eliminated and safety of employees against the risk of explosion of the cylinders in comparison with before the intervention was improved.

  6. Handling Sparse Data by Successive Abstraction

    Samuelsson, C


    A general, practical method for handling sparse data that avoids held-out data and iterative reestimation is derived from first principles. It has been tested on a part-of-speech tagging task and outperformed (deleted) interpolation with context-independent weights, even when the latter used a globally optimal parameter setting determined a posteriori.

  7. 7 CFR 920.11 - Handle.


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 920.11 Section 920.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  8. 7 CFR 955.7 - Handle.


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 955.7 Section 955.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA...

  9. Wet handling of solids using submersible pumps

    Czarnota, Z.; Fahlgren, M.; Grainger, M. [ITT Flygt Slurry Laboratory, Soina (Sweden)


    A complete and efficient concept for handling solids in short distance pumping applications is described. The function of pump, mixer, agitator, and sump have been determined in experimental studies. The major factors that affect pump performance such as impeller design and slurry characteristics are discussed. The results apply to a range of applications in industry and mining. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Data handling and representation of freeform surfaces

    Steinkopf, Ralf; Dick, Lars; Kopf, Tino; Gebhardt, Andreas; Risse, Stefan; Eberhardt, Ramona


    Freeform surfaces enable innovative optics. They are not limited by axis symmetry and hence they are almost free in design. They are used to reduce the installation space and enhance the performance of optical elements. State of the art optical design tools are computing with powerful algorithms to simulate freeform surfaces. Even new mathematical approaches are under development /1/. In consequence, new optical designs /2/ are pushing the development of manufacturing processes consequently and novel types of datasets have to proceed through the process chain /3/. The complexity of these data is the huge challenge for the data handling. Because of the asymmetrical and 3-dimensional surfaces of freeforms, large data volumes have to be created, trimmed, extended and fitted. All these processes must be performed without losing the accuracy of the original design data. Additionally, manifold types of geometries results in different kinds of mathematical representations of freeform surfaces and furthermore the used CAD/CAM tools are dealing with a set of spatial transport formats. These are all reasons why manufacture-oriented approaches for the freeform data handling are not yet sufficiently developed. This paper suggests a classification of freeform surfaces based on the manufacturing methods which are offered by diamond machining. The different manufacturing technologies, ranging from servo-turning to shaping, require a differentiated approach for the data handling process. The usage of analytical descriptions in form of splines and polynomials as well as the application of discrete descriptions like point clouds is shown in relation to the previously made classification. Advantages and disadvantages of freeform representations are discussed. Aspects of the data handling in between different process steps are pointed out and suitable exchange formats for freeform data are proposed. The described approach offers the possibility for efficient data handling from optical

  11. A Knowledge-Based Approach for Selection of Material Handling Equipment and Material Handling System Pre-design

    YAMAN, Ramazan


    For material handling system design, material handling equipment selection is the first stage. Also the material handling system and facility layout design problems are coupled. Solving these problems needs consideration of these three different problems. Right material handling equipment selection and good design of the material handling system and facility layout can increase productivity and reduce investments and operations' costs. In this study, after describing the m...

  12. An Emotional Agent Model Based on Granular Computing

    Jun Hu


    Full Text Available Affective computing has a very important significance for fulfilling intelligent information processing and harmonious communication between human being and computers. A new model for emotional agent is proposed in this paper to make agent have the ability of handling emotions, based on the granular computing theory and the traditional BDI agent model. Firstly, a new emotion knowledge base based on granular computing for emotion expression is presented in the model. Secondly, a new emotional reasoning algorithm based on granular computing is proposed. Thirdly, a new emotional agent model based on granular computing is presented. Finally, based on the model, an emotional agent for patient assistant in hospital is realized, experiment results show that it is efficient to handle simple emotions.

  13. Analysis of aircraft longitudinal handling qualities

    Hess, R. A.


    The optimal control model (OCM) of the human pilot is applied to the study of aircraft handling qualities. Attention is focused primarily on longitudinal tasks. The modeling technique differs from previous applications of the OCM in that considerable effort is expended in simplifying the pilot/vehicle analysis. After briefly reviewing the OCM, a technique for modeling the pilot controlling higher order systems is introduced. Following this, a simple criterion for determining the susceptibility of an aircraft to pilot induced oscillations (PIO) is formulated. Finally, a model-based metric for pilot rating prediction is discussed. The resulting modeling procedure provides a relatively simple, yet unified approach to the study of a variety of handling qualities problems.

  14. Energy efficiency in air handling applications

    Fontaine, P. [Australian Baldor (Australia)


    It is estimated that the cost of air handling in a typical office building is $25,000 to $60,000 per 10,000 sq metres. New technologies are now available to reduce this by 50 percent with an investment that is recoverable within two years. Old systems of air handling operated at full speed with flow rates changed by mechanical vanes or dampers. The excess capacity generated is wasting energy which could be saved using modern motor controls that match the system output with actual needs. Comparisons of relative energy consumptions of different fan flow control methods show that the more time a system spends throttled down, the better candidate it is for the more efficient Variable Speed Drive (VSD) device which matches the motor`s speed to actual needs. The use of VSD instead of vanes and dampers reduces operating costs which impacts directly on profitability. 2 tables, 1 fig.

  15. Handling System for Iridium-192 Seeds

    Carpenter, W.; Wodicka, D.


    A complete system is proposed for safe handling of iridium-192 seeds used to internally irradiate malignant growths. A vibratory hopper feeds the seeds onto a transport system for deposit in a magazine or storage area. A circular magazine consisting of segmented plastic tubing with holes in the walls to accommodate the seeds seems feasible. The magazine is indexed to stop and release a seed for calibration and deposition.

  16. NB Power`s fish handling facilities

    Hickman, C. N. [New Brunswick Power, Fredericton, NB (Canada)


    Fish handling facilities at the various hydroelectric power generating stations of New Brunswick Power on the St. John River, were described. The facilities described included the fish hoist at the Beechwood Generating Station , the fish ladder at the Tobique Generating Station and a trap and truck operation at the Mactaquac Station. Details of operating arrangements were provided. Operating issues, solutions and ongoing efforts to improve operations further, were discussed. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Browsing TAP Services with TapHandle

    Louys, M.; Michel, L.; Mantelet, G.; Bonnarel, F.


    TapHandle is a Web application merging multiple services based on the IVOA Table Access Protocol (TAP) in one page. TAP resources are presented in an expandable tree whose leaves represent SQL tables. Both table description and content can be immediately displayed. A smart ADQL editor helps to setup queries on one table. A shopping cart facility allows users to get data of interest. A filter enriches the data layout with anchors pointing to remote services.

  18. Statistical methods for handling incomplete data

    Kim, Jae Kwang


    ""… this book nicely blends the theoretical material and its application through examples, and will be of interest to students and researchers as a textbook or a reference book. Extensive coverage of recent advances in handling missing data provides resources and guidelines for researchers and practitioners in implementing the methods in new settings. … I plan to use this as a textbook for my teaching and highly recommend it.""-Biometrics, September 2014

  19. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, B. S.; Park, Y. S.; Oh, S. C.; Kim, S. H.; Cho, M. W.; Hong, D. H


    Since the nation`s policy on spent fuel management is not finalized, the technical items commonly required for safe management and recycling of spent fuel - remote technologies of transportation, inspection, maintenance, and disassembly of spent fuel - are selected and pursued. In this regards, the following R and D activities are carried out : collision free transportation of spent fuel assembly, mechanical disassembly of spent nuclear fuel and graphical simulation of fuel handling / disassembly process. (author). 36 refs., 16 tabs., 77 figs

  20. Remote handling systems for the Pride application



    In this paper is described the development of remote handling systems for use in the pyro processing technology development. Remote handling systems mainly include a BDSM (Bridge transported Dual arm Servo-Manipulator) and a simulator, all of which will be applied to the Pride (Pyro process integrated inactive demonstration facility) that is under construction at KAERI. BDMS that will traverse the length of the ceiling is designed to have two pairs of master-slave manipulators of which each pair of master-slave manipulators has a kinematic similarity and a force reflection. A simulator is also designed to provide an efficient means for simulating and verifying the conceptual design, developments, arrangements, and rehearsal of the pyro processing equipment and relevant devices from the viewpoint of remote operation and maintenance. In our research is presented activities and progress made in developing remote handling systems to be used for the remote operation and maintenance of the pyro processing equipment and relevant devices in the Pride. (Author)

  1. Renal sodium handling and sodium sensitivity

    Alissa A. Frame


    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of hypertension, which affects over 1 billion individuals worldwide, involves the integration of the actions of multiple organ systems, including the kidney. The kidney, which governs sodium excretion via several mechanisms including pressure natriuresis and the actions of renal sodium transporters, is central to long term blood pressure regulation and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure. The impact of renal sodium handling and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure in health and hypertension is a critical public health issue owing to the excess of dietary salt consumed globally and the significant percentage of the global population exhibiting salt sensitivity. This review highlights recent advances that have provided new insight into the renal handling of sodium and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure, with a focus on genetic, inflammatory, dietary, sympathetic nervous system and oxidative stress mechanisms that influence renal sodium excretion. Increased understanding of the multiple integrated mechanisms that regulate the renal handling of sodium and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure has the potential to identify novel therapeutic targets and refine dietary guidelines designed to treat and prevent hypertension.

  2. D0 data handling operational experience

    Lee Lueking et al.


    We report on the production experience of the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron, using the SAM data handling system with a variety of computing hardware configurations, batch systems, and mass storage strategies. We have stored more than 300 TB of data in the Fermilab Enstore mass storage system. We deliver data through this system at an average rate of more than 2 TB/day to analysis programs, with a substantial multiplication factor in the consumed data through intelligent cache management. We handle more than 1.7 Million files in this system and provide data delivery to user jobs at Fermilab on four types of systems: a reconstruction farm, a large SMP system, a Linux batch cluster, and a Linux desktop cluster. In addition, we import simulation data generated at 6 sites worldwide, and deliver data to jobs at many more sites. We describe the scope of the data handling deployment worldwide, the operational experience with this system, and the feedback of that experience.

  3. Improving Memory Error Handling Using Linux

    Carlton, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Blanchard, Sean P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Debardeleben, Nathan A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    As supercomputers continue to get faster and more powerful in the future, they will also have more nodes. If nothing is done, then the amount of memory in supercomputer clusters will soon grow large enough that memory failures will be unmanageable to deal with by manually replacing memory DIMMs. "Improving Memory Error Handling Using Linux" is a process oriented method to solve this problem by using the Linux kernel to disable (offline) faulty memory pages containing bad addresses, preventing them from being used again by a process. The process of offlining memory pages simplifies error handling and results in reducing both hardware and manpower costs required to run Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) clusters. This process will be necessary for the future of supercomputing to allow the development of exascale computers. It will not be feasible without memory error handling to manually replace the number of DIMMs that will fail daily on a machine consisting of 32-128 petabytes of memory. Testing reveals the process of offlining memory pages works and is relatively simple to use. As more and more testing is conducted, the entire process will be automated within the high-performance computing (HPC) monitoring software, Zenoss, at LANL.

  4. Handle-attachments from nubia. A note

    William CULICAN


    Full Text Available Information on the distinctive bronze handle - attachments in the shape of a pair of human hands has been painstakingly collected by Dr. E. Cuadrado in his Refertorio de los Recipientes Rituales metálicos con "Asas de Manos" de la Península Ibérica (Trabajos de Prehistoria XXI, Madrid 1966. There is little room to doubt that metal vessels with this form of handle, whether we regard them as braziers (braserillos in the older terminology or 'ritual vessels' as does Cuadrado, are related to the distribution of Phoenician or Punic trade and influence in the Iberian peninsula. The southerly 'Tartessian' distribution speaks for itself; for the western 'Levantine' distribution (from Murcia, Alicante, Valencia, Teruel, Tarragona, Málaga, Ibiza we can postulate Ibiza, Málaga or Cartagena as a probable distribution centre. The examples in the west central meseta (Sanchorreja, El Berrueco, La Osera come as no surprise in view of the fact that such obviously Phoenician objects as the Sanchorreja belt-buckle, the Berrueco bronzes reached the regions of Avila and Salamanca respectively. Even for the outlying spot on the hand-handle distribution map at Santa Olaya, the cèltic oppidum at the mouth of the River Mondego, a context of Phoenician trade is likely, since pottery of Carmona and later types was found there and is now in the museum at Figueira da Foz.

  5. Vestibule and Cask Preparation Mechanical Handling Calculation

    N. Ambre


    The scope of this document is to develop the size, operational envelopes, and major requirements of the equipment to be used in the vestibule, cask preparation area, and the crane maintenance area of the Fuel Handling Facility. This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAIC Company L.L.C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101'' (Ref. 167124). This correspondence was appended by further correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (Ref. 16875 1). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process.


    C.E. Sanders


    This design calculation revises and updates the previous criticality evaluation for the canister handling, transfer and staging operations to be performed in the Canister Handling Facility (CHF) documented in BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004 [DIRS 167614]. The purpose of the calculation is to demonstrate that the handling operations of canisters performed in the CHF meet the nuclear criticality safety design criteria specified in the ''Project Design Criteria (PDC) Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171599], Section, the nuclear facility safety requirement in ''Project Requirements Document'' (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275], p. 4-206), the functional/operational nuclear safety requirement in the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' document (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557], p. 75), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirements described in the ''Canister Handling Facility Description Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168992], Sections and 3.2.3). Specific scope of work contained in this activity consists of updating the Category 1 and 2 event sequence evaluations as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7). The CHF is limited in throughput capacity to handling sealed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) canisters, defense high-level radioactive waste (DHLW), naval canisters, multicanister overpacks (MCOs), vertical dual-purpose canisters (DPCs), and multipurpose canisters (MPCs) (if and when they become available) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168992], p. 1-1). It should be noted that the design and safety analyses of the naval canisters are the responsibility of the U.S. Department of the Navy (Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program) and will not be included in this document. In addition, this calculation is valid for

  7. Waste Handling Equipment Devleopment Test and Evaluation

    R.L. Tome


    The purpose of this study is to identify candidate Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface waste handling equipment for development testing. This study will also identify strategies for performing the development tests. Development testing shall be implemented to support detail design and reduce design risks. Development testing shall be conducted to confirm design concepts, evaluate alternative design concepts, show the availability of needed technology, and provide design documentation. The candidate equipment will be selected from MGR surface waste handling equipment that is the responsibility of the Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) Surface Design Department. The equipment identified in this study is based on Viability Assessment (VA) design. The ''Monitored Geologic Repository Test and Evaluation Plan'' (MGR T&EP), Reference 5.1, was used as a basis for this study. The MGR T&EP reflects the extent of test planning and analysis that can be conducted, given the current status of the MGR requirements and latest VA design information. The MGR T&EP supports the appropriate sections in the license application (LA) in accordance with 10 CFR 60.2 1(c)(14). The MGR T&EP describes the following test activities: site characterization to confirm, by test and analysis, the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for housing a geologic repository; development testing to investigate and document design concepts to reduce risk; qualification testing to verify equipment compliance with design requirements, specifications, and regulatory requirements; system testing to validate compliance with MGR requirements, which include the receipt, handling, retrieval, and disposal of waste; periodic performance testing to verify preclosure requirements and to demonstrate safe and reliable MGR operation; and performance confirmation modeling, testing, and analysis to verify adherence to postclosure regulatory requirements. Development test activities can be

  8. Intelligent agents in data-intensive computing

    Correia, Luís; Molina, José


    This book presents new approaches that advance research in all aspects of agent-based models, technologies, simulations and implementations for data intensive applications. The nine chapters contain a review of recent cross-disciplinary approaches in cloud environments and multi-agent systems, and important formulations of data intensive problems in distributed computational environments together with the presentation of new agent-based tools to handle those problems and Big Data in general. This volume can serve as a reference for students, researchers and industry practitioners working in or interested in joining interdisciplinary work in the areas of data intensive computing and Big Data systems using emergent large-scale distributed computing paradigms. It will also allow newcomers to grasp key concepts and potential solutions on advanced topics of theory, models, technologies, system architectures and implementation of applications in Multi-Agent systems and data intensive computing. .

  9. Developing Agent-Oriented Video Surveillance System through Agent-Oriented Methodology (AOM

    Cheah Wai Shiang


    Full Text Available Agent-oriented methodology (AOM is a comprehensive and unified agent methodology for agent-oriented software development. Although AOM is claimed to be able to cope with a complex system development, it is still not yet determined up to what extent this may be true. Therefore, it is vital to conduct an investigation to validate this methodology. This paper presents the adoption of AOM in developing an agent-oriented video surveillance system (VSS. An intruder handling scenario is designed and implemented through AOM. AOM provides an alternative method to engineer a distributed security system in a systematic manner. It presents the security system at a holistic view; provides a better conceptualization of agent-oriented security system and supports rapid prototyping as well as simulation of video surveillance system.

  10. Solidex 86 - modern technology in bulk solids handling


    A total of 30 papers were presented covering the following topics: coal and ash handling; dust control and explosion hazards; pneumatic conveying; mechanical conveying; storage and wear; and weighing technology and automated materials handling. 15 papers have been abstracted separately.

  11. 7 CFR 958.53 - Handling for specified purposes.


    ... DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 958.53..., in order to facilitate the handling of onions for the following purposes whenever he finds that to...

  12. Interactions between oral antineoplastic agents and concomitant medication: a systematic review.

    Carcelero, Esther; Anglada, Helena; Tuset, Montse; Creus, Natalia


    In recent years, the number of oral antitumoral agents has considerably increased. Oral administration increases the risk of interactions, because most oral anticancer drugs are taken on a daily basis. Interactions can increase exposure to antitumoral agents or cause treatment failure. Many antitumoral drugs undergo enzymatic metabolism by cytochrome P450. As some act as inducers or inhibitors of one or more isoenzymes, they can lead to decreases or increases in plasma concentrations of concomitant drugs. Hence, cytostatic drugs can act not only as victims but also as perpetrators. P-glycoprotein, an efflux transporter, can also be involved in pharmacokinetic interactions. A Medline search was performed to summarize the available evidence of the most clinically relevant interactions between oral chemotherapy agents and other drugs. The search covered the period from 1966 until August 2012 for each antitumoral drug using the medical subject headings 'Drug Interactions' OR 'Pharmacokinetics'. While the present review is not exhaustive, it aims to increase clinicians' awareness of potential drug-drug interactions. As cancer patients are often polymedicated and treated by different physicians, the risk of drug interactions between antitumoral agents and other medications is high. More clinical interaction studies are encouraged to ensure appropriate antineoplastic pharmacokinetics in clinical practice.

  13. Concurrent projects: how many can you handle?

    Steyn, Herman


    Full Text Available The number of projects a person can handle simultaneously is a relevant factor in strategic planning and in project portfolio management. Internationally the de facto standard seems to be that a person should not work on more than two or three projects simultaneously; but several factors could influence this figure. Empirical evidence indicates that, in some South African sectors, people tend to work on many more than two or three projects simultaneously. In this paper, factors that influence the number of projects a person can work on are identified so that they can be investigated in further studies. Some ideas about using key resources optimally are also presented.

  14. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    Yager, T. J.


    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  15. Vilkår for kollektiv handling

    Scheuer, Steen


    Fagbevægelsens situation og opgaver påvirkes af forandringer i de institutionelle makrostrukturer, som indebærer et øget fokus på lønrelativiteter og på at overvåge ens egen faggruppes eller erhvervsgruppes relative position i lønhierarkiet. Dette fokus er ikke nyt, men det er øget, og det er int...... serviceydelser, fagforeningerne oprindeligt blev sat i verden for at levere. Det er i disse ændrede vilkår for kollektive handling, i dette krydspres, at fagbevægelsen skal finde ny strategier og definere ny former for solidaritet...


    D.T. Dexheimer


    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Canister Handling Facility (CHF) performing operations to receive transportation casks, transfer wastes, prepare waste packages, perform associated equipment maintenance. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the CHF and provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application.

  17. MemoPA: Intelligent Personal Assistant Agents with a Case Memory Mechanism

    Chen, Ke-Jia; Barthès, Jean-Paul

    A Personal Assistant (PA) agent is a software agent capable of helping people to handle tasks in their workplace. The paper proposes a memory mechanism for personal assistant agents in order to enhance agent intelligence while working with the user or with other agents. Inspired by a case memory model in the domain of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR), this paper endows PA agents with a case memory mechanism, which results in improved PA agents: MemoPAs. We present the memory mechanism of MemoPA in detail, and report a first implementation of the method. Finally, future work is outlined for improving the memory mechanism.

  18. 76 FR 37118 - Manual Materials Handling (MMH) Workshop


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Manual Materials Handling (MMH) Workshop... Health, will be holding a two-day Manual Materials Handling (MMH) Workshop. The Workshop is a National... engineering solutions for manual materials handling jobs in Retail, Wholesale and Warehouse industries....

  19. 30 CFR 77.606 - Energized trailing cables; handling.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Energized trailing cables; handling. 77.606... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606 Energized trailing cables; handling. Energized medium- and high-voltage trailing cables shall be handled only by persons wearing protective rubber gloves (see § 77.606-1...

  20. Execution Constraint Verification of Exception Handling on UML Sequence Diagrams

    Ciraci, S.; Sözer, Hasan; Aksit, Mehmet; Havinga, W.K.


    Exception handling alters the control flow of the program. As such, errors introduced in exception handling code may influence the overall program in undesired ways. To detect such errors early and thereby decrease the programming costs, it is worthwhile to consider exception handling at design

  1. 49 CFR 219.205 - Specimen collection and handling.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specimen collection and handling. 219.205 Section... § 219.205 Specimen collection and handling. (a) General. Urine and blood specimens must be obtained, marked, preserved, handled, and made available to FRA consistent with the requirements of this subpart...

  2. 9 CFR 114.11 - Storage and handling.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage and handling. 114.11 Section... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.11 Storage and handling. Biological products at licensed establishments shall be protected at all times against improper storage and handling. Completed product shall be kept under...

  3. 46 CFR 151.45-4 - Cargo-handling.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo-handling. 151.45-4 Section 151.45-4 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-4 Cargo-handling. (a) On a United States tank barge... the persons in charge of cargo handling. (h) Auxiliary steam, air, fuel, or electric current. When...

  4. 49 CFR 176.57 - Supervision of handling and stowage.


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of handling and stowage. 176.57 Section 176.57 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.57 Supervision of handling and stowage. (a) Hazardous...

  5. 30 CFR 75.817 - Cable handling and support systems.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cable handling and support systems. 75.817... High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.817 Cable handling and support systems. Longwall mining equipment must be provided with cable-handling and support systems that are constructed, installed and maintained to...

  6. 7 CFR 923.322 - Washington cherry handling regulation.


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington cherry handling regulation. 923.322 Section... CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Grade, Size, Container and Pack Regulation § 923.322 Washington cherry handling regulation. (a) Grade. No handler shall...

  7. 77 FR 76815 - Handling of Animals; Contingency Plans


    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 2 and 3 RIN 0579-AC69 Handling of Animals... handling, care, treatment, and transportation of certain animals by dealers, research facilities... humane handling, care, treatment, and transportation of animals covered by the AWA. Currently, part 3...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in... handling equipment. (b) The master shall ensure that a warning sign listing the requirement for use of the...

  9. Neonatal handling causes impulsive behavior and decreased pharmacological response to methylphenidate in male adult wistar rats.

    Lazzaretti, Camilla; Kincheski, Grasielle Clotildes; Pandolfo, Pablo; Krolow, Rachel; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Couto-Pereira, Natividade de Sá; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Galvalisi, Martin; Costa, Gustavo; Scorza, Cecilia; Souza, Tadeu Mello E; Dalmaz, Carla


    Neonatal handling has an impact on adult behavior of experimental animals and is associated with rapid and increased palatable food ingestion, impaired behavioral flexibility, and fearless behavior to novel environments. These symptoms are characteristic features of impulsive trait, being controlled by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Impulsive behavior is a key component of many psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), manic behavior, and schizophrenia. Others have reported a methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of mPFC functioning and improvements in behavioral core symptoms of ADHD patients. The aims of the present study were: (i) to find in vivo evidence for an association between neonatal handling and the development of impulsive behavior in adult Wistar rats and (ii) to test whether neonatal handling could have an impact on monoamine levels in the mPFC and the pharmacological response to MPH in vivo. Therefore, experimental animals (litters) were classified as: "non-handled" and "handled" (10[Formula: see text]min/day, postnatal days 1-10). After puberty, they were exposed to either a larger and delayed or smaller and immediate reward (tolerance to delay of reward task). Acute MPH (3[Formula: see text]mg/Kg. i.p.) was used to suppress and/or regulate impulsive behavior. Our results show that only neonatally handled male adult Wistar rats exhibit impulsive behavior with no significant differences in monoamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, together with a decreased response to MPH. On this basis, we postulate that early life interventions may have long-term effects on inhibitory control mechanisms and affect the later response to pharmacological agents during adulthood.




    Mobile agent technology has been promoted as an emerging technology that makes it much easier to design, implement, and maintain distributed systems, introduction to basic concepts of mobile agents like agent mobility, agent types and places and agent communication. Then benefits of the usage of mobile agents are summarized and illustrated by selected applications. The next section lists requirements and desirable properties for mobile agent languages and systems. We study the main features, ...

  11. Nozzle extraction process and handlemeter for measuring handle

    Alley, V. L., Jr.; Mchatton, A. D. (Inventor)


    Method and apparatus for quantitatively measuring the handle of fabrics and other flexible materials is presented. Handle is that term used to refer to the qualities of drapability, flexibility, compressibility, foldability, stretchability, pliability, etc., possessed by fabrics and other flexible materials. In the present invention the handle of a material sample is quantified by measuring the force required to draw the sample through an orifice and expressing the resultant extractive force as a function of test apparatus geometry and the amount of sample drawn through the orifice to arrive at quantitative measure of handle, to be defined as handle modulus, for the sample in question.

  12. Synthesis of some pyrazolines and pyrimidines derived from polymethoxy chalcones as anticancer and antimicrobial agents.

    Rostom, Sherif A F; Badr, Mona H; Abd El Razik, Heba A; Ashour, Hayam M A; Abdel Wahab, Abeer E


    The synthesis of a series of certain polymethoxy chalcones and some derived pyrazole, pyrimidine, and thiazolopyrimidine ring structures is reported. Eleven compounds 4, 6, 9, 11, 14-17, 22, 24, and 25 were selected by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to be screened for their in-vitro anticancer activity, whereas all the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in-vitro antimicrobial activity. Compounds 4, 6, and 11 were found to possess a significant broad spectrum antitumor potential against most of the tested subpanel tumor cell lines. The pyrazolines 4 and 6 displayed remarkable growth inhibitory activities (GI(50) MG-MID values of 2.10 and 1.38 µM, respectively), together with moderate cytostatic effects (TGI MG-MID values of 47.9 and 42.7 µM, respectively). Meanwhile, the pyrimidin-2-one 11 showed a noticeable overall tumor growth inhibitory activity, together with high cytostatic and cytotoxic efficacies (GI(50) , TGI and LC(50) MG-MID values of 3.39, 17.4, and 61.7 µM, respectively). On the other hand, compounds 3, 4, 13, 15, 19, 20, and 23 were found to be the most active antimicrobial members in this investigation with a broad spectrum of activity. Compound 23 was four times superior to ampicillin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The best antifungal activity was demonstrated by compounds 4, 5, and 11 which possessed almost half the activity of clotrimazole against Candida albicans. Collectively, the obtained biological results suggest that compound 4 could be considered as a possible dual antimicrobial-anticancer agent.

  13. Influence of the oncolytic parvovirus H-1, CTLA-4 antibody tremelimumab and cytostatic drugs on the human immune system in a human in vitro model of colorectal cancer cells

    Heinrich B


    Full Text Available Bernd Heinrich,* Katrin Goepfert,* Maike Delic, Peter R Galle, Markus MoehlerUniversity Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, 1st Department of Internal Medicine, Langenbeckstrasse, Mainz, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this workIntroduction: Tumor-directed and immune-system-stimulating therapies are of special interest in cancer treatment. Here, we demonstrate the potential of parvovirus H-1 (H-1PV to efficiently kill colorectal cancer cells and induce immunogenicity of colorectal tumors by inducing maturation of dendritic cells (DCs alone and also in combination with cytostatic drugs in vitro. Using our cell culture model, we have additionally investigated the effects of anti-CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 receptor antibody tremelimumab on this process.Materials and methods: Colon carcinoma cell lines were treated with different concentrations of cytostatic drugs or tremelimumab or were infected with H-1PV in different multiplicities of infection (MOIs, and viability was determined using MTT assays. Expression of CTLA-4 in colon carcinoma cell lines was measured by FACScan™. For the coculture model, we isolated monocytes using adherence, and differentiation into immature DCs (iDCs was stimulated using interleukin-4 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Maturation of iDCs into mature DCs (mDCs was induced by a cytokine cocktail. SW480 colon carcinoma cells were infected with H-1PV or treated with cytostatic drugs. Drug treated and H-1PV-infected SW480 colon carcinoma cells were cocultured with iDCs and expression of maturation markers was measured using FACScan™. Cytokine measurements were performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: Colon carcinoma cells SW480 were potently infected and killed by H-1PV. CTLA-4 expression in SW480 cells increased after infection with H-1PV and also after treatment with cytostatic drugs. Tremelimumab had no influence on

  14. Brief neonatal handling alters sexually dimorphic behaviors in adult rats.

    Fujimoto, Tetsuya; Kubo, Kazuhiko; Nishikawa, Yasuo; Aou, Shuji


    Several effects of neonatal handling on brain and behavior have been reported. We investigated the effects of neonatal handling on behaviors that have been shown to be sexually dimorphic in rats using an open-field test. "Gender differences" were observed in locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and grooming in the handled group. However, clear gender differences in these behaviors were not observed in the non-handled group. Our findings show that brief daily handling sessions (~ 1 min) in the first 2 weeks of postnatal life increased locomotor activity and exploratory behavior, and that these effects were more pronounced in females. Moreover, many rats in the non-handling group exhibited an increase in defecation relative to the handling group during the 10-min observation period. This suggests that the non-handling group experienced more stress in response to the novel open-field arena, and that this resulted in the absence of gender differences. Notably, this anxiety-related response was attenuated by neonatal handling. Our study underscores the impact of brief neonatal handling on sexually dimorphic behaviors, and indicates that caution should be exercised in controlling for the effects of handling between experimental groups, particularly in neurotoxicological studies that evaluate gender differences.

  15. Agent-Supported Mission Operations Teamwork

    Malin, Jane T.


    This slide presentation reviews the development of software agents to support of mission operations teamwork. The goals of the work was to make automation by agents easy to use, supervise and direct, manage information and communication to decrease distraction, interruptions, workload and errors, reduce mission impact of off-nominal situations and increase morale and decrease turnover. The accomplishments or the project are: 1. Collaborative agents - mixed initiative and creation of instructions for mediating agent 2. Methods for prototyping, evaluating and evolving socio-technical systems 3. Technology infusion: teamwork tools in mISSIons 4. Demonstrations in simulation testbed An example of the use of agent is given, the use of an agent to monitor a N2 tank leak. An incomplete instruction to the agent is handled with mediating assistants, or Intelligent Briefing and Response Assistant (IBRA). The IBRA Engine also watches data stream for triggers and executes Act-Whenever actions. There is also a Briefing and Response Instruction (BRI) which is easy for a discipline specialist to create through a BRI editor.

  16. Riot Control Agents

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir FACT SHEET What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  17. Interacting agents in finance

    C. Hommes


    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response t

  18. Interacting agents in finance

    Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.


    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response

  19. New potential antitumoral agents of polyphenolic nature obtained from Helleborus purpurascens by membranary micro- and ultrafiltration techniques

    Gabriela Vochita


    Full Text Available The in vitro action of some total aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts and of their concentrate or permeate fractions, separated by membranary micro- and ultrafiltrations of the primary homogenates, obtained from Helleborus purpurascens ethnomedicinal plant, upon the cell protein biosynthesis, proliferation, viability and development of the HeLa cancerous cells cultures was investigated. The significant proteinsynthesis alteration, protein dynamics modification, decrease of total cell number, cell viability diminution, inhibitory impact upon the cell cultures development, during studied evolution period, suggest the behaviour of these polyphenolic hellebore extracts as in vitro active cytostatic and cytotoxic agents. Our preliminary characterization of these vegetal biopreparations as protein, mitotic, growth inhibitors offers the informational background for further investigations, on many other cancerous and normal cell lines and adequate experimental models to in vitro prescreening, as well as for their introduction in the in vivo antitumoral screening program on different experimental tumoral systems.

  20. ew potential antitumoral agents of polyphenolic nature obtained from Helleborus purpurascens by membranary micro- and ultrafiltration techniques

    Gabriela Vochita


    Full Text Available The in vitro action of some total aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts and of their concentrate or permeate fractions, separated by membranary micro- and ultrafiltrations of the primary homogenates, obtained from Helleborus purpurascens ethnomedicinal plant, upon the cell protein biosynthesis, proliferation, viability and development of the HeLa cancerous cells cultures was investigated. The significant proteinsynthesis alteration, protein dynamics modification, decrease of total cell number, cell viability diminution, inhibitory impact upon the cell cultures development, during studied evolution period, suggest the behaviour of these polyphenolic hellebore extracts as in vitro active cytostatic and cytotoxic agents. Our preliminary characterization of these vegetal biopreparations as protein, mitotic, growth inhibitors offers the informational background for further investigations, on many other cancerous and normal cell lines and adequate experimental models to in vitro prescreening, as well as for their introduction in the in vivo antitumoral screening program on different experimental tumoral systems.

  1. Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species during Apoptosis Induced by DNA-Damaging Agents and/or Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    Barbora Brodská


    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species play an important role in the process of apoptosis in many cell types. In this paper, we analyzed the role of ROS in DNA-damaging agents (actinomycin D or decitabine, which induced apoptosis of leukemia cell line CML-T1 and normal peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL. The possibility of synergism with histone deacetylase inhibitors butyrate or SAHA is also reported. We found that in cancer cell line, ROS production significantly contributed to apoptosis triggering, while in normal lymphocytes treated by cytostatic or cytotoxic drugs, necrosis as well as apoptosis occurred and large heterogeneity of ROS production was measured. Combined treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitor did not potentiate actinomycin D action, whereas combination of decitabine and SAHA brought synergistic ROS generation and apoptotic features in CML cell line. Appropriate decrease of cell viability indicated promising therapeutic potential of this combination in CML, but side effects on normal PBL should be taken into attention.

  2. CERN Sells its Electronic Document Handling System


    The EDH team. Left to right: Derek Mathieson, Rotislav Titov, Per Gunnar Jonsson, Ivica Dobrovicova, James Purvis. Missing from the photo is Jurgen De Jonghe. In a 1 MCHF deal announced this week, the British company Transacsys bought the rights to CERN's Electronic Document Handling (EDH) system, which has revolutionised the Laboratory's administrative procedures over the last decade. Under the deal, CERN and Transacsys will collaborate on developing EDH over the coming 12 months. CERN will provide manpower and expertise and will retain the rights to use EDH, which will also be available freely to other particle physics laboratories. This development is an excellent example of the active technology transfer policy CERN is currently pursuing. The negotiations were carried out through a fruitful collaboration between AS and ETT Divisions, following the recommendations of the Technology Advisory Board, and with the help of SPL Division. EDH was born in 1991 when John Ferguson and Achille Petrilli of AS Divisi...

  3. Primer on tritium safe handling practices


    This Primer is designed for use by operations and maintenance personnel to improve their knowledge of tritium safe handling practices. It is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. It is presented in general terms for use throughout the DOE Complex. After reading it, one should be able to: describe methods of measuring airborne tritium concentration; list types of protective clothing effective against tritium uptake from surface and airborne contamination; name two methods of reducing the body dose after a tritium uptake; describe the most common method for determining amount of tritium uptake in the body; describe steps to take following an accidental release of airborne tritium; describe the damage to metals that results from absorption of tritium; explain how washing hands or showering in cold water helps reduce tritium uptake; and describe how tritium exchanges with normal hydrogen in water and hydrocarbons.

  4. Error handling strategies in multiphase inverse modeling

    Finsterle, S.; Zhang, Y.


    Parameter estimation by inverse modeling involves the repeated evaluation of a function of residuals. These residuals represent both errors in the model and errors in the data. In practical applications of inverse modeling of multiphase flow and transport, the error structure of the final residuals often significantly deviates from the statistical assumptions that underlie standard maximum likelihood estimation using the least-squares method. Large random or systematic errors are likely to lead to convergence problems, biased parameter estimates, misleading uncertainty measures, or poor predictive capabilities of the calibrated model. The multiphase inverse modeling code iTOUGH2 supports strategies that identify and mitigate the impact of systematic or non-normal error structures. We discuss these approaches and provide an overview of the error handling features implemented in iTOUGH2.

  5. Handling of wet residues in industry

    Villanueva, Alejandro

    In countries with high prices of fresh water use and wastewater discharge, water recycling has become an alternative to traditional water consumption and discharge for industries with water-based processes. Industrial water recycling means in many cases that water has to be treated and cleaned......, to remove from it the substances which presence impedes reusing the water. These substances accumulate in a by-product called wet residue. An integral part of water recycling projects in the industry is the handling and disposal of the wet residues generated. The treatment, utilisation and disposal of wet...... residues depend totally on the industrial sector of origin and the composition of the water to be recycled. Treatment is more problematic in some cases than in others, but in all water recycling applications it is an issue of concern. The present study addresses this concern by providing a package...

  6. Handling Occlusions for Robust Augmented Reality Systems

    Madjid Maidi


    Full Text Available In Augmented Reality applications, the human perception is enhanced with computer-generated graphics. These graphics must be exactly registered to real objects in the scene and this requires an effective Augmented Reality system to track the user's viewpoint. In this paper, a robust tracking algorithm based on coded fiducials is presented. Square targets are identified and pose parameters are computed using a hybrid approach based on a direct method combined with the Kalman filter. An important factor for providing a robust Augmented Reality system is the correct handling of targets occlusions by real scene elements. To overcome tracking failure due to occlusions, we extend our method using an optical flow approach to track visible points and maintain virtual graphics overlaying when targets are not identified. Our proposed real-time algorithm is tested with different camera viewpoints under various image conditions and shows to be accurate and robust.

  7. Handling Occlusions for Robust Augmented Reality Systems

    Maidi Madjid


    Full Text Available Abstract In Augmented Reality applications, the human perception is enhanced with computer-generated graphics. These graphics must be exactly registered to real objects in the scene and this requires an effective Augmented Reality system to track the user's viewpoint. In this paper, a robust tracking algorithm based on coded fiducials is presented. Square targets are identified and pose parameters are computed using a hybrid approach based on a direct method combined with the Kalman filter. An important factor for providing a robust Augmented Reality system is the correct handling of targets occlusions by real scene elements. To overcome tracking failure due to occlusions, we extend our method using an optical flow approach to track visible points and maintain virtual graphics overlaying when targets are not identified. Our proposed real-time algorithm is tested with different camera viewpoints under various image conditions and shows to be accurate and robust.

  8. Handling large variations in mechanics: Some applications

    K Balaji Rao; M B Anoop; S Muralidhara; B K Raghu Prasad


    There is a need to use probability distributions with power-law decaying tails to describe the large variations exhibited by some of the physical phenomena. The Weierstrass Random Walk (WRW) shows promise for modeling such phenomena. The theory of anomalous diffusion is now well established. It has found number of applications in Physics, Chemistry and Biology. However, its applications are limited in structural mechanics in general, and structural engineering in particular. The aim of this paper is to present some mathematical preliminaries related to WRW that would help in possible applications. In the limiting case, it represents a diffusion process whose evolution is governed by a fractional partial differential equation. Three applications of superdiffusion processes in mechanics, illustrating their effectiveness in handling large variations, are presented.

  9. Overview on Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis

    Jon Burger; Deepak Gupta; Patrick Jacobs; John Shillinglaw


    Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds of gas and water molecules that are formed under certain thermodynamic conditions. Hydrate deposits occur naturally within ocean sediments just below the sea floor at temperatures and pressures existing below about 500 meters water depth. Gas hydrate is also stable in conjunction with the permafrost in the Arctic. Most marine gas hydrate is formed of microbially generated gas. It binds huge amounts of methane into the sediments. Worldwide, gas hydrate is estimated to hold about 1016 kg of organic carbon in the form of methane (Kvenvolden et al., 1993). Gas hydrate is one of the fossil fuel resources that is yet untapped, but may play a major role in meeting the energy challenge of this century. In June 2002, Westport Technology Center was requested by the Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a ''Best Practices Manual on Gas Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis'' under Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41327. The scope of the task was specifically targeted for coring sediments with hydrates in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and from the present Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drillship. The specific subjects under this scope were defined in 3 stages as follows: Stage 1: Collect information on coring sediments with hydrates, core handling, core preservation, sample transportation, analysis of the core, and long term preservation. Stage 2: Provide copies of the first draft to a list of experts and stakeholders designated by DOE. Stage 3: Produce a second draft of the manual with benefit of input from external review for delivery. The manual provides an overview of existing information available in the published literature and reports on coring, analysis, preservation and transport of gas hydrates for laboratory analysis as of June 2003. The manual was delivered as draft version 3 to the DOE Project Manager for distribution in July 2003. This Final Report is provided for records purposes.

  10. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    Park, B. S.; Yoon, J. S.; Hong, H. D. (and others)


    In this research, the remote handling technology was developed for the ACP application. The ACP gives a possible solution to reduce the rapidly cumulative amount of spent fuels generated from the nuclear power plants in Korea. The remote technologies developed in this work are a slitting device, a voloxidizer, a modified telescopic servo manipulator and a digital mock-up. A slitting device was developed to declad the spent fuel rod-cuts and collect the spent fuel UO{sub 2} pellets. A voloxidizer was developed to convert the spent fuel UO{sub 2} pellets obtained from the slitting process in to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder. Experiments were performed to test the capabilities and remote operation of the developed slitting device and voloxidizer by using simulated rod-cuts and fuel in the ACP hot cell. A telescopic servo manipulator was redesigned and manufactured improving the structure of the prototype. This servo manipulator was installed in the ACP hot cell, and the target module for maintenance of the process equipment was selected. The optimal procedures for remote operation were made through the maintenance tests by using the servo manipulator. The ACP digital mockup in a virtual environment was established to secure a reliability and safety of remote operation and maintenance. The simulation for the remote operation and maintenance was implemented and the operability was analyzed. A digital mockup about the preliminary conceptual design of an enginnering-scale ACP was established, and an analysis about a scale of facility and remote handling was accomplished. The real-time diagnostic technique was developed to detect the possible fault accidents of the slitting device. An assessment of radiation effect for various sensors was also conducted in the radiation environment.

  11. Evaluating ITER remote handling middleware concepts

    Koning, J.F., E-mail: [FOM Institute DIFFER, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster and ITER-NL, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Heemskerk, C.J.M.; Schoen, P.; Smedinga, D. [Heemskerk Innovative Technology, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Boode, A.H. [University of Applied Sciences InHolland, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Hamilton, D.T. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)


    Highlights: ► Remote Handling Study Centre: middleware system setup and modules built. ► Aligning to ITER RH Control System Layout: prototype of database, VR and simulator. ► OpenSplice DDS, ZeroC ICE messaging and object oriented middlewares reviewed. ► Windows network latency found problematic for semi-realtime control over the network. -- Abstract: Remote maintenance activities in ITER will be performed by a unique set of hardware systems, supported by an extensive software kit. A layer of middleware will manage and control a complex set of interconnections between teams of operators, hardware devices in various operating theatres, and databases managing tool and task logistics. The middleware is driven by constraints on amounts and timing of data like real-time control loops, camera images, and database access. The Remote Handling Study Centre (RHSC), located at FOM institute DIFFER, has a 4-operator work cell in an ITER relevant RH Control Room setup which connects to a virtual hot cell back-end. The centre is developing and testing flexible integration of the Control Room components, resulting in proof-of-concept tests of this middleware layer. SW components studied include generic human-machine interface software, a prototype of a RH operations management system, and a distributed virtual reality system supporting multi-screen, multi-actor, and multiple independent views. Real-time rigid body dynamics and contact interaction simulation software supports simulation of structural deformation, “augmented reality” operations and operator training. The paper presents generic requirements and conceptual design of middleware components and Operations Management System in the context of a RH Control Room work cell. The simulation software is analyzed for real-time performance and it is argued that it is critical for middleware to have complete control over the physical network to be able to guarantee bandwidth and latency to the components.

  12. Safety Enhancements for TRU Waste Handling - 12258

    Cannon, Curt N. [Perma-Fix Northwest Richland, Inc., Richland, WA 99354 (United States)


    For years, proper Health Physics practices and 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' (ALARA) principles have fostered the use of glove boxes or other methods of handling (without direct contact) high activities of radioactive material. The physical limitations of using glove boxes on certain containers have resulted in high-activity wastes being held in storage awaiting a path forward. Highly contaminated glove boxes and other remote handling equipment no longer in use have also been added to the growing list of items held for storage with no efficient method of preparation for proper disposal without creating exposure risks to personnel. This is especially true for wastes containing alpha-emitting radionuclides such as Plutonium and Americium that pose significant health risks to personnel if these Transuranic (TRU) wastes are not controlled effectively. Like any good safety program or root cause investigation PFNW has found that the identification of the cause of a negative change, if stopped, can result in a near miss and lessons learned. If this is done in the world of safety, it is considered a success story and is to be shared with others to protect the workers. PFNW believes that the tools, equipment and resources have improved over the past number of years but that the use of them has not progressed at the same rate. If we use our tools to timely identify the effect on the work environment and immediately following or possibly even simultaneously identify the cause or some of the causal factors, we may have the ability to continue to work rather than succumb to the start and stop-work mentality trap that is not beneficial in waste minimization, production efficiency or ALARA. (authors)

  13. The enhanced inhibitory effect of different antitumor agents in self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems on human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    Ujhelyi, Zoltán; Kalantari, Azin; Vecsernyés, Miklós; Róka, Eszter; Fenyvesi, Ferenc; Póka, Róbert; Kozma, Bence; Bácskay, Ildikó


    The aim of this study was to develop topical self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) containing antitumor agents (bleomycin, cisplatin and ifosfamide) and to investigate their inhibitory potential in SMEDDS on human cervical cancer HeLa cells. The physicochemical properties of cytostatic drug loaded SMEDDS were characterized. The cytotoxicity of main components of SMEDDS was also investigated. Their IC50 values were determined. HeLa cells were treated by different concentrations of cisplatin, bleomycin and ifosfamide alone and in various SMEDDS. The inhibitory effect on cell growth was analyzed by MTT cell viability assay. Inflammation is a driving force that accelerates cancer development. The inhibitory effect of these antitumor agents has also been tested on HeLa cells in the presence of inflammatory mediators (IL-1-β, TNF-α) as an in vitro model of inflamed human cervix. Significant differences in the cytotoxicity of cytostatic drugs alone and in SMEDDS have been found in a concentration-dependent manner. The self-micro emulsifying system may potentiate the effectiveness of bleomycin, cisplatin and ifosfamide topically. The effect of SMEDDS containing antitumor agents was decreased significantly in the presence of inflammatory mediators. According to our experiments, the optimal SMEDDS formulation is 1:1:2:6:2 ratios of Isopropyl myristate, Capryol 90, Kolliphor RH 40, Cremophor RH40, Transcutol HP and Labrasol. It can be concluded that SMEDDS may increase the inhibitory effect of bleomycin, ifosfamide and cisplatin on human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Inflammation on HeLa cells hinders the effectiveness of SMEDDS containing antitumor agents. Our results might ensure useful data for development of optimal antitumor formulations.

  14. Verifying Interlevel Relations within Multi-Agent Systems

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Treur, J.


    An approach to handle the complex dynamics of a multi-agent system is based on distinguishing aggregation levels by structuring the system into parts or components. The behavior of every aggregation level is specified by a set of dynamic properties for components and interactions at that level, expr

  15. Handling agents and patients: representational cospeech gestures help children comprehend complex syntactic constructions.

    Theakston, Anna L; Coates, Anna; Holler, Judith


    Gesture is an important precursor of children's early language development, for example, in the transition to multiword speech and as a predictor of later language abilities. However, it is unclear whether gestural input can influence children's comprehension of complex grammatical constructions. In Study 1, 3- (M = 3 years 5 months) and 4-year-old (M = 4 years 6 months) children witnessed 2-participant actions described using the infrequent object-cleft-construction (OCC; It was the dog that the cat chased). Half saw an experimenter accompanying her descriptions with gestures representing the 2 participants and indicating the direction of action; the remaining children did not witness gesture. Children who witnessed gestures showed better comprehension of the OCC than those who did not witness gestures, both in and beyond the immediate physical context, but this benefit was restricted to the oldest 4-year-olds. In Study 2, a further group of older 4-year-old children (M = 4 years 7 months) witnessed the same 2-participant actions described by an experimenter and accompanied by gestures, but the gesture represented only the 2 participants and not the direction of the action. Again, a benefit of gesture was observed on subsequent comprehension of the OCC. We interpret these findings as demonstrating that representational cospeech gestures can help children comprehend complex linguistic structures by highlighting the roles played by the participants in the event. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Instruments for minimally invasive surgery: principles of ergonomic handles.

    Matern, U; Waller, P


    Although the advantages of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) have been clearly established for the patient, the surgeon must cope with disadvantages caused by unergonomic instrument handles. Pressure areas and persisting nerve lesions have been described in the literature. The shape of the instrument handles has been identified as the reason for these disorders. To prevent these, it is necessary to use ergonomically designed handles for MIS instruments. Anatomic, physiologic, and ergonomic facts as well as the results of the authors' own experiences and tests are presented. On this basis, an ideal ergonomic working posture for the laparoscopic surgeon and an optimal grasp for manipulating the instruments' functional elements are recommended. To enable the surgeon to evaluate ergonomic handles for MIS instruments according to his own needs, 14 criteria for genuine "ergonomic handles" are established. On the basis of these criteria, deficiencies of handles currently available (ring and shank handles at an angle or with axial extension to the instrument shaft, and pistol handles) are discussed. Furthermore, new handles, developed by the authors according to the criteria for genuine ergonomic handles, are presented.

  17. Design and sizing of ergonomic handles for hand tools.

    Lewis, W G; Narayan, C V


    In this paper, handles for two commonly used hand tools, the chisel and the off-set pliers, are designed using ergonomic principles. These were sized for both males and females falling in the 5th percentile, 50th percentile and 95th percentile groupings. The stresses developed in the ergonomically designed chisel handle while in use were analysed to verify the validity of the design. This chisel handle was then manufactured, and preliminary evaluation using electromyography was conducted. In these tests, the stresses exerted on the flexor and extensor muscles of the arm were measured and compared with those obtained during the use of a conventional handle. Under similar working conditions, results clearly showed that the ergonomically designed handle allows higher working efficiency than existing handles.

  18. Effects of handling on fear reactions in young Icelandic horses

    Marsbøll, Anna Feldberg; Christensen, Janne Winther


    Reasons for performing the study Inclusion of objective temperament tests at practical horse breeding evaluations is of increased interest. It has been debated whether such tests may involve human handling, since there may be considerable differences in horses' handling experience. Objectives...... of fearfulness. Known handlers may ‘mask’ behavioural responses of horses in fear tests and thus handling by a known handler during testing may not be appropriate for objective evaluation of fearfulness in a practical situation....... To investigate the effect of a short-term standardised handling procedure on reactions of young horses in 2 types of fear tests (including and excluding human handling). Study design An experimental study with 3-year-old Icelandic horses (n = 24). Methods Handled horses (n = 12) were trained according...

  19. Manual handling the deceased child in a children's hospice.

    Pike, Anne M


    The introduction of the Manual Handling Operation Regulations 1992 has forced organizations to review all manual handling carried out in the work-place. Safe manual handling is now a legislative requirement to enable the workforce to carry out their jobs in a safe and structured environment. This project looked in detail at the manual handling that was being carried out when caring for a child after they have died. It was undertaken at CHASE Children's Hospice in the period up until December 2002, with a telephone survey investigating practice at six other children's hospices. It aimed to identify incorrect procedures and, by applying the theory of ergonomics, identify changes that needed to occur in practice, making recommendations for environmental changes. The study led to the production of a policy for handling the children, devising child-specific handling guidelines, reducing the number of times the children are moved after they have died and providing appropriate equipment.

  20. Development of software for handling ship's pharmacy.

    Nittari, Giulio; Peretti, Alessandro; Sibilio, Fabio; Ioannidis, Nicholas; Amenta, Francesco


    Ships are required to carry a given amount of medicinal products and medications depending on the flag and the type of vessel. These medicines are stored in the so called ship's "medicine chest" or more properly - a ship pharmacy. Owing to the progress of medical sciences and to the increase in the mean age of seafarers employed on board ships, the number of pharmaceutical products and medical devices required by regulations to be carried on board ships is increasing. This may make handling of the ship's medicine chest a problem primarily on large ships sailing on intercontinental routes due to the difficulty in identifying the correspondence between medicines obtained abroad with those available at the national market. To minimise these problems a tool named Pharmacy Ship (acronym: PARSI) has been developed. The application PARSI is based on a database containing the information about medicines and medical devices required by different countries regulations. In the first application the system was standardised to comply with the Italian regulations issued on the 1st October, 2015 which entered into force on the 18 January 2016. Thanks to PARSI it was possible to standardize the inventory procedures, facilitate the work of maritime health authorities and make it easier for the crew, not professional in the field, to handle the 'medicine chest' correctly by automating the procedures for medicines management. As far as we know there are no other similar tools available at the moment. The application of the software, as well as the automation of different activities, currently carried out manually, will help manage (qualitatively and quantitatively) the ship's pharmacy. The system developed in this study has proved to be an effective tool which serves to guarantee the compliance of the ship pharmacy with regulations of the flag state in terms of medicinal products and medications. Sharing the system with the Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service may result in

  1. Building a framework for ergonomic research on laparoscopic instrument handles.

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Guohui; Tan, Juan; Sun, Xulong; Lin, Hao; Zhu, Shaihong


    Laparoscopic surgery carries the advantage of minimal invasiveness, but ergonomic design of the instruments used has progressed slowly. Previous studies have demonstrated that the handle of laparoscopic instruments is vital for both surgical performance and surgeon's health. This review provides an overview of the sub-discipline of handle ergonomics, including an evaluation framework, objective and subjective assessment systems, data collection and statistical analyses. Furthermore, a framework for ergonomic research on laparoscopic instrument handles is proposed to standardize work on instrument design.

  2. Towards an efficient retractor handle: an ergonomic study.

    Brearley, S; Watson, H


    In a study whose aim was to design an ergonomically efficient retractor handle, surgeons' views on retractor design were canvassed by questionnaire. After observing retractors in use and measuring the forces involved peroperatively, prototype handles were made and tested in a laboratory. Experimental subjects showed a marked preference for a vertical 'T' configuration. Such a handle could easily be incorporated into most existing retractor designs.

  3. The prevention and handling of the missing data.

    Kang, Hyun


    Even in a well-designed and controlled study, missing data occurs in almost all research. Missing data can reduce the statistical power of a study and can produce biased estimates, leading to invalid conclusions. This manuscript reviews the problems and types of missing data, along with the techniques for handling missing data. The mechanisms by which missing data occurs are illustrated, and the methods for handling the missing data are discussed. The paper concludes with recommendations for the handling of missing data.

  4. Automation of 3D micro object handling process

    Gegeckaite, Asta; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    Most of the micro objects in industrial production are handled with manual labour or in semiautomatic stations. Manual labour usually makes handling and assembly operations highly flexible, but slow, relatively imprecise and expensive. Handling of 3D micro objects poses special challenges due...... to the small absolute scale. In this article, the results of the pick-and-place operations of three different 3D micro objects were investigated. This study shows that depending on the correct gripping tool design as well as handling and assembly scenarios, a high success rate of up to 99% repeatability can...

  5. Human handling promotes compliant behavior in adult laboratory rabbits.

    Swennes, Alton G; Alworth, Leanne C; Harvey, Stephen B; Jones, Carolyn A; King, Christopher S; Crowell-Davis, Sharon L


    Routine laboratory procedures can be stressful for laboratory animals. We wanted to determine whether human handling of adult rabbits could induce a degree of habituation, reducing stress and facilitating research-related manipulation. To this end, adult New Zealand white rabbits were handled either frequently or minimally. After being handled over 3 wk, these rabbits were evaluated by novel personnel and compared with minimally handled controls. Evaluators subjectively scored the rabbits for their relative compliance or resistance to being scruffed and removed from their cages, being transported to a treatment room, and their behavior at all stages of the exercise. Upon evaluation, handled rabbits scored significantly more compliant than nontreated controls. During evaluation, behaviors that the rabbits displayed when they were approached in their cages and while being handled outside their cages were recorded and compared between study groups. Handled rabbits displayed behavior consistent with a reduction in human-directed fear. This study illustrates the potential for handling to improve compliance in laboratory procedures and reduce fear-related behavior in laboratory rabbits. Such handling could be used to improve rabbit welfare through the reduction of stress and exposure to novel stimuli.

  6. Cooper-Harper Experience Report for Spacecraft Handling Qualities Applications

    Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Frost, Chad R.; Alderete, Thomas S.


    A synopsis of experience from the fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft communities in handling qualities development and the use of the Cooper-Harper pilot rating scale is presented as background for spacecraft handling qualities research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E). In addition, handling qualities experiences and lessons-learned from previous United States (US) spacecraft developments are reviewed. This report is intended to provide a central location for references, best practices, and lessons-learned to guide current and future spacecraft handling qualities RDT&E.

  7. MVAPACK: a complete data handling package for NMR metabolomics.

    Worley, Bradley; Powers, Robert


    Data handling in the field of NMR metabolomics has historically been reliant on either in-house mathematical routines or long chains of expensive commercial software. Thus, while the relatively simple biochemical protocols of metabolomics maintain a low barrier to entry, new practitioners of metabolomics experiments are forced to either purchase expensive software packages or craft their own data handling solutions from scratch. This inevitably complicates the standardization and communication of data handling protocols in the field. We report a newly developed open-source platform for complete NMR metabolomics data handling, MVAPACK, and describe its application on an example metabolic fingerprinting data set.

  8. Pre-mortem handling effect on the meat quality

    Jorgue Hernandez-Bautista


    Full Text Available The main characteristics that define meat quality are the physicochemical, organoleptic and microbiological properties. These characteristics are influenced by like production system, racial group, feed, transport, ante-mortem animals handling and post-mortem meat handling. The ante-mortem handling is very important, where stress physiology and the factors that provoke it (fasting, transportation, stunning, specie and their effect in each step of the ante-mortem handling is reflected in final meat quality (pH, conductivity, color, water holding capacity and shelf life.

  9. Biological warfare agents.

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil


    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  10. Mars Sample Handling and Requirements Panel (MSHARP)

    Carr, Michael H.; McCleese, Daniel J.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Bogard, Donald D.; Clark, Benton C.; DeVincenzi, Donald; Drake, Michael J.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Papike, James J.; Race, Margaret S.; Stahl, David


    In anticipation of the return of samples from Mars toward the end of the first decade of the next century, NASA's Office of Space Sciences chartered a panel to examine how Mars samples should be handled. The panel was to make recommendations in three areas: (1) sample collection and transport back to Earth; (2) certification of the samples as nonhazardous; and (3) sample receiving, curation, and distribution. This report summarizes the findings of that panel. The samples should be treated as hazardous until proven otherwise. They are to be sealed within a canister on Mars, and the canister is not to be opened until within a Biosafety Hazard Level 4 (BSL-4) containment facility here on Earth. This facility must also meet or exceed the cleanliness requirements of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) facility for curation of extraterrestrial materials. A containment facility meeting both these requirements does not yet exist. Hazard assessment and life detection experiments are to be done at the containment facility, while geochemical characterization is being performed on a sterilized subset of the samples released to the science community. When and if the samples are proven harmless, they are to be transferred to a curation facility, such as that at JSC.

  11. Valve Concepts for Microfluidic Cell Handling

    M. Grabowski


    Full Text Available In this paper we present various pneumatically actuated microfluidic valves to enable user-defined fluid management within a microfluidic chip. To identify a feasible valve design, certain valve concepts are simulated in ANSYS to investigate the pressure dependent opening and closing characteristics of each design. The results are verified in a series of tests. Both the microfluidic layer and the pneumatic layer are realized by means of soft-lithographic techniques. In this way, a network of channels is fabricated in photoresist as a molding master. By casting these masters with PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane we get polymeric replicas containing the channel network. After a plasma-enhanced bonding process, the two layers are irreversibly bonded to each other. The bonding is tight for pressures up to 2 bar. The valves are integrated into a microfluidic cell handling system that is designed to manipulate cells in the presence of a liquid reagent (e.g. PEG – polyethylene glycol, for cell fusion. For this purpose a user-defined fluid management system is developed. The first test series with human cell lines show that the microfluidic chip is suitable for accumulating cells within a reaction chamber, where they can be flushed by a liquid medium.

  12. Whole Teflon valves for handling droplets.

    Cybulski, Olgierd; Jakiela, Slawomir; Garstecki, Piotr


    We propose and test a new whole-Teflon gate valve for handling droplets. The valve allows droplet plugs to pass through without disturbing them. This is possible due to the geometric design, the choice of material and lack of any pulses of flow generated by closing or opening the valve. The duct through the valve resembles a simple segment of tubing, without constrictions, change in lumen or side pockets. There are no extra sealing materials with different wettability or chemical resistance. The only material exposed to liquids is FEP Teflon, which is resistant to aggressive chemicals and fully biocompatible. The valve can be integrated into microfluidic systems: we demonstrate a complex system for culturing bacteria in hundreds of microliter droplet chemostats. The valve effectively isolates modules of the system to increase precision of operations on droplets. We verified that the valve allowed millions of droplet plugs to safely pass through, without any cross-contamination with bacteria between the droplets. The valve can be used in automating complex microfluidic systems for experiments in biochemistry, biology and organic chemistry.

  13. The NOAO KOSMOS Data Handling System

    Seaman, Rob


    KOSMOS and COSMOS are twin high-efficiency imaging spectrographs that have been deployed as NOAO facility instruments for the Mayall 4-meter telescope on Kitt Peak in Arizona and for the Blanco telescope on Cerro Tololo in Chile, respectively. The NOAO Data Handling System (DHS) has seen aggressive use over several years at both the Blanco and Mayall telescopes with NEWFIRM (the NOAO Extremely Wide-Field Infrared Imager) and the Mosaic-1.1 wide-field optical imager. Both of these instruments also rely on the Monsoon array controller and related software, and on instrument-specific versions of the NOAO Observation Control System (NOCS). NOCS, Monsoon and DHS are thus a well-tested software suite that was adopted by the KOSMOS project. This document describes the specifics of the KOSMOS implementation of DHS, in particular in support of the original two-amplifier e2v 2Kx4K CCD detectors with which the instruments were commissioned. The emphasis will be on the general layout of the DHS software components and th...

  14. Imaging Renal Urea Handling in Rats at Millimeter Resolution using Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry

    Reed, Galen D.; von Morze, Cornelius; Verkman, Alan S.; Koelsch, Bertram L.; Chaumeil, Myriam M.; Lustig, Michael; Ronen, Sabrina M.; Bok, Robert A.; Sands, Jeff M.; Larson, Peder E. Z.; Wang, Zhen J.; Larsen, Jan Henrik Ardenkjær; Kurhanewicz, John; Vigneron, Daniel B.


    In vivo spin spin relaxation time (T2) heterogeneity of hyperpolarized [13C,15N2]urea in the rat kidney was investigated. Selective quenching of the vascular hyperpolarized 13C signal with a macromolecular relaxation agent revealed that a long-T2 component of the [13C,15N2]urea signal originated from the renal extravascular space, thus allowing the vascular and renal filtrate contrast agent pools of the [13C,15N2]urea to be distinguished via multi-exponential analysis. The T2 response to induced diuresis and antidiuresis was performed with two imaging agents: hyperpolarized [13C,15N2]urea and a control agent hyperpolarized bis-1,1-(hydroxymethyl)-1-13C-cyclopropane-2H8. Large T2 increases in the inner-medullar and papilla were observed with the former agent and not the latter during antidiuresis. Therefore, [13C,15N2]urea relaxometry is sensitive to two steps of the renal urea handling process: glomerular filtration and the inner-medullary urea transporter (UT)-A1 and UT-A3 mediated urea concentrating process. Simple motion correction and subspace denoising algorithms are presented to aid in the multi exponential data analysis. Furthermore, a T2-edited, ultra long echo time sequence was developed for sub-2 mm3 resolution 3D encoding of urea by exploiting relaxation differences in the vascular and filtrate pools. PMID:27570835

  15. [Clinical Handling of Patients with Dissociative Disorders].

    Okano, Kenichiro


    This paper discusses the way informed psychiatrists are expected to handle dissociative patients in clinical situations, with a specific focus on dissociative identity disorders and dissociative fugue. On the initial interview with dissociative patients, information on their history of trauma and any nascent dissociative symptoms in their childhood should be carefully obtained. Their level of stress in their current life should also be assessed in order to understand their symptomatology, as well as to predict their future clinical course. A psychoeducational approach is crucial; it might be helpful to give information on dissociative disorder to these patients as well as their family members in order to promote their adherence to treatment. Regarding the symptomatology of dissociative disorders, detailed symptoms and the general clinical course are presented. It was stressed that dissociative identity disorder and dissociative fugue, the most high-profile dissociative disorders, are essentially different in their etiology and clinical presentation. Dissociative disorders are often confused with and misdiagnosed as psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia. Other conditions considered in terms of the differential diagnosis include borderline personality disorder as well as temporal lobe epilepsy. Lastly, the therapeutic approach to dissociative identity disorder is discussed. Each dissociative identity should be understood as potentially representing some traumatically stressful event in the past. The therapist should be careful not to excessively promote the creation or elaboration of any dissociative identities. Three stages are proposed in the individual psychotherapeutic process. In the initial stage, a secure environment and stabilization of symptoms should be sought. The second stage consists of aiding the "host" personality to make use of other more adaptive coping skills in their life. The third stage involves coaching as well as continuous awareness of

  16. Handling Protest Responses in Contingent Valuation Surveys.

    Pennington, Mark; Gomes, Manuel; Donaldson, Cam


    Protest responses, whereby respondents refuse to state the value they place on the health gain, are commonly encountered in contingent valuation (CV) studies, and they tend to be excluded from analyses. Such an approach will be biased if protesters differ from non-protesters on characteristics that predict their responses. The Heckman selection model has been commonly used to adjust for protesters, but its underlying assumptions may be implausible in this context. We present a multiple imputation (MI) approach to appropriately address protest responses in CV studies, and compare it with the Heckman selection model. This study exploits data from the multinational EuroVaQ study, which surveyed respondents' willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY). Here, our simulation study assesses the relative performance of MI and Heckman selection models across different realistic settings grounded in the EuroVaQ study, including scenarios with different proportions of missing data and non-response mechanisms. We then illustrate the methods in the EuroVaQ study for estimating mean WTP for a QALY gain. We find that MI provides lower bias and mean squared error compared with the Heckman approach across all considered scenarios. The simulations suggest that the Heckman approach can lead to considerable underestimation or overestimation of mean WTP due to violations in the normality assumption, even after log-transforming the WTP responses. The case study illustrates that protesters are associated with a lower mean WTP for a QALY gain compared with non-protesters, but that the results differ according to method for handling protesters. MI is an appropriate method for addressing protest responses in CV studies.

  17. Optimal event handling by multiple unmanned aerial vehicles

    Roo, de Martijn; Frasca, Paolo; Carloni, Raffaella


    This paper proposes a control architecture for a fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles that is responsible for handling the events that take place in a given area. The architecture guarantees that each event is handled by the required number of vehicles in the shortest time, while the rest of the fleet

  18. 45 CFR 650.19 - Electronic invention handling.


    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic invention handling. 650.19 Section 650... PATENTS § 650.19 Electronic invention handling. (a) Grantees must use the iEdison Invention Information Management System maintained by the National Institutes of Health to disclose NSF subject inventions...

  19. Incorporating Handling Qualities Analysis into Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    Lawrence, Ben


    This paper describes the initial development of a framework to incorporate handling qualities analyses into a rotorcraft conceptual design process. In particular, the paper describes how rotorcraft conceptual design level data can be used to generate flight dynamics models for handling qualities analyses. Also, methods are described that couple a basic stability augmentation system to the rotorcraft flight dynamics model to extend analysis to beyond that of the bare airframe. A methodology for calculating the handling qualities characteristics of the flight dynamics models and for comparing the results to ADS-33E criteria is described. Preliminary results from the application of the handling qualities analysis for variations in key rotorcraft design parameters of main rotor radius, blade chord, hub stiffness and flap moment of inertia are shown. Varying relationships, with counteracting trends for different handling qualities criteria and different flight speeds are exhibited, with the action of the control system playing a complex part in the outcomes. Overall, the paper demonstrates how a broad array of technical issues across flight dynamics stability and control, simulation and modeling, control law design and handling qualities testing and evaluation had to be confronted to implement even a moderately comprehensive handling qualities analysis of relatively low fidelity models. A key outstanding issue is to how to 'close the loop' with an overall design process, and options for the exploration of how to feedback handling qualities results to a conceptual design process are proposed for future work.

  20. Priming of Reach and Grasp Actions by Handled Objects

    Masson, Michael E. J.; Bub, Daniel N.; Breuer, Andreas T.


    Pictures of handled objects such as a beer mug or frying pan are shown to prime speeded reach and grasp actions that are compatible with the object. To determine whether the evocation of motor affordances implied by this result is driven merely by the physical orientation of the object's handle as opposed to higher-level properties of the object,…

  1. How do new product development startups handle missing expertise?

    Eris, O.; van den Eijnden, W.; Roling, M.


    This paper presents a framework for how new product development focused startup firms (NPDSF) handle missing expertise. The dimensions of the framework are: strategies for handling missing expertise, channels used to acquire missing expertise, and a priori awareness, timing and nature of missing exp

  2. New Ergonomic Design Criteria for Handles of Laparoscopic Dissection Forceps

    Van Veelen, M.A.; Meijer, D.W.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Snijders, C.J.


    Background: The shape of laparoscopic instrument handles can cause physical discomfort. This problem may be ascribed to a lack of standards for instrument design. In this study, new ergonomic requirements for the design of laparoscopic dissection forceps were created. Three representative handles (a

  3. A Review of Missing Data Handling Methods in Education Research

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.


    Missing data are a common occurrence in survey-based research studies in education, and the way missing values are handled can significantly affect the results of analyses based on such data. Despite known problems with performance of some missing data handling methods, such as mean imputation, many researchers in education continue to use those…

  4. 9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling of animals. 2.131 Section 2.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.131 Handling of animals. (a) All licensees who maintain...

  5. 21 CFR 1250.32 - Food-handling operations.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food-handling operations. 1250.32 Section 1250.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... operations. (a) All food-handling operations shall be accomplished so as to minimize the possibility of...

  6. 14 CFR 420.65 - Handling of solid propellants.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling of solid propellants. 420.65....65 Handling of solid propellants. (a) A launch site operator shall determine the maximum total quantity of solid propellants and other solid explosives by class and division, in accordance with 49...

  7. 48 CFR 1852.211-70 - Packaging, handling, and transportation.


    ... transportation. 1852.211-70 Section 1852.211-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... and Clauses 1852.211-70 Packaging, handling, and transportation. As prescribed in 1811.404-70, insert the following clause: Packaging, Handling, and Transportation (SEPT 2005) (a) The Contractor...

  8. 8 CFR 207.5 - Waiting lists and priority handling.


    ... REFUGEES § 207.5 Waiting lists and priority handling. Waiting lists are maintained for each designated refugee group of special humanitarian concern. Each applicant whose application is accepted for filing by... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiting lists and priority handling....

  9. 24 CFR 3282.256 - Distributor or dealer complaint handling.


    ... handling. 3282.256 Section 3282.256 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME PROCEDURAL AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Dealer and Distributor Responsibilities § 3282.256 Distributor or dealer complaint handling. (a) When a distributor...

  10. 7 CFR 97.18 - Applications handled in confidence.


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications handled in confidence. 97.18 Section 97.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... confidence. (a) Pending applications shall be handled in confidence. Except as provided below, no information...

  11. Development of a gripper for handling and assembly of microscrews

    Gegeckaite, Asta; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Eriksson, Torbjörn


    This paper presents the development and design of a gripping tool, able to perform both handling and assembly of microscrews. The gripping tool presented here is a vacuum based gripper interacted with an automatic screwdriver. This construction is used in the handling and assembly of microscrews....

  12. 29 CFR 901.4 - Handling of disputes by Commission.


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Handling of disputes by Commission. 901.4 Section 901.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY COLLECTIVE BARGAINING COMMISSION POLICY STATEMENT ON COLLECTIVE BARGAINING DISPUTES AND APPLICABLE PROCEDURES § 901.4 Handling of disputes...

  13. Optimal event handling by multiple unmanned aerial vehicles

    de Roo, Martijn; Frasca, Paolo; Carloni, Raffaella

    This paper proposes a control architecture for a fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles that is responsible for handling the events that take place in a given area. The architecture guarantees that each event is handled by the required number of vehicles in the shortest time, while the rest of the fleet

  14. Design of liquid container handles in accordance with user preferences.

    Jung, H S; Jung, H-S


    In this study, a prototype liquid container combined with auxiliary handles was designed to increase the safety of manual handling and to protect users of these containers from hand contamination. A Likert summated rating method as well as a pairwise ranking test was applied to evaluate the user preferences for handles provided for the container under the conditions of different shapes and positions. The results show that the participants preferred perpendicular orientation of the handle on the top of the liquid container while carrying the containers and the crosswise position of the handle at the side of the container while pouring the liquid. In order to satisfy both conditions, the container needs to be designed with handles in perpendicular as well as crosswise positions for selective application. A prototype liquid container with provided auxiliary handles was developed based on the results of the evaluation. It is recommended that a liquid container provides extra handles to reduce musculoskeletal stress and in turn increase user satisfaction.

  15. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed...

  16. Ergonomic redesign and evaluation of a clamping tool handle.

    Jung, Myung-Chul; Hallbeck, M Susan


    The handle of a commercial bar clamp was redesigned using ergonomic principles and then compared with an original clamp. Ten male and ten female students participated in simulated clamping tasks under various conditions, including different clamping heights, clamping methods, and handle-gripping methods, with respect to the dependent variables of clamping and handle-squeezing forces. The results showed that the redesigned clamp produced larger clamping force with lower handle-squeezing forces than the original clamp. As expected, males exerted more force than females in both clamping and squeezing forces. A pistol grip method was superior to an upside-down handle-gripping method. Two-handed operation was recommended for this type of clamp by simultaneously pulling the trigger and sliding the bar in order to initially tighten around objects. This study shows that the application of ergonomic guidelines increases the efficiency and usability of manual handtools.

  17. Segment handling system prototype progress for Thirty Meter Telescope

    Sofuku, Satoru; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nakaoji, Toshitaka; Takaki, Junji; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Haruna, Masaki; Kim, Ieyoung; Fukushima, Kazuhiko; Domae, Yukiyasu; Hatta, Toshiyuki; Yoshitake, Shinya; Hoshino, Hayato


    Segment Handling System (SHS) is the subsystem that is planned to be permanently implemented on Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) telescope structure that enables fast, efficient, semi-automatic exchange of M1 segments. TMT plans challenging segment exchange (10 segments per 10 hours a day). To achieve these, MELCO develops innovative SHS by accommodating Factory Automation (FA) technology such as force control system and machine vision system into the system. Force control system used for install operation, achieves soft handling by detecting force exerted to mirror segment and automatically compensating the position error between handling segments and primary mirror. Machine vision system used for removal operation, achieves semi-automatic positioning between SHS and mirror segments to be handled. Prototype experience proves soft (extraneous force 300N) and fast ( 3 minutes) segment handling. The SHS will provide upcoming segmented large telescopes for cost-efficient, effortless, and safe segment exchange operation.

  18. Infectious Agents and Cancer

    these agents on subsequent risk of cancer. There are currently ... tween genetic and environmental factors (that include infectious agents) .... opment of gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric lym- phoma. However .... Lung cancer i. Skin cancers ...

  19. Regulating nanomedicine - can the FDA handle it?

    Bawa, Raj


    nanomedicine research and development (R&D) and erode public acceptance of nanoproducts. The end-result of this could be a delay or loss of commercialized nanoproducts. Whether the FDA eventually creates new regulations, tweaks existing ones or establishes a new regulatory center to handle nanoproducts, for the time being it should at least look at nanoproducts on a case-by-case basis. The FDA should not attempt regulation of nanomedicine by applying existing statutes alone, especially where scientific evidence suggests otherwise. Incorporating nanomedicine regulation into the current regulatory scheme is a poor idea. Regulation of nanomedicine must balance innovation and R&D with the principle of ensuring maximum public health protection and safety.


    C.E. Sanders


    The purpose of this design calculation is to perform a criticality evaluation of the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) and the operations and processes performed therein. The current intent of the FHF is to receive transportation casks whose contents will be unloaded and transferred to waste packages (WP) or MGR Specific Casks (MSC) in the fuel transfer bays. Further, the WPs will also be prepared in the FHF for transfer to the sub-surface facility (for disposal). The MSCs will be transferred to the Aging Facility for storage. The criticality evaluation of the FHF features the following: (I) Consider the types of waste to be received in the FHF as specified below: (1) Uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF); (2) Canistered CSNF (with the exception of horizontal dual-purpose canister (DPC) and/or multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)); (3) Navy canistered SNF (long and short); (4) Department of Energy (DOE) canistered high-level waste (HLW); and (5) DOE canistered SNF (with the exception of MCOs). (II) Evaluate the criticality analyses previously performed for the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-certified transportation casks (under 10 CFR 71) to be received in the FHF to ensure that these analyses address all FHF conditions including normal operations, and Category 1 and 2 event sequences. (III) Evaluate FHF criticality conditions resulting from various Category 1 and 2 event sequences. Note that there are currently no Category 1 and 2 event sequences identified for FHF. Consequently, potential hazards from a criticality point of view will be considered as identified in the ''Internal Hazards Analysis for License Application'' document (BSC 2004c, Section 6.6.4). (IV) Assess effects of potential moderator intrusion into the fuel transfer bay for defense in depth. The SNF/HLW waste transfer activity (i.e., assembly and canister transfer) that is being carried out in the FHF has been classified as safety category in the &apos

  1. Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes

    Washington TRU Solutions


    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document representsthe development of a uniform content code system for RH-TRU waste to be transported in the 72-Bcask. It will be used to convert existing waste form numbers, content codes, and site-specificidentification codes into a system that is uniform across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites.The existing waste codes at the sites can be grouped under uniform content codes without any lossof waste characterization information. The RH-TRUCON document provides an all-encompassing|description for each content code and compiles this information for all DOE sites. Compliance withwaste generation, processing, and certification procedures at the sites (outlined in this document foreach content code) ensures that prohibited waste forms are not present in the waste. The contentcode gives an overall description of the RH-TRU waste material in terms of processes and|packaging, as well as the generation location. This helps to provide cradle-to-grave traceability ofthe waste material so that the various actions required to assess its qualification as payload for the72-B cask can be performed. The content codes also impose restrictions and requirements on themanner in which a payload can be assembled.The RH-TRU Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC), Appendix 1.3.7of the 72-B Cask Safety Analysis Report (SAR), describes the current governing procedures|applicable for the qualification of waste as payload for the 72-B cask. The logic for this|classification is presented in the 72-B Cask SAR. Together, these documents (RH-TRUCON,|RH-TRAMPAC, and relevant sections of the 72-B Cask SAR) present the foundation and|justification for classifying RH-TRU waste into content codes. Only content codes described in thisdocument can be considered for transport in the 72-B cask. Revisions to this document will be madeas additional waste qualifies for transport. |Each content code uniquely

  2. Animal Capture Agents


    agents and delivery systems reviewed . Questionnaires were sent to 137 Air Force bases to obtain information about the chemical agents and delivery systems...used by animal control personnel. A literature review included chemical agents, delivery methods, toxicity information and emergency procedures from...34-like agent. Users should familiarize themselves with catatonia in general and particularly that its successful use as an immobilizer doesn’t necessarily

  3. Reasoning about emotional agents

    Meyer, J.-J.


    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  4. Intelligent Agents: A Primer.

    Yu, Edmund; Feldman, Susan


    Provides an in-depth introduction to the various technologies that are bringing intelligent agents into the forefront of information technology, explaining how such agents work, the standards involved, and how agent-based applications can be developed. (Author/AEF)

  5. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina


    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...

  6. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko


    Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...

  7. Command and Data Handling Branch Internship

    Billings, Rachel Mae


    Modular Integrated Stackable Layers (MISL) is a computer system designed for simple, fast, and cost effective flexible reconfiguration in space environments such as the ISS and Orion projects for various uses. Existing applications include wireless and wired communications, data acquisition and instrumentation, and camera systems, and potential applications include bus protocol converters and subsystem control. MISL is based on Texas Instruments (TI)' MSP430 16-bit ultra-low-power microcontroller device. The purpose of my project was to integrate the MISL system with a liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen. The LCD, manufactured by Crystalfontz and part number CFAF320240F-035T-TS, is a 320 by 240 RGB resistive color screen including an optional carrier board. The vast majority of the project was done with Altium Designer, a tool for printed circuit board (PCB) schematic capture, 3D design, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) development. The new PCB was to allow the LCD to directly stack to the rest of MISL. Research was done with datasheets for the TI microcontroller and touchscreen display in order to meet desired hardware specifications. Documentation on prior MISL projects was also utilized. The initial step was to create a schematic for the LCD, power bus, and data bus connections between components. A layout was then designed with the required physical dimensions, routed traces and vias, power and ground planes, layer stacks, and other specified design rules such as plane clearance and hole size. Multiple consultation sessions were held with Hester Yim, the technical discipline lead for the Command and Data Handling Branch, and Christy Herring, the lead PCB layout designer in the Electronic Design and Manufacturing Branch in order to ensure proper configuration. At the moment, the PCB is awaiting revision by the latter-mentioned branch. Afterwards, the board will begin to undergo the manufacturing and testing process. Throughout the internship at

  8. Distributed formation output regulation of switching heterogeneous multi-agent systems

    Wang, Xiaoli


    In this article, the distributed formation output regulation problem of linear heterogeneous multi-agent systems with uncertainty under switching topology is considered. It is a generalised framework for multi-agent coordination problems, which contains or concerns a variety of important multi-agent problems in a quite unified way. Its background includes active leader following formation for the agents to maintain desired relative distances and orientations to the leader with a predefined trajectory, and multi-agent formation with environmental inputs. With the help of canonical internal model we design a distributed dynamic output feedback to handle the distributed formation output regulation problem.

  9. Development of Safe Food Handling Guidelines for Korean Consumers.

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Min-Woo; Hwang, In-Kyeong; Kim, Jeong-Weon


    The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for Korean consumers with regard to safe food handling practices at home by identifying current food handling issues. Korean consumers' behaviors regarding their safe food handling were identified via survey questionnaires that included items on individual hygiene practices, prepreparation steps when cooking, the cooking process, and the storage of leftover foods. The subjects were 417 Korean parents with elementary school children living in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province in the central area of Korea. The survey results revealed gaps between the knowledge or practices of Korean consumers and scientific evidence pertaining to safe food handling practices. Based on these findings, a leaflet on safe food handling guidelines was developed in accordance with Korean food culture. These guidelines suggest personal hygiene practices as well as fundamental principles and procedures for safe food handling from the stage of food purchase to that of keeping leftover dishes. A pilot application study with 50 consumers revealed that the guidelines effectively improved Korean consumers' safe food handling practices, suggesting that they can serve as practical educational material suitable for Korean consumers.

  10. Conceptual design of CFETR divertor remote handling compatible structure

    Dai, Huaichu, E-mail: [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Yao, Damao; Cao, Lei; Zhou, Zibo; Li, Lei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)


    Highlights: • Conceptual design for the CFETR divertor have been proposed, especially the divertor remote handling compatible structure. • The degrees of freedom of the divertor are analyzed in order to validate the design the divertor supports structure. • Besides the ITER-like scheme, a new scheme for the divertor remote handling compatible supports is proposed, that is the rack and pinion mechanism. • The installation/removel process is verified through simulation in Delmia in order to check design quality for remote handling requirements. - Abstract: Divertor is one of key components of tokamak fusion reactor. The CFETR is China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor. Its divertor will expose to tritium environment and neutron radiation. Materials of the divertor will be radioactived, and cannot be handled by personnel directly. To develop structure which compatible with robots handle for installation, maintenance and removing is required. This paper introduces a conceptual design of CFETR divertor module which compatible with remote handling end-effectors. The divertor module is confined by inner and outer support. The inner support is only confined divertor module radial, toroidal and vertical moving freedom degrees, but not confined rotating freedom degrees. The outer support is the structure that can confine rotating freedom degrees and should also be compatible with remote handling end-effectors.

  11. Early handling modulates outcome of neonatal dexamethasone exposure.

    Claessens, Sanne E F; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Oitzl, Melly S; de Kloet, E Ronald


    Synthetic glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone (DEX) are used to prevent or treat respiratory disorders in prematurely born infants. Besides the short-term benefit on lung development, numerous human and animal studies have reported adverse neurodevelopmental side effects. In contrast, maternal care is known to exert a positive influence on neurodevelopmental outcome in rodents. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate whether neonatal handling (days 1-21), known to induce maternal care, might serve as an intervention strategy modulating the adverse effects of DEX treatment (days 1-3). For this purpose we have measured the outcome of these early-life manipulations on development as well as adult endocrine and behavioral phenotype of male rats. Maternal care was observed during the first week of life and indeed enhanced in response to handling. Eye opening was accelerated and body weight reduced in DEX-treated animals. In adulthood, we report that handling ameliorated impaired spatial learning observed in DEX treated non-handled animals in the T-maze. Additionally, handling reduced susceptibility to the impact of DEX treatment in the water maze. Although DEX treatment and handling both resulted in enhanced negative feedback of the stress-induced corticosterone response and both reduced startle reactivity, the acquisition of fear was only reduced by handling, without effect of DEX. Interestingly, handling had a beneficial effect on pre-pulse inhibition, which was diminished after DEX treatment. In conclusion, these findings indicate that handling of the neonate enhances maternal care and attenuates specific DEX-induced alterations in the adult behavioral phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of ProTide technology to gemcitabine: a successful approach to overcome the key cancer resistance mechanisms leads to a new agent (NUC-1031) in clinical development.

    Slusarczyk, Magdalena; Lopez, Monica Huerta; Balzarini, Jan; Mason, Malcolm; Jiang, Wen G; Blagden, Sarah; Thompson, Emely; Ghazaly, Essam; McGuigan, Christopher


    Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analogue commonly used in cancer therapy but with limited efficacy due to a high susceptibility to cancer cell resistance. The addition of a phosphoramidate motif to the gemcitabine can protect it against many of the key cancer resistance mechanisms. We have synthesized a series of gemcitabine phosphoramidate prodrugs and screened for cytostatic activity in a range of different tumor cell lines. Among the synthesized compounds, one in particular (NUC-1031, 6f) was shown to be potent in vitro. Importantly, compared with gemcitabine, 6f activation was significantly less dependent on deoxycytidine kinase and on nucleoside transporters, and it was resistant to cytidine deaminase-mediated degradation. Moreover, 6f showed a significant reduction in tumor volumes in vivo in pancreatic cancer xenografts. The ProTide 6f is now in clinical development with encouraging efficacy signals in a Phase I/II study, which strongly supports the ProTide approach to generate promising new anticancer agents.

  13. A Mars Sample Return Sample Handling System

    Wilson, David; Stroker, Carol


    We present a sample handling system, a subsystem of the proposed Dragon landed Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission [1], that can return to Earth orbit a significant mass of frozen Mars samples potentially consisting of: rock cores, subsurface drilled rock and ice cuttings, pebble sized rocks, and soil scoops. The sample collection, storage, retrieval and packaging assumptions and concepts in this study are applicable for the NASA's MPPG MSR mission architecture options [2]. Our study assumes a predecessor rover mission collects samples for return to Earth to address questions on: past life, climate change, water history, age dating, understanding Mars interior evolution [3], and, human safety and in-situ resource utilization. Hence the rover will have "integrated priorities for rock sampling" [3] that cover collection of subaqueous or hydrothermal sediments, low-temperature fluidaltered rocks, unaltered igneous rocks, regolith and atmosphere samples. Samples could include: drilled rock cores, alluvial and fluvial deposits, subsurface ice and soils, clays, sulfates, salts including perchlorates, aeolian deposits, and concretions. Thus samples will have a broad range of bulk densities, and require for Earth based analysis where practical: in-situ characterization, management of degradation such as perchlorate deliquescence and volatile release, and contamination management. We propose to adopt a sample container with a set of cups each with a sample from a specific location. We considered two sample cups sizes: (1) a small cup sized for samples matching those submitted to in-situ characterization instruments, and, (2) a larger cup for 100 mm rock cores [4] and pebble sized rocks, thus providing diverse samples and optimizing the MSR sample mass payload fraction for a given payload volume. We minimize sample degradation by keeping them frozen in the MSR payload sample canister using Peltier chip cooling. The cups are sealed by interference fitted heat activated memory

  14. Discharging Part of LNG Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator

    Zhen-Zhou Yang


    Full Text Available With the development of the national economy, it is important to develop LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas liquid cargo handling simulator. In this paper, the discharging part of Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator of LNG Carriers is developed by Visual Basic. The system includes 5 major forms and 3 mathematical models such as cargo pump model, the pressure and temperature model of the LNG vapour in the cargo tank and the liquid level model. The system can complete the unloading task. The system has become a preliminary model of LNG liquid cargo handlings simulator training.

  15. Rational Handling of Multiple Goals for Mobile Robots


    AD.-A273 733 V * ~ 1. K ~Rational Handling of Multiple Goals for Mobile Robots Richard Goodwin Reid Simmons November 1, 1993. CM-S-93-204 ... I.f it...8217A ~~DEC99 oilsi VI-uI Best Available Copy Radonal Handling of Multiple Goals for Mobile Robots Richard Goodwin Reid Sinnos November 1, 1993 CMU-€S-93...Engineering Research Council of Canada. 93 12 8, 081 1 Introduction This report examines a method for handling multiple active goals for mobile robots . Specifically

  16. Handling alters aggression and "loser" effect formation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Trannoy, Severine; Chowdhury, Budhaditya; Kravitz, Edward A


    In Drosophila, prior fighting experience influences the outcome of later contests: losing a fight increases the probability of losing second contests, thereby revealing "loser" effects that involve learning and memory. In these experiments, to generate and quantify the behavioral changes observed as consequences of losing fights, we developed a new behavioral arena that eliminates handling. We compared two commonly used fly handling procedures with this new chamber and demonstrated that handling influences aggressive behavior and prevents "loser" effect formation. In addition, we induced and observed novel aspects of learning associated with aggression such as the formation of robust winner effects. Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Ergonomic T-Handle for Minimally Invasive Surgical Instruments.

    Parekh, J; Shepherd, Det; Hukins, Dwl; Maffulli, N


    A T-handle has been designed to be used for minimally invasive implantation of a dynamic hip screw to repair fractures of the proximal femur. It is capable of being used in two actions: (i) push and hold (while using an angle guide) and (ii) application of torque when using the insertion wrench and lag screw tap. The T-handle can be held in a power or precision grip. It is suitable for either single (sterilised by γ-irradiation) or multiple (sterilised by autoclaving) use. The principles developed here are applicable to handles for a wide range of surgical instruments.

  18. Eco Issues in Bulk Materials Handling Technologies in Ports

    Nenad Zrnić


    Full Text Available This paper deals with eco issues in bulk materials handling in ports. Solid, free-flowing materials are said to be in bulk. Bulk materials handling is very difficult, because it incorporates all the features of liquids, gasses and mass solids. Energy efficiency, dust emissions in nearby environment, dust explosions, jamming, noise, handling of hazardous materials and protection of materials from contamination are issues that will be considered in this paper. Here are also presented possible solutions for some of these issues

  19. Human-in-the-loop Control of Multi-agent Aerial Systems Under Intermittent Communication


    is decentralized, scenarios with unequal trusts values toward an agent need to be handled with caution in order not to compromise the collective...arm are consistent in size, mass and shape (i.e. their mass mL, kinematic parameter a and tensor of inertia JL are identical). Valve, knob, and handle ...station operations,” in Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2003. [33] W. Ren and R. Beard, Distributed consensus in multi

  20. Review of US Navy VSTOL handling qualities requirements

    Hutchings, D. E.


    Handling qualities requirements for V/STOL operations from small ships are considered in terms of the ship operating environment. Turbulence, wind over the deck, ship motion, visibility, and severe weather and sea conditions are among the factors discussed.

  1. PRN 73-4: Residual Insecticides in Food Handling Establishments

    This notice provides a copy of a Federal Register notice published July 6, 1973, regarding certain insecticides used in food-handling establishments. It establishes certain definitions and requirements related to approval for crack and crevice treatment.

  2. Apparatus for handling micron size range particulate material

    Friichtenicht, J. F.; Roy, N. L. (Inventor)


    An apparatus for handling, transporting, or size classifying comminuted material was described in detail. Electrostatic acceleration techniques for classifying particles as to size in the particle range from 0.1 to about 100 microns diameter were employed.

  3. How the visual cortex handles stimulus noise: insights from amblyopia

    Bankó, Éva M; Körtvélyes, Judit; Weiss, Béla; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán


    .... However, visual cortical processes directly involved in handling the stimulus noise have yet to be identified and dissociated from the modulation of the neural responses due to the deteriorated...

  4. Hospital Protocol RSD/CRPS Patient: Handle with Care!

    Hospital Protocol  RSD/CRPS Patients: Handle With Care! Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD) also known as Complex Regional ... taken care of solely through use of the hospital’s pharmacy. Some medications may not be part of ...

  5. Neonatal handling: an overview of the positive and negative effects.

    Raineki, Charlis; Lucion, Aldo B; Weinberg, Joanne


    As one of the first rodent models designed to investigate the effects of early-life experiences, the neonatal handling paradigm has helped us better understand how subtle changes in the infant environment can powerfully drive neurodevelopment of the immature brain in typical or atypical trajectories. Here, we review data from more than 50 years demonstrating the compelling effects of neonatal handling on behavior, physiology, and neural function across the lifespan. Moreover, we present data that challenge the classical view of neonatal handling as an animal model that results only in positive/beneficial outcomes. Indeed, the overall goal of this review is to offer the suggestion that the effects of early-life experiences-including neonatal handling-are nuanced rather than unidirectional. Both beneficial and negative outcomes may occur, depending on the parameters of testing, sex of the subject, and neurobehavioral system analyzed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Redefining NHS complaint handling--the real challenge.

    Seelos, L; Adamson, C


    More and more organizations find that a constructive and open dialogue with their customers can be an effective strategy for building long-term customer relations. In this context, it has been recognized that effective complaint-contact handling can make a significant contribution to organizations' attempts to maximize customer satisfaction and loyalty. Within the NHS, an intellectual awareness exists that effective complaint/contact handling can contribute to making services more efficient and cost-effective by developing customer-oriented improvement initiatives. Recent efforts have focused on redefining NHS complaint-handling procedures to make them more user-friendly and effective for both NHS employees and customers. Discusses the challenges associated with opening up the NHS to customer feedback. Highlights potential weaknesses in the current approach and argues that the real challenge is for NHS managers to facilitate a culture change that moves the NHS away from a long-established defensive complaint handling practice.

  7. Anatomical practices of preserving, handling and management of ...

    Anatomical practices of preserving, handling and management of human ... out with the aim of proposing an effective system of taking care of human remains. ... includes established lifeless or dead whole human body otherwise known as ...

  8. Uncertainty Handling in Remote Sensing Data Analysis for Defence

    D. P. Mandal; Murthy, C. A.; Pal, S K


    Describes a way of handling uncertainty in IRS imagery by utilising a multivalued recognition system. Roads and bridges can be detected effectively by using the multiple class choices provided by the multivalued recognition system.

  9. Evaluation of fish handling techniques employed by artisanal fishers ...

    Evaluation of fish handling techniques employed by artisanal fishers on quality of ... genera at landing time along the Kenyan coast using sensory and microbiological methods. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development.

  10. Optimal handle angle of the fencing foil for improved performance.

    Lin, Fang-Tsan


    Improperly designed hand tools and sports equipment contribute to undesired injuries and accidents. The idea of bending the tool, not the wrist, has been applied to sports equipment. According to Bennett's idea, the design of an ideal handle angle should be in the range of 14 degrees to 24 degrees. Thus design of the handle angle in the sport of fencing is also important. A well-designed handle angle could not only reduce ulnar deviation to avoid wrist injury but also enhance performance. An experiment with several different handle angles was conducted to analyze the effect on performance. Analysis showed an angle of 18 degrees to 21 degrees provided best overall performance in fencing.

  11. Ethical Infrastructure and Successful Handling of Workplace Bullying

    Kari Einarsen


    Full Text Available Antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying are well documented. However, the mea- sures taken against workplace bullying, and the effectiveness of such measures, have received less attention. This study addresses this knowledge gap by exploring the role of ethical infrastructure in perceived successful handling of reported workplace bullying. Ethical infrastructure refers to formal and informal systems that enable ethical behavior and disable unethical behavior in organizations. A survey was sent to HR managers and elected head safety representatives (HSRs in all Norwegian municipality organizations. Overall, 216 organizations responded (response rate = 50.2 percent. The ethical infrastructure accounted for 39.4% of the variance in perceived suc- cessful handling of workplace bullying. Formal sanctions were the only unique and signi cant contributor to the perceived successful handling of workplace bullying. The results substantiate the argument that organizations’ ethical infrastructure relate to the HR managers and HSRs’ percep- tions regarding their organizations’ handling of workplace bullying.

  12. Infection Control: The Use and Handling of Toothbrushes

    ... for Infection Control The Use and Handling of Toothbrushes Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Infection Control ... Recommended Toothbrush Care Toothbrushing in Group Settings Recommended Toothbrush Care Do not share toothbrushes. The exchange of ...

  13. Physical properties of fertilizer in relation to handling and spreading.

    Hofstee, J.W.


    The influence of physical properties of fertilizer on the handling and spreading is studied. The reviewed properties are particle size and particle size distribution, coefficient of friction, coefficient of restitution, particle strength and aerodynamic resistance. Further a measuring procedure base


    Noller, D


    Funding for implementing risk handling strategies typically is allocated according to either the risk-averse approach (the worst risk first) or the cost-effective approach (the greatest risk reduction per implementation dollar first). This paper introduces a prime value approach in which risk handling strategies are prioritized according to how nearly they meet the goals of the organization that disburses funds for risk handling. The prime value approach factors in the importance of the project in which the risk has been identified, elements of both risk-averse and cost-effective approaches, and the time period in which the risk could happen. This paper also presents a prioritizer spreadsheet, which employs weighted criteria to calculate a relative rank for the handling strategy of each risk evaluated.

  15. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison


    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  16. A Methodology to Evaluate Agent Oriented Software Engineering Techniques

    Lin, Chia-En [University of North Texas; Kavi, Krishna M. [University of North Texas; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Daley, Kristopher M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL


    Systems using software agents (or multi-agent systems, MAS) are becoming more popular within the development mainstream because, as the name suggests, an agent aims to handle tasks autonomously with intelligence. To benefit from autonomous control and reduced running costs, system functions are performed automatically. Agent-oriented considerations are being steadily accepted into the various software design paradigms. Agents may work alone, but most commonly, they cooperate toward achieving some application goal(s). MAS's are components in systems that are viewed as many individuals living in a society working together. From a SE perspective, solving a problem should encompass problem realization, requirements analysis, architecture design and implementation. These steps should be implemented within a life-cycle process including testing, verification, and reengineering to proving the built system is sound. In this paper, we explore the various applications of agent-based systems categorized into different application domains. A baseline is developed herein to help us focus on the core of agent concepts throughout the comparative study and to investigate both the object-oriented and agent-oriented techniques that are available for constructing agent-based systems. In each respect, we address the conceptual background associated with these methodologies and how available tools can be applied within specific domains.

  17. Safe moving and handling of patients: an interprofessional approach.

    Anderson, Matthew P; Carlisle, Susan; Thomson, Clare; Ross, Catherine; Reid, Helen J; Hart, Nigel D; Clarke, Angela


    A gap in the medical undergraduate curriculum on safe moving and handling of patients was identified, and a project to enhance moving and handling education for undergraduates in various healthcare disciplines was undertaken. A team of nurses, doctors, physiotherapists and e-learning professionals developed a cross-discipline e-learning resource, piloted with medical and nursing students at Queen's University Belfast. One outcome of the project was the development of a deeper recognition of the common curriculum across healthcare disciplines.

  18. The prevention and handling of the missing data

    Kang, Hyun


    Even in a well-designed and controlled study, missing data occurs in almost all research. Missing data can reduce the statistical power of a study and can produce biased estimates, leading to invalid conclusions. This manuscript reviews the problems and types of missing data, along with the techniques for handling missing data. The mechanisms by which missing data occurs are illustrated, and the methods for handling the missing data are discussed. The paper concludes with recommendations for ...

  19. SLSF loop handling system. Volume I. Structural analysis. [LMFBR

    Ahmed, H.; Cowie, A.; Ma, D.


    SLSF loop handling system was analyzed for deadweight and postulated dynamic loading conditions, identified in Chapters II and III in Volume I of this report, using a linear elastic static equivalent method of stress analysis. Stress analysis of the loop handling machine is presented in Volume I of this report. Chapter VII in Volume I of this report is a contribution by EG and G Co., who performed the work under ANL supervision.

  20. String loop corrections from fusion of handles and vertex operators

    Ooguri, H.; Sakai, N.


    Handle operators are introduced to describe nonlinear sigma models on higher genus surfaces by an operator formalism. Operator product expansions (fusions) among handle and vertex operators provide new sources of conformal symmetry breakings. Through the renormalization group equations, string-loop corrected equations of motion without one-particle reducible parts are derived to one-loop order. Work supported in part by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (No. 61540200).


    Maleković, Mirko; Čubrilo, Mirko


    [n this paper, we characterize the integrated agent in multi-agent systems. The following result is proved: if a multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean) then the integrated agent of the multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean), respectively. We also prove that the analogous result does not hold for multi-agent system's serial ness. A knowledge relationship between the integrated agent and agents in a multiagent system is presented.

  2. Mobile agent security using proxy-agents and trusted domains

    Mitrovic, Nikola; Arronategui Arribalzaga, Unai


    Commercial or wide-network deployment of Mobile Agent Systems is not possible without satisfying security architecture. In this paper we propose architecture for secure Mobile Agent Systems, using Trusted Domains and Proxy agents. Existing approaches are based on security services at the level of an agent system, library or specific objects. Our concept uses proxy agents to enable transparent security services both to security-aware mobile agents and legacy agents. Per-agent and domain-level...

  3. WIPP Remote Handled Waste Facility: Performance Dry Run Operations

    Burrington, T. P.; Britain, R. M.; Cassingham, S. T.


    The Remote Handled (RH) TRU Waste Handling Facility at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was recently upgraded and modified in preparation for handling and disposal of RH Transuranic (TRU) waste. This modification will allow processing of RH-TRU waste arriving at the WIPP site in two different types of shielded road casks, the RH-TRU 72B and the CNS 10-160B. Washington TRU Solutions (WTS), the WIPP Management and Operation Contractor (MOC), conducted a performance dry run (PDR), beginning August 19, 2002 and successfully completed it on August 24, 2002. The PDR demonstrated that the RHTRU waste handling system works as designed and demonstrated the handling process for each cask, including underground disposal. The purpose of the PDR was to develop and implement a plan that would define in general terms how the WIPP RH-TRU waste handling process would be conducted and evaluated. The PDR demonstrated WIPP operations and support activities required to dispose of RH-TRU waste in the WIPP underground.

  4. Orion Handling Qualities During ISS Proximity Operations and Docking

    Stephens, John-Paul; Vos, Gordon A.; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Brazzel, Jack; Spehar, Pete


    NASA's Orion spacecraft is designed to autonomously rendezvous and dock with many vehicles including the International Space Station. However, the crew is able to assume manual control of the vehicle s attitude and flight path. In these instances, Orion must meet handling qualities requirements established by NASA. Two handling qualities assessments were conducted at the Johnson Space Center to evaluate preliminary designs of the vehicle using a six degree of freedom, high-fidelity guidance, navigation, and control simulation. The first assessed Orion s handling qualities during the last 20 ft before docking, and included both steady and oscillatory motions of the docking target. The second focused on manual acquisition of the docking axis during the proximity operations phase and subsequent station-keeping. Cooper-Harper handling qualities ratings, workload ratings and comments were provided by 10 evaluation pilots for the docking study and 5 evaluation pilots for the proximity operations study. For the docking task, both cases received 90% Level 1 (satisfactory) handling qualities ratings, exceeding NASA s requirement. All ratings for the ProxOps task were Level 1. These evaluations indicate that Orion is on course to meet NASA's handling quality requirements for ProxOps and docking.

  5. Neonatal handling induces anovulatory estrous cycles in rats

    Gomes C.M.


    Full Text Available Since previous work has shown that stimulation early in life decreases sexual receptiveness as measured by the female lordosis quotient, we suggested that neonatal handling could affect the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. The effects of neonatal handling on the estrous cycle and ovulation were analyzed in adult rats. Two groups of animals were studied: intact (no manipulation, N = 10 and handled (N = 11. Pups were either handled daily for 1 min during the first 10 days of life or left undisturbed. At the age of 90 days, a vaginal smear was collected daily at 9:00 a.m. and analyzed for 29 days; at 9:00 a.m. on the day of estrus, animals were anesthetized with thiopental (40 mg/kg, ip, the ovaries were removed and the oviduct was dissected and squashed between 2 glass slides. The number of oocytes of both oviductal ampullae was counted under the microscope. The average numbers for each phase of the cycle (diestrus I, diestrus II, proestrus and estrus during the period analyzed were compared between the two groups. There were no significant differences between intact and handled females during any of the phases. However, the number of handled females that showed anovulatory cycles (8 out of 11 was significantly higher than in the intact group (none out of 10. Neonatal stimulation may affect not only the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, as previously demonstrated, but also the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in female rats.

  6. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  7. Adaptive auctioneer agents


    M.Sc. This dissertation investigates how auctioneer agents can maximise the revenue of an auction. Auctions are an effective solution to agent negotiation because of their simplicity. They are therefore the most widely used approach to agent negotiation. A review of auction theory proves that auction revenue is influenced by factors such as the auction format and the auction parameters. The optimal auction format and parameters are dependent on the bidders and the auction environment. A st...

  8. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko


    Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...... available for expressing not only task-relevant but also socially and psychologically relevant information makes it necessary to take influences into account that are not readily implemented like emotions or cultural heuristics. These influences have a huge impact on the success of an interaction...... the expression of multimodal behavior in agents....

  9. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  10. A task analysis of pier side ship-handling for virtual environment ship-handling simulator scenario development

    Grassi, Charles R.


    Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited Researchers at the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Divisions (NAWCTSD) in Orlando, FL have developed a testbed for the Conning Officer Virtual Environment (COVE) Ship-handling simulator. The purpose of this task analysis was to provide a workable document that they could use in the development of pier side ship-handling scenarios for their simulator. The task analysis not only identified the general procedures and methodologi...

  11. 76 FR 50740 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Procedures for Handling...


    ... Staff; Procedures for Handling Section 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies; Availability AGENCY: Food... announcing the availability of the draft guidance entitled ``Procedures for Handling Section 522 Postmarket... for single copies of the draft guidance document entitled ``Procedures for Handling Section 522...

  12. Flexible Electrostatic Technologies for Capture and Handling, Phase 1

    Bryan, Thomas


    Fundamental to many of NASA's in-space transportation missions is the capture and handling of various objects and vehicles in various orbits for servicing, debris disposal, sample retrieval, and assembly without the benefit of sufficient grapple fixtures and docking ports. To perform similar material handling tasks on Earth, pincher grippers, suction grippers, or magnetic chucks are used, but are unable to reliably grip aluminum and composite spacecraft, insulation, radiators, solar arrays, or extra-terrestrial objects in the vacuum of outer space without dedicated handles in the right places. The electronic Flexible Electrostatic Technologies for space Capture and Handling (FETCH) will enable reliable and compliant gripping (soft dock) of practically any object in various orbits or surfaces without dedicated mechanical features, very low impact capture, and built-in proximity sensing without any conventional actuators. Originally developed to handle semiconductor and glass wafers during vacuum chamber processing without contamination, the normal rigid wafer handling chucks are replaced with thin metal foil segments laminated in flexible insulation driven by commercial off-the-shelf solid state, high-voltage power supplies. Preliminary testing in NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Flat Floor Robotics Lab demonstrated compliant alignment and gripping with a full-sized, 150-lb microsat mockup and translation before a clean release with a flip of a switch. The flexible electrostatic gripper pads can be adapted to various space applications with different sizes, shapes, and foil electrode layouts even with openings through the gripper pads for addition of guidance sensors or injection of permanent adhesives. With gripping forces estimated between 0.5 and 2.5 lb/in2 or 70-300 lb/ft2 of surface contact, the FETCH can turn on and off rapidly and repeatedly to enable sample handling, soft docking, in-space assembly, precision relocation, and surface translation

  13. Single-molecule mechanics of protein-labelled DNA handles

    Vivek S. Jadhav


    Full Text Available DNA handles are often used as spacers and linkers in single-molecule experiments to isolate and tether RNAs, proteins, enzymes and ribozymes, amongst other biomolecules, between surface-modified beads for nanomechanical investigations. Custom DNA handles with varying lengths and chemical end-modifications are readily and reliably synthesized en masse, enabling force spectroscopic measurements with well-defined and long-lasting mechanical characteristics under physiological conditions over a large range of applied forces. Although these chemically tagged DNA handles are widely used, their further individual modification with protein receptors is less common and would allow for additional flexibility in grabbing biomolecules for mechanical measurements. In-depth information on reliable protocols for the synthesis of these DNA–protein hybrids and on their mechanical characteristics under varying physiological conditions are lacking in literature. Here, optical tweezers are used to investigate different protein-labelled DNA handles in a microfluidic environment under different physiological conditions. Digoxigenin (DIG-dsDNA-biotin handles of varying sizes (1000, 3034 and 4056 bp were conjugated with streptavidin or neutravidin proteins. The DIG-modified ends of these hybrids were bound to surface-modified polystyrene (anti-DIG beads. Using different physiological buffers, optical force measurements showed consistent mechanical characteristics with long dissociation times. These protein-modified DNA hybrids were also interconnected in situ with other tethered biotinylated DNA molecules. Electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD imaging control experiments revealed that quantum dot–streptavidin conjugates at the end of DNA handles remain freely accessible. The experiments presented here demonstrate that handles produced with our protein–DNA labelling procedure are excellent candidates for grasping single molecules exposing tags suitable for molecular

  14. Biomimetic agent based modelling using male Frog calling behaviour as a case study

    Jørgensen, Søren V.; Demazeau, Yves; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob


    by individuals to generate their observed population behaviour. A number of existing agent-modelling frameworks are considered, but none have the ability to handle large numbers of time-dependent event-generating agents; hence the construction of a new tool, RANA. The calling behaviour of the Puerto Rican Tree...... Frog, E. coqui, is implemented as a case study for the presentation and discussion of the tool, and results from this model are presented. RANA, in its present stage of development, is shown to be able to handle the problem of modelling calling frogs, and several fruitful extensions are proposed...

  15. Change Agent Survival Guide

    Dunbar, Folwell L.


    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  16. Agents in domestic environments

    Moergestel, Leo van; Langerak, Wouter; Meerstra, Glenn; Nieuwenburg, Niels van; Pape, Franc; Telgen, Daniël; Puik, Erik; Meyer, John-Jules


    Athor supplied : "This paper describes an agent-based architecture for domotics. This architecture is based on requirements about expandability and hardware independence. The heart of the system is a multi-agent system. This system is distributed over several platforms to open the possibility to ti

  17. Agents in domestic environments

    Glenn Meerstra; Wouter Langerak; Leo van Moergestel; Niels van Nieuwenburg; John-Jules Meyer; Ing. Erik Puik; Franc Pape; Daniël Telgen


    Athor supplied : "This paper describes an agent-based architecture for domotics. This architecture is based on requirements about expandability and hardware independence. The heart of the system is a multi-agent system. This system is distributed over several platforms to open the possibility to

  18. A multi-agent system for coordinating international shipping

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Phillips, L.R.; Spires, S.V.


    Moving commercial cargo across the US-Mexico border is currently a complex, paper-based, error-prone process that incurs expensive inspections and delays at several ports of entry in the Southwestern US. Improved information handling will dramatically reduce border dwell time, variation in delivery time, and inventories, and will give better control of the shipment process. The Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS) is an agent-based collaborative work environment that assists geographically distributed commercial and government users with transshipment of goods across the US-Mexico border. Software agents mediate the creation, validation and secure sharing of shipment information and regulatory documentation over the Internet, using the World Wide Web to interface with human actors. Agents are organized into Agencies. Each agency represents a commercial or government agency. Agents perform four specific functions on behalf of their user organizations: (1) agents with domain knowledge elicit commercial and regulatory information from human specialists through forms presented via web browsers; (2) agents mediate information from forms with diverse otologies, copying invariant data from one form to another thereby eliminating the need for duplicate data entry; (3) cohorts of distributed agents coordinate the work flow among the various information providers and they monitor overall progress of the documentation and the location of the shipment to ensure that all regulatory requirements are met prior to arrival at the border; (4) agents provide status information to human actors and attempt to influence them when problems are predicted.

  19. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    Gordon, D F


    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  20. Productivity and ergonomic investigation of bent-handle pliers.

    Duke, Kelly; Mirka, Gary A; Sommerich, Carolyn M


    Awkward wrist posture is generally considered an occupational risk factor for hand/wrist disorders, leading to the ergonomic design principle of "bend the tool, not the wrist." Sixteen participants performed a computer jumper installation task and a simple assembly task while productivity, wrist posture, and shoulder posture were measured. The work surface orientation (vertical and 45 degrees) and the level of constraint placed on the user (constrained grip and unconstrained grip) were also varied. The results indicate that the beneficial effects of the bent-handle pliers are task dependent. In the computer jumper task the bent-handle pliers resulted in 5.3% faster task performance, whereas in the assembly task performance was 4.9% faster with the straight-handle pliers. The bent-handle pliers reduced shoulder deviations by 50% in the jumper installation task, and ulnar deviation was reduced by 12% and 22% for the jumper installation task and the assembly task, respectively (all significant at p ergonomic utility of bent-handle pliers can be considerable but that the 3-D kinematics characteristics of the task must be considered.

  1. Compliance with safe handling guidelines of antineoplastic drugs in Jordanian hospitals.

    Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Awawdeh, Banan T; Alzoubi, Karem H; Khader, Yousef S; Alkafajei, Ahmed M


    To evaluate the compliance of healthcare workers with standard safety guidelines during the preparation and administrations of antineoplastic medications. A cross-sectional survey study. All hospitals in Jordan where healthcare workers are involved in preparation and administration of antineoplastic medications. All healthcare workers who are involved in preparation and administration of antineoplastic medications in Jordanian hospitals. A questionnaire that covered information about work place, healthcare workers, and use of personal protective equipments during handling of antineoplastic medications was self-filled by each participant. Compliance rates with workplace requirements, healthcare workers, and use of personnel protective equipments. Majority of participants (74.2%), representing nine out of 15 (60%) hospitals, reported full compliance of workplace with all requirements of the guidelines. Items with full compliance in all hospitals were availability of policies and procedures for safe handling of antineoplastic agents, availability of reporting system, and availability of sharp containers. Concerning healthcare workers' guidelines, worker with full compliance were 46.4% of participants. Items with least compliance rate were working inside biological safety cabinet (65.1%) and having training program on handling chemotherapy medications (66.7%). Finally, concerning items-related personal protective equipments, only 10.7% of participants reported full compliance. Items with least compliance rates were wearing goggles (eye protection), shoe cover, and hair cover. Results of this study showed the levels of compliance with guidelines pertaining to work place and workers who prepare and administer antineoplastic medications. Among other points, compliance with guidelines pertaining to wearing personnel protective equipments was limited and required further improvement. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:

  2. Adherence to safe handling guidelines by health care workers who administer antineoplastic drugs.

    Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L; Sweeney, Marie H


    The toxicity of antineoplastic drugs is well documented. Many are known or suspected human carcinogens where no safe exposure level exists. Authoritative guidelines developed by professional practice organizations and federal agencies for the safe handling of these hazardous drugs have been available for nearly three decades. As a means of evaluating the extent of use of primary prevention practices such as engineering, administrative and work practice controls, personal protective equipment (PPE), and barriers to using PPE, the National Institute for Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a web survey of health care workers in 2011. The study population primarily included members of professional practice organizations representing health care occupations which routinely use or come in contact with selected chemical agents. All respondents who indicated that they administered antineoplastic drugs in the past week were eligible to complete a hazard module addressing self-reported health and safety practices on this topic. Most (98%) of the 2069 respondents of this module were nurses. Working primarily in hospitals, outpatient care centers, and physician offices, respondents reported that they had collectively administered over 90 specific antineoplastic drugs in the past week, with carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel the most common. Examples of activities which increase exposure risk, expressed as percent of respondents, included: failure to wear nonabsorbent gown with closed front and tight cuffs (42%); intravenous (I.V.) tubing primed with antineoplastic drug by respondent (6%) or by pharmacy (12%); potentially contaminated clothing taken home (12%); spill or leak of antineoplastic drug during administration (12%); failure to wear chemotherapy gloves (12%); and lack of hazard awareness training (4%). The most common reason for not wearing gloves or gowns was "skin exposure was minimal"; 4% of respondents, however, reported skin contact during handling and

  3. Preliminary risk analysis applied to the handling of health-care waste

    Carvalho S.M.L.


    Full Text Available Between 75% and 90% of the waste produced by health-care providers no risk or is "general" health-care waste, comparable to domestic waste. The remaining 10-25% of health-care waste is regarded as hazardous due to one or more of the following characteristics: it may contain infectious agents, sharps, toxic or hazardous chemicals or it may be radioactive. Infectious health-care waste, particularly sharps, has been responsible for most of the accidents reported in the literature. In this work the preliminary risks analysis (PRA technique was used to evaluate practices in the handling of infectious health-care waste. Currently the PRA technique is being used to identify and to evaluate the potential for hazard of the activities, products, and services from facilities and industries. The system studied was a health-care establishment which has handling practices for infectious waste. Thirty-six procedures related to segregation, containment, internal collection, and storage operation were analyzed. The severity of the consequences of the failure (risk that can occur from careless management of infectious health-care waste was classified into four categories: negligible, marginal, critical, and catastrophic. The results obtained in this study showed that events with critics consequences, about 80%, may occur during the implementation of the containment operation, suggesting the need to prioritize this operation. As a result of the methodology applied in this work, a flowchart the risk series was also obtained. In the flowchart the events that can occur as a consequence of a improper handling of infectious health-care waste, which can cause critical risks such as injuries from sharps and contamination (infection from pathogenic microorganisms, are shown.

  4. Discussion for Handling Price of Material Disputes in Construction——And the Role of Auditing Implemented by Administration Department and by Society Agents%建设工程项目材料价格调整争议处理探讨——兼议行政监督部门审计和社会中介审价的作用



    在工程项目实施过程中,工程材料价格的调整一般随设计变更而产生。尽管施工合同有涉及材料价格调整的条款,但是在工程实践中仍然会出现材料价格调整方面的纠纷。本文通过工程案例说明材料价格调整的原则,并对行政监督部门审计和社会中介审价过程中出现的一些问题进行探讨。%Usually,in the process of implementing construction projects,price of engineering material comes up with the alteration of design.Although there are terms to price adjustment of materials concerned in construction contract,disputes regarding price adjustment arise in real practice.The paper explores the principle of price adjustment and some concerning issues arosing in the process of auditing implemented for administration department as well as price auditing conducted by society agents through actual construction project.

  5. Cooperative Autonomous Agents Testbed


    collisions and erratic behavior of the ground vehicles in SIMNET SAF was due to the use of a finite state machine model of control. In this scheme... machine model produced such erratic behaviors as cyclic maneuvers, random motions, multiple I collisions, inappropriate focus of attention, and...handled simultaneously by the platform entities, as is often required in complicated situations. In reacting to complex commands, the use of a finite state

  6. 3,6-bis(3-alkylguanidino)acridines as DNA-intercalating antitumor agents.

    Plsikova, Jana; Janovec, Ladislav; Koval, Jan; Ungvarsky, Jan; Mikes, Jaromir; Jendzelovsky, Rastislav; Fedorocko, Peter; Imrich, Jan; Kristian, Pavol; Kasparkova, Jana; Brabec, Viktor; Kozurkova, Maria


    A series of 3,6-bis(3-alkylguanidino) acridines was prepared and the interaction of these novel compounds with calf thymus DNA was investigated with UV-vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy, in addition to DNA melting techniques. The binding constants K were estimated to range from 1.25 to 5.26 × 10(5) M(-1), and the percentage of hypochromism was found to be 17-42% (from spectral titration). UV-vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism measurements indicated that the compounds act as effective DNA-intercalating agents. Electrophoretic separation proved that ligands 6a-e relaxed topoisomerase I at a concentration of 60 μM, although only those with longer alkyl chains were able to penetrate cell membranes and suppress cell proliferation effectively. The biological activity of novel compounds was assessed using different techniques (cell cycle distribution, phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase-3 activation, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential) and demonstrated mostly transient cytostatic action of the ethyl 6c and pentyl 6d derivatives. The hexyl derivative 6e proved to be the most cytotoxic. Different patterns of cell penetration were also observed for individual derivatives. Principles of molecular dynamics were applied to explore DNA-ligand interactions at the molecular level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Case Study in Biomimetic Design: Handling and Assembly of Microparts

    Shu, Li; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gegeckaite, Asta


    sticking between the gripping device and the micropart, which hinders the automation of picking and releasing operations. This paper presents the identification and use of biological analogies to solve the problem of sticking during microassembly. Selected release techniques based on DNA transcription......This paper describes the application of the biomimetic design process to the development of automated gripping devices for microparts. Handling and assembly of micromechanical parts is complicated by size effects that occur when part dimensions are scaled down. A common complication involves...... and the abscission process in plants inspired concepts of new automated handling devices for microobjects. The design, development and testing of a gripping device based on biological principles for the automated handling and assembly of a microscrew is presented....

  8. [Nursing workers' perceptions regarding the handling of hazardous chemical waste].

    Costa, Taiza Florêncio; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres; Baptista, Patrícia Campos Pavan


    The objectives of this study were to identify the perceptions of nursing workers regarding the handling of hazardous chemical waste at the University of São Paulo University Hospital (HU-USP), and develop a proposal to improve safety measures. This study used a qualitative approach and a convenience sample consisting of eighteen nursing workers. Data collection was performed through focal groups. Thematic analysis revealed four categories that gave evidence of training deficiencies in terms of the stages of handling waste. Difficulties that emerged included a lack of knowledge regarding exposure and its impact, the utilization of personal protective equipment versus collective protection, and suggestions regarding measures to be taken by the institution and workers for the safe handling of hazardous chemical waste. The present data allowed for recommending proposals regarding the safe management of hazardous chemical waste by the nursing staff.

  9. Decision support system for material handling and packaging design

    Johnsson, Mats I.; Mazouz, Abdel K.; Han, Chingping


    The reliability of the materials handling process involving automated stacking of packages on a pallet or automated sorting of packages in a distribution system depends mainly on the design of the package and the material used for the package. Many problems can be eliminated that result in a higher utilization of the system if the package is designed not only for the product and its requirements but also for an automated handling system with different types of grasping devices. A decision support system is being developed to help the package designer select the most appropriate material and design to satisfy the requirements of the automated materials handling process. The decision support system is programmed in C++ which gives the flexibility and portability needed for this type of system. The user interface is using graphics to ease the understanding of different design options during the selection process.

  10. Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    David Duncan


    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  11. Status of ITER neutral beam cell remote handling system

    Sykes, N., E-mail: [CCFE. Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Belcher, C. [Oxford Technologies Ltd, Abingdon OX14 1RJ (United Kingdom); Choi, C.-H. [ITER Organisation, CS90 046, 13067 St. Paul les Durance Cedex (France); Crofts, O. [CCFE. Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Crowe, R. [Oxford Technologies Ltd, Abingdon OX14 1RJ (United Kingdom); Damiani, C. [Fusion for Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Delavalle, S.; Meredith, L. [Oxford Technologies Ltd, Abingdon OX14 1RJ (United Kingdom); Mindham, T.; Raimbach, J. [CCFE. Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Tesini, A. [ITER Organisation, CS90 046, 13067 St. Paul les Durance Cedex (France); Van Uffelen, M. [Fusion for Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain)


    The ITER neutral beam cell will contain up to three heating neutral beams and one diagnostic neutral beam, and four upper ports. Though manual maintenance work is envisaged within the cell, when containment is breached, or the radiological protection is removed the maintenance must be conducted remotely. This maintenance constitutes the removal and replacement of line replaceable units, and their transport to and from a cask docked to the cell. A design of the remote handling system has been prepared to concept level which this paper describes including the development of a beam line transporter, beam source remote handling equipment, upper port remote handling equipment and equipment for the maintenance of the neutral shield. This equipment has been developed complete the planned maintenance tasks for the components of the neutral beam cell and to have inherent flexibility to enable as yet unforeseen tasks and recovery operations to be performed.

  12. Status of ITER neutral beam cell remote handling system

    Sykes, N; Choi, C-H; Crofts, O; Crowe, R; Damiani, C; Delavalle, S; Meredith, L; Mindham, T; Raimbach, J; Tesini, A; Van Uffelen, M


    The ITER neutral beam cell will contain up to three heating neutral beams and one diagnostic neutral beam, and four upper ports. Though manual maintenance work is envisaged within the cell, when containment is breached, or the radiological protection is removed the maintenance must be conducted remotely. This maintenance constitutes the removal and replacement of line replaceable units, and their transport to and from a cask docked to the cell. A design of the remote handling system has been prepared to concept level which this paper describes including the development of a beam line transporter, beam source remote handling equipment, upper port remote handling equipment and equipment for the maintenance of the neutral shield. This equipment has been developed complete the planned maintenance tasks for the components of the neutral beam cell and to have inherent flexibility to enable as yet unforeseen tasks and recovery operations to be performed.

  13. Discussion of risks of platinum resources based on a function orientated criticality assessment. Shown by cytostatic drugs and automotive catalytic converters; Diskussion der Risiken der Ressource Platin auf Basis eines um funktionale Faktoren erweiterten Kritikalitaetsassessments. Dargestellt am Beispiel platinhaltiger Zytostatika und Autoabgaskatalysatoren

    Thorenz, Andrea; Reller, Armin [University of Augsburg, Chair of Resource Strategy, Environment Science Center, Augsburg (Germany)


    The purpose of the study is the enhancement of criticality assessments for resources in order to address function specific factors like dissipation, recycling, bio-activity and toxicity. The developed methodology is applied to platinum-containing cytostatic drugs and automotive catalytic converters. Methods: The study is methodically based on an analysis of resource specific factors like exploration rates, reserves-to-production ratio and regional distribution of exploration areas as well as on the investigation of product/functional depending factors like recycling rates, dissipation rates, bio-diversity and toxicity. Taking into account that economic and ecological risks may occur at any stage of the supply, consumption and dissipation processes, the whole life cycles of the two analyzed products (cytostatic drugs and automotive catalytic converters) are considered. As an approach to reduce potential economic and ecological risks the study is especially focused on recycling strategies. In order to get a better understanding of platinum as an essential resource for the development of our society the history and the cultural impact of the term ''resource'' are introduced. The availability of platinum is crucial for several products of our modern society. Areas of application are e.g. jewellery, automotive catalytic converters, investments (coins, bars), computers, mobile devices, fertilizers and cytostatic drugs. Economic risks are caused by limited sources and dynamic demand of new application areas like fuel cells and drugs. Platinum-containing drugs are used for the treatment of several kinds of cancer such as testicular, breast, colon and prostate. Currently the pharmaceutical industry requires 6,9 tons per year (3 percent of the total demand of platinum). Due to the improvement of medical standards and the ageing society, especially in developing countries, the demand of platinum-containing drugs will rise significantly. The dissipation of

  14. Development of radiation hard components for ITER blanket remote handling system

    Saito, Makiko, E-mail:; Anzai, Katsunori; Maruyama, Takahito; Noguchi, Yuto; Ueno, Kenichi; Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi


    Highlights: • Clarify the components that will degrade by gamma ray irradiation. • Perform the irradiation tests to BRHS components. • Optimize the materials to increase the radiation hardness. - Abstract: The ITER blanket remote handling system (BRHS) will be operated in a high radiation environment (250 Gy/h max.) and must stably handle the blanket modules, which weigh 4.5 t and are more than 1.5 m in length, with a high degree of position and posture accuracy. The reliability of the system can be improved by reviewing the failure events of the system caused by high radiation. A failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) identified failure modes and determined that lubricants, O-rings, and electric insulation cables were the dominant components affecting radiation hardness. Accordingly, we tried to optimize the lubricants and cables of the AC servo motors by using polyphenyl ether (PPE)-based grease and polyether ether ketone (PEEK), respectively. Materials containing radiation protective agents were also selected for the cable sheaths and O-rings to improve radiation hardness. Gamma ray irradiation tests were performed on these components and as a result, a radiation hardness of 8 MGy was achieved for the AC servo motors. On the other hand, to develop the radiation hardness and BRHS compatibility furthermore, the improvement of materials of cable and O ring were performed.

  15. Biological warfare agents

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam


    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.


    Ehsanullah Khan


    Full Text Available Handling of patient from hospital bed to CT-Scan, MR Scan, X-Ray, Sonography centre etc is a cumbersome and tedious job. Generally from bed, the patient is moved to trolley manually. Three to four persons lift the patient and keep him on the stretcher. The trolley is moved to lift if necessary. If the lift cannot accommodate, the trolley, the patient is transferred to the ground floor by a nursing staff on a stretcher, and the stretcher is kept on the trolley. Again the trolley takes the patient to ambulance but patient is to be liftedmanually with stretcher and put on ambulance platform. Again at the CT scan centre the patient with stretcher has to be lifted manually for X-Ray or CT scan. The procedure is repeated for moving the patient back to the hospital bed. The manual handling of patient is injurious to the patient as stresses are produced in the body of thepatient, especially in neck, back bone, limb joints etc along with the basic medical problem he has. Improper handling may cause injuries to the patient. Also the nursing staffs who handles patients, faces some health problems like pain in the shoulder, back bone etc. For safety of the patient, the manual handling of patient should be totally eliminated. If trolley cum wheelchair ,with adjustable height is available, once the patient is transferred to the trolley-cum-wheelchair from hospital bed, the patient will not be required to be handled manually till he reaches the CT Scan / X-Raycentre. The paper presents a schematic design of trolley cum wheelchair and discusses its salient features and applications.

  17. Remote handling assessment of attachment concepts for DEMO blanket segments

    Iglesias, Daniel, E-mail: [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bastow, Roger; Cooper, Dave; Crowe, Robert; Middleton-Gear, Dave [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sibois, Romain [VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Industrial Systems, ROViR, Tampere (Finland); Carloni, Dario [Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Vizvary, Zsolt; Crofts, Oliver [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Harman, Jon [EFDA Close Support Unit Garching, Boltzmannstaße 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Loving, Antony [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • Challenges are identified for the remote handling of blanket segments’ attachments. • Two attachment design approaches are assessed for remote handling (RH) feasibility. • An alternative is proposed, which potentially simplifies and speeds-up RH operations. • Up to three different assemblies are proposed for the remote handling of the attachments. • Proposed integrated design of upper port is compatible with the attachment systems. - Abstract: The replacement strategy of the massive Multi-Module Blanket Segments (MMS) is a key driver in the design of several DEMO systems. These include the blankets themselves, the vacuum vessel (VV) and its ports and the Remote Maintenance System (RMS). Common challenges to any blanket attachment system have been identified, such as the need for applying a preload to the MMS manifold, the effects of the decay heat and several uncertainties related to permanent deformations when removing the blanket segments after service. The WP12 kinematics of the MMS in-vessel transportation was adapted to the requirements of each of the supports during 2013 and 2014 design activities. The RM equipment envisaged for handling attachments and earth connections may be composed of up to three different assemblies. An In-Vessel Mover at the divertor level handles the lower support and earth bonding, and could stabilize the MMS during transportation. A Shield Plug crane with a 6 DoF manipulator operates the upper attachment and earth straps. And a Vertical Maintenance Crane is responsible for the in-vessel MMS transportation and can handle the removable upper support pins. A final proposal is presented which can potentially reduce the number of required systems, at the same time that speeds-up the RMS global operations.

  18. Musculoskeletal injuries resulting from patient handling tasks among hospital workers.

    Pompeii, Lisa A; Lipscomb, Hester J; Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Dement, John M


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate musculoskeletal injuries and disorders resulting from patient handling prior to the implementation of a "minimal manual lift" policy at a large tertiary care medical center. We sought to define the circumstances surrounding patient handling injuries and to identify potential preventive measures. Human resources data were used to define the cohort and their time at work. Workers' compensation records (1997-2003) were utilized to identify work-related musculoskeletal claims, while the workers' description of injury was used to identify those that resulted from patient handling. Adjusted rate ratios were generated using Poisson regression. One-third (n = 876) of all musculoskeletal injuries resulted from patient handling activities. Most (83%) of the injury burden was incurred by inpatient nurses, nurses' aides and radiology technicians, while injury rates were highest for nurses' aides (8.8/100 full-time equivalent, FTEs) and smaller workgroups including emergency medical technicians (10.3/100 FTEs), patient transporters (4.3/100 FTEs), operating room technicians (3.1/100 FTEs), and morgue technicians (2.2/100 FTEs). Forty percent of injuries due to lifting/transferring patients may have been prevented through the use of mechanical lift equipment, while 32% of injuries resulting from repositioning/turning patients, pulling patients up in bed, or catching falling patients may not have been prevented by the use of lift equipment. The use of mechanical lift equipment could significantly reduce the risk of some patient handling injuries but additional interventions need to be considered that address other patient handling tasks. Smaller high-risk workgroups should not be neglected in prevention efforts.

  19. Agent-Based Optimization

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz


    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  20. Handling Data Uncertainty and Inconsistency Using Multisensor Data Fusion

    Waleed A. Abdulhafiz


    paper presents an approach to multisensor data fusion in order to decrease data uncertainty with ability to identify and handle inconsistency. The proposed approach relies on combining a modified Bayesian fusion algorithm with Kalman filtering. Three different approaches, namely, prefiltering, postfiltering and pre-postfiltering are described based on how filtering is applied to the sensor data, to the fused data or both. A case study to find the position of a mobile robot by estimating its x and y coordinates using four sensors is presented. The simulations show that combining fusion with filtering helps in handling the problem of uncertainty and inconsistency of the data.

  1. Mobile materials handling platform interface architecture for mass production environments

    Walker, A


    Full Text Available stream_source_info Walker_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 19709 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Walker_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Mobile Materials Handling Platform... to the operational structure of mass customisation, passive methods alone cannot facilitate customer influenced production dynamics. This is due to the fact that every product is different from the last. Active methods such as flexible materials handling systems...

  2. ReHandle: towards integrating physical rehabilitation in everyday life

    Bagalkot, Naveen L.; Sokoler, Tomas


    an integration of the rehab activities with the everyday activities of senior citizens. We expect that our articulation of the emerging ReHandle design space will be informative and inspirational for the interaction design and HCI community exploring the role of digital technology for successful rehabilitation......In this paper we present ReHandle, an emerging design space currently inhabited and shaped by three different design sketches. We describe how the three sketches point to three possible dimensions for exploring the role of digital technology in facilitating self-monitoring; aimed at promoting...

  3. Research on network failure handling technology based on deflection routing

    Tao YU; Shanzhi CHEN; Xin LI; Zhen QIN


    A new deflection routing scheme is proposed to overcome the drawback of existing deflection routing scheme that cannot handle node failure and suffer from routing loops.A new algorithm for computing the backup shortest path tree(SPT)is proposed and a set of procedures are defined for utilizing the backup SPT in case of node or link failure.The failure can be handled swiftly and the backup routes are guaranteed to be loop-free.Experimental results show that the backup routes calculated by proposed scheme are close to the optimal routes by totally re-computing.

  4. Design and Implementation of Company Tailored Automated Material Handling

    Langer, Gilad; Bilberg, Arne


    This article focuses on the problems of analysing automation of material handling systems in order to develop an efficient automated solution that is specifically tailored to the company. The research has resulted in development of new methods for evaluating factory automation from design...... for their application with computer aided information processing tools. The framework is named the "Automated Material Handling (AMH) Preference GuideLine". The research has been carried out in close co-operation with Danish and European industry, where implementations of automation can be referred to. It is our...

  5. Towards an Integrative Framework of Conflict-handling Behaviour

    Li, Xin; Worm, Verner; Xie, Peihong


    Following in the footsteps of Frances Brew and the late Kwok Leung (1958–2015), we attempt to further integrate the Western dual-concern model of conflict and the Chinese dual-motive model of harmony. Our integrative framework of conflict-handling behaviour is designed to be more comprehensive...... in its coverage of conflict-handling styles than the integrative model developed by Brew in 2007, and more symmetric in its treatment of the Western and Chinese perspectives than the integrative model jointly developed by Leung and Brew in 2009. In developing our alternative integrative model, we try...

  6. BepiColombo MPO Data Handling and Archiving Operations Strategy

    Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Martinez, Santa; de la Fuente, Sara; Lefort, Jayne; Casale, Mauro


    This paper describes the BepiColombo MPO Data Handling and Archiving (DHA) Operations Strategy including the justification and the main advantages. This strategy was presented to the MPO Instrument Teams during the BepiColombo Data Handling and Archiving Working Group Meeting #1 held at ESAC in November 2012 and will be implemented by the BepiColombo Science Ground Segment (SGS) in coordination with the MPO Instrument Teams. The paper covers the following topics: BepiColombo Mission Overview, SGS Roles and Interfaces, DHA Strategy Drivers, DHA Strategy Workflow and Conclusions.

  7. The Application of Principal-Agent Methods to Investor-Investee Relations in the UK Venture Capital Industry

    Reid, Gavin C


    Principal-agent analysis is applied to contemporary evidence on venture capital investment. The investor (as principal) and investee (as agent) are analysed in terms of risk management, information handling and the trading of risk and information. Investors and investees were paired in 'dyads', with each party being subject to separate face-to-face interviews. The paper develops the appropriate principal-agent models for dealing with incentives for entrepreneurial effort and issues of informa...

  8. Health care agents

    ... make decisions during a stressful time. Your agent's duty is to see that your wishes are followed. ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 5. Zorowitz RA. Ethics. In: Ham RJ Jr, Sloane PD, Warshaw GA, ...

  9. Agent Standards Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  10. Steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents

    Wierda, JMKH; Mori, K; Ohmura, A; Toyooka, H; Hatano, Y; Shingu, K; Fukuda, K


    Since 1964 approximately 20 steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents have been evaluated clinically. Pancuronium, a bisquaternary compound designed on the drawingboard, was the first steroidal relaxant introduced into clinical practice worldwide in the 1970's. Although a major improvement, pancuroniu

  11. Technical Evaluations of Proposed Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Characterization Requirements at WIPP

    Anastas, G.; Channell, J. K.


    Characterization, packaging, transport, handling and disposal of remotely handled transuranic (RH TRU) waste at WIPP will be different than similar operations with contact handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste. This paper presents results of technical evaluations associated with the planned disposal of remotely handled transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  12. Artificial Immune Systems Metaphor for Agent Based Modeling of Crisis Response Operations

    Khalil, Khaled M.; Abdel-Aziz, M.; Nazmy, Taymour T.; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M.


    Crisis response requires information intensive efforts utilized for reducing uncertainty, calculating and comparing costs and benefits, and managing resources in a fashion beyond those regularly available to handle routine problems. This paper presents an Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) metaphor for agent based modeling of crisis response operations. The presented model proposes integration of hybrid set of aspects (multi-agent systems, built-in defensive model of AIS, situation management, a...

  13. The pickup and delivery traveling salesman problem with handling costs

    Veenstra, Marjolein; Roodbergen, Kees Jan; Vis, Iris F.A.; Coelho, Leandro


    This paper introduces the pickup and delivery traveling salesman problem with handling costs (PDTSPH). In the PDTSPH, a single vehicle has to transport loads from origins to destinations. Loading and unloading of the vehicle is operated in a last-in-first-out (LIFO) fashion. However, if a load must

  14. Sensitivity of vehicle handling to combined slip tyre characteristics

    Jansen, S.T.H.; Oosten, J.J.M. van; Pacejka, H.B.; Pauwelussen, J.P.


    The sensitivity of vehicle handling to combined slip tyre characteristics is investigated using two simulation models with different interaction between lateral and longitudinal tyre forces. The standard method for the braking in a turn test is simulated with both models, and differences in the outc

  15. Vehicle handling: relationships between subjective and objective measures

    Verschuren, R.M.A.F.; Hogema, J.H.


    TNO Human Factors and TNO Automotive are investigating relationships between subjective and objective measures in the area of vehicle handling. This paper presents a driving simulator study and a field experiment in which these relationships were investigated. First, in the driving simulator experim

  16. China's Cool Handling of Avian Flu



    ON January 27, 2004,the China National Avian Flu Reference Lab confirmed that in Dingdang Town, Long'an County,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region a duck had died of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. In contrast to the SARS epidemic last year, this occurrence has been handled coolly and efficiently by the Chinese government and people in general.

  17. A Reverse Logistics Network Model for Handling Returned Products

    Nizar Zaarour


    obtained the optimal solution at a fraction of the time used by the traditional nonlinear model and solution procedure, as well as the ability to handle up to 150 customers as compared to 30 in the conventional nonlinear model. As such, the proposed linear model is more suitable for actual industry applications than the existing models.

  18. Model-Based Control for Postal Automation and Baggage Handling

    Tarau, A.N.


    In this thesis we focus on two specific transportation systems, namely postal automation and baggage handling. Postal automation: During the last decades the volume of magazines, catalogs, and other plastic wrapped mail items that have to be processed by post sorting centers has increased consider

  19. Breeder Spent Fuel Handling Program multipurpose cask design basis document

    Duckett, A.J.; Sorenson, K.B.


    The Breeder Spent Fuel Handling (BSFH) Program multipurpose cask Design Basis Document defines the performance requirements essential to the development of a legal weight truck cask to transport FFTF spent fuel from reactor to a reprocessing facility and the resultant High Level Waste (HLW) to a repository. 1 ref.

  20. Sensor Based Effective Monitoring of Coal Handling System (CHS



    Full Text Available Coal level detection is an important aspect to assess the performance of a coal-fired power plant. Coal has to be transported, via a coal handling system. The fuel in a coal-fired power plant is stored in silos, bunkers or stock piles. Coal is stored in silos in a small plant, Bunkers for handling a day’s operation and Stock piling methods for large plants. So, fuel handling had to done efficiently. To accurately sense the coal height, Real-time feedback is deployed within the bunker or stock pile. The real time range information is then fedback to the control system. Of the different types of ranging sensors, radar based system is used. Also a real-time temperature monitoring system is developed to protect the coal. The range and temperature data from sensors are sent to the main system through GSM modem by means of SMS. The range information is used to start the conveyor belt to draw the coal from coal yard. If the temperature exceeds the limit, the SMS will be sent through the software or it will call the respective person to monitor the process. A fire sensor is also used to extinguish the fire by initiating the water spraying system. A PIC Microcontroller is interfaced all the sensors for effective handling of thermal power plant.

  1. Vehicle handling: relationships between subjective and objective measures

    Verschuren, R.M.A.F.; Hogema, J.H.


    TNO Human Factors and TNO Automotive are investigating relationships between subjective and objective measures in the area of vehicle handling. This paper presents a driving simulator study and a field experiment in which these relationships were investigated. First, in the driving simulator

  2. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification



    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  3. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification



    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  4. Micro and Nano Techniques for the Handling of Biological Samples

    Micro and Nano Techniques for the Handling of Biological Samples reviews the different techniques available to manipulate and integrate biological materials in a controlled manner, either by sliding them along a surface (2-D manipulation), or by gripping and moving them to a new position (3-D man...

  5. Discovering faults in idiom-based exception handling

    Bruntink, M.; Deursen, A. van; Tourwé, T.


    In this paper, we analyse the exception handling mechanism of a state-of-the-art industrial embedded software system. Like many systems implemented in classic programming languages, our subject system uses the popular return-code idiom for dealing with exceptions. Our goal is to evaluate the fault-p

  6. Handling Missing Data in Educational Research Using SPSS

    Cheema, Jehanzeb


    This study looked at the effect of a number of factors such as the choice of analytical method, the handling method for missing data, sample size, and proportion of missing data, in order to evaluate the effect of missing data treatment on accuracy of estimation. In order to accomplish this a methodological approach involving simulated data was…

  7. Care and handling of container plants from storage to outplanting

    Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten Dumroese


    Nursery plants are in a period of high risk from the time they leave the protected environment of the nursery to when they are outplanted. During handling and shipping, nursery stock may be exposed to many damaging stresses, including extreme temperatures, desiccation, mechanical injuries, and storage molds. This is also the period of greatest financial risk, because...

  8. Recent Advances and Future Perspectives on Microfluidic Liquid Handling

    Nam-Trung Nguyen


    Full Text Available The interdisciplinary research field of microfluidics has the potential to revolutionize current technologies that require the handling of a small amount of fluid, a fast response, low costs and automation. Microfluidic platforms that handle small amounts of liquid have been categorised as continuous-flow microfluidics and digital microfluidics. The first part of this paper discusses the recent advances of the two main and opposing applications of liquid handling in continuous-flow microfluidics: mixing and separation. Mixing and separation are essential steps in most lab-on-a-chip platforms, as sample preparation and detection are required for a variety of biological and chemical assays. The second part discusses the various digital microfluidic strategies, based on droplets and liquid marbles, for the manipulation of discrete microdroplets. More advanced digital microfluidic devices combining electrowetting with other techniques are also introduced. The applications of the emerging field of liquid-marble-based digital microfluidics are also highlighted. Finally, future perspectives on microfluidic liquid handling are discussed.

  9. Empowering Students to Handle Conflicts through the Use of Drama

    Malm, Birgitte; Lofgren, Horst


    DRACON (DRAma for CONflict management) is an interdisciplinary and comparative action research project aimed at improving conflict handling among adolescent schoolchildren through the use of educational drama. The main purpose of our research has been to develop an integrated programme using conflict management as the theory and practice, and…

  10. Handling of Small-Scale Protests in China

    Gui, Xiaowei

    that is less than Sedaka, but more than an interview. A thorough analysis of the highly mixed reality of protest and protest-handling in the dissertation improves scholarly understanding of state-society relation and contentious politics in China. In particular, Chapter One is the brief introduction...

  11. Domestic Refuse Handling Practices Among Adult Females in a ...

    It was an interventional/community-based study involving a total of 436 adult ... Health education was given on domestic refuse handling and reinforcement by ... to the various challenges faced by them particularly the absence of community sanitation members. ... Key words: Solid waste, practices, female adults, obstacles.

  12. Handling Missing Data in Research Studies of Instructional Technology.

    Oh, Jeong-Eun

    Missing data is an important issue that is discussed across many fields. In order to understand the issues caused by missing data, this paper reviews the types of missing data and problems caused by missing data. Also, to understand how missing data are handled in instructional technology research, articles published in "Educational Media…

  13. A general approach to handling missing values in Procrustes analysis

    Albers, Casper J.; Gower, John C.


    General Procrustes analysis is concerned with transforming a set of given configuration matrices to closest agreement. This paper introduces an approach useful for handling missing values in the configuration matrices in the context of general linear transformations. Centring and/or standardisation

  14. Handling Missing Data in Educational Research Using SPSS

    Cheema, Jehanzeb


    This study looked at the effect of a number of factors such as the choice of analytical method, the handling method for missing data, sample size, and proportion of missing data, in order to evaluate the effect of missing data treatment on accuracy of estimation. In order to accomplish this a methodological approach involving simulated data was…

  15. Case Study in Biomimetic Design: Handling and Assembly of Microparts

    Shu, Li; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gegeckaite, Asta


    This paper describes the application of the biomimetic design process to the development of automated gripping devices for microparts. Handling and assembly of micromechanical parts is complicated by size effects that occur when part dimensions are scaled down. A common complication involves...

  16. Micro and Nano Techniques for the Handling of Biological Samples

    Micro and Nano Techniques for the Handling of Biological Samples reviews the different techniques available to manipulate and integrate biological materials in a controlled manner, either by sliding them along a surface (2-D manipulation), or by gripping and moving them to a new position (3-D...

  17. Quality control for handling of accidental blood exposures.

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Wijkmans, C.; Voss, A.; Schneeberger, P.M.


    A regional counselling service was established to handle all accidental blood exposures using a standardized protocol. Levels of risk were assessed using an algorithm. Accidents that posed a risk for the transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were

  18. Handling multiple metadata streams regarding digital learning material

    Roes, J.B.M.; Vuuren, J. van; Verbeij, N.; Nijstad, H.


    This paper presents the outcome of a study performed in the Netherlands on handling multiple metadata streams regarding digital learning material. The paper describes the present metadata architecture in the Netherlands, the present suppliers and users of metadata and digital learning materials. It

  19. Remote automated material handling of radioactive waste containers

    Greager, T.M.


    To enhance personnel safety, improve productivity, and reduce costs, the design team incorporated a remote, automated stacker/retriever, automatic inspection, and automated guidance vehicle for material handling at the Enhanced Radioactive and Mixed Waste Storage Facility - Phase V (Phase V Storage Facility) on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The Phase V Storage Facility, scheduled to begin operation in mid-1997, is the first low-cost facility of its kind to use this technology for handling drums. Since 1970, the Hanford Site`s suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes and, more recently, mixed wastes (both low-level and TRU) have been accumulating in storage awaiting treatment and disposal. Currently, the Hanford Site is only capable of onsite disposal of radioactive low-level waste (LLW). Nonradioactive hazardous wastes must be shipped off site for treatment. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facilities will provide the primary treatment capability for solid-waste storage at the Hanford Site. The Phase V Storage Facility, which accommodates 27,000 drum equivalents of contact-handled waste, will provide the following critical functions for the efficient operation of the WRAP facilities: (1) Shipping/Receiving; (2) Head Space Gas Sampling; (3) Inventory Control; (4) Storage; (5) Automated/Manual Material Handling.

  20. 14 CFR 234.6 - Baggage-handling statistics.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baggage-handling statistics. 234.6 Section 234.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... statistics. Each reporting carrier shall report monthly to the Department on a domestic system...