Sample records for handling agricultural runoff

  1. Multiple runoff processes and multiple thresholds control agricultural runoff generation

    Saffarpour, Shabnam; Western, Andrew W.; Adams, Russell; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.


    Thresholds and hydrologic connectivity associated with runoff processes are a critical concept for understanding catchment hydrologic response at the event timescale. To date, most attention has focused on single runoff response types, and the role of multiple thresholds and flow path connectivities has not been made explicit. Here we first summarise existing knowledge on the interplay between thresholds, connectivity and runoff processes at the hillslope-small catchment scale into a single figure and use it in examining how runoff response and the catchment threshold response to rainfall affect a suite of runoff generation mechanisms in a small agricultural catchment. A 1.37 ha catchment in the Lang Lang River catchment, Victoria, Australia, was instrumented and hourly data of rainfall, runoff, shallow groundwater level and isotope water samples were collected. The rainfall, runoff and antecedent soil moisture data together with water levels at several shallow piezometers are used to identify runoff processes in the study site. We use isotope and major ion results to further support the findings of the hydrometric data. We analyse 60 rainfall events that produced 38 runoff events over two runoff seasons. Our results show that the catchment hydrologic response was typically controlled by the Antecedent Soil Moisture Index and rainfall characteristics. There was a strong seasonal effect in the antecedent moisture conditions that led to marked seasonal-scale changes in runoff response. Analysis of shallow well data revealed that streamflows early in the runoff season were dominated primarily by saturation excess overland flow from the riparian area. As the runoff season progressed, the catchment soil water storage increased and the hillslopes connected to the riparian area. The hillslopes transferred a significant amount of water to the riparian zone during and following events. Then, during a particularly wet period, this connectivity to the riparian zone, and

  2. Genotoxicity in native fish associated with agricultural runoff events

    Whitehead, A.; Kuivila, K.M.; Orlando, J.L.; Kotelevtsev, S.; Anderson, S.L.


    The primary objective of the present study was to test whether agricultural chemical runoff was associated with in-stream genotoxicity in native fish. Using Sacramento sucker (Catostomus occidentalis), we combined field-caging experiments in an agriculturally dominated watershed with controlled laboratory exposures to field-collected water samples, and we coupled genotoxicity biomarker measurements in fish with bacterial mutagenicity analysis of water samples. We selected DNA strand breakage as a genotoxicity biomarker and Ames Salmonella mutagenicity tests as a second, supporting indicator of genotoxicity. Data from experiments conducted during rainfall runoff events following winter application of pesticides in 2000 and 2001 indicated that DNA strand breaks were significantly elevated in fish exposed to San Joaquin River (CA, USA) water (38.8, 28.4, and 53.6% DNA strand breakage in year 2000 field, year 2000 lab, and year 2001 field exposures, respectively) compared with a nearby reference site (15.4, 8.7, and 12.6% DNA strand breakage in year 2000 field, year 2000 lab, and year 2001 field exposures, respectively). Time-course measurements in field experiments supported a linkage between induction of DNA strand breakage and the timing of agricultural runoff. San Joaquin River water also caused significant reversion mutation in two Ames Salmonella tester strains. Salmonella mutagenicity corroborated in-stream effects, further strengthening a causal relationship between runoff events and genotoxicity. Potentially responsible agents are discussed in the context of timing of runoff events in the field, concordance between laboratory and field exposures, pesticide application patterns in the drainage, and analytical chemistry data.

  3. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore


    Over the last decades rainfall has become more intense in Sicily, making large proportions of steeply sloping agricultural land more vulnerable to soil erosion, mainly orchards and vineyards (Diodato and Bellocchi 2010). The prevention of soil degradation is indirectly addressed in the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC). As a consequence, new EU compliance conditions for food producers requires them to have tools and solutions for on-farm implementation of sustainable practices (Singh et al. 2014). The Agricultural Runoff and Best Management Practice Tool has been developed by Syngenta to help farm advisers and managers diagnose the runoff potential from fields with visible signs of soil erosion. The tool consists of 4 steps including the assessment of three key landscape factors (slope, topsoil permeability and depth to restrictive horizon) and 9 mainly soil and crop management factors influencing the runoff potential. Based on the runoff potential score (ranging from 0 to 10), which is linked to a runoff potential class, the Runoff Tool uses in-field and edge-of-the-field Best Management Practices (BMPs) to mitigate runoff (aligned with advice from ECPA's TOPPS-prowadis project). The Runoff tool needs testing in different regions and crops to create a number of use scenarios with regional/crop specific advice on BMPs. For this purpose the Tool has been tested in vineyards of the Tasca d'Almerita and Planeta wineries, which are large family-owned estates with long-standing tradition in viticulture in Sicily. In addition to runoff potential scores, Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) scores have been calculated to allow for a comparison between different diagnostic tools. VSA allows for immediate diagnosis of soil quality (a higher score means a better soil quality) including many indicators of runoff (Shepherd 2008). Runoff potentials were moderate to high in all tested fields. Slopes were classified as

  4. Identifying Landscape Areas Prone to Generating Storm Runoff in Central New York Agricultural Fields

    Hofmeister, K.; Walter, M. T.


    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution continues to be a leading cause of surface water degradation, especially in agricultural areas. In humid regions where variable source area (VSA) hydrology dominates storm runoff, NPS pollution is generated where VSAs coincide with polluting activities. Mapping storm runoff risks could allow for more precise and informed targeting of NPS pollution mitigation practices in agricultural landscapes. Topographic wetness indices (TWI) provide good approximations of relative soil moisture patterns and relative storm runoff risks. Simulation models are typically used in conjunction with TWIs to quantify VSA behavior. In this study we use empirically derived relationships between TWI values, volumetric water content (VWC) and rainfall frequencies to develop runoff probability maps. Rainfall and soil VWC were measured across regionally representative agricultural areas in central New York over three years (2012-2015) to determine the volume of runoff generated from agricultural fields in the area. We assumed the threshold for storm runoff occurs when the combination of antecedent soil water and rainfall are sufficient to saturate the soil. We determined that approximately 50% of the storm runoff volume is generated from 10% of the land area during spring, summer, and autumn seasons, while the risk of storm runoff generation is higher in the spring and autumn seasons than in the summer for the same area of land.

  5. Narrow grass hedges reduce tylosin and associated antimicrobial resistance genes in agricultural runoff

    Agricultural runoff from areas receiving livestock manure can potentially contaminate surface water with antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of narrow grass hedges (NGHs) on reducing the transport of antimicrobial...

  6. Steroid hormone runoff from agricultural test plots applied with municipal biosolids

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Gray, James L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Davis, Jessica G.; ReVollo, Rhiannon C.; Borch, Thomas


    The potential presence of steroid hormones in runoff from sites where biosolids have been used as agricultural fertilizers is an environmental concern. A study was conducted to assess the potential for runoff of seventeen different hormones and two sterols, including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens from agricultural test plots. The field containing the test plots had been applied with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. Target compounds were isolated by solid-phase extraction (water samples) and pressurized solvent extraction (solid samples), derivatized, and analyzed by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Runoff samples collected prior to biosolids application had low concentrations of two hormones (estrone -1 and androstenedione -1) and cholesterol (22.5 ± 3.8 μg L-1). In contrast, significantly higher concentrations of multiple estrogens (-1), androgens (-1), and progesterone (-1) were observed in runoff samples taken 1, 8, and 35 days after biosolids application. A significant positive correlation was observed between antecedent rainfall amount and hormone mass loads (runoff). Hormones in runoff were primarily present in the dissolved phase (hormones from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters or redistributed to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. Although concentrations decrease over time, 35 days is insufficient for complete degradation of hormones in soil at this site.

  7. Spatial and temporal variation of nitrogen exported by runoff from sandy agricultural soils


    The eutrophication problem has drawn attention to nutrient leaching from agricultural soils.and an understanding of spatial and temporal variability is needed to develop decision-making tools.Thus,eleven sites were selected to monitor,over a two-year period,spatial and temporal variation of runoff discharge and various forms of N in surface runoff in sandy agricultural soils.Factors influencing the variation of runoff discharge and various forms of N in surface runoff were analyzed.Variation of annual rainfall was small among 11 situs.especially between 2001 and 2002.However,variation of annual discharge was significant among the sites.The results suggest that rainfall patterns and land usc had significant effect on discharge.The concentrations of total N,total kjeldahl N (TKN),organic matter-associated N (OM-N),NO3--N,and NH4+-N in the runoff ranged widely from 0.25 to 54.1,0.15 to 20.3,0.00 to 14.6,0.00 to 45.3,and 0.00 to 19.7 mg/L,respectively.Spatial and temporal variations in the N concentration and runoff discharge were noted among the different sites.Annual loads of N in the runoff varied widely among monitoring sites and depend mainly on runoff discharge.High loads of total N,OM-N,NO3--N,and NH4+-N in the runoff either in citrus groves or on vegetable farms occurred from June to October for each year,which coincided with the rainy season in the region.This study found that N in surface runoff was related to rainfall intensity,soil N level,and fertilizer use.

  8. Spatial and temporal variation of nitrogen exported by runoff from sandy agricultural soils.

    Zhang, Ming-Kui; Wang, Li-Ping; He, Zhen-Li


    The eutrophication problem has drawn attention to nutrient leaching from agricultural soils, and an understanding of spatial and temporal variability is needed to develop decision-making tools. Thus, eleven sites were selected to monitor, over a two-year period, spatial and temporal variation of runoff discharge and various forms of N in surface runoff in sandy agricultural soils. Factors influencing the variation of runoff discharge and various forms of N in surface runoff were analyzed. Variation of annual rainfall was small among 11 sites, especially between 2001 and 2002. However, variation of annual discharge was significant among the sites. The results suggest that rainfall patterns and land use had significant effect on discharge. The concentrations of total N, total kjeldahl N (TKN), organic matter-associated N (OM-N), NO3(-)-N, and NH4(+)-N in the runoff ranged widely from 0.25 to 54.1, 0.15 to 20.3, 0.00 to 14.6, 0.00 to 45.3, and 0.00 to 19.7 mg/L, respectively. Spatial and temporal variations in the N concentration and runoff discharge were noted among the different sites. Annual loads of N in the runoff varied widely among monitoring sites and depend mainly on runoff discharge. High loads of total N, OM-N, NO3(-)-N, and NH4(+)-N in the runoff either in citrus groves or on vegetable farms occurred from June to October for each year, which coincided with the rainy season in the region. This study found that N in surface runoff was related to rainfall intensity, soil N level, and fertilizer use.

  9. Characterization of Surface Runoff, Soil Erosion, Nutrient Loss and their relationship for Agricultural plots in India

    Mohan La


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to explore the existence of relationship among rainfall, runoff, soil loss and nutrient losses from the agricultural plots located at Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India. The natural rainfall generated runoff and soil loss from the 12 agricultural runoff plots (with four land uses namely sugarcane, maize, black gram and fallow land and having slope 5%, 3% and 1% for each land use were recorded during monsoon period (June 2013 to September 2013. The highest grade plot was found to yield the highest magnitude of runoff (i.e. runoff coefficient for a given land use and soil type. The soil loss from the experimental plots of various characteristics shown that for given rainfall input, on average, the plots with sugarcane land use were found to produce high amount of soil loss followed by Maize, fallow land and Blackgram. The nutrients losses were very low in the sediment as compared to the dissolved losses. Nutrients concentrations in sediment and runoff water were found to be more during the critical period. The higher limit of seasonal sediment yield obtained from the present study is lower than soil loss tolerance limit of 2.5 to 12.5 t/ha /yr for Indian subcontinent.

  10. Assessment of runoff water quality for an integrated best-management practice system in an agricultural watershed

    To better understand, implement and integrate best management practices (BMPs) in agricultural watersheds, critical information on their effectiveness is required. A representative agricultural watershed, Beasley Lake, was used to compare runoff water quality draining through an integrated system of...

  11. Evaluation of Three Models for Simulating Pesticide Runoff from Irrigated Agricultural Fields.

    Zhang, Xuyang; Goh, Kean S


    Three models were evaluated for their accuracy in simulating pesticide runoff at the edge of agricultural fields: Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), and OpusCZ. Modeling results on runoff volume, sediment erosion, and pesticide loss were compared with measurements taken from field studies. Models were also compared on their theoretical foundations and ease of use. For runoff events generated by sprinkler irrigation and rainfall, all models performed equally well with small errors in simulating water, sediment, and pesticide runoff. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) were between 3 and 161%. For flood irrigation, OpusCZ simulated runoff and pesticide mass with the highest accuracy, followed by RZWQM and PRZM, likely owning to its unique hydrological algorithm for runoff simulations during flood irrigation. Simulation results from cold model runs by OpusCZ and RZWQM using measured values for model inputs matched closely to the observed values. The MAPE ranged from 28 to 384 and 42 to 168% for OpusCZ and RZWQM, respectively. These satisfactory model outputs showed the models' abilities in mimicking reality. Theoretical evaluations indicated that OpusCZ and RZWQM use mechanistic approaches for hydrology simulation, output data on a subdaily time-step, and were able to simulate management practices and subsurface flow via tile drainage. In contrast, PRZM operates at daily time-step and simulates surface runoff using the USDA Soil Conservation Service's curve number method. Among the three models, OpusCZ and RZWQM were suitable for simulating pesticide runoff in semiarid areas where agriculture is heavily dependent on irrigation.

  12. Agricultural production and nutrient runoff in the Corn Belt: Assessing dynamic environmental performance

    Agricultural production in the Corn Belt region of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) remains a leading source of nitrogen runoff that contributes to the annual hypoxic 'Dead Zone' in the Gulf of Mexico. The rise of corn production, land conversion, and fertilizer use in re...

  13. Periphyton responses to nutrient and atrazine mixtures introduced through agricultural runoff

    Agricultural runoff often contains pollutants with potential antagonistic impacts on periphyton, such as nutrients and atrazine. The individual influence of these pollutants on periphyton has been extensively studied, but their impact when introduced in a more realistic scenario of multiple agricult...

  14. Using native riparian barriers to reduce Giardia in agricultural runoff to freshwater ecosystems.

    Winkworth, Cynthia L; Matthaei, Christoph D; Townsend, Colin R


    Waterway degradation in agricultural settings is caused by direct and diffuse sources of pollution. Waterway fencing focuses on reducing direct faecal contamination, but the extent to which it reduces overland surface runoff of pathogens is unknown. This study evaluated the potential of four riparian treatments to reduce Giardia in saturation excess surface runoff entering the waterway. Treatment 1 comprised exotic pasture grass and weeds that regenerated from bare soil between the fence and the waterway in the absence of cattle grazing and was compared with three others comprising monocultural plantings of New Zealand native grassland plants. Runoff experiments involving Giardia were performed after planting, both prior to and following the summer growing season. Giardia was not detected from any plot prior to cyst addition. In spring the native 'C. secta', 'A. lessoniana' and 'C. richardii' treatments showed significantly greater reductions in Giardia in runoff than the 'exotic grasses' treatment, while in autumn the 'C. richardii' treatment reduced Giardia more than the 'exotic grasses/weeds'. A reduction in public health risk should follow from riparian vegetation, whether exotic or native, but with an added benefit in the case of the native tussock grass C. richardii, due to the associated lower runoff rate.

  15. Phosphorus export by runoff from agricultural field plots with different crop cover in Lake Taihu watershed


    Runoff and soil losses from agricultural fields are investigated as major nonpoint sources of phosphorus (P) entering lakes of Eastern China. There is relatively little information on P transport from ricefield and cropland of Lake Taihu watershed in Eastern China. Soil and P in surface runoff from a series of plots in the watershed were evaluated under simulated rainfall conditions. The objectives of this study were to evaluate theeffects of crop cover, slope, and fertilizer application on P concentrations in surface runoff and eroded soil. Accumulated sediment yields varied from 7.1 to 300 g/m2 for croplands, depending on management practices. For all experiment plots, weighted average concentrations of total-P (TP), dissolved P (DP) and particulate P (PP) are much higher than 0.02 mg/L, the limiting concentration in lake water. This result showed the potential contamination of lake water from agricultural surface runoff. Accumulated TP losses were 3.8 and 18.8 mg/m2 for ricefield and cropland, respectively. The estimated annual loss of TP was 0.74 kg/(hm2鷄) for cropland. Most of P loss is in PP form, which accounts for more than 90% of TP loss for cropland.

  16. Estimation of groundwater contribution in runoff from small agricultural dominated catchments

    Deelstra, Johannes; Jansons, Viesturs; Lagzdiņš, Ainis


    Under poor natural drainage condition, agricultural land has to be provided with subsurface drainage systems to discharge excess water from the rootzone, thereby guaranteeing optimal cropping conditions during the growing season, while in addition facilitating land preparation. Subsurface drainage systems can significantly contribute in runoff and nutrient loss generation. A secondary effect of drainage systems is that it reduces surface runoff and thereby erosion and phosphorus loss. In addition to surface and subsurface runoff, a third component, being groundwater, is contributing in runoff. As only information about the total runoff at the catchment outlet is available, uncertainty exists about the contribution of the different flow processes. Agriculture is a main contributor of nutrients and sediments to surface water causing water quality problems. Knowledge about the different pathways of water and hence nutrients and sediments to open water systems is important with respect to the choice of mitigation measures in agricultural dominated catchments. Estimates of groundwater or baseflow contribution (BFI) are often based on the use of digital filters applied to average daily discharge values. When using recommended values for the digital filter, this resulted in BFI of 40 - 50 % when applied to small Norwegian agricultural catchments. When taking the poor natural drainage conditions into consideration in addition to the presence of heavy marine clay deposits at depths greater than 1 - 2 m below soil surface, these values are considered unrealistically high. Deelstra et al (2010) showed that small agricultural catchments can have rather "flashy" runoff behaviour, characterised by large diurnal variations in discharge which also contradicts high baseflow contributions. An approach to obtain a realistic filter parameter for a digital filter has been carried out, based on discharge measurements on a set of small, nested catchments in Norway and further tested in

  17. Variation of IUH shapes with size of rainfall-runoff events in a small agricultural catchment

    Banasik, Kazimierz; Hejduk, Leszek; Banasik, Jerzy


    Instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH) is one of the key components in many procedures for design flood estimation. The IUH defined by gamma pdf, called also Nash model, has been estimated for each of the over 30 recorded rainfall-runoff events, in a small (A=82.4 km2), lowland, agricultural catchment located in central Poland, in the period 1980-2010 (Banasik et al., 2011). Variability of the IUH characteristics (such as lag time, time to peak, maximum ordinate) vs. rainfall-runoff parameters (such as peak discharge and runoff depth) will be presented. A larger variability of the IUH characteristics for smaller events was noted. Two methods for estimating, empirically based, representative IUH, for the catchment and for the design flood estimation, are presented. The first one is based on mean values of time to peak and peak ordinate of all individual IUHs, and the other one is taking into account only the largest events when the lag time has tendency to decrease with runoff depth increasing. The empirically estimated representative IUHs are compared with unit hydrograph of FSSR and ReFH (Kjeldsen 2007). Results of single event model application, with the IUH incorporated in it, are compared with results of FFA for this catchment. Banasik K., Hejduk L. and Oygarden L., 2011. Prediction and reduction of diffuse pollution, solid emission and extreme flows from rural areas - case study of small agricultural catchments. Warsaw University of Life Sciences Press, Warsaw. Kjeldsen T.R., 2007. Flood Estimation Handbook, Supplementary Report No. 1. The revitalized FSR/FEH rainfall-runoff method. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Wallingford, UK. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The investigation described in the paper is part of the research project KORANET founded by PL-National Center for Research and Development.

  18. Identifying priority zones in an agricultural catchment to mitigate glyphosate runoff

    Joris, Ingeborg; Desmet, Nele; Wilczek, Daniel; Boënne, Wesley; Seuntjens, Piet; Koopmans, Kim; Bylemans, Dany; Wouters, Katrien; Vandaele, Karel


    Pesticide concentrations in rivers generally have a very dynamic signature and are strongly dependent on time and space. The dynamic time course is due to the time- and space-variant input conditions resulting from fast overland (runoff and erosion, direct losses) and subsurface flow (artificial drainage), directly connecting surfaces and/or agricultural fields where pesticides are applied, to receiving rivers. A thorough understanding of pesticide behavior at the watershed scale is needed to increase the effectiveness of mitigation measures. We developed a method to derive priority zones for applying mitigation measures for erosion control and mitigation of glyphosate runoff in an agricultural catchment. The study catchment was selected based on results from geospatial pesticide emission modeling, historical glyphosate concentrations, and crop cover. Priority zones were derived based on a risk map which includes information about the topography, crop cover, the estimated glyphosate use, the potential erosion risk, and the connectivity of the agricultural parcels to the river. The theoretical risk map was then validated in the field using field observations of runoff during stormflow events, and observations of roads short-circuiting the runoff to the river. The validated risk map was used to define priority zones for measures related to erosion control. Suggestions for specific measures such as grass buffer strips and small dams at the field scale were made. The information will be used to target farmers that may have a significant impact on the glyphosate load to surface water. Those farmers will be encouraged to participate in a voluntary erosion control program supported by the local government. The effect of mitigation measures on the glyphosate concentrations in the river will be assessed by monitoring two years before and three years after implementation of the measures. We will present the general setup of the study and the selection methodology of the

  19. The impact of agricultural runoff on stream benthos in Hong Kong, China.

    Neumann, Michael; Dudgeon, David


    We investigated three small streams in the New Territories of Hong Kong, China. In each stream, we compared the benthic macroinvertebrate fauna of one site immediately upstream of an area of agricultural land (market gardening) with a second site immediately downstream. Each pair of sites was < 300 m apart. Samples were taken at the end of the dry season (March 2000) and again (April 2000) just after heavy rainfall had caused runoff from the fields. The total number of taxa at the downstream sites was the same as that in the upstream sites in March. In April, the total taxon richness was lower at the downstream localities although this difference was statistically significant in only one stream. The acute toxic effect of runoff became clearer when focusing on the group of sensitive benthic fauna. The grouping was done by ranking the relatively physiological tolerance to organotoxins following the relevant literature (Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 67 (2001) 360). All streams showed a significant downstream decrease in the number of sensitive taxa in April, while in two of three streams the number of relatively tolerant taxa increased. Ordination (by n-MDS) confirmed this pattern. It revealed a marked temporal trend in all streams resulting from a decrease of sensitive taxa downstream that was not apparent at the upstream sites. The size of the observed effects varied among streams, and may have reflected differences in the composition of the agricultural runoff.

  20. Agriculturization in the Argentinean Northern Humid Pampas: the Impact on Soil Structure and Runoff

    Sasal, M. C.; Léonard, J.; Andriulo, A.; Wilson, M. G.


    Argentina is among the countries with the largest cropped area under no-tillage (NT). No tillage was adopted in the northern Humid Pampas to reduce the widespread soil degradation by water erosion. With the advent of genetically modified soybean varieties, NT has developed exponentially. This evolution, combined with the influence of the international market trend, has resulted in large changes in crop sequence composition toward the disappearance of pastures and the expansion of soybean monoculture. The aim of this work was to evaluate the long-term consequences of these changes on the topsoil structure and the way in which the evolution of soil structure relates to the simplification of the crop sequence and to runoff at a regional scale. We analyzed the topsoil structure of 25 sites with Argiudolls having 4 to 29 consecutive years of NT using the cultural profile approach. An intensification sequence index (ISI) was calculated as the ratio between the length of the growth period and the length of the year. Fifteen natural-rainfall runoff plots (100 m2) with 3.5% slope were used to analyze the relationship between soil structural state, crop sequence and runoff for four years. Four types of soil structures were identified and a general pattern of vertical soil structure organization was revealed. The top centimeters of 72% of the sites were dominated by a granular structure. Platy soil structure development was omnipresent: all sites exhibited a horizontal platy structure (cropping systems under NT favors the extension of platy soil structure and increases runoff. More than 70% of the agricultural area of the northern Humid Pampas region is currently covered by soybean cultivation, mostly as a single annual crop (ISI=0.38). Our results thus suggest that promoting management practices such as the expansion of wheat/soybean double crop (ISI=0.83) could limit soil structure degradation and reduce runoff and the associated environmental risks.

  1. Too Hot to Handle: Climate Change and Agricultural Water Use

    Denise Fort


    Full Text Available The world faces enormous challenges in responding to looming crises in food and water. Responding to this challenge will require flexibility; such flexibility may be impeded by legal institutions. This paper looks at the western United States and discusses the role of irrigated agriculture in that region. Because of climate change, a growing population, declining groundwater, the need to protect ecosystems and other conflicts, the author suggests that all water uses, including long-standing agricultural water rights, need to be examined in light of these changes. Legal systems have tended to serve the status quo, but perhaps the law can help facilitate this re-examination.

  2. A Simple Runoff Model Based on Topographic Wetness Indices and Soil Moisture for Central New York Agricultural Fields

    Hofmeister, K.; Georgakakos, C.; Walter, M. T.


    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution continues to be a leading cause of surface water degradation, especially in agricultural areas. In humid regions where variable source area (VSA) hydrology dominates, such as the Northeastern US, topographic wetness indices (TWI) are good approximations of relative soil moisture patterns. Mapping areas of the landscape likely to generate saturation-excess runoff and carry NPS pollution to surface waters could allow for more efficient, targeted best management practices in agricultural fields. Given the relationship between saturation excess runoff and soil water storage, we used volumetric water content (VWC) measured in five agricultural fields in central New York over two years (2012-2014) to develop runoff probability maps based on a soil topographic index (STI). The relationship between VWC and STI was strongest during the fall season after leaf fall at all sites except one. We calculated the probability of runoff occurring based on soil moisture and precipitation distributions during the sampling period. The threshold for runoff occurs when the depth of soil water and rainfall reach saturation of the soil, and appears to be at the average porosity of the soil at all sites. Counter to our initial hypothesis of a higher probability of saturation excess runoff during the spring when conditions are wetter, some sites showed higher frequencies of runoff during the fall season.

  3. Climate change impacts on runoff, sediment, and nutrient loads in an agricultural watershed in the Lower Mississippi River Basin

    Projected climate change can impact various aspects of agricultural systems, including the nutrient and sediment loads exported from agricultural fields. This study evaluated the potential changes in runoff, sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus loads using projected climate estimates from 2041 – 2070 ...

  4. Network for measuring runoff and water erosion in small agricultural cathments in Southern Spain

    Taguas, E. V.; Gómez, J. A.; Boulal, H.; Gómez, H.; Vanwalleghem, T.; Pérez-Alcántara, R.; Peña, A.; Ayuso-Muñoz, J. L.; Giráldez, J. V.; Mateos, L.


    Water erosion is one of the major environmental threats to sustainability of agricultural production in Souther Spain. In Mediterranean climates, innapropriate soil management in steep or hilly landscapes causes intensive and extensive on-site and off-site damage. However, limited experimental information is available for fully understand the relationship between soil management practices and erosion at varying scales. This communication describes a network of five experimental catchments equipped with runoff and erosion monitoring devices established in the last five years in agricultural areas of Southern Spain. Three of the catchments are of small size (2 to 6.7 ha) and are covered by olive trees, a fourth one, of 20 ha, is cultivated with irrigated field crops, and the fifth catchment is located in an irrigation district where irrigated annual and tree crops coexist covering an area of 316 ha. Monitoring stations consist of a long-throated flume equipped with a untrasonic sensor to measure water depth, an ISCO water sampler, a rain gauge and a datalogger. This communication will present a preliminary comparison of runoff and sediment generated in the catchments during recent years, and it will discuss some of the main problems encountered in the establishment of the network and the future plans for upgrading the monitoring stations and analysing of results.

  5. Quantitative Assessment of Agricultural Runoff and Soil Erosion Using Mathematical Modeling: Applications in the Mediterranean Region

    Arhonditsis, G.; Giourga, C.; Loumou, A.; Koulouri, M.


    Three mathematical models, the runoff curve number equation, the universal soil loss equation, and the mass response functions, were evaluated for predicting nonpoint source nutrient loading from agricultural watersheds of the Mediterranean region. These methodologies were applied to a catchment, the gulf of Gera Basin, that is a typical terrestrial ecosystem of the islands of the Aegean archipelago. The calibration of the model parameters was based on data from experimental plots from which edge-of-field losses of sediment, water runoff, and nutrients were measured. Special emphasis was given to the transport of dissolved and solid-phase nutrients from their sources in the farmers' fields to the outlet of the watershed in order to estimate respective attenuation rates. It was found that nonpoint nutrient loading due to surface losses was high during winter, the contribution being between 50% and 80% of the total annual nutrient losses from the terrestrial ecosystem. The good fit between simulated and experimental data supports the view that these modeling procedures should be considered as reliable and effective methodological tools in Mediterranean areas for evaluating potential control measures, such as management practices for soil and water conservation and changes in land uses, aimed at diminishing soil loss and nutrient delivery to surface waters. Furthermore, the modifications of the general mathematical formulations and the experimental values of the model parameters provided by the study can be used in further application of these methodologies in watersheds with similar characteristics.

  6. Comparison of Contaminant Transport in Agricultural Drainage Water and Urban Stormwater Runoff.

    Ghane, Ehsan; Ranaivoson, Andry Z; Feyereisen, Gary W; Rosen, Carl J; Moncrief, John F


    Transport of nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural and urban landscapes to surface water bodies can cause adverse environmental impacts. The main objective of this long-term study was to quantify and compare contaminant transport in agricultural drainage water and urban stormwater runoff. We measured flow rate and contaminant concentration in stormwater runoff from Willmar, Minnesota, USA, and in drainage water from subsurface-drained fields with surface inlets, namely, Unfertilized and Fertilized Fields. Commercial fertilizer and turkey litter manure were applied to the Fertilized Field based on agronomic requirements. Results showed that the City Stormwater transported significantly higher loads per unit area of ammonium, total suspended solids (TSS), and total phosphorus (TP) than the Fertilized Field, but nitrate load was significantly lower. Nitrate load transport in drainage water from the Unfertilized Field was 58% of that from the Fertilized Field. Linear regression analysis indicated that a 1% increase in flow depth resulted in a 1.05% increase of TSS load from the City Stormwater, a 1.07% increase in nitrate load from the Fertilized Field, and a 1.11% increase in TP load from the Fertilized Field. This indicates an increase in concentration with a rise in flow depth, revealing that concentration variation was a significant factor influencing the dynamics of load transport. Further regression analysis showed the importance of targeting high flows to reduce contaminant transport. In conclusion, for watersheds similar to this one, management practices should be directed to load reduction of ammonium and TSS from urban areas, and nitrate from cropland while TP should be a target for both.

  7. Characterisation and quantification of phosphorus transfer in agricultural runoff through simultaneous monitoring at nested spatial scales

    Deasy, Clare; Heathwaite, Louise; Brazier, Richard


    Current data available for understanding and characterising nutrient transfer are generally collected at the catchment scale, where stream measurements integrate signals from upstream flow pathways. However, predicting and managing nutrient transfer at this scale requires a detailed understanding of the smaller scale processes and pathways which influence catchment scale data. This paper presents an original dataset which characterises and quantifies phosphorus transfer through simultaneous measurements collected at nested spatial scales (c.0.01 to 30.6 ha) within a small catchment. Monitoring took place in a mixed land use agricultural catchment in the UK between 2004 and 2006. Discharge was continuously measured on a five minute timestep, at five catchment locations: a flume fed by surface runoff (1.9 ha); three drain outfalls (1.9 ha, 2.5 ha and 3.7 ha); and the stream catchment outlet (30.6 ha). Water samples collected through five storm events were analysed for total phosphorus and total dissolved phosphorus, and were used together with discharge data to calculate phosphorus loadings and area normalised yields for the various flow pathways and scales. Data from the smallest scale, the unbounded hillslope patch (c.0.01 ha), where flow only occurred over the field surface during storm events, was collected using timed flow measurements and grab samples. The results show that phosphorus transfer within the catchment is extremely complex both spatially and temporally. In particular, variations occurred in phosphorus concentrations, loads and yields, and in the proportion of total phosphorus transported as dissolved phosphorus, between runoff pathways and scales and between storm events. The highest phosphorus concentrations were recorded in data collected at the hillslope patch scale (max. 12 mg TP l-1), while concentrations at pathways representing larger scales were much lower; measured total P concentrations were below 5 mg TP l-1 in surface runoff at the field

  8. Polyacrylamide preparations for protection of water quality threatened by agricultural runoff contaminants

    Entry, J.A.; Sojka, R.E.; Watwood, Maribeth; Ross, Craig


    Polyacrylamide preparations show promise in reducing flow of sediments, nutrients and microorganisms from animal production facilities. - Waste streams associated with a variety of agricultural runoff sources are major contributors of nutrients, pesticides and enteric microorganisms to surface and ground waters. Water soluble anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) was found to be a highly effective erosion-preventing and infiltration-enhancing polymer, when applied at rates of 1-10 g m{sup -3} in furrow irrigation water. Water flowing from PAM treated irrigation furrows show large reductions in sediment, nutrients and pesticides. Recently PAM and PAM+CaO and PAM+Al(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} mixtures have been shown to filter bacteria, fungi and nutrients from animal wastewater. Low concentrations of PAM [175-350 g PAM ha{sup -1} as PAM or as PAM+CaO and PAM+Al(SO{sub 4}) mixture] applied to the soil surface, resulted in dramatic decreases (10 fold) of total, coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria in cattle, fish and swine wastewater leachate and surface runoff. PAM treatment also filtered significant amounts of NH{sub 4}, PO{sub 4} and total P in cattle and swine wastewater. This points to the potential of developing PAM as a water quality protection measure in combination with large-scale animal feeding operations. Potential benefits of PAM treatment of animal facility waste streams include: (1) low cost, (2) easy and quick application, (3) suitability for use with other pollution reduction techniques. Research on the efficacy of PAM for removal of protozoan parasites and viruses and more thorough assessment of PAM degradation in different soils is still needed to completely evaluate PAM treatment as an effective waste water treatment. We will present analysis and feasibility of using PAM, PAM+Al(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, and PAM+CaO application for specific applications. Our results demonstrate their potential efficacy in reducing sediment, nutrients and microorganisms from animal

  9. Effect of Drainage Ditch Layout on Nitrogen Loss by Runoff from an Agricultural Watershed

    ZHANG Zhan-Yu; KONG Li-Li; ZHU Lei; R.M.MWIYA


    A comparison experiment was performed,by designing one field ditch (D1 treatment),two field ditches (D2 treatment),three field ditches (D3 treatment),and no field ditch (CK treatment),in an upland of a small agricultural watershed in Nanjing-Zhenjiang hilly regions to observe the farmland surface runoff and N loss characteristics under the different layouts of field ditch.As the layout density of field ditch increased,the drainage effect was improved,the timing of the runoff peak was advanced,and also the peak flow was augmented.At the same time,both the concentration and accumulated transfer flux of total nitrogen (TN) were improved,and thereinto the accumulated transfer fluxes of TN under D3,D2 and D1 treatments were increased by 1.46,1.34 and 1.16 times,respectively,than that under CK treatment.However,the accumulated transfer fluxes of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4+-N) under D3,D2 and D1 treatments were reduced by 33.9%,21.4% and 8.6%,and 35.8%,24.7% and 12.2%,respectively,compared with those under CK treatment.Under CK treatment,the NO3--N and NH4+-N concentrations were more sensitive to rainfall intensity than the TN concentration.There were significant linear relationships between the transfer fluxes of TN,NO3--N and NH4+-N and the runoff flux,with the correlation coefficients of 0.942,0.899 and 0.912,respectively.In addition,this correlation was also influenced by the layout density of field ditch.Therefore,the environmental effect should be taken into account when designing and constructing field ditches.Especially in the regions of severe fertilizer loss,the approaches of properly increasing the drainage area and decreasing the layout density of field ditch could be adopted under the precondition of avoiding crops from waterlogging.

  10. Mitigation of dimethazone residues in soil and runoff water from agricultural field.

    Antonious, George F


    Dimethazone, also known as clomazone [2-[(2-chlorophenyl) methyl]- 4,4-dimethyl-3-isoxaolidinone] is a pre-emergent nonionic herbicide commonly used in agriculture. A field study was conducted on a silty-loam soil of 10 % slope to monitor off-site movement and persistence of dimethazone in soil under three management practices. Eighteen plots of 22 x 3.7 m each were separated using stainless steel metal borders and the soil in six plots was mixed with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and yard waste (YW) compost (MSS+YW) at 15 t acre⁻¹ on dry weight basis, six plots were mixed with MSS at 15 t acre⁻¹, and six unamended plots (NM) were used for comparison purposes. The objectives of this investigation were to: (i) monitor the dissipation and half-life (T₁/₂) of dimethazone in soil under three management practices; (ii) determine the concentration of dimethazone residues in runoff and infiltration water following natural rainfall events; and (iii) assess the impact of soil amendments on the transport of NO₃, NH₄, and P into surface and subsurface water. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometery (GC/MS) analyses of soil extracts indicated the presence of ion fragments at m/z 125 and 204 that can be used for identification of dimethazone residues. Intitial deposits of dimethazone varied from 1.3 μg g⁻¹ dry native soil to 3.2 and 11.8 μg g⁻¹ dry soil in MSS and MSS+YW amended soil, respectively. Decline of dimethazone residues in the top 15 cm native soil and soil incorporated with amendments revealed half-life (T₁/₂) values of 18.8, 25.1, and 43.0 days in MSS+YW, MSS, and NM treatments, respectively. Addition of MSS+YW mix and MSS alone to native soil increased water infiltration, lowering surface runoff water volume and dimethazone residues in runoff following natural rainfall events.

  11. Runoff-related agricultural impact in relation to macroinvertebrate communities of the Lourens River, South Africa.

    Thiere, Geraldine; Schulz, Ralf


    A field study at the Lourens River, South Africa, was undertaken during the pesticide application period between November 2001 and January 2002 in order to investigate the potential relation of agricultural pollution to the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna. The upper regions of the Lourens River were free of contamination (LR1), whereas subsequent stretches flowing through a 400-ha orchard area (LR2) received transient insecticide peaks. Continuously operating suspended-particle samplers as well as flood samplers operating during runoff events were used to measure pesticide contamination. In addition, various physicochemical and morphological parameters were examined. A survey of the macroinvertebrate communities associated with the rocky substrates was carried out every three weeks. Community indices were calculated using the South African Scoring System (SASS 5) for bioassessment of water quality in rivers. The two sites differed in pesticide pollution as well as in average turbidity levels (LR1 5.5 mg/L; LR2 64.3 mg/L), but were similar in bottom substrate composition and most other abiotic factors. At the downstream site (LR2), pesticide values of 0.05 microg/L azinphos-methyl in water as well as 49 microg/kg azinphos-methyl, 94 microg/kg chlorpyrifos and 122 microg/kg total endosulfan in suspended particles were found during runoff conditions. The macroinvertebrate communities of the two sampling sites were similar in terms of number of total individuals, but differed significantly (ANOVA) in average number of taxa (LR1 11.7, LR2 8.9). Seven out of 17 investigated taxa occurred in significantly reduced numbers or were even absent at the downstream site LR2. The community characteristics determined by SASS 5 showed a significantly less sensitive community structure at the downstream site (TS 41; ASPT 4.6), indicating continuously lower water quality compared to site LR1 (TS 80; ASPT 6.9). It is concluded that the Lourens River macroinvertebrate communities are

  12. Impact of agricultural practices on runoff and glyphosate peaks in a small vineyard catchment

    Amiot, Audrey; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; Landry, David; Sourice, Stéphane; Communal, Pierre-Yves; Ballouche, Aziz


    The Layon River, a tributary of the Loire River, does frequently not comply with water quality standards because of pesticides. Vineyard is generally denounced. The aim of this project is to explain the transfer of pesticides during runoff events and its interaction with erosion. Pesticides and suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations are monitored at the outlet of the vineyards catchment each 2 minutes during floods to follow peaks. The results of three different hydrological years (2009, 2011, 2012) are exposed. The 2.2ha catchment is composed of two main vineyards plots managed by two independent farmers. Mean slopes are of 8% and can reach 40% in terraces. A gauging station has been installed at the end of the slope with a calibrated Venturi channel. The measurement station is composed of (a) an approach channel of 10 meters long for the establishment of a stable water surface, (b) a trapezoidal long-throated flume to assess the flow rate with the water level measured with (c) a bubbler sensor, (d) an automatic rain gauge, (e) an automatic sampler, (f) a modem and (g) a logosens OTT® data logger. 2009 was an average year, 2011 was particularly dry and 2012 particularly wet. Quantities of glyphosate applied were respectively 1087, 645 and 720g. Maximum discharges in the gauging station were 5, 12 and 25L.s-1. Minimum and maximum concentrations of glyphosate in runoff waters were 1-449.1 µg.L-1 in 2009, 0.62-13.6 µg.L-1 in 2011 and 0.1-3.7 µg.L-1 in 2012. Minimum and maximum concentrations of SPM were 14-1261mg.L-1 in 2009, 108- 6454 mg.L-1 in 2011 and 9-1541 mg.L-1 in 2012. While flows, quantities of glyphosate applied and peaks of concentrations observed in 2011 are more important in 2009, SPM generated in the runoff waters are lower than 2011 and 2012, even though 2012 has particularly been a wet year. Also, maximum runoff coefficients are 7% in 2009 and 2011 and 57% in 2012. In fact, this latest explains differences between years better than

  13. Impacts of rainfall events on runoff water quality in an agricultural environment in temperate areas.

    Delpla, Ianis; Baurès, Estelle; Jung, Aude-Valérie; Thomas, Olivier


    Since a rise in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations has been observed for surface waters at least over the last two decades, a change in weather conditions (temperature and precipitations) has been proposed to partly explain this increase. While the majority of DOC delivery from soils to stream occurs during rainfall events, a better understanding of the rainfall influence on DOC release is needed. This study has been conducted in Brittany, western France, on agricultural experimental plots receiving either cattle manure (CM) or pig slurry (PS) as fertilizers in accordance with local practices. Each plot was instrumented with a flow meter and an auto sampler for runoff measurements. The results show that export of DOC during high intensity events is higher than during lower intensity rainfalls. Fertilization has a noticeable impact on total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes with an increase of five to seven folds for PS and CM respectively. If TOC shock load occurs shortly after the rainfall peak, DOC maximum appears with the first flush of the event. Organic carbon (OC) is mainly under colloidal (41.2%) and soluble (23.9%) forms during the first stage of a rainfall event and a control of rainfall intensity on OC colloidal transport is suggested. These findings highlight the potential risk of receiving water quality degradation due to the increase of heavier rainfall events with climate change in temperate areas.

  14. The use of constructed wetlands for removal of pesticides from agricultural runoff and drainage: a review.

    Vymazal, Jan; Březinová, Tereza


    Pesticides are used in modern agriculture to increase crop yields, but they may pose a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. Pesticides may enter water bodies through diffuse and point sources, but diffuse sources are probably the most important. Among diffuse pollution, surface runoff and erosion, leaching and drainage represent the major pathways. The most commonly used mitigation techniques to prevent pesticide input into water bodies include edge-of-field and riparian buffer strips, vegetated ditches and constructed wetlands. The first attempts to use wetland macrophytes for pesticide removal were carried out as early as the 1970s, but only in the last decade have constructed wetlands for pesticide mitigation become widespread. The paper summarizes 47 studies in which removal of 87 pesticides was monitored. The survey revealed that constructed wetlands with free water surface are the most commonly used type. Also, it has been identified that removal of pesticides is highly variable. The results of the survey revealed that the highest pesticide removal was achieved for pesticides of the organochlorine, strobilurin/strobin, organosphosphate and pyrethroid groups while the lowest removals were observed for pesticides of the triazinone, aryloxyalkanoic acid and urea groups. The removal of pesticides generally increases with increasing value of KOC but the relationship is not strong. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of SWAT sub-daily runoff estimation at small agricultural watershed in Korea

    Ganga Ram Maharjan; Youn Shik Park; Nam Won Kim; Dong Seok Shin; Jae Wan Choi; Geun Woo Hyun; Ji-Hong Jeon; Yong Sik Ok; Kyoung Jae Lim


    A study was undertaken for the prediction of runoff flow from 0.8 ha field-sized agricultural watershed in South Korea using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) sub-daily. The SWAT model with sub-daily configuration predicted flow from the watershed within the range of acceptable accuracy. The SWAT sub-daily simulations were carried out for a total of 18 rainfall events, 9 each for calibration and validation. Overall trend and extent of matching simulated flow for the rainfall events in 2007-2008 with measured data during the calibration process were coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.88 and Nash and Sutcliffe Efficiency (ENs) value of 0.88. For validation, R2 and ENs values were 0.9 and 0.84, respectively. Whereas R2 and ENs values for simulation results using daily rainfall data were 0.79 and -0.01, respectively, that were observed to be out of acceptable limits for the model simulation. The importance of higher time resolution (hourly) precipitation records for flow simulation were evaluated by comparing Ra and ENs with 15 min, 2 h, 6 h and 12 h precipitation data, which resulted in lower statistics with increases in time resolution of precipitation data. The SWAT sub-daily sensitivity analysis was performed with the consideration of hydraulic parameter and was found as in the rank order of CN2 (curve number), ESCO (soil evaporation compensation factor), GW_DELAY (ground water delay time), ALPHA BF (base flow alpha factor), GWQMN (a threshold-minimum depth of water in the shallow aquifer required for return flow to occur), REVAPMN (minimum depth of water in shallow aquifer for re-evaporation to occur), LAT TIME (lateral flow travel time) respectively. These sensit]-ve parameters were evaluated at 10% higher and lower values of the parameters, corresponding to 70.5% higher and 23.2% lower in simulated flow out from the SWAT model. From the results obtained in this study, hourly precipitation record for SWAT

  16. Flooding of property by runoff from agricultural land in northwestern Europe

    Boardman, John; Ligneau, Laurence; de Roo, Ad; Vandaele, Karel


    In the last twenty years there has been an increase in the incidence of flooding of property by runoff from agricultural land in many areas of northwestern Europe. These events take the form of inundations by soil-laden water associated with erision and the formation of ephemeral or talweg gullies developed in normally dry valley bottoms. Costs of such events may be considerable e.g. almost US$2M at Rottingdean, southern England, in 1987. These costs are largely borne by individual house occupants, insurance companies and local councils. The distribution of flooding is widespread but areas of high risk can be identified: the hilly area of central Belgium, parts of northern France, the South Downs in southern England and South-Limburg (the Netherlands). All these areas have silty, more or less loessial soils. Two types of flooding may be distinguished: winter flooding associated with wet soils and the cultivation of winter cereals, and summer flooding due to thunderstorm activity and runoff particularly from sugar beet, maize and potato crops. The distribution of these types of erosion varies in relation to the interaction between physical characteristics (soils and topography), climatic conditions and land use across the region. The reason for the recent increase in flooding events appears to be changes in land use, in the area of arable cropping, and the continued intensification of farming such as the use of chemical fertilizers, the decline in aggregate stability, the increase in the size of fields and compaction by farm vehicles. In some regions the risk of flooding has also increased because of expansion of urban areas in valley bottom locations. Communities have responded to the flooding hazard with emergency or protective measures usually involving engineered structures rather than land use change. The policy response to the increased risk of flooding has been very limited especially at the national and provincial level, the exception being plans developed

  17. Scale effects in Hortonian surface runoff on agricultural slopes in West Africa: Field data and models

    Giesen, van de N.; Stomph, T.J.; Ajayi, A.E.; Bagayoko, F.


    This article provides an overview of both experimental and modeling research carried out over the past 15 years by the authors addressing scaling effects in Hortonian surface runoff. Hortonian surface runoff occurs when rainfall intensity exceeds infiltration capacity of the soil. At three sites in

  18. Runoff simulation using distributed hydrological modeling approach, remote sensing and GIS techniques: A case study from an Indian agricultural watershed

    Chowdary, V. M.; Desai, V. R.; Gupta, M.; Jeyaram, A.; Murthy, Y. V. N. K.


    Distributed hydrological modeling has the capability of simulating distributed watershed basin processes, by dividing a heterogeneous and complex land surface divided into computational elements such as Hydrologic Response Units (HRU), grid cell or sub watersheds. The present study was taken up to simulate spatial hydrological processes from a case study area of Kansavati watershed in Purulia district of West Bengal, India having diverse geographical features using distributed hydrological modelling approach. In the present study, overland flow in terms of direct runoff from storm rainfall was computed using USDA Soil Conservation Services (SCS) curve number technique and subsequently it served as input to channel routing model. For channel flow routing, Muskingum-Cunge flood routing technique was used, specifically to route surface runoff from the different sub watershed outlet points to the outlet point of the watershed. Model parameters were derived for each grid cell either from remote sensing data or conventional maps under GIS environment. For distributed approach, validation show reasonable fit between the simulated and measured data and CMR value in all the cases is negative and ranges from -0.1 to - 0.3. Further, this study investigates the effect of cell size on runoff simulation for different grid cell sizes of 23, 46, 92, 184, 368, 736, 1472 m resolution. The difference between simulated and observed runoff values increases with the increase of grid size beyond 184 m more prominently. Further, this model can be used to evaluate futuristic water availability scenarios for an agricultural watershed in eastern India.

  19. Trapping runoff, sediment and nutrients at the edge-of-field: Using constructed wetlands to control runoff and improve water quality in agricultural catchments

    Deasy, Clare; Quinton, John; Stoate, Chris


    Across Europe, many rivers and lakes are polluted. In the UK, the Biodiversity Action Plan estimates that over 70% of lakes are eutrophic. Diffuse pollution from agriculture is currently of extreme concern, but pollution and flood risk can be mitigated by management activities. The use of in-field mitigation options such as reduced tillage has been found to be effective at reducing runoff, sediment and nutrient loss in overland flow, but pollutants can still be lost from hillslopes unchecked via subsurface flow pathways, some of which may contribute very high loads of nutrients to streams. Edge-of-field mitigation approaches, which can tackle both surface and subsurface pathways at locations where they discharge into ditches and streams, therefore have greater potential as runoff control measures than in-field measures alone. In the UK, the implementation, effectiveness and functioning of seven new wetlands constructed at the edges of agricultural fields is currently being assessed. The constructed wetlands, of different designs, which are fed by different flow types and are located on different farm and soil types, are continuously monitored for discharge and turbidity at inlets and outlets, while storm sampling allows assessment of sediment and nutrient transfer into and out of the wetland at times when there is a high risk of pollutant transfer. Pond surveys and sediment sampling will take place annually, and tracer experiments will be carried out in the course of the project. The data will be used to generate information on sediment and nutrient load reductions or wetland effectiveness, wetland sediment and nutrient budgets, and water and sediment residence times. In this paper we present the initial results, including novel high-resolution data from the first monitored events. Early outputs suggest that constructed wetlands which receive surface runoff inputs can retain flood waters and may reduce flood peaks, wetlands built to take drain outfalls may be

  20. Health and occupational risks due to pesticide handling among agricultural workers in marinilla, antioquia, 2009

    Juan C. Tabares L


    Full Text Available The agricultural sector has played a key role in the development of Colombia’s economy and rural communities. The Marinilla municipality, located in the eastern area of the department of Antioquia, bases its economy in agriculture and livestock activities. This requires the use of a wide variety of chemical products that pose health risks. Objective: to describe the occupational and health risks of the farmers who use pesticides in Marinilla. Methodology: a descriptive study with multistage sampling and a sample of 157 farmers. Results: 64.9% of the farmers combine more than two chemicals. 83% of them have received no training on safe handling of agricultural chemical products. Approximately 80% of these individuals do not use the appropriate protective equipment to perform this task. Only 2.5 % of the farmers have occupational risks insurance. The most common disease was acute respiratory infection (78%. 22.3% have suffered from acute intoxication, and 14% (11 of the female farmers who have ever been intoxicated had abortions, premature births, or bore children with some kind of disability. A statistically significant difference was found between the age of farmers and pesticide usage time. No statistical difference was found between low schooling level and knowledge of the risks posed by chemical products. Conclusion: most agricultural workers have not been trained in safety standards; therefore, they disregard all kinds of safety measures during their work, and act without safety in mind and without personal hygiene habits.

  1. Runoff and sediment monitoring in an agricultural watershed in the Ethiopian Highlands

    Zehetbauer, Ingrid; Strohmeier, Stefan; Ziadat, Feras; Klik, Andreas


    Land degradation due to soil erosion is a major issue in the Ethiopian Highlands. Deforestation leads to ongoing gully erosion during the rainy season (June to September) and thus the hydrology of a watershed changes as dense gully networks cause direct drainage of rain water. To better understand watershed scale gully processes in the Ethiopian Highlands, three gauging stations were installed in the 56 km² large Gumara-Maksegnit catchment in the northern Amhara region, to monitor discharge and sediment load in the gullies during rainy season. Various weirs respectively a fixed cross section was installed: Two v-notched weirs were built in two approximately 30 ha large sub catchments. Discharge was determined based on continuously logged water level data (ultrasonic sensor respectively pressure sensor) and using a calibrated weir equation. Sediment concentration was estimated based on continuously logged turbidity sensor data. In the main outlet discharge was calculated based on water level data (pressure sensor) and by using a calibrated rating curve which was derived by means of spatial distributed flow velocity measurements within the fixed and rectangular shaped cross section. Sediment concentration was estimated by turbidity sensor equipment. To validate the continuously logged turbidity sensors data additional manually taken runoff samples were used. Additionally, rainfall data was logged at three gauging stations distributed in the watershed. Observed data from the rainy season 2012 showed that the runoff in the sub catchments as well as in the main outlet was mainly controlled by heavy single storm events. Although baseflow and interflow was observed in the main outlet, the portion of surface runoff dominated the runoff in the gully. As a consequence of the surface runoff driven regime in the gullies, huge amounts of sediment were observed during heavy rainfall events. The hydrological study at Gumara-Maksegnit watershed is part of an entire watershed

  2. The role of irrigation runoff and winter rainfall on dissolved organic carbon loads in an agricultural watershed

    Oh, Neung-Hwan; Pellerin, Brian A.; Bachand, Philip A.M.; Hernes, Peter J.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Ohara, Noriaki; Kavvas, M. Levent; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Horwath, William R.


    We investigated the role of land use/land cover and agriculture practices on stream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics in the Willow Slough watershed (WSW) from 2006 to 2008. The 415 km2watershed in the northern Central Valley, California is covered by 31% of native vegetation and the remaining 69% of agricultural fields (primarily alfalfa, tomatoes, and rice). Stream discharge and weekly DOC concentrations were measured at eight nested subwatersheds to estimate the DOC loads and yields (loads/area) using the USGS developed stream load estimation model, LOADEST. Stream DOC concentrations peaked at 18.9 mg L−1 during summer irrigation in the subwatershed with the highest percentage of agricultural land use, demonstrating the strong influence of agricultural activities on summer DOC dynamics. These high concentrations contributed to DOC yields increasing up to 1.29 g m−2 during the 6 month period of intensive agricultural activity. The high DOC yields from the most agricultural subwatershed during the summer irrigation period was similar throughout the study, suggesting that summer DOC loads from irrigation runoff would not change significantly in the absence of major changes in crops or irrigation practices. In contrast, annual DOC yields varied from 0.89 to 1.68 g m−2 yr−1 for the most agricultural watershed due to differences in winter precipitation. This suggests that variability in the annual DOC yields will be largely determined by the winter precipitation, which can vary significantly from year to year. Changes in precipitation patterns and intensities as well as agricultural practices have potential to considerably alter the DOC dynamics.

  3. Responses of Hyalella azteca and phytoplankton to a simulated agricultural runoff event in a managed backwater wetland.

    Lizotte, Richard E; Shields, F Douglas; Murdock, Justin N; Knight, Scott S


    We assessed the aqueous toxicity mitigation capacity of a hydrologically managed floodplain wetland following a synthetic runoff event amended with a mixture of sediments, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), and pesticides (atrazine, S-metolachlor, and permethrin) using 48-h Hyalella azteca survival and phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll a. The runoff event simulated a 1h, 1.27 cm rainfall event from a 16 ha agricultural field. Water (1L) was collected every 30 min within the first 4h, every 4h until 48 h, and on days 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 post-amendment at distances of 0, 10, 40, 300 and 500 m from the amendment point for chlorophyll a, suspended sediment, nutrient, and pesticide analyses. H. azteca 48-h laboratory survival was assessed in water collected at each site at 0, 4, 24, 48 h, 5 d and 7 d. Greatest sediment, nutrient, and pesticide concentrations occurred within 3h of amendment at 0m, 10 m, 40 m, and 300 m downstream. Sediments and nutrients showed little variation at 500 m whereas pesticides peaked within 48 h but at azteca survival significantly decreased within 48 h of amendment up to 300 m in association with permethrin concentrations. Chlorophyll a decreased within the first 24h of amendment up to 40m primarily in conjunction with herbicide concentrations. Variations in chlorophyll a at 300 and 500 m were associated with nutrients. Managed floodplain wetlands can rapidly and effectively trap and process agricultural runoff during moderate rainfall events, mitigating impacts to aquatic invertebrates and algae in receiving aquatic systems.

  4. Runoff production in a small agricultural catchment in Lao PDR: influence of slope, land-use and observation scale

    Patin, J.; Ribolzi, O.; Mugler, C.; Valentin, C.; Mouche, E.


    After years of traditional slash and burn cultures, the Houay Pano catchment is now under high land pressures due to population resettling and environmental preservation policies. This evolution leads to rapid land-use changes in the uplands, such as fallow time reductions and growing of cash crops as teaks or banana. The catchment is located in the Luang Prabang province, in the north of Lao PDR and was selected in late 1998 as a benchmark site for the Managing Soil Erosion Consortium (MSEC). It is a small (60ha) agricultural catchment representative of the rural mountainous South East Asia : it exhibits steep cultivated slopes (from 2% to more than 110%) under a wet-dry monsoon climate. To understand the partition between runoff and infiltration, data from runoff on 20 plot experiments (1m2) under natural rainfall and with representative slopes and land uses is collected from 2003 to 2009. A simulated rainfall experiment was conducted in 2002 on bare soil plots (1m2) with different antecedent cultures. We investigate the role of crust, slope and land-use on runoff production at different scales. A model accounting for small scale variability is applied to compute the time and space variations of soil infiltrability at the plot scale (1m2) and sub-catchment scale (0.6ha). From the hypothesis of exponentially distributed infiltrabilities at the centimeter scale, we found that infiltration is log-normaly distributed over time for a given land use. The median infiltrability vary from 10mm/h under teak cultures to 150mm/h on plots with fallow. Variations along a year are tribute to many meteorological and human factors.

  5. Prediction of Sediment Yield in Runoff from Agricultural Land in the ...

    Fiifi Baidoo

    sediment and erosion control system for a site (Soil and Water Conservation Society, 1993). ..... Control of water pollution from agriculture. ... Sediment yield and availability for two reservoir drainage basins in Central Luzono, Philippines. In.

  6. Measurements of the effectiveness of conservation agriculture at the field scale using radioisotopic techniques and runoff plots

    Mabit, L.; Klik, A.; Toloza, A.; Benmansour, M.; Geisler, A.; Gerstmann, U. C.


    Growing evidence of the cost of soil erosion on agricultural land and off site impact of associated processes has emphasized the needs for quantitative assessment of erosion rates to develop and assess erosion control technology and to allocate conservation resources and development of conservation regulation, policies and programmes. Our main study goal was to assess the magnitude of deposition rates using Fallout Radionuclides ‘FRNs' (137-Cs and 210-Pb) and the mid-term (13 years) erosion rates using conventional runoff plot measurements in a small agricultural watershed under conventional and conservation tillage practices. The tillage treatments were conventional tillage system (CT), mechanical plough to 30 cm depth (the most common tillage system within the watershed); conservation tillage (CS) with cover crops during winter; and direct seeding (DS) no tillage with cover crops during winter. The experimental design - located in Mistelbach watershed 60 km north of Vienna/Austria - consists of one 3-metre-wide and 15-metre-long runoff plot (silt loam - slope of 14%) for each tillage system (CT, CS and DS) with the plots placed in the upper part of an agricultural field. 76 soil samples were collected to evaluate the initial fallout of 137-Cs and 210-Pb in a small forested area close to the experimental field, along a systematic multi-grid design,. In the sedimentation area of the watershed and down slope the agricultural field, 2 additional soil profiles were collected to 1 m depth. All soil samples were air dried, sieved to 2mm and analysed for their 137-Cs and 210-Pb contents using gamma detector. The main results and conclusion can be summarised as following: i) The initial 137-Cs fallout as measured in the 76 forested soil samples ranged from 1123 to 3354 Bq/m2 for an average of 1954 Bq/m2 with a coefficient of variation of 20.4 %. ii) Long-term erosion measurements (1994-2006) from runoff plots located in the upper part of the agricultural field just up

  7. Agricultural, Runoff, Erosion and Salinity (ARES) Database to Better Evaluate Rangeland State and Sustainability

    Rangelands comprise approximately 40% of the earth’s surface and are the largest land cover type in the world. Degradation from mismanagement, desertification, and drought impact more than 50% of rangelands across the globe. The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has been evaluating means of r...

  8. Exploratory piloted simulator study of the effects of winglets on handling qualities of a representative agricultural airplane

    Ogburn, M. E.; Brown, P. W.


    The effects on handling qualities of adding winglets to a representative agricultural aircraft configuration during swath-run maneuvering were evaluated. Aerodynamic data used in the simulation were based on low-speed wind tunnel tests of a full scale airplane and a subscale model. The Cooper-Harper handling qualities rating scale, supplementary pilot comments, and pilot vehicle performance data were used to describe the handling qualities of the airplane with the different wing-tip configurations. Results showed that the lateral-directional handling qualities of the airplane were greatly affected by the application of winglets and winglet cant angle. The airplane with winglets canted out 20 deg exhibited severely degraded lateral directional handling qualities in comparison to the basic airplane. When the winglets were canted inward 10 deg, the flying qualities of the configuration were markedly improved over those of the winglet-canted-out configuration or the basic configuration without winglets, indicating that proper tailoring of the winglet design may afford a potential benefit in the area of handling qualities.

  9. Monitoring and predicting the fecal indicator bacteria concentrations from agricultural, mixed land use and urban stormwater runoff.

    Paule-Mercado, M A; Ventura, J S; Memon, S A; Jahng, D; Kang, J-H; Lee, C-H


    While the urban runoff are increasingly being studied as a source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), less is known about the occurrence of FIB in watershed with mixed land use and ongoing land use and land cover (LULC) change. In this study, Escherichia coli (EC) and fecal streptococcus (FS) were monitored from 2012 to 2013 in agricultural, mixed and urban LULC and analyzed according to the most probable number (MPN). Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between FIB and environmental parameters (physicochemical and hydrometeorological). Multiple linear regressions (MLR) were used to identify the significant parameters that affect the FIB concentrations and to predict the response of FIB in LULC change. Overall, the FIB concentrations were higher in urban LULC (EC=3.33-7.39; FS=3.30-7.36log10MPN/100mL) possibly because of runoff from commercial market and 100% impervious cover (IC). Also, during early-summer season; this reflects a greater persistence and growth rate of FIB in a warmer environment. During intra-event, however, the FIB concentrations varied according to site condition. Anthropogenic activities and IC influenced the correlation between the FIB concentrations and environmental parameters. Stormwater temperature (TEMP), turbidity, and TSS positively correlated with the FIB concentrations (p>0.01), since IC increased, implying an accumulation of bacterial sources in urban activities. TEMP, BOD5, turbidity, TSS, and antecedent dry days (ADD) were the most significant explanatory variables for FIB as determined in MLR, possibly because they promoted the FIB growth and survival. The model confirmed the FIB concentrations: EC (R(2)=0.71-0.85; NSE=0.72-0.86) and FS (R(2)=0.65-0.83; NSE=0.66-0.84) are predicted to increase due to urbanization. Therefore, these findings will help in stormwater monitoring strategies, designing the best management practice for FIB removal and as input data for stormwater models.

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns of pesticide concentrations in streamflow, drainage and runoff in a small Swedish agricultural catchment.

    Sandin, Maria; Piikki, Kristin; Jarvis, Nicholas; Larsbo, Mats; Bishop, Kevin; Kreuger, Jenny


    A better understanding of the dominant source areas and transport pathways of pesticide losses to surface water is needed for targeting mitigation efforts in a more cost-effective way. To this end, we monitored pesticides in surface water in an agricultural catchment typical of one of the main crop production regions in Sweden. Three small sub-catchments (88-242ha) were selected for water sampling based on a high-resolution digital soil map developed from proximal sensing methods and soil sampling; one sub-catchment had a high proportion of clay soils, another was dominated by coarse sandy soils while the third comprised a mix of soil types. Samples were collected from the stream, from field drains discharging into the stream and from within-field surface runoff during spring and early summer in three consecutive years. These samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for 99 compounds, including most of the polar and semi-polar pesticides frequently used in Swedish agriculture. Information on pesticide applications (products, doses and timing) was obtained from annual interviews with the farmers. There were clear and consistent differences in pesticide occurrence in the stream between the three sub-catchments, with both the numbers of detected compounds and concentrations being the largest in the area with a high proportion of clay soils and with very few detections in the sandy sub-catchment. Macropore flow to drains was most likely the dominant loss pathway in the studied area. Many of the compounds that were detected in drainage and stream water samples had not been applied for several years. This suggests that despite the predominant role of fast flow pathways in determining losses to the stream, long-term storage along the transport pathways also occurs, presumably in subsoil horizons where degradation is slow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Agricultural runoff pollution control by a grassed swales coupled with wetland detention ponds system: a case study in Taihu Basin, China.

    Zhao, Jinhui; Zhao, Yaqian; Zhao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Cheng


    The performance of a field grassed swales (GSs) coupled with wetland detention ponds (WDPs) system was monitored under four typical rainfall events to assess its effectiveness on agricultural runoff pollution control in Taihu Basin, China. The results indicated that suspended solids (SS) derived from the flush process has significant influence on pollution loads in agricultural runoff. Determination of first flush effect (FFE) indicated that total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) exhibited moderate FFE, while chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) showed weak FFE. Average removal efficiencies of 83.5 ± 4.5, 65.3 ± 6.8, 91.6 ± 3.8, and 81.3 ± 5.8 % for TSS, COD, TN, and TP were achieved, respectively. The GSs played an important role in removing TSS and TP and acted as a pre-treatment process to prevent clogging of the subsequent WDPs. Particle size distributions (PSDs) analysis indicated that coarse particles larger than 75 μm accounted for 80 % by weight of the total particles in the runoff. GSs can effectively reduce coarse particles (≥75 μm) in runoff, while its removal efficiency for fine particles (<75 μm) was low, even minus results being recorded, especially for particles smaller than 25 μm. The length of GSs is a key factor in its performance. The WDPs can remove particles of all sizes by sedimentation. In addition, WDPs can improve water quality due to their buffering and dilution capacity during rainfall as well as their water purification ability during dry periods. Overall, the ecological system of GSs coupled with WDPs is an effective system for agricultural runoff pollution control.

  12. Use of Zeolite with Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride Amendments to Mitigate Runoff Losses of Phosphorus, Nitrogen, and Suspended Solids from Agricultural Wastes Applied to Grassed Soils.

    Murnane, J G; Brennan, R B; Healy, M G; Fenton, O


    Diffuse pollutant losses containing phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), and suspended solids (SS) can occur when agricultural wastes are applied to soil. This study aimed to mitigate P, N, and SS losses in runoff from grassed soils, onto which three types of agricultural wastes (dairy slurry, pig slurry, and dairy-soiled water [DSW]), were applied by combining amendments of either zeolite and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) with dairy and pig slurries or zeolite and alum with DSW. Four treatments were investigated in rainfall simulation studies: (i) control soil, (ii) agricultural wastes, (iii) dairy and pig slurries amended with PAC and DSW amended with alum, and (iv) dairy and pig slurries amended with zeolite and PAC and DSW amended with zeolite and alum. Our data showed that combined amendments of zeolite and PAC applied to dairy and pig slurries reduced total P (TP) in runoff by 87 and 81%, respectively, compared with unamended slurries. A combined amendment of zeolite and alum applied to DSW reduced TP in runoff by 50% compared with unamended DSW. The corresponding reductions in total N (TN) were 56% for dairy slurry and 45% for both pig slurry and DSW. Use of combined amendments reduced SS in runoff by 73 and 44% for dairy and pig slurries and 25% for DSW compared with unamended controls, but these results were not significantly different from those using chemical amendments only. The findings of this study are that combined amendments of zeolite and either PAC or alum reduce TP and TN losses in runoff to a greater extent than the use of single PAC or alum amendments and are most effective when used with dairy slurry and pig slurry but less effective when used with DSW.

  13. Hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek Watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-07

    Ockerman, Darwin J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two (primarily) agricultural areas (subwatersheds) of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed Oso Creek tributary (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during October 2005-September 2007. Fourteen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Nineteen composite runoff samples (10 West Oso Creek, nine Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-two discrete suspended-sediment samples (10 West Oso Creek, 12 Oso Creek tributary) and 13 bacteria samples (eight West Oso Creek, five Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the study subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff at both subwatershed outlet sites occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 10.83 inches compared with 7.28 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 2-year study period averaged 2.61 pounds

  14. Hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-08

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Fernandez, Carlos J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two primarily agricultural subwatersheds of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is about 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed tributary to Oso Creek (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is about 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during the study period October 2005-September 2008. Seventeen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Twenty-four composite runoff water-quality samples (12 at West Oso Creek, 12 at Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-six discrete suspended-sediment samples (12 West Oso Creek, 14 Oso Creek tributary) and 17 bacteria samples (10 West Oso Creek, 7 Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the two subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the two subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff from the two subwatersheds occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 13.95 inches compared with 9.45 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 3

  15. Nitrous oxide and methane emission in an artificial wetland treating polluted runoff from an agricultural catchment

    Mander, Ülo; Tournebize, Julien; Soosaar, Kaido; Chaumont, Cedric; Hansen, Raili; Muhel, Mart; Teemusk, Alar; Vincent, Bernard


    An artificial wetland built in 2010 to reduce water pollution in a drained agricultural watershed showed real potential for pesticide and nitrate removal. The 1.2 ha off-shore wetland with a depth of from 0.1 to 1 m intercepts drainage water from a 450 ha watershed located near the village of Rampillon (03°03'37.3'' E, 48°32'16.7'' N, 70 km south-east of Paris, France). A sluice gate installed at the inlet makes it possible to close the wetland during the winter months (December - March), when no pesticides are applied and rainfall events are more frequent. The flow entering the wetland fluctuates from 0 to 120 L/s. The wetland is partially covered by Carex spp., Phragmites australis, Juncus conglomeratus, Typha latifolia and philamentous algae. Since 2011, an automatic water quality monitoring system measures water discharge, temperature, dissolved O2, conductivity pH, NO3- and DOC in both inlet and outlet. In May 2014, an automatic weather station and Campbell Irgason system for the measurement of CO2 and H2O fluxes were installed in the middle of the wetland. In May and November 2014 one-week high frequency measurement campaigns were conducted to study N2O and CH4 fluxes using 6 manually operated opaque floating static chambers and 12 floating automatic dynamic chambers. The latter were operated via multiplexer and had an incubation time of 5 minutes, whereas the gas flow was continuously measured using the Aerodyne TILDAS quantum cascade laser system. During the campaign, the reduction of NO3- concentration was measured in nine reactor pipes. Also, water samples were collected for N2O and N2 isotope analysis, and sediments were collected for potential N2 emission measurements. In May, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 30 days, and the average NO3- concentration decreased from 24 in the inflow to 0 mg/L in the outflow. Methane flux was relatively high (average 1446, variation 0.2-113990 μg CH4-C m-2 h-1), while about 2/3 was emitted via ebullition

  16. Environmental Impact of Introducing Aromatic-Shrub Strips in Almond Orchards under Semiarid Climate (SE Spain): implications for Erosion and Agricultural Runoff Control

    Duran-Zuazo, V. H.; Rodriguez-Pleguezuelo, C. R.; Francia-Martinez, J. R.; Martinez-Raya, A.; Carceles-Rodriguez, B.; Arroyo-Panadero, L.; Casado, J. P.


    Erosion degrades soil quality in natural, agricultural, and forest ecosystems, thereby reducing the productivity of the land. Semi-natural vegetation and diverse cropping systems have been converted into monocultures with low tree densities, leaving the soil unprotected. Soil loss, runoff, and nutrient loss over a four-year period were monitored in hillside erosion plots with almond trees under different soil-management systems. (Author)

  17. Impact of runoff water from an experimental agricultural field applied with Vertimec® 18EC (abamectin) on the survival, growth and gill morphology of zebrafish juveniles.

    Novelli, Andréa; Vieira, Bruna Horvath; Braun, Andréa Simone; Mendes, Lucas Bueno; Daam, Michiel Adriaan; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta


    Edge-of-field waterbodies in tropical agroecosystems have been reported to be especially prone to pesticide contamination through runoff resulting from intensive irrigation practices and tropical rainfall. In the present study, the effects of runoff from an experimental agricultural field applied with Vertimec(®) 18EC (active ingredient: abamectin) on zebrafish were evaluated. To this end, the experimental field was applied with the Vertimec(®) 18EC dose recommended for strawberry crop in Brazil, whereas another field was treated with water only to serve as control. No effects of runoff water from either plot were recorded on survival. Water from the treated field led to increased growth and gill alterations. In general, these alterations were of the first and second degree, including proliferation of cells between the secondary lamellae, dilation at the lamellar apex, detachment of the respiratory epithelium and aneurism. These results confirm the high toxic potential of Vertimec(®) 18EC and provide evidence that environmental risks are likely to occur in areas subject to runoff containing this pesticide.

  18. Runoff erosion

    Evelpidou, Niki; Cordier, Stephane; Merino, Agustin (Ed.); Figueiredo, Tomás; Centeri, Csaba



  19. Constructed wetlands as a component of the agricultural landscape: Mitigation of herbicides in simulated runoff from upland drainage areas

    Constructed wetlands are a recommended practice for buffering pollutant source areas and receiving waters. A wetland consisting of a sediment trap and two treatment cells was constructed in a Mississippi Delta lake watershed. A 3-h simulated runoff event was initiated (2003) to evaluate fate and tr...

  20. Airborne molds and mycotoxins associated with handling of corn silage and oilseed cakes in agricultural environment

    Lanier, Caroline; Richard, Estelle; Heutte, Natacha; Picquet, Rachel; Bouchart, Valérie; Garon, David


    In agricultural areas, the contamination of feedstuffs with molds and mycotoxins presents major environmental and health concerns. During cattle feeding, fungi and mycotoxins were monitored in corn silage, oilseed cakes and bioaerosols collected in Normandy. Most of the corn silages were found to be contaminated by deoxynivalenol (mean concentration: 1883 μg kg -1) while a few of oilseed cakes were contaminated by alternariol, fumonisin B 1 or gliotoxin. In ambient bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 4.3 × 10 2 to 6.2 × 10 5 cfu m -3. Seasonal variations were observed with some species like Aspergillus fumigatus which significantly decreased between the 2 seasons ( P = 0.0186) while the Penicillium roqueforti group significantly increased during the second season ( P = 0.0156). In the personal bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 3.3 10 3 to 1.7 10 6 cfu m -3 and the number of A. fumigatus spores significantly decreased between the 2 seasons ( P = 0.0488). Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in 3 personal filters at 3.73 μg m -3, 1.09 μg m -3 and 2.97 μg m -3.

  1. Land leveling impact on surface runoff and soil losses: Estimation with coupled deterministic/stochastic models for a Québec agricultural field

    Gagnon, Patrick; Chrétien, François; Thériault, Georges


    Land leveling impact on water quality had not received much attention for fields in humid continental climate. The objectives of this study were to isolate the impact of land leveling, performed on an agricultural field (Québec, Canada) in spring 2012, on runoff and TSS load and to make recommendations to attenuate adverse environmental impacts of land leveling, if any. A total of 66 runoff events, including 22 with total suspended sediments (TSS) load estimates, from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed. To this end, deterministic models were coupled to an adaptive Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to estimate the unknown distribution of the parameters representing the most important effects, namely land leveling, tillage, and crop cover. Simulated runoff events were generated by the hydrological model SWMM version 5 while simulated TSS loads were generated by an empirical equation based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation version 2 (RUSLE2). Thanks to the algorithm used, it was demonstrated that land leveling significantly decreased total runoff volume at least for the two following years. The impact on peak flow was mixed: land leveling significantly decreased peak flow for a typical stratiform rainfall event but the effect was unclear for a typical convective rainfall event. Based on 90% confidence interval, TSS load increased from 10 to 1000 times immediately after land leveling (spring 2012) compared to pre-land leveling events. The TSS load increase remained significant one year after land leveling, with TSS loads 5-20 times higher compared to pre-land leveling events. It would thus be recommended to grow crops with high ground coverage ratios coupled with cover crops during the year when land leveling is done. Sediment retention structures could also be installed at the beginning of the land leveling process to provide protection against the short term and delayed impact on water quality.

  2. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study.

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda


    Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2L batch reactors and 5L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L(-1) of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology's effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study

    Matamoros, Víctor, E-mail:; Rodríguez, Yolanda


    Highlights: • The effect of microalgae on the removal of pesticides has been evaluated. • Continuous feeding operational mode is more efficient for removing pesticides. • Microalgae increased the removal of some pesticides. • Pesticide TPs confirmed that biodegradation was relevant. - Abstract: Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2 L batch reactors and 5 L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L{sup −1} of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology’s effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off.

  4. [Cd Runoff Load and Soil Profile Movement After Implementation of Some Typical Contaminated Agricultural Soil Remediation Strategies].

    Liu, Xiao-li; Zeng, Zhao-xia; Tie, Bai-qing; Chen, Qiu-wen; Wei, Xiang-dong


    Owing to the strong ability to immobilize and hyperaccumulate some toxic heavy metals in contaminated soils, the biochar, lime and such as hyperaccumulator ramie received increasing interests from crops and environment safety in recent years. Outdoor pot experiment was conducted to compare the impacts of lime and biochar addition in paddy rice treatment, hyperaccumulator ramie and ramie combined with EDTA of plant Phytoremediation methods on soil available Cd dynamics in rainfall runoff and the mobility along soil profile, under both natural acid precipitation and acid soil conditions. The results showed that, biochar addition at a 2% mass ratio application amount significantly increased soil pH, while ramie with EDTA application obviously decreased soil pH compared to ramie monoculture. Within the same rainfall events, water soluble Cd concentration in surface runoff of ramie treatments was significantly higher than those of waterlogged rice treatments, and Cd concentration in runoff was obviously increased after EDTA addition, whereas lime at a 0.3% mass ratio application amount as additive had no obvious impact on soil pH and Cd speciation change, which may be due to the low application amount. During the whole experimental period , water soluble Cd concentration of rainfall runoff in spring was higher than that in summer, showing the same seasonal characteristics in all treatments. Biochar addition could significantly decrease available Cd content in 0-20 cm soil layer and with certain preferable persistency effects, whereas EDTA addition treatment obviously increased available Cd of 0-20 cm soil layer compared to other treatments, and obvious Cd element activation phenomenon in 20-40 cm soil layer was observed after EDTA addition. In conclusion, lime and biochar as environmental and friendly alkaline Cd immobilization materials showed lower environment risk to surface and ground receiving water, but attention should be paid to phytoremediation enhanced with

  5. Agricultural Handling and Processing Industries; Data Pertinent to an Evaluation of Overtime Exemptions Available under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Volume I.

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report covers the major agricultural handling and processing industries qualifying for partial overtime exemption under the Fair Labor Standards Act and evaluates the need for such exemptions. Questionnaires which were sent to firms in various processing industries provide data on nearly 4,000 processors. The results show that existing…

  6. Distributed hydrological modelling of total dissolved phosphorus transport in an agricultural landscape, part I: distributed runoff generation

    P. Gérard-Marchant


    Full Text Available Successful implementation of best management practices for reducing non-point source (NPS pollution requires knowledge of the location of saturated areas that produce runoff. A physically-based, fully-distributed, GIS-integrated model, the Soil Moisture Distribution and Routing (SMDR model was developed to simulate the hydrologic behavior of small rural upland watersheds with shallow soils and steep to moderate slopes. The model assumes that gravity is the only driving force of water and that most overland flow occurs as saturation excess. The model uses available soil and climatic data, and requires little calibration. The SMDR model was used to simulate runoff production on a 164-ha farm watershed in Delaware County, New York, in the headwaters of New York City water supply. Apart from land use, distributed input parameters were derived from readily available data. Simulated hydrographs compared reasonably with observed flows at the watershed outlet over a eight year simulation period, and peak timing and intensities were well reproduced. Using off-site weather input data produced occasional missed event peaks. Simulated soil moisture distribution agreed well with observed hydrological features and followed the same spatial trend as observed soil moisture contents sampled on four transects. Model accuracy improved when input variables were calibrated within the range of SSURGO-available parameters. The model will be a useful planning tool for reducing NPS pollution from farms in landscapes similar to the Northeastern US.

  7. Agricultural Extension Messages Using Video on Portable Devices Increased Knowledge about Seed Selection, Storage and Handling among Smallholder Potato Farmers in Southwestern Uganda

    Van Campenhout, Bjorn; Vandevelde, Senne; Walukano, Wilberforce; Van Asten, Piet


    To feed a growing population, agricultural productivity needs to increase dramatically. Agricultural extension information, with its public, non-rival nature, is generally undersupplied, and public provision remains challenging. In this study, simple agricultural extension video messages, delivered through Android tablets, were tested in the field to determine if they increased farmers’ knowledge of recommended practices on (i) potato seed selection and (ii) seed storage and handling among a sample of potato farmers in southwestern Uganda. Using a field experiment with ex ante matching in a factorial design, it was established that showing agricultural extension videos significantly increased farmers’ knowledge. However, results suggested impact pathways that went beyond simply replicating what was shown in the video. Video messages may have triggered a process of abstraction, whereby farmers applied insights gained in one context to a different context. PMID:28122005

  8. Narrative Text Analysis of Accident Reports with Tractors, Self-Propelled Harvesting Machinery and Materials Handling Machinery in Austrian Agriculture from 2008 to 2010 – A Comparison

    Hannes Mayrhofer; Elisabeth Quendler; Josef Boxberger


    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report ac...

  9. Runoff experiment and adapted SfM photogrammetry to assess rill erosion in Mediterranean agricultural fields from a holistic point of view

    Gronz, Oliver; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Seeger, Manuel


    In Mediterranean agricultural fields, more research is needed to quantify soil loss and to assess runoff generation caused by unsuitable land management strategies (García-Díaz et al., 2017; Keesstra et al., 2016). Nowadays, farmers are increasing the generation of rills and, consequently, enhancing several sub-processes related to soil erosion by water such as headcut retreats, piping or cracks joint to mass movements (Marzolff and Poesen, 2009; Poesen et al., 2003; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2015). This complex problem under different spatiotemporal scales hinders a reliable forecasting of its final consequences (Prasuhn, 2011; Salome et al., 2014). Several researchers pay more attention to point observations, but no to general and connected overviews of processes related to forms and the quantitative functioning of all elements. Therefore, the main goal of this study is to characterize and quantify the rill erosion generated by these degradation processes. To achieve this goal, two runoff experiments were carried out with two repetitions (dry and wet conditions) under extreme conditions (Wirtz et al., 2013, 2012, 2010): a motor driven pump discharged a water inflow up to ˜4.2 l s-1 maintained during between 4 and 6 minutes (≈1000 litres). Additionally, a 3D-captation of the rill by an adapted SfM photogrammetry was performed to assess: i) clear visible zonation of geomorphological (structural) connectivity features; ii) runoff and sediment productions close to the catchment outlet under actual conditions; iii) topsoil-subsoil interaction and crusting crucial for runoff generation; and, iv) the area with evidence of (former) high erosion intensity now stable, but with remnant. García-Díaz, A., Bienes, R., Sastre, B., Novara, A., Gristina, L., Cerdà, A., 2017. Nitrogen losses in vineyards under different types of soil groundcover. A field runoff simulator approach in central Spain. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 236, 256-267. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2016.12.013 Keesstra

  10. The contribution of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) in streams to assess spatial runoff processes in a moraine dominated agricultural catchment

    Boegh, Eva; Blemmer, Morten; Holmes, Esbern

    using a high spatial resolution (10-30 m) land use map which includes agricultural crops, forest, wetlands and inhabited areas, and spatial variations in soil types, geology and tile drainage were represented. The DTS system measured diurnal variations in water temperature each meter along a stream...... accumulation of water from individual grids within the catchment to the stream was calculated using a Lidar based (1.6 m resolution) digital elevation model. Many locations with observed (DTS-based) discrete lateral inflows were in good agreement with stream locations receiving extra large inflows from...

  11. Field experiments of Controlled Drainage of agricultural clay soils show positive effects on water quantity (retention, runoff) and water quality (nitrate leaching).

    schipper, peter; stuyt, lodewijk; straat, van der, andre; schans, van der, martin


    Despite best management practices, agriculture is still facing major challenges to reduce nutrients leaching to the aquatic environment. In deltas, most of total nutrient losses from artificially drained agricultural soils are discharged via drains. Controlled drainage is a promising measure to prevent drainage of valuable nutrients, improve water quality and agricultural yield and adapt to climate change (reduce peak runoff, manage water scarcity and drought). In The Netherlands, this technique has attracted much attention by water managers and farmers alike, yet field studies to determine the expected (positive) effects for Dutch conditions were scarce. Recently, a field experiment was set up on clay soils. Research questions were: how does controlled, subsurface drainage perform on clay soils? Will deeper tile drains function just as well? What are the effects on drain water quality (especially with respect to nitrogen and salt) and crop yield? An agricultural field on clay soils was used to test different tile drainage configurations. Four types of tile drainage systems were installed, all in duplicate: eight plots in total. Each plot has its own outlet to a control box, where equipment was installed to control drain discharge and to measure the flow, concentrations of macro-ions, pH, nitrogen, N-isotopes and heavy metals. In each plot, groundwater observation wells and suction cups are installed in the saturated and vadose zones, at different depths, and crop yield is determined. Four plots discharge into a hydrologic isolated ditch, enabling the determination of water- and nutrient balances. Automatic drain water samplers and innovative nitrate sensors were installed in four plots. These enable identification and unravelling so-called first flush effects (changes in concentrations after a storm event). Water-, chloride- and nitrogen balances have been set up, and the interaction between groundwater and surface water has been quantified. The hydrological

  12. Effectiveness of Conservation Measures in Reducing Runoff and Soil Loss Under Different Magnitude-Frequency Storms at Plot and Catchment Scales in the Semi-arid Agricultural Landscape

    Zhu, T. X.


    In this study, multi-year stormflow data collected at both catchment and plot scales on an event basis were used to evaluate the efficiency of conservation. At the catchment scale, soil loss from YDG, an agricultural catchment with no conservation measures, was compared with that from CZG, an agricultural catchment with an implementation of a range of conservation measures. With an increase of storm recurrence intervals in the order of 20 years, the mean event sediment yield was 639, 1721, 5779, 15191, 19627, and 47924 t/km2 in YDG, and was 244, 767, 3077, 4679, 8388, and 15868 t/km2 in CZG, which represented a reduction effectiveness of 61.8, 55.4, 46.7, 69.2, 57.2, and 66.8 %, respectively. Storm events with recurrence intervals greater than 2 years contributed about two-thirds of the total runoff and sediment in both YDG and CZG catchments. At the plot scale, soil loss from one cultivated slopeland was compared with that from five conservation plots. The mean event soil loss was 1622 t/km2 on the cultivated slopeland, in comparison to 27.7 t/km2 on the woodland plot, 213 t/km2 on the grassland plot, 467 t/km2 on the alfalfa plot, 236 t/km2 on the terraceland plot, and 642 t/km2 on the earthbank plot. Soil loss per unit area from all the plots was significantly less than that from the catchments for storms of all categories of recurrence intervals.

  13. Effectiveness of Conservation Measures in Reducing Runoff and Soil Loss Under Different Magnitude-Frequency Storms at Plot and Catchment Scales in the Semi-arid Agricultural Landscape.

    Zhu, T X


    In this study, multi-year stormflow data collected at both catchment and plot scales on an event basis were used to evaluate the efficiency of conservation. At the catchment scale, soil loss from YDG, an agricultural catchment with no conservation measures, was compared with that from CZG, an agricultural catchment with an implementation of a range of conservation measures. With an increase of storm recurrence intervals in the order of 20 years, the mean event sediment yield was 639, 1721, 5779, 15191, 19627, and 47924 t/km(2) in YDG, and was 244, 767, 3077, 4679, 8388, and 15868 t/km(2) in CZG, which represented a reduction effectiveness of 61.8, 55.4, 46.7, 69.2, 57.2, and 66.8 %, respectively. Storm events with recurrence intervals greater than 2 years contributed about two-thirds of the total runoff and sediment in both YDG and CZG catchments. At the plot scale, soil loss from one cultivated slopeland was compared with that from five conservation plots. The mean event soil loss was 1622 t/km(2) on the cultivated slopeland, in comparison to 27.7 t/km(2) on the woodland plot, 213 t/km(2) on the grassland plot, 467 t/km(2) on the alfalfa plot, 236 t/km(2) on the terraceland plot, and 642 t/km(2) on the earthbank plot. Soil loss per unit area from all the plots was significantly less than that from the catchments for storms of all categories of recurrence intervals.

  14. 7 CFR 1207.307 - Handle.


    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack,...

  15. Agriculture

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  16. 7 CFR 985.152 - Handling report.


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling report. 985.152 Section 985.152 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Administrative Rules and Regulations § 985.152 Handling...

  17. Narrative text analysis of accident reports with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery in Austrian agriculture from 2008 to 2010 - a comparison.

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef


    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report accidents to insurers was conducted to obtain detailed information about the scenarios and causes of accidents. This narrative analysis of reports was made the first time and yielded first insights for identifying antecedents of accidents and potential opportunities for technical based intervention. A literature and internet search was done to discuss and confirm the findings. The narrative text analysis showed that in more than one third of the accidents with tractors and materials handling machinery the vehicle rolled or tipped over. The most relevant accident scenarios with harvesting machinery were being trapped and falling down. The direct comparison of the analysed machinery categories showed that more than 10% of the accidents in each category were caused by technical faults, slippery or muddy terrain and incorrect or inappropriate operation of the vehicle. Accidents with tractors, harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery showed similarities in terms of causes, circumstances and consequences. Certain technical and communicative measures for accident prevention could be used for all three machinery categories. Nevertheless, some individual solutions for accident prevention, which suit each specific machine type, would be necessary.

  18. 地膜覆盖对农田径流中氮磷流失的影响%The Effected of Mulch Film on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loss in Agricultural Runoff

    邓伟; 许振成; 吴根义; 贺德春


    [ Objective] The aim of the study was to seek a good way to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loss in agricultural runoff. [ Method] The effect of three kinds of mulch film: plastic film mulching, straw mulching,none mulching on nitrogen and phosphorus loss in agriculture was investigated. [Result]The results showed that: Although mulching increased runoff,reduced the rains washed out planting soil,so the concentration and total loss of nitrogen and phosphorus in runoff was lowered; The land of plastic film mulching add more runoff,but total loss of nitrogen and phosphorus was lowest; The land of straw mulching had a little more total loss of nitrogen and phosphorus then the land of plastic film mulching,but the output of crops was higher then the land of plastic film mulching and none secondarypollutant. [ Conclusion] Straw mulching could reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loss in agricultural runoff, improve the output of crops and no secondarypollutant emission. So straw was a good cultivated ways.%[目的]减少农田氮磷的径流流失.[方法]研究3种不同地膜覆盖:塑料覆盖,桔杆覆盖和无覆盖方式对农田氮磷径流流失的影响.[结果]地膜覆盖增加了径流量,但减少了雨水对种植土壤的冲刷,降低了径流中氮磷的浓度,从而减少了径流中氮磷的流失;塑料薄膜覆盖地块增加的径流较多,但氮磷流失总量最少;桔秆覆盖地块产生的氮磷流失量略大于塑料薄膜覆盖地块,但作物产量高于塑料薄膜地块,同时不会产生二次污染[结论]桔杆地膜覆盖可以减少农田氮磷的径流流失,增加产量,且不产生二次污染,是较好的农作方式.

  19. 7 CFR 58.443 - Whey handling.


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whey handling. 58.443 Section 58.443 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.443 Whey handling. (a) Adequate sanitary facilities shall be provided for the handling of... objectionable odors. (b) Whey or whey products intended for human food shall at all times be handled in a...

  20. 7 CFR 765.151 - Handling payments.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling payments. 765.151 Section 765.151 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-REGULAR Borrower Payments § 765.151 Handling payments. (a) Borrower...

  1. 7 CFR 926.9 - Handle.



  2. 7 CFR 920.11 - Handle.


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 920.11 Section 920.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  3. 7 CFR 955.7 - Handle.


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 955.7 Section 955.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.312 - Handle.


    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.312 Handle. Handle means to harvest, gin, warehouse, compress, purchase, market, transport, or otherwise acquire ownership or control of cotton....

  5. Phytoremediation of agriculture runoff by filamentous algae poly-culture for biomethane production, and nutrient recovery for secondary cultivation of lipid generating microalgae.

    Bohutskyi, Pavlo; Chow, Steven; Ketter, Ben; Fung Shek, Coral; Yacar, Dean; Tang, Yuting; Zivojnovich, Mark; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Bouwer, Edward J


    An integrated system was implemented for water phytoremediation and biofuel production through sequential cultivation of filamentous algae followed by cultivation of lipid-producing microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana. Natural poly-culture of filamentous algae was grown in agricultural stormwater using the Algal Turf Scrubber®, harvested and subjected for lipid extraction and/or methane production using anaerobic digestion (AD). While filamentous algae lipid content was too low for feasible biodiesel production (algae poly-culture was exploited for waste nutrient capturing and biofuel feedstock generation. These nutrients were recovered and reused as a concentrated supplement for potentially high-value microalgae. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Remote sensing based evapotranspiration and runoff modeling of agricultural, forest and urban flux sites in Denmark: From field to macro-scale

    Bøgh, E.; Poulsen, R.N.; Butts, M.


    and most sensitive to the spatial land surface representation. A good agreement was observed in the timing and size of peak flows in catchment dominated by agricultural, forest and urban land uses in periods when E has important control on the water balance and soil water percolation to groundwater...... E modeling, (3) high accuracy remote sensing based estimation of vegetation parameters is particularly important during sparsely vegetated conditions, and (4) the use of component stream flow data to evaluate the physical consistency of spatial-deterministic models appears to be feasible and should...

  7. Grain Handling and Storage Safety

    Webster, Jill, Ph.D.


    Agricultural Health and Safety Fact Sheet AHS-02 Grain Handling and Storage Safety Jill Webster Ph.D., S. Christian Mariger, Graduate Assistant Agricultural Systems Technology and Education There are several hazards that should be considered when working with grain. Storage structures, handling equipment, and the grain itself have all caused serious injuries and deaths. Storage structures (bins, silos, and granaries), like all confined spaces, have significant hazards associated with them. Be...

  8. Kollektiv Handling

    Toubøl, Jonas


    Boganmeldelse af Flemming Ibsen, Laust Høgedahl & Steen Sheuer: Kollektiv Handling. Faglig organisering og skift af fagforening. Nyt fra Samfundsvidenskaberne, Frederiksberg, 2012.......Boganmeldelse af Flemming Ibsen, Laust Høgedahl & Steen Sheuer: Kollektiv Handling. Faglig organisering og skift af fagforening. Nyt fra Samfundsvidenskaberne, Frederiksberg, 2012....

  9. Soils - Potential Runoff

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital spatial data set provides information on the spatial distribution of potential runoff-contributing areas in Kansas. Potential runoff-contributing areas...

  10. Present Situation and Development Trend of Agricultural Heavy Object Handling Machinery%农业重量物装卸机械应用现状及发展趋势

    于路路; 张强; 刘宪军


    This paper analyzed the application and research status of the agricultural heavy object handling machinery widely used both at home and abroad,introduced their characteristics,pointed out the existing problems and forecasted their development trend.%分析了目前国内外普遍采用的重量物装卸机械的应用及研究现状,介绍了它们各自的特点,并指出存在的问题,展望了未来农业重量物装卸机械的发展趋势.

  11. Seasonal detection of atrazine and atzA in man-made waterways receiving agricultural runoff in a subtropical, semi-arid environment (Hidalgo County, Texas, USA).

    Cortez, Ibdanelo; Vitek, Christopher J; Persans, Michael W; Lowe, Kristine L


    Atrazine is a widely-used herbicide that can impact non-target organisms in the environment but can be biologically degraded by several types of microorganisms. In this study, the gene atzA, which encodes for the initial step in bacterially-mediated atrazine degradation, was used as an indicator of atrazine pollution in agricultural canals located in Hidalgo County, Texas, USA. The concentration of atrazine and atzA were monitored once per month for 12 months during 2010-2011. Atrazine was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; atzA abundance was monitored using Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (Q-PCR) analyses. Abundance of atrazine and atzA were compared with rainy versus dry months and during planting versus non-planting months. Results showed that atrazine levels varied from below detection to 0.43 ppb and were not influenced by precipitation or planting season. Concentrations of the gene atzA were significantly different in rainy versus dry months; during planting versus non-planting times of the year; and in the interaction of precipitation and planting season. The highest concentration of atzA, approx. 4.57 × 10(8) gene copies ml(-1), was detected in July 2010-a rainy, planting month in Hidalgo County, South Texas. However, atrazine was below detection during that month. We conclude that Q-PCR using atzA as an indicator gene is a potential method for monitoring low levels of atrazine pollution in environmental samples.

  12. Nonpoint Source: Agriculture

    Agricultural runoff as a nonpoint source category of pollution. Resouces to learn more a bout conservation practices to reduce water quality impacts from storm water run off and ground water infiltration

  13. Modelo hidrológico para estimativa do escoamento superficial em áreas agrícolas A hydrologic model to estimate the surface runoff in agricultural lands

    Fernando F. Pruski


    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se um modelo hidrológico para estimar o escoamento superficial em áreas sob condições agrícolas. O modelo é baseado na análise dos diversos processos associados ao balanço hídrico e nele se usa a equação de intensidade, duração e freqüência da precipitação para estimar a intensidade de precipitação e a equação de Green-Ampt modificada por Mein-Larson, para estimar a velocidade de infiltração permitindo, também, a consideração da interceptação pela cobertura vegetal e do armazenamento de água sobre a superfície do solo por meio de diferentes metodologias. O escoamento superficial começa após a capacidade de armazenamento sobre a superfície do solo ter sido preenchida, e é calculado subtraindo-se a velocidade de infiltração da água no solo da intensidade de precipitação durante o intervalo de tempo em que a intensidade da chuva é maior que a velocidade de infiltração. Resultados de um experimento de validação do modelo e duas aplicações práticas são apresentados, sendo que os resultados obtidos com o modelo foram muito próximos daqueles observados no campo.A hydrologic model was developed to estimate the surface runoff under agricultural conditions. The model is process-based and uses the intensity-duration-frequency equation to calculate the rainfall intensity and the Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson equation to estimate the infiltration rate. The runoff begins after the maximum surface storage on the soil surface has been reached. It is calculated by subtracting the infiltration rate from the rainfall intensity during the interval of time that the rainfall intensity is greater than the infiltration rate. The model also allows the calculation of the deep percolation and the actual soil-water content. Results from a validation experiment and two practical applications of the model are also presented. The results obtained with the model were approximately the same as those observed in the field.

  14. 7 CFR 915.10 - Handle.


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 915.10 Section 915.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... prepared for market. In the event a grower sells his avocados to a handler who is not so registered...

  15. Agricultural Handling and Processing Industries; Data Pertinent to an Evaluation of Overtime Exemptions Available under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Volume II, Appendices.

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Definitions of terms used in the Fair Labor Standards Act and statistical tables compiled from a survey of agricultural processing firms comprise this appendix, which is the second volume of a two volume report. Volume I is available as VT 012 247. (BH)

  16. 7 CFR 97.18 - Applications handled in confidence.


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications handled in confidence. 97.18 Section 97.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... confidence. (a) Pending applications shall be handled in confidence. Except as provided below, no information...

  17. Identification of prevailing storm runoff generation mechanisms in an intensively cultivated catchment

    Zumr David


    Full Text Available The fact that flash floods initiated in arable catchments are often accompanied by massive sediment and nutrient loads often leads to the assumption that surface runoff is the principle pathway by which runoff reaches watercourses. On the basis of an evaluation of several rainfall-runoff events in a representative agricultural catchment, we show that runoff from cultivated land may be generated in a way similar to that seen on forested slopes, where shallow subsurface runoff is the predominant pathway by which runoff makes its way to watercourses in most runoff events. To identify the predominant runoff pathway, we employed a combination of turbidity measurements and stream discharge data. Suspended sediment flux, a newly introduced index representing the ratio between precipitation duration and total sediment yield, and direction of the discharge-turbidity hysteresis loops were proposed as reflective indicators of the frequency of runoff via different pathways.

  18. Using simulated rainfall to evaluate field and indoor surface runoff phosphorus relationships.

    Guidry, A R; Schindler, F V; German, D R; Gelderman, R H; Gerwing, J R


    While numerous studies have evaluated the efficacy of outdoor rainfall simulations to predict P concentrations in surface runoff, few studies have linked indoor rainfall simulations to P concentrations in surface runoff from agricultural fields. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of indoor rainfall simulation to predict total dissolved P concentrations [TP(runoff for four dominant agricultural soils in South Dakota. Surface runoff from 10 residue-free field plots (2 m wide by 2 m long, 2-3% slope) and packed soil boxes (1 m long by 20 cm wide by 7.5 cm high, 2-3% slope) was compared. Surface runoff was generated via rainfall simulation at an intensity of 65 mm h(-1) and was collected for 30 min. Packed boxes produced approximately 24% more runoff (range = 2.8-3.4 cm) than field plots (range = 2.3-2.7 cm) among all soils. No statistical differences in either TP(runoff from packed boxes and field plots among soil series (0.17 runoff from field plots can be predicted from TP(runoff from the packed boxes (0.68 runoff using surface runoff TP(runoff can adequately predict TP(runoff for select soils.

  19. Handling Metalloproteinases.

    Fridrich, Sven; Karmilin, Konstantin; Stöcker, Walter


    Substrate cleavage by metalloproteinases involves nucleophilic attack on the scissile peptide bond by a water molecule that is polarized by a catalytic metal, usually a zinc ion, and a general base, usually the carboxyl group of a glutamic acid side chain. The zinc ion is most often complexed by imidazole nitrogens of histidine side chains. This arrangement suggests that the physiological pH optimum of most metalloproteinases is in the neutral range. In addition to their catalytic metal ion, many metalloproteinases contain additional transition metal or alkaline earth ions, which are structurally important or modulate the catalytic activity. As a consequence, these enzymes are generally sensitive to metal chelators. Moreover, the catalytic metal can be displaced by adventitious metal ions from buffers or biological fluids, which may fundamentally alter the catalytic function. Therefore, handling, purification, and assaying of metalloproteinases require specific precautions to warrant their stability. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Agricultural handling and natural radionuclide contents on vegetables cultivated at Rio de Janeiro; Manejo agricola e teores de radionuclideos naturais em vegetais cultivados no Rio de Janeiro

    Ribeiro, Fernando Carlos Araujo


    The food consumption is an important way of internal exposition of human beings to ionizing radiation. The chemical fertilizers, mainly the phosphate, may contain uranium and thorium and their decay radioactive products in significant levels. This way, the amount of natural radionuclides in vegetables can increase as well as the dose due to food consumption to consumers. This research aims to investigate the level of radionuclides in vegetables which were grown under different tillages and to obtain information about radionuclides concentrations in Brazilian fertilizers as well as it aims to get data of transfer factors for vegetables cultivated in Brazil. In the phosphate fertilizer samples, the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra varied from 35 to 430{sup -1}, whereas the {sup 228}Ra concentrations ranged from 32 to 176{sup -1}. Among the phosphate fertilizers, the highest radium concentrations were found in the super phosphate one. The values of radium concentrations in organic fertilizers varied from 14 to 51{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and from 34 to 142{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra. Among these fertilizers the highest concentrations were found in bovine manure Significant statistical differences were not observed between the concentration of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in the vegetables cultivated in conventional tillage and the ones cultivated in organic tillage. The same was observed for the soil-to-plant transfer factors, whose values were 2.56 E-02 for {sup 226}Ra and 3.56 E-02 for {sup 228}Ra for the bean crop, 3.74 E-02 for {sup 226}Ra and 4.74 E-02 for {sup 228}Ra to lettuce crop. For carrot, the {sup 226}Ra transfer factor value for the two tillages was 5.79 E-02, while the value for {sup 228}Ra in the organic tillage (1.14 E-01) was higher than the value observed in the conventional tillages (3.94 E-02). For the culture of the bean, the values of concentration found in the samples of the subsistence handling had been inferior to the values

  1. Kresoxim methyl deposition, drift and runoff in a vineyard catchment.

    Lefrancq, M; Imfeld, G; Payraudeau, S; Millet, M


    Surface runoff and spray drift represent a primary mode of pesticide mobilisation from agricultural land to ecosystem. Though pesticide drift has mainly been studied at small scale (inverse weighting distance and ordinary kriging) and ranged between 53 g and 61 g (5.8 and 6.6% of the total mass applied). The amount of KM drifted on roads was 50 times larger than that in runoff water collected at the outlet of the catchment. Although KM application was carried out under regular operational and climatic conditions, its deposition on non-target surfaces may be significant and lead to pesticide runoff. These results can be anticipated as a starting point for assessing pesticide deposition during spray application and corresponding pesticide runoff in agricultural catchments.

  2. 9 CFR 3.19 - Handling.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.19 Section 3.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs...

  3. 9 CFR 3.41 - Handling.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.41 Section 3.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  4. 9 CFR 3.92 - Handling.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.92 Section 3.92 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  5. 9 CFR 3.66 - Handling.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.66 Section 3.66 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of...

  6. 7 CFR 1219.11 - Handle.


    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.11 Handle. Handle means to pack, process, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause Hass...

  7. Separation of drainage runoff during rainfall-runoff episodes using the stable isotope method and drainage water temperature

    Zajíček, Antonín; Kvítek, Tomáš; Pomije, Tomáš


    Stabile isotopes of 2H 18O and drainage water temperature were used as natural tracers for separation rainfall-runoff event hydrograph on several tile drained catchments located in Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic. Small agricultural catchments with drainage systems built in slopes are typical for foothill areas in the Czech and Moravian highland. Often without permanent surface runoff, the drainage systems represent an important portion of runoff and nitrogen leaching out of the catchment. The knowledge of the drainage runoff formation and the origin of its components are prerequisites for formulation of measures leading to improvement of the drainage water quality and reduction of nutrient leaching from the drained catchments. The results have proved presence of event water in the drainage runoff during rainfall-runoff events. The proportion of event water observed in the drainage runoff varied between 15 - 60 % in the summer events and 0 - 50 % in winter events, while the sudden water temperature change was between 0,1 - 4,2 °C (2 - 35 %). The comparison of isotope separation of the drainage runoff and monitoring the drainage water temperature have demonstrated that in all cases of event water detected in the runoff, a rapid change in the drainage water temperature was observed as well. The portion of event water in the runoff grows with the growing change in water temperature. Using component mixing model, it was demonstrated that water temperature can be successfully used at least as a qualitative and with some degree of inaccuracy as a quantitative tracer as well. The drawback of the non-conservative character of this tracer is compensated by both its economic and technical accessibility. The separation results also resemble results of separations at small streams. Together with a similarly high speed of the discharge reaction to beginning of precipitation, it is obvious that the mechanism of surface runoff formation and drainage runoff formation

  8. Real Time Updating in Distributed Urban Rainfall Runoff Modelling

    Borup, Morten; Madsen, Henrik

    When it rains on urban areas the rainfall runoff is transported out of the city via the drainage system. Frequently, the drainage system cannot handle all the rain water, which results in problems like flooding or overflows into natural water bodies. To reduce these problems the systems...

  9. Regulating phosphorus from the agricultural sector

    Hansen, Line Block; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Rubæk, Gitte Holton


    do not take into account the importance of P already stored in the soils. Phosphorus stored in the soils is the major source of P losses to surface waters, but at the same time crucial for the soils ability to sustain a viable crop production. Even if measures on P losses from agricultural areas...... could be obtained, such measures may not truly reflect stocks and hence potential risks associated with eg erosion, run-off or climate change. This calls for a method which handles the continuous supply of P to the soils (the current flow effect), P accumulated in the soil (a stock effect......) and the interactions between these two sources. In this paper such a model is outlined and discussed....

  10. [Agricultural products handling: methods of feasibility evaluation].

    Scott, G J; Herrera, J E


    Post-harvest problems are important constraints to the expansion of production of food in many Latin American countries. Besides problems of bulkiness, perishability and seasonal production patterns, the necessity of reducing transportation costs, increasing rural employment, and finding new markets for processed products, requires the development of processing technologies. Possible processed products include a vast range of alternatives. Given limited time and resources, it is not always feasible to carry out detailed studies. Hence a practical, low-cost methodology is needed to evaluate the available options. This paper presents a series of methods to evaluate different processing possibilities. It describes in detail each method including a rapid initial assessment, market and consumer research, farm-oriented research, costs and returns analysis and finally, some marketing and promotion strategies.


    Runoff samples were collected from 5 experimental green roof test plots on small buildings at the Center for Green Roof Research at Rock Springs, PA during the period from January 2005 through May 2006. Samples were either analyzed in-house for pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), T...

  12. The power of runoff

    Wörman, A.; Lindström, G.; Riml, J.


    Although the potential energy of surface water is a small part of Earth's energy budget, this highly variable physical property is a key component in the terrestrial hydrologic cycle empowering geomorphological and hydrological processes throughout the hydrosphere. By downscaling of the daily hydrometeorological data acquired in Sweden over the last half-century this study quantifies the spatial and temporal distribution of the dominating energy components in terrestrial hydrology, including the frictional resistance in surface water and groundwater as well as hydropower. The energy consumed in groundwater circulation was found to be 34.6 TWh/y or a heat production of approximately 13% of the geothermal heat flux. Significant climate driven, periodic fluctuations in the power of runoff, stream flows and groundwater circulation were revealed that have not previously been documented. We found that the runoff power ranged from 173 to 260 TWh/y even when averaged over the entire surface of Sweden in a five-year moving window. We separated short-term fluctuations in runoff due to precipitation filtered through the watershed from longer-term seasonal and climate driven modes. Strong climate driven correlations between the power of runoff and climate indices, wind and solar intensity were found over periods of 3.6 and 8 years. The high covariance that we found between the potential energy of surface water and wind energy implies significant challenges for the combination of these renewable energy sources.

  13. 7 CFR 322.26 - Inspection and handling.


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and handling. 322.26 Section 322.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Transit...

  14. Pérdidas de Glifosato por Drenaje y Escurrimiento en Mol¡soles bajo Siembra Directa Glyphosate losses by drainage and runoff from Mollisois under no-till agriculture

    María C Sasal


    Full Text Available Se ha cuantificado las pérdidas de glifosato por drenaje y escurrimiento y su translocación hacia el grano en soja transgénica sembrada en Molisoles representativos de la Pampa Ondulada argentina bajo siembra directa. Se utilizaron 3 lisímetros (Argiudol típico y 3 parcelas de escorrentía (Argiudol ácuico ubicados en las Estaciones Experimentales del Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria de Pergamino y Paraná, respectivamente. El glifosato aplicado antes de la siembra se detectó en el agua de drenaje mientras que la aplicación de post-emergencia fue detectada en el grano. Se registraron máximos de elevadas concentraciones de glifosato en el agua de drenaje y escurrimiento (-10 ug L"¹. Sin embargo, la cantidad de glifosato que salió del sistema representó menos del 0,03 y 0,6% de las cantidades aplicadas, respectivamente. Se observó elevada variabilidad de las concentraciones de glifosato en todos los compartimentos analizados.Glyphosate losses by drainage and runoff from no-till-soybean-cultivated Molisolls representative of the Argentinean Rolling Pampas and its translocation in transgenic soybean biomass have been determined. Three lisymeters (Typic Argiudoll and 3 runoff plots (Aquic Argiudoll located in the Experimental Stations of the National Institute of Farming Technology of Pergamino y Paraná, respectively, were used. Glyphosate applied before sowing was detected in drainage water and the post-emergence application was detected in grains with small and variable concentrations. Peaks of glyphosate concentrations in drainage and runoff water were registered after important rain events (-10 ug L"¹. However, the amount of glyphosate lost throughout the study period was lower than 0.03 and 0.6% of the amounts applied, respectively. High variability of Glyphosate concentrations was found in all compartments analyzed.

  15. Pontos de abastecimento de pulverizadores agrícolas: uma revisão comparando os modelos em uso Agricultural chemical handling pads: a review comparing the models in use

    Luciano Gebler


    Full Text Available Pontos de abastecimento de pulverizadores são locais destinados ao preparo das caldas agroquímicas e carregamento de equipamentos de pulverização agrícola, classificados pela legislação ambiental e trabalhista como equipamento de segurança ambiental. Há suficiente bibliografia técnica que recomenda e descreve os processos construtivos e de manejo de tais locais, mas há pouca clareza sobre como se chegou a esta forma consensual, aliado ao pouco embasamento científico de seus benefícios e riscos agregados. Alguns aspectos como impermeabilização, constituição do material, manejo do piso e dos resíduos de agroquímicos, interferem na capacidade de evitar que os possíveis contaminantes atinjam o solo e as águas, interferindo no descarte final. Aspectos funcionais ainda carecem de respostas, como a possibilidade do piso reter e armazenar o contaminante e se tornar um emissor a longo prazo, a definição do tempo de vida útil do equipamento, dentre outros. Recentemente houve avanços na filosofia construtiva dos pontos de abastecimento de pulverizadores, com a introdução da remediação de resíduos in situ, através da biodegradação, ganhando denominações, como biobeds, dentre outras. O objetivo desta revisão é discutir as diferentes formas de pisos e manejo nestes locais, seus riscos e a possibilidade de se tornarem um passivo ambiental.Sprayers handling pads, among other designations, are described as sites intended for the preparation of pesticides and load of agricultural pulverization equipments. By the environmental and labour legislation, these points are seen as environmental security equipment in the rural surroundings (environment. There is enough technical bibliography that describes the constructive and handling processes of such sites, but there is insufficient clarity about how this consensual manner was reached, with little scientific basis about its collective advantages and risks. Some aspects such as the

  16. The impact of soil compaction on runoff - a meta analysis

    Rogger, Magdalena; Blöschl, Günter


    Soil compaction caused by intensive agricultural practices is known to influence runoff processes at the local scale and is often speculated to have an impact on flood events at much larger scales. Due to the complex and diverse mechanisms related to soil compaction, the key processes influencing runoff at different scales are still poorly understood. The impacts of soil compaction are, however, not only investigated by hydrologists, but also by agricultural scientists since changes in the soil structure and water availability have a direct impact on agricultural yield. Results from these studies are also of interest to hydrologists. This study presents a meta analysis of such agricultural studies with the aim to analyse and bring together the results related to runoff processes. The study identifies the most important parameters used to describe soil compaction effects and compares the observed impacts under different climatic and soil conditions. The specific type of agricultural practice causing the soil compaction is also taken into account. In a further step the results of this study shall be used to derive a toy model for scenario analysis in order to identify the potential impacts of soil compaction on runoff processes at larger scales then the plot scale.

  17. 7 CFR 923.322 - Washington cherry handling regulation.


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington cherry handling regulation. 923.322 Section... CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Grade, Size, Container and Pack Regulation § 923.322 Washington cherry handling regulation. (a) Grade. No handler shall...

  18. Do upslope impervious surfaces impact the run-on/runoff relationship?

    Development of watersheds previously managed for agricultural uses for commercial and residential uses results in the replacement of pervious soil surfaces with impervious surfaces. Characteristics of runoff generated on new upslope impervious surfaces may differ from runoff generated on the predeve...

  19. Using aquatic vegetation to remediate nitrate, ammonium, and soluble reactive phosphorus in simulated runoff

    Within the agriculturally-intensive Mississippi River Basin of the United States, significant conservation efforts have focused on management practices that reduce nutrient runoff into receiving aquatic ecosystems. Only a small fraction of those efforts have focused on phytoremediation techniques. ...

  20. The runoff declining process and water quality in songhuajiang river catchment, China under global climatic change

    Mu, Xingmin; Gao, Peng; Wang, Fei [Northwest A and F University, Yangling (China); Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yangling (China); Li, Ying [Northwest A and F University, Yangling (China); Shao, Hongbo [The CAS/Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Costal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yantai (China); Institute for Life Sciences, Qingdao University of Science and Technology (QUST), Qingdao (China)


    The runoff in Songhuajiang River catchment has experienced a decreasing trend during the second half of the 20th century. Serially complete daily rainfall data of 42 rainfall stations from 1959 to 2002 and daily runoff data of five meteorological stations from 1953 to 2005 were obtained. The Mann-Kendall trend test and the sequential version of Mann-Kendall test were employed in this study to test the monthly and annual trends for both rainfall and runoff, to determine the start point of abrupt runoff declining, and to identify the main driving factors of runoff decline. The results showed an insignificant increasing trend in rainfall but a significant decreasing trend in runoff in the catchment. For the five meteorological stations, abrupt runoff decline occurred during 1957-1963 and the middle 1990s. Through Mann-Kendall comparisons for the area-rainfall and runoff for the two decreasing periods, human activity, rather than climatic change, is identified as the main driving factor of runoff decline. Analysis of land use/cover shows that farmland is most related with runoff decline among all the land use/cover change in Nenjiang catchment. From 1986 to 1995, the area of farmland increased rapidly from 6.99 to 7.61 million hm{sup 2}. Hydraulic engineering has a significant influence on the runoff decline in the second Songhuajiang catchment. Many large-scale reservoirs and hydropower stations have been built in the upstream of the Second Songhuajiang and lead to the runoff decline. Nenjiang and the Second Songhuajiang are the two sources of mainstream of Songhuajiang. Decreased runoff in these two sub-catchments then results in runoff decrease in mainstream of Songhuajiang catchment. It is, therefore, concluded that high percent agricultural land and hydraulic engineering are the most probable driving factors of runoff decline in Songhuajiang River catchment, China. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)


    J. D. Bigbee


    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

  2. Cd Runoff Load and Soil Profile Movement After Implementation of Some Typical Contaminated Agricultural Soil Remediation Strategies%几种修复措施对 Cd 淋失及土壤剖面运移影响

    刘孝利; 曾昭霞; 铁柏清; 陈求稳; 魏祥东


    Phytoremediation methods on soil available Cd dynamics in rainfall runoff and the mobility along soil profile, under both natural acid precipitation and acid soil conditions. The results showed that, biochar addition at a 2% mass ratio application amount significantly increased soil pH, while ramie with EDTA application obviously decreased soil pH compared to ramie monoculture. Within the same rainfall events, water soluble Cd concentration in surface runoff of ramie treatments was significantly higher than those of waterlogged rice treatments, and Cd concentration in runoff was obviously increased after EDTA addition, whereas lime at a 0. 3% mass ratio application amount as additive had no obvious impact on soil pH and Cd speciation change, which may be due to the low application amount. During the whole experimental period, water soluble Cd concentration of rainfall runoff in spring was higher than that in summer, showing the same seasonal characteristics in all treatments. Biochar addition could significantly decrease available Cd content in 0-20 cm soil layer and with certain preferable persistency effects, whereas EDTA addition treatment obviously increased available Cd of 0-20 cm soil layer compared to other treatments, and obvious Cd element activation phenomenon in 20-40 cm soil layer was observed after EDTA addition. In conclusion, lime and biochar as environmental and friendly alkaline Cd immobilization materials showed lower environment risk to surface and ground receiving water, but attention should be paid to phytoremediation enhanced with EDTA or other organic acid before promotion and field application for heavy metals removal from contaminated soils.

  3. Handling sharps and needles

    ... this page: // Handling sharps and needles To use the sharing features ... Health Administration. OSHA fact sheet: protecting yourself when handling contaminated sharps. Updated January 2011. Available at: www. ...

  4. Bivariate Rainfall and Runoff Analysis Using Entropy and Copula Theories

    Lan Zhang


    Full Text Available Multivariate hydrologic frequency analysis has been widely studied using: (1 commonly known joint distributions or copula functions with the assumption of univariate variables being independently identically distributed (I.I.D. random variables; or (2 directly applying the entropy theory-based framework. However, for the I.I.D. univariate random variable assumption, the univariate variable may be considered as independently distributed, but it may not be identically distributed; and secondly, the commonly applied Pearson’s coefficient of correlation (g is not able to capture the nonlinear dependence structure that usually exists. Thus, this study attempts to combine the copula theory with the entropy theory for bivariate rainfall and runoff analysis. The entropy theory is applied to derive the univariate rainfall and runoff distributions. It permits the incorporation of given or known information, codified in the form of constraints and results in a universal solution of univariate probability distributions. The copula theory is applied to determine the joint rainfall-runoff distribution. Application of the copula theory results in: (i the detection of the nonlinear dependence between the correlated random variables-rainfall and runoff, and (ii capturing the tail dependence for risk analysis through joint return period and conditional return period of rainfall and runoff. The methodology is validated using annual daily maximum rainfall and the corresponding daily runoff (discharge data collected from watersheds near Riesel, Texas (small agricultural experimental watersheds and Cuyahoga River watershed, Ohio.

  5. Runoff simulation sensitivity to remotely sensed initial soil water content

    Goodrich, D. C.; Schmugge, T. J.; Jackson, T. J.; Unkrich, C. L.; Keefer, T. O.; Parry, R.; Bach, L. B.; Amer, S. A.


    A variety of aircraft remotely sensed and conventional ground-based measurements of volumetric soil water content (SW) were made over two subwatersheds (4.4 and 631 ha) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service Walnut Gulch experimental watershed during the 1990 monsoon season. Spatially distributed soil water contents estimated remotely from the NASA push broom microwave radiometer (PBMR), an Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics (IRE) multifrequency radiometer, and three ground-based point methods were used to define prestorm initial SW for a distributed rainfall-runoff model (KINEROS; Woolhiser et al., 1990) at a small catchment scale (4.4 ha). At a medium catchment scale (631 ha or 6.31 km2) spatially distributed PBMR SW data were aggregated via stream order reduction. The impacts of the various spatial averages of SW on runoff simulations are discussed and are compared to runoff simulations using SW estimates derived from a simple daily water balance model. It was found that at the small catchment scale the SW data obtained from any of the measurement methods could be used to obtain reasonable runoff predictions. At the medium catchment scale, a basin-wide remotely sensed average of initial water content was sufficient for runoff simulations. This has important implications for the possible use of satellite-based microwave soil moisture data to define prestorm SW because the low spatial resolutions of such sensors may not seriously impact runoff simulations under the conditions examined. However, at both the small and medium basin scale, adequate resources must be devoted to proper definition of the input rainfall to achieve reasonable runoff simulations.

  6. Determination of Curve Number for snowmelt-runoff floods in a small catchment

    Hejduk, L.; Hejduk, A.; Banasik, K.


    One of the widely used methods for predicting flood runoff depth from ungauged catchments is the curve number (CN) method, developed by Soil Conservation Service (SCS) of US Department of Agriculture. The CN parameter can be computed directly from recorded rainfall depths and direct runoff volumes in case of existing data. In presented investigations, the CN parameter has been computed for snowmelt-runoff events based on snowmelt and rainfall measurements. All required data has been gathered for a small agricultural catchment (A = 23.4 km2) of Zagożdżonka river, located in Central Poland. The CN number received from 28 snowmelt-runoff events has been compared with CN computed from rainfall-runoff events for the same catchment. The CN parameter, estimated empirically varies from 64.0 to 94.8. The relation between CN and snowmelt depth was investigated in a similar procedure to relation between CN and rainfall depth.

  7. Effects of Grass Hedges and No-tillage Practice Oil the Removing of Typical Agricultural Non-point Source Pollutants from Runoff%免耕和草篱措施对径流中典型农业面源污染物的去除效果

    李霞; 陶梅; 肖波; 王庆海; 陈建平


    Chemical fertilizer and herbicide are widely used in agricultural production. These chemical substances not only significantly increase crop yields but also result in serious water pollution. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of three practices (no-tillage, grass hedges, no-tillage and grass hedges) on the loss of nitrogen, phosphorus and atrazine with runoff. The results showed that no-tillage and grass hedges significantly reduced agricultural non-point source pollution. As compared to the control, the total nitrogen, total phosphorus and atrazine loss in the plots with no-tillage were decreased by 53%, 51% and 56%, respectively; reductions by the grass hedges were 68%, 61% and 90%, respectively; the decreases due to no-tillage and grass hedges were 77%, 76% and 92%, respectively. Moreover, the regression results showed that the losses of nitrogen, phosphorus and atrazine with runoff were positively correlated to the surface runoff. From these results could be concluded that both of no-tillage and grass hedges could significantly reduce nitrogen, phosphorus and atrazine loss with runoff, and the integration of these two practices was proved to be much more effective than their individual effects.%大量施用农业化学物质在提高作物产量的同时,也导致了严重的水体污染.在北京地区不同坡度的径流小区上,通过人工模拟降雨试验,研究免耕、草篱、以及免耕与草篱复合3种措施对农田径流中氮、磷、阿特拉津3种典型农业面源污染物的去除效果.结果表明:免耕措施可减少53%的总氮、51%的总磷和56%的阿特拉津流失;草篱措施可减少68%的总氮、61%的总磷和90%的阿特拉津流失;而免耕与草篱复合措施可减少77%的总氮、76%的总磷和92%的阿特拉津流失.另外,总氯、总磷和阿特拉津流失量均与径流量呈显著的线性正相关关系.本研究证实,免耕和草篱措施均能有效防止氮、磷以及阿特拉津随农

  8. 7 CFR 915.141 - Handling avocados for commercial processing into products.


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling avocados for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Rules and Regulations § 915.141 Handling avocados for commercial processing into products. (a) No person shall handle any avocados for commercial processing into...

  9. Designing hybrid grass genomes to control runoff generation

    MacLeod, C.; Binley, A.; Humphreys, M.; King, I. P.; O'Donovan, S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Turner, L. B.; Watts, C.; Whalley, W. R.; Haygarth, P.


    Sustainable management of water in landscapes requires balancing demands of agricultural production whilst moderating downstream effects like flooding. Pasture comprises 69% of global agricultural areas and is essential for producing food and fibre alongside environmental goods and services. Thus there is a need to breed forage grasses that deliver multiple benefits through increased levels of productivity whilst moderating fluxes of water. Here we show that a novel grass hybrid that combines the entire genomes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne - the grass of choice for Europe’s forage agriculture) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) has a significant role in flood prevention. Field plot experiments established differences in runoff generation with the hybrid cultivar reducing runoff by 50% compared to perennial ryegrass cultivar, and by 35% compared to a meadow fescue cultivar (34 events over two years, replicated randomized-block design, statistically significant differences). This important research outcome was the result of a project that combined plant genetics, soil physics and plot scale hydrology to identify novel grass genotypes that can reduce runoff from grassland systems. Through a coordinated series of experiments examining effects from the gene to plot scale, we have identified that the rapid growth and then turnover of roots in the L. perenne x F. pratensis hybrid is likely to be a key mechanism in reducing runoff generation. More broadly this is an exciting first step to realizing the potential to design grass genomes to achieve both food production, and to deliver flood control, a key ecosystem service.

  10. Runoff inundation hazard cartography

    Pineux, N.; Degré, A.


    Between 1998 and 2004, Europe suffered from more than hundred major inundations, responsible for some 700 deaths, for the moving of about half a million of people and the economic losses of at least 25 billions Euros covered by the insurance policies. Within this context, EU launched the 2007/60/CE directive. The inundations are natural phenomenon. They cannot be avoided. Nevertheless this directive permits to better evaluate the risks and to coordinate the management measures taken at member states level. In most countries, inundation maps only include rivers' overflowing. In Wallonia, overland flows and mudflows also cause huge damages, and must be included in the flood hazard map. Indeed, the cleaning operations for a village can lead to an estimated cost of 11 000 €. Average construction cost of retention dams to control off-site damage caused by floods and muddy flows was valued at 380 000€, and yearly dredging costs associated with these retention ponds at 15 000€. For a small city for which a study was done in a more specific way (Gembloux), the mean annual cost for the damages that can generate the runoff is about 20 000€. This cost consists of the physical damages caused to the real estate and movable properties of the residents as well as the emergency operations of the firemen and the city. On top of damages to public infrastructure (clogging of trenches, silting up of retention ponds) and to private property by muddy flows, runoff generates a significant loss of arable land. Yet, the soil resource is not an unlimited commodity. Moreover, sediments' transfer to watercourses alters their physical and chemical quality. And that is not to mention the increased psychological stress for people. But to map overland flood and mud flow hazard is a real challenge. This poster will present the methodology used to in Wallonia. The methodology is based on 3 project rainfalls: 25, 50 and 100 years return period (consistency with the cartography of the

  11. Feedstock storage, handling and processing

    Egg, R.P.; Coble, C.G.; Engler, C.R. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Lewis, D.H. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology)


    This paper is a review of the technology and research covering components of a methane from biomass system between the field and the digester. It deals primarily with sorghum as a feedstock and focuses on research conducted by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. Subjects included in this paper are harvesting, hay storage, ansiling, materials handling, pumping and hydraulic characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, pressure/density relationship, and biological pretreatment. This paper is not a comprehensive design manual; however, design equations and coefficients for sorghum are presented, where available, along with references describing the development and application of design models. (author)

  12. Rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments: an important source of water pollution.

    Frey, S K; Gottschall, N; Wilkes, G; Grégoire, D S; Topp, E; Pintar, K D M; Sunohara, M; Marti, R; Lapen, D R


    When surface water levels decline, exposed streambed sediments can be mobilized and washed into the water course when subjected to erosive rainfall. In this study, rainfall simulations were conducted over exposed sediments along stream banks at four distinct locations in an agriculturally dominated river basin with the objective of quantifying the potential for contaminant loading from these often overlooked runoff source areas. At each location, simulations were performed at three different sites. Nitrogen, phosphorus, sediment, fecal indicator bacteria, pathogenic bacteria, and microbial source tracking (MST) markers were examined in both prerainfall sediments and rainfall-induced runoff water. Runoff generation and sediment mobilization occurred quickly (10-150 s) after rainfall initiation. Temporal trends in runoff concentrations were highly variable within and between locations. Total runoff event loads were considered large for many pollutants considered. For instance, the maximum observed total phosphorus runoff load was on the order of 1.5 kg ha. Results also demonstrate that runoff from exposed sediments can be a source of pathogenic bacteria. spp. and spp. were present in runoff from one and three locations, respectively. Ruminant MST markers were also present in runoff from two locations, one of which hosted pasturing cattle with stream access. Overall, this study demonstrated that rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments can be an important source of surface water pollution.

  13. A protocol for conducting rainfall simulation to study soil runoff.

    Kibet, Leonard C; Saporito, Louis S; Allen, Arthur L; May, Eric B; Kleinman, Peter J A; Hashem, Fawzy M; Bryant, Ray B


    Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff.

  14. Robust ASPNET Exception Handling

    Dumond, Lee


    This Wrox Blox will teach you how to unravel the mysteries of exception handling in ASP.NET.   First, you'll get a thorough introduction to structured exception handling in the .NET Framework, learn about the Exception class, the related C# language constructs, and how exceptions propagate up the call stack. Then, you'll delve into a variety of practical topics such as: when, where, and how to properly throw, catch, and handle exceptions in your code; how to employ "defensive programming" techniques to avoid triggering the most common CLR exceptions; adopting exception handling "best practices

  15. Evaluation of fish handling techniques employed by artisanal fishers ...

    Evaluation of fish handling techniques employed by artisanal fishers on quality of ... genera at landing time along the Kenyan coast using sensory and microbiological methods. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development.

  16. Evaluation of Rainfall-Runoff Models for Mediterranean Subcatchments

    Cilek, A.; Berberoglu, S.; Donmez, C.


    The development and the application of rainfall-runoff models have been a corner-stone of hydrological research for many decades. The amount of rainfall and its intensity and variability control the generation of runoff and the erosional processes operating at different scales. These interactions can be greatly variable in Mediterranean catchments with marked hydrological fluctuations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of rainfall-runoff model, for rainfall-runoff simulation in a Mediterranean subcatchment. The Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA), a simplified hydrological process-based approach, was used in this study to combine hydrological surface runoff factors. In total 128 input layers derived from data set includes; climate, topography, land use, crop type, planting date, and soil characteristics, are required to run the model. Initial ground cover was estimated from the Landsat ETM data provided by ESA. This hydrological model was evaluated in terms of their performance in Goksu River Watershed, Turkey. It is located at the Central Eastern Mediterranean Basin of Turkey. The area is approximately 2000 km2. The landscape is dominated by bare ground, agricultural and forests. The average annual rainfall is 636.4mm. This study has a significant importance to evaluate different model performances in a complex Mediterranean basin. The results provided comprehensive insight including advantages and limitations of modelling approaches in the Mediterranean environment.


    A. Cilek


    Full Text Available The development and the application of rainfall-runoff models have been a corner-stone of hydrological research for many decades. The amount of rainfall and its intensity and variability control the generation of runoff and the erosional processes operating at different scales. These interactions can be greatly variable in Mediterranean catchments with marked hydrological fluctuations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of rainfall-runoff model, for rainfall-runoff simulation in a Mediterranean subcatchment. The Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA, a simplified hydrological process-based approach, was used in this study to combine hydrological surface runoff factors. In total 128 input layers derived from data set includes; climate, topography, land use, crop type, planting date, and soil characteristics, are required to run the model. Initial ground cover was estimated from the Landsat ETM data provided by ESA. This hydrological model was evaluated in terms of their performance in Goksu River Watershed, Turkey. It is located at the Central Eastern Mediterranean Basin of Turkey. The area is approximately 2000 km2. The landscape is dominated by bare ground, agricultural and forests. The average annual rainfall is 636.4mm. This study has a significant importance to evaluate different model performances in a complex Mediterranean basin. The results provided comprehensive insight including advantages and limitations of modelling approaches in the Mediterranean environment.

  18. 9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling of animals. 2.131 Section 2.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.131 Handling of animals. (a) All licensees who maintain...

  19. Socialanalyse og handling

    Henriksen, Kirsten; Alminde, Rikke; Stevnsgaard Andersen, Mona

    Social analyse og handling er et redskab beregnet til at inspirere socialarbejdere til at arbejde analytisk, systematisk samt refleksivt med konkrete problemstillinger i socialt arbejde.......Social analyse og handling er et redskab beregnet til at inspirere socialarbejdere til at arbejde analytisk, systematisk samt refleksivt med konkrete problemstillinger i socialt arbejde....

  20. Practices of Handling

    Ræbild, Ulla

    area within fashion research. This paper proposes an understanding of the work process of fashion designers as practices of handling comprising a number of embodied methodologies tied to both spatial and temporal dimensions. The term handling encompasses four meanings. As a verb it is literally...... to touch, pick up, carry, or feel with the hands. Figuratively it is to manage, deal with, direct, train, or control. Additionally, as a noun, a handle is something by which we grasp or open up something. Lastly, handle also has a Nordic root, here meaning to trade, bargain or deal. Together all four...... meanings seem to merge in the fashion design process, thus opening up for an embodied engagement with matter that entails direction giving, organizational management and negotiation. By seeing processes of handling as a key fashion methodological practice, it is possible to divert the discourse away from...

  1. Phosphorus losses in simulated rainfall runoff from manured soils of Alberta.

    Volf, Callie A; Ontkean, Gerald R; Bennett, D Rodney; Chanasyk, David S; Miller, Jim J


    Manure applied to agricultural land at rates that exceed annual crop nutrient requirements can be a source of phosphorus in runoff. Manure incorporation is often recommended to reduce phosphorus losses in runoff. A small plot rainfall simulation study was conducted at three sites in Alberta to evaluate the effects of manure rate and incorporation on phosphorus losses. Treatments consisted of three solid beef cattle manure application rates (50, 100, and 200 kg ha(-1) total phosphorus), an unmanured control, and two incorporation methods (nonincorporated and incorporated with one pass of a double disk). Simulated rain was applied to soils with freshly applied and residual (1 yr after application) manure at 70 mm h(-1) to produce 30 min of runoff. Soil test phosphorus (STP), total phosphorus (TP), and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) concentrations in runoff increased with manure rate for fresh and residual manure. Initial abstraction and runoff volumes did not change with manure rate. Initial abstraction, runoff volumes, and phosphorus concentrations did not change with manure incorporation at Lacombe and Wilson, but initial abstraction volumes increased and runoff volumes and phosphorus concentrations decreased with incorporation of fresh manure at Beaverlodge. Phosphorus losses in runoff were directly related to phosphorus additions. Extraction coefficients (slopes of the regression lines) for the linear relationships between residual manure STP and phosphorus in runoff were 0.007 to 0.015 for runoff TP and 0.006 to 0.013 for runoff DRP. While incorporation of manure with a double disk had no significant effect on phosphorus losses in runoff from manure-amended soils 1 yr after application, incorporation of manure is still recommended to control nitrogen losses, improve crop nutrient uptake, and potentially reduce odor concerns.

  2. Highway runoff quality in Ireland.

    Berhanu Desta, Mesfin; Bruen, Michael; Higgins, Neil; Johnston, Paul


    Highway runoff has been identified as a significant source of contaminants that impact on the receiving aquatic environment. Several studies have been completed documenting the characteristics of highway runoff and its implication to the receiving water in the UK and elsewhere. However, very little information is available for Ireland. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of highway runoff from major Irish roads under the current road drainage design and maintenance practice. Four sites were selected from the M4 and the M7 motorways outside Dublin. Automatic samplers and continuous monitoring devices were deployed to sample and monitor the runoff quality and quantity. More than 42 storm events were sampled and analysed for the heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, 16 US EPA specified PAHs, volatile organic compounds including MTBE, and a number of conventional pollutants. All samples were analysed based on the Standard Methods. Significant quantities of solids and heavy metals were detected at all sites. PAHs were not detected very often, but when detected the values were different from quantities observed in UK highways. The heavy metal concentrations were strongly related to the total suspended solids concentrations, which has a useful implication for runoff management strategies. No strong relationship was discovered between pollutant concentrations and event characteristics such as rainfall intensity, antecedent dry days (ADD), or rainfall depth (volume). This study has demonstrated that runoff from Irish motorways was not any cleaner than in the UK although the traffic volume at the monitored sites was relatively smaller. This calls for a site specific investigation of highway runoff quality before adopting a given management strategy.

  3. 75 FR 43042 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Temporary Change to the Handling Regulations and Reporting...


    ... Washington potatoes enter the fresh market, thereby ensuring consumer satisfaction, increased sales, and... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 946 Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Temporary Change to the Handling Regulations and Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...

  4. CHR -- Character Handling Routines

    Charles, A. C.; Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Jenness, T.

    This document describes the Character Handling Routine library, CHR, and its use. The CHR library augments the limited character handling facilities provided by the Fortran 77 standard. It offers a range of character handling facilities: from formatting Fortran data types into text strings and the reverse, to higher level functions such as wild card matching, string sorting, paragraph reformatting and justification. The library may be used simply for building text strings for interactive applications or as a basis for more complex text processing applications.

  5. Helping Kids Handle Worry

    ... Child What Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Community Service: A Family's Guide to Getting Involved ... With Stress Teens Talk About Stress (Video) Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Childhood Stress How Can I Help My Child ...

  6. Handling Pyrophoric Reagents

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Haynie, Todd O.


    Pyrophoric reagents are extremely hazardous. Special handling techniques are required to prevent contact with air and the resulting fire. This document provides several methods for working with pyrophoric reagents outside of an inert atmosphere.

  7. Characterizing Runoff and Water Yield from Headwater Catchments in the Southern Sierra Nevada

    Safeeq, M.; Hunsaker, C. T.


    In a mediterranean climate where much of the annual precipitation falls during winter, the snow-capped Sierra Nevada serves as the primary source of dry season runoff that supports agriculture, industries, urban, and other ecosystems. Increased warming has led to significant reductions in mountain snowpack accumulation and earlier snowmelt throughout the western United States where most of the snow accumulates at temperatures near the freezing point. As a result, declines in dry season runoff magnitude, earlier runoff timing, and altered flood risk have been reported across the region. An important question in this context is, how to best manage forested catchments for water and other ecosystem services? We depict the differences in hydrologic response of ten catchments in the Kings River Experimental Watersheds (KREW) research project using continuous precipitation, snow, and runoff data during 2004-2014. The size of these catchments ranges from 50 to 475 ha, and they span a 600-m elevation range in the rain snow transitional zone. In terms of soil, Shaver and Gerle-Cagwin dominate the lower elevation Providence catchments, and Cagwin soils dominate the higher elevation Bull catchments. The majority of these catchments have southwest aspect, moderate average slope (i.e. annual runoff ranges between 281 to 408 mm in Providence and 436 to 656 mm in Bull catchments despite no significant difference in precipitation among KREW's four meteorological stations. However, high elevation Bull catchments receive significantly more precipitation as snow than the low elevation Providence catchments. The average runoff ratio ranges from 18% to as high as 43% among different catchments, indicating that the catchment evapotranspiration exceeds the catchment runoff. Inter-catchment variability in runoff, runoff ratio, characteristics of runoff ratio-precipitation relationship (i.e. slope and intercept), and precipitation elasticity of runoff can be primarily explained by

  8. Modeling relationship between runoff and soil properties in dry-farming lands, NW Iran

    A. R. Vaezi


    Full Text Available The process of transformation of rainfall into runoff over a catchment is very complex and exhibits both temporal and spatial variability. However, in a semi-arid area this variability is mainly controlled by the physical and chemical properties of the soil surface. Developing an accurate and easily-used model that can appropriately determine the runoff generation value is of strong demand. In this study a simple, an empirically based model developed to explore effect of soil properties on runoff generation. Thirty six dry-farming lands under follow conditions in a semi-arid agricultural zone in Hashtroud, NW Iran were considered to installation of runoff plots. Runoff volume was measured at down part of standard plots under natural rainfall events from March 2005 to March 2007. Results indicated that soils were mainly clay loam having 36.7% sand, 31.6% silt and 32.0% clay, and calcareous with about 13% lime. During a 2-year period, 41 natural rainfall events produced surface runoff at the plots. Runoff was negatively (R2=0.61, p<0.001 affected by soil permeability. Runoff also significantly correlated with sand, coarse sand, silt, organic matter, lime, and aggregate stability, while its relationship with very fine sand, clay, gravel and potassium was not significant. Regression analysis showed that runoff was considerably (p<0.001, R2=0.64 related to coarse sand, organic matter and lime. Lime like to coarse sand and organic matter positively correlated with soil permeability and consequently decreased runoff. This result revealed that, lime is one of the most important factors controlling runoff in soils of the semi-arid regions.

  9. Using Support Vector Machines to Characterize Runoff-triggering in Small Watersheds

    Misra, D.; Oommen, T.; Radatz, T.; Thompson, A.


    Runoff is one of the most complex hydrological phenomena to comprehend due to the tremendous spatial variability of catchment characteristics and precipitation patterns. However, the determination of runoff is critical for flood protection works, effective water storage and release, and protection of agricultural lands. The quantity of runoff depends on parameters such as rainfall intensity, duration, initial soil moisture, land use, and catchment geomorphology or relief. One common approach to estimate runoff is to develop physical models validated with measured data that relate the variables (input - output relationship) in the system. Conversely, this extraction of knowledge from the data requires large datasets, sophisticated modeling techniques as well as human intuition and experience. Additionally, the exact conditions that trigger runoff are difficult to predict because of their dependency on a combination of rainfall intensity, antecedent soil moisture conditions, and physical soil properties. Currently, pattern-learning algorithms based on artificial intelligence have shown promise in developing non-parametric models involving complex processes using few input parameters due to their ability to learn and recognize trends in the data. In this study, we explore the applicability of a sparse pattern-learning algorithm called Support Vector Machines (SVM) for modeling runoff from small watersheds. Results indicate that these methods can be an effective alternative to physical models for identifying runoff generation characteristics. Once identified, characteristics that trigger runoff from catchments, such as rainfall intensity and antecedent soil moisture, may be successfully used for large scale monitoring of watersheds using remote methods such as satellite sensors.

  10. Modeling relationship between runoff and soil properties in dry-farming lands, NW Iran

    Vaezi, A. R.; Bahrami, H. A.; Sadeghi, S. H. R.; Mahdian, M. H.


    The process of transformation of rainfall into runoff over a catchment is very complex and exhibits both temporal and spatial variability. However, in a semi-arid area this variability is mainly controlled by the physical and chemical properties of the soil surface. Developing an accurate and easily-used model that can appropriately determine the runoff generation value is of strong demand. In this study a simple, an empirically based model developed to explore effect of soil properties on runoff generation. Thirty six dry-farming lands under follow conditions in a semi-arid agricultural zone in Hashtroud, NW Iran were considered to installation of runoff plots. Runoff volume was measured at down part of standard plots under natural rainfall events from March 2005 to March 2007. Results indicated that soils were mainly clay loam having 36.7% sand, 31.6% silt and 32.0% clay, and calcareous with about 13% lime. During a 2-year period, 41 natural rainfall events produced surface runoff at the plots. Runoff was negatively (R2=0.61, pfactors controlling runoff in soils of the semi-arid regions.

  11. Assessment of nonpoint-source runoff in a stream using in situ and laboratory approaches

    Tucker, K.A.; Burton, G.A. Jr.


    Anthropogenic activities that change a watershed can cause adverse impacts to receiving water. Agricultural and urban runoff are the two leading causes of surface-water impairment in the US. When assessing pollutant sources and their effects on aquatic ecosystems, and prior to implementing source controls, it is necessary to define the systems stressors and receptors of exposure. Toxicity assays are a key component to integrative assessments that include habitat (physical), chemical, and indigenous community characterization. Traditional toxicity assay methods and the use of water-quality criteria are often inappropriate because of exposure design and effect assumptions. Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans were exposed in situ for varying time periods during both low- and high-flow conditions to determine the effect of urban and agricultural runoff. Short-term chronic and acute toxicity of urban and agricultural runoff was then measured in the laboratory and related to in situ test results. Nonpoint-source (NPS) runoff from urban areas was often more acutely toxic to organisms in the laboratory as compared to in situ results. Conversely, toxicity to the organisms was greater at the agricultural site during in situ exposures when compared to laboratory. In situ assays were an essential and integral component of NPS runoff assessments. They provided unique information that complemented laboratory toxicity, habitat, benthic community, and physicochemical characterizations.

  12. Forecasting runoff from Pennsylvania landscapes

    Identifying sites prone to surface runoff has been a cornerstone of conservation and nutrient management programs, relying upon site assessment tools that support strategic, as opposed to operational, decision making. We sought to develop simple, empirical models to represent two highly different me...

  13. Attachment of Escherichia coli and enterococci to particles in runoff.

    Soupir, Michelle L; Mostaghimi, Saied; Dillaha, Theo


    Association of Escherichia coli and enterococci with particulates present in runoff from erodible soils has important implications for modeling the fate and transport of bacteria from agricultural sources and in the selection of management practices to reduce bacterial movement to surface waters. Three soils with different textures were collected from the Ap horizon (silty loam, silty clay loam, and loamy fine sand), placed in portable box plots, treated with standard cowpats, and placed under a rainfall simulator. Rainfall was applied to the plots until saturation-excess flow occurred for 30 min, and samples were collected 10, 20, and 30 min after initiation of the runoff event. The attachment of E. coli and enterococci to particles present in runoff was determined by a screen filtration and centrifugation procedure. Percentage of E. coli and enterococci attached to particulates in runoff ranged from 28 to 49%, with few statistically significant differences in attachment among the three soils. Similar partitioning release patterns were observed between E. coli and enterococci from the silty loam (r = 0.57) and silty clay loam soils (r = 0.60). At least 60% of all attached E. coli and enterococci were associated particles within an 8- to 62-microm particle size category. The results indicate that the majority of fecal bacteria attach to and are transported with manure colloids in sediment-laden flow regardless of the soil texture.

  14. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen


    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations.

  15. 7 CFR 982.466 - Reports of inshell hazelnuts handled, shelled and withheld.


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of inshell hazelnuts handled, shelled and... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Administrative Rules and Regulations § 982.466 Reports of inshell hazelnuts handled, shelled and withheld. Each handler shall report to the Board monthly on...

  16. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to § 946.54(a)(6...


    Groupe ST/HM


    A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

  18. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    Van Tricht, K.; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J. T M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; Gorodetskaya, I. V.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Noël, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370612345; Van Den Broeke, M. R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Turner, D. D.; Van Lipzig, N. P M


    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative

  19. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    Van Tricht, K.; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J. T M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; Gorodetskaya, I. V.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Noël, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370612345; Van Den Broeke, M. R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Turner, D. D.; Van Lipzig, N. P M


    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative

  20. Climate change impacts on hillslope runoff on the northern Great Plains, 1962-2013

    Coles, A. E.; McConkey, B. G.; McDonnell, J. J.


    On the Great Plains of North America, water resources are being threatened by climatic shifts. However, a lack of hillslope-scale climate-runoff observations is limiting our ability to understand these impacts. Here, we present a 52-year (1962-2013) dataset (precipitation, temperature, snow cover, soil water content, and runoff) from three 5 ha hillslopes on the seasonally-frozen northern Great Plains. In this region, snowmelt-runoff drives c. 80% of annual runoff and is potentially vulnerable to warming temperatures and changes in precipitation amount and phase. We assessed trends in these climatological and hydrological variables using time series analysis. We found that spring snowmelt-runoff has decreased (on average by 59%) in response to a reduction in winter snowfall (by 18%), but that rainfall-runoff has shown no significant response to a 51% increase in rainfall or shifts to more multi-day rain events. In summer, unfrozen, deep, high-infiltrability soils act as a 'shock absorber' to rainfall, buffering the long-term runoff response to rainfall. Meanwhile, during winter and spring freshet, frozen ground limits soil infiltrability and results in runoff responses that more closely mirror the snowfall and snowmelt trends. These findings are counter to climate-runoff relationships observed at the catchment scale on the northern Great Plains where land drainage alterations dominate. At the hillslope scale, decreasing snowfall, snowmelt-runoff, and spring soil water content is causing agricultural productivity to be increasingly dependent on growing season precipitation, and will likely accentuate the impact of droughts.

  1. Colonic potassium handling

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby; Matos, Joana E.; Prætorius, Helle


    Homeostatic control of plasma K+ is a necessary physiological function. The daily dietary K+ intake of approximately 100 mmol is excreted predominantly by the distal tubules of the kidney. About 10% of the ingested K+ is excreted via the intestine. K+ handling in both organs is specifically...

  2. Improving coal handling effectiveness

    Walker, S.


    Appropriate coal handling systems are essential for successful coal utilisation. The paper looks at some of the options available, including crushers and hammer mills, wear-resistant liners for chutes and wagons, and dewatering systems. These are individual components within larger systems such as stockyard stacking and reclaiming installations. 5 photos.

  3. [Effect of DMPP on inorganic nitrogen runoff loss from vegetable soil].

    Yu, Qiao-Gang; Fu, Jian-Rong; Ma, Jun-Wei; Ye, Jing; Ye, Xue-Zhu


    The effect of urea with 1% 3,4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on inorganic nitrogen runoff loss from agriculture field was determined in an undisturbed vegetable soil by using the simulated artificial rainfall method. The results show that, during the three simulated artificial rainfall period, the ammonium nitrogen content in the runoff water is increased 1.42, 2.82 and 1.95 times with the DMPP application treatment compared to regular urea treatment, respectively. In the urea with DMPP addition treatment, the nitrate nitrogen content is decreased 70.2%, 59.7% and 52.1% in the three simulated artificial rainfall runoff water, respectively. The nitrite nitrogen content is also decreased 98.7%, 90.6% and 85.6% in the three simulated artificial rainfall runoff water, respectively. The nitrate nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen runoff loss are greatly declined with the DMPP addition in the urea. Especially the nitrite nitrogen is in a significant low level and is near to the treatment with no fertilizer application. The inorganic nitrogen runoff loss is declined by 39.0% to 44.8% in the urea with DMPP addition treatment. So DMPP could be used as an effective nitrification inhibitor to control the soil ammonium oxidation, decline the nitrogen runoff loss, lower the nitrogen transformation risk to the waterbody and be beneficial for the ecological environment.

  4. Solid waste handling

    Parazin, R.J.


    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  5. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings


    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Assessment of runoff contributing catchment areas in rainfall runoff modelling

    Thorndahl, Søren; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld


    recommended literature values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literature values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchment. In addition, different catchment descriptions...... are presented in order to investigate how the hydrological reduction factor depends on the level of detail regarding the catchment description. When applying a total survey of the catchment area, including all possible impervious surfaces, a hydrological reduction factor of approximately 0.5 for residential...

  7. Assessment of Runoff Contributing Catchment Areas in Rainfall Runoff Modelling

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld


    recommended literary values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literary values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchments. In addition, different catchment descriptions...... are presented in order to investigate how the hydrological reduction factor depends on the level of detail regarding the catchment description. When applying a total survey of the catchment area, including all possible impervious surfaces, a hydrological reduction factor of approximately 0.5 for residential...

  8. Attribution analysis of runoff decline in a semiarid region of the Loess Plateau, China

    Li, Binquan; Liang, Zhongmin; Zhang, Jianyun; Wang, Guoqing; Zhao, Weimin; Zhang, Hongyue; Wang, Jun; Hu, Yiming


    Climate variability and human activities are two main contributing attributions for runoff changes in the Yellow River, China. In the loess hilly-gully regions of the middle Yellow River, water shortage has been a serious problem, and this results in large-scale constructions of soil and water conservation (SWC) measures in the past decades in order to retain water for agricultural irrigation and industrial production. This disturbed the natural runoff characteristics. In this paper, we focused on a typical loess hilly-gully region (Wudinghe and Luhe River basins) and investigated the effects of SWC measures and climate variability on runoff during the period of 1961-2013, while the SWC measures were the main representative of human activities in this region. The nonparametric Mann-Kendall test was used to analyze the changes of annual precipitation, air temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET), and runoff. The analysis revealed the decrease in precipitation, significant rise in temperature, and remarkable runoff reduction with a rate of more than 0.4 mm per year. It was found that runoff capacity in this region also decreased. Using the change point detection methods, the abrupt change point of annual runoff series was found at 1970, and thus, the study period was divided into the baseline period (1961-1970) and changed period (1971-2013). A conceptual framework based on four statistical runoff methods was used for attribution analysis of runoff decline in the Wudinghe and Luhe River basins (-37.3 and -56.4%, respectively). Results showed that runoff reduction can be explained by 85.2-90.3% (83.3-85.7%) with the SWC measures in the Wudinghe (Luhe) River basin while the remaining proportions were caused by climate variability. The findings suggested that the large-scale SWC measures demonstrated a dominant influence on runoff decline, and the change of precipitation extreme was also a promoting factor of the upward trending of SWC measures' contribution to

  9. Geomorphological characterization of conservation agriculture

    Tarolli, Paolo; Cecchin, Marco; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Masin, Roberta


    Soil water erosion is one of the major threats to soil resources throughout the world. Conventional agriculture has worsened the situation. Therefore, agriculture is facing multiple challenges: it has to produce more food to feed a growing population, and, on the other hand, safeguard natural resources adopting more sustainable production practices. In this perspective, more conservation-minded soil management practices should be taken to achieve an environmental sustainability of crop production. Indeed, conservation agriculture is considered to produce relevant environmental positive outcomes (e.g. reducing runoff and soil erosion, improving soil organic matter content and soil structure, and promoting biological activity). However, as mechanical weed control is limited or absent, in conservation agriculture, dependence on herbicides increases especially in the first years of transition from the conventional system. Consequently, also the risk of herbicide losses via runoff or adsorbed to eroded soil particles could be increased. To better analyse the complexity of soil water erosion and runoff processes in landscapes characterised by conservation agriculture, first, it is necessary to demonstrate if such different practices can significantly affect the surface morphology. Indeed, surface processes such erosion and runoff strongly depend on the shape of the surface. The questions are: are the lands treated with conservation and conventional agriculture different from each other regarding surface morphology? If so, can these differences provide a better understanding of hydrogeomorphic processes as the basis for a better and sustainable land management? To give an answer to these questions, we considered six study areas (three cultivated with no-tillage techniques, three with tillage techniques) in an experimental farm. High-resolution topography, derived from low-cost and fast photogrammetric techniques Structure-from-Motion (SfM), served as the basis to

  10. Tillage system and time post-liquid dairy manure: Effects on runoff, sediment and nutrients losses

    Liquid manure applied in agricultural lands improves soil quality. However, incorrect management of manure may cause environmental problems due to sediments and nutrients losses associated to runoff. The aims of this work were to: (i) evaluate the time effect of post-liquid dairy manure (LDM) applic...

  11. Transport of three veterinary antimicrobials from feedlot pens via simulated rainfall runoff.

    Sura, Srinivas; Degenhardt, Dani; Cessna, Allan J; Larney, Francis J; Olson, Andrew F; McAllister, Tim A


    Veterinary antimicrobials are introduced to wider environments by manure application to agricultural fields or through leaching or runoff from manure storage areas (feedlots, stockpiles, windrows, lagoons). Detected in manure, manure-treated soils, and surface and ground water near intensive cattle feeding operations, there is a concern that environmental contamination by these chemicals may promote the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Surface runoff and leaching appear to be major transport pathways by which veterinary antimicrobials eventually contaminate surface and ground water, respectively. A study was conducted to investigate the transport of three veterinary antimicrobials (chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, tylosin), commonly used in beef cattle production, in simulated rainfall runoff from feedlot pens. Mean concentrations of veterinary antimicrobials were 1.4 to 3.5 times higher in surface material from bedding vs. non-bedding pen areas. Runoff rates and volumetric runoff coefficients were similar across all treatments but both were significantly higher from non-bedding (0.53Lmin(-1); 0.27) than bedding areas (0.40Lmin(-1); 0.19). In keeping with concentrations in pen surface material, mean concentrations of veterinary antimicrobials were 1.4 to 2.5 times higher in runoff generated from bedding vs. non-bedding pen areas. Water solubility and sorption coefficient of antimicrobials played a role in their transport in runoff. Estimated amounts of chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin that could potentially be transported to the feedlot catch basin during a one in 100-year precipitation event were 1.3 to 3.6ghead(-1), 1.9ghead(-1), and 0.2ghead(-1), respectively. This study demonstrates the magnitude of veterinary antimicrobial transport in feedlot pen runoff and supports the necessity of catch basins for runoff containment within feedlots.

  12. Rainfall-Runoff Modelling using Modified NRCS-CN,RS and GIS -A Case Study

    P.Sundara Kumar


    Full Text Available Study of rainfall and runoff for any area and modeling it, is one of the important aspects for planning and development of water resources. The development of water resources and its effective management plays a vital role in development of any country more particularly in India, which is an agricultural based economy. Hence it is intended to develop a model of Rainfall and runoff to a river basin and also apply the methodology to Sarada River Basin which has drainage area of 1252.99 The basin is situated in Vishakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, India. The rainfall and runoff data has been collected from the gauging stations of the basin apart from rainfall data from nearby stations. MNRCS-CN method has been adopted to calculate runoff. Various hydrological parameters like soil information, rainfall, land use and land cover (LU/LC were considered to use in MNRCS-CN method. The depth of runoff has been computed for different land use patterns using, IRS-P4- LISS IV data for the study area. Based on the analysis, land use/land cover pattern of Sarada River Basin has been prepared. The land use/land cover patterns were also visually interpreted and digitized using ERDAS IMAGINE software. The raster data was processed in ERDAS and geo-referenced and various maps viz. LU/LC maps, drainage map, contour map, DEM (Digital elevation model have been generated apart from rainfall potential map using GIS tool. The estimated runoff using MNRCS-CN model has been simulated and compared with that of actual runoff. The performance of the model is found to be good for the data considered. The coefficient of determination R2 value for the observed runoff and that of the computed runoff is found to be more than 0.72 for the selected watershed basin

  13. Surface runoff and nitrogen (N) loss in a bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forest under different fertilization regimes.

    Zhang, Qichun; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Wang, Jinwen; Song, Qiujin; Xue, Qiaoyun; Yu, Yan; Lin, Xianyong; Hussain, Sayed


    Nitrogen (N) losses from agricultural fields have been extensively studied. In contrast, surface runoff and N losses have rarely been considered for bamboo forests that are widespread in regions such as southern China. The thriving of bamboo industries has led to increasing fertilizer use in bamboo forests. In this study, we evaluated surface runoff and N losses in runoff following different fertilization treatments under field conditions in a bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forest in the catchment of Lake Taihu in Jiangsu, China. Under three different fertilization regimes, i.e., control, site-specific nutrient management (SSNM), and farmer's fertilization practice (FFP), the water runoff rate amounted to 356, 361, and 342 m(3) ha(-1) and accounted for 1.91, 1.98, and 1.85% of the water input, respectively, from June 2009 to May 2010. The total N losses via surface runoff ranged from 1.2 to 1.8 kg ha(-1). Compared with FFP, the SSNM treatment reduced total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) losses by 31 and 34%, respectively. The results also showed that variations in N losses depended mainly on runoff fluxes, not N concentrations. Runoff samples collected from all treatments throughout the year showed TN concentrations greater than 0.35 mg L(-1), with the mean TN concentration in the runoff from the FFP treatment reaching 8.97 mg L(-1). The loss of NO3(-)-N was greater than the loss of NH4(+)-N. The total loss of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) reached 23-41% of the corresponding DN. Therefore, DON is likely the main N species in runoff from bamboo forests and should be emphasized in the assessment and management of N losses in bamboo forest.

  14. Runoff estimation in residencial area

    Meire Regina de Almeida Siqueira


    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the watershed runoff caused by extreme events that often result in the flooding of urban areas. The runoff of a residential area in the city of Guaratinguetá, São Paulo, Brazil was estimated using the Curve-Number method proposed by USDA-NRCS. The study also investigated current land use and land cover conditions, impermeable areas with pasture and indications of the reforestation of those areas. Maps and satellite images of Residential Riverside I Neighborhood were used to characterize the area. In addition to characterizing land use and land cover, the definition of the soil type infiltration capacity, the maximum local rainfall, and the type and quality of the drainage system were also investigated. The study showed that this neighborhood, developed in 1974, has an area of 792,700 m², a population of 1361 inhabitants, and a sloping area covered with degraded pasture (Guaratinguetá-Piagui Peak located in front of the residential area. The residential area is located in a flat area near the Paraiba do Sul River, and has a poor drainage system with concrete pipes, mostly 0.60 m in diameter, with several openings that capture water and sediments from the adjacent sloping area. The Low Impact Development (LID system appears to be a viable solution for this neighborhood drainage system. It can be concluded that the drainage system of the Guaratinguetá Riverside I Neighborhood has all of the conditions and characteristics that make it suitable for the implementation of a low impact urban drainage system. Reforestation of Guaratinguetá-Piagui Peak can reduce the basin’s runoff by 50% and minimize flooding problems in the Beira Rio neighborhood.

  15. Total probabilities of ensemble runoff forecasts

    Olav Skøien, Jon; Bogner, Konrad; Salamon, Peter; Smith, Paul; Pappenberger, Florian


    impact on the calibration error, but makes it easier to interpolate the post-processing parameters to uncalibrated locations. We also look into different methods for handling the non-normal distributions of runoff data and the effect of different data transformations on forecasts skills in general and for floods in particular. Berrocal, V. J., Raftery, A. E. and Gneiting, T.: Combining Spatial Statistical and Ensemble Information in Probabilistic Weather Forecasts, Mon. Weather Rev., 135(4), 1386-1402, doi:10.1175/MWR3341.1, 2007. Engeland, K. and Steinsland, I.: Probabilistic postprocessing models for flow forecasts for a system of catchments and several lead times, Water Resour. Res., 50(1), 182-197, doi:10.1002/2012WR012757, 2014. Gneiting, T., Raftery, A. E., Westveld, A. H. and Goldman, T.: Calibrated Probabilistic Forecasting Using Ensemble Model Output Statistics and Minimum CRPS Estimation, Mon. Weather Rev., 133(5), 1098-1118, doi:10.1175/MWR2904.1, 2005. Hemri, S., Fundel, F. and Zappa, M.: Simultaneous calibration of ensemble river flow predictions over an entire range of lead times, Water Resour. Res., 49(10), 6744-6755, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20542, 2013. Raftery, A. E., Gneiting, T., Balabdaoui, F. and Polakowski, M.: Using Bayesian Model Averaging to Calibrate Forecast Ensembles, Mon. Weather Rev., 133(5), 1155-1174, doi:10.1175/MWR2906.1, 2005.

  16. Lead Isotopes in Highway Runoff

    Ferreira, M.; Lau, S.; Green, P. G.; Stenstrom, M. K.


    Lead (Pb) isotopes have been used extensively to study the provenance of lead pollution on air, water, and sediments. In this study, we measured Pb isotopes and Pb aqueous concentration in highway runoff in three west Los Angeles sites. Those three sites, part of a long-term study sponsored by the California Department of Transportation, represent small catchment areas, and host heavy traffic. In addition, there were no inputs of sand or salt to the highway because the sites are almost completely impervious and also due to the lack of snow to be controlled. Highway runoff from the three sites was collected for 7 storms during the 2004-2005 Winter. Grab samples were collected every 15 minutes during the first hour, and hourly afterwards. A total of 202 samples were collected and filtered into five size fractions (100μm). Aqueous concentration of Pb range from 0.08μg/L to 46.95μg/L (7.98±10.89μg/L) and it is not correlated with any of the lead isotope ratios. The 208Pb/206Pb ratio ranges from 1.983 to 2.075 (2.024±0.026) and there is no statistical difference for the mean value of the 208Pb/206Pb ratio for the four particulate size fractions (0.45-8μm, 8-20μm, 20-100μm, >100μm). However, the 208Pb/206Pb ratio of nearby soils yield 2.060±0.021 and it is statistically different from the ratios obtained for the highway runoff. This hints that the lead present in highway runoff does not come from local soils. The 207Pb/206Pb ratio ranges from 0.804 to 0.847 (0.827±0.011) and there is no statistical difference for the mean value of the 207Pb/206Pb ratio for the four particulate size fractions (0.45-8μm, 8-20μm, 20-100μm, >100μm). Surprisingly, there is also no statistical difference with the 207Pb/206Pb ratio of nearby soils (0.833±0.009).

  17. Effects of cropping systems on water runoff, soil erosion and nutrient loss in the Moldavian Plateau, Romania

    Ailincai, C.; Jitareanu, G.; Bucur, D.; Ailincai, D.; Raus, L.; Filipov, F.


    The experiments carried out at the Podu-lloaiei Agricultural Research Sation, during 1986-2008, had the following objectives: the study of water runoff and soil losses, by erosion, in different crops; the annual rate of erosion process under the influence of anti-erosion protection of different crops; the influence of water runoff and soil erosion on losses of organic matter and mineral elements from soil. (Author) 7 refs.

  18. Basics for Handling Food Safely

    ... o a rm ct a s tion Basics for Handling Food Safely Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and storage are essential to prevent foodborne ... and soap for 20 seconds before and after handling food. · Don’t cross-contaminate. Keep raw meat, ...

  19. Students' Strategies for Exception Handling

    Rashkovits, Rami; Lavy, Ilana


    This study discusses and presents various strategies employed by novice programmers concerning exception handling. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: we provide an analysis tool to measure the level of assimilation of exception handling mechanism; we present and analyse strategies to handle exceptions; we present and analyse…

  20. Interception of rainfall and surface runoff in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Tarso Oliveira, Paulo; Wendland, Edson; Nearing, Mark; Perea Martins, João


    The Brazilian Cerrado plays a fundamental role in water resources dynamics because it distributes fresh water to the largest basins in Brazil and South America. In recent decades, the native Cerrado vegetation has increasingly been replaced by agricultural crops and pasture. These land cover and land use changes have altered the hydrological processes. Meanwhile, little is known about the components of the water balance in the Brazilian Cerrado, mainly because the experimental field studies in this region are scarce or nonexistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate two hydrological processes under native Cerrado vegetation, the canopy interception (CI) and the surface runoff (R). The Cerrado physiognomy was classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso" with an absolute density of 15,278 trees ha-1, and a basal area of 11.44 m2 ha-1. We measured the gross rainfall (P) from an automated tipping bucket rain gauge (model TB4) located in a tower with 11 m of height on the Cerrado. Throughfall (TF) was obtained from 15 automated tipping bucket rain gauges (model Davis) spread below the Cerrado vegetation and randomly relocated every month during the wet season. Stemflow (SF) was measured on 12 trees using a plastic hose wrapped around the trees trunks, sealed with neutral silicone sealant, and a bucket to store the water. The canopy interception was computed by the difference between P and the sum of TF and SF. Surface runoff under undisturbed Cerrado was collected in three plots of 100 m2(5 x 20 m) in size and slope steepness of approximately 0.09 m m-1. The experimental study was conducted between January 2012 and November 2013. We found TF of 81.0% of P and SF of 1.6% of P, i.e. the canopy interception was calculated at 17.4% of P. There was a statistically significant correlation (p 0.8. Our results suggest that the rainfall intensity, the characteristics of the trees trunks (crooked and twisted) and stand structure are the main factors that have influenced

  1. Determining phosphorus release rates to runoff from selected Alberta soils using laboratory rainfall simulation.

    Wright, Charles R; Amrani, Mohamed; Akbar, Muhammad A; Heaney, Danial J; Vanderwel, Douwe S


    Phosphorus losses from agricultural land can cause accelerated eutrophication of surface water bodies. This study evaluated the use of soil test phosphorus (STP) levels to predict dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) concentrations in runoff water from agricultural soils using laboratory rainfall simulation. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) to what extent STP concentrations can be used as a basis to predict P losses from Alberta soils and (ii) how extended rainfall simulation run times affected DIP losses. Soil samples collected from a total of 38 field sites, widely scattered throughout the southern half of Alberta, were subjected to rainfall simulation in the laboratory. The STP concentrations were determined using Miller-Axley, Norwest, Kelowna, Modified Kelowna Mehlich-III, and distilled water extraction methods. Each rainfall simulation event lasted for at least 90 min. Runoff samples were collected in time series for the duration of each simulation, during two distinct runoff intervals: (i) for the first 30 min of continuous runoff (T30) and (ii) for 40 min during runoff equilibrium (Teq). For all the STP extractants and both runoff intervals, the relationship with DIP-flow-weighted mean concentration (FWMC) was linear and highly significant with r2 values ranging from 0.74 to 0.96. However, the slopes of the resulting regression lines were, on average, 1.85 times greater for the T30 runoff interval over those computed for the Teq interval. Thus experimental methodology greatly influenced regression parameters, suggesting that more work was needed to verify these relationships under natural conditions. In addition, with many of the r2 values greater than 0.90 there would be little, if any, benefit derived by including soil properties in regression analysis.

  2. Transfer of pesticides and copper in a stormwater wetland receiving contaminated runoff from a vineyard catchment

    Maillard, E.; Babcsanyi, I.; Payraudeau, S.; Imfeld, G.


    Wetlands can collect contaminated runoff from urban and agricultural catchments, and have intrinsic physical, chemical and biological processes useful for mitigating pesticides. However, knowledge about the ability of wetlands to mitigate pesticide mixtures in runoff is currently very limited. Our results show that stormwater wetlands that primarily serve for flood protection can also be effective tools for reducing concentrations and loads of runoff-related pesticides. Concentrations and loads of 20 pesticides and degradation products, as well as copper were continuously recorded during the period of pesticide application (April to September 2009, 2010 and 2011) at the inlet, the outlet and in sediments of a stormwater wetland that collects runoff from a vineyard catchment. Removal rates of dissolved loads ranged from 39% (simazine) to 100% (cymoxanil, gluphosinate, kresoxim methyl and terbuthylazine). Dimethomorph, diuron, glyphosate and metalaxyl were more efficiently removed in spring than in summer. The calculation of sedimentation rates from discharge measurements and total suspended solids (TSS) values revealed that the wetland retained more than 77% of the input mass of suspended solids, underscoring the capability of the wetland to trap pesticide-laden particles. Only flufenoxuron was frequently detected in the wetland sediments. An inter-annual comparison showed that changes in the removal of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA, a degradation product of glyphosate), isoxaben or simazine can be attributed mainly to the larger vegetation cover in 2010 compared to 2009. More than 80% of the copper load entering the wetland was retained in the sediments and the plants. Our results demonstrate that stormwater wetlands can efficiently remove pesticide mixtures and copper in agricultural runoff during critical periods of pesticide application. Nevertheless, fluctuations in the runoff regime, as well as the vegetation and hydrochemical characteristics affect the

  3. An at-grade stabilization structure impact on runoff and suspended sediment

    Minks, Kyle R.; Lowery, Birl; Madison, Fred W.; Ruark, Matthew; Frame, Dennis R.; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.


    In recent years, agricultural runoff has received more attention as a major contributor to surface water pollution. This is especially true for the unglaciated area of Wisconsin, given this area's steep topography, which makes it highly susceptible to runoff and soil loss. We evaluated the ability of an at-grade stabilization structure (AGSS), designed as a conservation practice to reduce the amount of overland runoff and suspended sediment transported to the surface waters of an agricultural watershed. Eight years of storm and baseflow data collected by the US Geological Survey–Wisconsin Water Science Center on a farm in west central Wisconsin were analyzed for changes in precipitation, storm runoff volume, and suspended sediment concentration before and after installation of an AGSS. The agricultural research site was designed as a paired watershed study in which monitoring stations were installed on the perennial streams draining both control and treatment watersheds. Linear mixed effects model analyses were conducted to determine if any statistically significant changes occurred in the water quality parameters before and after the AGSS was installed. Results indicated no significant changes (p = 0.51) in average event precipitation and runoff volumes before and after installation of the AGSS in either the treatment (NW) or control (SW) watersheds. However, the AGSS did significantly reduce the average suspended sediment concentration in the event runoff water (p = 0.02) in the NW from 972 to 263 mg L–1. In addition, particle size analyses, using light diffraction techniques, were conducted on soil samples taken from within the AGSS and adjacent valley and ridge top to determine if suspended sediments were being retained within the structure. Statistical analysis revealed a significantly (p waters. The cost of an AGSS can range from US$3,500 to US$8,000, depending on size. Thus, these structures provide a cheap and effective means of improving water quality

  4. Determining potential for microbial atrazine degradation in agricultural drainage ditches

    Passage of agricultural runoff through vegetated drainage ditches has been shown to reduce the amount of pesticides, such as atrazine, exiting agricultural watersheds. Previous studies found that microbial communities in soil from fields treated with atrazine display enhanced rates of atrazine degr...

  5. Estimating Runoff Coefficients Using Weather Radars

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.


    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage catchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and insewer flow measurements. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients...

  6. Estimating Runoff Coefficients Using Weather Radars

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.;


    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage catchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and insewer flow measurements. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients...

  7. Future runoff from glacierized catchments in the Central Andes could substantially decrease

    Kronenberg, Marlene; Schauwecker, Simone; Huggel, Christian; Salzmann, Nadine; Drenkhan, Fabian; Frey, Holger; Giráldez, Claudia; Gurgiser, Wolfgang; Kaser, Georg; Suarez, Wilson; García Hernández, Javier; Fluixá-Sanmartín, Javier; Ayros, Edwin; Rohrer, Mario


    In Peru, about 50% of the energy is produced from hydropower plants. An important amount of this energy is produced with water from glaciated catchments. In these catchments river streamflow is furthermore needed for other socio-economic activities such as agriculture. However, the amount and seasonality of water from glacial melt is expected to undergo strong changes. As glaciers are projected to further decline with continued warming, runoff will become more and more sensitive to possible changes in precipitation patterns. Moreover, as stated by a recent study (Neukom et al., 2015), wet season precipitation sums in the Central Andes could decrease up to 19-33 % by the end of the 21st century compared to present-day conditions. Here, we investigate future runoff availability for selected glacierized catchments in the Peruvian Andes. In a first step, we apply a simplified energy balance and runoff model (ITGG-2.0-R) for current conditions. Thereafter, we model future runoff for different climate scenarios, including the possibility of strongly reduced precipitation. Preliminary findings indicate (i) changes in the seasonal distribution of runoff and (ii) significant reductions of the annual runoff in future for the mentioned scenario with significant precipitation decreases. During early phases of glacier recession, melt leads to increased runoff - respectively compensates for the precipitation reduction in the corresponding scenario - depending on the fraction of catchment glaciation. Glaciers are acting as natural water reservoirs and may buffer the decreasing precipitation in glacierized catchments for a limited period. However, strongly reduced precipitation will have noticeable consequences on runoff, particularly when glacier melt contribution gets smaller and finally is completely missing. This will have consequences on the water availability for hydropower production, agriculture, mining and other water uses. Critical conditions may emerge in particular

  8. Rainfall intensity and phosphorus source effects on phosphorus transport in surface runoff from soil trays.

    Shigaki, Francirose; Sharpley, Andrew; Prochnow, Luis Ignacio


    Phosphorus runoff from agricultural fields amended with mineral fertilizers and manures has been linked to freshwater eutrophication. A rainfall simulation study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different rainfall intensities and P sources differing in water soluble P (WSP) concentration on P transport in runoff from soil trays packed with a Berks loam and grassed with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Triple superphosphate (TSP; 79% WSP), low-grade super single phosphate (LGSSP; 50% WSP), North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP; 0.5% WSP) and swine manure (SM; 70% WSP), were broadcast (100 kg total P ha-1) and rainfall applied at 25, 50 and 75 mm h-1 1, 7, 21, and 56 days after P source application. The concentration of dissolved reactive (DRP), particulate (PP), and total P (TP) was significantly (Prunoff with a rainfall intensity of 75 than 25 mm h-1 for all P sources. Further, runoff DRP increased as P source WSP increased, with runoff from a 50 mm h-1 rain 1 day after source application having a DRP concentration of 0.25 mg L-1 for NCRP and 28.21 mg L-1 for TSP. In contrast, the proportion of runoff TP as PP was greater with low (39% PP for NCRP) than high WSP sources (4% PP for TSP) averaged for all rainfall intensities. The increased PP transport is attributed to the detachment and transport of undissolved P source particles during runoff. These results show that P source water solubility and rainfall intensity can influence P transport in runoff, which is important in evaluating the long-term risks of P source application on P transport in surface runoff.

  9. Runoff initiation versus runoff yield: Understanding the complexity of the hydrological effect of biological soil crusts

    Kidron, G. J.; Monger, H. C.; Büdel, B.; Vonshak, A.; Conrod, W.


    The differentiation between runoff initiation and runoff yield (amount) is not always clear. In many cases they often seem interchangeable. Some of the differences were pinpointed following research conducted at two sand fields in Israel (Nizzanim, NIM, at the southern coast and Nizzana, NIZ in the Negev) and three sites in the Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, USA (silty-loessial sediments at the Jornada Experimental Range, JER; quartzose sand in the Sevilleta Wildlife Refuge, SEV; gypseous sand at the White Sands National Monument, WS) during which intact plots were compared to scalped plots. While the parent material, the effective rain, and the exopolysacharide (EPS) content of the crust determined runoff initiation in the Chihuahuan Desert, the effective rain and the crust microrelief determined the amount (yield) of runoff in areas where runoff initiation took place. Low EPS-crusts did not facilitated runoff initiation, even at high-chlorophyll crusts such as in WS. Similar results were obtained for NIM. Data from NIZ also highlighted the fundamental role played by the EPS in the determination of the amounts of runoff. This however was not the case with the chlorophyll content per se, that did not determine runoff initiation or yield. The findings also indicate that under the conditions examined, microrelief could not have controlled runoff initiation. Nevertheless, it affected the runoff amounts, as found in the Chihuahuan Desert and the Negev. The presence of rills and gullies may be indicative of the potentiality of BSCs to initiate runoff.

  10. 7 CFR 1924.261 - Handling complaints involving dwellings covered by an independent or insured home warranty plan.


    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling complaints involving dwellings covered by an independent or insured home warranty plan. 1924.261 Section 1924.261 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... Complaints and Compensation for Construction Defects § 1924.261 Handling complaints involving...

  11. Average annual runoff in the United States, 1951-80

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a line coverage of average annual runoff in the conterminous United States, 1951-1980. Surface runoff Average runoff Surface waters United States

  12. 78 FR 3 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2


    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 948 Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling... comments. SUMMARY: This rule modifies the grade requirements for potatoes handled under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2 (order). The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado...

  13. Handling Practicalities in Agricultural Policy Optimization for Water Quality Improvements

    Bilevel and multi-objective optimization methods are often useful to spatially target agri-environmental policy throughout a watershed. This type of problem is complex and is comprised of a number of practicalities: (i) a large number of decision variables, (ii) at least two inte...

  14. Agriculture: Newsroom

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  15. REDD+ and Climate Smart Agriculture in landscapes

    Salvini, G.


    Global challenges posed by an increasing food demand and climate change call for innovative mechanisms that consider both agriculture and forests. Agriculture and forests are deeply interconnected in mosaic landscapes, just as multiple pieces of the same puzzle. These pieces are handled by numerous

  16. Occupational pesticide exposure among Kenyan agricultural workers.

    Ohayo-Mitoko, G.J.A.


    This study was part of the Kenyan component of a multi-centre epidemiologic survey, the East African Pesticides Project. The general objective was to assess the health hazards posed by pesticide handling, storage and use in agricultural estates and small farms in selected rural agricultural communit

  17. New transport and handling contract

    SC Department


    A new transport and handling contract entered into force on 1.10.2008. As with the previous contract, the user interface is the internal transport/handling request form on EDH: To ensure that you receive the best possible service, we invite you to complete the various fields as accurately as possible and to include a mobile telephone number on which we can reach you. You can follow the progress of your request (schedule, completion) in the EDH request routing information. We remind you that the following deadlines apply: 48 hours for the transport of heavy goods (up to 8 tonnes) or simple handling operations 5 working days for crane operations, transport of extra-heavy goods, complex handling operations and combined transport and handling operations in the tunnel. For all enquiries, the number to contact remains unchanged: 72202. Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 72672 - 160319

  18. Assessing the impacts of agricultural change on soil erosion over the last century: a multi-model ensemble approach

    Sellami, Haykel; Smith, Hugh; Sangster, Heather; Riley, Mark; Chiverrell, Richard; Boyle, John


    Soil erosion models (SEMs) are valuable tools for understanding the links between past agricultural practices and soil erosion. Use of SEMs allows assessment of impacts from agricultural change over timescales that exceed instrumental records but correspond to periods for which considerable land use and climate information are available. Here, we develop a modelling framework to investigate the potential impacts of changes in agricultural practices and climate on soil erosion and sediment transport over the last 100 years in six lake catchments in Britain spanning upland and lowland environments. The modelling platform comprises a multi-model ensemble of derivatives of the Morgan-Morgan-Finney (MMF) and RUSLE models. Simulation of change in land use/land cover (LULC), drainage features, crop rotation and livestock grazing are accounted for by reconstructing LULC maps from 1888 to 2007. Reconstructions of climatic conditions combine multiple records using regression and artificial neural network techniques to derive long-term daily precipitation and temperature series from 1880 to present. The modelling platform uses a grid-based modelling approach to handle the spatial distribution and heterogeneity in LULC, soil and topographic information. For each soil type, a database of physical parameters was created by combining information from the literature, LandIS soil database and pedotransfer functions. At each grid cell, a rainfall-Runoff (RR) model based on saturation excess runoff generation mechanisms provides daily soil moisture content. Furthermore, the modelling platform encompasses a crop cover model (CC) based on the Heat Unit approach developed to simulate daily Leaf Area Index for each crop type. Both the RR and CC models are used to update the canopy and ground cover parameters. In the absence of long-term river monitoring data, lake sediment records are used to compare the multi-model simulations thus creating a baseline from which to project impacts from

  19. Trends in Modern Exception Handling

    Marcin Kuta


    Full Text Available Exception handling is nowadays a necessary component of error proof information systems. The paper presents overview of techniques and models of exception handling, problems connected with them and potential solutions. The aspects of implementation of propagation mechanisms and exception handling, their effect on semantics and general program efficiency are also taken into account. Presented mechanisms were adopted to modern programming languages. Considering design area, formal methods and formal verification of program properties we can notice exception handling mechanisms are weakly present what makes a field for future research.

  20. Total probabilities of ensemble runoff forecasts

    Olav Skøien, Jon; Bogner, Konrad; Salamon, Peter; Smith, Paul; Pappenberger, Florian


    distance, stream-connectivity and size of the catchment areas into account. This can in some cases have a slight negative impact on the calibration error, but avoids large differences between parameters of nearby locations, whether stream connected or not. The spatial calibration also makes it easier to interpolate the post-processing parameters to uncalibrated locations. We also look into different methods for handling the non-normal distributions of runoff data and the effect of different data transformations on forecasts skills in general and for floods in particular. Berrocal, V. J., Raftery, A. E. and Gneiting, T.: Combining Spatial Statistical and Ensemble Information in Probabilistic Weather Forecasts, Mon. Weather Rev., 135(4), 1386-1402, doi:10.1175/MWR3341.1, 2007. Engeland, K. and Steinsland, I.: Probabilistic postprocessing models for flow forecasts for a system of catchments and several lead times, Water Resour. Res., 50(1), 182-197, doi:10.1002/2012WR012757, 2014. Gneiting, T., Raftery, A. E., Westveld, A. H. and Goldman, T.: Calibrated Probabilistic Forecasting Using Ensemble Model Output Statistics and Minimum CRPS Estimation, Mon. Weather Rev., 133(5), 1098-1118, doi:10.1175/MWR2904.1, 2005. Hemri, S., Fundel, F. and Zappa, M.: Simultaneous calibration of ensemble river flow predictions over an entire range of lead times, Water Resour. Res., 49(10), 6744-6755, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20542, 2013. Raftery, A. E., Gneiting, T., Balabdaoui, F. and Polakowski, M.: Using Bayesian Model Averaging to Calibrate Forecast Ensembles, Mon. Weather Rev., 133(5), 1155-1174, doi:10.1175/MWR2906.1, 2005.


    Ginns, D.W.


    A means for handling remotely a sample pellet to be irradiated in a nuclear reactor is proposed. It is comprised essentially of an inlet tube extending through the outer shield of the reactor and being inclined so that its outer end is at a higher elevation than its inner end, an outlet tube extending through the outer shield being inclined so that its inner end is at a higher elevation than its outer end, the inner ends of these two tubes being interconnected, and a straight tube extending through the outer shield and into the reactor core between the inlet and outlet tubes and passing through the juncture of said inner ends. A rod-like member is rotatably and slidely operated within the central straight tube and has a receptacle on its inner end for receiving a sample pellet from the inlet tube. The rod member is operated to pick up a sample pellet from the inlet tube, carry the sample pellet into the irradiating position within the core, and return to the receiving position where it is rotated to dump the irradiated pellet into the outlet tube by which it is conveyed by gravity to the outside of the reactor. Stop members are provided in the inlet tube, and electrical operating devices are provided to control the sequence of the operation automatically.

  2. Phosphorus losses in furrow irrigation runoff.

    Westermann, D T; Bjorneberg, D L; Aase, J K; Robbins, C W


    Phosphorus (P) often limits the eutrophication of streams, rivers, and lakes receiving surface runoff. We evaluated the relationships among selected soil P availability indices and runoff P fractions where manure, whey, or commercial fertilizer applications had previously established a range of soil P availabilities on a Portneuf silt loam (coarse-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Durinodic Xeric Haplocalcid) surface-irrigated with Snake River water. Water-soluble P, Olsen P (inorganic and organic P), and iron-oxide impregnated paper-extractable P (FeO-Ps) were determined on a 0.03-m soil sample taken from the bottom of each furrow before each irrigation in fall 1998 and spring 1999. Dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in a 0.45-microm filtered runoff sample, and iron-oxide impregnated paper-extractable P (FeO-Pw), total P, and sediment in an unfiltered runoff sample were determined at selected intervals during a 4-h irrigation on 18.3-m field plots. The 1998 and 1999 data sets were combined because there were no significant differences. Flow-weighted average runoff DRP and FeO-Pw concentrations increased linearly as all three soil P test concentrations increased. The average runoff total P concentration was not related to any soil P test but was linearly related to sediment concentration. Stepwise regression selected the independent variables of sediment, soil lime concentration, and soil organic P extracted by the Olsen method as related to average runoff total P concentration. The average runoff total P concentration was 1.08 mg L(-1) at a soil Olsen P concentration of 10 mg kg(-1). Soil erosion control will be necessary to reduce P losses in surface irrigation runoff.

  3. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff


    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (±5.2)Wm-2. Co...

  4. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    K. Van Tricht; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Gorodetskaya, I. V.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Noël, B; Van Den Broeke, M.R.; Turner, D. D.; Van Lipzig, N. P. M.


    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (±5.2)Wm-2. Co...

  5. Poultry manure runoff and its influence on fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM)

    Singh, S.; Dutta, S.; Inamdar, S. P.


    Land application of poultry manure as a substitute for synthetic fertilizer is a common practice in states like Delaware which have a surplus of this animal waste. However, this practice can generate large amounts of labile DOM and nutrients in agricultural runoff that can cause eutrophication of downstream aquatic ecosystems. We determined the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and the quality of DOM for a cropland receiving poultry manure in the coastal plain soils of Delaware. Manure was applied at the rate of 9 Mg ha-1 in the spring (March 10) of 2010 to an agricultural field planted in corn. Sampling was performed for surface runoff and soil waters at four landscape positions - field edge, upper and lower riparian zones and the stream. Sampling was conducted for eight storm events, one before manure application and seven after (March through July spanning over 100 days). DOM quality was characterized using spectrofluorometric techniques and the development of a site-specific PARAFAC model. DOC and DIN concentrations in surface runoff ranged from 18.1 to 77.2 mg/l and 4.2 to 22.6 mg/l, respectively. The percent of protein-like and humic-like DOM in surface runoff ranged between 3.9 to 23.5% and 12.3 to 41.6%, respectively. Highest concentrations of DOC and DIN were observed at the field edge and lowest in the stream. Protein-like and humic-like DOM decreased from the field edge to stream in surface runoff and soil waters. Temporally, both humic-like and protein-like DOM showed significant increases in storm runoff following manure application. After manure application, humic-like DOM increased by 70% while protein-like DOM increased by more than 200% in surface runoff indicating elevated content of labile DOM in poultry manure. These concentrations remained high for more than 60 days following manure application. Protein-like DOM was significantly correlated with nitrate-nitrogen (r = 0.43; p < 0

  6. 7 CFR 1.12 - Handling information from a private business.


    ... is not exempt by law from disclosure). Afford business information submitter reasonable time in which... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling information from a private business. 1.12... Records § 1.12 Handling information from a private business. Each USDA agency is responsible for...

  7. Comparison of field-scale herbicide runoff and volatilization losses: an eight-year field investigation.

    Gish, Timothy J; Prueger, John H; Daughtry, Craig S T; Kustas, William P; McKee, Lynn G; Russ, Andrew L; Hatfield, Jerry L


    An 8-yr study was conducted to better understand factors influencing year-to-year variability in field-scale herbicide volatilization and surface runoff losses. The 21-ha research site is located at the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center in Beltsville, MD. Site location, herbicide formulations, and agricultural management practices remained unchanged throughout the duration of the study. Metolachlor [2-chloro--(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)--(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] and atrazine [6-chloro--ethyl--(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] were coapplied as a surface broadcast spray. Herbicide runoff was monitored from a month before application through harvest. A flux gradient technique was used to compute volatilization fluxes for the first 5 d after application using herbicide concentration profiles and turbulent fluxes of heat and water vapor as determined from eddy covariance measurements. Results demonstrated that volatilization losses for these two herbicides were significantly greater than runoff losses ( < 0.007), even though both have relatively low vapor pressures. The largest annual runoff loss for metolachlor never exceeded 2.5%, whereas atrazine runoff never exceeded 3% of that applied. On the other hand, herbicide cumulative volatilization losses after 5 d ranged from about 5 to 63% of that applied for metolachlor and about 2 to 12% of that applied for atrazine. Additionally, daytime herbicide volatilization losses were significantly greater than nighttime vapor losses ( < 0.05). This research confirmed that vapor losses for some commonly used herbicides frequently exceeds runoff losses and herbicide vapor losses on the same site and with the same management practices can vary significantly year to year depending on local environmental conditions.

  8. Parallel Handling of Integrity Constraints

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Flokstra, Jan; Apers, Peter M.G.


    Integrity constraints form an important part of a data model. Therefore, a complete integrity constraint handling subsystem is considered an important part of any modern DBMS. In implementing an integrity constraint handling subsystem, there are two major problem areas: providing enough functionalit

  9. Assessment of Issue Handling Efficiency

    Luijten, B.; Visser, J.; Zaidman, A.


    We mined the issue database of GNOME to assess how issues are handled. How many issues are submitted and resolved? Does the backlog grow or decrease? How fast are issues resolved? Does issue resolution speed increase or decrease over time? In which subproject are issues handled most efficiently? To

  10. Assessment of Issue Handling Efficiency

    Luijten, B.; Visser, J.; Zaidman, A.


    We mined the issue database of GNOME to assess how issues are handled. How many issues are submitted and resolved? Does the backlog grow or decrease? How fast are issues resolved? Does issue resolution speed increase or decrease over time? In which subproject are issues handled most efficiently? To

  11. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control - Abstract

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  12. Total pollution effects of urban surface runoff

    LUO Hong-bing; LUO Lin; HUANG Gu; LIU Ping; LI Jing-xian; HU Sheng; WANG Fu-xiang; XU Rui; HUANG Xiao-xue


    e values of MFFn (mass first flush ratio) and FF30 (first 30% of runoff volume) can be considered as split-flow control criteria to enable more effective and economical design of structural BMPs (best management practices) facilities.

  13. Surface runoff estimation from various land use in Mapili Watershed using SCS Curve Number and Geographic Information System

    Malahayati Yusuf, Sri; Guluda, David; Jayanegara, Trisumitra


    Mapili watershed which is located in West Sulawesi is dominated by secondary forest and agriculture land. The condition of the watershed is affected by land use and soil type. Land use is a form of interaction between man and land in order to meet their needs. Soil is function from organism, climate, topographic, material, and time. This information then will affect the hydrological condition in the watershed, especially surface runoff. The objective of study is to analyze the surface runoff in Mapili watershed. SCS curve number method that integrates with geographic information system was used in the analysis. The highest surface runoff value is about 887.6 mm and the highest of surface runoff coefficient is about 0.31.

  14. Using rare earth elements to control phosphorus and track manure in runoff.

    Buda, Anthony R; Church, Clinton; Kleinman, Peter J A; Saporito, Lou S; Moyer, Barton G; Tao, Liang


    Concern over the enrichment of agricultural runoff with phosphorus (P) from land applied livestock manures has prompted the development of manure amendments that minimize P solubility. In this study, we amended poultry, dairy, and swine manures with two rare earth chlorides, lanthanum chloride (LaCl(3).7H(2)O) and ytterbium chloride (YbCl(3).6H(2)O), to evaluate their effects on P solubility in the manure following incubation in the laboratory as well as on the fate of P and rare earth elements (REEs) when manures were surface-applied to packed soil boxes and subjected to simulated rainfall. In terms of manure P solubility, La:water-extractable P (WEP) ratios close to 1:1 resulted in maximum WEP reduction of 95% in dairy manure and 98% in dry poultry litter. Results from the runoff study showed that REE applications to dry manures such as poultry litter were less effective in reducing dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in runoff than in liquid manures and slurries, which was likely due to mixing limitations. The most effective reductions of DRP in runoff by REEs were observed in the alkaline pH soil, although reductions of DRP in runoff from the acidic soil were still >50%. Particulate REEs were strongly associated with particulate P in runoff, suggesting a potentially useful role in tracking the fate of P and other manure constituents from manure-amended soils. Finally, REEs that remained in soil following runoff had a tendency to precipitate WEP, especially in soils receiving manure amendments. The findings have valuable applications in water quality protection and the evaluation of P site assessment indices.

  15. Curve Number Estimation for a Small Urban Catchment from Recorded Rainfall-Runoff Events

    Banasik Kazimierz


    Full Text Available Runoff estimation is a key component in various hydrological considerations. Estimation of storm runoff is especially important for the effective design of hydraulic and road structures, for the flood flow management, as well as for the analysis of land use changes, i.e. urbanization or low impact development of urban areas. The curve number (CN method, developed by Soil Conservation Service (SCS of the U.S. Department of Agriculture for predicting the flood runoff depth from ungauged catchments, has been in continuous use for ca. 60 years. This method has not been extensively tested in Poland, especially in small urban catchments, because of lack of data. In this study, 39 rainfall-runoff events, collected during four years (2009–2012 in a small (A=28.7 km2, urban catchment of Służew Creek in southwest part of Warsaw were used, with the aim of determining the CNs and to check its applicability to ungauged urban areas. The parameters CN, estimated empirically, vary from 65.1 to 95.0, decreasing with rainfall size and, when sorted rainfall and runoff separately, reaching the value from 67 to 74 for large rainfall events.

  16. Runoff projection under climate change over Yarlung Zangbo River, Southwest China

    Xuan, Weidong; Xu, Yue-Ping


    The Yarlung Zangbo River is located in southwest of China, one of the major source of "Asian water tower". The river has great hydropower potential and provides vital water resource for local and downstream agricultural production and livestock husbandry. Compared to its drainage area, gauge observation is sometimes not enough for good hydrological modeling in order to project future runoff. In this study, we employ a semi-distributed hydrologic model SWAT to simulate hydrological process of the river with rainfall observation and TRMM 3B4V7 respectively and the hydrological model performance is evaluated based on not only total runoff but snowmelt, precipitation and groundwater components. Firstly, calibration and validation of the hydrological model are executed to find behavioral parameter sets for both gauge observation and TRMM data respectively. Then, behavioral parameter sets with diverse efficiency coefficient (NS) values are selected and corresponding runoff components are analyzed. Robust parameter sets are further employed in SWAT coupled with CMIP5 GCMs to project future runoff. The final results show that precipitation is the dominating contributor nearly all year around, while snowmelt and groundwater are important in the summer and winter alternatively. Also sufficient robust parameter sets help reduce uncertainty in hydrological modeling. Finally, future possible runoff changes will have major consequences for water and flood security.

  17. Estimation of runoff mitigation by morphologically different cover crop root systems

    Yu, Yang; Loiskandl, Willibald; Kaul, Hans-Peter; Himmelbauer, Margarita; Wei, Wei; Chen, Liding; Bodner, Gernot


    Hydrology is a major driver of biogeochemical processes underlying the distinct productivity of different biomes, including agricultural plantations. Understanding factors governing water fluxes in soil is therefore a key target for hydrological management. Our aim was to investigate changes in soil hydraulic conductivity driven by morphologically different root systems of cover crops and their impact on surface runoff. Root systems of twelve cover crop species were characterized and the corresponding hydraulic conductivity was measured by tension infiltrometry. Relations of root traits to Gardner's hydraulic conductivity function were determined and the impact on surface runoff was estimated using HYDRUS 2D. The species differed in both rooting density and root axes thickness, with legumes distinguished by coarser axes. Soil hydraulic conductivity was changed particularly in the plant row where roots are concentrated. Specific root length and median root radius were the best predictors for hydraulic conductivity changes. For an intensive rainfall simulation scenario up to 17% less rainfall was lost by surface runoff in case of the coarsely rooted legumes Melilotus officinalis and Lathyrus sativus, and the densely rooted Linum usitatissimum. Cover crops with coarse root axes and high rooting density enhance soil hydraulic conductivity and effectively reduce surface runoff. An appropriate functional root description can contribute to targeted cover crop selection for efficient runoff mitigation.

  18. Keeping soil in the field - runoff and erosion management in asparagus crops

    Niziolomski, Joanna; Simmons, Robert; Rickson, Jane; Hann, Mike


    Row crop production (including potatoes, onions, carrots, asparagus, bulbs and lettuce) is regarded as one of the most erosive agricultural cropping systems. This is a result of the many practices involved that increase erosion risk including: fine seedbed preparation, a typically short growing season where adequate ground cover protects the soil, permanent bare soil areas between crops, and often intensive harvesting methods that can damage soil structure and result in soil compaction. Sustained exposure of bare soil coupled with onsite compaction on slightly sloping land results in soil and water issues in asparagus production. Asparagus production is a growing British industry covering > 2000 ha and is worth approximately £30 million yr-1. However, no tried and tested erosion control measurements currently exist to manage associated problems. Research has recently been undertaken investigating the effectiveness of erosion control measures suitable for asparagus production systems. These consisted of surface applied wheat straw mulch and shallow soil disturbance (asparagus farm in Herefordshire, UK. Testing was conducted between May and November 2013. Rainfall-event based runoff and erosion measurements were taken including; runoff volume, runoff rate and total soil loss. Runoff and soil erosion was observed from all treatments. However, the surface application of straw mulch alone out performed each shallow soil disturbance practice. This suggests that runoff and erosion from asparagus production can be reduced using the simple surface application of straw.


    Tongxin ZHU


    Soil crusting may have significant impacts on infiltration, runoff generation and erosion in agricultural lands or semi-arid and arid soils. The previous investigations on soil crusting were often conducted under simulated rainfall conditions. This study aims to evaluate the effects of soil crusting on soil moisture during inter-storm periods and soil and water losses during storm periods under natural rainfalls. The study site was located in the Loess Plateau of China. Four plots with a uniform slope and size were selected. Soil crusts were kept intact on the two plots throughout the monitoring periods of 1999 and 2000,but were broken after each rain storm event on the other two plots. Soil moisture was measured on all plots with an interval of one week at three depths and total event runoff and sediment discharges were measured in each storm. It was found that no marked difference in soil moisture and runoff exists between the crusted and uncrusted plots. This is because the rapid development of new crusts on the uncrusted plots during the storm events. However, the erosion rate on the uncrusted plots was significantly higher than that on the crusted plots, which was mainly caused by the disturbance of the surface soils on the uncrusted plots. This study questions the effectiveness of a common agricultural practice in the Loess Plateau, hoeing lands after rainfall, in reducing runoff and erosion.

  20. Understanding Greenland Ice Sheet Runoff Losses

    Rennermalm, A. K.; Tedesco, M.; Smith, L. C.; Pitcher, L. H.; Mote, T. L.; Yager, P. L.; Moustafa, S.; Cooper, M. G.; van As, D.; Hasholt, B.; Mikkelsen, A. B.


    One of the main ways the ice sheet loses mass is by meltwater runoff. Because of Greenland's great size, regional surface mass balance models are key to understanding large-scale runoff patterns and trends. At the same time, remote sensing and field observations reveal a complex hydrological system on the ice sheet's surface that are not well captured by these models. Yet, understanding the fate and impact of the meltwater on the ocean depends on knowing these temporal and spatial details. Unusually thick, near surface, ice lenses found in firn cores, most likely formed during very large recent melt events signify meltwater refreezing, but may also prevent further infiltration while facilitating runoff. Maps derived from remote sensing show how this runoff flows through an extensive network of supraglacial streams and lakes before it drains into the ice via moulins. Observations of discharge on the ice sheet surface and its margin provide evidence of runoff delays and retention before it is exported to the surrounding oceans. Here, trends and spatial patterns in ice sheet runoff will be examined by using model outputs from the regional surface mass balance model Modèle Atmosphérique Régional and compared with recent remotely sensed and field observations.

  1. Past and present status of runoff harvesting systems in dryland peninsular India: a critical review.

    Gunnell, Yanni; Krishnamurthy, Anupama


    Many modern agricultural systems are structured around one dominant form of water storage and distribution, usually large reservoirs. In contrast, in peninsular India, small reservoirs (tanks), predominantly supplied by surface runoff as opposed to river canals have for centuries been the trademark of an entire agrarian civilization, with no equivalent elsewhere in the semiarid tropics. This article focuses on the physical and socioeconomic conditions that underlie the success of an indigenous technology which has for centuries exploited the potential for runoff harvesting by i) optimizing water management for agriculture; and ii) minimizing soil loss. Today, siltation of reservoirs, privatization of water resources, and generalized mining of groundwater, pose a threat to the sustainability of these water-harvesting systems. The ongoing transformation of this common resource pool is critically assessed.

  2. Phytotoxic substances in runoff from forested catchment areas

    Grimvall, Anders; Bengtsson, Maj-Britt; Borén, Hans; Wahlström, Dan

    Runoff from different catchment areas in southern Sweden was tested in a root bioassay based on solution cultures of cucumber seedlings. Water samples from agricultural catchment areas produced no signs at all or only weak signs of inhibited root growth, whereas several water samples from catchment areas dominated by mires or coniferous forests produced visible root injuries. The most severe root injuries (very short roots, discolouration, swelling of root tips and lack of root hairs) were caused by samples from a catchment area without local emissions and dominated by old stands of spruce. Fractionation by ultrafiltration showed that the phytotoxic effect of these samples could be attributed to organic matter with a nominal molecular-weight exceeding 1000 or to substances associated with organic macromolecules. Experiments aimed at concentrating phytotoxic compounds from surface water indicated that the observed growth inhibition was caused by strongly hydrophilic substances. Previous reports on phytotoxic, organic substances of natural origin have emphasized interaction between plants growing close together. The presence of phytotoxic substances in runoff indicates that there is also a large-scale dispersion of such compounds.

  3. Soil erosion and nutrient runoff in corn silage production with kura clover living mulch and winter rye

    Corn (Zea mays L.) harvested for silage is a productive forage crop, but one that can exacerbate soil loss, surface water runoff, and nonpoint source nutrient pollution from agricultural fields. The objective of this research was to compare the effects of using Kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bie...

  4. Runoff production from intercrater plains on Mars

    Irwin, R. P., III; Matsubara, Y.; Cawley, J. C.


    Ancient fluvial paleochannels and paleolakes constrain the hydrology of a wetter epoch in the early history of Mars. The cross-sectional dimensions of fluvial channels scale with discharge, watershed topography is generally well preserved, and adjustments can be made for gravity. These factors have supported conservative estimates of runoff production during event floods more than 3.5 billion years ago. Assuming weak channel banks, such that discharge is low per unit channel width, event floods in smaller watersheds had estimated runoff production of 1 cm/day. Highland surfaces generated runoff inefficiently, such that channel width increases with only the 0.3 power of watershed area. Inefficient runoff production on Mars is also suggested by new landscape evolution modeling. In long-term simulations that accurately reproduce the present landscape, forming and degrading all of the Middle and Late Noachian impact craters in selected study areas, inefficient runoff production is needed to degrade craters without intensely dissecting intercrater surfaces. The model shows that discharge generally cannot increase at more than the 0.3 power of watershed area. Paleolakes provide useful constraints on paleohydrology over intermediate timescales of years to millennia. Most local highland basins were never integrated into regional drainage systems, but some have both a contributing valley network and an outlet valley, indicating that they overflowed. Paleolake overflows require a medium-term water supply that exceeds losses to evaporation. Reasonable evaporation of 0.1 to 1 m/yr and watersheds that are mostly >10 times the area of overflowed paleolakes suggest runoff production of gardening, and lesser aeolian erosion. Low drainage density is an obvious explanation for inefficient runoff production, but it may be the consequence of moderate rainfall or snowmelt, as well as incision of valley networks over a finite timescale.

  5. Lunar Materials Handling System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of lunar soil into and out of process equipment in support of in situ resource utilization...

  6. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    Gill, J.T. [Monsanto Research Corp., Miamisburg, OH (United States). Mound Facility; Coffin, D.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  7. Solidex 88: solids handling conference


    Papers are presented under the session headings: BMHB (British Materials Handling Board) - tackling user problems; feeding pneumatic conveying systems - matching the hardware to the product; and solutions to some operational problems.

  8. Lunar Materials Handling System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of bulk materials and products into and out of process equipment in support of lunar and Mars in...

  9. Order Handling in Convergent Environments

    Vrtanoski, Jordan


    The rapid development of IT&T technology had big impact on the traditional telecommunications market, transforming it from monopolistic market to highly competitive high-tech market where new services are required to be created frequently. This paper aims to describe a design approach that puts order management process (as part of enterprise application integration) in function of rapid service creation. In the text we will present a framework for collaborative order handling supporting convergent services. The design splits the order handling processes in convergent environments in three business process groups: order capture, order management and order fulfillment. The paper establishes abstract framework for order handling and provides design guidelines for transaction handling implementation based on the checkpoint and inverse command strategy. The proposed design approach is based in a convergent telecommunication environment. Same principles are applicable in solving problems of collaboration in fun...

  10. Towards integrated microliquid handling systems

    Elwenspoek, M.; Lammerink, T.S.J.; Miyake, R.; Fluitman, J.H.J.


    In this paper we describe components for integrated microliquid handling systems such as fluid injection analysis, and first results of planar integration of components. The components discussed are channels, passive and active valves, actuators for micropumps, micromixers, microflow sensors, optica

  11. Rainfall-runoff modelling of the Okavango River catchment to assess impacts of land use change on runoff and downstream ecosystems

    Milzow, Christian; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter


    The competition between human water use and ecosystem water use is one of the major challenges for water resources management at the global scale. We analyse the situation for the Okavango River basin of southern Africa. The Okavango River is representative for many large rivers throughout the developing world in that it is ungauged and poorly studied. The Okavango basin - spanning over Angola, Namibia and Botswana - represents a multi-objective problem in an international setting. Economic benefits of agricultural development and conservation of ecosystem services call for opposed actions. A semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model of the Okavango catchment is set up using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The model is sufficiently physically based to simulate the impact on runoff of extent of agricultural use, crop types and management practices. Precipitation and temperature inputs are taken from datasets covering large parts of the globe. The methodology can thus easily be applied for other ungauged catchments. For temperature we use the ERA-Interim reanalysis product of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and for precipitation the Famine Early Warning Systems Network data (FEWS-Net). Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) data resulted in poor model performance compared to the FEWS-Net data. Presently, the upstream catchment in Angola is largely pristine and agriculture is basically restricted to dry land subsistence farming. But economic growth in Angola is likely to result in agricultural development and consequent impacts on catchment runoff. Land use scenarios that are simulated include large scale irrigated agriculture with water extractions from the river and the shallow aquifer. Climate change impacts are also studied and compared to land use change impacts. The downstream part of the basin consists of the large Okavango Wetlands, which are a biodiversity hotspot of global importance and, through tourism, an important

  12. Modelling runoff and soil water content with the DR2-2013© SAGA v1.1 model at catchment scale under Mediterranean conditions (NE Spain)

    López-Vicente, Manuel, , Dr.; Palazón, M. Sc. Leticia; Quijano, M. Sc. Laura; Gaspar, Leticia, , Dr.; Navas, Ana, , Dr.


    Hydrological and soil erosion models allow mapping and quantifying spatially distributed rates of runoff depth and soil redistribution for different land uses, management and tillage practices and climatic scenarios. The different temporal and spatial [very small (1000 km2)] scales of numerical simulations make model selection specific to each range of scales. Additionally, the spatial resolution of the inputs is in agreement with the size of the study area. In this study, we run the GIS-based water balance DR2-2013© SAGA v1.1 model (freely downloaded as executable file at, in the Vandunchil stream catchment (23 km2; Ebro river basin, NE Spain). All input maps are generated at 5 x 5 m of cell size (924,573 pixels per map) allowing sound parameterization. Simulation is run at monthly scale with average climatic values. This catchment is an open hydrological system and it has a long history of human occupation, agricultural practices and water management. Numerous manmade infrastructures or landscape linear elements (LLEs: paved and unpaved trails, rock mounds in non-cultivated areas, disperse and small settlements, shallow and long drainage ditches, stone walls, small rock dams, fences and vegetation strips) appear throughout the hillslopes and streams and modify the natural runoff pathways and thus the hydrological and sediment connectivity. Rain-fed cereal fields occupy one third of the catchment area, 1% corresponds to sealed soils, and the remaining area is covered with Mediterranean forest, scrubland, pine afforestation and meadow. The parent material corresponds to Miocene sandstones and lutites and Holocene colluvial and alluvial deposits. The climate is continental Mediterranean with two humid periods, one in spring and a second in autumn that summarizes 63% of the total annual precipitation. We created a synthetic weather station (WS) from the Caseda and Uncastillo WS. The effective rainfall that reaches the soils

  13. 76 FR 80211 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 3


    ... in the market. The changes are expected to increase sales of Colorado potatoes and to benefit the...] [Pages 80211-80214] [FR Doc No: 2011-32927] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7... of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 3 AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final...

  14. 7 CFR 989.210 - Handling of varietal types of raisins acquired pursuant to a weight dockage system.


    ... pursuant to a weight dockage system. 989.210 Section 989.210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables... Regulations § 989.210 Handling of varietal types of raisins acquired pursuant to a weight dockage system....

  15. 78 FR 22202 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 Marketing Order Regulating the... 2013-2014 Marketing Year AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY..., that handlers may purchase from, or handle on behalf of, producers during the 2013-2014 marketing...

  16. 78 FR 32070 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...


    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced...: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule establishes the quantity of....'' The order is effective under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7...

  17. 7 CFR 205.201 - Organic production and handling system plan.


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organic production and handling system plan. 205.201... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and...

  18. 78 FR 24331 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Temporary Suspension of Handling Regulations


    ... consumer satisfaction, increasing sales, and improving returns to producers. However, due to the evolving... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 922 Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Temporary Suspension of Handling Regulations AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of...

  19. Civilsamfundets ABC: H for Handling

    Lund, Anker Brink; Meyer, Gitte


    Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til H for Handling.......Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til H for Handling....

  20. Influence of soil water repellency on runoff and solute loss from New Zealand pasture

    Jeyakumar, P.; Müller, K.; Deurer, M.; van den Dijssel, C.; Mason, K.; Green, S.; Clothier, B. E.


    Soil water repellency (SWR) has been reported in New Zealand, but knowledge on its importance for the country's economy and environment is limited. Our recent survey on the occurrence of SWR under pasture across the North Island of New Zealand showed that most soils exhibited SWR when dry independent of climate but influenced by the soil order. SWR is discussed as an important soil surface condition enhancing run-off and the transfer of fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural land into waterways. So far, the impact of SWR on run-off has rarely been measured. We developed a laboratory-scale run-off measurement apparatus (ROMA) to quantify directly the impact of SWR on run-off from undisturbed soil slabs. We compared the run-off resulting from the run-on of water with that resulting from an ethanol (30% v/v) solution, which is a fully-wetting liquid even in severely hydrophobic soils. Thus, the experiments with the ethanol solution can be understood as a proxy measure of the wetting-up behaviour of hydrophilic soils. We conducted ROMA run-off experiments with air-dried soil slabs (460 mm long x 190 mm wide x 50 mm deep) collected from pastoral sites, representing three major soil orders in the North Island: Recent Soil (Fluvisol), Gley Soil (Gleysol), and Organic Soil (Histosol), with water followed by the ethanol solution at a run-on rate of 60 mm/h. Bromide was applied at 80 kg KBr/ha prior to the water experiments to assess potential solute losses via run-off. The air-dried soils had a high degree and persistence of SWR (contact angles, 97, 98 and 104° , and potential water drop penetration times, 42, 54 and 231 min for the Fluvisol, Gleysol and Histosol, respectively). Under identical soil and experimental conditions, water generated run-off from all soils, but in the experiments with the ethanol solution, the entire ethanol solution infiltrated into the soils. The ranking of the run-off coefficients of the soils directly reflected their ranking in

  1. Water-quality characteristics in runoff for three discovery farms in North Dakota, 2008-12

    Nustad, Rochelle A.; Rowland, Kathleen M.; Wiederholt, Ronald


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with North Dakota State University Agriculture Research Extension and in collaboration with North Dakota State Department of Health, North Dakota State Water Commission, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and several agricultural producers, helped organize a Discovery Farms program in North Dakota in 2007. Discharge measurements and water-quality samples collected at the three Farms (Underwood, Dazey, and Embden) were used to describe water-quality characteristics in runoff, and compute estimates of annual loads and yields for selected constituents from spring 2008 through fall 2012.

  2. Síndrome HaNDL / HaNDL Syndrome / Síndrome HaNDL

    Camilo Ernesto Barros-Gutiérrez, MD., Esp.


    Full Text Available Introducción: El Síndrome HaNDL (Headache and neurologic deficits with cerebroespinal fluid lymphocytosis por sus siglas en inglés, es una patología que cursa con cefalea, focalización neurológica y linfocitosis en el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Objetivo: este artículo busca presentar un caso de Síndrome de HaNDL, puesto que esta condición nosológica implica un reto diagnóstico. Resultados y conclusiones: Se presenta el caso de un paciente con diagnóstico de síndrome de HaNDL los hallazgos al examen físico y del líquido cefalorraquídeo. [Barros-Gutiérrez CE, Silva-Monsalve E, Gualtero-Trujillo S. Síndrome HaNDL. MedUNAB 2015; 17(3: xx-xx]. Introduction: The syndrome of transient Headache and Neurological Deficits with cerebrospinal fluid Lymphocytosis, is a pathology that presents cephalalgia, neurological focalization and lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid. Objective: This article presents a HaNDL Syndrome case, since this nosological condition implies a diagnostic challenge. Results and conclusions: A case of a patient with HaNDL syndrome diagnosis, physical examination findings and cerebrospinal fluid are presented. [Barros-Gutiérrez CE, Silva-Monsalve E, Gualtero-Trujillo S. HaNDL Syndrome. MedUNAB 2015; 17(3: xx-xx]. Introdução: A síndrome de HaNDL (Headache and neurologic déficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis por sua sigla em inglês é uma doença que causa dor de cabeça, foco neurológico e linfocitose no líquido cefalorraquidiano. Objetivo: Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar um caso de Síndrome de HaNDL, uma vez que esta condição nosológica envolve um desafio diagnóstico. Resultados e conclusões: Apresenta-se o caso de um paciente diagnosticado com a síndrome de HaNDL, o encontrado no exame físico e o líquido cefalorraquidiano. [Barros-Gutiérrez CE, Silva-Monsalve E, Gualtero-Trujillo S. Síndrome HaNDL. MedUNAB 2015; 17(3: xx-xx].

  3. A Review of Screw Conveyors Performance Evaluation During Handling Process

    Hemad Zareiforoush


    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent work on screw conveyors performance evaluation during handling process, especially in the case of agricultural grains and bulk materials. Experimental work has been mainly carried out to determine a range of parameters, such as auger dimension, screw rotational speed, screw clearance, conveyor intake length and conveying angle for horizontal, inclined and vertical screw conveyors. Several measurement techniques including theoretical models and DEM have been utilized to study the screw conveyors performance. However, each of these techniques is limited in its application. Difficulties in representing vortex motion and interactions among conveying grains and between the particles and screw rotating flight have so far limited the success of advanced modeling. Further work is needed to be conducted on screw augers performance to understand and improve the agricultural grains and bulk materials handling process.

  4. Tool handling robot system; Tool handling robot system



    As an example of the delivery of industrial use automation equipment by Meidensha Corp., the paper introduced a tool handling robot system. The system is a tool handling robot of case processing use FMS (flexible manufacturing system). This is a system which exchanges tool automatically according to the From To order from the managing computer using the ceiling running robot between five horizontal type machining centers and more than 800 collective tool stockers. The structure of the system is as follows: tool handling robot (MHR-400), robot controller (meirocs-F), tool hand, robot running unit, tool stocker (for 844 tools), five life tool exchange trucks, tool truck lifting unit, system control panel. (NEDO)

  5. Agriculture Sectors

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  6. Agricultural Geophysics

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  7. Rainfall–runoff temporal variability in Kermanshah province, Iran and distinguishing anthropogenic effects from climatic effects

    P Ghafarian; S Gholami; E Owlad; H Gerivani


    Investigation of changes in rainfall and runoff patterns in various regions and determining their relationship in the sense of hydrology and climatology are of great importance, considering those patterns efficiently reveal the human and natural factors in this variability. One of the mathematical methods to recognise and model these fluctuations is Wavelet Analysis. This is a spectral method used in multivariateanalysis and also tracing fluctuations in temporal series. In this study, continuous wavelet transformation is used to identify temporal changes in rainfall–runoff patterns. The hydrological and rain gauge data were collected from in situ measurements of Kermanshah province located in the western border of Iran.Precipitation anomalies were reconsidered in a number of stations, including Kermanshah, for a period of 55 years (1955–2010) and discharge of Gamasiab River in Polchehr station, discharge of Khoram Rood River in Aran-Gharb station and discharge of Gharasoo River in Polekohne station. In addition, anomaliesof the climatic teleconnections were studied to emphasise the climatological effects on the runoff pattern in the region. The role of natural and anthropogenic effects (land use changes) has been distinguished and identified, using the comparison of the teleconnections and hydrological data. The results achieved from three stations show that there was an approximate correlation between rainfall, runoff and teleconnections until the year 1995; however, after 1995, a great difference appeared among them, specifically for the Aran-Gharb station (Khoram Rood River). The post-1995 slope of cumulative standardised anomaly is much steeper in the case of runoff compared to rainfall. As there were no significant climate changes in the region, it could be concluded that the runoff decrease is not caused by climatechanges, but by anthropogenic effects, human interventions and extra water usage from the surface and underground water resources for

  8. Rainfall-runoff temporal variability in Kermanshah province, Iran and distinguishing anthropogenic effects from climatic effects

    Ghafarian, P.; Gholami, S.; Owlad, E.; Gerivani, H.


    Investigation of changes in rainfall and runoff patterns in various regions and determining their relationship in the sense of hydrology and climatology are of great importance, considering those patterns efficiently reveal the human and natural factors in this variability. One of the mathematical methods to recognise and model these fluctuations is Wavelet Analysis. This is a spectral method used in multivariate analysis and also tracing fluctuations in temporal series. In this study, continuous wavelet transformation is used to identify temporal changes in rainfall-runoff patterns. The hydrological and rain gauge data were collected from in situ measurements of Kermanshah province located in the western border of Iran. Precipitation anomalies were reconsidered in a number of stations, including Kermanshah, for a period of 55 years (1955-2010) and discharge of Gamasiab River in Polchehr station, discharge of Khoram Rood River in Aran-Gharb station and discharge of Gharasoo River in Polekohne station. In addition, anomalies of the climatic teleconnections were studied to emphasise the climatological effects on the runoff pattern in the region. The role of natural and anthropogenic effects (land use changes) has been distinguished and identified, using the comparison of the teleconnections and hydrological data. The results achieved from three stations show that there was an approximate correlation between rainfall, runoff and teleconnections until the year 1995; however, after 1995, a great difference appeared among them, specifically for the Aran-Gharb station (Khoram Rood River). The post-1995 slope of cumulative standardised anomaly is much steeper in the case of runoff compared to rainfall. As there were no significant climate changes in the region, it could be concluded that the runoff decrease is not caused by climate changes, but by anthropogenic effects, human interventions and extra water usage from the surface and underground water resources for

  9. Evaluation of phosphorus source coefficients as predictors of runoff phosphorus concentrations.

    Smith, Matt C; White, John W; Coale, Frank J


    Many states have adopted a P site index (PSI) as a risk assessment tool to determine when P-based nutrient management is required for a given agricultural field. Some PSIs use a weighting factor, the phosphorus source coefficient (PSC), to account for differences in P solubility between organic P sources. Information relating to appropriate values of PSC for various organic P sources is limited. The objectives of this study were to determine PSCs for organic P sources and to examine the relationship between PSCs and P concentrations measured in simulated rainfall runoff. An incubation study was used to calculate PSCs based on the extractability of P from organic P sources (separated and unseparated liquid dairy manure, digested dairy manure, dairy manure solids, poultry litter, and compost) relative to P from triple superphosphate fertilizer. The PSCs from the 14-d incubations were the best predictors of runoff P after 14 d soil equilibration in the runoff boxes. The values for iron-oxide strip phosphorus (FeO-P) PSC ranged from 78% for compost to 28% for poultry litter and were significantly related to runoff DR-P (r(2) = 0.80***) and FeO-P (r(2) = 0.76***) during the 14-d runoff event. Mehlich 3 PSCs ranged from 59% for compost to 30% for unseparated dairy manure and were better predictors of DR-P and FeO-P during the 56-d event (r(2) = 0.73*** and 0.65***, respectively). The results of this study indicate that PSCs based on soil incubations may improve the ability of PSCs to predict the risk of runoff transport, particularly after manure incorporation.


    Andrés Pérez Magaña


    Full Text Available This contribution had as objective identifying the Knowledge and the strategies that have developed the peasants of a michoacana community for natural resources handle whit agriculturals objective. Starting from idea of that in the Sierra Purepecha region a little has been studied about folk knowledge and agricultural, and that had been unestimated, since the agrarians sciences, its potential for the rural development. Since the focus agroecologic it was studied a community of peasants of the Michoacan Stated using the techniques of participating observation, the agroecological transect and the semistructured individual interview. The results show that the peasants have developed knowledge, which permit to distinguish and identify environmental unities, and the handle the production space; it permit to handle different strategies of natural resources such as: the construction of boars, enclosures alive, reforestation, the use of dung the association crops, distribution space of the crops, expansion of the biodiversity and the handle of the germplasma. These actions are favored for the collective behavior of the community. In these actions are reflexeted a social construction, in which is present the knowledge of the peasants and their capacity of answer to adverses socioenvaironmental factors for assureting its production and reproduction.

  11. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  12. Application of wavelet transform in runoff sequence analysis


    A wavelet transform is applied to runoff analysis to obtain the composition of the runoff sequence and to forecast future runoff. An observed runoff sequence is firstly decomposed and reconstructed by wavelet transform and its expanding tendency is derived. Then, the runoff sequence is forecasted by the back propagation artificial neural networks (BPANN) and by a wavelet transform combined with BPANN. The earlier researches seldom involve the problem of how to choose wavelet function, which is important and cannot be ignored when the wavelet transform is used. With application of the developed approach to the analysis of runoff sequence, several kinds of wavelet functions have been tested.

  13. Physicochemical conditions and properties of particles in urban runoff and rivers: Implications for runoff pollution.

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Qionghua; Wu, Yaketon; Wang, Xiaochang C


    In this study, to gain an improved understanding of the fate and fractionation of particle-bound pollutants, we evaluated the physicochemical conditions and the properties of particles in rainwater, urban runoff, and rivers of Yixing, a city with a large drainage density in the Taihu Lake Basin, China. Road runoff and river samples were collected during the wet and dry seasons in 2015 and 2016. There were significant differences between the physicochemical conditions (pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and electroconductivity (EC)) of rainwater, runoff, and rivers. The lowest pH and highest ORP values of rainwater provide the optimal conditions for leaching of particle-bound pollutants such as heavy metals. The differences in the physicochemical conditions of the runoff and rivers may contribute to the redistribution of pollutants between particulate and dissolved phases after runoff is discharged into waterways. Runoff and river particles were mainly composed of silt and clay (pollutants and settling ability of particles, which shows that it can be used as an index when monitoring runoff pollution.




    Full Text Available When rain falls on the earth, it just does not sit there, it starts moving according to the laws of gravity. A portion of the precipitation seeps into the ground to replenish Earth's groundwater. Most of it flows downhill as runoff. Runoff is extremely important in that not only does it keep rivers and lakes full of water, but it also changes the landscape by the action of erosion. The purpose and objective in this study are to estimate the conditions of land cover of Unda Watershed based on the results of image processing, to estimate the monthly average runoff and discharge in outlet of Unda Watershed from 1999 to 2003. The research location is in Unda Watershed. This watershed lies in Province of Bali which has wide 233.1 km2 (23.310 Ha (Balai Wilayah Sungai Bali-Penida. Administratively this watershed lies in 3 Regencies that are Karangasem, Klungkung and Bangli Regency. Mostly the region lies in the Karangasem Regency. In this research, the monthly rainfall data employed to generate the runoff process. Analyze of contour map from topography map obtained the watershed area, physical parameter of river and concentration time. In this research used monthly average rainf all data (from 1999 to 2003 from Pempatan, Besakih, Singarata, Sidemen, Klungkung, Telengan, Rain Gauge Station and Polygon Thiesen method employed to analyze the datas. Apart of rainfall, there are a number of site specific factors which have a direct bearing on the occurrence and volume of runoff, they are soil type, land cover and slope. The soil types in this research area are all Regosol, this soil mapping does not need to be overlayed in obtaining the land unit. Analyze of land cover was employed by Supervised Classification method. By image processing obtained land cover of Unda Watershed estimated consists of 38.129 km2 of forest area (16.357°Ai, 19.122 km2 of grassland area (8.203%, 100.991 km2 of farmland area (43.325%, 62-412 km2 of area housing (26.775%, 2.625 km2

  15. Værk som handling

    Jalving, Camilla

    Hvordan kan et kunstværk være en handling? Hvad er performativ billedkunst, og hvad menes der egentlig med ordet ´performativitet´? Det er nogle af de spørgsmål, bogen Værk som handling griber fat i. Mens performativitet i løbet af de sidste ti år er blevet et bredt anvendt begreb i kulturteorien...... mellem værket som objekt og som handling. Bogens værkanalyser orienterer sig derfor både mod, hvad kunstværket er, og hvordan det er: Hvordan virker det, hvordan stiller det sig frem, hvordan producerer det betydning, hvordan skaber det en situation, og ikke mindst hvordan interagerer det med betragteren?...

  16. Estimating Subcatchment Runoff Coefficients using Weather Radar and a Downstream Runoff Sensor

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.;


    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage subcatchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and flow measurements from a downstream runoff sensor. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate...... the runoff coefficients of the separate subcatchments. The method is demonstrated through a case study of an urban drainage catchment (678 ha) located in the city of Aarhus, Denmark. The study has proven that it is possible to use corresponding measurements of the relative rainfall distribution over...

  17. The handling of chemical data

    Lark, P D; Bosworth, R C L


    The Handling of Chemical Data deals with how measurements, such as those arrived at from chemical experimentation, are handled. The book discusses the different kinds of measurements and their specific dimensional characteristics by starting with the origin and presentation of chemical data. The text explains the units, fixed points, and relationships found between scales, the concept of dimensions, the presentation of quantitative data (whether in a tabular or graphical form), and some uses of empirical equations. The book also explains the relationship between two variables, and how equatio

  18. How Retailers Handle Complaint Management

    Hansen, Torben; Wilke, Ricky; Zaichkowsky, Judy


    as to the links between CM and redress of consumers’ complaints. The results suggest that retailers who attach large negative consequences to consumer dissatisfaction are more likely than other retailers to develop a positive strategic view on customer complaining, but at the same time an increase in perceived......This article fills a gap in the literature by providing insight about the handling of complaint management (CM) across a large cross section of retailers in the grocery, furniture, electronic and auto sectors. Determinants of retailers’ CM handling are investigated and insight is gained...... negative consequences of customer dissatisfaction leads to a more negative view on interacting with complaining customers....

  19. Effects of combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers plus nitrification inhibitor DMPP on nitrogen runoff loss in vegetable soils.

    Yu, Qiaogang; Ma, Junwei; Zou, Ping; Lin, Hui; Sun, Wanchun; Yin, Jianzhen; Fu, Jianrong


    The application of nitrogen fertilizers leads to various ecological problems such as large amounts of nitrogen runoff loss causing water body eutrophication. The proposal that nitrification inhibitors could be used as nitrogen runoff loss retardants has been suggested in many countries. In this study, simulated artificial rainfall was used to illustrate the effect of the nitrification inhibitor DMPP (3,4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate) on nitrogen loss from vegetable fields under combined organic and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer application. The results showed that during the three-time simulated artificial rainfall period, the ammonium nitrogen content in the surface runoff water collected from the DMPP application treatment increased by 1.05, 1.13, and 1.10 times compared to regular organic and inorganic combined fertilization treatment, respectively. In the organic and inorganic combined fertilization with DMPP addition treatment, the nitrate nitrogen content decreased by 38.8, 43.0, and 30.1% in the three simulated artificial rainfall runoff water, respectively. Besides, the nitrite nitrogen content decreased by 95.4, 96.7, and 94.1% in the three-time simulated artificial rainfall runoff water, respectively. A robust decline in the nitrate and nitrite nitrogen surface runoff loss could be observed in the treatments after the DMPP addition. The nitrite nitrogen in DMPP addition treatment exhibited a significant low level, which is near to the no fertilizer application treatment. Compared to only organic and inorganic combined fertilizer treatment, the total inorganic nitrogen runoff loss declined by 22.0 to 45.3% in the organic and inorganic combined fertilizers with DMPP addition treatment. Therefore, DMPP could be used as an effective nitrification inhibitor to control the soil ammonium oxidation in agriculture and decline the nitrogen runoff loss, minimizing the nitrogen transformation risk to the water body and being beneficial for the ecological environment.

  20. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    Van Tricht, Kristof; Lhermitte, Stef; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Noël, Brice; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Turner, David D.; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.


    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (±5.2) W m-2. Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise.

  1. Groundwater Recharge, Evapotranspiration and Surface Runoff ...


    Department of Earth Science, CNCS, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle University, ... The mean annual groundwater recharge, evapotranspiration and runoff were ... Accordingly, recharge accounts for 12% of the precipitation .... So, to apply the WetSpass for Illala catchment, input of the meteorological grid map ..... Review of Australian.

  2. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  3. water infiltration, conductivity and runoff under fallow

    sections of sloping terraces on water infiltration and subsequent runoff on a Haplic ... Infiltration measurements, done by a tension infiltrometer, were conducted under 3-year old tree .... head first avoid hysteresis (Reynolds and Elrick, ..... terrace (60%), perhaps reflecting the influence of ..... Water Resources Research 14:.

  4. Characterization of chromium species in urban runoff

    Cederkvist, Karin; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Holm, Peter Engelund


    Little is known about the presence of the element Cr in its toxic hexavalent form Cr(VI) in stormwater runoff from urban areas. Most studies report only total Cr concentration, i.e., including also the nontoxic Cr(III) molecular form. The objective of this study was to evaluate a field method bas...

  5. Urban Runoff and Combined Sewer Overflow.

    Field, Richard; Gardner, Bradford B.


    Presents a literature review of wastewater treatment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes areas such as: (1) urban runoff quality and quantity; (2) urban hydrology; (3) management practices; and (4) combined sewer overflows. A list of 140 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff.

    Van Tricht, K; Lhermitte, S; Lenaerts, J T M; Gorodetskaya, I V; L'Ecuyer, T S; Noël, B; van den Broeke, M R; Turner, D D; van Lipzig, N P M


    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (±5.2) W m(-2). Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise.

  7. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    Van Tricht, K.; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Gorodetskaya, I. V.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Noël, B.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Turner, D. D.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.


    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (±5.2) W m−2. Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise. PMID:26756470

  8. Fungicides transport in runoff from vineyard plot and catchment: contribution of non-target areas.

    Lefrancq, Marie; Payraudeau, Sylvain; García Verdú, Antonio Joaquín; Maillard, Elodie; Millet, Maurice; Imfeld, Gwenaël


    Surface runoff and erosion during the course of rainfall events are major processes of pesticides transport from agricultural land to aquatic ecosystem. These processes are generally evaluated either at the plot or the catchment scale. Here, we compared at both scales the transport and partitioning in runoff water of two widely used fungicides, i.e., kresoxim-methyl (KM) and cyazofamid (CY). The objective was to evaluate the relationship between fungicides runoff from the plot and from the vineyard catchment. The results show that seasonal exports for KM and CY at the catchment were larger than those obtained at the plot. This underlines that non-target areas within the catchment largely contribute to the overall load of runoff-associated fungicides. Estimations show that 85 and 62 % of the loads observed for KM and CY at the catchment outlet cannot be explained by the vineyard plots. However, the partitioning of KM and CY between three fractions, i.e., the suspended solids (>0.7 μm) and two dissolved fractions (i.e., between 0.22 and 0.7 µm and catchment and the plot scales enable to evaluate the sources areas of pesticide off-site transport.

  9. Runoff and soil loss relationships for the Texas Blackland Prairies ecoregion

    Harmel, R. D.; Richardson, C. W.; King, K. W.; Allen, P. M.


    SummaryHydrological and soil loss data have been collected since 1937 at the USDA-ARS Grassland Soil and Water Research Laboratory near Riesel, TX. Data from the site, originally named the Blacklands Experimental Watershed, have played a vital role in the evaluation of conservation management practices to limit soil erosion and offsite herbicide transport and in the development of several watershed models used worldwide. The entire record of precipitation, runoff, sediment loss, management practices, and limited meteorological information is publicly available ( The data represent a valuable regional resource for use in water supply modeling, rural land development, and agricultural land management. Results of the present analyses confirmed the importance of soil-water phases to temporal runoff patterns in the Texas Blackland Prairies ecoregion. Little runoff occurs in the "dry" soil-water phase (avg. = 2-9 mm/month), but substantial surface runoff and lateral subsurface return flow occurs in the "saturated" phase (avg. = 19-28 mm/month). Strong linear relationships ( P water quality impairment.

  10. Surface runoff in the Itaim Watershed

    Getulio Teixeira Batista


    Full Text Available This paper describes a work done in the Itaim watershed at Taubaté, SP, and had the objective of estimating the surface runoff based on the Curve-Number (CN method in area with vegetation cover of grassland (Brachiaria Decumbens, that prevails in this watershed. The surface runoff was estimated using three different methods: 1st values of accumulated Infiltration (IAc obtained in the field were used, considered as the Potential Infiltration (S, which varied from 15.37 mm to 51.88 mm with an average value of 23.46 mm. With those measured infiltration rates and using the maximum precipitation values for Taubaté, SP, with duration time of 3 hours: P = 54.4; 70.3; 80.8; 86.7; 90.9; 94.1 and 103.9 mm, respectively, for the return times, Tr = 2, 5, 10, 15, 25, 50 and 100 years, the following values of surface runoff were generated: 34.83; 49.33; 59.14; 64.71; 68.69; 71.73 and 81.10 mm, respectively; In the 2nd method it was considered that the prevailing vegetation cover of the watershed was Dirty Pasture (Pasture with regrowth of natural vegetation and therefore, a value of CN = 75 was used and generated a potential infiltration, S = 84,7 mm and resulted in surface runoff values that varied from 11 to 44 mm; In the 3rd method, the value of CN was considered equal to 66.57. This value was calculated weighting the contribution of all land use cover classes of the watershed, and as a result a higher value of potential infiltration, S = 127 mm, was obtained. Consequently, the surface runoff values were 5.33; 11.64; 16.72; 19.83; 22.16; 23.98 and 29.83 mm, respectively. Therefore, the comparison with the results obtained by the two Curve-Number methods (conventional and weighted allowed to be concluded that the Curve-Number method applied in a conventional way underestimated the surface runoff in the studied area. However, results indicate that it is possible to use this method for surface runoff estimates as long as adjustments based on potential

  11. Precipitation-runoff relations and water-quality characteristics at edge-of-field stations, Discovery Farms and Pioneer Farm, Wisconsin, 2003-8

    Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Peppler, Marie C.; Owens, David W.; Frame, Dennis R.


    A cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison Discovery Farms program (Discovery Farms), and the UW-Platteville Pioneer Farm program (Pioneer Farm) was developed to identify typical ranges and magnitudes, temporal distributions, and principal factors affecting concentrations and yields of sediment, nutrients, and other selected constituents in runoff from agricultural fields. Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected year-round at 23 edge-of-field monitoring stations on 5 privately owned Discovery Farms and on Pioneer Farm during water years 2003-8. The studied farms represented landscapes, soils, and farming systems typical of livestock farms throughout southern Wisconsin. Each farm employed a variety of soil, nutrient, and water-conservation practices to help minimize sediment and nutrient losses from fields and to improve crop productivity. This report summarizes the precipitation-runoff relations and water-quality characteristics measured in edge-of-field runoff for 26 "farm years" (aggregate years of averaged station data from all 6 farms for varying monitoring periods). A relatively wide range of constituents typically found in agricultural runoff were measured: suspended sediment, phosphorus (total, particulate, dissolved reactive, and total dissolved), and nitrogen (total, nitrate plus nitrite, organic, ammonium, total Kjeldahl and total Kjeldahl-dissolved), chloride, total solids, total suspended solids, total volatile suspended solids, and total dissolved solids. Mean annual precipitation was 32.8 inches for the study period, about 3 percent less than the 30-year mean. Overall mean annual runoff was 2.55 inches per year (about 8 percent of precipitation) and the distribution was nearly equal between periods of frozen ground (54 percent) and unfrozen ground (46 percent). Mean monthly runoff was highest during two periods: February to March and May to June. Ninety percent of annual runoff occurred

  12. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling. Each..., contamination, or other adverse effects to product do not occur during handling. ...

  13. RUNON a hitherto little noticed factor - Field experiments comparing RUNOFF/RUNON processes

    Kohl, Bernhard; Achleitner, Stefan; Lumassegger, Simon


    When ponded water moves downslope as overland flow, an important process called runon manifests itself, but is often ignored in rainfall-runoff studies (Nahar et al. 2004) linking infiltration exclusively to rainfall. Runon effects on infiltration have not yet or only scarcely been evaluated (e.g. Zheng et al. 2000). Runoff-runon occurs when spatially variable infiltration capacities result in runoff generated in one location potentially infiltrating further downslope in an area with higher infiltration capacity (Jones et al. 2013). Numerous studies report inverse relationships between unit area volumes of overland flow and plot lengths (Jones et al. 2016). This is an indication that the effects of rainfall and runon often become blurred. We use a coupled hydrological/2D hydrodynamic model to simulate surface runoff and pluvial flooding including the associated infiltration process. In frame of the research project SAFFER-CC (sensitivity assessment of critical condition for local flash floods - evaluating the recurrence under climate change) the influence of land use and soil conservation on pluvial flash flood modeling is assessed. Field experiments are carried out with a portable irrigation spray installation at different locations with a plot size 5m width and 10m length. The test plots were subjected first to a rainfall with constant intensity of 100 mm/h for one hour. Consecutively a super intense, one hour mid accentuated rainfall hydrograph was applied after 30 minutes at the same plots, ranging from 50 mm/h to 200 mm/h for 1hour. Finally, runon was simulated by upstream feeding of the test plots using two different inflow intensities. The irrigation test showed expected differences of runoff coefficients depending on the various agricultural management. However, these runoff coefficients change with the applied process (rainfall or runon). While a decrease was observed on a plot with a closed litter layer, runoff coefficient from runon increases on poor

  14. A multi basin SWAT model analysis of runoff and sedimentation in the Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    Z. M. Easton


    Full Text Available A multi basin analysis of runoff and erosion in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia was conducted to elucidate sources of runoff and sediment. Erosion is arguably the most critical problem in the Blue Nile Basin, as it limits agricultural productivity in Ethiopia, degrades benthos in the Nile, and results in sedimentation of dams in downstream countries. A modified version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was developed to predict runoff and sediment losses from the Ethiopian Blue Nile Basin. The model simulates saturation excess runoff from the landscape using a simple daily water balance coupled to a topographic wetness index in ways that are consistent with observed runoff processes in the basin. The spatial distribution of landscape erosion is thus simulated more correctly. The model was parameterized in a nested design for flow at eight and sediment at three locations in the basin. Subbasins ranged in size from 1.3 to 174 000 km2, and interestingly, the partitioning of runoff and infiltrating flow could be predicted by topographic information. Model predictions showed reasonable accuracy (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiencies ranged from 0.53–0.92 with measured data across all sites except Kessie, where the water budget could not be closed; however, the timing of flow was well captured. Runoff losses increased with rainfall during the monsoonal season and were greatest from areas with shallow soils and large contributing areas. Analysis of model results indicate that upland landscape erosion dominated sediment delivery to the main stem of the Blue Nile in the early part of the growing season when tillage occurs and before the soil was wetted up and plant cover was established. Once plant cover was established in mid August landscape erosion was negligible and sediment export was dominated by channel processes and re-suspension of landscape sediment deposited early in the growing season. These results imply that targeting small

  15. Runoff initiation, soil detachment and connectivity are enhanced as a consequence of vineyards plantations.

    Cerdà, A; Keesstra, S D; Rodrigo-Comino, J; Novara, A; Pereira, P; Brevik, E; Giménez-Morera, A; Fernández-Raga, M; Pulido, M; di Prima, S; Jordán, A


    Rainfall-induced soil erosion is a major threat, especially in agricultural soils. In the Mediterranean belt, vineyards are affected by high soil loss rates, leading to land degradation. Plantation of new vines is carried out after deep ploughing, use of heavy machinery, wheel traffic, and trampling. Those works result in soil physical properties changes and contribute to enhanced runoff rates and increased soil erosion rates. The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of the plantation of vineyards on soil hydrological and erosional response under low frequency - high magnitude rainfall events, the ones that under the Mediterranean climatic conditions trigger extreme soil erosion rates. We determined time to ponding, Tp; time to runoff, Tr; time to runoff outlet, Tro; runoff rate, and soil loss under simulated rainfall (55 mm h(-1), 1 h) at plot scale (0.25 m(2)) to characterize the runoff initiation and sediment detachment. In recent vine plantations (50 years; O). Slope gradient, rock fragment cover, soil surface roughness, bulk density, soil organic matter content, soil water content and plant cover were determined. Plantation of new vineyards largely impacted runoff rates and soil erosion risk at plot scale in the short term. Tp, Tr and Tro were much shorter in R plots. Tr-Tp and Tro-Tr periods were used as connectivity indexes of water flow, and decreased to 77.5 and 33.2% in R plots compared to O plots. Runoff coefficients increased significantly from O (42.94%) to R plots (71.92%) and soil losses were approximately one order of magnitude lower (1.8 and 12.6 Mg ha(-1) h(-1) for O and R plots respectively). Soil surface roughness and bulk density are two key factors that determine the increase in connectivity of flows and sediments in recently planted vineyards. Our results confirm that plantation of new vineyards strongly contributes to runoff initiation and sediment detachment, and those findings confirms that soil erosion control strategies

  16. Seven Ways to Handle Pressure



    1.Take care of your body.Exercise, eat healthily,and get plenty of sleep.You’ll handle stress much better. 2.Take down your thoughts.Recording your thoughts in a diary will help you choose your feelings and relieve~* stress. 3.Talk about it.If possible,find someone

  17. The Dφ Data Handling System

    V.White; D.Adams; 等


    In this paper we highlight strategies and choices that make the Dφ Data Handling system markedly different from many other experiments' systems,We emphasize how far the Dφ system has come in innovating and implementing a Dφ-specific Data Grid system.We discuss experiences during the first months of detector commissioning and give some future plans for the system.

  18. Handling nu eller skru ned

    Kjærsgaard, Poul Søren


    Søgningen til fremmedsprogstudier er faldende, samtidig med at Region Syddanmark har lanceret en plan, der forudsætter et sprogligt beredskab. Hvis regionen skal klare sig i konkurrencen, må den og det regionale universitet handle, så at der er sproguddannelser. Ellers må regionen og universitetet...

  19. Data Handling and Parameter Estimation

    Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist


    literature that are mostly based on the ActivatedSludge Model (ASM) framework and their appropriate extensions (Henze et al., 2000).The chapter presents an overview of the most commonly used methods in the estimation of parameters from experimental batch data, namely: (i) data handling and validation, (ii...

  20. At skabe handling og forandring


    ” (Investigation-Vision-Action-Change, på dansk Undersøgelse-Vision-Handling-Forandring). Forskning i anvendelsen af IVAC i pædagogiske udviklingsprojekter i skoler viser, at lærere kan tilpasse IVAC det konkrete sundhedsemne, de beskæftiger sig med, ligesom metoden kan afpasses pensumkravene, klassetrin og...

  1. TNO reticle handling test platform

    Crowcombe, W.E.; Hollemans, C.L.; Fritz, E.C.; Donck, J.C.J. van der; Koster, N.B.


    Particle free handling of EUV reticles is a major concern in industry. For reaching economically feasible yield levels, it is reported that Particle-per-Reticle-Pass (PRP) levels should be better than 0.0001 for particles larger than 18 nm. Such cleanliness levels are yet to be reported for current

  2. Cargo handling know-how

    Bachman, T.; Fischer, M. [Liebherr-Werk Nenzing GmbH (Austria)


    The paper reviews recent bulk handling crane orders from Liebherr. These include mobile harbour cranes at the Port of Dunkirk, a four-rope grab crane at Phu My Port, Vietnam and CBG cranes at Balikpapan Coal Terminal, Indonesia. 4 figs.


    Ewa Burszta-Adamiak; Wiesław Fiałkiewicz


    Apart from direct measurements, modelling of runoff from green roofs is valuable source of information about effectiveness of this type of structure from hydrological point of view. Among different type of models, the most frequently used are numerical models. They allow to assess the impact of green roofs on decrease and attenuation of runoff, reduction of peak runoff and value of water retention. This paper presents preliminary results of research on computing the rate of runoff from green ...

  4. 29 CFR 452.30 - Run-off elections.


    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Run-off elections. 452.30 Section 452.30 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.30 Run-off elections. A run-off election must meet the... example, if the run-off is to be held at the same meeting as the original election, the original notice...

  5. Modeling runoff and erosion risk in a~small steep cultivated watershed using different data sources: from on-site measurements to farmers' perceptions

    Auvet, B.; Lidon, B.; Kartiwa, B.; Le Bissonnais, Y.; Poussin, J.-C.


    This paper presents an approach to model runoff and erosion risk in a context of data scarcity, whereas the majority of available models require large quantities of physical data that are frequently not accessible. To overcome this problem, our approach uses different sources of data, particularly on agricultural practices (tillage and land cover) and farmers' perceptions of runoff and erosion. The model was developed on a small (5 ha) cultivated watershed characterized by extreme conditions (slopes of up to 55 %, extreme rainfall events) on the Merapi volcano in Indonesia. Runoff was modelled using two versions of STREAM. First, a lumped version was used to determine the global parameters of the watershed. Second, a distributed version used three parameters for the production of runoff (slope, land cover and roughness), a precise DEM, and the position of waterways for runoff distribution. This information was derived from field observations and interviews with farmers. Both surface runoff models accurately reproduced runoff at the outlet. However, the distributed model (Nash-Sutcliffe = 0.94) was more accurate than the adjusted lumped model (N-S = 0.85), especially for the smallest and biggest runoff events, and produced accurate spatial distribution of runoff production and concentration. Different types of erosion processes (landslides, linear inter-ridge erosion, linear erosion in main waterways) were modelled as a combination of a hazard map (the spatial distribution of runoff/infiltration volume provided by the distributed model), and a susceptibility map combining slope, land cover and tillage, derived from in situ observations and interviews with farmers. Each erosion risk map gives a spatial representation of the different erosion processes including risk intensities and frequencies that were validated by the farmers and by in situ observations. Maps of erosion risk confirmed the impact of the concentration of runoff, the high susceptibility of long steep

  6. Woody plant encroachment reduces annual runoff and shifts runoff mechanisms in the tallgrass prairie, USA

    Qiao, Lei; Zou, Chris B.; Stebler, Elaine; Will, Rodney E.


    Woody plant encroachment into semiarid and subhumid rangelands is a global phenomenon with important hydrological implications. Observational and experimental results reported both increases and decreases in annual runoff for encroached watersheds and little is known regarding the underlying runoff generation mechanisms. To systematically study the effect of woody plant encroachment on runoff generation processes, seven experimental watersheds were instrumented in 2010, three on grassland sites and four on adjacent sites that were heavily encroached by eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) in the southern Great Plains, USA. Results showed that the runoff coefficient was 1.4 ± 0.6% in eastern redcedar encroached watersheds, significantly lower than 4.4 ± 0.7% in grassland watersheds for the four water years from 2011 to 2014. Eastern redcedar encroachment resulted in reduction of both surface and subsurface flows and the magnitude of reduction depended on annual precipitation. While there were nearly equal contributions between overland flow and subsurface flow, 87% of the total runoff from grassland watersheds occurred under saturated or nearly saturated soil condition, while 86% of runoff under encroached watersheds was generated under unsaturated soil condition, suggesting a shift from saturation excess overland flow to infiltration excess overland flow. These results permitted reconciliation of observed difference of streamflow responses associated with Juniperus spp. encroachment in the region and provided insights to better predict change in water resources under vegetation changes in subhumid regions of the south-central USA.

  7. Impact of the rainfall pattern on synthetic pesticides and copper runoff from a vineyard catchment

    Payraudeau, Sylvain; Meite, Fatima; Wiegert, Charline; Imfeld, Gwenaël


    Runoff is a major process of pesticide transport from agricultural land to downstream aquatic ecosystems. The impact of rainfall characteristics on the transport of runoff-related pesticide is rarely evaluated at the catchment scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of rainfall pattern on the mobilization of synthetic pesticides and copper fungicides in runoff from a small vineyard catchment, both at the plot and catchment scales. During two vineyard growing seasons in 2015 and 2016 (from March to October), we monitored rainfall, runoff, and concentrations of copper and 20 fungicides and herbicides applied by winegrowers at the Rouffach vineyard catchment (France, Alsace; 42.5 ha). Rainfall data were recorded within the catchment while runoff measurement and flow-proportional water sampling were carried out at the outlet of the plot (1486 m2; 87.5 × 17 m) and the catchment. In total, discharges of the 14 runoff events were continuously monitored between March and October 2015 using bubbler flow modules combined with Venturi channels. Detailed and distributed dataset on pesticide applications were extracted from survey (copper formulations and type of pesticides, amount and application dates). Pools of copper and synthetic pesticides were quantified weekly in the topsoil (0-3 cm) by systematic sampling across the catchment. The concentrations of copper (10 dried soil) and synthetic pesticides (close to the quantification limit, i.e. 0.05 µg.L-1) available in the top soil for off-site transport largely differed over time. Between March and October, an accumulation of copper of 10% was observed in the top-soil while pesticide concentration decreased below the quantification limits after a few days or weeks following application, depending of the compounds. The average runoff generated at the plot scale was very low (0.13% ± 0.30). The maximum runoff reached 1.37% during the storm of July 22, 2015. Synthetic pesticides exported by runoff was less than 1‰ of

  8. Physically based modelling of rainfall-runoff processes

    Diermanse, F.L.M.


    This PhD. research was set up to investigate the use of rainfall-runoff models for simulation of high water events in hillslope areas. First, dominant parameters for runoff production during high water events have been identified. Subsequently, the influence of antecedent conditions on runoff percen


    Swales are “engineered vegetated ditches” that provide stable routing for stormwater runoff and a low-cost drainage option for highways, farms, industrial sites, and commercial areas. It is reported in the literature that swales mitigate runoff-carried pollutants, reduce runoff ...


    Swales are “engineered vegetated ditches” that provide stable routing for stormwater runoff and a low-cost drainage option for highways, farms, industrial sites, and commercial areas. It is reported in the literature that swales mitigate runoff-carried pollutants, reduce runoff v...

  11. 78 FR 70191 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the General Cull and Handling Regulation for...


    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 948 and Part 980 Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of... adopting, as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that modified the size requirements for potatoes handled under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2 (order). The order regulates the handling of...

  12. Surface Rainfall-Runoff Analysis Using NRCS Curve Number and Semi-Distributed Model in Urban Watershed of Jeju Island, Korea

    Yang, S. K.; Kar, K. K.; Lee, J. H.


    Rainfall-runoff modeling is a basic tool for assessing hydrological processes where natural features (geology and geography) play a pivotal role. Due to global warming, the trends of torrential rainfall and typhoon events have been found to increase spontaneously in Jeju Island of Korea. As such, the island has been shown distinctive hydrologic characteristics. The study therefore, attempts to analyze the diversified rainfall-runoff characteristics of Jeju Island during extreme hydrologic events. The study domain covers mostly the urban areas of island and the most prominent Hancheon Stream which restrains most of its overland runoff during rainfall. For watershed delineation, 30-m resolution's digital elevation model (DEM) generated from contours and 50 years' (1964-2013) historical rainfall data from the Korea meteorological administration (KMA) were used. Furthermore, geo-spatial data collected from the Korean society of agriculture engineers (KSAE) has been used for soil texture and land use classification. Some identical studies implied to predict semi-distributed (e.g. SWAT and WMS) watershed model runoff in the island. However, the significance of this study is that it considers a GIS semi-distributed model to imply NRCS curve number technique and predict accurate results for unique runoff characteristics, by considering high catchment slope. Rainfall data from 2009 to 2013 has been used as baseline information to estimate annual runoff variations, which has been used in the spatial and statistical analyses. The study infers that the simulated runoff percentages varied from 18% to 44%, accounting for the temporal fluctuations of rainfall. Afterwards, to assess the ten year interval relationship between rainfall-runoff, the study uses historical rainfall data of Jeju-si meteorological station and four rainfall station. Lastly, the ongoing rainfall-runoff analysis will be concluded by comparing the runoff result with SWAT model result.Keywords: NRCS curve

  13. Modeling and assessing the effects of land use changes on runoff generation with the CLUE-s and WetSpa models

    Mohammady, Majid; Moradi, Hamid Reza; Zeinivand, Hossein; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Yazdani, Mohammad Reza; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza


    Land use change is an important determinant of hydrological processes and is known to affect hydrological parameters such as runoff volume, flood frequency, base flow, and the partitioning into surface flow and subsurface flow. The main objective of this research was to assess the magnitude of the effect of land use changes on runoff parameters, using the Baghsalian watershed in Iran as a case study site. At first, land use maps of years 1986 and 2012 were prepared using synthetic method, and then simulation was done based on land use changes in the 1986 to 2012 period. Land use map of year 2030 was simulated using CLUE-s model. Spatially distributed hydrological WetSpa model was used to simulate runoff at daily scale with land use maps of 1986, 2012, and 2030. Total volume of runoff, peak flow, and surface flow were compared. The accuracy of the WetSpa model simulation was assessed with the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, which had values of 0.61 and 0.56% for the calibration and validation dataset, respectively. The aggregation measure criterion was also calculated and had values of 64 and 62% for the calibration and validation periods, respectively. The main land use changes in Baghsalian watershed between 1986, 2012, and 2030 were the conversion of forest and rangeland to agriculture and residential land use types. Because of these conversions, simulated total runoff volume increased; and the rate of increase in surface runoff was larger than the rate of increase in subsurface runoff. In addition, surface and subsurface runoff increased in 2012 and 2030 compared to 1986 land use map, but the rate of increase of subsurface runoff was less than surface runoff.

  14. Integrated Model of Bioenergy and Agriculture System

    Sigurjonsson, Hafthor Ægir; Elmegaard, Brian; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard


    approach that builds on Life Cycle Inventory and carries out Life Cycle Impact Assessment for a con- sequential Life Cycle Assessment on integrated bioenergy and agriculture systems. The model framework is built in Python which connects various freely available soft- ware that handle different aspects...

  15. Handling Software Faults with Redundancy

    Carzaniga, Antonio; Gorla, Alessandra; Pezzè, Mauro

    Software engineering methods can increase the dependability of software systems, and yet some faults escape even the most rigorous and methodical development process. Therefore, to guarantee high levels of reliability in the presence of faults, software systems must be designed to reduce the impact of the failures caused by such faults, for example by deploying techniques to detect and compensate for erroneous runtime conditions. In this chapter, we focus on software techniques to handle software faults, and we survey several such techniques developed in the area of fault tolerance and more recently in the area of autonomic computing. Since practically all techniques exploit some form of redundancy, we consider the impact of redundancy on the software architecture, and we propose a taxonomy centered on the nature and use of redundancy in software systems. The primary utility of this taxonomy is to classify and compare techniques to handle software faults.

  16. Comparing flow duration curve and rainfall-runoff modelling for predicting daily runoff in ungauged catchments

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Vaze, Jai; Chiew, Francis H. S.; Li, Ming


    Predicting daily runoff time series in ungauged catchments is both important and challenging. For the last few decades, the rainfall-runoff (RR) modelling approach has been the method of choice. There have been very few studies reported in literature which attempt to use flow duration curve (FDC) to predict daily runoff time series. This study comprehensively compares the two approaches using an extensive dataset (228 catchments) for a large region of south-eastern Australia and provides guidelines for choosing the suitable method. For each approach we used the nearest neighbour method and two weightings - a 5-donor simple mathematical average (SA) and a 5-donor inverse-distance weighting (5-IDW) - to predict daily runoff time series. The results show that 5-IDW was noticeably better than a single donor to predict daily runoff time series, especially for the FDC approach. The RR modelling approach calibrated against daily runoff outperformed the FDC approach for predicting high flows. The FDC approach was better at predicting medium to low flows in traditional calibration against the Nash-Sutcliffe-Efficiency or Root Mean Square Error, but when calibrated against a low flow objective function, both the FDC and rainfall-runoff models performed equally well in simulating the low flows. These results indicate that both methods can be further improved to simulate daily hydrographs describing the range of flow metrics in ungauged catchments. Further studies should be carried out for improving the accuracy of predicted FDC in ungauged catchments, including improving the FDC model structure and parameter fitting.

  17. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine


    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P < .0001). All 3 EFS handling techniques displayed low bacterial growth. RTH was superior in bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs. Since not all pediatric formulas are available in RTH, we conclude that refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  18. Rainfall Runoff Modelling for Cedar Creek using HEC-HMS model

    Pathak, P.; Kalra, A.


    Rainfall-runoff modelling studies are carried out for the purpose of basin and river management. Different models have been effectively used to examine relationships between rainfall and runoff. Cedar Creek Watershed Basin, the largest tributary of St. Josephs River, located in northeastern Indiana, was selected as a study area. The HEC-HMS model developed by US Army Corps of Engineers was used for the hydrological modelling. The national elevation and national hydrography data was obtained from United States Geological Survey National Map Viewer and the SSURGO soil data was obtained from United States Department of Agriculture. The watershed received hypothetical uniform rainfall for a duration of 13 hours. The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number and Unit Hydrograph methods were used for simulating surface runoff. The simulation provided hydrological details about the quantity and variability of runoff in the watershed. The runoff for different curve numbers was computed for the same basin and rainfall, and it was found that outflow peaked at an earlier time with a higher value for higher curve numbers than for smaller curve numbers. It was also noticed that the impact on outflow values nearly doubled with an increase of curve number of 10 for each subbasin in the watershed. The results from the current analysis may aid water managers in effectively managing the water resources within the basin. 1 Graduate Student, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois, 62901-6603 2 Development Review Division, Clark County Public Works, 500 S. Grand Central Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89155, USA

  19. Storm runoff as related to urbanization in the Portland, Oregon-Vancouver, Washington Area

    Laenen, Antonius


    A series of equations was developed to provide a better method of determining flood frequencies in the Portland-Vancouver urban area than is now available. The resulting regression equations can be used to compute peak discharge and storm runoff with a standard error of estimate of approximately 30 percent. Basins used to define the regression equations ranged in size from 0.2 to 26 square miles. Those physical basin parameters that proved to be significant are: drainage area, effective impervious area, storage, rainfall intensity, basin slope, and soil infiltration. The equations indicate that total urbanization of an undeveloped basin can increase peak discharge as much as 3? times and almost double the volume of storm runoff. Impervious area, as delineated by mapping techniques, proved to be an inadequate physical parameter for use in the regression equations because builders and planners have devised many methods of routing storm runoff from impervious areas to the main channel (in effect, speeding up or slowing down the response to the storm). In some parts of the study area, storm runoff was diverted into dry wells and never entered the main channel. To define the effect of this rerouting, the digital model was used to find an effective impervious area that would 'best fit' the rainfall-runoff data. Field estimates to verify the effectiveness of the impervious area for two of the basins showed that optimizations were within 20 percent of those shown by the digital model. Users of these data who may find the effective impervious area a difficult, expensive, and time-consuming parameter to obtain have an alternative. The combination of land-use type I (parks, forests, and vacant lots) and Type II (agriculture) proved to be an excellent inverse indicator of impervious area. Land-use types I and II, coupled with the street-gutter density, an indication of effective routing, provide the user with alternative indices of urbanization.

  20. Precipitation-runoff modeling system; user's manual

    Leavesley, G.H.; Lichty, R.W.; Troutman, B.M.; Saindon, L.G.


    The concepts, structure, theoretical development, and data requirements of the precipitation-runoff modeling system (PRMS) are described. The precipitation-runoff modeling system is a modular-design, deterministic, distributed-parameter modeling system developed to evaluate the impacts of various combinations of precipitation, climate, and land use on streamflow, sediment yields, and general basin hydrology. Basin response to normal and extreme rainfall and snowmelt can be simulated to evaluate changes in water balance relationships, flow regimes, flood peaks and volumes, soil-water relationships, sediment yields, and groundwater recharge. Parameter-optimization and sensitivity analysis capabilites are provided to fit selected model parameters and evaluate their individual and joint effects on model output. The modular design provides a flexible framework for continued model system enhancement and hydrologic modeling research and development. (Author 's abstract)

  1. Chemical composition of runoff water in Raipur city, central India

    Ambade, Balram


    Runoff water is an important transporting medium for various pollutants from land to surface water. Several mobiles and stationary sources such as vehicles, steel cement and thermal power plants, cooking, street, construction debris, etc. are emitting effluents in the environment of the central India. The rain runoff water washes out the air as well as land pollutants and flushes out into water bodies. Therefore, rain runoff water pollution in most urbanized and industrialized city of central India, i.e., Raipur during rainy season (May-September 2012) is analyzed statistically using cluster and principal component analysis to assess sources. The cluster analysis grouped runoff water samples into two clusters based on the similarity of runoff water quality characteristics of the total variance. The factor analysis differentiated the diffused sources of runoff water contaminants. The enrichment factors and runoff fluxes of the contaminants are discussed.

  2. Runoff production on a slope with randomly distributed infiltrabilities

    Mouche, E.; Harel, M.


    Runoff generated on one- and two-dimensional slopes with randomly distributed infiltrability is studied in the queuing theory and connectivity frameworks. The equivalence between the runoff-runon equation and the customers waiting time in a single server queue provides a theoretical link between the statistical descriptions of infiltrability and that of runoff flow rate. Different distributions of infiltrability, representing soil heterogeneities at different scales, are considered. Numerical simulations validate these results and improve our understanding of runoff-runon process. All of the quantities describing the generation of runoff (runoff one-point statistics) and its organization into patterns (patterns statistics and connectivity) are studied as functions of rainfall rate and runoff dimensionality.

  3. Characterizing dry deposition of mercury in urban runoff

    Fulkerson, M.; Nnadi, F.N.; Chasar, L.S.


    Stormwater runoff from urban surfaces often contains elevated levels of toxic metals. When discharged directly into water bodies, these pollutants degrade water quality and impact aquatic life and human health. In this study, the composition of impervious surface runoff and associated rainfall was investigated for several storm events at an urban site in Orlando, Florida. Total mercury in runoff consisted of 58% particulate and 42% filtered forms. Concentration comparisons at the start and end of runoff events indicate that about 85% of particulate total mercury and 93% of particulate methylmercury were removed from the surface before runoff ended. Filtered mercury concentrations showed less than 50% reduction of both total and methylmercury from first flush to final flush. Direct comparison between rainfall and runoff at this urban site indicates dry deposition accounted for 22% of total inorganic mercury in runoff. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.




    Full Text Available Runoff Potential of Mureş River Upper Basin Tributaries. The upper basin of the Mureş River includes a significant area of the Eastern Carpathians central western part with different runoff formation conditions. In assessing the average annual runoff potential we used data from six gauging stations and made assessments on three distinct periods. Identifying the appropriate areas of the obtained correlations curves (between specific average runoff and catchments mean altitude allowed the assessment of potential runoff at catchment level and on geographical units. The potential average runoff is also assessed on altitude intervals of the mentioned areas. The runoff potential analysis on hydrographic basins, geographical units and altitude intervals highlights the variant spatial distribution of this general water resources indicator in the different studied areas.

  5. What is the primary driver of downstream connectivity: runoff generation, storage or conveyance?

    Ali, G.; Elliott, J.; Lobb, D.; Yarotski, J.


    Understanding how headwater streams are connected to downstream areas through the generation and delivery of stream discharge is critical for process conceptualization and hydrological modelling. Several factors have been shown to influence downstream connectivity (DC), notably the location of runoff-generating areas, the mitigating effect of surface depressional storage areas on the delivery of runoff to streams, and the effectiveness of diffuse and concentrated flow paths as runoff conveyance features. Limited efforts have been made to rank these factors in order of importance. Here we aimed to identify the relative influence of runoff generation, storage and conveyance factors on DC in an agricultural Prairie watershed. The 75 km2 South Tobacco Creek Watershed (STCW, south-central Manitoba, Canada) is drained by a 20 km-long creek that drops nearly 200 m in elevation over its course; it is characterized by highly seasonal dynamics such as sheet flow on frozen ground in spring, intermittent flow in summer, and significant surface and subsurface flow events in fall. Hourly discharge records were obtained for seven pairs of upstream-downstream gauging stations within the STCW: for each pair, the magnitude of DC was estimated using cross-correlation values of the two discharge timeseries, while the timing of DC was characterized using cross-correlation lags (in hours or days) to assess the delay of peak flows between upstream and downstream stations. LiDAR data was also used to extract topographic information on: i) the location of runoff-generating areas (i.e., upper-, mid-, low- slope and riparian areas), ii) the area and depth of surface depressional storage basins, and iii) the total length of flow conveyance features (defined streams, all flow paths) in the incremental catchment area between upstream and downstream gauging stations. The computed discharge cross-correlation values indicate that the magnitude of DC is highest in spring, followed by fall then

  6. Alternative Agriculture


    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  7. Multifractal modelling of runoffs of karstic springs

    Márkus, L.


    A new multifractal stochastic process, Terdik and Iglói call the Limit of the Integrated Superposition of Diffusion processes with Linear differential Generator (LISDLG) , has been defined for modelling network traffic multifractality. The process is stationary, and exhibits long range dependency or long memory. Its characteristic property is that its bispectrum is real. It serves as the basis of distinction e.g. from the superposition of Levy-processes driven Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. Its further appealing property is that its finite dimensional distribution stems from multivariate Gamma, therefore it is inherently positive and skewed (and hence non-Gaussian). All together, this makes it a very promising candidate for modelling e.g. runoff data of springs or river flows. Quite recently Labat et al. (2002, J. of Hydrology, Vol 256, pp.176-195) pointed out multifractal properties of the runoff time series of French karstic springs. We show that runoff data of karstic springs in north-east Hungary possesses multifractal and cumulant-multifractal property as well as long range dependency and fit the above described LISDLG process, to model the phenomenon. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by the Nat. Sci. Research Fund OTKA, grant No.: T 032725.

  8. Orion Entry Handling Qualities Assessments

    Bihari, B.; Tiggers, M.; Strahan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Sullivan, K.; Stephens, J. P.; Hart, J.; Law, H., III; Bilimoria, K.; Bailey, R.


    The Orion Command Module (CM) is a capsule designed to bring crew back from the International Space Station (ISS), the moon and beyond. The atmospheric entry portion of the flight is deigned to be flown in autopilot mode for nominal situations. However, there exists the possibility for the crew to take over manual control in off-nominal situations. In these instances, the spacecraft must meet specific handling qualities criteria. To address these criteria two separate assessments of the Orion CM s entry Handling Qualities (HQ) were conducted at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) using the Cooper-Harper scale (Cooper & Harper, 1969). These assessments were conducted in the summers of 2008 and 2010 using the Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) six degree of freedom, high fidelity Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) simulation. This paper will address the specifics of the handling qualities criteria, the vehicle configuration, the scenarios flown, the simulation background and setup, crew interfaces and displays, piloting techniques, ratings and crew comments, pre- and post-fight briefings, lessons learned and changes made to improve the overall system performance. The data collection tools, methods, data reduction and output reports will also be discussed. The objective of the 2008 entry HQ assessment was to evaluate the handling qualities of the CM during a lunar skip return. A lunar skip entry case was selected because it was considered the most demanding of all bank control scenarios. Even though skip entry is not planned to be flown manually, it was hypothesized that if a pilot could fly the harder skip entry case, then they could also fly a simpler loads managed or ballistic (constant bank rate command) entry scenario. In addition, with the evaluation set-up of multiple tasks within the entry case, handling qualities ratings collected in the evaluation could be used to assess other scenarios such as the constant bank angle

  9. A framework for managing runoff and pollution in the rural landscape using a Catchment Systems Engineering approach.

    Wilkinson, M E; Quinn, P F; Barber, N J; Jonczyk, J


    Intense farming plays a key role in increasing local scale runoff and erosion rates, resulting in water quality issues and flooding problems. There is potential for agricultural management to become a major part of improved strategies for controlling runoff. Here, a Catchment Systems Engineering (CSE) approach has been explored to solve the above problem. CSE is an interventionist approach to altering the catchment scale runoff regime through the manipulation of hydrological flow pathways throughout the catchment. By targeting hydrological flow pathways at source, such as overland flow, field drain and ditch function, a significant component of the runoff generation can be managed in turn reducing soil nutrient losses. The Belford catchment (5.7 km(2)) is a catchment scale study for which a CSE approach has been used to tackle a number of environmental issues. A variety of Runoff Attenuation Features (RAFs) have been implemented throughout the catchment to address diffuse pollution and flooding issues. The RAFs include bunds disconnecting flow pathways, diversion structures in ditches to spill and store high flows, large wood debris structure within the channel, and riparian zone management. Here a framework for applying a CSE approach to the catchment is shown in a step by step guide to implementing mitigation measures in the Belford Burn catchment. The framework is based around engagement with catchment stakeholders and uses evidence arising from field science. Using the framework, the flooding issue has been addressed at the catchment scale by altering the runoff regime. Initial findings suggest that RAFs have functioned as designed to reduce/attenuate runoff locally. However, evidence suggested that some RAFs needed modification and new RAFs be created to address diffuse pollution issues during storm events. Initial findings from these modified RAFs are showing improvements in sediment trapping capacities and reductions in phosphorus, nitrate and suspended

  10. Assessment of runoff response to landscape changes in the San Pedro subbasin (Nayarit, Mexico) using remote sensing data and GIS.

    Hernández-Guzmán, Rafael; Ruiz-Luna, Arturo; Berlanga-Robles, César Alejandro


    Results on runoff estimates as a response to land-use and land-cover changes are presented. We used remote sensing and GIS techniques with rainfall time-series data, spatial ancillary information, and the curve-number method (NRCS-CN) to assess the runoff response in the San Pedro subbasin. Thematic maps with eight land-cover classes derived from satellite imagery classification (1973, 1990, and 2000) and hydrologic soil-group maps were used as the input for the runoff calculation. About 20% to 25% of the subbasin landscape has changed since 1973, mainly as consequence of the growth of agriculture. Forest is the main cover, although further analyses indicate that forest is degrading from good to poor conditions when evaluated as a function of the spectral response. Soils with low infiltration rates, classified as the hydrological soil-group "C", were dominant in the area (52%). The overlaying of all the hydrological soil groups with the land-use map produced a total of 43 hydro-group and land-use categories for which runoff was calculated using the curve-number method. Estimates of total runoff volumes (26 x 10(6) m3) were similar for the three dates analyzed in spite of landscape changes, but there were temporal variations among the hydro-group and land-use categories as a consequence. Changes are causing the rise of covers with high runoff potential and the increase of runoff depth is expected, but it can be reversed by different management of subbasin hydro-groups and land-use units.

  11. Using insurance data to learn more about damages to buildings caused by surface runoff

    Bernet, Daniel; Roethlisberger, Veronika; Prasuhn, Volker; Weingartner, Rolf


    In Switzerland, almost forty percent of total insurance loss due to natural hazards in the last two decades was caused by flooding. Those flood damages occurred not only within known inundation zones of water courses. Practitioners expect that roughly half of all flood damages lie outside of known inundation zones. In urban areas such damages may simply be caused by drainage system overload for instance. However, as several case studies show, natural and agricultural land play a major role in surface runoff formation leading to damages in rural and peri-urban areas. Although many damages are caused by surface runoff, the whole process chain including surface runoff formation, propagation through the landscape and damages to buildings is not well understood. Therefore, within the framework of a project, we focus our research on this relevant process. As such flash flood events have a very short response time and occur rather diffusely in the landscape, this process is very difficult to observe directly. Therefore indirect data sources with the potential to indicate spatial and temporal distributions of the process have to be used. For that matter, post-flood damage data may be a profitable source. Namely, insurance companies' damage claim records could provide a good picture about the spatial and temporal distributions of damages caused by surface runoff and, thus, about the process itself. In our research we analyze insurance data records of flood damage claims systematically to infer main drivers and influencing factors of surface runoff causing damages to buildings. To demonstrate the potential and drawbacks of using data from insurance companies in relation to damages caused by surface runoff, a case study is presented. A well-documented event with data from a public as well as a private insurance company is selected. The case study focuses on the differences of the datasets as well as the associated problems and advantages respectively. Furthermore, the

  12. Impact of land cover and land use change on runoff characteristics.

    Sajikumar, N; Remya, R S


    Change in Land Cover and Land Use (LCLU) influences the runoff characteristics of a drainage basin to a large extent, which in turn, affects the surface and groundwater availability of the area, and hence leads to further change in LCLU. This forms a vicious circle. Hence it becomes essential to assess the effect of change in LCLU on the runoff characteristics of a region in general and of small watershed levels (sub-basin levels) in particular. Such an analysis can effectively be carried out by using watershed simulation models with integrated GIS frame work. SWAT (Soil and Water Analysis Tool) model, being one of the versatile watershed simulation models, is found to be suitable for this purpose as many GIS integration modules are available for this model (e.g. ArcSWAT, MWSWAT). Watershed simulation using SWAT requires the land use and land cover data, soil data and many other features. With the availability of repository of satellite imageries, both from Indian and foreign sources, it becomes possible to use the concurrent local land use and land cover data, thereby enabling more accurate modelling of small watersheds. Such availability will also enable us to assess the effect of LCLU on runoff characteristics and their reverse impact. The current study assesses the effect of land use and land cover on the runoff characteristics of two watersheds in Kerala, India. It also assesses how the change in land use and land cover in the last few decades affected the runoff characteristics of these watersheds. It is seen that the reduction in the forest area amounts to 60% and 32% in the analysed watersheds. However, the changes in the surface runoff for these watersheds are not comparable with the changes in the forest area but are within 20%. Similarly the maximum (peak) value of runoff has increased by an amount of 15% only. The lesser (aforementioned) effect than expected might be due to the fact that forest has been converted to agricultural purpose with major

  13. Simulating pesticide transport in urbanized catchments: a new spatially-distributed dynamic pesticide runoff model

    Tang, Ting; Seuntjens, Piet; van Griensven, Ann; Bronders, Jan


    Urban areas can significantly contribute to pesticide contamination in surface water. However, pesticide behaviours in urban areas, particularly on hard surfaces, are far less studied than those in agricultural areas. Pesticide application on hard surfaces (e.g. roadsides and walkways) is of particular concern due to the high imperviousness and therefore high pesticide runoff potential. Experimental studies have shown that pesticide behaviours on and interactions with hard surfaces are important factors controlling the pesticide runoff potential, and therefore the magnitude and timing of peak concentrations in surface water. We conceptualized pesticide behaviours on hard surfaces and incorporated the conceptualization into a new pesticide runoff model. The pesticide runoff model was implemented in a catchment hydrological model WetSpa-Python (Water and Energy Transfer between Soil, Plants and Atmosphere, Python version). The conceptualization for pesticide processes on hard surfaces accounts for the differences in pesticide behaviour on different hard surfaces. Four parameters are used to describe the partitioning and wash-off of each pesticide on hard surfaces. We tested the conceptualization using experimental dataset for five pesticides on two types of hard surfaces, namely concrete and asphalt. The conceptualization gave good performance in accounting for the wash-off pattern for the modelled pesticides and surfaces, according to quantitative evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and percent bias. The resulting pesticide runoff model WetSpa-PST (WetSpa for PeSTicides) can simulate pesticides and their metabolites at the catchment scale. Overall, it includes four groups of pesticide processes, namely pesticide application, pesticide interception by plant foliage, pesticide processes on land surfaces (including partitioning, degradation and wash-off on hard surface; partitioning, dissipation, infiltration and runoff in soil) and pesticide processes in

  14. Accidental injuries in agriculture in the UK.

    Solomon, C


    The rate of occupational accidents in British agriculture is higher than in most other industries. The most common fatal accidents are those involving vehicles and machinery, falls from a height and electrocution. A substantial proportion of reported non-fatal injuries in agricultural employees is attributable to manual handling, but among self-employed farmers the contribution is much smaller. Few data are available on longer-term determinants of risk, but accidental deaths are most frequent in July, August and September. The main approaches to preventing agricultural accidents are through engineering improvements, and education and training of the workforce. The introduction of roll-over protection structures for tractors has been an important development in recent decades. Other engineering controls include guards for power take off shafts, guard rails to prevent falls, better handling facilities for animals and closed transfer systems for pesticides. Training on safety is available from several sources, but its effectiveness in reducing accidents is uncertain.

  15. Proper Handling and Storage of Human Milk

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Proper Handling and Storage of Human Milk Recommend on Facebook ... sure to wash your hands before expressing or handling breast milk. When collecting milk, be sure to ...

  16. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Handling Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records for all handling and measurement of Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. Live seals are handled and measured during a variety of events...

  17. 7 CFR 983.14 - Handle.


    ... NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.14 Handle. Handle means to engage in: (a) Receiving pistachios; (b... of interstate or foreign commerce; and/or (d) Placing pistachios into the current of commerce...

  18. From runoff to rainfall: inverse rainfall–runoff modelling in a high temporal resolution

    M. Herrnegger


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel technique to calculate mean areal rainfall in a high temporal resolution of 60 min on the basis of an inverse conceptual rainfall–runoff model and runoff observations. Rainfall exhibits a large spatio-temporal variability, especially in complex alpine terrain. Additionally, the density of the monitoring network in mountainous regions is low and measurements are subjected to major errors, which lead to significant uncertainties in areal rainfall estimates. The most reliable hydrological information available refers to runoff, which in the presented work is used as input for a rainfall–runoff model. Thereby a conceptual, HBV-type model is embedded in an iteration algorithm. For every time step a rainfall value is determined, which results in a simulated runoff value that corresponds to the observation. To verify the existence, uniqueness and stability of the inverse rainfall, numerical experiments with synthetic hydrographs as inputs into the inverse model are carried out successfully. The application of the inverse model with runoff observations as driving input is performed for the Krems catchment (38.4 km2, situated in the northern Austrian Alpine foothills. Compared to station observations in the proximity of the catchment, the inverse rainfall sums and time series have a similar goodness of fit, as the independent INCA rainfall analysis of Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG. Compared to observations, the inverse rainfall estimates show larger rainfall intensities. Numerical experiments show, that cold state conditions in the inverse model do not influence the inverse rainfall estimates, when considering an adequate spin-up time. The application of the inverse model is a feasible approach to obtain improved estimates of mean areal rainfall. These can be used to enhance interpolated rainfall fields, e.g. for the estimation of rainfall correction factors, the parameterisation of

  19. Derivation of climate elasticity of runoff to assess the effects of climate change on annual runoff

    Yang, Hanbo; Yang, Dawen


    Climate elasticity of runoff is an important indicator for evaluating the effects of climate change on runoff. Consequently, this paper proposes an analytical derivation of climate elasticity. Based on the mean annual water-energy balance equation, two dimensionless numbers (the elasticities of runoff to precipitation and potential evaporation) were derived. Combining the first-order differential of the Penman equation, the elasticities of runoff to precipitation, net radiation, air temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity were derived to separate the contributions of different climatic variables. The case study was carried out in the Futuo River catchment in the Hai River basin, as well as in 89 catchments of the Hai River and the Yellow River basins of China. Based on the mean annual of climatic variables, the climate elasticity in the Futuo River basin was estimated as follows: precipitation elasticity ?, net radiation elasticity ?, air temperature elasticity ?, wind speed elasticity ?, and relative humidity elasticity ?. In this catchment, precipitation decrease was mainly responsible for runoff decline, and wind speed decline had the second greatest effect on runoff. In the 89 catchments of the Hai River and the Yellow River basins of China, climate elasticity was estimated as follows: ? ranging from 1.6 to 3.9, ? ranging from -1.9 to -0.3, ? ranging from -0.11 to -0.02°C-1, ? ranging from -0.8 to -0.1, and ? ranging from 0.2 to 1.9. Additional analysis shows that climate elasticity was sensitive to catchment characteristics.

  20. A simple model for farmland nitrogen loss to surface runoff with raindrop driven process

    Tong, J.; Li, J.


    It has been widely recognized that surface runoff from the agricultural fields is an important source of non-point source pollution (NPSP). Moreover, as the agricultural country with the largest nitrogen fertilizer production, import and consumption in the world, our nation should pay greater attention to the over-application and inefficient use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, which may cause severe pollution both in surface water and groundwater. To figure out the transfer mechanism between the soil solution and surface runoff, lots of laboratory test were conducted and related models were established in this study. But little of them was carried out in field scale since a part of variables are hard to control and some uncontrollable natural factors including rainfall intensity, temperature, wind speeds, soil spatial heterogeneity etc., may affect the field experimental results. Despite that, field tests can better reflect the mechanism of soil chemical loss to surface runoff than laboratory experiments, and the latter tend to oversimplify the environmental conditions. Therefore, a physically based, nitrogen transport model was developed and tested with so called semi-field experiments (i.e., artificial rainfall instead of natural rainfall was applied in the test). Our model integrated both raindrop driven process and diffusion effect along with the simplified nitrogen chain reactions. The established model was solved numerically through the modified Hydrus-1d source code, and the model simulations closely agree with the experimental data. Furthermore, our model indicates that the depth of the exchange layer and raindrop induced water transfer rate are two important parameters, and they have different impacts on the simulation results. The study results can provide references for preventing and controlling agricultural NPSP.

  1. Logik, mening, handling og tale

    Widell, Peter


    skal ses i relation til sandheds- og meningstilskrivning, sådan som den finder sted ikke i først og fremmest i sproget, men i tanken, sådan som den åbenbarer sig i instrumentelle handling. Det er på baggrund af denne pragmatisering af logikken, talehandlingsbegrebet skal ses: Først og fremmest som den...... instrumentelle handleverdens møde med den sociale verden i assertivet. Dernæst som assertivets nødvendige udspaltninger i normativet og konstativet. Og endelig som de perlokutionære handlinger kommissiv, direktiv og informativ....

  2. 78 FR 23673 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...


    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced... Class 3 (Native) Spearmint Oil for the 2012-2013 Marketing Year AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service..., producers during the 2012-2013 marketing year under the Far West spearmint oil marketing order. The...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... employees exist tag lines or other suitable devices shall be used to control loads being handled by hoisting...

  4. 50 CFR 14.111 - Handling.


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Handling. 14.111 Section 14.111 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION... and Birds to the United States § 14.111 Handling. (a) Care shall be exercised to avoid handling the...

  5. 9 CFR 3.118 - Handling.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.118 Section 3.118 Animals... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.118 Handling. (a) Carriers and intermediate handlers moving marine...

  6. 9 CFR 3.142 - Handling.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.142 Section 3.142 Animals... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of... Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.142 Handling. (a) Carriers and intermediate handlers shall move live...

  7. Scheduling of outbound luggage handling at airports

    Barth, Torben C.; Pisinger, David


    This article considers the outbound luggage handling problem at airports. The problem is to assign handling facilities to outbound flights and decide about the handling start time. This dynamic, near real-time assignment problem is part of the daily airport operations. Quality, efficiency and rob...

  8. The Effects of Reduced Tillage on Phosphate Transport from Agricultural Land.


    as Bray P1 (Bray and Kurtz, 1945). However, it also reflects the pool of TPP that would be available to algae . Lake and Morrison (1975) reported on a...P04 -P) and labile phosphorus in runoff from croplands. p.509-533. hI KiiLsel, W.G. (ed). CREAMS : A field-scale model for chemicals, runoff and er...modeling. Chapter 12. In Knisel, W.G. (ed). CREAMS : A field-scale model for chemicals, runoff and erosion from agricultural management systems. USDA

  9. Endophytic Phytoaugmentation: Treating Wastewater and Runoff Through Augmented Phytoremediation

    Redfern, Lauren K.


    Abstract Limited options exist for efficiently and effectively treating water runoff from agricultural fields and landfills. Traditional treatments include excavation, transport to landfills, incineration, stabilization, and vitrification. In general, treatment options relying on biological methods such as bioremediation have the ability to be applied in situ and offer a sustainable remedial option with a lower environmental impact and reduced long-term operating expenses. These methods are generally considered ecologically friendly, particularly when compared to traditional physicochemical cleanup options. Phytoremediation, which relies on plants to take up and/or transform the contaminant of interest, is another alternative treatment method which has been developed. However, phytoremediation is not widely used, largely due to its low treatment efficiency. Endophytic phytoaugmentation is a variation on phytoremediation that relies on augmenting the phytoremediating plants with exogenous strains to stimulate associated plant-microbe interactions to facilitate and improve remediation efficiency. In this review, we offer a summary of the current knowledge as well as developments in endophytic phytoaugmentation and present some potential future applications for this technology. There has been a limited number of published endophytic phytoaugmentation case studies and much remains to be done to transition lab-scale results to field applications. Future research needs include large-scale endophytic phytoaugmentation experiments as well as the development of more exhaustive tools for monitoring plant-microbe-pollutant interactions. PMID:27158249

  10. Sediment Load in Runoff Under Laboratory and Field Simulated Rainfall

    JIN Ke; Wouter Schiettecatte; Koen Verbist; Donald Gabriels; Roger Hartmann; CAI Dian-xiong


    Soil erosion is one of the most important problems in the Loess Plateau of China affecting sustainable agriculture. Near Luoyang (Henan Province, China), field plots were constructed to measure soil erosion rates under conventional tillage practices using field-simulated rainfall. Field rainfall experiments were carried out to compare previous results from laboratory rainfall simulations on the same soil for interrill conditions. Although in the laboratory experiments, a strong correlation was found between the stream power of the runoff water and the unit sediment load, this sediment transport equation overestimated the field rainfall simulation results. Another sediment transport equation derived by Nearing et al. for rill erosion was in better agreement with the results of the field experiments, although it also overestimated these values. The measured sediment load values during the field rainfall simulations were also lower than those found during field experiments on the same soil but with a loosened surface layer. This difference indicates the importance of soil physical condition of surfce like soil structure and aggregate size, which may contribute to the discrepancy between the field and laboratory experiment results.

  11. Using the Sacramento soil moisture accounting model to provide short-term forecasts of surface runoff for daily decision making in nutrient management

    Managing the timing of fertilizer and manure application is critical to protecting water quality in agricultural watersheds. When fertilizers and manures are applied at inopportune times (e.g., just prior to a rainfall event that produces surface runoff) the risk of surface water contamination is un...

  12. Runoff of copper and zinc caused by atmospheric corrosion

    Leuenberger-Minger, A.U.; Faller, M.; Richner, P. [Swiss Federal Labs. for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland)


    Runoff and total corrosion loss for copper and zinc were investigated at seven sites in Switzerland. The exposure sites were chosen near the stations of the national air pollution monitoring network (NABEL), where climatic and air pollution data are measured. Runoff and corrosion rates were investigated after 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 years of exposure. Runoff rates differ from corrosion rates depending on the material, the exposure time and the sampling site. (orig.)

  13. Pollutants in stormwater runoff in Shanghai (China): Implications for management of urban runoff pollution

    Siaka Ballo; Min Liu; Lijun Hou; Jing Chang


    Runoff samples were collected from four functional areas (traffic, residential, commercial and industrial) and four roof types (old con-crete, new concrete, old clay and new clay) in central Shanghai, China, during rain events. The event mean concentrations (EMCs) of three forms of nitrogen (NH4+-N,NO3--N,NO2--N) and the temporal variations of total phosphorus (TP) were then measured to evaluate the effects of runoff from different areas on water quality management. The results revealed that the TP levels varied significantly in the samples collected from different functional areas and roof types during rain events. In addition, although the NO3--N and NO2--N concentrations in runoff remained well below the fifth class values of the national surface water quality standards, the NH4+-N levels were 1.36, 1.17, 1.10 and 0.85 times higher than the standard value in samples collected from commercial, traffic, indus-trial, and residential areas, respectively. Similarly, the concentrations of NH4+-N in samples collected from old concrete, new concrete, old clay and new clay roofs exceeded the fifth class standard by 6.66, 5.72, 4.32 and 3.32 times, respectively. And the NO3--N levels were 1.86 and 1.53 times higher than the standard values in runoff samples collected from new and old concrete roofs, respectively.

  14. Impact of climate change on snow melt driven runoff timing over the Alpine region

    Coppola, Erika; Raffaele, Francesca; Giorgi, Filippo


    We investigate the climate change impact on snowmelt-driven runoff (SDR) over the Alpine region using the output from two Med-CORDEX and two EURO-CORDEX regional climate model projections (RCP8.5 scenario) at two resolutions (12, 50 km) driven by a sub-set of the CMIP5 GCMs. Comparison with the European Water Archive observed runoff dataset (242 stations) over the Alps shows a good performance by the higher resolution models in representing present day SDR, with the lower resolution simulations being less accurate in capturing the SDR timing. In the future projections all the models show a temperature increase of up to 4° by the end of the 21st century throughout the Alps and this leads to an anticipation of SDR timing throughout the year that can span from 1 to 3 months depending on the model horizontal resolution. These timing changes are associated with changes in snow cover modulated by the complex Alpine topography. In fact, model resolution plays a critical role in regulating the magnitude, timing and spatial distribution of the response of snow cover and SDR to warming. We find that the accurate simulation of changes in runoff timing requires a high resolution representation of the Alpine topography, and can be important for water storage regulations concerning energy production, agriculture and domestic use.

  15. Runoff and sediment yield modeling in a medium-size mediterranean watershed

    Ossama M.M. Abdelwahab


    Full Text Available The AnnAGNPS model was used to estimate runoff, peak discharge and sediment yield at the event scale in the Carapelle watershed, a Mediterranean medium-size watershed (506 km2 located in Apulia, Southern Italy. The model was calibrated and validated using five years of runoff and sediment yield data measured at a monitoring station located at Ordona – Ponte dei Sauri Bridge. A total of 36 events was used to estimate the output of the model during the period 2007-2011, in comparison to the corresponding observations at the watershed outlet. The model performed well in predicting runoff, as was testified by the high values of the coefficients of efficiency and determination during the validation process. The peak flows predictions were satisfactory especially for the high flow events; the prediction capability of sediment yield was good, even if a slight over-estimation was observed. Finally, the model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of different Management practices (MPs on the watershed (converting wheat to forest, using vegetated streams, crop rotation corn/soybean, no tillage. While the maximum reduction in sediment yield was achieved converting wheat to forest, the best compromises between soil conservation and agriculture resulted to be crop rotations.

  16. Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation

    B. Dianda


    This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use

  17. Rainfall-runoff modelling for estimating Latonyanda River flow contributions to Luvuvhu River downstream of Albasini Dam

    Odiyo, J. O.; Phangisa, J. I.; Makungo, R.

    Rainfall-runoff modelling was conducted to estimate the flows that Latonyanda River contribute to Luvuvhu River downstream of Albasini Dam. The confluence of Latonyanda and Luvuvhu Rivers is ungauged. The contributed flows compensate for upstream water abstractions and periodic lack of releases from Albasini Dam. The flow contributions from tributaries to Luvuvhu River are important for ecosystem sustenance, meeting downstream domestic and agricultural water demand and ecological water requirements particularly in Kruger National Park. The upper Latonyanda River Quaternary Catchment (LRQC), with streamflow gauging station number A9H027 was delineated and used for rainfall-runoff modelling. The simulation was done using Mike 11 NAM rainfall-runoff model. Calibration and verification runs of Mike 11 NAM rainfall-runoff model were carried out using data for periods of 4 and 2 years, respectively. The model was calibrated using shuffled complex evolution optimizer. The model efficiency was tested using coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), overall water balance error (OWBE) and percentage bias (PBIAS). The model parameters obtained from the upper LRQC were transferred and used together with rainfall and evaporation data for 40 years period in the simulation of runoff for the LRQC. The flows that Latonyanda River contribute to Luvuvhu River were computed by subtracting irrigation abstractions and runoff drained to Tshakhuma Dam from the simulated runoff time series of the LRQC. The observed and the simulated runoff showed similar trends and measures of performances for both calibration and verification runs fell within acceptable ranges. The pairs of values obtained for R2, RMSE, OWBE and PBIAS for calibration and verification were 0.86 and 0.73, 0.21 and 0.2, 2.1 and 1.3, and 4.1 and 3.4, respectively. The simulated runoff for LRQC correlated well with the areal rainfall showing that the results are reasonable. The mean and maximum daily

  18. Classification,Hazards and Countermeasures of Agricultural Environmental Pollution Emergencies

    Xiaoming; CHUAI; Haixia; ZHOU; Jianping; ZHAO; Shubo; CHENG; Jiang; YU


    Agricultural environmental pollution emergencies have become a hot research topic because of the high incidence and influence depth.This paper introduces classification and features of agricultural environmental pollution emergencies:by pollutant type,it falls into organic pollution emergencies and inorganic pollution emergencies;by the approach of entering agricultural environment,it falls into water resource agricultural environmental pollution emergencies and non-water resource agricultural environmental pollution emergencies.Hazards of agricultural environmental pollution emergencies are analyzed from 4 perspectives:personal security,indirect loss,ecological environment and social stability.In view of the hazards,countermeasures are given to deal with the pollution emergencies as(i)establishing a risk evaluation mechanism for agricultural environment;(ii)enhancing the capacity of handling agricultural environmental pollution emergencies;(iii)introducing new management concepts for environmental emergencies,and cultivating keen emergency management consciousness.

  19. Modelling the impact of retention–detention units on sewer surcharge and peak and annual runoff reduction

    Locatelli, Luca; Gabriel, S.; Mark, O.


    Stormwater management using water sensitive urban design is expected to be part of future drainage systems. This paper aims to model the combination of local retention units, such as soakaways, with subsurface detention units. Soakaways are employed to reduce (by storage and infiltration) peak...... and volume stormwater runoff; however, large retention volumes are required for a significant peak reduction. Peak runoff can therefore be handled by combining detention units with soakaways. This paper models the impact of retrofitting retention-detention units for an existing urbanized catchment in Denmark....... The impact of retrofitting a retention-detention unit of 3.3 m(3)/100 m(2) (volume/impervious area) was simulated for a small catchment in Copenhagen using MIKE URBAN. The retention-detention unit was shown to prevent flooding from the sewer for a 10-year rainfall event. Statistical analysis of continuous...

  20. MPI Debugging with Handle Introspection

    Brock-Nannestad, Laust; DelSignore, John; Squyres, Jeffrey M.;

    The Message Passing Interface, MPI, is the standard programming model for high performance computing clusters. However, debugging applications on large scale clusters is difficult. The widely used Message Queue Dumping interface enables inspection of message queue state but there is no general...... interface for extracting information from MPI objects such as communicators. A developer can debug the MPI library as if it was part of the application, but this exposes an unneeded level of detail. The Tools Working Group in the MPI Forum has proposed a specification for MPI Handle Introspection....... It defines a standard interface that lets debuggers extract information from MPI objects. Extracted information is then presented to the developer, in a human readable format. The interface is designed to be independent of MPI implementations and debuggers. In this paper, we describe our support...

  1. Liberalisation of municipal waste handling

    Busck, Ole Gunni


    of price reductions in stead of quality demands in both environmental and working environmental terms. A recent study showed major deficits in the capacities of the municipalities to administer qualitative requirements in the tender process and to manage the contracts as an integral part of a scheme...... for improved performance of municipal waste management. The study stresses the need for training and guidance of municipal administrators. Highlighting ‘best practice’ examples the study shows, however, that it is perfectly possible to end up with quality service on contract. It takes a mixture of careful......Liberalisation of municipal waste handling: How are sustainable practices pursued? In the process of liberalization of public services in Europe contracting out the collection of municipal waste has surged. Research in Denmark has shown that municipalities in general have pursued a narrow policy...

  2. The geomorphic structure of the runoff peak

    R. Rigon


    Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical framework to investigate the core dependence of peak flows on the geomorphic properties of river basins. Based on the theory of transport by travel times, and simple hydrodynamic characterization of floods, this new framework invokes the linearity and invariance of the hydrologic response to provide analytical and semi-analytical expressions for peak flow, time to peak, and area contributing to the peak runoff. These results are obtained for the case of constant-intensity hyetograph using the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF curves to estimate extreme flow values as a function of the rainfall return period. Results show that, with constant-intensity hyetographs, the time-to-peak is greater than rainfall duration and usually shorter than the basin concentration time. Moreover, the critical storm duration is shown to be independent of rainfall return period as well as the area contributing to the flow peak. The same results are found when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are accounted for. Further, it is shown that, when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are negligible, the basin area contributing to the peak discharge does not depend on the channel velocity, but is a geomorphic propriety of the basin. As an example this framework is applied to three watersheds. In particular, the runoff peak, the critical rainfall durations and the time to peak are calculated for all links within a network to assess how they increase with basin area.

  3. Potential links between the North Atlantic Oscillation and decreasing precipitation and runoff on a Mediterranean area

    Montaldo, Nicola; Sarigu, Alessio


    In the Mediterranean region, the reduction in precipitation and warmer temperatures is generating a desertification process, with dramatic consequences for both agriculture and the sustainability of water resources. On the island of Sardinia (Italy), the decrease in runoff impacts the management of water resources, resulting in water supply restrictions even for domestic consumption. In the 10 Sardinian basins with a longer database (at least 40 complete years of data, including data from the past 10 years), runoff decreased drastically over the 1975-2010 period, with mean yearly runoff reduced by more than 40% compared to the previous 1922-1974 period. Trends in yearly runoff are negative, with Mann-Kendall τ values ranging from -0.39 to -0.2. Decreasing winter precipitation over the 1975-2010 period everywhere on Sardinia island has led to these decreases in runoff, as most yearly runoff in the Sardinian basins (70% on average) is produced by winter precipitation due to the seasonality typical of the Mediterranean climate regime. The trend in winter precipitation is not homogenous; the negative trend is higher (around -0.25) on the west Sardinian coast, becoming lower across the island toward the east coast (around -0.14). Winter precipitation is highly correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a weather phenomenon in the North Atlantic Ocean that controls the direction and strength of westerly winds and storm tracks into Europe. High negative correlations (up to -0.45) between winter NAO index and winter precipitation are estimated along the west coast. Meanwhile, these correlations decrease east across the island toward the high mountain in the center of Sardinia, reaching the lowest values along the east coast (about -0.25). The generally decreasing correlation between winter NAO index and winter precipitation in the longitudinal direction (from the North Atlantic dipole to the east) here accelerates due to local-scale orographic effects that

  4. Vegetated Ditches for the Mitigation of Pesticides Runoff in the Po Valley.

    Otto, Stefan; Pappalardo, Salvatore E; Cardinali, Alessandra; Masin, Roberta; Zanin, Giuseppe; Borin, Maurizio


    In intensive agricultural systems runoff is one of the major potential diffuse pollution pathways for pesticides and poses a risk to surface water. Ditches are common in the Po Valley and can potentially provide runoff mitigation for the protection of watercourses. The effectiveness depends on ditch characteristics, so there is an urgent need for site-specific field trials. The use of a fugacity model (multimedia model) can allows recognition of the mitigation main processes. A field experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the mitigation capacity of a typical vegetated ditch, and results were compared with predictions by a fugacity model. To evaluate herbicide mitigation after an extreme runoff, the ditch was flooded with water containing mesotrione, S-metolachlor and terbuthylazine. Two other subsequent floods with uncontaminated water were applied 27 and 82 days later to evaluate herbicides release. Results show that the ditch can immediately reduce runoff concentration of herbicides by at least 50% even in extreme flooding conditions. The half-distances were about 250 m. As a general rule, a runoff of 1 mm from 5 ha is mitigated by 99% in 100 m of vegetated ditch. Herbicides retention in the vegetated ditch was reversible, and the second flood mobilized 0.03-0.2% of the previous one, with a concentration below the drinking water limit of 0.1 μg L(-1). No herbicide was detected in the third flood, because the residual amount in the ditch was too low. Fugacity model results show that specific physical-chemical parameters may be used and a specific soil-sediment-plant compartment included for modelling herbicides behaviour in a vegetated ditch, and confirm that accumulation is low or negligible for herbicides with a half-life of 40 days or less. Shallow vegetated ditches can thus be included in a general agri-environment scheme for the mitigation of pesticides runoff together with wetlands and linear buffer strips. These structures are present in the

  5. Potential links between the North Atlantic Oscillation and decreasing precipitation and runoff on Sardinia

    Montaldo, Nicola; Sarigu, Alessio


    Recently, climate change and human activities increased the desertification process in the Mediterranean regions, with dramatic consequences for agriculture and water resources. On the Sardinia island (Italy), runoff decreased significantly in the 1975-2010 period with a mean yearly runoff reduction of more than 50% compared to the previous 1922-1974 period. The decrease in runoff severely impacts the management of water resources on the Sardinia island, resulting in water supply restrictions even for domestic consumption. In the 10 Sardinian basins, with a longer database (at least 40 complete years of data, including data from the past 10 years), the trend of yearly runoff computed with the Mann-Kendall test is negative, with the Mann-Kendall τ values ranging from -0.39 to -0.2. The reason for the decrease in runoff is mainly the alarming decrease in the winter precipitation over the past few decades everywhere on the Sardinia island. Indeed, most of the yearly runoff of the Sardinian basins (on average, 70%) is produced by the winter precipitation due to the typical seasonality of the Mediterranean rainfall regime. Surprisingly, the winter precipitation trend is not homogenous; the negative trend is higher on the Sardinian west coast and becomes lower as one crosses the island toward the east coast. At the rain stations on the east coast, the τ Mann-Kendall values of the winter precipitation become almost half of the τ Mann-Kendall values on the west coast, which is exposed to the western European climate dynamics. In this sense, winter precipitation is highly correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which is a weather phenomenon in the North Atlantic Ocean that controls the direction and strength of westerly winds and storm tracks into Europe. High negative correlations (up to -0.45) between winter NAO and winter precipitation are estimated along the west coast. Meanwhile, the correlations decrease as one crosses the island toward the east

  6. Climate change of the Sardinian hydrology: the NAO impact on the precipitation and runoff regimes

    Sarigu, Alessio; Montaldo, Nicola


    In the last decades, climate change and human activities increased desertification process in Mediterranean regions, with dramatic consequences for agriculture and water availability. In Sardinia a dramatic reduction of water in dam reservoirs has been observed, due to the decrease of runoff. The climate in Sardinia is typically Mediterranean maritime, characterized by a marked rainfall seasonality with wet winters and dry summers. The winter seasons play a key role for the dam water supply, and a systematic decrease of runoff during consequent years can dramatically impact on the management of the Sardinian water resources system. An analysis of the precipitation and runoff regimes for the whole Sardinia has been performed, highlighting the significant role of the coastal exposition and the orography. We collect an innovative database of rainfall and runoff observations from 1922 to 2011, including data of more than 400 rain stations and 30 discharge stations. Hystorical trends are detected using the Mann Kendall, with a significance level of 5%, showing a decrease of the rainfall of the winter trimester (January-February-March) and, more marked, of the runoff, for the whole Sardinia generally. Interestingly, the decrease is more marked for the rain and discharge stations of the Sardinian west coast, which is exposed to the west european climate dynamics. In this sense, several studies have shown a significant correlation between the main meteorological variables and indices related to fluctuations in global scale, for example NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation), which is a climatic phenomenon that represents the fluctuations in the difference of atmospheric pressure at sea level between the Icelandic low and the Azores high, and controls the direction and strength of westerly winds and storm tracks into Europe. A negative NAO brings to an increased storm activity and rainfall to southern Europe and North Africa. Finally, an analysis of hystorical storm tracks over

  7. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry. 201.82 Section 201.82 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS AC...

  8. 78 FR 46255 - Handling of Animals; Contingency Plans; Stay of Regulations


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 2 RIN 0579-AC69 Handling of Animals; Contingency Plans; Stay of Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule...

  9. Spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and their correlation with land-use in a rapidly urbanizing catchment in China.

    Qin, Hua-Peng; Khu, Soon-Thiam; Yu, Xiang-Ying


    The composition of land use for a rapidly urbanizing catchment is usually heterogeneous, and this may result in significant spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and increase the difficulties of water quality management. The Shiyan Reservoir catchment, a typical rapidly urbanizing area in China, is chosen as a study area, and temporary monitoring sites were set at the downstream of its 6 sub-catchments to synchronously measure rainfall, runoff and water quality during 4 storm events in 2007 and 2009. Due to relatively low frequency monitoring, the IHACRES and exponential pollutant wash-off simulation models are used to interpolate the measured data to compensate for data insufficiency. Three indicators, event pollutant loads per unit area (EPL), event mean concentration (EMC) and pollutant loads transported by the first 50% of runoff volume (FF50), were used to describe the runoff pollution for different pollutants in each sub-catchment during the storm events, and the correlations between runoff pollution spatial variations and land-use patterns were tested by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The results indicated that similar spatial variation trends were found for different pollutants (EPL or EMC) in light storm events, which strongly correlate with the proportion of residential land use; however, they have different trends in heavy storm events, which correlate with not only the residential land use, but also agricultural and bare land use. And some pairs of pollutants (such as COD/BOD, NH(3)-N/TN) might have the similar source because they have strong or moderate positive spatial correlation. Moreover, the first flush intensity (FF50) varies with impervious land areas and different interception ratio of initial storm runoff volume should be adopted in different sub-catchments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Impact of Land Use Changes on Runoff of Taihu Lake Basin of China

    Li, Hengpeng; Yang, Guishan; Diao, Yaqin; Li, Pengcheng


    Land use/cover changes play a role of "interface" linking human activities and environmental systems. Land use changes alter the hydrological characteristics of the land surface, and have significant impacts on hydrological cycle and water balance, leading to increasing flood disaster. Taihu lake basin is fastest on urbanization among the regions in the east part of China. Impacted by cities' fast expansion, the problem of storm flood disaster is very serious. In this study, land use information was extracted from 5-year's TM/ETM images of 1985, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010. A grid-based distributed hydrological model was applied to estimate Runoff response to land use changes by simulating the monthly and annual runoff using long-term rainfall records from 1980 to 2010. Results showed that rapid changes in land use was noted in Taihu Lake catchment, which is characterized by conversion of agricultural land to construction land. The share of construction land increased from 9.7% to 13.4% in 15 years (1985-2000) with the increased area of 1388 km2; In the following 2000-2010, the share of construction land increased from 13.4% to 24.2% with the increased area of 4038 km2. The land use changes during 1985-2000 resulted in an average increase of runoff by 4.37% in the whole Taihu Lake basin, approximately 6.46×108m3. The land use changes during 1985-2010 led to an average increase of runoff by 12.82% in the whole basin, around 18.99×108m3. Based on the analysis of rainfall variation in recent years in Taihu Lake basin, it is concluded that the increasing urban storm floods in Taihu Lake basin are closely related to the fast urbanization process.


    Surface water runoff from agricultural landscapes is one of the major sources of water quality impairment in the United States. With the advent of buffer strips and conservation minded tilling practices the agricultural community has made significant reductions in overland runof...

  12. Managing agricultural phosphorus to minimize water quality impacts

    Andrew Sharpley


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Eutrophication of surface waters remains a major use-impairment in many countries, which, in fresh waters, is accelerated by phosphorus (P inputs from both point (e.g., municipal waste water treatment plants and nonpoint sources (e.g., urban and agricultural runoff. As point sources tend to be easier to identify and control, greater attention has recently focused on reducing nonpoint sources of P. In Brazil, agricultural productivity has increased tremendously over the last decade as a consequence, to a large extent, of increases in the use of fertilizer and improved land management. For instance, adoption of the “4R” approach (i.e., right rate, right time, right source, and right placement of P to fertilizer management can decrease P runoff. Additionally, practices that lessen the risk of runoff and erosion, such as reduced tillage and cover crops will also lessen P runoff. Despite these measures P can still be released from soil and fluvial sediment stores as a result of the prior 10 to 20 years’ management. These legacy sources can mask the water quality benefits of present-day conservation efforts. Future remedial efforts should focus on developing risk assessment indices and nonpoint source models to identify and target conservation measures and to estimate their relative effectiveness. New fertilizer formulations may more closely tailor the timing of nutrient release to plant needs and potentially decrease P runoff. Even so, it must be remembered that appropriate and timely inputs of fertilizers are needed to maintain agricultural productivity and in some cases, financial support might also be required to help offset the costs of expensive conservation measures.

  13. Urban Runoff and Nutrients Loading Control from Sustainable BMPs (Invited)

    Xiao, Q.


    Climate change alters hydrodynamic and nutrient dynamic in both large and small geographic scales. These changes in our freshwater system directly affect drinking water, food production, business, and all aspects of our life. Along with climate change is increasing urbanization which alters natural landscape. Urban runoff has been identified as one of many potential drivers of the decline of pelagic fishes in san Francisco Bay-Delta region. Recent found of Pyrethroids in American River has increased scientists, public, and policy makers’ concern about our fresh water system. Increasing our understanding about the fundamental hydrodynamic, nutrient dynamics, and the transport mechanics of runoff and nutrients are important for future water resource and ecosystem management. Urbanization has resulted in significantly increasing the amount of impervious land cover. Most impervious land covers are hydrophobic that alters surface runoff because of the effects on surface retention storage, rainfall interception, and infiltration. Large volumes of excess storm runoff from urbanized areas cause flooding, water pollution, groundwater recharge deficits, destroyed habitat, beach closures, and toxicity to aquatic organisms. Parking lot alone accounts for more than 11% of these impervious surfaces. Contrast to impervious parking lot, turfgrass can accouter for 12% of urban land in California. Irrigated urban landscapes create considerable benefits to our daily living. However, the use of fertilizers and pesticides has caused environmental problems. Preventing fertilizers and pesticides from entering storm drains is an important goal for both landscape and storm runoff managers. Studies of urban runoff have found that the most fertilizers and pesticides are from dry weather runoff which conveys pollutants to sidewalks, streets, and storm drains. Controlling surface runoff is critical to preventing these pollutants from entering storm drains and water bodies. Large scale

  14. Integrated assessment of climate change impact on surface runoff contamination by pesticides.

    Gagnon, Patrick; Sheedy, Claudia; Rousseau, Alain N; Bourgeois, Gaétan; Chouinard, Gérald


    Pesticide transport by surface runoff depends on climate, agricultural practices, topography, soil characteristics, crop type, and pest phenology. To accurately assess the impact of climate change, these factors must be accounted for in a single framework by integrating their interaction and uncertainty. This article presents the development and application of a framework to assess the impact of climate change on pesticide transport by surface runoff in southern Québec (Canada) for the 1981-2040 period. The crop enemies investigated were: weeds for corn (Zea mays); and for apple orchard (Malus pumila), 3 insect pests (codling moth [Cydia pomonella], plum curculio [Conotrachelus nenuphar], and apple maggot [Rhagoletis pomonella]), 2 diseases (apple scab [Venturia inaequalis], and fire blight [Erwinia amylovora]). A total of 23 climate simulations, 19 sites, and 11 active ingredients were considered. The relationship between climate and phenology was accounted for by bioclimatic models of the Computer Centre for Agricultural Pest Forecasting (CIPRA) software. Exported loads of pesticides were evaluated at the edge-of-field scale using the Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), simulating both hydrology and chemical transport. A stochastic model was developed to account for PRZM parameter uncertainty. Results of this study indicate that for the 2011-2040 period, application dates would be advanced from 3 to 7 days on average with respect to the 1981-2010 period. However, the impact of climate change on maximum daily rainfall during the application window is not statistically significant, mainly due to the high variability of extreme rainfall events. Hence, for the studied sites and crop enemies considered, climate change impact on pesticide transported in surface runoff is not statistically significant throughout the 2011-2040 period. Integr Environ Assess Managem 2016;12:559-571. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2015; Published 2015 SETAC.

  15. Runoff and sediment production in a Mediterranean basin under two different land uses after forest maintenance

    Pacheco, Edinson; Rallo, Elena; Úbeda, Xavier; Farguell, Joaquim; Outeiro, Luís


    This study analyses the influence of two different land uses on the hydrology of the Vernegà experimental basin between the years 1993 and 2012. The basin is located in the Northeast of the Iberian Peninsula and it is influenced by a Mediterranean climate, with an average annual rainfall of 688 mm. The study of rainfall distribution shows that the majority occurs during autumn and spring, with a 34% and 25% of total annual rainfall respectively. Surface runoff flows from October to June. In this catchment, flash floods may represent 70% of the total water yield, though they only occur 6% of the time. It is important to emphasize that agricultural practices within the study area have been maintained, which is the contrary to the general trend in Mediterranean rural areas. The introduction of forest management practices between 2003 and 2005 has resulted in important hydrological changes in the watershed: Between 2005 and 2012 an increase of the runoff coefficient has been detected. In Bosc the increase represents 38% while in Campàs is 12% in relation with the 1993-2005 period. Campàs yields a greater total runoff than Bosc as a consequence of a greater catchment surface, greater agricultural surface and the existence of forest roads and forest management practices. Part of this phenomenon may be due to the decrease of interception of rainfall and plant biomass in the forested area of the basin. In relation to the sediment yield, it is concentrated during floods (more than 80%) and there is an increase of available sediment after extraordinary events, as it is the case of October 2005 flood, where the total sediment yield was 7 Tkm¯²yr¯¹ and in November 2005 it was 10 Tkm¯²yr¯¹.

  16. Coral skeletons provide historical evidence of phosphorus runoff on the great barrier reef.

    Jennie Mallela

    Full Text Available Recently, the inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef have declined rapidly because of deteriorating water quality. Increased catchment runoff is one potential culprit. The impacts of land-use on coral growth and reef health however are largely circumstantial due to limited long-term data on water quality and reef health. Here we use a 60 year coral core record to show that phosphorus contained in the skeletons (P/Ca of long-lived, near-shore Porites corals on the Great Barrier Reef correlates with annual records of fertiliser application and particulate phosphorus loads in the adjacent catchment. Skeletal P/Ca also correlates with Ba/Ca, a proxy for fluvial sediment loading, again linking near-shore phosphorus records with river runoff. Coral core records suggest that phosphorus levels increased 8 fold between 1949 and 2008 with the greatest levels coinciding with periods of high fertiliser-phosphorus use. Periods of high P/Ca correspond with intense agricultural activity and increased fertiliser application in the river catchment following agricultural expansion and replanting after cyclone damage. Our results demonstrate how coral P/Ca records can be used to assess terrestrial nutrient loading of vulnerable near-shore reefs.

  17. Ergonomics: safe patient handling and mobility.

    Hallmark, Beth; Mechan, Patricia; Shores, Lynne


    This article reviews and investigates the issues surrounding ergonomics, with a specific focus on safe patient handling and mobility. The health care worker of today faces many challenges, one of which is related to the safety of patients. Safe patient handling and mobility is on the forefront of the movement to improve patient safety. This article reviews the risks associated with patient handling and mobility, and informs the reader of current evidence-based practice relevant to this area of care.

  18. Enclosure for handling high activity materials

    Jimeno de Osso, F.


    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With this purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. In this report a description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (Author)

  19. Agriculture ideas and modernization of agriculture

    Li Kangmin


    Full Text Available The development of agriculture has its own history from primitive agriculture, traditional agriculture to modem agriculture. Is it a historical road we must follow?Human being had experienced a long history of living on collection and hunting for about 2,000 to 3,000 millenniums since human being appeared on earth. After we settled down, another 10 millenniums passed. Human being began to cultivate crops and raise animals. Thus, we entered the primitive agriculture stage. The primitive agriculture lasted for 7,000 years to get our food security on primitive crop cultivation and animal raising.

  20. Geometric dependency of Tibetan lakes on glacial runoff

    Phan Hien, V.; Lindenbergh, R.C.; Menenti, M.


    The Tibetan plateau is an essential source of water for South-East Asia. The run-off from its ~ 34 000 glaciers, which occupy an area of ~ 50 000 km2, feed Tibetan lakes and major Asian rivers like Indus and Brahmaputra. Reported glacial shrinkage likely has its impact on the run-off. Unfortunately,

  1. Geometric dependency of Tibetan lakes on glacial runoff

    Phan Hien, V.; Lindenbergh, R.C.; Menenti, M.


    The Tibetan Plateau is an essential source of water for Southeast Asia. The runoff from its ~34 000 glaciers, which occupy an area of ~50 000 km2, feeds Tibetan lakes and major Asian rivers like the Indus and Brahmaputra. Reported glacial shrinkage likely has an impact on the runoff. Unfortunately,

  2. Runoff Characterization and Variations at McMurdo Station, Antarctica


    can potentially migrate into the permeable thawed ground and into the drainage channels during runoff. A review of the runoff data collection and...sensors. 7. We used long nails /stakes to center the sensor in the ditch as best as pos- sible (Figure A4a). 8. We installed stake upstream and

  3. Curve number estimation from Brazilian Cerrado rainfall and runoff data

    The Curve Number (CN) method has been widely used to estimate runoff from rainfall events in Brazil, however, CN values for use in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) are poorly documented. In this study we used experimental plots to measure natural rainfall-driven rates of runoff under undisturbed Cerr...

  4. Modeling tropical river runoff:A time dependent approach

    Rashmi Nigam; Sudhir Nigam; Sushil K.Mittal


    Forecasting of rainfall and subsequent river runoff is important for many operational problems and applications related to hydrol-ogy. Modeling river runoff often requires rigorous mathematical analysis of vast historical data to arrive at reasonable conclusions. In this paper we have applied the stochastic method to characterize and predict river runoff of the perennial Kulfo River in south-ern Ethiopia. The time series analysis based auto regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) approach is applied to mean monthly runoff data with 10 and 20 years spans. The varying length of the input runoff data is shown to influence the forecasting efficiency of the stochastic process. Preprocessing of the runoff time series data indicated that the data do not follow a seasonal pattern. Our forecasts were made using parsimonious non seasonal ARIMA models and the results were compared to actual 10-year and 20-year mean monthly runoff data of the Kulfo River. Our results indicate that river runoff forecasts based upon the 10-year data are more accurate and efficient than the model based on the 20-year time series.

  5. Specifics of surface runoff contents and treatment in large cities

    V.N. Chechevichkin


    Full Text Available The degree of surface runoff pollution in large cities has been assessed in modern conditions in the case study of production sites of St. Petersburg. Increased content of petroleum derivatives and heavy metal ions both in rainwater runoff and especially in snowmelt runoff has been revealed. It has been established that the composition of infiltration runoff from the newly built-up sites within the city limits commonly depends on their background, especially in the places of former unauthorized dumps, which are usually buried under the building sites. The content of petroleum derivatives in such surface runoff can exceed significantly their content in the runoff of landfills. Most petroleum derivatives appear in the surface runoff as emulsified and associated with suspended matters forms, which are a source of secondary pollution of waste water as it is accumulated in settlers and traps of local waste water treatment plants. Filtrational-sorptive technologies of surface runoff treatment are the most effective and simple in terms of both treatment and waste disposal.

  6. Microchannels affect runoff and sediment yield from a shortgrass prairie

    Runoff and sediment yield from rangelands are extremely important variables that affect productivity, but are difficult to quantify. Studies have been conducted to assess erosion on rangelands, but very little has been done to determine if microchannels (rills) affect runoff and sediment yield. Rain...

  7. Herbicide volatilization trumps runoff losses, a multi-year investigation

    Surface runoff and volatilization are two processes critical to herbicide off-site transport. To determine the relevance of these off-site transport mechanisms, runoff and turbulent vapor fluxes were simultaneously monitored on the same site for eight years. Site location, herbicide formulations, ...


    Development that increases the impervious surface in a watershed causes excess storm water runoff (SWR) that has been identified as a major contributor to stream and riparian habitat degradation. Reduction of storm water runoff can be achieved through establishment of a number of...

  9. Ergonomic handle for an arthroscopic cutter.

    Tuijthof; van Engelen; Herder; Goossens; Snijders; van Dijk


    From an analysis of the routinely performed meniscectomy procedures, it was concluded that a punch with a side-ways steerable tip would improve the reachability of meniscal tissue. This potentially leads to a safer and more efficient meniscectomy. Furthermore, the current scissors handles of arthroscopic punches are ergonomically not sufficient. An ergonomic handle is designed with one lever that enables opening and closing of the instrument tip, and side-ways steering of the instrument tip. The design of the handle complies with ergonomic guidelines that were found in the literature. A model of the instrument tip was added to the new handle for comparison with conventional handles. Experiments were performed with a knee joint model, using objective and subjective criteria. The results show that the concept of a side-ways steerable punch is promising, since faster task times are achieved without increasing the risk of damaging healthy tissue. The current design of the ergonomic handle incorporates two degrees of freedom in an intuitive way, the handle is more comfortable to hold, and easy to control. The external memory capabilities of the new handle could be improved. Further development of this handle and the addition of a sufficient instrument tip and force transmission are recommended.

  10. Hillslope soil erosion and runoff model for natural rainfall events

    Zhanyu Zhang; Guohua Zhang; Changqing Zuo; Xiaoyu Pi


    By using the momentum theorem and water balance principle, basic equations of slope runoff were derived, soil erosion by raindrop splash and runoff were discussed and a model was established for decribing hillslope soil erosion processes. The numerical solution of the model was obtained by adopting the Preissmann format and considering the common solution-determining conditions, from which not only the runoff and soil erosion but also their processes can be described. The model was validated by ten groups of observation data of Soil Conservation Ecological Science and Technology Demonstration Park of Jiangxi Province. Comparisons show that the maximum relative error between simulation and experimental data is about 10.98% for total runoff and 15% for total erosion, 5.2% for runoff process and 6.1% for erosion process, indicating that the model is conceptually realistic and reliable and offers a feasible approach for further studies on the soil erosion process.


    Ewa Burszta-Adamiak


    Full Text Available Apart from direct measurements, modelling of runoff from green roofs is valuable source of information about effectiveness of this type of structure from hydrological point of view. Among different type of models, the most frequently used are numerical models. They allow to assess the impact of green roofs on decrease and attenuation of runoff, reduction of peak runoff and value of water retention. This paper presents preliminary results of research on computing the rate of runoff from green roofs using GARDENIA model. The analysis has been carried out for selected rainfall events registered during measuring campaign on pilot-scale green roofs. Obtained results are promising and show good fit between observed and simulated runoff.

  12. Handling S/MAR vectors.

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Baiker, Armin; Postberg, Jan; Ehrhardt, Anja; Lipps, Hans J


    Nonviral episomal vectors represent attractive alternatives to currently used virus-based expression systems. In the late 1990s, it was shown that a plasmid containing an expression cassette linked to a scaffold/matrix attached region (S/MAR) replicates as a low copy number episome in all cell lines tested, as well as primary cells, and can be used for the genetic modification of higher animals. Once established in the cell, the S/MAR vector replicates early during S-phase and, in the absence of selection, is stably retained in the cells for an unlimited period of time. This vector can therefore be regarded as a minimal model system for studying the epigenetic regulation of replication and functional nuclear architecture. In theory, this construct represents an almost "ideal" expression system for gene therapy. In practice, S/MAR-based vectors stably modify mammalian cells with efficiencies far below those of virus-based constructs. Consequently, they have not yet found application in gene therapy trials. Furthermore, S/MAR vector systems are not trivial to handle and several critical technical issues have to be considered when modifying these vectors for various applications.

  13. From alternative Agriculture to the Food Industry

    Nielsen, Thorkild; Kristensen, Niels Heine


    for organic agriculture over the last decade.Organic food production is now developing fast in some EU member states. This recent development is not only marked by more positive attitudes towards organic products from the food industry but also by an increasing need for a matching response in terms of food...... policy. Relevance: The EU regulation 2092/91/EEC is mainly focused on organic agriculture, but as the food industryenters this field the need emerges for a more specific interpretation, development and implementation of the organic principles and methods in processing, handling and distribution. Whether...... the development of EU regulations will meet future consumer demands will be of great importance....

  14. The response of runoff and sediment loading in the Apalachicola River, Florida to climate and land use land cover change

    Hovenga, Paige A.; Wang, Dingbao; Medeiros, Stephen C.; Hagen, Scott C.; Alizad, Karim


    The response of runoff and sediment loading in the Apalachicola River under projected climate change scenarios and land use land cover (LULC) change is evaluated. A hydrologic model using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool was developed for the Apalachicola region to simulate daily runoff and sediment load under present (circa 2000) and future conditions (2100) to understand how parameters respond over a seasonal time frame to changes in climate, LULC, and coupled climate/LULC. The Long Ashton Research Station-Weather Generator was used to downscale temperature and precipitation from three general circulation models, each under Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) carbon emission scenarios A2, A1B, and B1. Projected 2100 LULC data provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center was incorporated for each corresponding IPCC scenario. Results indicate that climate change may induce seasonal shifts to both runoff and sediment loading. Changes in LULC showed that more sediment load was associated with increased agriculture and urban areas and decreased forested regions. A nonlinear response for both runoff and sediment loading was observed by coupling climate and LULC change, suggesting that both should be incorporated into hydrologic models when studying the future conditions. The outcomes from this research can be used to better guide management practices and mitigation strategies.

  15. Mapping dominant runoff processes: an evaluation of different approaches using similarity measures and synthetic runoff simulations

    Antonetti, Manuel; Buss, Rahel; Scherrer, Simon; Margreth, Michael; Zappa, Massimiliano


    The identification of landscapes with similar hydrological behaviour is useful for runoff and flood predictions in small ungauged catchments. An established method for landscape classification is based on the concept of dominant runoff process (DRP). The various DRP-mapping approaches differ with respect to the time and data required for mapping. Manual approaches based on expert knowledge are reliable but time-consuming, whereas automatic GIS-based approaches are easier to implement but rely on simplifications which restrict their application range. To what extent these simplifications are applicable in other catchments is unclear. More information is also needed on how the different complexities of automatic DRP-mapping approaches affect hydrological simulations. In this paper, three automatic approaches were used to map two catchments on the Swiss Plateau. The resulting maps were compared to reference maps obtained with manual mapping. Measures of agreement and association, a class comparison, and a deviation map were derived. The automatically derived DRP maps were used in synthetic runoff simulations with an adapted version of the PREVAH hydrological model, and simulation results compared with those from simulations using the reference maps. The DRP maps derived with the automatic approach with highest complexity and data requirement were the most similar to the reference maps, while those derived with simplified approaches without original soil information differed significantly in terms of both extent and distribution of the DRPs. The runoff simulations derived from the simpler DRP maps were more uncertain due to inaccuracies in the input data and their coarse resolution, but problems were also linked with the use of topography as a proxy for the storage capacity of soils. The perception of the intensity of the DRP classes also seems to vary among the different authors, and a standardised definition of DRPs is still lacking. Furthermore, we argue not to use

  16. Flood damage claims reveal insights about surface runoff in Switzerland

    Bernet, D. B.; Prasuhn, V.; Weingartner, R.


    A few case studies in Switzerland exemplify that not only overtopping water bodies frequently cause damages to buildings. Reportedly, a large share of the total loss due to flooding in Switzerland goes back to surface runoff that is formed and is propagating outside of regular watercourses. Nevertheless, little is known about when, where and why such surface runoff occurs. The described process encompasses surface runoff formation, followed by unchannelised overland flow until a water body is reached. It is understood as a type of flash flood, has short response times and occurs diffusely in the landscape. Thus, the process is difficult to observe and study directly. A promising source indicating surface runoff indirectly are houseowners' damage claims recorded by Swiss Public Insurance Companies for Buildings (PICB). In most of Switzerland, PICB hold a monopoly position and insure (almost) every building. Consequently, PICB generally register all damages to buildings caused by an insured natural hazard (including surface runoff) within the respective zones. We have gathered gapless flood related claim records of most of all Swiss PICB covering more than the last two decades on average. Based on a subset, we have developed a methodology to differentiate claims related to surface runoff from other causes. This allows us to assess the number of claims as well as total loss related to surface runoff and compare these to the numbers of overtopping watercourses. Furthermore, with the good data coverage, we are able to analyze surface runoff related claims in space and time, from which we can infer spatial and temporal characteristics of surface runoff. Although the delivered data of PICB are heterogeneous and, consequently, time-consuming to harmonize, our first results show that exploiting these damage claim records is feasible and worthwhile to learn more about surface runoff in Switzerland.

  17. What Controls Runoff Ratios in the Congo Basin?

    Durand, M. T.; Wei, R.


    As the second-largest river globally, the Congo is a critical part of large-scale water, energy, and carbon cycles, and thus has a significant influence on regional climate. The runoff ratio is a coefficient relating runoff to precipitation; it is a parameter that integrates and summarizes upstream hydrologic processes. The Budyko equation depicts the expected partitioning of precipitation (P) into evapotranspiration (E) and runoff (R): P=R+E. It is hypothesized that radiation and precipitation are primary controls of the partitioning process; the effects of the surface control (e.g. soil and slope) are implicitly assumed to be minor. In this study, we explored thirty years of data in the Congo River basin. We will correlate the runoff ratio to a variety of factors, including precipitation, radiation and surface controls (e.g. soil, slope). Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) by pentad precipitation was used as primary precipitation data, and Climatic Research Unit (CRU) by data was used for comparison. For discharge and drainage area were derived from Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC), and net radiation is from NASA Earth Observatory. Congo sub basins are analyzed as well. Interannual variability in the runoff ratio for the Congo basin ranged from 0.2 to 0.3, but was generally uncorrelated with precipitation. Runoff is generally uncorrelated with precipitation, whereas evapotranspiration calculated as residual (P-R) is highly correlated with precipitation, with E ranging from 1000 to 1300 mm per year, and P explaining 85% of the variance. Spatial variability was explored by analysis of long-term mean runoff ratio for 10 sub-basins. Spatially, both R and runoff ratio are highly correlated with P, with P explaining 59% of the variance in the runoff ratio. Physical mechanisms to explain these results are explored, and the implications for the Congo's role in partitioning rainfall over sub-Saharan Africa are discussed.

  18. Ecosystem services and agriculture: tradeoffs and synergies

    Power, Alison G.


    Agricultural ecosystems provide humans with food, forage, bioenergy and pharmaceuticals and are essential to human wellbeing. These systems rely on ecosystem services provided by natural ecosystems, including pollination, biological pest control, maintenance of soil structure and fertility, nutrient cycling and hydrological services. Preliminary assessments indicate that the value of these ecosystem services to agriculture is enormous and often underappreciated. Agroecosystems also produce a variety of ecosystem services, such as regulation of soil and water quality, carbon sequestration, support for biodiversity and cultural services. Depending on management practices, agriculture can also be the source of numerous disservices, including loss of wildlife habitat, nutrient runoff, sedimentation of waterways, greenhouse gas emissions, and pesticide poisoning of humans and non-target species. The tradeoffs that may occur between provisioning services and other ecosystem services and disservices should be evaluated in terms of spatial scale, temporal scale and reversibility. As more effective methods for valuing ecosystem services become available, the potential for ‘win–win’ scenarios increases. Under all scenarios, appropriate agricultural management practices are critical to realizing the benefits of ecosystem services and reducing disservices from agricultural activities. PMID:20713396


    Veselka Vlahova


    Full Text Available Biodynamic agriculture is undoubtedly the oldest organized agricultural movement in the world. It is considered as an organic agricultural farming approach and determined as the oldest organized alternative agricultural movement in the world. In 1924 Rudolf Steiner – an Austrian natural scientist and philosopher, carried out a series of eight lectures in Koberwitz, currently Kobierzyce- Poland, where he formulated his visions on changes in agriculture and revealed his spiritual and scientific concepts about the connection between nature and agriculture by determining the important role of agriculture for the future of humanity and thus he became known as “the father of anthroposophy”. The great ecological effect of the application of the biodynamic agriculture is expressed in soil preservation and preservation of the living organisms in the soil, as well as maintenance of the natural balance in the vegetable and animal kingdom.

  20. What makes organic agriculture move: protest, meaning or market?

    Alrøe, Hugo; Noe, Egon


    Many different actors have hopes and aspirations for the future of organic agriculture. They have different perspectives on organic agriculture with different understandings of what it is and what makes it move. Each perspective entails a certain understanding of organic agriculture featuring...... certain concepts and values and a particular logic or rationality. It is important to acknowledge this heterogeneity when investigating the dynamics and governance of organic agriculture. We suggest a polyocular approach that facilitates a comprehensive and balanced understanding of organic agriculture...... by enabling us to handle different perspectives reflexively. To illustrate this approach we describe three significant perspectives on organic agriculture based on protest, meaning and market. No perspective is the 'right' one and we claim, different perspectives on organic agriculture cannot be merged to one...

  1. Runoff quality and pollution loadings from a tropical urban catchment.

    Yusop, Z; Tan, L W; Ujang, Z; Mohamed, M; Nasir, K A


    Runoff quality draining from 17.14 km2 urban catchment in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, was analysed. The land-use consists of residential (30.3%), agricultural (27.3%), open space (27.9%), industrial (8.1%) and commercial (6.4%) areas. Three storm events were sampled in detail. These storms produced stormflow between 0.84 mm and 27.82 mm, and peakflow from 2.19 m3/s to 42.36 m3/s. Water quality showed marked variation during storms especially for TSS, BOD and COD with maximum concentrations of 778 mg/l, 135 mg/l and 358 mg/l, respectively. Concentrations of TOC, DOC, NH3-N, Fe and level of colour were also high. In general, the river quality is badly polluted and falls in Class V based on the Malaysian Interim National Water Quality Standards. Event Mean Concentrations (EMC) for various parameters varied considerably between storms. The largest storm produced higher EMC for TSS, NO3-N and SS whereas the smaller storms tend to register higher EMC for BOD, COD, NH3-N, TOC, Ca, K, Mg, Fe and Zn. Such variations could be explained in terms of pollutant availability and the effects of flushing and dilution. Based on a three-month average recurrence interval (ARI) of rainfall, the estimated event loadings (ton/ha) of TSS, BOD, COD, TOC, NH3-N and NO3-N were 0.055, 0.016, 0.012, 0.039, 0.010, 0.0007 and 0.0002, respectively. Heavy metals present in trace quantities. Storms with 3 months ARI could capture about 70% of the total annual loads of major pollutants.

  2. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  3. Agricultural Education at Risk.

    Evans, Donald E.


    Discusses educational reform in the context of agricultural education. Covers a recent report on agricultural education reform by the National Academy of Sciences, state legislative initiatives, and several recommendations for the future of agricultural education. (CH)

  4. Urban Agriculture Guide

    Visser, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.


    The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands

  5. Agricultural SWOT analysis and wisdom agriculture design of chengdu

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xiangyu; Du, Shaoming; Yin, Guowei; Yu, Feng; Liu, Guicai; Gong, Jin; Han, Fujun


    According to the status of agricultural information, this paper analyzed the advantages, opportunities and challenges of developing wisdom agriculture in Chengdu. By analyzed the local characteristics of Chengdu agriculture, the construction program of Chengdu wisdom agriculture was designed, which was based on the existing agricultural informatization. The positioning and development theme of Chengdu agriculture is leisure agriculture, urban agriculture and quality agriculture.

  6. Research on Event Handling Models of Java

    WU Yue; WU Jing; ZHOU Ming-tian


    A new event-handling paradigm and its application model are proposed. The working mechanism and principle of event listener model is given in detail. Finally, the launching event mechanisms,the choosing event handling models and the dispatching mechanism are illustrated.

  7. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.


    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  8. 38 CFR 1.660 - Expeditious handling.


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expeditious handling. 1.660 Section 1.660 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Inventions by Employees of Department of Veterans Affairs § 1.660 Expeditious handling. No patent...

  9. 30 CFR 715.16 - Topsoil handling.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Topsoil handling. 715.16 Section 715.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 715.16 Topsoil handling. To prevent topsoil from being...

  10. Information Handling, Organizational Structure, and Power.

    Buckland, Michael K.


    Uses examples from military strategic communications to demonstrate that organizational structures and the distribution of power within organizational structures adapt to changes in information handling capability. It is concluded that delegation and decentralization can be viewed as indicative of inadequate information handling and that improved…

  11. Storage and Handling of Commercially Packaged Foods

    Villalba, Abigail; Boyer, Renee Raiden; Bazemore, Sherry


    Proper selection of foods at the grocery store and appropriate storage and handling practices at home are necessary to maintain the quality and safety of commercially processed foods and perishable foods. This brochure offers some guidelines to follow when buying, handling, and storing packaged foods.

  12. Material Handling Equipment Evaluation for Crater Repair


    material handling equipment with a reduced logistical footprint for use by crater repair teams in airfield damage repair (ADR) scenarios. A market ...compared to currently utilized material handling equipment. This report presents the results of the market survey and equipment evaluations. Results...1 1.2 Objective and scope

  13. Feasibility of Upper Port Plug tube handling

    Koning, J.F.; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.; Ronden, D.M.S.; Klinkhamer, J.F.F.; Biel, W.; Krasikov, Y.; Walker, C.I.


    Central, retractable tubes are proposed in several Upper Port Plugs (UPPs) designs for ITER, to enable fast exchange of specific components of diagnostics housed in these UPPs. This paper investigates into possible designs to enable the efficient handling of tubes. The feasibility of tube handling i

  14. Reducing Mouse Anxiety during Handling: Effect of Experience with Handling Tunnels

    Kelly Gouveia; Hurst, Jane L.


    Handling stress is a well-recognised source of variation in animal studies that can also compromise the welfare of research animals. To reduce background variation and maximise welfare, methods that minimise handling stress should be developed and used wherever possible. Recent evidence has shown that handling mice by a familiar tunnel that is present in their home cage can minimise anxiety compared with standard tail handling. As yet, it is unclear whether a tunnel is required in each home c...

  15. Hydrological heterogeneity in agricultural riparian buffer strips

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Larocque, Marie; Perron, Rachel; Wiseman, Natalie; Labrecque, Michel


    Riparian buffer strips (RBS) may protect surface water and groundwater in agricultural settings, although their effectiveness, observed in field-scale studies, may not extend to a watershed scale. Hydrologically-controlled leaching plots have often shown RBS to be effective at buffering nutrients and pesticides, but uncontrolled field studies have sometimes suggested limited effectiveness. The limited RBS effectiveness may be explained by the spatiotemporal hydrological heterogeneity near non-irrigated fields. This hypothesis was tested in conventional corn and soy fields in the St. Lawrence Lowlands of southern Quebec (Canada), where spring melt brings heavy and rapid runoff, while summer months are hot and dry. One field with a mineral soil (Saint-Roch-de-l'Achigan) and another with an organic-rich soil (Boisbriand) were equipped with passive runoff collectors, suction cup lysimeters, and piezometers placed before and after a 3 m-wide RBS, and monitored from 2011 to 2014. Soil topography of the RBS was mapped to a 1 cm vertical precision and a 50 cm sampling grid. On average, surface runoff intersects the RBS perpendicularly, but is subject to substantial local heterogeneity. Groundwater saturates the root zones, but flows little at the time of snowmelt. Groundwater flow is not consistently perpendicular to the RBS, and may reverse, flowing from stream to field under low water flow regimes with stream-aquifer connectivity, thus affecting RBS effectiveness calculations. Groundwater flow direction can be influenced by stratigraphy, local soil hydraulic properties, and historical modification of the agricultural stream beds. Understanding the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of surface and groundwater flows is essential to correctly assess the effectiveness of RBS in intercepting agro-chemical pollution. The implicit assumption that water flows across vegetated RBS, from the field to the stream, should always be verified.

  16. Runoff prediction in ungauged basins: synthesis across processes, places and scales

    Blöschl, Günter


    "Predicting water runoff in ungauged water catchment areas is vital to practical applications such as the design of drainage infrastructure and flooding defences, runoff forecasting, and for catchment...

  17. The imperative for regenerative agriculture.

    Rhodes, Christopher J


    A review is made of the current state of agriculture, emphasising issues of soil erosion and dependence on fossil fuels, in regard to achieving food security for a relentlessly enlarging global population. Soil has been described as "the fragile, living skin of the Earth", and yet both its aliveness and fragility have all too often been ignored in the expansion of agriculture across the face of the globe. Since it is a pivotal component in a global nexus of soil-water-air-energy, how we treat the soil can impact massively on climate change - with either beneficial or detrimental consequences, depending on whether the soil is preserved or degraded. Regenerative agriculture has at its core the intention to improve the health of soil or to restore highly degraded soil, which symbiotically enhances the quality of water, vegetation and land-productivity. By using methods of regenerative agriculture, it is possible not only to increase the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) in existing soils, but to build new soil. This has the effect of drawing down carbon from the atmosphere, while simultaneously improving soil structure and soil health, soil fertility and crop yields, water retention and aquifer recharge - thus ameliorating both flooding and drought, and also the erosion of further soil, since runoff is reduced. Since food production on a more local scale is found to preserve the soil and its quality, urban food production should be seen as a significant potential contributor to regenerative agriculture in the future, so long as the methods employed are themselves 'regenerative'. If localisation is to become a dominant strategy for dealing with a vastly reduced use of fossil fuels, and preserving soil quality - with increased food production in towns and cities - it will be necessary to incorporate integrated ('systems') design approaches such as permaculture and the circular economy (which minimise and repurpose 'waste') within the existing urban infrastructure. In

  18. Investigating causes of changes in runoff using hydrological simulation approach

    Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Xuemei; Bao, Zhenxin; Liu, Yanli; Liu, Cuishan; He, Ruimin; Luo, Junsong


    Stream flow plays a crucial role in environmental, social and economic contexts. It is of significance to investigate the causes of change in runoff for better water resources management. This study detects the variation trend of recorded runoff of the Gushan River, a tributary of the Yellow River located on the Loess Plateau with severe soil and water losing, and investigates the impacts of climate change and human activities on runoff using hydrological simulation approach. Results show that the recorded runoff at Gaoshiya station on the Gushan River has experienced a significant declining trend from 1954-2013 with an abrupt change occurring in 1973. SimHyd rainfall runoff model performs well for monthly discharge simulation with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of 82.6 % and relative error of 0.32 %. Runoff depth over the catchment in 1980-2013 reduced by 52.4 mm compared to the previous period, in which human activities and climate change contribute 61.5 and 38.5 % of the total runoff reduction, respectively. However, the human-induced impact tends to increase. Therefore, efforts to improve the ecology of the Loess Plateau should give sufficient attention to the impacts of human activity.

  19. Investigating causes of changes in runoff using hydrological simulation approach

    Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Xuemei; Bao, Zhenxin; Liu, Yanli; Liu, Cuishan; He, Ruimin; Luo, Junsong


    Stream flow plays a crucial role in environmental, social and economic contexts. It is of significance to investigate the causes of change in runoff for better water resources management. This study detects the variation trend of recorded runoff of the Gushan River, a tributary of the Yellow River located on the Loess Plateau with severe soil and water losing, and investigates the impacts of climate change and human activities on runoff using hydrological simulation approach. Results show that the recorded runoff at Gaoshiya station on the Gushan River has experienced a significant declining trend from 1954-2013 with an abrupt change occurring in 1973. SimHyd rainfall runoff model performs well for monthly discharge simulation with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of 82.6 % and relative error of 0.32 %. Runoff depth over the catchment in 1980-2013 reduced by 52.4 mm compared to the previous period, in which human activities and climate change contribute 61.5 and 38.5 % of the total runoff reduction, respectively. However, the human-induced impact tends to increase. Therefore, efforts to improve the ecology of the Loess Plateau should give sufficient attention to the impacts of human activity.

  20. A Synopsis of Technical Issues of Concern for Monitoring Trace Elements in Highway and Urban Runoff

    Breault, Robert F.; Granato, Gregory E.


    elements and other sources of bias and variability in the sampling process. Trace elements have both natural and anthropogenic sources that may affect the sampling process, including the sample-collection and handling materials used in many trace-element monitoring studies. Trace elements also react with these materials within the timescales typical for collection, processing and analysis of runoff samples. To study the characteristics and potential effects of trace elements in highway and urban runoff, investigators typically sample one or more operationally defined matrixes including: whole water, dissolved (filtered water), suspended sediment, bottom sediment, biological tissue, and contaminant sources. The sampling and analysis of each of these sample matrixes can provide specific information about the occurrence and distribution of trace elements in runoff and receiving waters. There are, however, technical concerns specific to each matrix that must be understood and addressed through use of proper collection and processing protocols. Valid protocols are designed to minimize inherent problems and to maximize the accuracy, precision, comparability, and representativeness of data collected. Documentation, including information about monitoring protocols, quality assurance and quality control efforts, and ancillary data also is necessary to establish data quality. This documentation is especially important for evaluation of historical traceelement monitoring data, because trace-element monitoring protocols and analysis methods have been constantly changing over the past 30 years.

  1. Scenarios of annual and seasonal runoff for Norway

    Roald, L. A.; Skaugen, T. E.; Beldring, S.; Væringstad, T.; Engeset, R.; Førland, E. J.


    Scenarios of the annual and seasonal runoff for the period 2030-49 compared to the recent period 1980-99 have been developed. The scenarios are based on daily temperature and precipitation series from the research project: Regional Climate Development Under Global Warming (RegClim) in Norway. The study utilises dynamically downscaled series for the period 1980-99 and for the scenario period 2030-49 based on the GSDIO simulation with the global climate model ECHAM4/OPYC3 of the Max Planck Institute für Meteorologie in Hamburg. The runoff has been modelled by a gridded version of the HBV-model with grid size 1 x 1 km^2 as well as a basin based HBV-model for 42 Norwegian river basins. The main results were: i) increase in the annual runoff in almost all parts of Norway, most in the west, where the mean annual runoff may increase by 400 to 1100 mm, and only a marginal increase in East Norway and in Finnmark; ii) largest increase in the winter runoff in lowland areas close to the coast; iii) increasing spring runoff in the inland areas, especially in the north; iv) decreasing summer runoff; v) increasing autumn runoff in most regions, most on the west coast. The evapotranspiration will increase moderately, and the water equivalent will decrease for the snow cover by 1.April in lowland regions, but will increase in the high alpine areas. The year to year variability of the runoff will remain as under the present climate.

  2. Modelling surface run-off and trends analysis over India

    Gupta, P. K.; Chauhan, S.; Oza, M. P.


    The present study is mainly concerned with detecting the trend of run-off over the mainland of India, during a time period of 35 years, from 1971-2005 (May-October). Rainfall, soil texture, land cover types, slope, etc., were processed and run-off modelling was done using the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) model with modifications and cell size of 5×5 km. The slope and antecedent moisture corrections were incorporated in the existing model. Trend analysis of estimated run-off was done by taking into account different analysis windows such as cell, medium and major river basins, meteorological sub-divisions and elevation zones across India. It was estimated that out of the average 1012.5 mm of rainfall over India (considering the study period of 35 years), 33.8% got converted to surface run-off. An exponential model was developed between the rainfall and the run-off that predicted the run-off with an R 2 of 0.97 and RMSE of 8.31 mm. The run-off trend analysed using the Mann-Kendall test revealed that a significant pattern exists in 22 medium, two major river basins and three meteorological sub-divisions, while there was no evidence of a statistically significant trend in the elevation zones. Among the medium river basins, the highest positive rate of change in the run-off was observed in the Kameng basin (13.6 mm/yr), while the highest negative trend was observed in the Tista upstream basin (-21.4 mm/yr). Changes in run-off provide valuable information for understanding the region's sensitivity to climatic variability.

  3. Modelling surface run-off and trends analysis over India

    P K Gupta; S Chauhan; M P Oza


    The present study is mainly concerned with detecting the trend of run-off over the mainland of India, during a time period of 35 years, from 1971–2005 May–October). Rainfall, soil texture, land cover types, slope, etc., were processed and run-off modelling was done using the Natural Resources ConservationService (NRCS) model with modifications and cell size of 5×5 km. The slope and antecedent moisture corrections were incorporated in the existing model. Trend analysis of estimated run-off was done by taking into account different analysis windows such as cell, medium and major river basins, meteorologicalsub-divisions and elevation zones across India. It was estimated that out of the average 1012.5 mm of rainfall over India (considering the study period of 35 years), 33.8% got converted to surface run-off. An exponential model was developed between the rainfall and the run-off that predicted the run-off with an $R^2$ of 0.97 and RMSE of 8.31 mm. The run-off trend analysed using the Mann–Kendall test revealed that a significant pattern exists in 22 medium, two major river basins and three meteorological subdivisions, while there was no evidence of a statistically significant trend in the elevation zones. Among the medium river basins, the highest positive rate of change in the run-off was observed in the Kameng basin (13.6 mm/yr), while the highest negative trend was observed in the Tista upstream basin (−21.4 mm/yr). Changes in run-off provide valuable information for understanding the region’s sensitivity to climatic variability.

  4. Contrasting effects of microbiotic crusts on runoff in desert surfaces

    Kidron, Giora J.; Monger, H. Curtis; Vonshak, Ahuva; Conrod, William


    Microbiotic crusts (MCs) play an important role in surface hydrology by altering runoff yield. In order to study the crust's role on water redistribution, rainfall and runoff were measured during 1998-2000 at three sites within the northern Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, USA: the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (SEV), the White Sands National Monument (WS), and the Jornada Experimental Range (JER). Whereas quartz and gypsum sand characterize the SEV and WS sites, respectively, both of which have high infiltration rates, silty alluvial deposits characterize the JER site. Runoff was measured in four pairs of 1.8-6.4 m 2 plots having MCs, one of which was scalped in each pair. No runoff was generated at WS, whether on the crusted or the scalped plots. Runoff was however generated at SEV and JER, being higher on the crusted plots at SEV and lower on the JER plots. The results were explained by the combined effect of (a) parent material and (b) the crust properties, such as species composition, microrelief (surface roughness) and exopolysaccharide (EPS) content (reflected in the ratio of carbohydrates to chlorophyll). Whereas the effective rainfall, the fines and the EPS content were found to explain runoff initiation, the effective rainfall and the crust microrelief were found to explain the amount of runoff at SEV and JER where runoff generation took place. The findings attest to the fundamental role of the parent material and the crust's species composition and properties on runoff and hence to the complex interactions and the variable effects that MCs have on dryland hydrology.

  5. 7 CFR 958.328 - Handling regulation.


    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... specific cultural practices that limit growth to the same general size as boilers and picklers (defined in... meaning as when used in Marketing Agreement No. 130 and this part. Editorial Note: After January 1,...

  6. Urban runoff drainage : case of Kjelsrud in Oslo

    Moheseen, Fida Amin


    The volume of the urban runoff is subjected to increase due to urbanization and climate change. The urbanisation plan for the catchment of Kjelsrud implies increasing the impervious surfaces in forms of roads and rooftops, in return this increases the generated runoff. The catchment area of 38 ha will be able to generate a considerable runoff volume of about 5069 l/s under current rainfall and 11406 l/s with climate change consideration. The goal of this thesis is t o provide V...

  7. Theory and practice of runoff space-time distribution

    WANG; Hao; WANG; Chengming; WANG; Jianhua; QIN; Dayong; ZH


    Based on the domestic and foreign concerning researches, this paper submits the runoff space-time distribution theory which shows evident scientific significances and powerful practical functions. On the basis of digital basin unit cell deriving from the digital elevation model (DEM) and assumption of linear confluence, this theory has been applied successfully to the runoff correlation researches in humid regions. In order to prove the adaptability of the theory in arid and semi-drought regions,this paper is used to the runoff correlation analysis in Wuding River basin--a tributary of Yellow River Basin, and has gained preliminary effective verification.

  8. Anchor handling tug operations: a practical guide to the operation of modern anchor handling tugs engaged in anchor handling and towing operations

    Clark, I.C; Hancox, M


    ... --Turning and manoeuvring modern anchor handling vessels --The AHTS design and towing operations --The dangers of very high speed loads during deep water anchor handling operations --The dangers...

  9. Adaptive measurements of urban runoff quality

    Wong, Brandon P.; Kerkez, Branko


    An approach to adaptively measure runoff water quality dynamics is introduced, focusing specifically on characterizing the timing and magnitude of urban pollutographs. Rather than relying on a static schedule or flow-weighted sampling, which can miss important water quality dynamics if parameterized inadequately, novel Internet-enabled sensor nodes are used to autonomously adapt their measurement frequency to real-time weather forecasts and hydrologic conditions. This dynamic approach has the potential to significantly improve the use of constrained experimental resources, such as automated grab samplers, which continue to provide a strong alternative to sampling water quality dynamics when in situ sensors are not available. Compared to conventional flow-weighted or time-weighted sampling schemes, which rely on preset thresholds, a major benefit of the approach is the ability to dynamically adapt to features of an underlying hydrologic signal. A 28 km2 urban watershed was studied to characterize concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus. Water quality samples were autonomously triggered in response to features in the underlying hydrograph and real-time weather forecasts. The study watershed did not exhibit a strong first flush and intraevent concentration variability was driven by flow acceleration, wherein the largest loadings of TSS and total phosphorus corresponded with the steepest rising limbs of the storm hydrograph. The scalability of the proposed method is discussed in the context of larger sensor network deployments, as well the potential to improving control of urban water quality.

  10. [Rainfall intensity effects on nutrients transport in surface runoff from farmlands in gentle slope hilly area of Taihu Lake Basin].

    Li, Rui-ling; Zhang, Yong-chun; Liu, Zhuang; Zeng, Yuan; Li, Wei-xin; Zhang, Hong-ling


    To investigate the effect of rainfall on agricultural nonpoint source pollution, watershed scale experiments were conducted to study the characteristics of nutrients in surface runoff under different rainfall intensities from farmlands in gentle slope hilly areas around Taihu Lake. Rainfall intensity significantly affected N and P concentrations in runoff. Rainfall intensity was positively related to TP, PO4(3-) -P and NH4+ -N event mean concentrations(EMC). However, this study have found the EMC of TN and NO3- -N to be positively related to rainfall intensity under light rain and negatively related to rainfall intensity under heavy rain. TN and TP site mean amounts (SMA) in runoff were positively related to rainfall intensity and were 1.91, 311.83, 127.65, 731.69 g/hm2 and 0.04, 7.77, 2.99, 32.02 g/hm2 with rainfall applied under light rain, moderate rain, heavy rain and rainstorm respectively. N in runoff was mainly NO3- -N and NH4+ -N and was primarily in dissolved form from Meilin soils. Dissolved P (DP) was the dominant form of TP under light rain, but particulate P (PP) mass loss increased with the increase of rainfall intensity and to be the dominant form when the rainfall intensity reaches rainstorm. Single relationships were used to describe the dependence of TN and TP mass losses in runoff on rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity, average rainfall intensity and rainfall duration respectively. The results showed a significant positive correlation between TN mass loss and rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity respectively (p rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity respectively (p < 0.01).

  11. Runoff, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses from purple slope cropland soil under rating fertilization in Three Gorges Region.

    Bouraima, Abdel-Kabirou; He, Binghui; Tian, Taiqiang


    Soil erosion along with soil particles and nutrients losses is detrimental to crop production. We carried out a 5-year (2010 to 2014) study to characterize the soil erosion and nitrogen and phosphorus losses caused by rainfall under different fertilizer application levels in order to provide a theoretical evidence for the agricultural production and coordinate land management to improve ecological environment. The experiment took place under rotation cropping, winter wheat-summer maize, on a 15° slope purple soil in Chongqing (China) within the Three Gorges Region (TGR). Four treatments, control (CK) without fertilizer, combined manure with chemical fertilizer (T1), chemical fertilization (T2), and chemical fertilizer with increasing fertilization (T3), were designed on experimental runoff plots for a long-term observation aiming to study their effects on soil erosion and nutrients losses. The results showed that fertilization reduced surface runoff and nutrient losses as compared to CK. T1, T2, and T3, compared to CK, reduced runoff volume by 35.7, 29.6, and 16.8 %, respectively and sediment yield by 40.5, 20.9, and 49.6 %, respectively. Regression analysis results indicated that there were significant relationships between soil loss and runoff volume in all treatments. The combined manure with chemical fertilizer (T1) treatment highly reduced total nitrogen and total phosphorus losses by 41.2 and 33.33 %, respectively as compared with CK. Through this 5-year experiment, we can conclude that, on the sloping purple soil, the combined application of manure with fertilizer is beneficial for controlling runoff sediments losses and preventing soil erosion.

  12. The immediate effectiveness of barley straw mulch in reducing soil erodibility and surface runoff generation in Mediterranean vineyards.

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Jordán, Antonio; Tarolli, Paolo; Keesstra, Saskia; Novara, Agata; Cerdà, Artemi


    Soil and water loss in agriculture is a major problem throughout the world, and especially in Mediterranean areas. Non-conservation agricultural practices have further aggravated the situation, especially in vineyards, which are affected by one of the highest rates of soil loss among cultivated lands. Therefore, it is necessary to find the right soil practices for more sustainable viticulture. In this regard, straw mulching has proven to be effective in other crop and fire affected soils, but, nonetheless, little research has been carried out in vineyards. This research tests the effect of barley straw mulching on soil erosion and surface runoff on vineyards in Eastern Spain where the soil and water losses are non-sustainable. An experiment was setup using rainfall simulation tests at 55 mm h(-1) over 1h on forty paired plots of 0.24 m(2): twenty bare and twenty straw covered. Straw cover varied from 48 to 90% with a median value of 59% as a result of the application of 75 g of straw per m(2). The use of straw mulch resulted in delayed ponding and runoff generation and, as a consequence, the median water loss decreased from 52.59 to 39.27% of the total rainfall. The straw cover reduced the median sediment concentration in runoff from 9.8 to 3.0 g L(-1) and the median total sediment detached from 70.34 to 15.62 g per experiment. The median soil erosion rate decreased from 2.81 to 0.63 Mg ha(-1)h(-1) due to the straw mulch protection. Straw mulch is very effective in reducing soil erodibility and surface runoff, and this benefit was achieved immediately after the application of the straw.

  13. How the NWC handles software as product

    Vinson, D.


    This tutorial provides a hands-on view of how the Nuclear Weapons Complex project should be handling (or planning to handle) software as a product in response to Engineering Procedure 401099. The SQAS has published the document SQAS96-002, Guidelines for NWC Processes for Handling Software Product, that will be the basis for the tutorial. The primary scope of the tutorial is on software products that result from weapons and weapons-related projects, although the information presented is applicable to many software projects. Processes that involve the exchange, review, or evaluation of software product between or among NWC sites, DOE, and external customers will be described.

  14. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    Shamlou, P A


    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  15. Reducing mouse anxiety during handling: effect of experience with handling tunnels.

    Gouveia, Kelly; Hurst, Jane L


    Handling stress is a well-recognised source of variation in animal studies that can also compromise the welfare of research animals. To reduce background variation and maximise welfare, methods that minimise handling stress should be developed and used wherever possible. Recent evidence has shown that handling mice by a familiar tunnel that is present in their home cage can minimise anxiety compared with standard tail handling. As yet, it is unclear whether a tunnel is required in each home cage to improve response to handling. We investigated the influence of prior experience with home tunnels among two common strains of laboratory mice: ICR(CD-1) and C57BL/6. We compared willingness to approach the handler and anxiety in an elevated plus maze test among mice picked up by the tail, by a home cage tunnel or by an external tunnel shared between cages. Willingness to interact with the handler was much greater for mice handled by a tunnel, even when this was unfamiliar, compared to mice picked up by the tail. Once habituated to handling, C57BL/6 mice were most interactive towards a familiar home tunnel, whereas the ICR strain showed strong interaction with all tunnel handling regardless of any experience of a home cage tunnel. Mice handled by a home cage or external tunnel showed less anxiety in an elevated plus maze than those picked up by the tail. This study shows that using a tunnel for routine handling reduces anxiety among mice compared to tail handling regardless of prior familiarity with tunnels. However, as home cage tunnels can further improve response to handling in some mice, we recommend that mice are handled with a tunnel provided in their home cage where possible as a simple practical method to minimise handling stress.

  16. Journal of Integrative Agriculture


    Aims and Scope Journal of Integrative Agriculture (JIA), formerly Agricultural Sciences in China (ASC), founded in 2002, is an official publication of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS). JIA seeks to publish those papers that are influential and will significantly advance scientific understanding in agriculture fields worldwide.

  17. Theme: Agricultural Literacy.

    Deeds, Jacquelyn P.; And Others


    Six theme articles attempt to define and advocate agricultural literacy, review the status of K-8 agricultural literacy programs in states, discuss an Oklahoma study of agricultural literacy, clarify the meaning of sustainable agriculture, and describe the Future Farmers of America's Food for America program for elementary students. (SK)

  18. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.


    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  19. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  20. Weather Radar Adjustment Using Runoff from Urban Surfaces

    Ahm, Malte; Rasmussen, Michael Robdrup


    Weather radar data used for urban drainage applications are traditionally adjusted to point ground references, e.g., rain gauges. However, the available rain gauge density for the adjustment is often low, which may lead to significant representativeness errors. Yet, in many urban catchments......, rainfall is often measured indirectly through runoff sensors. This paper presents a method for weather radar adjustment on the basis of runoff observations (Z-Q adjustment) as an alternative to the traditional Z-R adjustment on the basis of rain gauges. Data from a new monitoring station in Aalborg......, Denmark, were used to evaluate the flow-based weather radar adjustment method against the traditional rain-gauge adjustment. The evaluation was performed by comparing radar-modeled runoff to observed runoff. The methodology was both tested on an events basis and multiple events combined. The results...

  1. Runoff Simulation of Shitoukoumen Reservoir Basin Based on SWAT Model

    XIE; Miao; LI; Hong-yan; LIU; Tie-juan; RU; Shi-rong


    [Objective]The study aimed to simulate the runoff of Shitoukoumen Reservoir basin by using SWAT model. [Method] Based on DEM elevation, land use type, soil type and hydrometeorological data, SWAT model, a distributed hydrological model was established to simulate the monthly runoff of Shitoukoumen Reservoir basin, and the years 2006 and 2010 were chosen as the calibration and validation period respectively. [Result] The simulation results indicated that SWAT model could be used to simulate the runoff of Shitoukoumen Reservoir basin, and the simulation effect was good. However, the response of the model to local rainstorm was not obvious, so that the actual runoff in June and July of 2010 was abnormally higher than the simulation value. [Conclusion] The research could provide theoretical references for the plan and management of water resources in Shitoukoumen Reservoir basin in future.

  2. Heavy Metal Runoff in Relation to Soil Characteristics


    Cu,Zn,Pb and Hg runoff from yellow limestone soil and purple soils and the relationships between the mobility of the heavy metals and the soil characteristics were studied in laboratory using a rainfall simulator.The results showed that the concentrations of soluble Zn in surface runoff were significantly negatively correlated with the contents of <0.002 mm particles and CEC of the soils, indicating that Zn was mostly adsorbed by clays in the soils.The contents of Cu and Hg in surface runoff were positively related to their contents in the soils.The amounts of Gu, Zn,Pb and Hg removed by surface runoff were influenced by the amounts of soil and water losses and their contents in the soils,and were closely related to the contents of soil particles 1~0.02 mm in size.

  3. A pilot study to evaluate runoff quantity from green roofs.

    Lee, Ju Young; Lee, Min Jung; Han, Mooyoung


    The use of green roofs is gaining increased recognition in many countries as a solution that can be used to improve environmental quality and reduce runoff quantity. To achieve these goals, pilot-scale green roof assemblies have been constructed and operated in an urban setting. From a stormwater management perspective, green roofs are 42.8-60.8% effective in reducing runoff for 200 mm soil depth and 13.8-34.4% effective in reducing runoff for 150 mm soil depth. By using Spearman rank correlation analysis, high rainfall intensity was shown to have a negative relationship with delayed occurrence time, demonstrating that the soil media in green roofs do not efficiently retain rainwater. Increasing the number of antecedent dry days can help to improve water retention capacity and delay occurrence time. From the viewpoint of runoff water quality, green roofs are regarded as the best management practice by filtration and adsorption through growth media (soil).

  4. Nitrogen removal from urban stormwater runoff through layered bioretention columns.

    Hsieh, Chi-hsu; Davis, Allen P; Needelman, Brian A


    Bioretention is a low-impact technology used for the treatment of stormwater runoff in developed areas. The fates of mineral nitrogen compounds in two bioretention columns (RP1 and RP2) with different media-layering characteristics were investigated under multiple loadings of simulated urban runoff. The immediate capture of nitrogen was evaluated, with nitrogen transformation reactions that occurred during the drying periods between rainfall events. A greater proportion of ammonium was removed from runoff in RP2 (68 +/- 16%), which had a high permeability layer over a lower permeability layer, than in RP1 (12 +/- 6%), which had the inverse configuration. Both column systems demonstrated nitrate export (9 +/- 32% and 54 +/- 22% greater than input for RP1 and RP2, respectively), attributed to washout of nitrate resulting from nitrification processes between runoff loading events. Bioretention media with a less permeable bottom soil layer could form an anoxic/anaerobic zone for promoting nitrification/denitrification processes.

  5. A Review of Adsorbents Used for Storm Water Runoff Cleaning

    Andrius Agintas


    Full Text Available Heavy metals, petroleum products, sediments and other pollutants get in the environment with insufficiently cleaned storm water runoff. Contaminated storm water runoff is one of the most significant sources for pollution in rivers, lakes and estuaries. Storm water runoff must be treated using not only simple methods but also using adsorption processes. Adsorbents can be natural organic, natural nonorganic and synthetic. Main adsorption characteristic, way of utilization and storm water runoff inflow rate, quantity and pollution need to be investigated when trying to use adsorbents in reasonably way. It is very important to treat storm water properly during the primary mechanical treatment otherwise adsorbents will act as mechanical filters.Article in Lithuanian



    Jan 15, 2015 ... Modeling rainfall-runoff relationships in a watershed have an important role in water .... Initial estimations will improve following the development of the model. .... Resources Research Nordic Hydrology, 33 (5), 2002,33 1-346.

  7. Runoff modeling of the Mara River using Satellite Observed Soil ...

    with European Remote Sensing (ERS) Scatterometer in modeling runoff of the Zambezi river basin. ... (2008) using Geospatial Stream Flow ... obtained for Mara River at Mara mines, Nyangores at Bomet and Amala at Mulot river gauging ...

  8. Reconstructing Greenland meltwater runoff using bivalve shell chemistry

    Versteegh, Emma


    Poster "Reconstructing Greenland meltwater runoff using bivalve shell chemistry", presented at: Frontiers in Environmental Geoscience - Mineralogical Society's Annual Conference 2011, 21-24 June 2011, Aberystwyth, UK.

  9. Evaluation of the Impact of Stone Bunds on Soil Loss and Surface Runoff in the Gumara Maksegnit Watershed, Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    Wakolbinger, Stefanie; Obereder, Eva Maria; Strohmeier, Stefan; Guzmán, Gema; Demelash, Nigus; Gomez, José Alfonso; Zucca, Claudio; Klik, Andreas


    Ethiopia is highly affected by land degradation and one of the key problems is soil erosion. It is mainly caused by the rapid population increase, deforestation, low vegetation cover and unbalanced livestock and crop production. As far as about 85% of the Ethiopian population life of agriculture, it is essential to prevent or reduce further degradation. In the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia stone bunds are widely used as a soil and water conservation measure (SWC). Stone bunds are little embankments of stones along the contour lines and influence the translation processes of surface runoff. In June 2015 a field experiment was started in the Gumara Maksegnit watershed to investigate the impact of stone bunds on surface runoff and soil erosion. 4 m wide and 20 m long bordered replicated plots were installed with and without stone bunds. The average slope of the plots is about 8%.The design of the erosions plots with stone bunds allows the measurement of runoff along the stone bund as well as the overflow over it. At the end of the plots the sideflow and overflow are collected using a trough, then the runoff is divided by a multi-slot-divider and finally it is collected in storage ponds. Total runoff volume was measured and representative runoff samples were taken weekly to determine sediment concentration. Precipitation was measured in daily intervals next to the study site. First results show the positive impact of stone bunds on soil erosion. From July to September total precipitation was around 600 mm. During the same time period plots without stone bunds delivered around 15 t/ha soil loss whereas plots with stone bunds produced only 5 t/ha. This is a reduction of 77%. Only approximately 10% of the sediment is transported over the stone bund, the rest is either deposited or moved along it. Runoff does not show the same pattern. Further data is being processed at the moment and will be presented.

  10. Calibration of Rainfall-Runoff Parameters in Peatlands

    Walle Menberu, Meseret; Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Kløve, Bjørn


    Finland is a country where its possession of peatlands compared to the total surface area of the country puts in the leading categories globally in peatland possession having 33.5% of its total land area covered with peatlands. Recent interest has grown in using peatlands as temporary flood control barriers by taking advantage of the high water holding capacity of peat soils. Water holding capacity of peat soils enables to reduce high rate of runoff and peak flow which might endanger downstream of the flow and in the process of doing that, the rest of the water leaving the peatland areas is less polluted due to the wetlands' potential in purifying polluted water. Therefore, in order to understand how capable enough peatlands are in holding water by reducing the peak flow or slowing down the rate of runoff, this paper analyses the rainfall-runoff phenomena in peatland catchments through important runoff parameters. Among the most important runoff parameters; the initial abstraction, the curve number and lag time are selected for this paper due to their highest impact on rainfall-runoff process. For this study, two peatland catchments of drained and pristine are selected. Managing to explain the initial abstraction and curve number behaviour in the catchments will able to clearly understand and as well predict the rainfall-runoff process in the catchments. In the selected study sites, observed rainfall and runoff data are collected. The study sites are modelled with the help of Arc-GIS and Hec-GeoHMS and from that are exported to HEC-HMS (Hydrologic modelling software) for rainfall-runoff analysis. The two important parameters; the initial abstraction and curve number are used to calibrate the model. And finally, the parameters that have given the best fit between the modelled and observed rainfall-runoff process are suggested for the study sites. Having these parameters estimated eases to understand rainfall-runoff process in the catchments for whatsoever purpose

  11. Description and evaluation of a surface runoff susceptibility mapping method

    Lagadec, Lilly-Rose; Patrice, Pierre; Braud, Isabelle; Chazelle, Blandine; Moulin, Loïc; Dehotin, Judicaël; Hauchard, Emmanuel; Breil, Pascal


    Surface runoff is the hydrological process at the origin of phenomena such as soil erosion, floods out of rivers, mudflows, debris flows and can generate major damage. This paper presents a method to create maps of surface runoff susceptibility. The method, called IRIP (Indicator of Intense Pluvial Runoff, French acronym), uses a combination of landscape factors to create three maps representing the susceptibility (1) to generate, (2) to transfer, and (3) to accumulate surface runoff. The method input data are the topography, the land use and the soil type. The method aims to be simple to implement and robust for any type of study area, with no requirement for calibration or specific input format. In a second part, the paper focuses on the evaluation of the surface runoff susceptibility maps. The method is applied in the Lézarde catchment (210 km2, northern France) and the susceptibility maps are evaluated by comparison with two risk regulatory zonings of surface runoff and soil erosion, and two databases of surface runoff impacts on roads and railways. Comparison tests are performed using a standard verification method for dichotomous forecasting along with five verification indicators: accuracy, bias, success ratio, probability of detection, and false alarm ratio. The evaluation shows that the susceptibility map of surface runoff accumulation is able to identify the concentrated surface runoff flows and that the susceptibility map of transfer is able to identify areas that are susceptible to soil erosion. Concerning the ability of the IRIP method to detect sections of the transportation network susceptible to be impacted by surface runoff, the evaluation tests show promising probabilities of detection (73-90%) but also high false alarm ratios (77-92%). However, a qualitative analysis of the local configuration of the infrastructure shows that taking into account the transportation network vulnerability can explain numerous false alarms. This paper shows that the

  12. Vulnerability of karst aquifers to agricultural contaminants: A case study in the Pennyroyal Plateau of Kentucky

    Karst landscapes are common in many agricultural regions in the US. Well-developed karst landscapes are characterized by shallow soils, sinkholes, sinking streams, underground conduits, and springs. In these landscapes surface runoff is minimal and most recharge enters the subsurface relatively quic...

  13. Comparing two surface flow wetlands for removal of nutrients in agricultural drainage water

    Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Levesen, Bo

    In Denmark there is a growing interest for using constructed wetlands as a mean for removal of nutrients from agricultural run-off, such as drainage ditches and tile drainage systems. We have studied two surface flow constructed wetlands from district Vejle, Jutland, Denmark. The Vicarage Wetland...

  14. Climate change impacts on runoff in West Africa: a review

    Roudier, P.; A. Ducharne; Feyen, L.


    International audience; This review summarizes the impacts of climate change on runoff in West Africa, assesses the uncertainty in the projections and describes future research needs for the region. To do so, we constitute a meta-database made of 19 studies and 301 future runoff change values. The future tendency in streamflow developments is overall very uncertain (median of the 301 points is 0% and mean +5.2%), except for (i) the Gambia River, which exhibits a significant negative change (m...

  15. Rainfall, runoff and sediment transport in a Mediterranean mountainous catchment.

    Tuset, J; Vericat, D; Batalla, R J


    The relation between rainfall, runoff, erosion and sediment transport is highly variable in Mediterranean catchments. Their relation can be modified by land use changes and climate oscillations that, ultimately, will control water and sediment yields. This paper analyses rainfall, runoff and sediment transport relations in a meso-scale Mediterranean mountain catchment, the Ribera Salada (NE Iberian Peninsula). A total of 73 floods recorded between November 2005 and November 2008 at the Inglabaga Sediment Transport Station (114.5 km(2)) have been analysed. Suspended sediment transport and flow discharge were measured continuously. Rainfall data was obtained by means of direct rain gauges and daily rainfall reconstructions from radar information. Results indicate that the annual sediment yield (2.3 t km(-1) y(-1) on average) and the flood-based runoff coefficients (4.1% on average) are low. The Ribera Salada presents a low geomorphological and hydrological activity compared with other Mediterranean mountain catchments. Pearson correlations between rainfall, runoff and sediment transport variables were obtained. The hydrological response of the catchment is controlled by the base flows. The magnitude of suspended sediment concentrations is largely correlated with flood magnitude, while sediment load is correlated with the amount of direct runoff. Multivariate analysis shows that total suspended load can be predicted by integrating rainfall and runoff variables. The total direct runoff is the variable with more weight in the equation. Finally, three main hydro-sedimentary phases within the hydrological year are defined in this catchment: (a) Winter, where the catchment produces only water and very little sediment; (b) Spring, where the majority of water and sediment is produced; and (c) Summer-Autumn, when little runoff is produced but significant amount of sediments is exported out of the catchment. Results show as land use and climate change may have an important

  16. Characterization of surface runoff from a subtropics urban catchment

    HUANG Jin-liang; DU Peng-fei; AO Chi-tan; LEI Mui-heong; ZHAO Dong-quan; HO Man-him; WANG Zhi-shi


    Characteristics of surface runoff from a 0.14-km2 urban catchment with separated sewer in Macau was investigated. Water quality measurements of surface runoff were carried out on five rainfall events during the period of August to November, 2005. Water quality parameters such as pH, turbidity, TSS, COD, TN, Zn, Pb, and Cu were analyzed. The results show that TN and COD are the major pollutants from surface runoff with mean concentration of 8.5 and 201.4 mg/L, both over 4-fold higher compared to the Class V surface water quality standard developed by China SEPA. Event mean concentration (EMC) for major pollutants showed considerable variations between rainfall events. The largest rainfall event with the longest length of antecedent dry weather period (ADWP) produced the highest EMC of TN, TSS and COD. From the pollutographs analysis, the peak concentration of TN precedes the peak runoff flow rate for all three rainfall events. The tendency of the concentration of TSS, turbidity and COD changing with runoff flow varies between rainfall events. The relationship between TSS and other parameters were analyzed to evaluate the efficiency of the physical treatment process to control the surface runoff in the urban catchment. Based on the correlation of parameters with TSS, high treatment efficiency of TSS, TN and COD was expected. The most significant event in term of first flush is the one with the strongest rainfall intensity and longest length of ADWP. TN always showed first flush phenomenon in all three rainfall events, which suggested that the surface runoff in the early stage of surface runoff should be dealt with for controlling TN losses during rainfall events.

  17. Laboratory experiments on drought and runoff in blanket peat

    Holden, J; Burt, T. P.


    Global warming might change the hydrology of upland blanket peats in Britain. We have therefore studied in laboratory experiments the impact of drought on peat from the North Pennines of the UK. Runoff was dominated by surface and near-surface flow; flow decreased rapidly with depth and differed from one type of cover to another. Infiltration depended on the intensity of rain, and runoff responded rapidly to rain, with around 50% of rainwater emerging as overland flow. Drought changed the str...

  18. Stormwater runoff - modeling impacts of urbanization and climate change

    Blair, Anne; Sanger, Denise; Holland, Frderick; White, David; Vandiver, Lisa; White, Susan


    Development pressure throughout the coastal areas of the United States continues to build, particularly in the southeast (Allen and Lu 2003, Crossett et al. 2004). It is well known that development alters watershed hydrology: as land becomes covered with surfaces impervious to rain, water is redirected from groundwater recharge and evapotranspiration to stormwater runoff, and as the area of impervious cover increases, so does the volume and rate of runoff (Schueler 1994, Corbett et al. 1997)....

  19. 29 CFR 1206.1 - Run-off elections.


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Run-off elections. 1206.1 Section 1206.1 Labor Regulations... LABOR ACT § 1206.1 Run-off elections. (a) If in an election among any craft or class no organization or individual receives a majority of the legal votes cast, or in the event of a tie vote, a second or...

  20. Comparative assessment of infiltration, runoff and erosion sprinkler irrigated soils

    Santos, Francisco Lúcio; Reis, João; Martins, Olga; Castanheira, Nádia; Serralheiro, Ricardo


    Abstract The impacts of sprinkler irrigation on infiltration, runoff and sediment loss of ten representative soils of Southern Portugal were assessed by laboratory sprinkler irrigation simulation tests. All soils showed very low permeability to applied water. The mechanical impact of water droplets enhanced soil dispersion and further lowered their infiltration capacity, particularly for high clay plus silt content soils that showed the poorest results. As a consequence, high runoff and se...

  1. Hydrologic conditions and water quality in an agricultural area in Kleberg and Nueces Counties, Texas, 1996-98

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Petri, Brian L.


    During 1996?98, rainfall and runoff were monitored on a 49,680-acre agricultural watershed in Kleberg and Nueces Counties in South Texas. Nineteen rainfall samples were analyzed for selected nutrients, and runoff samples from 29 storms were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, and pesticides. Loads of nutrients in rainfall and loads of nutrients and pesticides in runoff were computed. For a 40,540-acre part of the watershed (lower study area), constituent loads entering the watershed in rainfall, in runoff from the upper study area, and from agricultural chemical applications to the lower study area were compared with runoff loads exiting the lower study area. Total rainfall for 1996?98 averaged 25.86 inches per year, which is less than the long-term annual average rainfall of 29.80 inches for the area. Rainfall and runoff during 1996?98 were typical of historical patterns, with periods of below average rainfall and runoff interspersed with extreme events. Five individual storms accounted for about 38 percent of the total rainfall and 94 percent of the total runoff. During the 3-year study, the total nitrogen runoff yield from the lower study area was 1.3 pounds per acre per year, compared with 49 pounds per acre per year applied as fertilizer and 3.1 pounds per acre per year from rainfall. While almost all of the fertilizer and rainfall nitrogen was ammonia and nitrate, most of the nitrogen in runoff was particulate organic nitrogen, associated with crop residue. Total nitrogen exiting the lower study area in surface-water runoff was about 2.5 percent of the nitrogen inputs (fertilizer and rainfall nitrogen). Annual deposition of total nitrogen entering the lower study area in rainfall exceeded net yields of total nitrogen exiting the watershed in runoff because most of the rainfall does not contribute to runoff. During the study, the total phosphorus runoff yield from the lower study area was 0.48 pound per acre per year compared with 4.2 pounds per acre per year

  2. Management of transport and handling contracts

    Rühl, I


    This paper shall outline the content, application and management strategies for the various contracts related to transport and handling activities. In total, the two sections Logistics and Handling Maintenance are in charge of 27 (!) contracts ranging from small supply contracts to big industrial support contracts. The activities as well as the contracts can generally be divided into four main topics "Vehicle Fleet Management"; "Supply, Installation and Commissioning of Lifting and Hoisting Equipment"; "Equipment Maintenance" and "Industrial Support for Transport and Handling". Each activity and contract requires different approaches and permanent adaptation to the often changing CERN's requirements. In particular, the management and the difficulties experienced with the contracts E072 "Maintenance of lifting and hoisting equipment", F420 "Supply of seven overhead traveling cranes for LHC" and S090/S103 "Industrial support for transport and handling" will be explained in detail.

  3. Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study

    Nielsen, Dorthe; Huniche, Lotte; Brixen, Kim


    Scand J Caring Sci; 2012 Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study The aim of this qualitative study was to increase understanding of the importance of osteoporosis information and knowledge for patients' ways of handling osteoporosis in their everyday lives. Interviews were...... performed with 14 patients recruited from two English university hospitals and 12 patients from a Danish university hospital. Critical psychology was used as a theoretical framework for the data analysis, which aimed at shedding light on patients' ways of conducting everyday life with osteoporosis....... The themes that emerged from the analysis showed that life conditions influenced the way in which risk, pain and osteoporosis were handled. Everyday life was also influenced by patients' attitude to treatment. The patients who were experiencing emotional difficulties in handling osteoporosis were not those...

  4. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  5. Aerobot Sampling and Handling System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to: ?Derive and document the functional and technical requirements for Aerobot surface sampling and sample handling across a range of...

  6. How Do Search Engines Handle Chinese Queries?

    Hong Cui


    Full Text Available The use of languages other than English has been growing exponentially on the Web. However, the major search engines have been lagging behind in providing indexes and search features to handle these languages. This article explores the characteristics of the Chinese language and how queries in this language are handled by different search engines. Queries were entered in two major search engines (Google and AlltheWeb and two search engines developed for Chinese (Sohu and Baidu. Criteria such as handling word segmentation, number of retrieved documents, and correct display and identification of Chinese characters were used to examine how the search engines handled the queries. The results showed that the performance of the two major search engines was not on a par with that of the search engines developed for Chinese.

  7. GeoLab Sample Handling System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop  a robotic sample handling/ manipulator system for the GeoLab glovebox. This work leverages from earlier GeoLab work and a 2012 collaboration with a...

  8. Suspended solids in and turbidity of runoff from green roofs.

    Morgan, Susan; Alyaseri, Isam; Retzlaff, William


    Green roof technology is used to reduce the quantity of stormwater runoff, but questions remain regarding its impact on quality. This study analyzed the total suspended solids (TSS) in and the turbidity of runoff from green roof growth media mixed with composted pine bark in an indoor pot study. The results showed that there were elevated levels of TSS and turbidity in the runoff that decreased over time for all growth media. Both TSS and turbidity are affected by the type of growth media. Lava and haydite had higher mean TSS and mean turbidity than arkalyte and bottom ash. Vegetation reduced the mean turbidity and mean TSS of the first flush by an average of 53% and 63%, respectively, but generally had no statistically significant effect thereafter. The results indicate that the media, rather than the vegetation, has a greater effect on TSS and turbidity in the runoff In areas with stringent water quality regulations for stormwater runoff from developed sites, media selection may be an important consideration. It may also be necessary in these regions to ensure that the roof is planted prior to receiving rainfall to minimize the first flush effect and that any irrigation does not result in runoff.

  9. Characterization of Urban Runoff Pollution between Dissolved and Particulate Phases

    Zhang Wei


    Full Text Available To develop urban stormwater management effectively, characterization of urban runoff pollution between dissolved and particulate phases was studied by 12 rainfall events monitored for five typical urban catchments. The average event mean concentration (AEMC of runoff pollutants in different phases was evaluated. The AEMC values of runoff pollutants in different phases from urban roads were higher than the ones from urban roofs. The proportions of total dissolved solids, total dissolved nitrogen, and total dissolved phosphorus in total ones for all the catchments were 26.19%–30.91%, 83.29%–90.51%, and 61.54–68.09%, respectively. During rainfall events, the pollutant concentration at the initial stage of rainfall was high and then sharply decreased to a low value. Affected by catchments characterization and rainfall distribution, the highest concentration of road pollutants might appear in the later period of rainfall. Strong correlations were also found among runoffs pollutants in different phases. Total suspended solid could be considered as a surrogate for particulate matters in both road and roof runoff, while dissolved chemical oxygen demand could be regarded as a surrogate for dissolved matters in roof runoff.

  10. Knowledge techniques for the analysis of urban runoff using SWMM

    Baffaut, C.


    An expert system was built to facilitate and to automate the calibration of the Runoff block of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). The expert system is divided in two parts that can be linked together. The first one calibrates the runoff quantity simulation model. The second, that calibrates the runoff quality simulation module, has two versions. One calibrates the model with the only objective of a correct prediction of the pollutant loads. The second calibrates the model on the basis of the loadographs shapes. The expert systems act as a front end to counsel the user on the choice of the parameters. It interprets the results using backward chaining and suggest some useful changes in the values of the relevant parameters using forward chaining. The calibrations achieved by means of the expert systems has been tested on several watersheds. It has been found that, for runoff quality simulation, the accuracy of the prediction results is limited by the quality of the calibration data that are used and by the model itself that does not take into account all the processes involved in the transport of pollutant by urban runoff. A fuzzy set approach is proposed to try to take into account some of the uncertainties related with runoff quality simulation. A simplified fuzzy set version of SWMM is proposed that has been tested on two watersheds, giving some encouraging results.

  11. Advanced sensor-computer technology for urban runoff monitoring

    Yu, Byunggu; Behera, Pradeep K.; Ramirez Rochac, Juan F.


    The paper presents the project team's advanced sensor-computer sphere technology for real-time and continuous monitoring of wastewater runoff at the sewer discharge outfalls along the receiving water. This research significantly enhances and extends the previously proposed novel sensor-computer technology. This advanced technology offers new computation models for an innovative use of the sensor-computer sphere comprising accelerometer, programmable in-situ computer, solar power, and wireless communication for real-time and online monitoring of runoff quantity. This innovation can enable more effective planning and decision-making in civil infrastructure, natural environment protection, and water pollution related emergencies. The paper presents the following: (i) the sensor-computer sphere technology; (ii) a significant enhancement to the previously proposed discrete runoff quantity model of this technology; (iii) a new continuous runoff quantity model. Our comparative study on the two distinct models is presented. Based on this study, the paper further investigates the following: (1) energy-, memory-, and communication-efficient use of the technology for runoff monitoring; (2) possible sensor extensions for runoff quality monitoring.

  12. Modeling of the Monthly Rainfall-Runoff Process Through Regressions

    Campos-Aranda Daniel Francisco


    Full Text Available To solve the problems associated with the assessment of water resources of a river, the modeling of the rainfall-runoff process (RRP allows the deduction of runoff missing data and to extend its record, since generally the information available on precipitation is larger. It also enables the estimation of inputs to reservoirs, when their building led to the suppression of the gauging station. The simplest mathematical model that can be set for the RRP is the linear regression or curve on a monthly basis. Such a model is described in detail and is calibrated with the simultaneous record of monthly rainfall and runoff in Ballesmi hydrometric station, which covers 35 years. Since the runoff of this station has an important contribution from the spring discharge, the record is corrected first by removing that contribution. In order to do this a procedure was developed based either on the monthly average regional runoff coefficients or on nearby and similar watershed; in this case the Tancuilín gauging station was used. Both stations belong to the Partial Hydrologic Region No. 26 (Lower Rio Panuco and are located within the state of San Luis Potosi, México. The study performed indicates that the monthly regression model, due to its conceptual approach, faithfully reproduces monthly average runoff volumes and achieves an excellent approximation in relation to the dispersion, proved by calculation of the means and standard deviations.

  13. Estimating degree day factors from MODIS for snowmelt runoff modeling

    Z. H. He


    Full Text Available Degree-day factors are widely used to estimate snowmelt runoff in operational hydrological models. Usually, they are calibrated on observed runoff, and sometimes on satellite snow cover data. In this paper, we propose a new method for estimating the snowmelt degree-day factor (DDFS directly from MODIS snow covered area (SCA and ground based snow depth data without calibration. Subcatchment snow volume is estimated by combining SCA and snow depths. Snow density is estimated as the ratio of observed precipitation and changes in the snow volume for days with snow accumulation. Finally, DDFS values are estimated as the ratio of changes in the snow water equivalent and degree-day temperatures for days with snow melt. We compare simulations of basin runoff and snow cover patterns using spatially variable DDFS estimated from snow data with those using spatially uniform DDFS calibrated on runoff. The runoff performances using estimated DDFS are slightly improved, and the simulated snow cover patterns are significantly more plausible. The new method may help reduce some of the runoff model parameter uncertainty by reducing the total number of calibration parameters.

  14. Zinc corrosion runoff process induced by humid tropical climate

    Veleva, L. [Center for Investigation and Advanced Study (CINVESTAV-Merida), Applied Physics Department, Carr. Ant. a Progreso, Km.6, C.P. 97310, Merida, Yuc. (Mexico); Meraz, E. [Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, Division Academica de Ingenieria y Arquitectura, Km 1 Carretera Cunduacan-Jalpa de M., A.P. 24, C.P. 86690, Cunduacan, Tabasco (Mexico); Acosta, M. [Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, Division Academica de Ciencias Basicas, Km 1 Carretera Cunduacan-Jalpa de M., A.P. 24, C.P. 86690, Cunduacan, Tabasco (Mexico)


    Zinc and hot dip galvanized steel are frequently used metals in building application. They have relatively good atmospheric resistance to corrosion, due to its oxidation in air and formation of protective rust on its surface, which acts as barrier between the metal and environment. However, some part of the rust can be dissolved by pluvial precipitations and water condensed on the metal surface. This process, called metal runoff, contributes for zinc dispersion in soils and waters. In order to make accurate estimation of zinc runoff induced by atmosphere in humid tropical climate, samples of pure Zn and hot dip galvanized steel have been exposed in the Gulf of Mexico. The data reveal that this process is strongly influenced by factors which determine the aggressivity of the environment (pluvial precipitations, cycles of dry and rainy periods, atmospheric pollutants, air humidity). High annual rates of zinc runoff (6.5 - 8.5 {+-} 0.30 g Zn m{sup -2}yr{sup -1}) were released, being the runoff 63 - 87% of the zinc corrosion rust. The zinc mass loss has been related to several independent parameters, presenting linear equation, which indicates the air contaminant SO{sub 2} as the major factor controlling the runoff of zinc. The reported results show higher runoff of zinc samples, compared to that of hot dip galvanized steel. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Estimation of future glaciation and runoff in the Tanimas basin, Eastern Pamirs

    W. Hagg


    Full Text Available A conceptual hydrological model was set up in the upper Panj catchment, the main tributary of Amu-Darya river. Driven by daily temperature and precipitation, the model reproduced daily hydrographs of Tanimas river at the Rukhk gauging station in a very satisfactory way. Based on two glacier inventories from the mid-20st century (WGI, World Glacier Inventory and from 2003 (GLIMS, Global Land Ice Measurements from Space, a simple parameterization scheme based on steady state conditions was applied to infer the ice volumes and glacier areas for the two different time periods in the past. Assuming temperature rises of 2.2 °C and 3.1 °C, which mark the extreme values of regional climate scenarios, the same method was used to extrapolate glaciation to the year 2050. The results show that these temperature rises will reduce the current glacier extent of 431 km2 by 36% and 45%, respectively. To assess future changes in water availability, the hydrological model input was modified according to the regional climate scenarios and the resulting glacier changes. The use of an elevation distributed deglaciation pattern is a clear improvement over methods used previously, where the impact on runoff was tested by excluding either the lower half or the total glacier area. The runoff scenarios reveal no changes in annual runoff, because the glacier area decrease is balanced out by enhanced melt rates. However, there is an important seasonal shift of water resources from summer to spring, unfavorably affecting agriculture and irrigation in the lowlands.

  16. Reducing phosphorus runoff and inhibiting ammonia loss from poultry manure with aluminum sulfate

    Moore, P.A. Jr.; Daniel, T.C.; Edwards, D.R.


    Applications of aluminum sulfate (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {center_dot} 14H{sub 2}O), commonly referred to as alum, to poultry litter have been shown to decrease P runoff from lands fertilized with litter and to inhibit NH{sub 3} volatilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of alum applications in commercial broiler houses on: (1) NH{sub 3} volatilization (in-house), (2) poultry production, (3) litter chemistry, and (4) P runoff following litter application. Two farms were used for this study: one had six poultry houses and the other had four. The litter in half of the houses at each farm was treated with alum; the other houses were controls. Alum was applied at a rate of 1,816 kg/house, which corresponded to 0.091 kg/bird. Each year the houses were cleaned in the spring and the litter was broadcast onto paired watersheds in tall fescue at each farm. Results from this study showed that alum applications lowered the litter pH, particularly during the first 3 to 4 wk of each growout. Reductions in litter pH resulted in less NH{sub 3} volatilization, which led to reductions in atmospheric NH{sub 3} in the alum-treated houses. Broilers grown on alum-treated litter were significantly heavier than controls (1.73 kg vs. 1.66 kg). Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations in runoff from pastures fertilized with alum-treated litter averaged 73% lower than that from normal litter throughout a 3-yr period. These results indicate that alum-treatment of poultry litter is a very effective best management practice that reduces nonpoint source pollution while it increases agricultural productivity.

  17. Residuejams and their effect on Infiltration, Runoff and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in Furrow Irrigation Systems

    Mailapalli, D. R.; Wallender, W. W.; Horwath, W.; Ma, S.; Lazicki, P.


    Crop residue, which consists of small debris of different sizes, is an important resource in agricultural ecosystems. It plays a vital role in conservation tillage as a best management practice (BMP) for reducing runoff, sediment, nutrient and pesticide transport from irrigated fields. In furrow irrigation, the predominant irrigation method in the world, as irrigation or winter runoff water moves along a furrow, it lifts the unanchored residue and transports across the field. The complex interaction of multiple residue pieces (debris) with itself, the soil matrix, and the fluid cause jams to form along the furrow. The residuejams can be thought of logjams in fluvial rivers or channels which help in increasing channel roughness to reduce flow velocities and shear stress along eroding banks. The logjams also create a hydraulic shadow, a low-velocity zone for some distance upstream that allows sediment to settle out and stabilize. Similarly, the residuejams help in formation of catchments, which promote increased infiltration and settlement of sediments along the furrow. The infiltration and residue interaction with the soil-water influence the runoff, sediment, nutrient and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export. The reduction of DOC export is critical to enhancing drinking water resources by reducing reactive sources of DOC that form carcinogenic by-products in the disinfection process. Hence, investigation of geomorphology of the residuejams is essential to understand their impact on infiltration, runoff and DOC concentration. This study focuses on the formation of residuejams and their effect on the infiltration, runoff and DOC concentration from 122 m long furrow plots with cover crop (CC), no-till (NT) and standard tillage (ST). These treatments (CC, NT and ST) were replicated three times using randomized complete block design and the plots initially, had 10, 32 and 42% of residue cover (sunflower residue on ST and NT; sunflower and wheat residue on CC plot

  18. 30o inclination in handles of plastic boxes can reduce postural and muscular workload during handling

    Luciana C. C. B. Silva


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The handling of materials, which occurs in the industrial sector, is associated with lesions on the lumbar spine and in the upper limbs. Inserting handles in industrial boxes is a way to reduce work-related risks. Although the position and angle of the handles are significant factors in comfort and safety during handling, these factors have rarely been studied objectively. OBJECTIVE: To compare the handling of a commercial box and prototypes with handles and to evaluate the effects on upper limb posture, muscle electrical activity, and perceived acceptability using different grips while handling materials from different heights. METHOD: Thirty-seven healthy volunteers evaluated the handles of prototypes that allowed for changes in position (top and bottom and angle (0°, 15°, and 30°. Wrist, elbow, and shoulder movements were evaluated using electrogoniometry and inclinometry. The muscle electrical activity in the wrist extensors, biceps brachii, and the upper portion of the trapezius was measured using a portable electromyographer. The recorded data on muscle movements and electrical activity were synchronized. Subjective evaluations of acceptability were evaluated using a visual analog scale. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The prototypes with handles at a 30° angle produced the highest acceptability ratings, more neutral wrist positions, lower levels of electromyographic activity for the upper trapezius, and lower elevation angles for the arms. The different measurement methods were complementary in evaluating the upper limbs during handling.

  19. Development of standard components for remote handling

    Taguchi, Kou; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Ito, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    The core of Fusion Experimental Reactor consists of various components such as superconducting magnets and forced-cooled in-vessel components, which are remotely maintained due to intense of gamma radiation. Mechanical connectors such as cooling pipe connections, insulation joints and electrical connectors are commonly used for maintenance of these components and have to be standardized in terms of remote handling. This paper describes these mechanical connectors developed as the standard component compatible with remote handling and tolerable for radiation. (author)

  20. Safety Training: "Manual Handling" course in September

    Safety Training, HSE Unit


    The next "Manual Handling" course will be given, in French, on 26 September 2016. This course is designed for anyone required to carry out manual handling of loads in the course of their work.   The main objective of this course is to adopt and apply the basic principles of physical safety and economy of effort. There are places available. If you are interested in following this course, please fill an EDH training request via our catalogue. 

  1. Supporting data for “A glacier runoff extension to the precipitation runoff modeling system”

    Van Beusekom, Ashley; Viger, Roland


    This product is an archive of the modeling artifacts used to produce a journal paper (Van Beusekom and Viger, 2016). The abstract for that paper follows. A module to simulate glacier runoff, PRMSglacier, was added to PRMS (Precipitation Runoff Modeling System), a distributed-parameter, physical-process hydrological simulation code. The extension does not require extensive on-glacier measurements or computational expense but still relies on physical principles over empirical relations as much as is feasible while maintaining model usability. PRMSglacier is validated on two basins in Alaska, Wolverine, and Gulkana Glacier basin, which have been studied since 1966 and have a substantial amount of data with which to test model performance over a long period of time covering a wide range of climatic and hydrologic conditions. When error in field measurements is considered, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies of streamflow are 0.87 and 0.86, the absolute bias fractions of the winter mass balance simulations are 0.10 and 0.08, and the absolute bias fractions of the summer mass balances are 0.01 and 0.03, all computed over 42 years for the Wolverine and Gulkana Glacier basins, respectively. Without taking into account measurement error, the values are still within the range achieved by the more computationally expensive codes tested over shorter time periods.

  2. Laboratory Simulation of Urban Runoff and Estimation of Runoff Hydrographs with Experimental Curve Numbers Implemented in USEPA SWMM

    The prognostic capabilities of a lumped hydrologic modeling approach may be complicated by routing and connectivity among infiltrative and impervious surfaces. We used artificial rainfall to generate runoff from impervious and bare soil boxes arranged in series to simulate differ...


    Fabiana Fonseca Fortes


    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify handling and storage impact in iron ore quality, in their physical and chemical characteristics most important for a mining. It is tried to show the interferences in iron ore quality caused by the handling equipment and stockpiling. The research is restricted to Complexo Vargem Grande (Vale. The timeline was demarcated based on the formation of stockpiling. The fieldwork enables data collection and distinction of the routine procedures of casual operations handling. The quantitative analysis is conducted by the statistical method. As a conclusion, handling and storage identified are able to insert changes in physical and chemical characteristics of iron ore. Storage contributes to reduce variability of silica and alumina concentrations, but contributes too particle size deterioration. The handling induces degradation and segregation. However, there is the possibility to decrease handling of the ore and to establish the ideal size of stocks on the system in study, improving the efficiency of the system and consequent in global costs.

  4. Glacier runoff variation and its influence on river runoff during 1961–2006 in the Tarim River Basin, China


    Using monthly precipitation and temperature data from national meteorological stations, 90 m resolution DEM and a digital vector map of modern glaciers from the Chinese Glacier Inventory, the glacier mass balance and glacier runoff in the Tarim River Basin (TRB), China, were estimated based on a monthly degree-day model for 1961–2006. The results suggest that the modified monthly degree-day model can simulate the long-term changes in glacier mass balance and glacier runoff, which have been confirmed by short-term observation data and other results in literatures. The characteristics and trends of mass balance and glacier runoff variation were analyzed. It was found that the mean annual glacier mass balance during 1961–2006 was ?139.2 mm per year and the cumulative mass balance over the 46 year period was ?6.4 m in the TRB. The glacier mass balance displayed a clear decreasing trend over the entire TRB during 1961–2006. The average annual glacier runoff in the TRB was 144.16×108 m3 for 1961–2006. The results also show that glacier runoff has increased in the last 46 years, especially since the 1990s with 85.7% of the increased river flow being derived from the increased glacier runoff caused by loss of ice mass. Over the entire TRB, glacier runoff accounts for 41.5% of the total river flow during 1961–2006. The impact of glacier runoff on river flow has increased in the TRB as a result of glacier shrinkage.

  5. Blind Inlet as a Possible Technology for the Remediation of Phosphorus from Surface Runoff

    Sturmlechner, M.; Wu, X.; Livingston, S.; Klik, A.; Huang, C. H.


    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for plant life, but too much P in runoff water can cause eutrophication and harmful algal blooms. Hence, mitigation of agricultural P losses into the water cycle is a very important issue. In-stream P treatment is difficult to implement because the large amount of storm runoff needs to be treated in short durations. In this research, we evaluated the potential to use blind inlet as an in-field P treatment technology. A box system was built to simulate hydrological and chemical processes occurring in a blind inlet. Current blind inlets, which are already installed in the field, use a bed of limestone with a sand/pea gravel layer on the top. In this study, steel slags has been tested, which has a very high P sorption potential, as the filter media through a series of adsorption and desorption experiments. The P mass balance results are compared with the limestone material used in current blind inlet construction. The total mass of P which was absorbed by the limestone was 14 % of the P input into the system whereas 26 % P was absorbed by the steel slags. Therefore the steel slags show potential to sequester dissolved P. Additional research is on-going to come up with a design criteria for field implementation.

  6. Stormwater runoff quality in correlation to land use and land cover development in Yongin, South Korea.

    Paule, M A; Memon, S A; Lee, B-Y; Umer, S R; Lee, C-H


    Stormwater runoff quality is sensitive to land use and land cover (LULC) change. It is difficult to understand their relationship in predicting the pollution potential and developing watershed management practices to eliminate or reduce the pollution risk. In this study, the relationship between LULC change and stormwater runoff quality in two separate monitoring sites comprising a construction area (Site 1) and mixed land use (Site 2) was analyzed using geographic information system (GIS), event mean concentration (EMC), and correlation analysis. It was detected that bare land area increased, while other land use areas such as agriculture, commercial, forest, grassland, parking lot, residential, and road reduced. Based on the analyses performed, high maximum range and average EMCs were found in Site 2 for most of the water pollutants. Also, urban areas and increased conversion of LULC into bare land corresponded to degradation of stormwater quality. Correlation analysis between LULC and stormwater quality showed the influence of different factors such as farming practices, geographical location, and amount of precipitation, vegetation loss, and anthropogenic activities in monitoring sites. This research found that GIS application was an efficient tool for monthly monitoring, validation and statistical analysis of LULC change in the study area.

  7. Coffee husk mulch on soil erosion and runoff: experiences under rainfall simulation experiment

    Moreno-Ramón, H.; Quizembe, S. J.; Ibáñez-Asensio, S.


    The high erosion rates found in the agriculture land make valuable the use of mulches to control the soil and water losses. Coffee husk (Coffea canephora var. robusta) can be one of those mulches. This paper evaluates how to apply the mulch in order to obtain the best effectiveness. An experimental factorial design 4 × 3 × 2 with two replicates was designed in a greenhouse with a total number of 48 cases. All the samples were deposited in trays of 0.51 m2 and applied a simulated rain of 122 mm h-1 during 21 min. The factors examined were the following: four soil classes; three treatments - buried (B), surface (S) and non-residue (C) - and the presence (WC) or absence (WOC) of the soil surface crusting. The coffee husk residue (S and B treatments) reduced runoff by 10.2 and 46% respectively, soil losses by 78.3 and 88.7% and sediment concentration by 77 and 84.4%. The infiltration rate increased on average by 104 and 167%, and time to runoff by 1.58 and 2.07 min respectively. Coffee husk is an efficient mulch to reduce the soil and water losses, although it could not completely cushion the influence of crust.

  8. Relation between lag times in winter foods from agricultural watershed

    Hejduk, Agnieszka; Hejduk, Leszek; Banasik, Kazimierz


    Investigation carried out by the Department of Hydraulic Engineering of SGGW in Zagożdżonka River have shown an intensive suspended sediment transport during the winter season, when occurring floods are caused by rainfall and snowmelt as well. The relation between rainfall/snowmelt -runoff - sediment transport have been investigated in small, agricultural catchment in central Poland. The hydrological and meteorological data collected in Zagożdżonka catchment during winter season have been used to calculate lag time of runoff (Lag) and lag time of sediment yield (Lags). Both, Lag and Lags are important characteristics of the instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH) and instantaneous unit sedimentgraph (IUSG).These characteristics are interrelated. Field data from Zagożdżonka River catchment have been used to demonstrate the relationship between lag times. The results of investigation show that: a) there is a strong relationship between Lag and Lags; b) in most cases the value of a = Lags/Lag is smaller than 1; c) in case of snowmelt floods there was only poor correlation between parameter a and the total runoff depth (water supply). Key words: snowmelt floods, winter season, suspended sediment transport, lag time of runoff and sediment yield

  9. Modelling runoff from a Himalayan debris-covered glacier

    K. Fujita


    Full Text Available Although the processes by which glacial debris-mantles alter the melting of glacier ice have been well studied, the mass balance and runoff patterns of Himalayan debris-covered glaciers and the response of these factors to climate change are not well understood. Many previous studies have addressed mechanisms of ice melt under debris mantles by applying multiplicative parameters derived from field experiments, and other studies have calculated the details of heat conduction through the debris layer. However, those approaches cannot be applied at catchment scales because debris distributions are heterogeneous and difficult to measure. Here, we establish a runoff model for a Himalayan debris-covered glacier in which the spatial distribution of the thermal properties of the debris mantle is estimated from remotely sensed multi-temporal data. We validated the model for the Tsho Rolpa Glacial Lake–Trambau Glacier basin in the Nepal Himalaya, using hydro-meteorological observations obtained for a 3.5 yr period (1993–1996. We calculated long-term averages of runoff components for the period 1980–2007 using gridded reanalysis datasets. Our calculations suggest that excess meltwater from the debris-covered area contributes significantly to the total runoff, mainly because of its location at lower elevations. Uncertainties in runoff values due to estimations of the thermal properties and albedo of the debris-covered surface were assessed to be approximately 8% of the runoff from the debris-covered area. We evaluated the sensitivities of runoff components to changes in air temperature and precipitation. As expected, warmer air temperatures increase the total runoff by increasing the melting rate; however, increased precipitation slightly reduces the total runoff, as ice melting is suppressed by the increased snow cover and associated high albedo. The response of total runoff to changing precipitation is complex because of the different responses of

  10. Solidex 84 - modern technology in bulk solids handling


    Proceedings from Conference on solids handling. Sections which are of interest include coal and ash handling, and flow problems and explosion hazards in bulk handling plant. 14 papers have been abstracted separately.

  11. 7 CFR 948.23 - Handling for special purposes.


    ... Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 948.23 Handling for special purposes. Upon the basis of....77, or any combination thereof, to facilitate handling of potatoes for (a) Relief or charity; (b...

  12. 7 CFR 959.53 - Handling for special purposes.


    ... Regulating Handling Regulations § 959.53 Handling for special purposes. Regulations in effect pursuant to §§ 959.42, 959.52, or 959.60 may be modified, suspended, or terminated to facilitate handling of...

  13. 7 CFR 929.60 - Handling for special purposes.


    ... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Reports and Records § 929.60 Handling... facilitate handling of excess cranberries for the following purposes: (a) Charitable institutions;...

  14. Handling Qualities Optimization for Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    Lawrence, Ben; Theodore, Colin R.; Berger, Tom


    Over the past decade, NASA, under a succession of rotary-wing programs has been moving towards coupling multiple discipline analyses in a rigorous consistent manner to evaluate rotorcraft conceptual designs. Handling qualities is one of the component analyses to be included in a future NASA Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization framework for conceptual design of VTOL aircraft. Similarly, the future vision for the capability of the Concept Design and Assessment Technology Area (CD&A-TA) of the U.S Army Aviation Development Directorate also includes a handling qualities component. SIMPLI-FLYD is a tool jointly developed by NASA and the U.S. Army to perform modeling and analysis for the assessment of flight dynamics and control aspects of the handling qualities of rotorcraft conceptual designs. An exploration of handling qualities analysis has been carried out using SIMPLI-FLYD in illustrative scenarios of a tiltrotor in forward flight and single-main rotor helicopter at hover. Using SIMPLI-FLYD and the conceptual design tool NDARC integrated into a single process, the effects of variations of design parameters such as tail or rotor size were evaluated in the form of margins to fixed- and rotary-wing handling qualities metrics as well as the vehicle empty weight. The handling qualities design margins are shown to vary across the flight envelope due to both changing flight dynamic and control characteristics and changing handling qualities specification requirements. The current SIMPLI-FLYD capability and future developments are discussed in the context of an overall rotorcraft conceptual design process.

  15. Determining potential for microbial atrazine degradation in agricultural drainage ditches.

    Tyler, Heather L; Khalid, Sheza; Jackson, Colin R; Moore, Matthew T


    Passage of agricultural runoff through vegetated drainage ditches has been shown to reduce the amount of pesticides, such as atrazine, exiting out of agricultural watersheds. Previous studies have found that microbial communities in soil from fields treated with atrazine display enhanced rates of atrazine degradation. However, no studies have examined the potential for atrazine degradation in ditches used to drain these lands. The purpose of the current study was to determine the potential of the drainage ditch soil microbial community for atrazine degradation. Soil samples were collected from fields and adjacent drainage ditches and from nonagricultural land with no previous exposure to atrazine. Polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated widespread presence of atrazine degradation genes in fields and ditches. Potential for degradation was determined by following the decrease of atrazine in spiked soil samples over a 28-d incubation period. Greater than 95% of atrazine was degraded in field and ditch soils, whereas only 68.5 ± 1.3% was degraded in the nonagricultural control. Comparison with autoclaved soil samples indicated the primary mechanism of atrazine degradation in agricultural soils was microbially mediated, whereas its breakdown in nonagricultural soil appeared to be the byproduct of abiotic processes. Therefore, microbial communities in drainage ditch sediments have the potential to play a role in atrazine removal from agricultural runoff by breaking down atrazine deposited in sediments and limiting the amount of this herbicide carried into downstream ecosystems.

  16. Event-based stormwater management pond runoff temperature model

    Sabouri, F.; Gharabaghi, B.; Sattar, A. M. A.; Thompson, A. M.


    Stormwater management wet ponds are generally very shallow and hence can significantly increase (about 5.4 °C on average in this study) runoff temperatures in summer months, which adversely affects receiving urban stream ecosystems. This study uses gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural networks (ANN) modeling techniques to advance our knowledge of the key factors governing thermal enrichment effects of stormwater ponds. The models developed in this study build upon and compliment the ANN model developed by Sabouri et al. (2013) that predicts the catchment event mean runoff temperature entering the pond as a function of event climatic and catchment characteristic parameters. The key factors that control pond outlet runoff temperature, include: (1) Upland Catchment Parameters (catchment drainage area and event mean runoff temperature inflow to the pond); (2) Climatic Parameters (rainfall depth, event mean air temperature, and pond initial water temperature); and (3) Pond Design Parameters (pond length-to-width ratio, pond surface area, pond average depth, and pond outlet depth). We used monitoring data for three summers from 2009 to 2011 in four stormwater management ponds, located in the cities of Guelph and Kitchener, Ontario, Canada to develop the models. The prediction uncertainties of the developed ANN and GEP models for the case study sites are around 0.4% and 1.7% of the median value. Sensitivity analysis of the trained models indicates that the thermal enrichment of the pond outlet runoff is inversely proportional to pond length-to-width ratio, pond outlet depth, and directly proportional to event runoff volume, event mean pond inflow runoff temperature, and pond initial water temperature.

  17. Toxicity of parking lot runoff after application of simulated rainfall.

    Greenstein, D; Tiefenthaler, L; Bay, S


    Stormwater runoff is an important source of toxic substances to the marine environment, but the effects of antecedent dry period, rainfall intensity, and duration on the toxicity of runoff are not well understood. In this study, simulated rainfall was applied to parking lots to examine the toxicity of runoff while controlling for antecedent period, intensity, and duration of rainfall. Parking areas were divided into high and low use and maintained and unmaintained treatments. The parking stalls were cleaned by pressure washing at time zero. Simulated rainfall was then applied to subplots of the parking lots so that antecedent periods of 1, 2, and 3 months were achieved, and all of the runoff was collected for analysis. On a separate parking lot, rainfall was applied at a variety of intensities and durations after a 3-month antecedent period. Runoff samples were tested for toxicity using the purple sea urchin fertilization test. Every runoff sample tested was found to be toxic. Mean toxicity for the sea urchin fertilization test ranged from 2.0 to 12.1 acute toxic units. The toxicity increased rapidly during the first month but then decreased approximately to precleaning levels and remained there. No difference in toxicity was found between the different levels of use or maintenance treatments. The intensity and duration of rainfall were inversely related to degree of toxicity. For all intensities tested, toxicity was always greatest in the first sampling time interval. Dissolved zinc was most likely the primary cause of toxicity based on toxicant characterization of selected runoff samples.

  18. 城市雨水径流水质特征及应对方法%Water Quality Characteristics of Urban Runoff and Its Solution

    陈水平; 付国楷; 喻晓琴; 徐官安; 雷莉


    Based on the research of non-point source pollution caused by urban runoff at home and abroad ,a summa-ry was made on runoff quality characteristics ,their influencing factors ,first flush situation and the flow control of initial rainwater runoff of city roads ,roofs and green lands .Generally ,initial rainwater runoff has higher concentra-tion of pollutants ,while its concentration values of COD ,TSS ,TN and TP are similar to that of urban sewerage . It’s of great significance for water environment protection to handle this part of the flow .%  在研究国内外有关雨水径流非点源污染研究成果的基础上,综述了城市道路、屋面、绿地雨水的水质特征及其影响因素,初期冲刷情况,以及初期雨水径流的截流控制应对方法。降雨的初期径流普遍有较高的污染物浓度,COD、T SS、T N、T P浓度值与城市污水浓度相近,截流处理这部分流量对保护水体环境意义重大。

  19. Modeling manure-borne bromide and fecal coliform transport with runoff and infiltration at a hillslope.

    Kouznetsov, M Y; Roodsari, R; Pachepsky, Y A; Shelton, D R; Sadeghi, A M; Shirmohammadi, A; Starr, J L


    Hillslope vegetated buffers are recommended to prevent water pollution from agricultural runoff. However, models to predict the efficacy of different grass buffer designs are lacking. The objective of this work was to develop and test a mechanistic model of coupled surface and subsurface flow and transport of bacteria and a conservative tracer on hillslopes. The testing should indicate what level of complexity and observation density might be needed to capture essential processes in the model. We combined the three-dimensional FEMWATER model of saturated-unsaturated subsurface flow with the Saint-Venant model for runoff. The model was tested with data on rainfall-induced fecal coliforms (FC) and bromide (Br) transport from manure applied at vegetated and bare 6-m long plots. The calibration of water retention parameters was unnecessary, and the same manure release parameters could be used both for simulations of Br and FC. Surface straining rates were similar for Br and bacteria. Simulations of Br and FC concentrations were least successful for the funnels closest to the source. This could be related to the finger-like flow of the manure from the strip along the bare slopes, to the transport of Br and FC with manure colloids that became strained at the grass slope, and to the presence of micro-ponds at the grassed slope. The two-dimensional model abstraction of the actual 3D transport worked well for flux-averaged concentrations. The model developed in this work is suitable to simulate surface and subsurface transport of agricultural contaminants on hillslopes and to evaluate efficiency of grass strip buffers, especially when lateral subsurface flow is important.

  20. Runoff, sediment and nutrient exports from a Portuguese vineyard under integrated production

    Ferreira, Carla; Abrantes, Nelson; Santos, Leisly; Serpa, Dalila; Keizer, Jacob; Ferreira, António


    Vineyard is one of the most important fruit crops in the world, and particularly in Portugal, where it represents 27% of permanent crops (INE, 2011). It has an unquestionable impact on Portuguese economy, due to direct impacts on primary sector, since it embodies 49% of drink industry sales and it is the seventh vegetable product best quoted (INE, 2015), but also due to indirect impacts on tourism. Although the economical relevance of vineyards, crop sustainability may be endangered due to land degradation. In the Mediterranean region, vineyards are reported as being the land use with highest erosion rates, threatening the long-term agricultural sustainability (Biddoccu et al., 2016). Several research studies have investigated runoff and erosion processes on vineyards, but relatively few focused on nutrient losses. This study aims to (i) quantify surface runoff, sediment and nutrient losses in a Portuguese vineyard managed under integrated production; (ii) relate these losses with rainfall pattern; and (iii) discuss the sustainability of vineyards under integrated production. The study was carried out in a commercial vineyard framed in the specialized wine region of Bairrada, in North-Central Portugal. The vineyard was managed with minimum tillage (non-inversion), performed once per year in some plant rows (changing every year), in order to maintain partial vegetation cover. Fertilization, mostly foliar, is performed twice per year (between May and July), according with integrated production regulations. The climate is Mediterranean but with a significant influence of the Atlantic Ocean. The average annual rainfall is 1077 mm and the average annual temperature is 15.7°C. The soil is a Calcaric Cambisol, with clay texture, and gentle slopes (pollution, even with management practices concerned to minimize the environmental impacts, such as the ones involved in integrated production. Improved agricultural practices are required to mitigate land degradation and ensure

  1. Quantifying climate change impacts on runoff of zoonotic pathogens from land

    Sterk, Ankie; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Stergiadi, Maria; de Nijs, Ton; Schijven, Jack


    Several studies have shown a correlation between rainfall and waterborne disease outbreaks. One of the mechanisms whereby rainfall may cause outbreaks is through an increase in runoff of animal faeces from fields to surface waters. Faeces originating from wildlife, domestic animals or manure-fertilized fields, is considered an important source of zoonotic pathogens to which people may be exposed by water recreation or drinking-water consumption. Climate changes affect runoff because of increasing winter precipitation and more extreme precipitation events, as well as changes in evaporation. Furthermore, drier summers are leading to longer periods of high soil moisture deficits, increasing the hydrophobicity of soil and consequently changing infiltration capacities. A conceptual model is designed to describe the impacts of climate changes on the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, which are both directly and indirectly affecting pathogen loads in the environment and subsequent public health risks. One of the major outcomes was the lack of quantitative data and limited qualitative analyses of impacts of climate changes on pathogen runoff. Quantifying the processes by which micro-organisms are transported from fields to waters is important to be able to estimate such impacts to enable targeted implementation of effective intervention measures. A quantitative model using Mathematica software will be developed to estimate concentrations of pathogens originating from overland flow during runoff events. Different input sources will be included by applying different land-use scenarios, including point source faecal pollution from dairy cows and geese and diffuse source pollution by fertilization. Zoonotic pathogens, i.e. Cryptosporidium and Campylobacter, were selected based on transport properties, faecal loads and disease burden. Transport and survival rates of these pathogens are determined including effects of changes in precipitation but also temperature induced

  2. Monitoring and Modelling Glacier Melt and Runoff on Juncal Norte Glacier, Aconcagua River Basin, Central Chile

    Pellicciotti, F.; Helbing, J. F.; Araos, J.; Favier, V.; Rivera, A.; Corripio, J.; Sicart, J. M.


    Results from a recent glacio-meteorological experiment on the Juncal Norte glacier, in central Chile, are presented. Melt water is a crucial resource in the Central Andes, as it provides drinking water, water for agriculture and for industrial uses. There is also increasing competition for water use and allocation, as water demands from mining and industry are rising. Assessing water availability in this region and its relation with climatic variations is therefore crucial. The Dry Central Andes are characterised by a climatic setting different from that of the Alps and the subtropical Andes of Bolivia and Peru. Summers are very dry and stable, with precipitation close to zero and low relative humidity. Solar radiation is very intense, and plays a key role in the energy balance of snow covers and glaciers. The main aim of this study is to investigate the glacier-climate interaction in this area, with particular attention devoted to advanced modelling techniques for the spatial redistribution of meteorological variables, in order to gain an accurate picture of the ablation processes typical of these latitudes. During the ablation season 2005/2006, an extensive field campaign was conducted on the Juncal Norte glacier, aimed at monitoring the melt and runoff generation processes on this remote glacier in the dry Andes. Melt rates, runoff at the snout, meteorological variables over and near the glacier, GPS data and glacier topography were recorded over the entire ablation season. Using this extensive and accurate data set, the spatial and temporal variability of the meteorological variables that drive the melt process on the glacier is investigated, together with the process of runoff generation. An energy balance model is used to simulate melt across the glacier, and special attention is devoted to the modelling of the solar radiation energy flux. The components of the energy balance are compared with those of Alpine basins. The validity of parameterisations of the

  3. Design of runoff water harvesting systems and its role in minimizing water losses

    Berliner, P.; Carmi, G.; Leake, S.; Agam, N.


    Precipitation is one of the major water sources for agricultural production in arid and semi-arid areas. Rainfalls are limited, erratic and not always coincide with the crop growing season. Only a part of the rain is absorbed by the soil. Soil evaporation is most severe in these regions and the large part of the absorbed water is lost to evaporation. The technique of collecting and conveying the runoff is known as runoff harvesting. Microcatchments are one of the primary techniques used for collecting, storing and conserving local surface runoff for growing trees/shrubs. In this system, runoff water is collected close-by the area in which it was generated, and trees/shrubs may utilize the water. The main objective of the present research was to estimate the effect of the design of the micro-catchment collection area (shallow basin and deep trench) has on the efficiency of the water conservation in the soil profile. The study was carried out during two years using regular micro-catchments (three replicates) with a surface area of 9 m2 (3 x 3 m) and a depth of 0.1 m and trenches (three replicates) with a surface area of 12 m2 (12 x 1 m) and 1 m depth. One and three olive trees were planted inside the trenches and micro-catchments, respectively. Access tubes for neutron probe were installed in micro-catchments and trenches (four and seven, respectively) to depths of 3m. Soil water content in the soil profile was monitored. Sap flow in trees was measured by PS-TDP8 Granier sap flow system every 0.5 hour and fluxes computed for the time intervals that correspond to the soil water measurements. The first year study included flooding trenches and regular micro-catchments once with the same amount of water (1.5 m3) and the second year study included flooding four times with 0.25 m3 each time. Flooding was followed by monitoring the water balance components and estimation of evaporation losses and water use efficiency by olive trees. Evaporation from trenches and regular

  4. Rotorcraft handling-qualities design criteria development

    Aiken, Edwin W.; Lebacqz, J. Victor; Chen, Robert T. N.; Key, David L.


    Joint NASA/Army efforts at the Ames Research Center to develop rotorcraft handling-qualities design criteria began in earnest in 1975. Notable results were the UH-1H VSTOLAND variable stability helicopter, the VFA-2 camera-and-terrain-board simulator visual system, and the generic helicopter real-time mathematical model, ARMCOP. An initial series of handling-qualities studies was conducted to assess the effects of rotor design parameters, interaxis coupling, and various levels of stability and control augmentation. The ability to conduct in-flight handling-qualities research was enhanced by the development of the NASA/Army CH-47 variable-stability helicopter. Research programs conducted using this vehicle include vertical-response investigations, hover augmentation systems, and the effects of control-force characteristics. The handling-qualities data base was judged to be sufficient to allow an update of the military helicopter handling-qualities specification, MIL-H-8501. These efforts, including not only the in-house experimental work but also contracted research and collaborative programs performed under the auspices of various international agreements. The report concludes by reviewing the topics that are currently most in need of work, and the plans for addressing these topics.

  5. Handling Qualities Implications for Crewed Spacecraft Operations

    Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Arthur, J. J.


    Abstract Handling qualities embody those qualities or characteristics of an aircraft that govern the ease and precision with which a pilot is able to perform the tasks required in support of an aircraft role. These same qualities are as critical, if not more so, in the operation of spacecraft. A research, development, test, and evaluation process was put into effect to identify, understand, and interpret the engineering and human factors principles which govern the pilot-vehicle dynamic system as they pertain to space exploration missions and tasks. Toward this objective, piloted simulations were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center and Ames Research Center for earth-orbit proximity operations and docking and lunar landing. These works provide broad guidelines for the design of spacecraft to exhibit excellent handling characteristics. In particular, this work demonstrates how handling qualities include much more than just stability and control characteristics of a spacecraft or aircraft. Handling qualities are affected by all aspects of the pilot-vehicle dynamic system, including the motion, visual and aural cues of the vehicle response as the pilot performs the required operation or task. A holistic approach to spacecraft design, including the use of manual control, automatic control, and pilot intervention/supervision is described. The handling qualities implications of design decisions are demonstrated using these pilot-in-the-loop evaluations of docking operations and lunar landings.

  6. Effective Teaching Practices in Handling Non Readers

    Jacklyn S. Dacalos


    Full Text Available The study determined the effective teaching practices in handling nonreaders. This seeks to answer the following objectives: describe the adjustments, effective strategies, and scaffolds utilized by teachers in handling nonreaders; differentiate the teachers’ reading adjustments, strategies and scaffolds in teaching nonreaders; analyze the teaching reading efficiency of nonreaders using effective teaching reading strategies; and find significant correlation of nonreaders’ grades and reading teachers’ reading adjustments, strategies and scaffolds. This study utilized mixed methods of research. Case studies of five public schools teachers were selected as primary subjects, who were interviewed in handling nonreaders in the areas of adjustments, strategies, and reading scaffolds. Actual teaching observation was conducted according to the five subjects’ most convenient time. In ascertaining the nonreaders’ academic performance, the students’ grades in English subject was analyzed using T-Test within subject design. Handling nonreaders in order to read and understand better in the lesson is an arduous act, yet; once done with effectiveness and passion, it yielded a great amount of learning success. Effective teaching practices in handling nonreaders comprised the use of teachers’ adjustments, strategies, and scaffolds to establish reading mastery, exposing them to letter sounds, short stories, and the use of follow-up. WH questions enhanced their reading performance significantly. Variations of reading teachers’ nature as: an enabler, a facilitator, a humanist, a behaviorist, and an expert, as regards to their teaching practices, were proven significant to students’ reading effectiveness.

  7. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Pierce, Dick


    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  8. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Pierce, Dick


    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  9. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Pierce, Dick


    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  10. Agriculture: Land Use

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  11. Urban Agricultural Education.

    Corbellini, Margaret


    John Bourne High School in Queens, New York, offers an agricultural program enrolling more than 400 students. The curriculum includes agricultural career exploration, plant and animal science, summer land laboratories, and a special education component. (SK)

  12. Innovations in urban agriculture

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René


    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban

  13. National Agriculture Imagery Program

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) acquires aerial imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in the continental U.S. A primary goal of the NAIP...

  14. Agriculture: Climate Change

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  15. Agricultural Libraries and Information.

    Russell, Keith W., Ed.; Pisa, Maria G., Ed.


    Eleven articles address issues relating to agricultural libraries and information, including background on agricultural libraries and information, trend management, document delivery, reference services, user needs and library services, collection development, technologies for international information management, information sources,…

  16. Innovations in urban agriculture

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René


    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban a

  17. Hygiene versus fertiliser the use of human excreta in agriculture - a Vietnamese example

    Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Phuc, Pham Duc; Knudsen, Line Gram;


    The use of human excreta as fertiliser in agriculture is a common practice in parts of South East Asia benefiting production but at the same time a risk factor for increased helminth infections. This paper describes the hygienic handling of human excreta for use in agriculture in Central Vietnam...

  18. Department of Energy programs and objectives: energy conservation in agricultural production


    This document describes the current Department of Energy agriculture research program as it relates to the research recommendations submitted by a 1976 workshop on energy conservation in agricultural production. In-depth discussions on fertilizers, irrigation, crop drying, fuel substitution, crop and animal production systems, greenhouses, materials handling, and transport systems are included. (MCW)

  19. 7 CFR 996.40 - Handling standards.


    ... samples, based on a sampling plan approved by the Inspection Service, of each lot of shelled peanuts... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... shall be large enough to provide for a grade analysis, for a grading check-sample, and for three...

  20. The effects of land use change and precipitation change on direct runoff in Wei River watershed, China.

    Dong, Leihua; Xiong, Lihua; Lall, Upmanu; Wang, Jiwu


    The principles and degrees to which land use change and climate change affect direct runoff generation are distinctive. In this paper, based on the MODIS data of land use in 1992 and 2003, the impacts of land use and climate change are explored using the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method under two defined scenarios. In the first scenario, the precipitation is assumed to be constant, and thus the consequence of land use change could be evaluated. In the second scenario, the condition of land use is assumed to be constant, so the influence only induced by climate change could be assessed. Combining the conclusions of two scenarios, the effects of land use and climate change on direct runoff volume can be separated. At last, it is concluded: for the study basin, the land use types which have the greatest effect on direct runoff generation are agricultural land and water body. For the big sub basins, the effect of land use change is generally larger than that of climate change; for middle and small sub basins, most of them suffer more from land use change than from climate change.