Sample records for handicrafts

  1. Intercultural Interaction and Handicrafts

    Mine CAN


    Full Text Available Technological developments in the world since the mid - 20th century, has increased intercultural communication and the whole world today has been informed of the existence of societies even in the most remote corners of the world. With increase in globaliza tion in cultural context, the importance of local differences has emerged more today. As a result, a process has initiated in which the similarities with differences, localization with the universalization and modernization with the tradition experienced s imutaneously and intercultural interaction has become inevitable and a natural phenomenon. However, handicrafts has been affected by cultural interactions negatively and the mistakes done caused the national culture and identities to weaken. For this reaso n, the necessity of experience of changing and developing in the frame of development with identity, transformation and cultural heritage today is emphasized. To be protected from the negative effects of the global interaction, many government produce prot ection and sustenance contracts, laws and projects by engaging in various initiatives. In the study, subjects is discussed with the examples of successful countries that aim to promote their local cultures globally and provide income.

  2. The Geographical Aspects of Traditional Handicrafts in Serbia

    Tamara Lukić


    Full Text Available The first part of paper is dedicated to current research related to traditional handicrafts in the world. Then, traditional handicrafts are viewed from the geographical perspective. The paper analyzes the relationship between the physical and geographical characteristics, the type of handicraft and raw material base. Most of the paper is devoted to the social factors that influence the traditional handicrafts. The paper lists the forms of support to preserve traditional handicrafts that goes in favor of their sustainability. The paper shows examples of work on the preservation of traditional crafts in Serbia. The paper describes the possibilities of placing items produced by traditional handicrafts. By displaying manifestations, paper illustrates some traditional handicrafts. In addition, the paper discusses the actual problems of the traditional handicrafts. The significance of the paper is that it is written record of traditional handicrafts in Serbia at the beginning of the 21st century, because they are no longer subject to monitoring of official statistics. The aim of this paper is to motivate the youth and the unemployed to look for themselves in originality, excellence and financial justification of working in traditional handicrafts. On that way, traditionally handicrafts could to maintain their viability.

  3. Environmental Innovation and Sustainability in Small Handicraft Businesses in Mexico

    Arcelia Toledo-López


    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between environmental innovation and sustainability is analyzed in 168 handicraft businesses in the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Puebla, and Tlaxcala. The results show a direct, positive relationship between environmental innovation and sustainability in three dimensions: economic, social, and environmental. In terms of determination, the variables that best explain sustainability are: organization type, product innovation, and process innovation. The age of the handicraft businesses was not a significant factor in explaining sustainability. This study concludes that handicraft businesses make sustainable choices more as a result of a desire for profit maximization than as a result of environmental consciousness, as can be explained by neoclassical view of economics.

  4. A Collaborative Design Curriculum for Reviving Sheet Metal Handicraft

    Chan, Patrick K. C.


    Galvanised sheet metal was a popular and important material for producing handmade home utensils in Hong Kong from the 1930s onwards. It was gradually replaced by new materials like stainless steel and plastic because similar goods made with these are cheaper, more standardised, more durable and of much better quality. The handicrafts behind sheet…

  5. Handicrafts production: documentation and audiovisual dissemination as sociocultural appreciation technology

    Luciana Alvarenga


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of scientific research, technology and innovation project in the creative economy sector, conducted from January 2014 to January 2015 that aimed to document and disclose the artisans and handicraft production of Vila de Itaúnas, ES, Brasil. The process was developed from initial conversations, followed by planning and conducting participatory workshops for documentation and audiovisual dissemination around the production of handicrafts and its relation to biodiversity and local culture. The initial objective was to promote expression and diffusion spaces of knowledge among and for the local population, also reaching a regional, state and national public. Throughout the process, it was found that the participatory workshops and the collective production of a virtual site for disclosure of practices and products contributed to the development and socio-cultural recognition of artisan and craft in the region.

  6. Tiny Gems of Chinese Handicraft:Snuff Bottles



    THE snuff bottle, a kind of handicraft introduced to China from abroad along with the habit of sniffing powdered tobacco, has a history of more than 200 years. Despite the fact that the practice of taking snuff has long since disappeared, Chinese snuff bottles have become precious collector’s items because of their exquisite artistry. The snuff bottle was especially popular in the reign of Emperor Yongzheng (1723-1735) during the Qing

  7. Amerindian handicraft and notion of tradition in french Guyana: Toward a new terminology

    Damien Davy


    Full Text Available The current context of modernity which lives the Amerindian societies of French Guyana infers indisputably a change in their handicraft practice. Few techniques disappear others persist but almost the marketing of objects, initially used for domestic purposes, increases a lot. Collectively, this craft production supports more and more an ethnic identity that it is claimed by the peoples himself either recognized outside of their community. The vague desires of valuation of a "traditional" handicraft, of "ancestral" knowledge are daylight. So, we shall discuss the contemporary marketing of this handicraft by pressing our examples on the activity of basketwork. Through examples drawn to diverse Amerindian communities living in French Guiana we shall approach the ambiguous notions of "traditional" and " modern" item. Finally, we shall propose a new terminology to dread better the contemporary reality of the Amerindian handicraft.

  8. Government intervention in women entrepreneurship development: opportunities and challenges for Bumiputera women entrepreneurs (BWEs) in the handicraft industry in Malaysia

    Topimin, S


    This study provides insights into the influences of government intervention on the business survival of Bumiputera women entrepreneurs in the handicraft industry in Malaysia in which Bumiputera refers to the indigenous people and the largest population group in the country. The Malaysian handicraft industry is largely made up of Bumiputera women entrepreneurs (BWEs). While very little is known about how BWEs in the handicraft industry in Malaysia manage the survival of their businesses, the i...


    Toğrul HALİLOV


    Full Text Available The article handicraft have been learnt in the Nakhchivan late bronze-early iron age. It was defined that pottery wasone of the ancient craftsmanship areas in Nakhichivan. At that time Nakhichivan, as well as the other regions of Azerbaijan, was an important centre of craftsmanship. The pottery products differed from one another in their size, shape, ornaments on them, the material the were made of and the technology. The pottery products made by Nakhichivan potters were divided into two groups-welfare and kitchen ceramics. Their similar monuments in the South Caucasus and the Middle East in the same period, the archaeological materials found in the Urmia basin and Eastern Anatolia. As a result of comparative investigation it is defined that oldest labour tools producted from bone and stone in Nakchivan. New type of labour tools are producted connecting to treatmen of metal in following period. Stone and bone tools are used little in iron and bronz period. It is defined that daggers, arrow and spear heads, jewelry founded in archaeological monument belong to epoch late bronze-early iron age in the Nakhchivan have got peculiarity of culture of Khojalı-Gadabay in Azerbaijan. Some of daggers belong to culture Near East.

  10. Effect of physical activity on musculoskeletal discomforts among handicraft workers

    Shakerian, Mahnaz; Rismanchian, Masoud; Khalili, Pejman; Torki, Akram


    Introduction: Handicrafts seems to be one of the high-risk jobs regarding work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) which necessitate the implementation of different corrective intervention like regular physical activities. This study aimed to investigate the impact of physical activity on WMSDs among craftsmen. Methods: This cross-sectional study was an analytical – descriptive study carried out on 100 craftsmen working in Isfahan, Iran, in 2013. The sampling method was census, and all workshops involved with this job were included. Information on demographic parameters and physical activity was collected by demographic forms. The data related to worker's musculoskeletal discomforts were conducted using Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using statistical tests including independent t-test, Chi-square, and ANOVA. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 18. Results: The highest percentages of complaints related to severe musculoskeletal discomfort were reported in right shoulder (%36), right wrist (%26), neck (%25), and upper right arm (%24), respectively. A significant relationship was observed between physical activity and musculoskeletal discomforts of left wrist (P = 0.012), lower back (P = 0.016), and neck (P = 0.006). Discussion and Conclusion: Based on the study results, it can be inferred that regular but not too heavy physical activity can have a positive impact on decreasing the musculoskeletal discomforts. PMID:27512700

  11. Investigation on Supporting Handicraft Education in an Isolated Island Through Delivery Lectures

    Hikiji, Rikio

    Kagoshima Prefecture has so many solitary islands and small-scale schools, which are short of teachers in charge of craft and home economics and poor in educational equipment. That means there are very few opportunities for school children to experience handicraft. The author tried giving them such opportunities so that they would be interested in handicraft and develop their creativity. Moreover, plain English was used in the lecture for them to be internationally-minded in the future. As a result, the students not only got impressed with handicraft but also tried to attend the class actively. They came to work eagerly and cooperatively and to have ability to design for the future.




    Many scholars have written academic articles about the cognizance of handcraft and the creative essence of human beings as well as the redefinition of the relationship between handcraft and modern art, etc. I don't want to do repetition about these topics. What I want to emphasize here is the relationship between handicraft and traditional national culture, and between handicraft and its ecological environmet.These will help us further realize the variety of human culture and the importance of development of such diversified culture and human society. What this article involoves is the core of the production mode and life style culture.

  13. Agricultural, domestic and handicraft folk uses of plants in the Tyrrhenian sector of Basilicata (Italy

    Guarrera Paolo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research was carried out into agricultural and domestic-handicraft uses in folk traditions in the Tyrrhenian sector of the Basilicata region (southern Italy, as it is typically representative of ethnobotanical applications in the Mediterranean area. From the point of view of furnishing a botanical support for the study of local "material culture" data was collected through field interviews of 49 informants, most of whom were farmers. Results The taxa cited are 60, belonging to 32 botanical families, of which 18 are employed for agricultural uses and 51 for domestic-handicraft folk uses. Data show a diffuse use of plants for many purposes, both in agricultural (present uses 14%; past uses 1% and for domestic-handicraft use (present uses 40%; past uses 45%; most of the latter are now in decline. Conclusion 60 data look uncommon or typical of the places studied. Some domestic-handicraft folk uses are typical of southern Italy (e.g. the use of Ampelodesmos mauritanicus for making ties, ropes, torches, baskets or that of Acer neapolitanum for several uses. Other uses (e.g. that of Inula viscosa and Calamintha nepeta for peculiar brooms, and of Origanum heracleoticum for dyeing wool red are previously unpublished.

  14. Krajood: Creative Economics Development in Communities through Indigenous Handicraft of Southern Thailand

    Kanlaya Kaewpradit


    Full Text Available National development based on indigenous knowledge of Thai society that conforms to utilizing local natural resources is a beneficial alternative that Thai government agencies have given priority and promotion with optimism towards the stability and security of Thai society. Obstacles for Krajood (Sedge handicrafts in Southern Thailand come from internal and external factors. Internal factors include shortage of local raw materials, limited processing tools that are inefficient and expensive to purchase and repair. External factors include the cheap price of low value massed produced products. Creative economics development through Krajood handicrafts in communities in Southern Thailand must include 1 Consolidation of knowledge, network marketing and diffusion of knowledge, 2 Practical government economic development policy for local communities, 3 Systematic Administration of handicraft manufacturing groups to increase efficiency, 4 design products that meet consumer requirements, 5 Products must be properly, 6 Direct and indirect support from manufacturers, entrepreneurs, government and private organizations in national and international market development and 7 Marketing support from all parties involved in advertisement and public broadcasts.

  15. Digital economy, Websites and SMEs of the handicraft industry in Peru

    Franklin Duarte Cueva


    Full Text Available The companies are operating in complex, dynamic and uncertain environments that it difficult to compete. The e-economy each time has a major presence in business world, then, the small entrepreneurs must design strategies based on Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs, particularly the use of Internet, to improve company performance. Thus, the efficient implementation of websites is a mechanism that should exploit exporting small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs or with export potential, of the handicrafts industry, to communicate desired company image and optimize customer service, this it has implications who require to be analyzed to make an effective use of the ICTs.

  16. Development of Phanan Pandanus Handicraft Design for the Furniture Industry in Promotion of Creative-Based Economy

    Payomrat Ruangrit


    Full Text Available This research study is a qualitative research which aims to (1 study the background of Phanan pandanus weaving handicraft, (2 study the problems encountered in development of Phanan pandanus weaving handicraft for the furniture industry, and (3 determine appropriate ways to develop suitable pandanus handicraft designs to promote the creative economy. The target area of this research was composed of three Thai provinces; Trang, Krabi and Satun. The research methods were study of books and printed matters, observation, interviews, group discussions and a workshop. The research findings revealed that the background and current status of Phanan pandanus weaving in each target group was similarly initiated as an ancestral legacy. Learning skill was acquired through observation without any particular textbooks. The learning activity was first started with small groups, which were extended into large groups with 20-30 members. The average age of group members is 40 years and older, with educational levels between Prathom 6 (upper primary to Mathayom 6 (upper secondary. The products made by each group are similar. In terms of the marketplace, each group aims at the domestic market. Each member earns approximately 2,500-6,000 baht per month. In terms of the problems of Phanan pandanus weaving, handicraft production mainly suffers from a lack of designers, lack of support from the government sector, unaffordable costs of hiring designers, lack of creativity in producing new products and inability to produce large quantities of products due to time consumption. According to the research findings, there are 3 guideline areas for development of Phanan pandanus handicraft design for the furniture industry in promotion of creative-based economy: (1 Guidelines for development of pandanus handicraft design; (2 Guidelines for management; (3 Guidelines for the incorporation of other equipment and materials.

  17. Management of Mauritia flexuosa L.f. for the handicraft production in Orinoco high plains, Colombia

    Laura Isabel Mesa Castellanos


    Full Text Available We present information about the spear leaves harvest, fiber processing and trade of Mauritia flexuosa L.f. for the handicrafts production by the Sikuani people in Wacoyo indigenous Village, in Puerto Gaitán, Meta, Colombia. We made  a semi-structured interviews and workshops with harvesters, artisans and traders. During these sessions we inquired about their harvesting techniques, characteristics of harvestable individuals, distribution area of the palms, market aspects  and other uses of the species. Mauritia flexuosa, locally known as moriche, is one of the economic livelihoods for the artisans who inhabit the Wacoyo reservation. The harvest of spear leaves is carried out  in juvenile and subadult palms. The fibers are extracted from the spear leaves to manufacture handicrafts like bags, baskets, hats and hammocks. Artisans sell the products to tourists visiting the reservation, and intermediary sellers who commercialize them in the municipality center of Puerto Gaitán and Puerto Lopez, Meta. The use of M. flexuosa has the potential to become a sustainable activity, since the leaf harvest does not involve the death of the individuals.

  18. ‘A Bazaar in the Coliseum': Marketing Southeast Asian Handicrafts in New York, 1956

    Jennifer Way


    Full Text Available This essay reconstitutes the meaning and significance of places, objects and people associated with an unstudied pavilion displaying handicrafts at the Southeast Asia Rehabilitation and Trade Development Exhibit held in the New York Coliseum from 25 June to 29 June, 1956. It pays particular attention to the ways the importance assigned to the pavilion correlates with general features of Orientalism that Edward Said analyzed in his book of the same name. Following its publication in 1978, some American cultural historians changed their focus from Europe to the United States, and from the West’s relationship with the Middle East to its relationship with Asia. In this essay, I move the geography of their scholarship from Asia to Southeast Asia and place emphasis on Vietnam. Furthermore, I identify the use of local material and visual culture in U.S. State Department aid programs active in the region, within American Cold War imperatives. The ‘tent-like enclosure’ featured in the Coliseum aimed to display ‘oriental objects’ in an environment that was to appear natural and convey the spirit of the places where they were made; it was to have ‘the atmosphere of an oriental bazaar’. The objects consisted of handicrafts that renowned American industrial designer Russel Wright collected during a recent trip he made to Southeast Asia on behalf of the U.S. State Department’s International Cooperation Administration. The ICA contracted Wright to evaluate the feasibility of establishing a multi-year program to produce and export handicrafts from there to the United States. I examine how Wright’s activity in Southeast Asia and New York City, along with the purpose, appearance and location of the pavilion in the Coliseum, prompted Wright, the pavilion’s designers, American government officials and the press to consider it ‘oriental,’ and its contents antithetical to characteristics of contemporary American culture yet also well-suited to

  19. 传统工艺“返老还童”%The Renaissance of Handicrafts



    As a powerhouse of culture, Shandong has rich traditional bhandicraft resources, which inrecent years have received much attention from all walks of life and undergone a momentum renaissance. However, the renaissance of the traditional handicrafts still has a long way to go.%作家老舍写过一个短篇《断魂枪》,里面写镖局变成了客栈,镖师沙子龙深夜独练“五虎断魂枪”。面对现代文明的侵袭,沙子龙“用手指慢慢摸着冰凉的枪身”,“微笑里甩出斩钉截铁的四个字‘不传不传”’。


    Гулина Мелисбековна Сыдыкова


    Full Text Available This article reflects the theme of research of creativity of children on the basis of the pilot study. The experiment was conducted in the social group with the participation of respondents in schools and children's home. Children ages 8 to 10-11 years, the sample of children included 200 people. The article describes the 3 main stages of the pilot study, there are indications methods used on non-verbal imagination, identified goals and objectives of the stages of work. As a result of ascertaining experiment have identified different levels of non-verbal creativity in two groups of children, which are described in the four indicators. Further study of applied handicraft and fine drawings identified lack of motivation and stimulating environment, lack of creative non-traditional materials that were identified as factors of low creativity of children. In the final part of the article gives a brief account of the author's methodology of social development of children, consisting of interconnected components. Its main goal is to influence the mentor and the surrounding children to develop creativity through the effect of non-traditional materials.DOI:

  1. Survey of Effect of Merger in Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organizations on Tourism destinations Competitiveness Development



    Full Text Available Organization mergers, integration of activities in two or more organizations, have always attracted the attention of policy makers as well as decision makers. The merger of the three organizations of Cultural Heritage, Tourism, and Handicrafts into one organization named the Cultural Heritage, Tourism, and Handicrafts organization which took place in two stages between 2003 and 2005, is among the biggest mergers of the past few years in our country. This paper analyzes the effects of this merger on the competitiveness of tourism destinations. The model proposed by Ritchie and Crouch (2003, which is the most comprehensive model in this area is used. This model considers five main factors: core resources and attractors, destination management, destination policy, planning and development, qualifying and amplifying determinants, and supporting factors and resources. The effects of the merger on these factors were studied using two questionnaires verified by experts in the field. 47 of the total 62 questions were put in the first questionnaire and the other 15 were put in the second. Since the merger was completed in 2005, the statistical population is comprised of managers and staff at the Cultural Heritage, Tourism, and Handicrafts organization in the province of Hamedan who had worked in one of the three separate organizations prior to the merger and tourists who had made a visit to the province then. 74 participants i.e. employees with over seven years of experience on the job responded to the first questionnaire and 219 responded to the second questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software package and single or multi-variant t-test. The results indicate that by considering 3 as the significance level all the hypotheses will be proven wrong. However, by considering 2 as the significance level all the hypotheses will be proven. This shows that not many changes may have taken place after the merger and it has only had a fair

  2. [Working hypothesis of simplified techniques for the first mapping of occupational hazards in handicraft. First part: ergonomics hazards].

    Colombini, D; Di Leone, G; Occhipinti, E; Montomoli, L; Ruschioni, A; Giambartolomei, M; Ardissone, S; Fanti, M; Pressiani, S; Placci, M; Cerbai, M; Preite, S


    During the last Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA), Beijing - China August 2009, in collaboration with World Health Organization an international group for developing a "toolkit for MSD prevention" was founded. Possible users of toolkits are: members of a health and safety committee; health and safety representatives; line supervisors; foremen; workers; government representatives; health workers implementing basic occupational health services; occupational health and safety specialists. According with ISO standard 11228 series and their ISO Application document for the Key enters and Quick Assessment (green/red conditions), our group developed a first mapping methodology of occupational hazards in handicraft, working with the support of the information technology (Excel). This methodology, utilizing specific key enters and quick evaluation, allows a simple risk estimation. So it is possible to decide for which occupational hazards will be necessary an exhaustive assessment and to which professional consultant it is better to direct them to (worker's doctor, engineer, chemical, etc.).

  3. Green Sharing: The Proposed Criteria in Green Building Standards to Promote the Usage of Natural Handicrafts in Building Materials

    Krasae-In Aracha


    Full Text Available Sustainable development has been a great challenge to the building and construction industry for decades. There have been many initiatives and attempts to create sustainability for the industry through the concept of the Green Building certificate in order to reduce the impact to environment and society while promoting better living conditions of the people involved in the project. This paper aims to examine all three aspects of sustainability; economy, environment and society, in the building and construction industry by proposing new criteria for the green building certificate. This will create opportunities for the community based handicraft building products to be specified and purchased to be used in the modern building and construction industry and share the economic value to the community.

  4. Economía digital, sitios web y PYMES del sector artesanías en el Perú/Digital Economy, Websites and SMEs of the Handicraft Industry in Peru

    Franklin Duarte Cueva


    ... Internet, to improve company performance. Thus, the efficient implementation of Web sites is a mechanism that should exploit exporting small and medium-sized enterprises or with export potential of the handicrafts industry to communicate...

  5. Occupational health and safety-ergonomics improvement as a corporate responsibility of a Bali handicraft company: a case study.

    Purnawati, Susy


    The issue of corporate social responsibility is nowadays becoming popular around industrial communities. The support for the issue has initially spread since the adoption in 1998 of the ILO Declaration concerning fundamental principles and rights at work and then followed up by industries in developed countries. A case study was done from February to August 2006 at a handicraft company in Bali in order to find out the core application of the issue at the enterprise level. The study was conducted by observation in the field of the factory and suppliers, taking photos and interviewing management and employees of the company. The results of the study show that the company has already executed the activities that reflect the application of the core principles. The activities included programs which concerned not only the business corporate community but also wider communities. With regard to the business corporate community, the company had improved the conditions related to ergonomics and occupational health and safety. The improvement was done by referring to the external audit. At the national community level, the company had participated in the recovery measures of national disasters by helping small industries revive. It is hoped that this core program is soon copied by other companies considering that it is very beneficial to the communities and companies.

  6. Production and Management Forms of Hunan Handicraft Industry during the Period of Republic of China%民国时期湖南手工业的生产经营形式



    民国时期,湖南手工业行业种类众多,其生产经营形式也呈现出多元化特点,有业主制下的自主经营和包买主制下的依附经营。其中,业主制下的自主经营有四种存在方式,即家庭手工业、铺坊式手工业、工场手工业和合伙式手工业;在包买主制下的依附经营中,湖南手工业者对包买主的依附方式表现为资本依附、原料依附、原料供应与产品销售双重依附等三种形式。%During the period of Republic of China,the handicraft industry in Hunan Province boasted many kinds of professions and mainly two management forms,independency management under owner system and dependency management under buyer system.Independency management mainly includes family handicraft,shop handicraft,factory handicraft and partnership handicraft.Dependency management mainly includes capital dependency management,raw material dependency management and double dependency management(raw material supply dependency and products sale dependency).

  7. Espaços comerciais de artesanato: apenas um espaço turístico? * Handicraft commercial spaces: just tourist spaces?



    Full Text Available Resumo: Defendemos que se um espaço se torna exclusivamente focado no turismo, pode perder a sua vida, sendo abandonado e desinteressante para população local e externa. Assim, este artigo busca analisar – a partir de pesquisas empíricas (com a população local e bibliográficas –quais aspectos precisam estar presentes em espaços comerciais de artesanato da cidade de Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil para permitir a consolidação da dinâmica sociocultural local, possibilitando à população local ter mais espaços percebidos como lugares, por acomodar suas vivências socioculturais, além de incrementar o turismo.Palavras-chave: Artesanato – Espaços comerciais de artesanato – Vivências socioculturais – Identificação sociocultural. Abstract: When a space becomes exclusively focused on tourism, it can lose its life and become unattractive to and abandoned by both local and external populations. As such, this paper aims to analyze the features that need to be present in handicraft commercial spaces to facilitate consolidation of the local sociocultural dynamic. Toward this end, this study conducted bibliographic and empirical research (via the local population on the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. In addition to boosting tourism, accommodating the sociocultural experiences of the local population enables them to have more spaces actually perceived as places.Keywords: HandicraftsHandicraft commercial spaces – Sociocultural experiences – Sociocultural identification.

  8. 山西平阳传统麻纸制作技艺考察%Investigation on Handicraft of Pingyang Traditional Handmade Hemp Paper in Shanxi

    李兵; 冯立昇; 施继龙


    Pingyang Hemp Paper is made in methods of traditional handicraft in Linfen,Shanxi province.The handicraft is chosen into the forth batch of state-level intangible cultural heritage expansion project directory.Based on investigation for the handicraft in xiangfen county,records its procedure completely,and concludes that most of the procedure is the same as traditional craft,such as steaming, crushing with stone wheels,forming a paper sheet on a bamboo mold by hand.However,some changes also exists,that is to say,motor power has replaced human power and animal power.Youngsters are not willing to inherit the skill,and hemp papers used in painting have a poor sale,consequently,the traditional skill confronts huge challenges in inheriting and protecting.%通过对山西襄汾县平阳传统麻纸制作技艺的田野调查,整理了该项技艺的完整工序,认为麻纸的传统制作技艺基本传承了下来,核心技术如蒸麻、碾麻、抄纸均得以保留,变化主要表现在制作机器上,如以电机动力代替了人力、畜力。调查显示,年轻人不愿传承麻纸制作手艺,加之目前作为高级书画纸的麻纸销路不佳,因此对该项传统技艺的传承与保护面临巨大挑战。


    Perla Shiomara del Carpio Ovando


    Full Text Available This research is focused on the migratory movements that have characterized Simojovel de Allende, Chiapas. Both indigenous Tsotsil communities as well as mestizos from different municipalities live in Simojovel, which is a town that has had multiple migratory movements due to different reasons. For example, economical struggle that has led to poverty, the lack of opportunities; the political situation, religious and ethnic persecutions, insecurity and the communitarian division between zapatistas and non-zapatistas. There are also cultural factors that have caused migration in Simojovel such as tradition, generational gaps, young people’s interests for new types of work and ways of living. Simojovel has been characterized by its coffee, tobacco and amber, but also by its migratory activity.

  10. Design and application of flower-shaped handicraft in modern fashion%盘花工艺在现代服装设计中的应用研究

    李克兢; 田合伟


    Based on the market investigations of current situation and future of Chinese traditional handicraft of flower-shaped cloth button, this paper analyzed the product positioning, market positioning, style positioning of flower-shaped, and summarized some design experiences about the pattern, materials, use position, and proportion of flower-shaped handicraft in modern fashion.%通过对中国传统元素之一的盘花工艺发展前景及应用现状的调查,对使用盘花工艺的产品定位、市场定位和风格定位进行了分析,得出盘花工艺在现代服装中的图案、材料、使用部位及面积等设计经验.

  11. Orientalizing Vietnam: The American Cold War, its “Problems” with Refugee Handicraft Artisans, and their Relationship to Barthes’s Mythology

    Jennifer Way


    At issue are the ways those who implemented the program narrated the Vietnamese handicraft artisans as problems by treating both their plight as political refugees fleeing from communist forces in the north and the vulnerability of their fledgling nation in the south to communism, as a Cold War American Orientalist tale of the U.S. salvaging Vietnam from political uncertainty including the destruction of its potential democracy and capitalism. To this point, the Orientalizing saturates Russel Wright’s article, “Gold Mine in Southeast Asia,” which overlays relationships of Western power and civilization as well as anthropological notions of salvage over references to the ways an ostensibly timeless albeit primitive culture of a non-western society (Vietnam could maintain its essential identity by serving the needs of an overly industrialized one. Of particular interest are thematic correspondences between the Orientalist thrust of the American cultural diplomacy as evidenced in Wright’s article, and Roland Barthes’ early work, especially “Myth Today”.

  12. Analysis of Protection and Innovation Design for the Qiang National Minority Handicrafts%探析羌族手工艺品的保护与创新设计

    张玉萍; 周勇


    以羌绣、羌笛等手工艺品的形、色为设计元素,并结合时尚需求来创新设计以及探讨羌族手工艺品的未来保护与发展策略,试图通过与时代结合的有形物质载体更全面地了解羌族人民的人文精神,更好地保护和发展羌族民间文化,更生活化地体现民族传统艺术的现实适应力.%Take the form and color of embroiders, handicrafts and so on as design elements, combined with fashion demand to innovate designs. Discuss the future protection and development strategy of the Qiang national minority handicrafts and attempt to through visible material carrier understand the Qiang national minority people's humanities spirit comprehensively, which can protect and develop the Qiang national minority folk culture well.

  13. Productive Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage of T raditional Handicraft from the Perspective of Creative Design%创意设计视阈下传统手工技艺非遗的生产性保护

    张学东; 黄凯


    分析了传统手工技艺非物质文化遗产的手工工艺性、发展性和整体性特征,阐述在生产性保护中需要遵循坚守核心技艺、满足市场需求和彰显地域文化特色的原则,并从设计创意视角提出传统手工技艺非遗项目生产性保护的再设计思路,以促进其创造出新的生活美学。%This paper analyzes the characteristics of intangible cultural heritage of traditional handicraft such as manual craft ,developability and integrity .T he paper expounds that the principles of persever‐ing with the core skills ,meeting the market demand and showing the features of regional culture should be followed in the process of productive protection .To create a new aesthetics of life ,the method of redesigning the productive protection of intangible cultural heritage of traditional handicraft is put forward from the perspective of creative design .


    Emine NAS


    Full Text Available Turkish folk culture which incorporates material and spiritual concepts like history, belief, language, philosophy, art which continually has a continually developing dynamic structure. Language which enables social and cultural communication within this structure is a living treasure which feeds on customs and traditions of the people’s lifestyle and reaches to literary relish, thinking and eloquence and which symbolically lives in varieties local handicrafts. When Turkish handicraft history is reviewed, Konya region stands out with its rich accumulation and cultural structure. Knitting and embroidery which can be regarded among Konya folk plastic arts includes a rich vocabulary about the motifs which people coined with regard to three main periods shaping human life; birth, marriage and death. This vocabulary treasure preserving its functions as consolidator of harmony, unity and solidarity in the society is a product of folklore and functions as transmitters of culture which maintain tradition in communication only among women. This study aims to document some of samples in this rich vocabulary which were coined in relation to motifs and thus contribute to database on Turkish cultural history. Türk halk kültürü; tarih, inanç, dil, felsefe, sanat gibi maddimanevi kavramlar bütününü bünyesinde barındıran ve sürekli gelişim gösteren dinamik bir yapıya sahiptir. Bu sistem içinde sosyal ve kültürel iletişimi sağlayan dil; halkın yaşam biçiminde gelenek ve göreneklerden beslenerek, edebî zevk, düşünce ve anlatım gücüne ulaşan varlığı ile yöresel el sanatı çeşitlerinde de sembolik olarak yaşayan bir hazinedir. Türk el sanatları geçmişine bakıldığında Konya yöresi, tarihi birikimi ve kültürel yapısı ile önem taşımaktadır. Konya halk plastik sanatları içinde değerlendirilebilecek; örücülük ve işlemecilik alanlarında; doğum, evlenme ve ölüm gibi insan yaşamını şekillendiren

  15. La Artesania Mexicana (Mexican Handicrafts).

    Steele, Bettina

    This booklet contains instructions in English and Spanish for making eleven typical Mexican craft articles. The instructions are accompanied by pen-and-ink drawings. The objects are (1) "La Rosa" (The Rose); (2) "El Crisantemo" (The Chrysanthemum); (3) "La Amapola" (The Poppy); (4) "Ojos de Dios" (God's Eyes); (5) "Ojitos con dos caras" (Two-Sided…

  16. Research on the Development of Tourist Handicraft from the Angle of Conservation of Culture%文化保护视角下的旅游工艺品开发探究



    Tourist handicraft is one way of commercialization using of cultural resources in tourism industry. Acculturation will be inevitable in the process of exploitation. Cultural authenticity is pursued by tourists. But they will not pursue the utterly true culture. Cultural commercialization may cause the result of destruction or protection. The key is how to deal with the problem of acculturation. When developing a modern tourist handicraft, we should, based on the Cultural authenticity, combine traditional t culture and modern culture perfectly and pay more attentions to the brand, feature and multi-function.%旅游工艺品是旅游业中对文化资源进行商业化开发的方式之一。在开发过程中必然会出现当地传统文化与现代文化以及外来文化之间的涵化现象。旅游者虽然追求文化的真实性,但他们并不苛求文化的原形。而文化商品化虽然可能会使旅游工艺品有失去文化真实性的危险,但如果能处理好文化涵化问题,旅游工艺品则可成为传承和发扬地方文化的有力工具。旅游工艺品开发应在对当地文化元素保护的基础上,将传统文化和现代文化完美结合,走品牌化、特色化、功能多元化的开发与设计道路。

  17. Talcose entre artesãos em pedra-sabão em uma localidade rural do Município de Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brasil Talc pneumoconiosis among soapstone handicraft workers in a rural area of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Olívia Maria de Paula Alves Bezerra


    Full Text Available A talcose é uma pneumoconiose ainda pouco estudada em nosso meio. Sua ocorrência foi investigada no Distrito de Mata dos Palmitos, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brasil, entre artesãos em pedra-sabão, que trabalham em produção de base familiar, de caráter informal. Na localidade, vivem cerca de 180 habitantes, dos quais 108 se ocupam com o artesanato em pedra-sabão e 15 alternam a produção de peças artesanais com as atividades nas minas. Foram realizados exames clínicos, enfatizando a história ocupacional; questionário padronizado de sintomas respiratórios; radiografia de tórax (padrão OIT e espirometria. Observou-se baixa prevalência de queixas respiratórias, e a dispnéia foi o sintoma mais freqüente. A ocorrência de bronquite crônica foi identificada em 12 trabalhadores adultos. O exame radiológico de tórax evidenciou pequenas opacidades pulmonares em cinco trabalhadores, e 11 foram considerados suspeitos. Um trabalhador apresentou espessamento pleural em placa. Alterações na espirometria foram observadas em sete trabalhadores. O estudo da composição da poeira revelou a presença de fibras respiráveis de asbesto do grupo dos anfibólios (tremolita-actinolita. Esses resultados sugerem a ocorrência de talcoasbestose entre os artesãos em pedra-sabão.Talc pneumoconiosis in Brazil has received little research attention to date. The disease was investigated in Mata dos Palmitos, a district of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais State, among soapstone handicraft workers. The district has some 180 inhabitants, of whom 108 are engaged in handicrafts production, while 15 alternate handicrafts production with work in the soapstone quarries. A clinical and occupational investigation was conducted, along with a respiratory symptoms standardized questionnaire, chest x-ray (ILO standard, and spirometry. Clinical data showed a low prevalence of respiratory complaints. Dyspnea was the most frequent symptom. Chronic bronchitis was identified in

  18. “Das Kapital” in the theory of laboralienation research on the handicraft indus try as an example%《资本论》中异化劳动思想探究--以工场手工业为例

    路保险; 布海里切木·库尔班


    Marx reveals the inevitable demise of the capitalist system in the “1844 Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts” through the use of alienated labor theory and the Communist Party is a positive development of capi -talism.Through the study of “Das Kapital” workshop handicraft industry,the paper finds Marx in “Das Kapital”states in detail the essence of workshop handicraft industry ,generation,development and is taken place by the big machine industry trends,although workshop handicraft industry is a production of early capitalism ,but it still con-tains a rich the theory of labor alienation ,and the rich thought of labor alienation should not be ignored .There is some alienation in China today;Marx’ s alienated labor theory has a positive practical significance.%马克思在《1844年经济学哲学手稿》中,通过运用异化劳动理论揭示了资本主义制度的必然灭亡,共产主义是对资本主义的积极扬弃。通过对《资本论》工场手工业的考察,发现马克思在《资本论》第一卷中详细论述了工场手工业的本质、产生方式、发展方式和被机器大工业所替代的趋势,尽管工场手工业是资本主义早期的一种生产方式,但是其中依然蕴含着丰富的异化劳动思想,这种丰富的异化劳动的思想是不应该被人们所忽视的。当今中国也存在部分异化现象,马克思的异化劳动思想有着积极的现实意义。

  19. 少数民族妇女手工艺品在甘肃旅游商品开发中的意义--以甘肃东乡族和裕固族为例%On Development of Tourist Handicrafts Manufactured by Minority Women in Gansu Province



    甘肃省拥有十分丰富的文化旅游资源,尤其在少数民族地区的文化旅游开发中具有得天独厚的优势。作者在研究文化旅游开发理论的基础上,着重对甘肃省少数民族地区妇女生产手工艺品作为旅游商品进行研究,提出了甘肃省文化旅游的开发战略,为其文化旅游的开发提供借鉴,从而使其成为民族地区妇女“脱贫致富”的重要途径。%There are many abundant cultural resources in Gansu Province , especially the advantages in the development of tour-ist commodities in minority areas .On the basis of cultural development theory , the papaer focuses on the handicrafts manufactured by of minority women as tourist products in minority areas of Gansu Province , and it proposes the cultural tourism development strat-egy and makes it an important way for women to shake off poverty and make a fortune in national regions .

  20. 民间艺术手工艺品的传承与保护——杭州西兴灯笼的盛衰与反思%Inheritance and Protection of Folk Art Handicrafts --A Reflection on the Rise and Fall of Hangzhou Xixing Lanterns



    Xixing lanterns is a city-level intangible cultural heritage of Binjiang District, Hangzhou City, and has gained the attention of the local authorities. Xixing lanterns are the daily necessities of life as well as the handicrafts and a form of folk culture. However, the traditional culture behind it is forgotten with the fall of the traditional lantern industry. Therefore, the relevant departments should attach importance to protecting lantern culture behind the lanterns.%西兴灯笼是杭州市滨江区市级非物质文化遗产保护对象,得到了当地有关部门的重视。西兴灯笼不仅是生活日用品,也是艺术手工艺品,更是一种民间文化,但其蕴含的传统文化,却随着传统灯笼业的消衷而被人遗忘。因此,保护西兴灯笼所蕴含的灯笼文化应引起相关部门的重视和反思。

  1. O uso do camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, Pontederiaceae, para confecção de artesanato no Distrito de Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, Brasil The use of the camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, Pontederiaceae, for handicraft in the District of Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, Brazil

    Ieda Maria Bortolotto


    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, conhecida localmente como camalote, é uma planta aquática nativa da América do Sul, abundante no Pantanal. Os índios Guató usavam essa planta no Pantanal para a confecção de esteiras para dormir. Atualmente a comunidade não indígena do distrito de Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, está fazendo artesanato com essa planta. O processo foi ensinado por uma índia Guató (74 anos que manteve a tradição de trançar o camalote. O uso do camalote para a confecção de artesanato é descrito aqui. O método utilizado inclui entrevistas semi-estruturadas e observação participante. A extração do camalote é feita nos rios, corixos e lagoas da região. As folhas são cortadas e somente os pecíolos são transportados para casa, lavados em água corrente e colocados para secar ao sol. Depois de secos os pecíolos são trançados e costurados. A técnica original dos Guató consiste em costurar o artesanato com linhas confeccionadas com algodão (Gossypium sp. ou tucum (Bactris sp., atualmente substituídos por fios de nylon, em Albuquerque. O artesanato é vendido aos turistas.Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, known locally as camalote, is an aquatic plant indigenous to South America, abundant in the Pantanal, Brazil. Guató Indians used it for making sleeping mats in the Pantanal. The non-Indian community of Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, nowadays, is also using it for the same purposes. An ancient Guató Indian 74 years old taught the process. The use of the camalote for handicraft in Albuquerque is described here. The methods of investigation included both semi structured interviews and participant observations. The extraction of the camalote is made on the rivers, corixos and lagoons of the area. The leaf blades are cut and only petioles are carried to the houses, washed in clear water, and dried in the sun. After dried, the petioles are woven and sewed. The Guató original technique consists of sewing the craft

  2. 77 FR 12437 - Importation of Wooden Handicrafts From China


    ... follows: Heat treatment procedures may employ steam, hot water, kilns, exposure to microwave energy, or..., or dry heat, exposure to microwave energy, or any other method that raises the temperature of the..., not solely consisting of leaves, flowers, fruits, buds, or seeds; bark; cork; laths; hog fuel;...

  3. 75 FR 57864 - Importation of Wooden Handicrafts from China


    ...: Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to ( manufactured from wood components and on other craft products imported from China. Subsequent to these... in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports, Logs, Nursery stock, Plant diseases and pests...

  4. 36 CFR 51.83 - Sale of Native Handicrafts.


    ... includes any person so defined either or both of whose adoptive parents are not Alaska Natives. It also... whose father or mother is (or, if deceased, was) regarded as an Alaska Native by any village or...

  5. Crafting New Citizens: Art and Handicraft in New York and Boston Settlement Houses, 1900-1945

    Greenwold, Diana Jocelyn


    This dissertation explores the creation and exhibition of immigrant-made art in American settlement houses in New York and Boston from 1900 to 1945. The lace, embroidery, and ceramics Southern and Eastern European immigrant artists created provide an important avenue to illustrate how European traditions survived, changed, or disappeared, and how Jewish and Italian communities in New York and Boston adapted to new circumstances while maintaining distinct identities. This dissertation proposes...

  6. Digital economy, Websites and SMEs of the handicraft industry in Peru

    Franklin Duarte Cueva


    ...), particularly the use of Internet, to improve company performance. Thus, the efficient implementation of websites is a mechanism that should exploit exporting small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs...

  7. 安吉竹编手工业考察记%Report of Bamboo Weaving Handicraft Industry in Anji

    张力丽; 陈恺恺


    通过对安吉县岭西村竹编艺人的追踪调研,了解其生活现状,总结竹编加工制作的工艺与要领,并对竹编器具的文化属性进行一定的分析,进而初步探寻其保存、发展的模式,这对于实现人、社会与物的和谐共生具有一定的启示意义.%A tracking survey on bamboo weaving handicraftsmen in Lingxi Village, Anji County was made to study their living situations, and to gather the techniques and skills applied in bamboo weaving. Moreover, various cultural attributes of bamboo utensils were analyzed so as to explore their conservation and development mode, which might provide some important inspirations for achieving a harmonious coexistence of human beings, the society and material world.

  8. An empirical study on the effect of WTO membership on Iranian Handicraft industry: A case study of Persian carpet

    Zahra Shirzour Aliabadi


    Full Text Available The world Trade Organization (WTO is one of the few organizations, which could significantly influence on foreign trade and consequently on the economic structure of the countries. There are literally different people in Iran who either encourage or discourage WTO membership. Therefore, it is important to analyze Iran’s WTO membership to empower Iranian handmade carpet in international trades and to help improvement in quality of production. The purpose of this research is to study the effects of Iran’s membership in WTO to empower this industry by performing an empirical survey among 100 experts in this industry. Findings demonstrate that access to WTO plays an important role on increasing production of handmade carpet and developing this industry. In addition, the industry needs to incorporate the recent advances on technology to ensure cost efficient production materials. The industry also needs more creative and innovative ideas due to an increase competition in handmade carpet producers from other countries.

  9. Production technique for fuel cells: from handicraft to robot based manufacturing process; Herstelltechnik fuer Brennstoffzellen: Vom Handwerk zu robotergestuetzten Fertigungsverfahren

    Joerissen, L.; Einhart, H.; Scholta, J.; Konold, P. [ZSW, Ulm (Germany); Wehrheim, M. [Hochschule Ulm (Germany)


    Polymer Electrolyte membrane Fuel Cell (PEFC) stacks are currently manufactured in small numbers using mainly manual manufacturing processes. Despite the fact that components such as Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEA), bipolar plates, Gas Diffusion Layers (GDL) etc. are already being manufactured industrially by automated processes, the components are not yet optimized for subsequent stack assembly. Taking this into account, manual assembly processes are advantageous as compared to automated processes. Fuel cell stacks are consisting of many parts repeating each cell which need to be assembled gas tight and electrically conducting. This imposes tough requirements concerning production tolerances of the single components as well as accuracy of positioning during assembly. Manual assembly of large numbers of identical parts is quite sensitive in this respect. Handling parts of strongly different rigidity during stack assembly poses an additional challenge. Positioning and joining parts with different haptics can be done in a controlled manner when using manual assembly. Automated stack assembly requires the development of special picking technology. In this chapter two different concepts for stack assembly will be presented and discussed with respect to automatization at a later stage. (orig.)

  10. [Working hypothesis of simplified techniques for the first mapping of occupational hazards in handicrafts. Part two: physical and chemical risks].

    Montomoli, L; Di Leone, G; Aprea, M C; Sciarra, G; Pinto, I; Sartorelli, P


    Craft features a strong link with tradition which preserves and perpetuates techniques created and consolidated over time, in a particular historical, cultural and geographical situation. Italy is home to excellent craftsmanship: fashion, furniture, giftware, design. The framework law for the craft n. 433/1985 defines the craft business carried on by the craftsman for a predominant objective of producing goods, including semi-finished or services. The 81/2008 defines the manner in which the employer must conduct risk assessment in the workplace and process the risk assessment document. The aim of the study is to provide employers with a simple methodology that allows the drafting of the first mapping of hazards/dangers identificating risk sources in the working process. The developed methodology is expressed as a model of information gathering, which brings to a first overview of all major risk indicators that may arise in the craftsmanship.

  11. Qinghai Huangzhong lu shaer Silver and Bronze Handicraft Culture%青海湟中鲁沙尔银铜器手工艺浅谈



    From the perspective of the history of art and culture it can be traced,lu sha er silver and bronze is another living fossil of culture.It reserved tenaciously national ancient life forms and locus of consciousness.National excellent tradition are handed down in beauty scale,but also completed implements education for people,make national emotion and cultural aesthetic sublimation.%作为青藏高原视觉造型艺术中重要一类的湟中鲁沙尔银铜器手工艺艺术,在佛教艺术和民族生活艺术中占据重要的位置,其以宗教为中心的器物造型,受佛教文化的洗礼,渗透着藏传佛教思想,加之艺人的精心打造,使得民族手工艺保持了艺术的纯粹性,民族情感和文化审美也因之得以升华。

  12. Intellectual property protection through the geographical indication “Chã de Jardim” of the banana leaf handicrafts (musa sp. in the State of Paraiba

    Everaldo de França


    Full Text Available The construction of a Brazilian Geographical Indication System has been guided by a far wider range of goods, ranging from industrial and agricultural products, services, and even craftwork. Taking into account social, cultural and geographical characteristics, as well as the ethnic constitution of the population of Areia city in the State of Paraiba (Brazil, it is possible to suppose the vast local knowledge that this city’s communities have accumulated over the decades while they seek to incorporate such knowledge in their daily practices. One of the artesanal activities subject to protection of Geographical Indication (IG is the use of banana’s plant (Musa sp. stem as a raw material for some  manufactured products such as handbags, light fixtures, folders for events, cooking utensils etc. The IG records for this type of activity can value the local knowledge regarding the sustainable use of biodiversity and promote the cultural traditions of Areia city, bringing also improvements to the communities involved and consequently increasing the regional development. The identified geographical name to be protected for craftwork is “Chã de Jardim”. It is suggested that “Chã de Jardim” becomes protected by indication of origin whereas the artesanal products of this region feature good reputation. JEL-Code | O33; Q56; R11.

  13. 水性木制工艺品玩具涂料的研制%Preparation of water-borne coatings for wooden handicraft toys

    刘宏亮; 王珣



  14. Hazard identification and pre-map with a simple specific tool: synthesis of application experience in handicrafts in various productive sectors.

    Colombini, Daniela; Occhipinti, Enrico; Peluso, Raffaele; Montomoli, Loretta


    In August 2009, an international group was founded with the task of developing a "toolkit for MSD prevention" under the IEA and in collaboration with the World Health Organization.According to the ISO standard 11228 series and the new Draft ISO TR 12259 "Application document guides for the potential user", our group developed a preliminary "mapping" methodology of occupational hazards in the craft industry, supported by software (Excel®, free download on: possible users of toolkits are: members of health and safety committees; health and safety representatives; line supervisors; foremen; workers; government representatives; health workers providing basic occupational health services; occupational health and safety specialists.The proposed methodology, using specific key enters and quick assessment criteria, allows a simple ergonomics hazards identification and risk estimation to be made. It is thus possible to decide for which occupational hazards a more exhaustive risk assessment will be necessary and which occupational consultant should be involved (occupational physician, safety engineer, industrial hygienist, etc.).The methodology has been applied in different situations of small and medium craftsmanship Italian enterprises: leather goods, food, technical dental work, production of artistic ceramics and stained glass, beekeeping activities. The results are synthetically reported and discussed in this paper.

  15. The application of 4P theory in contemporary ceramic marketing strategy of handicraft's brand%4P理论在当代陶瓷工艺品品牌营销策略中的应用



    近年来,随着陶瓷工艺品市场的发展与成熟, 陶瓷工艺产品的同质化趋势日益明显,要实现产品差异化的实质性创新已是步履艰难, 这又在一定程度上增加了培育品牌个性化的难度.经笔者调研发现,曾经以工艺技术称著于世的千年瓷都景德镇,其陶瓷企业存在诸多制约品牌发展的问题,滞缓了景德镇的陶瓷产业发展.相较之下,同样在景德镇设厂生产陶瓷工艺品的品牌:法蓝瓷,已然无可争议地成为了众多国内外知名陶瓷品牌中的佼佼者,品牌营销策略和运作上都颇显卓著,并藉此实现了其品牌经济效益和社会效益的最大化.本文将以法兰瓷为例结合市场营销4P理论进行逐一分析,企望能助益景德镇陶瓷文化创意产业的品牌发展之路.

  16. Cultural Origin and Production Technology of Xinjiang Traditional Handicraft Instruments%新疆传统手工技艺乐器文化渊源及制作工艺



    The playing style, production technology and cultural origin of Aijieke, Qiang and Sibuzie, which are Xinjiang traditional handmade musical instruments, are introduced in this paper.%介绍了新疆传统手工技艺乐器艾捷克、锵、斯布孜额的演奏风格、制作工艺以及文化渊源。


    Beata Działa


    Full Text Available The article deals with the topic of creativity and artistic activity among elderly people in the context of claims related to the idea of lifelong learning. It discusses the phenomenon of creativity and how senior citizens can benefit from it. The artistic activity of people in the age of late adulthood is also discussed in that context. In the last part of the text, theoretical claims are collated with what the artistic groups’ elderly members themselves said during a focus group interview


    Beata Działa


    The article deals with the topic of creativity and artistic activity among elderly people in the context of claims related to the idea of lifelong learning. It discusses the phenomenon of creativity and how senior citizens can benefit from it. The artistic activity of people in the age of late adulthood is also discussed in that context. In the last part of the text, theoretical claims are collated with what the artistic groups’ elderly members themselves said during a focus group interview

  19. 棉花统购、棉布统购统销政策与手工棉纺织业%Centralized Purchase of Cotton and Centralized Purchase and Marketing of Cotton Cloth and Its Impact on Handicraft Cotton Textile Industry




  20. Energy efficient technology - from this all will benefit; Energieeffiziente Technik - davon profitieren alle



    Within the International Trade Fair of Craft between 11th and 17th March, 2009 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany) the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) presented the following lectures: (1) The handicraft in context to demography - The demography in the east German federal states (Thomas Satzmann); (2) The handicraft in the financial crisis (Joachim Garrecht); (3) The transformation of the service regulation (Thomas Ernst); (4) Future handicraft (Joachim Garrecht); (5) Journalist Special: Use of electronic media such as podcast and internet-TV for public relations in the handicraft (Michael Bachmann); (6) Standardization at small and medium-sized enterprises (Thomas Ernst); (7) Crafts and tourism (Evelin Friedrich); (8) The handicraft in the financial crisis (Joachim Garrecht); (9) Activation of facades in existing buildings in combination with air heat and solar thermal power - Theory and reports from the practice (Jens Wolfensteller, Volker Drexel); (10) Fiscal reform in favour of the handicraft (Joachim Garrecht, Johannes Hoefer); (11) The transformation of the service regulation (Thomas Ernst); (12) Mould fungus, dangerous subtenant - General aspects to mould fungi, recognition, health aspects and removal (Sabine Hoer); (13) The energy competency centre of the Chamber of Commerce Potsdam (Herbert Pape); (14) The handicraft in the financial crisis (Joachim Garrecht); (15) Standardization at small and medium-sized enterprises (Thomas Ernst); (16) Reformation of the inheritance tax (Joachim Garrecht, Johannes Hoefer); (17) Amendment of the law for chimneysweepers (Joachim Garrecht); (18) Future handicraft (Joachim Garrecht); (19) Handicraft and tourism (Evelin Friedrich); (20) Politics in favour of the handicraft (Joachim Garrecht); (21) Reformation of the inheritance tax (Joachim Garrecht); (22) Challenges of the demography in the handicraft (Evelin Friedrich); (23) The handicraft in the financial crisis

  1. Entre el textil y el ámbar : las funciones psicosociales del trabajo artesanal en artesanos tsotsiles de la ilusión, Chiapas, México


    The aim of this research is to study the psychosocial functions of the artisan work made by indigenous artisans from a Tsotsil community in Chiapas, Mexico. The analysis of handicrafts encourages reflection on economic aspects in intimate relation with cultural and psychosocial elements. It is argued that those who work on the production of handicrafts face many difficulties such as precariousness, little social recognition, discrimination and exclusion. Despite this all, handicrafts...

  2. 50 CFR 18.3 - Definitions.


    ... Native for purposes of this part. Authentic native articles of handicrafts and clothing means items made... materials and (b) are significantly altered from their natural form and are produced, decorated, or... those needed for subsistence purposes or for the making of authentic native articles of handicrafts and...

  3. Laizhou’s Weaving Industry


    Laizhou, located in Shandong Province, is the birthplace of Chinese woven handicrafts, where straw weaving has been done for more than 2,000 years. Laizhou’s woven handicrafts won a special award in 1915 al the Panama International Fair. Straw weaving is done mainly by the area’s rural inhabitants. In some villages almost every woman is adept at weaving.

  4. 传统手工艺类非物质文化遗产 生产性保护的经验与反思 ——以自贡彩灯制作技艺为例%Productive Experience of and Reflection on Intangible Cultural Heritage of Traditional Handicraft Category ——Taking Zigong colorful lantern as an example



    Zigong lantern craftsmanship, as the intangible cultural heritage, has coordinated the binary relation between production and protection during the new era of inheritance and development. It has formed the coexistence situation of lantern making and lantern culture market development and also is the representative project of intangible cultural heritage productive protection. During the market oriented making process of Zigong colorful lantern, it developed from traditional folk culture into a lantern culture industry and Zigong lantern festival folk custom with unique regional characteristics. In addition, it is assimilated into modern social life and market economy, during which process its making skills are lively inherited, developed and effectively protected. With the help of local government, lantern enterprises, lantern artisans and social forces and through setting up management services bodies, holding lantern festivals, exploring the mode of lantern festivals, establishing rules and regulations, expanding lantern markets, innovating craftsmanship, etc., Zigong lantern industry is on a way that combines the inheritance with the development of lantern techniques and market development, and it helps lantern art to be lively inherited and assimilated into modern life and market economy. Moreover, Zigong lantern and lantern art is vitalized through its inheritance and development in economy transformation. However, the half century's lantern making and festival holding experience tell people that Zigong lantern industry, once because of lack of appropriate development path, badly affected its lantern making skills' inheritance and resulted in lantern market shrink. Summarizing the experience of Zigong lantern development can not only offer reference for the productive protection of Chinese hand-crafted intangible cultural heritage,but also have a great significance on reflection.%非物质文化遗产自贡彩灯制作技艺在新时期的传承发展中较好地协调了生产与保护的二元关系,形成了彩灯制作与彩灯文化市场开发互生共存的态势,是当下非物质文化遗产生产性保护的代表性项目. 自贡彩灯在面向市场的生产制作中,从传统的民俗文化资源衍生发展成为独具区域特色的彩灯文化产业和自贡灯会民俗活动,并将其融入到现代社会生活和市场经济之中,使其制作技艺得到活态传承、发展和有效的保护. 在地方政府、彩灯企业、制灯艺人及社会力量的合力下,通过成立管理服务机构、举办自贡灯会活动、探索灯会展出模式、制定规章制度、开拓彩灯市场、创新制作工艺等途径,自贡彩灯行业走出了一条彩灯工艺传承发展与市场开发相结合的道路, 使彩灯艺术融入到现代社会生活及市场经济之中而得到活态传承,自贡彩灯及灯彩艺术在社会经济转型中亦获得发展的生命力.但是,半个世纪以来的制灯和举办灯会的经验表明,自贡彩灯曾因没能寻求到合适的发展路径,影响到彩灯制作工艺的传承及彩灯市场的萎缩.总结自贡彩灯的发展经验,可为我国手工艺类非物质文化遗产的生产性保护提供借鉴,且具有重要的反思意义.

  5. 从事手工业者脑卒中后上肢功能恢复与心理障碍的关系%Relationship between the functional recovery of upper-limbs and the pyschological disorder in patients with stroke engaged in handicraft industry




  6. The " Bison Horn " Muria: Making it " More Tribal " for a Folk Dance Competition in Bastar, Chhattisgarh

    Prévôt, Nicolas


    ... of the ādivāsīs, the local authorities organizing " tribal " dance competitions, some local NGOs setting up workshops and selling " tribal handicrafts, " or the new government planning its tourism policy...

  7. 75 FR 38817 - Administration for Native Americans


    ... experience, developing a recovery plan, organizing youth cleanup activities, creating disaster preparedness..., schools, businesses, and transportation systems were destroyed. The event left the people of American... implement training on traditional farming, handicraft making, and management of home businesses, and...

  8. Entre el textil y el ámbar: Las funciones psicosociales del trabajo artesanal en artesanos tsotsiles de La Ilusión, Chiapas, México

    Perla Shiomara Del Carpio Ovando


    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the psychosocial functions of the artisan work made by indigenous artisans from a Tsotsil community in Chiapas, Mexico. The analysis of handicrafts encourages reflection on economic aspects in intimate relation with cultural and psychosocial elements. It is argued that those who work on the production of handicrafts face many difficulties such as precariousness, little social recognition, discrimination and exclusion. Despite this all, handicrafts contribute to the economic, social and cultural reproduction of those who make them. Also, handicrafts are privileged elements as they are vehicles of multiple social, historical and group belonging meanings through which is possible to “track” processes of social transformation. Based on the findings obtained while conducting field work in Chiapas, a model of the psychosocial functions of the indigenous artisan work is proposed in this dissertation.

  9. Gandhiji on Education

    Roy, Rita, Comp.


    Compiled from Gandhi's letter, speeches, and writings, this article presents his thoughts concerning primary education achieved through the medium of village handicrafts, education of women, adult education, and higher education. (PG)

  10. Moessbauer Study of Sphero-Conical Vessels from Bolgar

    Ivanova, A. G.; Nuretdinova, A. R.; Pyataev, A. V.; Valiulina, S. I.; Voronina, E. V.


    Samples of sphero-conical vessels found in mass quantities in the ancient settlement Bolgar were analyzed by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Wares with relatively low annealing temperatures medieval handicraft center.

  11. traditional pottery making in wallagga: an ethoarchaeological study


    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Socio-economic Status of Handicraft Women Among Macca .... Oromo socio-economic and cultural development and to ..... improve demands for local and tourist market to create ... some activities that have impact on the.

  12. Perancangan Tempat Kerja Dengan Pendekatan Ergonomi Dan SLP (Systematic Layout Planning) Untuk Meningkatkan Produktivitas Pada Proses Produksi Sapu Lidi Hias Di CV. Chantiqa Handycraft

    Hasibuan, Yetti Meuthia


    CV Chantiqa Handicraft is one of the small industrial sector engaged in processing agricultural waste such as eceng gondok, pandan duri, batok kelapa, pelepah daun kelapa sawit to the various household furnishings and decorations like a soap, baskets mats, tables, chairs and “sapu lidi hias”. As a local company a simple, CV Chantiqa Handicraft production process at a workplace that is not centralized causing transportation back tracking so that when the transportation is going to be great. ...

  13. Artesanato com Lã de Ovinos, Turismo e Desenvolvimento Local

    Dyego de Oliveira Arruda


    Full Text Available The state of Mato Grosso do Sul/Brazil has been recognized by its potential to boost regional tourism activity through the dissemination of its particular culture – which includes the production of handicrafts based on sheep’s wool. Thus, the present study was intent to analyze the dynamic scope in which the insertion of sheep’s handicrafts as tourist product in municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul/ Brazil may occur. For this, semi-structured questionnaires, and interviews with guiding questions were used. It was observed that the handicrafts with sheep’s wool does not effectively lay down within the investigated tourism territories, mainly due to the organizational strategies of the groups, and the lack of dynamism of their community-based tourism.


    Sri Indrahti


    Full Text Available The development of handicraft tourism in the regency of Jepara attempts to empower local communities as the owners and preservers of local values. Several clusters that become the focus of the study in this research involve the clusters of furniture and woodcarving, sculpture, rattan, troso weaving, batik painting and monel. Some clusters are not ready yet to welcome the idea of handicrafts tourism. However, the clusters of furniture and woodcarving, troso weaving and sculpture have claimed to be ready for the establishment of handicrafts tourism. Some of the factors that strengthen the readiness of the three mentioned clusters are the establishment of a local community that is able to accommodate business networks and the readiness of local artisans and entrepreneurs in providing tourist services as part of economic activities.  It apparently requires a long process of socialization, nevertheless, the local culture as the community’s potential is expected to encourage the readiness of the community.

  15. A Learning Tool and Program Development for Mechatronics Design Education

    Iribe, Masatsugu; Shirahata, Akihiro; Kita, Hiromasa; Sasashige, Yousuke; Dasai, Ryoichi

    In this paper we propose a new type educational program for Mechatronics design which contributes to develop the physical sense and problem solving ability of the students who study Mechatronics design. For this program we provide a new handicraft kit of 4-wheeled car which is composed of inexpensive and commonplace parts, and the performance of the assembled 4-wheeled car is sensitive to its assembly arrangement. And then we implemented this program with the handicraft kit to the university freshmen, and verified its effectiveness, and report the results of the program.

  16. Artesanías y pueblos originarios. Aproximaciones para su estudio en al ciudad de Rosario, Argentina

    Laura Ana Cardini


    Full Text Available Handicrafts allude to a context of rural origin with specific forms of life that imply historical conflicting processes, fixing those native populations in condition of inequality and subjection. ln this way they are privileged constituents as vehicles of multiple social and historical meanings and of group entitlement; it is possible to investigate through them processes of transformation and redefinition in the urban outline. Starting from these premises, we would like to analyze some aspects conceming handicrafts production of the native population settled in Rosario, taking into consideration: changes occurred with migrations by means of producers’ valuations and their management as a part of the cultural inheritance of the City.

  17. Reflexiones sobre el “valor” de la producción artesanal en la ciudad de Rosario, Argentina

    Laura Ana Cardini


    The field of production as a universe of belief produces the value of handicraft as a “craft of art”, as a piece of “domestic use”, as an “identity reco- very” and as a carrier of historical senses, all aspects that shall bring other nuance for its characterization.The notion of value let us approach crafts- manship production in Rosario considering on one side, the conceptions that are put at work by craftmen and on the other side, as an economi- cal aspect that allows to elucidate the conditions of such production. Keywords: handicraft production, value, work process, singular objects.

  18. Insights from a harvest trip model for non-timber forest products in the interior of Alaska

    Kimberley Maher; Joseph Little; Patricia A. Champ


    The harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFP) for personal uses such as hobbies and handicrafts, cooking and canning, and recreation is an important pursuit for many residents in Alaska (Pilz and others 2006). Five categories of NTFP have been designated by the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization: (1) foods; (2) medicinal plants; (3) floral greenery...

  19. A Glimpse into the Antique Market


    China is an ancient country. In addition to its stateclassified historic relics, there are abundant handicrafts, cultural tools and utensils for daily use left from ancient times. Therefore. the business of selling antiques and secondhand goods which were made before 1949 is flourishing, In Beijing alone, there are seven large markets dealing with goods such as age-old pottery and porcelain,

  20. 77 FR 76346 - Opening of Boquillas Border Crossing and Update to the Class B Port of Entry Description


    ... impact on the ability to protect natural resources, because the long distances to the closest legal...-cultural experience. A few commenters also noted that when the crossing was previously open, residents of... revenue for the residents of Boquillas, who once depended heavily on tourism and trade of handicrafts...

  1. Development of Finances in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam


    cinematography and the cultural-visual enterprises also be- longed to private entrepreneurs. Despite the fact that the state sector of the economy was...directed at a multilateral increase in the output of cooperative unions of the peasants and the handicraft workers, at the perfection of techniques

  2. 50 CFR 36.2 - What do these terms mean?


    ... customary and traditional uses by rural Alaska residents of wild, renewable resources for direct personal or... bird for which protection is also afforded by treaty or other international agreement), amphibian... of handicraft articles out of nonedible byproducts of fish and wildlife resources taken for personal...

  3. The Pillar Industries in Tibet

    Lhagpa; Tsering


    In recent years,the pillar industries in Tibet,such as agricul- tural and animal husbandry products,now include tourism,Tibetan traditional medicine and handicrafts have also been expanding at a fast pace. In 2007 the total produc- tion value of Tibet reached 34.2 billion Yuan,an in-

  4. Influence of milk storing conditions on the loss of coagulable nitrogen

    P. Mariani


    Full Text Available The peculiar characteristics of Parmigiano-Reggiano, cheese of Protected Designation of Origin (PDO, depend on its handicraft technology. The properties of casein micelles influence in an important way the physico-chemical phenomena of the cheese making process (Bozzetti et al., 1993.

  5. Proceedings of the 5th Danish Human-Computer Interaction Research Symposium

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Nielsen, Lene




    Yandri Yandri


    Full Text Available The art of songket woven handicraft Pandai Sikek is a cultural product of collective creation and traditional heritage Pandai Sikek. Songket first created to meet human needs for traditional ceremonies such as wedding ceremony of Minangkabau. The symbolic meanings in the art of songket are constantly evolving in accordance with the change of time. The art of songket weave Pandai Sikek is one of the traditional handicrafts, which is used for wedding ceremony. In traditional wedding, the groom wears songket for ‘saluak’, ‘sisampiang’, and ‘cawek’, all of them accessories for the traditional costume, while the bride wears gloves, scarves, and tingkuluak, accessories for female constume. The use of songket is customary responsibility and each of the songket patterns contains symbolic meanings. Various decorative patterns of Minangkabau songket are inspired from the concept of "alam takambang jadi guru" (learning from nature. The beauty of songket can be seen visually from the decorative patterns as well as the functions, styles, and structures. Songket handicrafts are able to survive and compete with factory-made textile products. The succes can not ignore the socio-cultural factors that the existence of this woven fabric remained in the middle of the supporting community. Key words: songket, woven handicraft, traditional wedding ceremony

  7. What Should be the Role of the Trinidad and Tobago Defence Force in Combating the Illegal Drug Trade?


    street festival carnival . Tobago produces agricultural products, handicraft, fishing and encourages visitors with its sandy beaches and relaxed...conference, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1986, concluded with the unanimous approval of the Inter-American Program of Action of Rio de Janeiro against

  8. A decepção de Tinker Bell e a luta das classificações: o artesanato, o Governo Federal e o Sebrae

    Maria Salete de Souza Nery


    Full Text Available Based on the Conceptual Basis of Brazilian Handicraft, a document published by the Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade (MDIC, and on the Reference Term of the Sebrae System in Arts and Crafts, both from 2010, we seek to problematize the issue of ratings and the struggles that are at stake in the channeling of values and practices in arts and crafts. Taken as accepted and consensual, the term handicraft is a place of disputes, particularly in its tension with art and the market. We outline the role and the power of the State in defining the legitimate meanings that regulate coordinated ac- tions of differenta agencies and also of the individuals who are considered craftsmen. Thus, we ask: What are the clashes present in the definition of handicraft and what are the positions assumed by seminal agents about this? The documents cited above are the basis to highlight these issues and also the difficulties and dilemmas of the government and Sebrae as partners in the task of promoting handicraft and they help us to discuss, even in introductory terms, the possible meanings of this partnership.

  9. 16 CFR 303.45 - Exclusions from the act.


    ... indicate their secondhand character. (6) Non-woven products of a disposable nature intended for one-time... required or non-required) individually and in rolls, looper clips intended for handicraft purposes, book... products are distributed for civilian use. (9) All hand woven rugs made by Navajo Indians which...

  10. Comercialização do artesanato Kinikinau na cidade ecoturística de Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

    Karolinne Sotomayor Azambuja Canazilles


    Full Text Available This article focuses in the handicrafts Kinikinau. It aims to analyze the marketing of artifacts produced by this ethnic group, in Bonito, ecotouristic city of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The Kinikinau were considered “extinct” for over half a century. Nowadays, they seek official recognition. The Kinikinau crafts became an important tool to help in the quest for ethnic strengthening, hence the relevance of the object. The survey data was conducted through visits to centers marketing the city of Bonito and the village of São João, Indian Reserve Kadiwéu, in Porto Murtinho, as well as collecting photographic records of handicrafts exhibited for sale, semi -structured interviews with traders and artisans. Secondary sources that deal with the production and marketing of handicrafts of other ethnicities are supporting the analysis. The results describe how is the flow of the Kinikinau handicrafts market created by the ecotourism, revealing the limitations that affect this process.

  11. Cloisonne Works of Beijing


    CLOISONNE, or enamel work on red copper, is a traditional handicraft in Beijing. It has a history of more than 500 years in China. Cloisonne requires precise and careful work. The body is made of red copper, tapped into shape by hand. Then thin copper wires are twisted into the desired shapes and

  12. Fair Trade Facts and Figures 2010: A Success Story for Producers and Consumers

    M. Boonman (Mark); W. Huisman (Wendela); E. Sarrucco-Fedorovtsjev (Elmy); T. Sarrucco (Terya)


    markdownabstractCommentary on the report by Carol Wills (the full commentary is offered as a separate download ...) “Handicraft is the trade of the poor. They don’t have land to produce food” Joan Karanja, Director of Cooperation for Fair Trade in Africa (COFTA) “That is the little difference


    Department of National Education, Saigon (South Vietnam).


  14. 《北京绝活》


    When Chen Xiaorong started her career as a features reporter for China Daily, she never expected an interview with Yang Fuxi, the country's last-known traditional bow and arrow maker, would cause her to focus on a traditional Chinese field -- handicrafts.

  15. Upper Elementary Students Creatively Learn Scientific Features of Animal Skulls by Making Movable Books

    Klein, Julie L.; Gray, Phyllis; Zhbanova, Ksenia S.; Rule, Audrey C.


    Arts integration in science has benefits of increasing student engagement and understanding. Lessons focusing on form and function of animal skulls provide an effective example of how handicrafts integrated with science instruction motivate students and support learning. The study involved students ages 9-12 during a week-long summer day camp.…

  16. Diversity and utilization of bamboo species in Tigawasa Village, Bali



    Full Text Available Tigawasa is one of the famous traditional villages as a center of bamboo handicraft in Buleleng regency-Bali. As a center of bamboo handicraft its have been wrestled since centuries. Their peoples have done traditionally bamboo conservation surrounding their house and garden too. The marginal area, river flow area and stiff slope that are outskirts of village become to focus of bamboo conservation by their peoples, too. This research conducted at Tigawasa village in June 2003 by stripe and interview methods. Two kilometers stripe length by 50 meters width; follow the direction north south of the river was investigated. To know the utilization of kind of bamboo and their product conducted by interview to craftsman and community figure. The result of inventory knew about four genus consist of 19 species planted in this village. To know those bamboo species will be presented their key of determination. The genus of Gigantochloa and Schizostachyum to dominate of their species, and have many uses of it’s, also. Not less than 54 kind of bamboos handicraft product was produced in this village. The diversity of bamboos handicraft product, develop according progress of the technology and demand of period. Many of new products composed and use of color or paint develop to produce varieties of fixed product. Two-kind of product that is traditional boxes (“sokasi” handicraft and woven bamboo (“bedeg” to become this village famous at Bali, even though in foreign countries Energetic development of bamboos home industry to come to decrease stock of raw materials. About two trucks supply from east Java regularly to anticipation of decrease local stock of raw materials every week.

  17. Need for Service Design Development for Sustainable Rural Tourism in Azerbaijan

    Heikkilä Jonna


    Full Text Available ‘Development of Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Support of Local Handicrafts in Rural Azerbaijan’ is a joint effort between the Turku University of Applied Sciences Ltd. and Sustainable Future in Finland and Ekoloji Tarazliq NGO as a local partner, with the aim of creating rural businesses and services in order to attract tourists to the three project areas. Thus far, most of the tourists in Azerbaijan have been business travellers staying in the capital, Baku. The project (implemented in 2012-2014 has introduced PPP or public-private partnership approaches in the promotion of sustainable tourism through the involvement of various stakeholders from small-scale entrepreneurs to national level authorities. The most important stakeholder groups are the local communities, entrepreneurs, handicraft masters, and owners of households providing accommodation services to travelers.

  18. Respon Sporofit Paku Ata (Lygodium circinnatum (Burn. F Swartz terhadap Pemberian Pupuk Urea



    Full Text Available Lygodium circinnatum (Burn.f. Swartz is a wild Pteridophyta which is used as a material for handicraft. Recently, Lygodium has been rare in nature due to overgathering. Domestication of this wild plant may required to overcome this problem. A research concerning domestication of Lygodium was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture of Udayana University during March to October 2009. Dose of urea fertilizer in varied levels was applied to 8 month-old sphorophyte. The level of urea doses were 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg urea per plant. The results showed that urea fertilizer significantly stimulated the number of “sulur” (“sulur” is an organ of Lygodium that used as material for handicraft , but did not affect the number of leaves and plant height. Dose of 300mg urea per plant resulted in the highest number of the average of “sulur” number per plant.

  19. Visual discourse of the clove: An analysis on the Ottoman tile decoration art

    Nurdan Öncel Taskiran


    Full Text Available In tile art, one of the world-famous Turkish Handicrafts, a wide variety of patterns are used on tile objects. The most common of these, after the tulip pattern, is the naturalist clove pattern. Different meanings were assigned to this pattern within the boundaries of form, color and design. Identification and perception of these meanings have a special place within the frame of the culture that they relay. In this present study the fields of meaning of the clove pattern frequently used in tile decoration arts among Turkish handicrafts were tried to be determined. By taking Greimas' Actantial Model as the theoretical model, in the study visual discourse analysis of the clove pattern will be made.Keywords: Clove Pattern, Ottoman Tile Art, Greimas, Visual Discourse.

  20. Development Projects for Women in the Indigenous Community “El Once”: An Analysis Based on Sharing and Difference

    Juana Valentina Nieto


    Full Text Available This article reflects on the representations of communal work and collective property held by promoters of income-generating projects in the Witoto community “El Once”, near Leticia in the Colombian Amazon. It focuses on the ways women get involved in development projects, in comparison with their organization for the production of handicrafts and subsistence agricultural crops. The main argument is that work in agriculture and handicrafts is organized based on a close connection between the body, the person, and the products of his/her work, in contrast with the development projects promoted by diverse external agencies, which assume a logic of communal work and collective property. All this has as a consequence the dissatisfaction of both parties –the promoters and those “promoted”–with the results of such projects.

  1. Gendered Spaces: Craftswomen’s Stories of Self-Employment in Orissa, India

    Acharya, Jyotirmayee


    The dissertation examines women’s capability in the intertwining of gender, craftwork and space in self-employment in the cottage industries sector (handicraft and handloom weaving) and the implications for workspace and well-being. This research is based on field research in four craft production localities in Orissa, India: Pipili, Puri, Bhubaneswar and Bargarh and explores craftswomen’s experiences and perceptions. Caught between old and new ways of labour demand and values in the commerci...

  2. Modern Social Media and Social Revolutions


    measuring the new era and defining its rhythm” (Papp, Albert, and Tuyahov 1997, 20). Marshall McLuhan (1967), professor of communications and Youth values mobile media, social media. news/115297.html (accessed 4 November 2011). 114 McLuhan , Marshall ...true with technological advances as with print media on civilization. McLuhan asserts, “Printing was the first mechanization of an ancient handicraft


    Wawan Sujarwo; Ida Bagus Ketut Arinasa; I Nyoman Peneng


    Bamboo occurs from lowland to highland. It is commonly utilized for construction, handicrafts and households, but its use as medicine is less known. This inventory revealed that there are six bamboo species that are potential to be used as medicine, i.e. bambu tali (Gigantochloa opus (J.A. & J.H. Schult.) Kurz), bambu ampel gading (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex Wendl. var stricta), bambu pingit (Gigantochloa hasskarliana (Kurz) Backer ex Heyne), bambu tamblang gading (Schizostachyum brachyc...

  4. 怒江:多民族文化荟萃的天然博物馆



    A natural"museum"of multicultural convergence and one of few regions left with such diversified cultures,Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture is home to 22 distinct ethnic minorities,also known in China as Minzu.Language,performance art such as music and dance,festivals,handicrafts and customs distinguish one minzu from another.In remote Nujiang where many of original traditions are preserved intact,

  5. Fragment of a Shell-Pasted Plate


    About 700 years ago, Beijing first established its position as the capital city when Kublai Khan united China. It was then called Dadu ("Great Capital"). The political, commercial, cultural and handicraft manufacturing center of the Yuan Dynasty, the city was nearly laid out with majestic palaces, official mansions and civilian houses. A description by Marco Polo noted, "A magnificent hall perches on top of the hill. Its

  6. Manual bamboo cutting tool.

    Bezerra, Mariana Pereira; Correia, Walter Franklin Marques; da Costa Campos, Fabio Ferreira


    The paper presents the development of a cutting tool guide, specifically for the harvest of bamboo. The development was made based on precepts of eco-design and ergonomics, for prioritizing the physical health of the operator and the maintenance of the environment, as well as meet specific requirements of bamboo. The main goal is to spread the use of bamboo as construction material, handicrafts, among others, from a handy, easy assembly and material available tool.

  7. Ms Wong Pak Ling Expects "Equality, Development and Peace"


    WONG Pak Ling and her husband Mr. Tan Giok Sie established their own company by their own efforts twenty years ago. She is now deputy managing director of the board of Fan In Trading Company Ltd. and President of Fan In Handicrafts Company Ltd. She is a noticeable woman entrepreneur in Hong Kong business circle. Because she will take part in the NGO forum of the Fourth World Conference on Women, the journalist interviewed her.


    BAŞARAN, Fatma Nur; Sarıkaya, Hakan


    Humans have been using plant-based dyestuff for centuries as the main provider of dyes for industrial products such as textiles, food, leather, etc. Specifically in Turkey, such plants have been used for the dyeing of the fibre and yarn of cotton, wool and silk used in handicraft products, such as carpets, rugs, fabrics, etc. With the discovery of synthetic dyestuffs in the mid-19th century, natural dyes, and thus, natural dyeing, gradually lost importance, although today, plant-based dyestuf...


    BAŞARAN, Fatma Nur; Sarıkaya, Hakan


    Humans have been using plant-based dyestuff for centuries as the main provider of dyes for industrial products such as textiles, food, leather, etc. Specifically in Turkey, such plants have been used for the dyeing of the fibre and yarn of cotton, wool and silk used in handicraft products, such as carpets, rugs, fabrics, etc. With the discovery of synthetic dyestuffs in the mid-19th century, natural dyes, and thus, natural dyeing, gradually lost importance, although today, plant-based dyestuf...

  10. Web based sales management system

    Tarar, Shahid Iqbal


    Paramount Salt Handicraft A wholesale Himalayan salt company was previously doing business in traditional way and was limited only to the local market. However from the start day management was planning to expand the business to more locations and to attract more customers. So to expand the business and to attract the international customers and customers from other cities of Sweden it was necessary to make it available over the internet so that customers can easily get knowledge about the co...

  11. Material Dialectic. Donald Judd and Philip Johnson

    María Teresa Muñoz


    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this writing is to consider how a certain material dialectic is stated in the so called Mansana de Chinati, a complex built by the sculptor Donald Judd in the city of Marfa, Texas, from 1974 onwards, when  compared with the two houses built by the architect Philip Johnson in his  state of New Canaan, Connecticut, around 1950. Both in New Canaan and in la Mansana de Chinati we find a dialectical  opposition between industrial and handicraft architecture, as both Philip  Johnson and Donald Judd consider that there is a main architecture, where material and industrial techniques are used, and a subordinate or service  architecture which is built with adobe or brick and handicraft techniques. This latter architecture will embody all the qualities associated with poverty, as material abundance or spatial closure. Nevertheless, the exhibition of poverty has not as its definite aim the domestic handicraft buildings, built with adobe or brick, but it will be at the service of that other architecture, built with industrial techniques, that has to give up comfort and wellbeing o at least conceal them in the form of radical austerity.

  12. Producción y consumo de bienes culturales: El caso de las artesanías urbanas de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    Mónica B. Rotman


    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene por objeto reseñar algunos de los principales aspectos de un fenómeno cultural citadino: las artesanías urbanas feriales de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. La problemática abordada contempla las instancias de la producción artesanal, la circulación de estos bienes con énfasis en las Ferias como sitios privilegiados del intercambio y ámbitos relevantes de sociabilidad y el consumo de artesanías. Consideramos que este tipo de producción, que constituye un fenómeno complejo, conforma una práctica cultural heterodoxa, recreando con códigos propios la sociabilidad híbrida que inducen las ciudades contemporáneas.The objective of this article is to outline some of the main aspects of an urban cultural phenomenon: the urban handicrafts from fairs in Buenos Aires city. The issues this paper addresses are handicraft production, the circulation of these goods with emphasis on fairs as privileged places of exchange, sociability and handicraft consumption. I consider this type of production a complex phenomena that shapes an heterodox cultural practice, recreating through its own codes the hybrid sociability that contemporary cities induce.

  13. Bronze amulet from Sidak

    Smagulov Erbulat A.


    Full Text Available A bronze amulet in the shape of a horseman found on the citadel of the Sidak fortified settlement site in Turkestan district, Southern Kazakhstan oblast is described in the article. Similar findings are met on the vast Eurasian area ranging from Mongolia to the Urals. The published item may be referred to a series of similar finds from the handicraft centers located in the Syr Darya river basin, such as Khujand, Kanka, and, lately, Sidak. Handicraft centers of Sogdiana are traditionally regarded as places of their manufacture. However, no finds of the kind are mentioned at proper Sogdian towns (Penjikent, Paikend, Afrasyab, etc., which have been thoroughly studied. Hence, the author makes a conclusion that these amulets, as well as many other pieces of jewelry were manufactured in the 7th to 8th centuries AD at the handicraft centers of Chach, a state formation comprising the Middle Syr-Darya River oases at the time. This region was inhabited by the descendants of the ancient Kangju state inhabitants, who inherited cultural traditions of the past, including the myths about the hero-horseman.

  14. A bronze amulet from Sidak

    Smagulov Erbulat A.


    Full Text Available A bronze amulet in the shape of a horseman found on the citadel of the Sidak fortified settlement site in Turkestan district, Southern Kazakhstan oblast is described in the article. Similar findings are met on the vast Eurasian area ranging from Mongolia to the Urals. The published item may be referred to a series of similar finds from the handicraft centers located in the Syr Darya river basin, such as Khujand, Kanka, and, lately, Sidak. Handicraft centers of Sogdiana are traditionally regarded as places of their manufacture. However, no finds of the kind are mentioned at proper Sogdian towns (Penjikent, Paikend, Afrasyab, etc., which have been thoroughly studied. Hence, the author makes a conclusion that these amulets, as well as many other pieces of jewelry were manufactured in the 7th to 8th centuries AD at the handicraft centers of Chach, a state formation comprising the Middle Syr-Darya River oases at the time. This region was inhabited by the descendants of the ancient Kangju state inhabitants, who inherited cultural traditions of the past, including the myths about the hero-horseman.

  15. Site selection for Handy Craft Market in South Khorasan Province Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP

    M. Karami


    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionToday, one of the essential issues facing managers and planners is allocating resources to the spots which have the potentials to reserve the capital and provide the society with social and economic interests. In addition, finding a suitable spot has been the main concern of managers and planners, i.e. managers and planners, because of the resource deficiency, prefer to allocate the resources to the best places. In this regard, planners since a long time ago have tried to find out methods of choosing the best spot to centralize the industries and activities. Finding a scientific location finding method has always been a main concern of the planners. In this regard, selecting effective criteria in choosing the best spot and using suitable models to modulate data are considered as significant. In the paper, using modern methods of spotting (Hierarchical Analysis and taking economic, social aspects into account, some spots to establish markets for handicrafts in South Khorasan Province were suggested.2- Theoretical basesSimultaneously with the development of industry and its social and economic aftermaths, spotting theories to increase productivity of industrial activities and decrease their negative results and economic losses were offered. The theories have been proposed by thinkers such as: August Losch, A. Weber, Walter Isard, Greenhut, Smith, Palander, Lanhard, Christaler and Micheal Rawstron.Affected by the systemic approaches to the late 1970s issues, spotting theories had a try at concurrent modulation of two previous theories. In this approach activities and industries must be located in a way that it generates the difference between costs and incomes (profit as large as possible for the economic managers.The AHP method, as one of the most modern methods of spotting industry, made the proposed statement so easy by changing attitude, not very unexpectedly, so that it can be certainly used as the most efficient

  16. Uses and commercialization of Borassus akeassii Bayton, Ouédraogo, Guinko non-wood timber products in South-Western Burkina Faso, West Africa

    Bertin Ouédraogo M.


    Full Text Available Borassus akeassii called" rônier " in French marks the South-Western landscape of Burkina Faso and plays an important role in local people livelihood. The present article is about this species uses and its socio-economic roles. Investigations have been made in three villages and in Banfora markets. The interviewed people were the villagers, extractors and retailers of sap, the outfitters and retailers of handicraft products. Some quantifications of sap and handicraft objects produced and sold have been conducted with the actors of the sector. Financial fallout has been also studied taking into account the high and low production periods. The results revealed that five parts of the tree were used as food, six as medicine and three in handicraft. Product prices varied with the period of production, the category of the seller and the object dimension. In dry cold period, from November to February, sap trading yielded net incomes of 277347 ± 94 653 FCFA for the extractors whereas the incomes amounted to 319 368 ± 163 969 FCFA from March to October. A craftsman could get a net income of 277 933 ± 2 787 FCFA during the high production period and 110 383 ± 25 371 FCFA during the low production period. Due to such an importance, there is a need for research program on the resource base, the improvement and management of the species. A better organization of the actors of the sector will improve their access to market information, to know the requirements of the market and to be aware of the impacts of product quality on the profit of the actors of the sector.

  17. Textile Students’ Basic Knowledge and Skills - Interpretation, Understanding and Assessment of a Practical-Aesthetic Discipline in Norwegian teacher education. A case study

    Mette Gårdvik


    Full Text Available This article reports a case study research of a textile module at the year-long module based course in arts and handicrafts at the Teacher Education at Nesna University College. The textile modules main focus is to give the students practical aesthetic experience as well as basic knowledge and skills of textiles and their qualities. The module has been regularly assessed by teachers and students, revised and developed, and offered for several years. Assessments show that students appreciate the module and its focus on basic knowledge and skills in textile. However, as an arts and handicrafts teacher at the college level, I’ve observed that students basic skills are underdeveloped, and some have unrealistic insight, demands and expectations about how much knowledge and experience a thirty five hour course in textiles will give. Some students with little or no textile experience have problems with interpreting and understanding the written task and also “getting started”. Detailed explanations concerning the content seem to confuse rather than enlighten, and students’ fear of failing gives me as a teacher several thoughts about cause and effect. In this case study a qualitative survey of a textile module’s schedule, student’s questions and desires for explanations, their written tasks, products and assessments are being used to enlighten and understand the problem. The results show that a detailed explanation of a practical aesthetic assignment does not contribute to increased understanding with some students, whereas a confrontation of the practical process will. Keywords: Textile, arts and handicrafts, the craft process, ordinary craft, holistic craft

  18. Women Promoted Industry at Turn of Century


    IN the early years of the Republic of China (1912-1949), a great upsurge to promote industry and commerce spread across the country. Women, who were used to doing spinning and weaving, became involved in this industrialization. In early 1912 women intellectuals wrote newspaper editorials advocating women to initiate industrial and commercial enterprises. They said that women were not suited to work in industries such as the railways, mines, and navigation, but were suited for work in spinning and textile mills, breeding silkworms, raising tea, and working in handicrafts factories. They hoped that women would pool their funds to set up business organizations, improve their lives and become economically independent.

  19. Research on Spatial Development of Xi’an Modern Urban Industrialization

    WEI Yan


    As the Westernization Movement developing in the 1860s, China began to introduce and learn western science and technology to develop modern military industry and civilian industry. In modern history, Xi ’an went through the Xi 'an capi⁃tal’s industrial embryonic form in the late Qing dynasty and urban industrialization construction during the period of the Repub⁃lic of China so that it converted gradually from a trade city for Chinese traditional handicrafts under the background of the feudal society to a city in the industrial society where machine were used for production.



    A Tasteful Mid-Autumn Festival at Minzu Hotel The Mid-Autumn Festival is a traditional time for family reunions. As the festival is approaching, Minzu Hotel would like to invite you and your family to come and enjoy the festival with its tasty mooncakes. The hotel will provide a rich variety of exquisite mooncakes featuring meticulously chosen ingredients, excellent handicraft and mellow flavors. The icecrust mooncake is strongly recommended for its snowy appearance and icy taste. In addition are crispy-crust mooncakes,

  1. Promoting Literacy and Protection with Solar Lamps in Yemen

    Jerry Farrell


    Full Text Available By distributing solar lamps to vulnerable rural women in Yemen, we promoted enrollment in literacy programs, as well as reading among their children. We saw a number of secondary benefits as well: safer households where dangerous kerosene lamps were used less frequently in the evening; a number of livelihood activities - cooking, husbandry, handicrafts - continued safely into evening hours; children found it easier to work on their homework using the solar powered lamps; and children found it easier and safer to walk in dark, rural streets in the evening with the solar lamps slung around their necks.

  2. 计算机控制


    Flexible Manufacturing Systems-An Integrated Approach to Automate Production Operations;Growth of LD steelmaking in India;H{sub}2 optimal computer control: polynomial toolbox;Implementation of a real-time target tracking behavior using video sensors;Implementation of Human-like Intelligent Inference and Control;Java Applet Modules for Undergraduate Process Control Education;Learning on Handicraft of Decorative Light Using Computer Control Illuminating LED Device at Elementary School;Longitudinal attitude control of a small aircraft using cascade LCN's;LQR Controller for Toroidal Continuously Variable Transmission in Reverse Motion。


    Syahrial Syarif


    Full Text Available Small-scale enterprises in West Sumatra experienced slow growth and some constraints in their development process. In 1998, small businesses represented 99.61% of total business units operating in West Sumatra and absorbed 88.8% of total employment. The orientation of their businesses mostly on domestic market although recently they enter international market. Export contribution of small businesses still very low but growing steadily during the last three years. This research showed that enterprises dealing with embroideries, garments and handicrafts are ambitiously orienting their products towards foreign markets. At the same time these business categories are also proven to be the most profitable businesses.

  4. Globalization and cultural heritage: rebuilding local identities

    Monica Rotman


    Full Text Available New articulations are outlined actually instead of globalization process. In this setting, the concept "national" adopts a new preeminence and it is expressed through specific cultural ways. Paradoxically, in a globalizated context, countries suffer an outdoors process of homogeneization and an inner fragmentation one. In this context, a revitalization process of "national identity" arises strongly. These happens in our research, in periodical events organized by the national state. This cultural phenomena are based on the recovery and rebuilding of "national identity" Our case study is the "Traditional Handicrafts and Popular Traditions Fair" in Mataderos neighborhood in Buenos Aires city.


    Wawan Sujarwo


    Full Text Available Bamboo occurs from lowland to highland. It is commonly utilized for construction, handicrafts and households, but its use as medicine is less known. This inventory revealed that there are six bamboo species that are potential to be used as medicine, i.e. bambu tali (Gigantochloa opus (J.A. & J.H. Schult. Kurz, bambu ampel gading (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex Wendl. var stricta, bambu pingit (Gigantochloa hasskarliana (Kurz Backer ex Heyne, bambu tamblang gading (Schizostachyum brachycladum Kurz, bambu buluh lengis (Schizostachyum lima (Blanco Merr. and bambu petung (Dendrocalamus asper (Schult. Backer ex Heyne. Further research is needed to determine the content of active compounds of those bamboo.

  6. A cross-cultural comparison of folk plant uses among Albanians, Bosniaks, Gorani and Turks living in south Kosovo.

    Mustafa, Behxhet; Hajdari, Avni; Pieroni, Andrea; Pulaj, Bledar; Koro, Xhemajli; Quave, Cassandra L


    Kosovo represents a unique hotspot of biological and cultural diversity in Europe, which allows for interesting cross-cultural ethnobotanical studies. The aims of this study were twofold: 1) to document the state of traditional knowledge related to local (esp. wild) plant uses for food, medicine, and handicrafts in south Kosovo; and 2) to examine how communities of different ethnic groups in the region (Albanians, Bosniaks/Gorani, and Turks) relate to and value wild botanical taxa in their ecosystem. Field research was conducted in 10 villages belonging to the Prizren municipality and 4 villages belonging to the Dragash municipality, located in the Sharr Mountains in the southern part of Kosovo. Snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 139 elderly informants (61 Albanians, 32 Bosniaks/Gorani and 46 Turks), for participation in semi-structured interviews regarding the use of the local flora for medicinal, food, and handicraft purposes. Overall, we recorded the local uses of 114 species were used for medicinal purposes, 29 for food (wild food plants), and 20 in handicraft activities. The most important species used for medicinal purposes were Achillea millefolium L., Sambucus nigra L., Urtica dioica L., Tilia platyphyllos Scop. Hypericum perforatum L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Thymus serpyllum L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. Chamomilla recutita was the most highly valued of these species across the populations surveyed. Out of 114 taxa used for medicinal purposes, only 44 species are also included in the European Pharmacopoeia. The predominantly quoted botanical families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae. Comparison of the data recorded among the Albanian, Bosniak/Gorani, and Turkish communities indicated a less herbophilic attitude of the Albanian populations, while most quoted taxa were quoted by all three communities, thus suggesting a hybrid character of the Kosovar plant knowledge. Cross-cultural ethnobiological studies are crucial in

  7. Visitors’ Motivations, Satisfaction and Loyalty Towards Castro Marim Medieval Fair

    Iolanda Márcia Barbeitos


    Full Text Available The study tests the relationship between motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty using a structural equation model. Data have been collected through a questionnaire applied to visitors attending a local festival, Castro Marim Medieval Fair, which hosts every year between 45.000 and 60.000 visitors. Results show that satisfaction towards controlled variables of the event within the venue’s boundaries, such as animation, gastronomy, and handicraft, influences visitors’ overall satisfaction towards the event. On the other hand, they also reveal a direct relationship between overall satisfaction and loyalty. The study contributes to a better understanding of visitors’ behaviour and provides useful guidance to festival ideation and design.

  8. [Fatal poisoning due to Indigofera].

    Labib, S; Berdai, M-A; Bendadi, A; Achour, S; Harandou, M


    Indigo, also known in Morocco as Nila, is a dye widely used in the coloring of Moroccan handicrafts. It is obtained from fermentation reactions on the leaves and branches of true indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, which is a widespread plant in tropical Africa and Asia. We report a case of fatal poisoning in a 3-year-old child after administration of indigo for therapeutic purposes. Death resulted from multiple organ failure. The toxicity of this compound is little known in the literature and deserves to be explored through toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies, in order to better determine the toxic constituents of the dye.

  9. Social Work Modes of Rural Women Ability Construction: A Case Study of Luzhai Village in Yunnan Province

    Fang; LIU


    Taking Luzhai Village as a case,this paper discussed social work modes of rural women ability construction using marsh gas project,education project,handicraft project,and healthcare project as operation carrier. It focused on ability restoration and ability improvement to comprehensively respond to women demand and development. In the process of project implementation,it is recommended to avoid gender segregation,pay close attention to women subsistence ethics,properly treat traditional gender mode,and care about girl growth.

  10. Entre el textil y el ámbar: Las funciones psicosociales del trabajo artesanal en artesanos tsotsiles de La Ilusión, Chiapas, México

    Perla Shiomara Del Carpio Ovando


    Full Text Available

    The aim of this research is to study the psychosocial functions of the artisan work made by indigenous artisans from a Tsotsil community in Chiapas, Mexico. The analysis of handicrafts encourages reflection on economic aspects in intimate relation with cultural and psychosocial elements. It is argued that those who work on the production of handicrafts face many difficulties such as precariousness, little social recognition, discrimination and exclusion. Despite this all, handicrafts contribute to the economic, social and cultural reproduction of those who make them. Also, handicrafts are privileged elements as they are vehicles of multiple social, historical and group belonging meanings through which is possible to “track” processes of social transformation. Based on the findings obtained while conducting field work in Chiapas, a model of the psychosocial functions of the indigenous artisan work is proposed in this dissertation.

    Esta investigación tiene como objetivo principal el estudio de las funciones psicosociales del trabajo artesanal que realizan artesanos indígenas de una comunidad tsotsil de Chiapas, México. Constata esta tesis que el análisis de las artesanías invita a reflexionar necesariamente sobre aspectos económicos en íntima relación con aspectos de índole cultural y psicosocial. Se defiende también aquí que quienes se dedican a la producción de artesanías enfrentan múltiples dificultades dentro de las que sobresale la precariedad, el poco reconocimiento social, la discriminación y la exclusión. A pesar de ello, las artesanías contribuyen a la reproducción económica, social y cultural de quienes lo realizan, y constituyen elementos privilegiados en tanto vehículos de múltiples significados sociales, históricos y de pertenencia grupal, a través de los cuales es posible “rastrear” procesos de transformación social. Por ello, a la luz de los datos obtenidos en el trabajo de campo, esta tesis

  11. Women’s Cloth-Making Campaign in Shanxi(1)


    THE cloth-making campaign was a great activity carried out to pull through and win the victory of the War of Resistance Against Japan (1937-1945). In the northwest of Shanxi Province, with mountains and long winters, local industry and agriculture developed slowly. Moreover, the Kuomintang and Yan Xishan’s troops feudalist rule and oppression, the warlords harassing and looting, and the Japanese aggressors’ destruction impoverished the farmers, wasted their land, and ruined their dwellings. The original small handicraft industries were almost shut-down completely. The local people lived destitute

  12. Zhangpu Folk Papercuts


    THE papercut is among the wonderful arts oftraditional Chinese folk handicrafts,a form ofself-entertainment developed by simple work-ing People to satisfy in daily life their need to becreative.It is popular all over the country.This artcomes trom life,so its birth and development areclosely related to folk customs and lifestyles.Mostpapercut artists are women,and papercuts are pastedas decorations on such places as windows,walls,doorsand lanterns.They are also used as patterns on em-broideries.

  13. Building solar dryer of tropical woods; Construccion de un secador solar de maderas tropicales

    Hernandez R, J; Flores M, F. E; Cuevas D, O [Universidad de Quintana Roo, Chetumal, Quintana Roo (Mexico); Tolentino E, G [LABINTHAP-SEPI-ESIME-IPN, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    In Quintana Roo, Mexico, several species of wood are used for handicrafts. The most commonly method used in the communities nearby Chetumal is natural drying, with the disadvantage of low quality in their products because the moisture contains in the wood. In this project studied the design of solar dryer for tropical woods in Quintana Roo. [Spanish] En este trabajo, se parte del analisis de las condiciones climatologicas existentes en el estado de Quintana Roo, Mexico, asi como de las necesidades de madera seca de una comunidad, como parametros basicos para el diseno y construccion de un secador solar de maderas tropicales.

  14. [Peasant strategies for economic reproduction and malaria epidemiology in the ravines microregion of the Chiapas mountains, Mexico: a case study

    Gutiérrez Ortega M


    The goal of this investigation was to establish an initial correlation between farming activities and malaria and to define risk factors and prevalence of the latter through an analysis of the integration of farm production strategies by members of an indigenous peasant community in the Chiapas mountains in Mexico. Information was obtained on places of work, land use, coffee, corn, and bean farming, and number of family members involved in farming activities, wage labor, and handicrafts production. Migration of farm workers to warmer climates was also analyzed. The study compared families with and without cases of malaria from 1987 to 1993 in the town of Yibeljoj, Chenalhó county. The most outstanding characteristics of this analysis were the following: strategies involving greater risk and prevalence of malaria were those which combined corn farming and wage labor; on the other hand, strategies in which handicraft production was the activity of primary or secundary importance were associated with few or no cases of the disease.


    Carlos Alberto Vargas


    Full Text Available Different species of wicker (Salix spp., planted in region of Canoas river valley (Serra Catarinense, have application in handicraft. The research of their physical and mechanical properties takes into account the processing and handling to manufacturing, as the density of the relevant species, the bending of the rods and traction of tapes. In this paper considerations are made about the use of NBR 7190/1997 with a view to carry out physical and mechanical tests in wicker, evaluating adjustments made in the equations indicated by the normative document, in the preparation of specimens and also in the testing machine accessories. Dimensional aspects of the test samples to the bulk density (12% moisture were reconsidered, obtained by the stereometric and by displacement of mercury methods. Because of dimensional differences of the material used in handicraft, the analysis of each test were made separately, evaluating rods for the bend study and the material transformed in tapes for the tension test, being direct with little transformation in cutlass and nipper. The equations were adapted to minimize the influence of inertia moment on transversal section were adapted, in the bend case. For wicker properties analysis, the adaption of wood standard is suitable.

  16. Analyzing the Identity Aspect of Cultural Heritage of Isfahan City from the Viewpoint of Visitors With the Aim of City Branding

    Nader Zali


    Full Text Available Using modern strategies and methods in city marketing is one way to attract more resources, and city branding seems as the most important tool in this process. The main purpose of this study is to examine identity aspects of cultural heritage of Isfahan (handicrafts, historical monuments, and lifestyle - a city that is the symbol of Islamic culture and civilization of Iran- based on city branding criteria (Presence, place, pulse, potential, people, and prerequisite. The study is a field research and is based on data analysis. The result explored that historical monuments in viewpoint of three groups of Isfahan’s visitors (residents, domestic and foreign visitors carry a high international standing, possess the best quality of place, enjoy ample opportunities for city developing, are high in attraction and activities, have high transparency, sociability, and flexibility, also own the best infrastructure for different purposes in compare to the two other aspects of cultural heritage of Isfahan city (handicrafts and lifestyle. In other words, the most distinctive aspect of Isfahan that makes the identity of the cultural heritage is its historical monuments which have the capability to become an international brand.

  17. Design of a New Intelligent Bamboo Weaving Machine%一种新型智能竹丝编织机的设计

    石磊; 张磊; 高宏力; 许明恒


    竹编工艺是中华民族的瑰宝之一,其工艺品符合绿色环保的理念.传统的竹丝工艺品多为人工编织,效率低,图案简单.竹编工艺的机械化和智能化程度必须提高.因此,采用数字图像处理算法设计了一种新型智能竹丝编织机,由多行多列电磁铁组成的程序控制系统取代了传统经纬机械控制系统.依靠图像处理技术,这种新型智能竹丝编织机可以把任何一幅数字图案编织成黑白竹编工艺品.%Bamboo weaving technology is the gem of the Chinese nation. Bamboo weaving handicraft is green environmentally products. Traditional technology depends on manual weaving with inefficiency. Mechanization and intelligent degree of bamboo weaving technology must be increased. A new intelligent bamboo weaving machine was designed based on image processing algorithm. Mechanical construction was converted into program control system. Any kind of digital photos can be transferred into bamboo weaving handicrafts with image processing technology.

  18. The use of x-ray micro-digital radiography for clay material inspection

    Suparta, Gede B.; Louk, Andreas C.; Kurniasari, Herlina; Wiguna, Gede A.


    An x-ray micro-digital radiography (μ-DR) system has been developed at the Gadjah Mada University Indonesia. The μ- DR system was developed as an add-on unit on an x-ray Diffraction (XRD) system using one extra beam-port as its radiation source. A fluorescence screen encapsulated in a dark tube then coupled by a CCD camera was used as an imaging plate. The radiography objects were some sample clays for earthen or ceramic material of handicraft. The clays differ by particle size, namely: 40 mesh, 60 mesh, 80 mesh, and 100 mesh. The objects were put in front of the imaging plate and then they were exposed by x-ray beam. The image formed on the screen was captured by the CCD camera and then it was converted into digital microradiograph of a size of 720x576. Then, after noise suppression process and normalization procedure, the microradiograph were compared each other by considering particle size. This facility can be used as a non-destructive and testing material studies for examining the quality of earthen or ceramic handicraft.

  19. The Social Capital of the Silver Ornaments in Northeastern, Thailand

    Warit Witsrutwait


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The silver ornaments is the well known handicraft for Chum Chon Ban Choke, Tambon Khawao Sinrin, Amphoe Khawao Sinrin and Surin province. The study of social capital concerning silver ornaments at Ban Choke community, the Khmer ethnic focused on the low quality of the making the silver ornaments. The silver craftsmen earned less income because the capital productions were higher. Some craftsmen stopped making the silver ornaments to find new jobs for getting more income. That was the problem for the remaining of a silver ornaments handicraft. The purpose of the study was to study the management of social capital of silver ornament making at Chum Chon Ban Choke. Approach: It was qualitative and carried out using documentary studies, surveys, observations, and interviews and focused group discussions, 47 research informants were community and silver market leaders, silver craftsmen, shop owners, buyers, government and private personnel over looking promotion and development of silver ornaments in Surin Province. The analysis of data was done descriptively. Results: The social capital was divided into 2 categories internal and external. The internal social capital included the traditional skills of making silver ornaments and social and cultural coherence of the people. The second one came from capitalism and economic development, such as, roads, vehicles, electricity, mass media and markets. To some extent, Chum Chon Ban Choke changed. People picked up a new habit of buying goods from outside, Spending more with limited income made people go into debt. What made things even worse were low prices of their farm produce and severe droughts. The people who were in the business of silver ornaments came up with a plan bringing government and private entrepreneurs to revitalize social capital by running workshop trainings and using appropriate technology, such as, setting up a village fund, farm machinery and establish community

  20. Study unique artistic lopburi province for design brass tea set of bantahkrayang community

    Pliansiri, V.; Seviset, S.


    The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) to study the production process of handcrafted Brass Tea Set; and 2) to design and develop the handcrafted of Brass Tea Set. The process of design was started by mutual analytical processes and conceptual framework for product design, Quality Function Deployment, Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, Principles of Craft Design, and Principle of Reverse Engineering. The experts in field of both Industrial Product Design and Brass Handicraft Product, have evaluated the Brass Tea Set design and created prototype of Brass tea set by the sample of consumers who have ever bought the Brass Tea Set of Bantahkrayang Community on this research. The statistics methods used were percentage, mean ({{{\\overline X}} = }) and standard deviation (S.D.) 3. To assess consumer satisfaction toward of handcrafted Brass tea set was at the high level.

  1. Oltu District of Erzurum Province to Determine the Potential Ecotourism for SWOT Analysis

    Elif Akpınar Külekçi


    Full Text Available Oltu district of Erzurum selected as research region has important potential with regards of ecotourism with historical riches and regional architecture, canyons and interesting geological forms, traditional productions and handicrafts, variable soil structures between the elevations of 850 and 3000 m, variable flora and fauna riches includes so many biological diversities, natural assets such as mountains, plates, plateaus, valens and brooks. This study was conducted to determine ecotourism potential in Oltu district. In this respect, a SWOT analysis was conducted with experts in order to evaluate the questionnaires prepared with 5 scaled Likert type questions on the dates of August 14 and 22, 2010. With this SWOT analysis, it is aimed to determine what strengths, weaknesses and possible opportunities and threats in the future of research area could be in terms of ecotourism potentials.


    Liana Mangifera


    Full Text Available This research aims to identify the promotional mix used bambu craftsmen and formulate an effective promotional strategy for the development of bamboo handicrafts. This research was conducted in the village of Cluster bamboo craft Bendo Sukodono Subdistrict in Sragen. This research used the qualitative approach with key person as a source of information. The data used are the primary data that are taken using the indepth interview. Analysis tool used is content analysis, that perform analysis driskripsi of words that often appear in the indepth interview. This research concluded that the promotion of bamboo craftsmen do is word of mouth and exhibitions. Such promotional efforts is part of this type of direct marketing (direct marketing. The promotion will be optimized if the catalog that contains the task force created the products and pricing that is clear and complete.


    Pavel STANCIU


    Full Text Available The villages of Bucovina possess a particular charm, mainly through the orthodox churches with heritage value, the deep spiritual character sent both to local communities and tourists, the architecture based on wood handicraft, the manner in which traditions, local customs and crafts are still preserved, the multicultural character, and, not least, the outstanding hospitality of the hosts.Continuous improvement of performance in rural tourism refers to an integrated approach of specific elements in the destination Bucovina, online marketing becoming more present in everyday practice of small entrepreneurs in local tourism. From an empirical point of view, promotion of rural tourism on Facebook and YouTube represents an easy initiative accessible to the general public, which has the ability to create the foundation of a competitive tourism.

  4. Knowledge Engineering Technique for Cluster Development

    Sureephong, Pradorn; Ouzrout, Yacine; Neubert, Gilles; Bouras, Abdelaziz


    After the concept of industry cluster was tangibly applied in many countries, SMEs trended to link to each other to maintain their competitiveness in the market. The major key success factors of the cluster are knowledge sharing and collaboration between partners. This knowledge is collected in form of tacit and explicit knowledge from experts and institutions within the cluster. The objective of this study is about enhancing the industry cluster with knowledge management by using knowledge engineering which is one of the most important method for managing knowledge. This work analyzed three well known knowledge engineering methods, i.e. MOKA, SPEDE and CommonKADS, and compares the capability to be implemented in the cluster context. Then, we selected one method and proposed the adapted methodology. At the end of this paper, we validated and demonstrated the proposed methodology with some primary result by using case study of handicraft cluster in Thailand.

  5. Philodendron williamsii Hook. f. (Araceae, an endemic and vulnerable species of southern Bahia, Brazil used for local population

    L.S.B. Calazans


    Full Text Available An updated description and information on ecology, geographical distribution, ethnobiology, uses and conservation of Philodendron williamsii are presented here. The species has a restricted geographical distribution and the roots of its natural populations are widely extracted to be used for local handicraft. During the fertile period of the plant, areas where the species grow were prospected in order to collect, observe, photograph and consult people who directly use parts of the plants. Additional specimens from five herbaria were analyzed. We propose the inclusion of the species as Vulnerable based on the categories and the criteria proposed by the IUCN. Environmental education for the local extractors and the regularization of its extractive activity are suggested here.

  6. Cultural gastronomy and tourism: An exercise to the Brazilians touristic attractions divulgation.

    Aliner Da Maia Alves Aliner


    Full Text Available The present job integrated the “Brazilians cultural flavors and known fair”,   developed during the touristic events subject in the tourist management career of Santa Maria Federal University, which has as objective involve the students in all the execution stages of a touristic divulgation event. To the event were prepared stands by the students, in which has scripts and visual material from each region with the regional attractions, for example: historical zones, museums, cultural houses, parties, typical gastronomy, handicraft and typical products, fairs and typical markets, local knows and makes. As an activity results the class could grasp better the preparation of each stage of a touristic divulgation event, the necessity a good script and support material preparation about the typical culinary attractions, and the main motivation of this event is the direct contact with the target audience what generate a fundamental return to a good touristic activities planning.

  7. Study of the jewelry surface cyanide-free silver plating technology with copper as matrix%以铜为基质的首饰表面无氰镀银工艺的研究

    陈红; 周湘宁


    A number of experiments has been designed according to the different influence factors of the cyanide-free silver plating process to obtain the electroplating solution and the optimum process conditions.The experiment results will be applied to the process of copper jewelry and copper handicraft to give them a beautiful appearance as the silver jew-elry.%根据无氰镀银工艺体系中不同影响因素设计多组实验,获得电镀液的组成及最佳工艺条件,并应用于铜首饰及其工艺品,使其具备银首饰的美丽外观。

  8. Analysis on online word-of-mouth of customer satisfaction in cultural and creative industries of Taiwan: using crafts as an example

    Tsai, Li-Fen; Shaw, Jing-Chi; Wang, Pei-Wen; Shih, Meng-Long; Yang, Min-Chieh


    This study aims to analyze customers' online word-of-mouth for crafts in Cultural and Creative Industries of Taiwan, and extracts articles from Yahoo and Wretch Blogs by the online writing mining technique. The research scope is from Jan. 1, 2008 to Dec. 31, 2010. The subjects include 2457 valid articles on customers' online word-of-mouth regarding the craft industry of Taiwan. Findings demonstrate that, regarding online word-of-mouth, the most important word-of-mouth items of ceramics, stone craft, wood craft manufacturing, and metal craft is decoration and display of surroundings; while brand is valued in glass craft; and the most important item for consumers of paper craft is cultural characteristics of handicrafts.

  9. Cultures Around the World: A Unique Approach to Youth Cultural Diversity Education

    Justen O. Smith


    Full Text Available Increasingly diverse cultural trends have significant implications for the educational needs of American youth. Learning about and valuing diverse cultures will help prepare youth to become better citizens in an ever-changing society. Cultures Around the World was developed to meet the educational needs of youth in the area of cultural diversity. The Cultures Around the World program brings to life exciting cultures and customs from countries all over the world. Countries are presented in a unique format by teaching youth (ages 10 to 18 a specific country’s history, culture, food, music, dance, language, religion, and current issues. The Cultures Around the World program can be used by any youth educator. The program comes in a ready to use CD containing presentations, handicraft instructions, language guides, and resource guides for nine different countries (Armenia, Australia, Ecuador, Egypt, England, France, Ghana, Slovakia and Mexico.

  10. Some results of research of the Ostolopovo settlement in the Alekseyevsky district of the Republic of Tatarstan

    Rudenko Konstantin A.


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of Ostolopovo unfortified settlement site (Alekseyevsky district, Tatarstan. It dates back to the 11th — first half of the 12th century. Expensive imported products, items made of precious metals, and weapons and armor fragments have been found on the site. The population lived in wooden houses with stoves of identical design. No traces of occupation in agriculture and handicrafts have been discovered on the settlement site. The collection of ceramics, articles made of iron, non-ferrous metals, and wood, found on the settlement site, is of great interest for the study of antiquities referring to Volga Bulgaria in the first half of the pre-Mongol period.

  11. Treatment and characterization of fiber licuri for synthesis of polymeric composites; Tratamento e caracterizacao da fibra de licuri para sintese de compositos polimericos

    Oliveira, J.C.; Miranda, C.S.; Carvalho, R.F.; Jose, N.M.; Boaventura, J.S., E-mail: [Universidade Federal da Bahia (GECIM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Grupo de Energia e Ciencias dos Materiais


    Natural fibers are materials of increasing use of polymeric composites, due to several advantageous properties compared to synthetic fibers: low cost, density, toxicity and excellent biodegradability. Licuri fiber is widely used in the manufacture of handicrafts, with a wide range of possible applications. Before this, characterize the properties of the fiber is of great interest economic, technological and social. This study characterized the fibers in nature, which were washed with water, treated with 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or 5% NaOH. Techniques were used FTIR, DSC, TGA and XRD, as well as analysis of surface reactivity of the acid and base. All treatments altered the surface of licuri, exposing reactive sites. It was observed that sodium hydroxide licuri changed significantly, as expected. These results are very significant for the recovery of a natural fiber (licuri), abundant in poor regions of the country. (author)

  12. Spatial Analyses of Harappan Urban Settlements

    Hirofumi Teramura


    Full Text Available The Harappan Civilization occupies a unique place among the early civilizations of the world with its well planned urban settlements, advanced handicraft and technology, religious and trade activities. Using a Geographical Information Systems (GIS, this study presents spatial analyses that locate urban settlements on a digital elevation model (DEM according to the three phases of early, mature and late. Understanding the relationship between the spatial distribution of Harappan sites and the change in some factors, such as topographic features, river passages or sea level changes, will lead to an understanding of the dynamism of this civilization. It will also afford a glimpse of the factors behind the formation, development, and decline of the Harappan Civilization.

  13. Pipe-cleaner Model of Neuronal Network Dynamics

    Armstrong, Eve


    We present a functional model of neuronal network connectivity in which the single architectural element is the object commonly known in handicraft circles as a pipe cleaner. We argue that the dual nature of a neuronal circuit - that it be at times highly robust to external manipulation and yet sufficiently flexible to allow for learning and adaptation - is embodied in the pipe cleaner, and thus that a pipe cleaner framework serves as an instructive scaffold in which to examine network dynamics. Regarding the dynamics themselves: as pipe cleaners possess no intrinsic dynamics, in our model we attribute the emergent circuit dynamics to magic. Magic is a strategy that has been largely neglected in the neuroscience community, and may serve as an illuminating comparison to the common physics-based approaches. This model makes predictions that it would be really awesome to test experimentally. Moreover, the relative simplicity of the pipe cleaner - setting aside the fact that it comes in an overwhelming variety of...

  14. Good Work for dentists - a qualitative analysis

    Berthelsen, Hanne; Hjalmers, Karin; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld


    OBJECTIVE: This study explores dentists' perceptions of Good Work in the meaning of positive and rewarding aspects in their work in contrast to a traditional problem-centred focus on work life. METHODS: Nine informants were selected among Danish and Swedish general dental practitioners to obtain...... of Giorgi's phenomenological analysis, as modified by Malterud, generalizing descriptions reflecting aspects of Good Work. Selection of participants continued until saturation of the emerging categories was achieved. RESULTS: The core of Good Work emanates from the clinical encounter: from the relation...... with the patient and from the opportunity to carry out high quality odontological handicraft. Social relations at the workplace, as well as organizational values and conditions were perceived as influencing the opportunities to achieve the rewarding aspects from the clinical encounter. CONCLUSIONS: The results...

  15. Analysis of Batik Value Chain in Ethnic Minority Areas--A Case Study of Danzhai County in Guizhou Province


    Based on value chain analysis method,we surveyed and interviewed interest groups of batik industry in Danzhai County.From raw material production,product processing,marketing,organization and management,we discussed the supply chain of batik products in ethnic minority areas,and analyzed favorable factors of batik industry development and obstacles to interest groups developing batik industry.Finally,we put forward corresponding policy suggestions,including strengthening farmers’ ability in batik production section,enhancing capability construction of batik cooperatives and associations,increasing cultural value added of batik products,bolster policy and financial support of government departments,and promoting establishment of cooperative mechanism for handicrafts.

  16. Moderating Effects of Craftourism on Place Attachment and Destination Loyalty

    Arup Kumar Baksi


    Full Text Available Practice of traditional handicrafts play a significant role in enhancing destination attractiveness. Visitors assign considerable weightage to local craft practices to satisfy their desire to participate in the learning and production process, a case of role-reversal. Promoting this scope of role-reversal has been used by the Destination Marketing Organizations as differentiators. Craftourism has gained considerable momentum. This paper focuses on examining the moderating effects of craftourism on place attachment and destination loyalty. Dimensions of craftourism were identified by applying suitable statistical procedure. The results revealed craftourism, with option for visitors to enact role-reversal, improves the chances of destination loyalty following antecedent effects of place attachment. Keywords: craftourism, place attachment, destination loyalty, visitor, moderating

  17. A simple tool for preliminary hazard identification and quick assessment in craftwork and small/medium enterprises (SME).

    Colombini, Daniela; Occhipinti, E; Di Leone, G


    During the last Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA), Beijing, August 2009, an international group was founded aimed at developing a "toolkit for MSD prevention" within IEA and in collaboration with World Health Organization (WHO). Possible users of toolkits are: members of health and safety committees, health and safety representatives, line supervisors; labor inspectors; health workers implementing basic occupational health services; occupational health and safety specialists.According to ISO standard 11228 series and the new Draft CD ISO 12259-2009: Application document guides for the potential user, a computer software ( in Excel®) was create dealing with hazard "mapping" in handicraft The proposed methodology, using specific key enters and quick assessment criteria, allows a simple ergonomics hazard identification and risk estimation. Thus it makes possible to decide for which professional hazards a more exhaustive risk assessment will be necessary and which professional consultant should be involved (occupational physician, safety engineer, industrial hygienist, etc.).

  18. Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda


    Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres.

  19. Effect of Cognitive and Aerobic Training Intervention on Older Adults with Mild or No Cognitive Impairment: A Derivative Study of the Nakajima Project

    Keiko Sugano


    Full Text Available Background: An increasing elderly population in Japan requires effective cognitive intervention programs for dementia. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of such programs for older adults. Methods: The participants were local community-dwelling non-demented older adults and adults with mild cognitive impairment who underwent executive function and group aerobic training. In addition, a non-intervention group participated in activity sessions involving handicraft, Skutt ball matches, and cooking. The four criteria for assessment were cognitive function, instrumental activities of daily living, human relationships, and physical function. Results: The participants in both intervention groups showed a significant improvement in their memory function compared with the non-intervention group. Conclusion: Early rehabilitation intervention using executive function and aerobic training programs may improve memory.

  20. The species of cuscus in northern coastal areas of Manokwari, Papua



    Full Text Available This study aims to identify cuscus species found in the northern part areas of Manokwari. The study was conducted on 5-26 November 2005 and 10-25 August 2007. The method used in the research was descriptive by means of applying observation and interview techniques. The result of the research reveals that there are two cuscus species that exist in the area, namely Phalanger orientalis (Mesber and Spilocuscus maculatus (Mowodu. The activity pattern of cuscus is strongly inter-related to the phases of the moon, weather, and secure and unspoiled environment. The cuscus is commonly hunted by local people for its meat and handicrafts. The local people do not have a pattern of traditional conservations. Therefore, the government needs to issues policies dealing with wildlife hunting.

  1. Research on the Development of Rural Commodity Economy in the Edo Period

    Lei; YE; Lulu; QIAN


    The rural commodity economy in the Edo period developed by leaps and bounds under the influence of institution,policy,technology and other factors. From the mid 17 th century,the specific area of cash crops gradually took shape in Japan and the largescale cultivation of cash crops greatly promoted the development of rural handicrafts,thereby creating the conditions for the initiation of the capitalist relations of production. The development of rural commodity economy not only changed the traditional mode of operation and production of Japanese farmers,but also accelerated the class differentiation,shook and disintegrated the economic foundation and class basis of Bakuhan society,and created the preconditions for the later Meiji Restoration.

  2. Business models for full service energy renovation of single-family houses in Nordic countries

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif; Haavik, Trond


    markets are dominated by handicraft-based individual solutions. In this paper we have analyzed the opportunities for implementation of one-stop-shop business models where an overall contractor offers full-service renovation packages including consulting, independent energy audit, renovation work, follow-up...... (independent quality control and commissioning) and financing. A comparative assessment of emerging business models in the Nordic countries shows that different types of actors can provide such a service. Financing is included in some models. There are differences in how customers are contacted, while...... the similarities are on how the service is provided. Even though there is strong business potential for one-stop-shop energy renovation concept, still it has been somewhat difficult to start or run such a business. Various options to overcome the hindrances to promote energy efficient renovation of detached houses...

  3. So Sorry––Never Sorry. Ai Weiwei’s Art between Tradition and Modernity

    Tania Becker


    Full Text Available Ai Weiwei’s 艾未未 (b. 1957 artistic expression revolves around his use of traditional Chinese techniques to create new designs and forms, shaping traditional materials into contemporary configurations. In the face of obstruction from state officials and local politicians, Ai Weiwei exposes himself to considerable personal risk in order to continue his activities as an artist and stay loyal to his convictions. This paper examines the roots of Ai Weiwei’s work in Chinese art history and looks at how the artist has deliberately adapted traditional motifs to bring about a sense of alienation. Ai Weiwei’s unique stance between current trends in western art and the Chinese feeling for handicrafts is also explored.

  4. Results of an Internet survey of myoelectric prosthetic hand users.

    Pylatiuk, Christian; Schulz, Stefan; Döderlein, Leonhard


    The results of a survey of 54 persons with upper limb amputations who anonymously completed a questionnaire on an Internet homepage are presented. The survey ran for four years and the participants were divided into groups of females, males, and children. It was found that the most individuals employ their myoelectric hand prosthesis for 8 hours or more. However, the survey also revealed a high level of dissatisfaction with the weight and the grasping speed of the devices. Activities for which prostheses should be useful were stated to include handicrafts, personal hygiene, using cutlery, operation of electronic and domestic devices, and dressing/undressing. Moreover, additional functions, e.g., a force feedback system, independent movements of the thumb, the index finger, and the wrist, and a better glove material are priorities that were identified by the users as being important improvements the users would like to see in myoelectric prostheses.

  5. An Ontology-based Knowledge Management System for Industry Clusters

    Sureephong, Pradorn; Ouzrout, Yacine; Bouras, Abdelaziz


    Knowledge-based economy forces companies in the nation to group together as a cluster in order to maintain their competitiveness in the world market. The cluster development relies on two key success factors which are knowledge sharing and collaboration between the actors in the cluster. Thus, our study tries to propose knowledge management system to support knowledge management activities within the cluster. To achieve the objectives of this study, ontology takes a very important role in knowledge management process in various ways; such as building reusable and faster knowledge-bases, better way for representing the knowledge explicitly. However, creating and representing ontology create difficulties to organization due to the ambiguity and unstructured of source of knowledge. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to propose the methodology to create and represent ontology for the organization development by using knowledge engineering approach. The handicraft cluster in Thailand is used as a case stu...


    Eli Nur Nirmala Sari


    Full Text Available A lack of livelihood to meet the needs has been one reason why forest communities have utilized non-timber forest products (NTFPs. For some communities living in or around forest areas, NTFPs have been a basic support for their small-scale industries, which could contribute to better income. This study focused on the utilization of NTFPs by forest communities and their awareness in terms of utilizing such products for handicrafts in small-scale industry. This study examined the NTFPs potentials, markets, and social benefits at the five villages in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The villages-surveyed were Batu Lidung, Punan Bengalun, Sesua, Mendupo, and Seputuk which were located in and near forest areas managed by PT Intracawood Manufacturing as a forest concessionaire. The method used was Participatory Rural Appraisal Techniques, and the data collection was based on primary data and household survey. The result suggested that among the five villages, the most remote area was Punan Bengalun. Forest community of Punan Bengalun has started selling the handicrafts made from NTFPs only in the last few years. Among the five villages-sur veyed, the forest community in Seputuk tended to be more active in utilizing NTFPs for small-scale industry rather than those in four other villages. Awareness in utilizing the NTFPs had been mostly depended on factor of forest distance from the villages. People living close to the district capital (where there was a wider variety of employment opportunities had less motivation to utilize NTFPs although there were available.

  7. Factors associated with simulator-assessed laparoscopic surgical skills of veterinary students.

    Kilkenny, Jessica J; Singh, Ameet; Kerr, Carolyn L; Khosa, Deep K; Fransson, Boel A


    OBJECTIVE To determine whether simulator-assessed laparoscopic skills of veterinary students were associated with training level and prior experience performing nonlaparoscopic veterinary surgery and other activities requiring hand-eye coordination and manual dexterity. DESIGN Experiment. SAMPLE 145 students without any prior laparoscopic surgical or fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) simulator experience in years 1 (n = 39), 2 (34), 3 (39), and 4 (33) at a veterinary college. PROCEDURES A questionnaire was used to collect data from participants regarding experience performing veterinary surgery, playing video games, and participating in other activities. Participants performed a peg transfer, pattern cutting, and ligature loop-placement task on an FLS simulator, and FLS scores were assigned by an observer. Scores were compared among academic years, and correlations between amounts of veterinary surgical experience and FLS scores were assessed. A general linear model was used to identify predictors of FLS scores. RESULTS Participants were predominantly female (75%), right-hand dominant (92%), and between 20 and 29 years of age (98%). No significant differences were identified among academic years in FLS scores for individual tasks or total FLS score. Scores were not significantly associated with prior surgical or video game experience. Participants reporting no handicraft experience had significantly lower total FLS scores and FLS scores for task 2 than did participants reporting a lot of handicraft experience. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Prior veterinary surgical and video game experience had no influence on FLS scores in this group of veterinary students, suggesting that proficiency of veterinary students in FLS may require specific training.

  8. [Institutionalisation and professionalisation of (occupational) medicine in Germany].

    Muller, I; Martin, M


    In the first tierce of XIX century the necessity of steps for the health care of working people on the side of medicine and also of the state was perceived. The claims for the producing of the appropriate structural and coneptional conditions led to the creation of work medicine as a sphere, that developed in Germany in relation to political values, social-political programs and medical models. An acknowledgement gained such conception of work medicine and less on the medical work prevention. The notion of work medicine was related with the insurance system from 1883/84 against the unlucky accidents and diseases. The process of institutionalisation and professionalisation of medicine in Germany from the beginning was formed by coexistence of different sociological sciences and mixture of various groups of interest, intending an influence on the form of both processes. This constelation caused a sluggish and slow progress. For example astonishing is the time needed by the work medicine for its stabilisation as a knowledge at the universities. We may go out from presupposition, that the broadening of the industrial production brings chances to this part of medicine having interest in negative consequences of this progress for the human health. However the university teachers regarded the work medicine existed on the edge of medical sciences till the time after the second world war. The progress came thanks to the impulses of single physicians, who beginning in 7-years of the XVIII century published increasing amounts of papers on the work medicine (handicraft and industrial hygiene). Some organizations were created whose interests concerned the work health damaging aspects. A special role had the German Society of Handicraft-Industrial Hygiene, founded in 1922.


    Roxana-Maria BUŞ


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how territorial identity, expressed through immaterial and material heritage, especially folklore and traditional crafts, can be a means of economic sustainable development in rural areas. As a case study, we choose the Land of Călata (Hu. Kalotaszeg, a region from North-Western Transylvania, Romania, focusing on two of its best-known villages: Izvoru Crișului (Hu. Körösfő and Sâncraiu (Hu. Kalotaszentkirály. Izvoru Crișului is appreciated for carpentry and handicrafts products, whilst Sâncraiu is well-known for its Hungarian folk music and dance festival. In order to illustrate how these activities can lead to economic development, we interviewed a craftsman family from Izvoru Crișului and a dance instructor, cofounder of the International folk music and dance camp that is held annually in Sâncraiu. We also analysed several handicrafts stalls from Izvoru Crișului to see exactly what kind of products were being sold in there. The results show that even though traditional crafts could generate an income for the local people, most of the products sold in Izvoru Crișului are not authentic, but brought there from other regions of Romania or abroad. On the other hand, the international folk music and dance camp from Sâncraiu is the best example of how a one-week event can help local economy by generating income for various stakeholders involved in the organisation and realisation of the event, and be the igniter of a larger agro-touristic activity. In the end, we concluded with several remarks concerning the need for raising awareness among the locals how to benefit from their cultural heritage and traditional occupations and we acknowledged the potential of traditional crafts and folklore as a means of diversifying income possibilities in rural areas.

  10. Biopsychosocial repercussions of work and income generation in the life of Northe-âstern Brazilian women - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p68

    Cibelly Aliny Siqueira Lima Freitas


    Full Text Available In the discussions about health promotion, this is conceived as quality of life, in which social and economic policies should act directly on determinant factors of the health-illnesses process, such as feeding, education, sanitation, work, income, leisure and access to goods and services. In this perspective, the aim of this study was to investigate the expectations of a group of women, inhabitants of Cachoeiro Community, a deprived locality of Northeast Brazil, on the professionalization possibilities, and to know the biopsychosocial repercussions of work-income generation, after a professionalizing action. The study consisted in an action in research, with a qualitative approach, based on the Theoretical Referential of Madeleine Leininger, with six local women, by means of interviews and the accomplishment of a course on carnauba straw handicraft, between May, 2005 and June, 2006. This study resulted from the participation of the researchers in a University Extension project, which favored a bigger interaction with the women of that place. During sociability it was observed that they claimed for a work that contributed to the increase of the family income and breached with the financial dependence on their spouses. It is perceived in this study the cultural factor as strongly influencing the lives of these women, in which abusive relations of power, perceived since infancy, became obstacles in matters related to health, education and in the work and income generation. At the end, the women of the Community were able to seize upon a handicraft technique that contributes for their recognition as citizens, interacting with greater knowledge and attitude in the settlement where they live.

  11. 1913-1949年陇海铁路东段的修建与沿线地区工业的变迁%Construction of the East Section of Longhai Railway and Regional Industry Development during 1913-1949



    The east section of Longhai railway starts in the west from Kaifeng to Lianyungang in the east. It was an important railway across Henan, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces during the period of the Republic of China. The construction of the east section of Longhai railway was affected by shortage of funds, political instability and military conflicts, on and off over twenty-odd years. The construction of the east section of Longhai railway had im-portant influences on the industrial development of the adjacent regions, bringing about the changes of the tradition-al handicraft industry and the emergence of new handicraft industry, the rise of modern industry and the change of the industrial layout.%陇海铁路东段西起开封东至连云港,是民国时期横跨河南、安徽和江苏三省的一段重要铁路。受资金短缺、政局动荡及战乱等影响,陇海铁路东段且修且停,历时20余年。陇海铁路东段的修建对沿线地区工业发展产生了重大影响,主要表现为传统手工业的嬗变和新式手工业的浮现、近代新式工业的兴起和工业布局的变化。

  12. Early Sámi visual artists - Western fine art meets Sámi culture

    Tuija Hautala-Hirvioja


    Full Text Available Johan Turi (1854–1936, Nils Nilsson Skum (1872–1951 and John Savio (1902–1938 were among the first Sámi visual artists. The production of their art work occurred between the 1910s and the early 1950s. Sámi aesthetics had its basis in folklore, i.e., handicraft or duodji, which did not follow the principle of art for art’s sake but combined beauty and practicality. Art was part of community life. Not until the 1970s was the word daidda, which is Finnish in origin and which means “art”, adopted into the Sámi language. Turi and Skum became famous through their books. They drew and wrote in order to pass the traditional knowledge of their people on to succeeding generations. They also wanted to introduce Sámi life and culture to non-Sámi people. One typical feature of their work is that they depicted Sáminess in a realistic way and sought to strengthen and preserve the Sámi identity through their art. In Turi and Skum’s work, both the documentation of community life and their own personal expression were strongly present and equally important; for this reason their pictures and texts have both practical and aesthetic dimensions. They did not attend school and were self-taught artists. The third pioneer of Sámi visual arts was John Savio, who, unlike the other two, attended secondary school and studied visual arts both independently and under the guidance of a mentor. He expressively combined Western ways of depiction with Sámi subjects. My article examines what made these early Sámi artists change over from Sámi handicraft, duodji, to Western visual arts, how they used Western pictorial conventions in dealing with their Sámi subjects, and the significance of their art for Sámi identity and culture. They lived and worked under cross pressure: the first few decades of the 20th century were characterized by racial theories that denigrated Sámi people, and the period following World War II was marked by demands for

  13. 现代意识工艺下的纤维艺术探析%Discussion on Fiber Art under Modern Consciousness Process



    现代意识工艺影响着现代艺术,现代艺术的发展带动纤维艺术的发展,从纤维艺术的发展也能看出现代艺术的趋势和走向.从手工艺实践的回归、意识工艺的延续等方面,探讨意识工艺下的纤维艺术创作内容和方法;再从现象入手,品味从看重手工艺到青睐意识工艺为主的纤维艺术的审美价值和形式革命背后的文化.研究认为纤维艺术可以改变人们对室内空间约定俗成的概念,通过新颖的原材料的使用,还可以改造整个空间.纤维艺术易于人们领会和交流,并且随着时代的变化而变化,现代纤维艺术的创作者们积极的回应着现代主义者的理想,并在对纤维艺术的探索中,还原了艺术家的精神.%Modern consciousness process influences the modern art and the development of modern art drives that of fiber art. The trend of modern art can be seen from the development of fiber art. This paper discusses the content and method of fiber artistic creation under consciousness process in such aspects as regression of handicraft practice and consciousness process and appreciates aesthetic values of fiber art which changes from focusing on handicraft to favoring consciousness process and the culture behind form revolution. It believes that fiber art can change people's conventional concept of interior space and the overall space can be transformed through the use of new raw materials. Fiber art is easy to comprehend and communicate and changes with the changing times. Creators of modern fiber art are positively responding to ideals of modernists and have restored the spirit of artists in the exploration of fiber art.

  14. Vulnerability of soils towards mining operations in gold-bearing sands in Chile

    Jordán, Manuel Miguel; González, Irma; Bech, Jaume; Sanfeliu, Teófilo; Pardo, Francisco


    The contamination levels in handicraft mining, despite less production and processing less equipment, have high repercussions upon the environment in many cases. High-grade ore extraction, flotation, gravity concentration, acid leaching cementation and mercury amalgamation are the main metallurgical technologies employed. Gold recovery involving milling and amalgamation appears to the most contamination source of mercury. This research work is only a starting point for carrying out a risk probability mapping of pollutants of the gold bearing sands. In southern Chile, with a mild and rainy climate, high levels of pollutants have been detected in some gold placer deposits. The handicraft gold-bearing sands studied are located in X Region of "Los Lagos" in southern Chile. A great quantity of existing secondary deposits in the X Region is located in the coastal mountain range. The lithological units that are found in this range correspond with metamorphic rocks of a Paleozoic crystalline base that present an auriferous content liberated from the successive erosive processes suffered. Metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks also make up part of this range, but their auriferous load is much smaller. The methodology used in the characterization of the associated mineralization consists of testing samples with a grain size distribution, statistical parameter analysis and mineralogical analysis using a petrographic microscope, XRD and SEM/EDX. The chemical composition was determined by means of XRF and micro-chemical analysis. The major concentrations of heavy minerals are located in areas of dynamic river energy. In the studied samples, more the 75 % of the heavy minerals were distributed among grain sizes corresponding to thin sand (0.25-0.05 mm) with good grain selection. The main minerals present in the selected analysed samples were gold, zircon, olivine, ilmenite, hornblende, hematite, garnet, choromite, augite, epidote, etc. The main heavy metals found were mercury

  15. Producción artesanal indígena: una aproximación a la problemática en la comunidad Chané de Campo Durán (Salta, Argentina Indigenous craft production: an approach to the problematic of the chané community of Campo Durán, Salta province

    Cecilia Benedetti


    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un conjunto de consideraciones que surgen de una investigación en curso sobre producción artesanal indígena en la comunidad Chané de la localidad de Campo Durán, provincia de Salta, Argentina. En el contexto de las vulnerables condiciones socioeconómicas que atraviesan a este pueblo, las artesanías se presentan como una importante fuente de ingreso, al mismo tiempo que constituyen una de sus manifestaciones tradicionales más relevantes. Tras recorrer brevemente la historia de las artesanías Chané, se señalan las problemáticas fundamentales que se presentan en torno a esta actividad en la actualidad, focalizando en la dimensión económica. En este sentido, se propone que las artesanías Chané atraviesan un proceso de dinamización. El análisis realizado en este trabajo apunta a especificar este fenómeno y a comprender sus implicancias en la estructuración de los procesos productivos y la caracterización de los productores. Desde esta perspectiva, la dinámica actual de la producción artesanal Chané se vincula con dos cuestiones: el incremento de las posibilidades de comercialización y la necesidad de diversificar las fuentes de ingreso en un contexto de precarización del trabajo asalariado.This paper presents some considerations that emerge from current research on indigenous craft production in the Chané community of Campo Durán, province of Salta, Argentina. In the context of the vulnerable social and economic situation that characterizes this group, the handicrafts are an important source of income, and also one of their most prominent traditional manifestations. After examining briefly the history of Chané handicrafts, some contemporary problems related to this activity are revealed, focusing on the economic dimension. In this sense, it is proposed that Chané crafts are undergoing a process of increased dynamism. The following analysis aims to explain this phenomenon and understand its

  16. The Status and Role of Hui people in Economic Development of Ningxia in Qing Dynasty%回族在清代宁夏经济发展中的地位和作用



    Hui people is an important component of the population of Ningxia in Qing Dynasty.In the early pe-riod of Qing Dynasty, Hui people mainly inhabited in areas like Xiji, Haiyuan, Guyuan, Tongxin, Jinji, Lingzhou, Wuzhong and Pingluo, where agriculture was relatively developed and traffic was relatively convenient, and the pop-ulation of Hui people living in the North was much more than that in the South.In the late Qing Dynasty, Guyuan, Yanchi and Tongxin became their main inhabiting areas.Hui people in Ningxia play an important role in the devel-opment of agriculture, handicraft industry and business in Qing Dynasty.In the long-term economic activities in Qing Dynasty, an economic structure of Hui people in Ningxia was formed in which they were mainly engaged in ag-riculture and concurrently engaged in animal husbandry and handicraft industry.It is very significant for our man-agement of ethnic relations and acceleration of economic development of Ningxia to understand and acknowledge the role Hui people ever played in the economic development of Ningxia in ancient times.%回族是清代宁夏人口的重要组成部分。清代前期,宁夏的回族主要集中在西吉、海原、固原、同心、金积、灵州、吴忠、平罗等农业相对发达、交通较为便利的地区,且北部多于南部。清代后期,固原、同心等地成为回族的聚居区。回族在清代宁夏农牧业、手工业和商业的发展中起了很大作用。清代宁夏的回族在长期的经济活动中,形成了以农业为主,兼营畜牧业、手工业和商业的经济结构。正确认识和了解回族在古代宁夏经济开发中的作用,对于当前正确处理民族关系、加快宁夏经济发展具有重要的意义。

  17. Estrategias campesinas de reproducción económica y paludismo en la microregión pliegues fallados de los Altos de Chiapas, México: estudio de caso Peasant strategies for economic reproduction and malaria epidemiology in the ravines microregion of the Chiapas mountains, Mexico: a case study

    Mauricio Gutiérrez Ortega


    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue establecer relaciones iniciales entre actividad agrícola y paludismo, definíendose riesgos y prevalencia a través del análisis de la integración de estrategias de reproducción de los pobladores de una comunidad indígena de Los Altos de Chiapas. Se obtuvo información sobre sitios de trabajo, uso del suelo, volúmenes de producción de café, maíz y frijol y número de unidades familiares involucradas en esta producción, el trabajo asalariado y en las artesanías. Se analizó la circulación productiva a los "trabajaderos" de tierra caliente. Se compararon unidades familiares con casos y sin casos de paludismo, entre 1987 y 1993, en Ybeljoj, Municipio de Chenalhó, Chiapas. Entre los resultados más sobresalientes encontramos que las estrategias que ofrecieron mayores riesgos y prevalencia de paludismo fueron aquellas donde la actividad del cultivo del maíz y el trabajo asalariado estaban presentes; contrariamente, aquellas estrategias en donde la artesanía era la actividad principal o de segunda importancia estaban asociadas con la ausencia del paludismo o prevalencia mínima de la enfermedad.The goal of this investigation was to establish an initial correlation between farming activities and malaria and to define risk factors and prevalence of the latter through an analysis of the integration of farm production strategies by members of an indigenous peasant community in the Chiapas mountains in Mexico. Information was obtained on places of work, land use, coffee, corn, and bean farming, and number of family members involved in farming activities, wage labor, and handicrafts production. Migration of farm workers to warmer climates was also analyzed. The study compared families with and without cases of malaria from 1987 to 1993 in the town of Yibeljoj, Chenalhó county. The most outstanding characteristics of this analysis were the following: strategies involving greater risk and prevalence of

  18. The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden

    Wikström, Anders; Pereira, Lola; Lundqvist, Thomas; Cooper, Barry


    historical period the porphyry-works produced good handicrafts that catered for the poor as well as providing items of extravagant luxury. To-day a porphyry museum exists in Älvdalen. A few handicraft workers are active , and the abandoned old porphyry plants are open to visitors.

  19. Budaya dan Kualitas Kerja pada Perusahaan Manufaktur dan Eksportir Rotan

    Rudy Aryanto


    Full Text Available Cane (Calamus spp, also known as rattan, is an important non-timber forest product used extensively all over Indonesia as a raw material for making furniture, handicraft, and other household articles. The study aims to generate information on production and export industry of rattan furniture, identify problems, and recommend solutions. The general problem on rattan manufacture management is human resources especially working ethos and performance of employees. The aim of this research is to analyze the influence of quality management and working ethos towards working performance of the employee at a rattan exporter and industry. Analysis method used are associative and Pearson correlation. The data collected from the employee towards quality management and working ethos, by filling out the questionnaire provided by using Likert scale that is effective to analyze the composition of the agreement and disagreement towards the statement on the questionnaire. The result achieved from this research is to learn the relation between quality management of working ethos, notify the relation between quality management and working ethos with working performance, and acknowledge the influence between quality management and working ethos, and working performance. The quality management has a low relation towards working performance. Working ethos has a strong relation with working performance. Quality management and working ethos has a strong relation towards working performance employees in rattan exporter and industry.

  20. On the Art of Weaving in Modern Fashion Design%浅谈编织艺术在现代服装设计中的运用



    中国传统的编织艺术在手工艺技术的发展中占有举足轻重的地位,各类编织的艺术产品正点缀和美化着我们的生活。基于编织艺术的特点,在现代服装设计中常常运用编织技巧对服装进行装饰。随着时代的变迁,编织服装有这广阔的发展空间,服装设计师应不断汲取编织艺术的维他命,结合时尚潮流趋势,设计出新颖时尚的编织服装。%Chinese traditional art of weaving occupies a pivotal position in the development of handicraft art, the art of weaving all kinds of products are dotted and beautify our lives. Based on the characteristics of the art of weaving in modern fashion design techniques often use woven garment decoration. With the changing times, woven garments have this broad space for development, the designer should continue to learn the art of weaving vitamins, combined with the fashion trend, new fashion design knit garments.

  1. 浅析建筑施工企业如何适应建筑产品工业化趋势%Construction Enterprises How to Adapt to the Industrialization Trend of Building Products



      当前科学技术广泛发展,建筑工程行业已经从传统的手工业逐步转向社会化大生产的方式。通过采用先进的工艺,新型的建筑材料,在建筑标准化的基础上不断更新施工的技术,使我国建筑施工企业朝着健康、可持续的方向发展。%The current science and technology is extensive de-veloped, the construction industry has gradual y shifted from the traditional handicraft industry of large-scale socialized pro-duction. Through the use of advanced technology, new buil-ding materials, updating the construction unceasingly in the fo-undation construction standardization of the technology, makes the construction enterprises of our country towards a healthy, sustainable development.

  2. Academic roots of chemical engineering in XVIII and XIX century in middle Europe

    Halasi Tibor


    Full Text Available Roots of chemical engineering in Middle Europe lead to the first mining and metallurgy academies, established in VIII century in Upper Hungaria and in Bohemian Kingdom. Chemical engineering skills originate from ancient Egyptian handicraft, alchemy, technical chemistry, pneumochemistry and phlogiston chemistry. Development of mining and metallurgy coincided with great scientific discoveries and industrial revolution. In Middle Europe, the first such academies were opened in St. Joachimstahl and in Schemnitz, and the first Serbian mining engineers Djordje Branković, Vasilije Božić and Stevan Pavlović studied, as well as the first chemistry professor of the High School in Belgrade, Mihajlo Rašković. Eminent professors were employed by the Schemnitz academy, such as: Nicol Jacquin, Giovanni Scopoli, Ignaz von Born and Christian Doppler. It is important to emphasize that Shemnitz practiced the first modern, practical laboratory education. In VIII century, Schemnitz Mining and metallurgy academy was the most contemporary educational insistution for engineers. However, in XIX century, mining and metallurgy academies stagnated, due to the replacement of professional academies with polytechnic schools, technical universities and scientific research institutes.

  3. Morphology of the muscles of the shoulder, arms and forearms of the coati (Nasua nasua

    Amilton Cesar dos Santos


    Full Text Available The coati is an animal that belongs to the Phylum Chordata, the Class Mammalia, the Order Carnivora and the Procyonidae family. The striking feature of the family Procyonidae is the presence of five digits on the paws. These animals are classified as plantigrades and can do hand movements in different directions. It has habits of climbing trees to procreate, fleeing from danger, and sleeping at night. It feeds on fruits, small vertebrates, insects, nectar, eggs and vegetables. For this work were used three euthanized animals, from the Scientific Breeding Center (CECRIMPAS – UNIFEOB authorized by IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76, fixed in formaldehyde solution 10%. This work describes the morphology of the muscles of the forelimb of the coati, through dissection and photographic documentation. In the studied species, we found anatomical adaptations of thoracic limb muscles which had a mass volume much greater than in other species (puma, alpaca, dog, cat, lhama and Cebus apella monkeys, and this fact was found to be directly related to their abilities in climbing and handicraft.


    Mody Lempang


    Full Text Available This research was carried out to examine basic properties (anatomical structure, chemical, physical and mechanical of jabon merah wood (Anthocephalus macrophyllus (Roxb. Havil taken from natural forest in Luwu Timur District South Sulawesi Province. Potential uses of wood were determined by considering those properties and wood uses which the local inhabitants have currently employed. Results revealed that jabon merah heartwood is yellowish rather tend to red in colour and not clearly distinct from the sapwood, texture is rather fine and even, grain is straight and sometimes rather interlocked, wood surface is rather glossy, rather smooth to smooth in touch, and moderate in hardness. Fiber is remarkably long with very thin wall thickness. High in cellulose and extractive, moderate in lignin and low in pentose content. Moderate in specific gravity (0.48, very low in shrinkage and classified in wood strength class III. Potential uses are for light construction material under roof, cheap furniture, handicraft, measuring and drawing instruments, pencil, box and stick of matches, toothpick, spoon and handles of ice cream, moulding, wood composites, pulp and paper, pallet, packing box and concrete forms.Keywords: Anatomical, chemical, mechanical, uses of wood, jabon merah

  5. The pattern of performance management of community service learning empowerment in improving the entrepreneurship on the graduation candidate of Vocational Technology Education Institution



    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the pattern of performance management of Community Service Empowerment Learning-Universitas Negeri Semarang in improving the entrepreneurship of the graduate candidate of Vocational Technology Education Institution. This evaluation research uses Context Evaluation, Input evaluation, Process evaluation and Product evaluation method (CIPP) to evaluate the performance management of Community Service of Empowerment Learning-Universitas Negeri Semarang. The location of research was in Kandri Subdistrict-Indonesia. The subject of research is the Kandri Subdistrict community, especially the groups of the youth, students, subdistrict organizers, community organization, and culinery and handicraft industry, as well as the students who join the program of Community Service of Empowerment Learning-Universitas Negeri Semarang. The object of research is the pattern of perfomance management of Community Service Empowerment Learning-Universitas Negeri Semarang in improving the entrepreneurship of the graduation candidate of Vocational Technology Education Institution. The research result shows the pattern of Community Service Empowerment Learning-Universitas Negeri Semarang is able to improve the enterpreneurship of graduate candidate of Vocational Technology Education Institution. The pattern of Community Service Empowerment Community-Universitas Negeri Semarang which is Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)in the field of education, training, and assistance continuously can grasp and develop competency and balance mindset of students including triple bottom line which mutually connectedamong the sectors of social, economic, cultural, and environment so that it can increase the entrerpreneurship on the graduates candidate of Vocational Technology Education Institution

  6. Uses of Local Plant Biodiversity among the Tribal Communities of Pangi Valley of District Chamba in Cold Desert Himalaya, India

    Pawan Kumar Rana


    Full Text Available Pangi Valley is the interior most tribal area in Himachal Pradesh of Northwest Himalaya. An ethnobotanical investigation is attempted to highlight the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants being used by the tribes of Pangi Valley. Various localities visited in the valley 2-3 times in a year and ethnobotanical information was collected through interviews with elderly people, women, shepherds, and local vaids during May 2009 to September 2013. This paper documented 67 plant species from 59 genera and 36 families along with their botanical name, local name, family name, habit, medicinal parts used, and traditional usage, including the use of 35 plants with new ethnomedicinal and other use from the study area for the first time. Wild plants represent an important part of their medicinal, dietary, handicraft, fuel wood, veterinary, and fodder components. These tribal inhabitants and migrants depend on the wild plant resources for food, medicines, fuel, fibre, timber, and household articles for their livelihood security. The present study documents and contributes significant ethnobotanical information from the remote high altitude and difficult region of the world, which remains cut off from rest of the world for 6-7 months due to heavy snowfall.

  7. Economic, Political and Symbolic Management of “Traditional Knowledge”: The Construction of a Self-Identity in a Globalized World

    Marc Lenaerts


    Full Text Available This paper is the introduction to the dossier with three articles resulting from the Symposium “Economic, Political and Symbolic Management of ‘Traditional Knowledge’: Indigenous Criteria and External Redefinitions” of the 53rd International Congress of Americanists (Mexico, 2009. We have modified the subtitle of the Symposium, adopting in exchange for this dossier the subtitle of the Congress’ motto: “The Construction of a Self-Identity in a Globalized World”. The first part of the text remembers Ana María Spadafora, co-organizer of the Symposium and editor of the dossier, who passed away in 2010. The second part presents the aim of the Symposium and the contribution of the three articles in the dossier, plus Ana María Spadafora’s article, which was published earlier in this journal. Even though they touch on quite different research fields—bio-trade in Mexico and Peru, commercialization of handicrafts in French Guiana, modifications of traditional knowledge among the Ashéninka of Peru, and dreams of Pilagá women of the Chaco as practical action—all four papers show that the emphasis on relational aspects, the polyvalence of thoughts and practices or the imbrication of speaking, thinking and doing are stronger constants than the persistence of this or that emblematic element of “ethnic tradition.”

  8. Plywood Industry by Using Eco-efficiency Approach and LIA- Wood Balance Sheet Program

    Yulia Nurendah


    Full Text Available The general purposes of this study were to improve the efficiency of wood utilization and to create wood’s value added for plywood industry. To achieve the above purposes a strategy for Agro forestry Industry should be develop based on eco-efficiencyprinciples. The details of targets were: (1. to analyze critical factors in plywood industry management regarding to eco-efficiency implementation, (2 to analyze production technology that is used in plywood industry, and (3. to design a developing strategy of integrated plywood industry based on eco-efficiency principles. The result of this study show that the key factors for plywood management’s policy was environmental awareness; material utilization; and international issues. The production technology of all plywood industry in Indonesia is relatively similar. They are using the machineries of the 80’s and have the similar working procedures. The kinds of wood wastes generated from plywood industry were classified into log end, reject log end, green veneer waste, and others. The wood waste was calculated 49.52% released from 100% input log in plywood industry. There are three strategy of integrated plywood industry based on eco-efficiency, namely (1 selecting and managing of environmental impact, showing three kinds of waste which affect the environment (2 Improvement the plywood manufacturing technology, showing the newinnovation technology or process control management and (3 Development of new product from wood waste. Wood waste can be used to produce block board, laminated board, handicraft, and others.

  9. Textural patterns, mineralogy, and chemistry of sandstone-related Calçadinha chalcedony (Piauí, Brazil

    Marcondes Lima da Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Paleozoic sandstones of the Parnaíba Basin, in addition to hosting opal deposits, also have occurrences of chalcedonies with potential for mineral and ornamental handicrafts, in addition to assisting the understanding of the geological evolution of the basin. However, the chalcedonies were not investigated yet, and this study intended to fulfill this gap by the investigation of the chalcedonies of Calçadinha in Piauí. Fieldwork, microtexturals analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry, chemical analysis, and gemological assessments were developed. Four distinct types of chalcedonies have been distinguished. They stand out for their well distribution of Fe and Mn dendrites, which involves opal nodules, and contains microcavities with well-formed microcrystalline quartz, nontronite, and palygorskite. The mesoscopic features of these chalcedonies and cabochon and free forms cutting show potential for use in mineral crafts and semi-jewels. As expected, the chalcedonies are dominated by high contents of SiO2, besides the low and variable contents of Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, and TiO2. Among trace elements that show high Ba contents, bound in barite, seem also to be a geochemical signature of the country sandstones in Parnaíba basin. These chalcedonies were formed during the partial solubilization of SiO2 of sandstones, which was promoted during their tectonic formation in faults and fractures zones.

  10. 基于SD的制造企业物流运作成本仿真与优化%Manufacturing enterprise's logistics operational cost simulation and optimization based on system dynamics

    王超; 穆东


    Logistics cost control is always an academic and business circles' hot topic and the enterprise can effectively reduces business costs by controlling this "black continent". This paper built the structure model of manufacturing enterprise's logistics operational cost, and simulated the model: a case study of Tianjin handicraft firm, finally proposed some optimizational tactics. The research results indicated that the complex relation among factors of manufacturing enterprise's logistics operational cost system could be better revealed with the use of system dynamics methodology and the method proposed can provide guides and references for logistics cost control.%本文使用系统动力学方法构建制造企业物流运作成本的结构模型,并以天津手工艺品制造企业——THF为例,进行模拟仿真并提出优化方案.结果表明:将系统动力学应用于制造企业物流运作成本控制可以较好地反映所研究系统内因素间的复杂关系,该方法可为物流成本控制提供指导与借鉴.

  11. The Empowerment of Orang Asli Women in the Tourism Industry in Lenggong, Perak

    Yahaya Fatan Hamamah


    Full Text Available Women, particularly those of the Orang Asli community, without a doubt play an important role in the family. These duties and roles include organising household affairs, giving birth and raising children, tending to the house, preparing meals for the family and sorting out their children’s school affairs. However, their roles are not limited to duties or daily routines that are done only at home. In fact, women (especially Orang Asli women, are capable of far more activities that can empower them, especially in the Lenggong’s tourism industry. This paper explores Orang Asli women empowerment through tourism industry with anthropological perspective. The empowerment of Orang Asli women can be seen from the aspect of skills that they already have which can be turned into tourism products, as well as to increase their source of income in supplementing their family expenses. Among the skills that can be highlighted are making handicrafts, being tourist guides, promoting traditional cuisine and dances as well as finding and brewing wild plant roots for medicinal purposes. The women of the Orang Asli who originally only served as housewives, can now change their family’s way of life by doing all sorts of activities which can generate new sources of income, by venturing into activities that can be used as attractions and new tourism product markets, especially in Lenggong, Perak.

  12. Ecologia e rappresentazione dello spazio: Saviano, Tournier, DeLillo

    Niccolò Scaffai


    Full Text Available The main subject of the essay consists in the literary representation of environment as a mixed system, half natural and half human. The symbolic value and the great significance of ecological themes in the contemporary literature are related to this environmental double entity.  The essay particularly highlights the presence and the importance of trash, waste, garbage in three contemporary fiction and non-fiction novels: Les météores by the French writer Michel Tournier; Underworld by Don DeLillo; Gomorra, the docu-fictional report of the Italian journalist and writer Roberto Saviano about the illicit traffics of ‘Camorra’. The word ‘waste’ and his synonyms define composite and impure materials, that sometimes slips every clear distinction between nature and handicrafts: on this subject, we can think about the Pacific Trash Vortex, a sort of island or ‘Atlantis’ of garbage formed in the Pacific Ocean by the rubbish and shaped by the oceanic streams.    If we can’t identify clear boundaries between nature and human activities, we can’t either separate the two dimensions from an ethical point of view.  The literary works considered in the essay show the importance of admitting the weakness of the boundaries to go beyond obsolete distinctions (such as city vs country, nature vs culture.

  13. The Role of Context in Third Graders’ Learning of Area Measurement

    Denny Haris


    Full Text Available Many researches showed that the most of students find the difficulty in measuring area. The formula of area tends to be taught directly without involving the conceptual basis and the area measurement are separated from children’s daily experiences. For this reason, the teaching and learning of area measurement was designed and link to a set of students’ experience-based activities. The context of this research is Indonesian traditional handicraft namely anyaman. The study is situated in the context of implementing an Indonesian version of Realistic Mathematics Education, labeled as PMRI in Indonesia. Design Research methodology comprising preliminary design, teaching experiment, and retrospective analysis is applied. This research described the investigation of the context as preliminary of teaching and learning about area measurement held in 3th grade of primary school SDN 119 Palembang. The result of the teaching experiment showed that problem embedded in a context could encourage the students to develop the idea of area measurement concept. The strategies through emergent modeling showed how students’ contribution could be used to develop gradually their reasoning of area measurement concept. In the experience-based activities for learning area measurement, emergent modeling played an important role in the shift of students’ reasoning from informal level towards formal mathematical concepts of area measurement.

  14. A contingent valuation study of buriti ( Mauritia flexuosa L.f. in the main region of production in Brazil: is environmental conservation a collective responsibility?

    Irlaine R. Vieira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The immature leaves of the buriti palm (Mauritia flexuosa are widely harvested in the municipality of Barreirinhas, Maranhão, for the production of handicrafts, which are sold to locals and tourists. The increasing demand for these artisanal goods is stimulating the emergence of an informal market for immature buriti leaves, leading to an intensification of their extraction and resulting in negative effects on local buriti palm populations and the ecosystem. Thus, the objective of the present study was to assess the environmental value of the buriti palm tree based on the maximum willingness to pay (WTP for its conservation, using the contingent valuation method. Among the respondents, 99.74% reported that the palm species should be protected and the majority of them (65.75% agreed to pay for its conservation (annual WTP R$ 179.49 ± 222.05. Multivariate analysis revealed that the WTP was not influenced by the socio-economic profile of the respondents. The main reasons for non-WTP are related to dissatisfaction with the government and the belief that financial contributions would not solve problems of environmental damage. Overall, the evaluated population believes that environmental conservation is not an obligation of the government or that of the population, but is a collective responsibility.


    K. Dianta A. Sebayang


    Full Text Available Development of local economic resources, a new trend in the effort to increase the income of the community and the region. Local factors that determine both in terms of natural resources (raw materials and human resources (labor. This paper attempts to present how small and medium enterprises "Kerajinan Payung Geulis" try to improve economic development based on the development of local economic resources in Tasikmalaya. This study aims to illustrate the potential of entrepreneurs that include the competence and commitment of entrepreneurs in small business business, and to illustrate the strength of business / competitive position, business profile and entrepreneur influenced by environmental condition of external and internal environment, seen from the positive and negative side. The research was conducted on umbrella industry of handicraft business in Tasikmalaya. The method used in this research is descriptive analysis by using SWOT analysis. The results show many problems encountered and very complex, such as: low quality of human resources, limited business capital, low access to markets, access to financial institutions / banks are absent, administrative procedures ignorance, sustainability and limited capacity production; Coupled with the business climate is not conducive to the development of SMEs and entrepreneurship.

  16. Soils and cultural layers of ancient cities in the south of European Russia

    Aleksandrovskii, A. L.; Aleksandrovskaya, E. I.; Dolgikh, A. V.; Zamotaev, I. V.; Kurbatova, A. N.


    Antique cities in the south of European Russia are characterized by a considerable thickness of their cultural layers (urbosediments) accumulated as construction debris and household wastes. Under the impact of pedogenesis and weathering in dry climate of the steppe zone, these sediments have acquired the features of loesslike low-humus calcareous and alkaline deposits. They are also enriched in many elements (P, Zn, Ca, Cu, Pb, As) related to the diverse anthropogenic activities. The soils developed from such urbosediments can be classified as urbanozems (Urban Technosols), whereas chernozems close to their zonal analogues have developed in the surface layer of sediments covering long-abandoned ancient cities. Similar characteristics have been found for the soils of the medieval and more recent cities in the studied region. Maximum concentrations of the pollutants are locally found in the antique and medieval urbosediments enriched in dyes, handicrafts from nonferrous metals, and other artifacts. Surface soils of ancient cities inherit the properties and composition of the cultural layer. Even in chernozems that developed under steppe vegetation on the surface of the abandoned antique cities of Phanagoria and Tanais for about 1000—1500 years, the concentrations of copper, zinc, and calcium carbonates remain high. Extremely high phosphorus concentrations in these soils should be noted. This is related to the stability of calcium phosphates from animal bones that are abundant in the cultural layer acting as parent material for surface soils.

  17. Una aproximación a una cadena de valor textil artesanal en el Noroeste de la Provincia de Córdoba

    Martínez, Carlos Eduardo


    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo daremos cuenta del desarrollo de una cadena de valor textil artesanal que se realiza en el marco del trabajo de extensión de una agencia del Estado Argentino. En primer lugar y para ubicar contextualmente la experiencia analizaremos el contexto de cambios políticos y económicos acaecidos en nuestro País en las últimas décadas. Esta primera aproximación nos servirá de base para luego analizar los aspectos teóricos que conlleva la experiencia productiva y desde allí analizar desde una perspectiva antropológica los aspectos constitutivos de las unidades domésticas involucradas en el proyecto.In this paper we will realize the development of handicraft textile value chain is performed under the extension work of the Argentine State agency. First, and experience to locate contextually analyze the context of political and economic changes occurring in our country in recent decades. This first approach will serve as a base and then to analyze the theoretical aspects involved in production experience and from there from an anthropological perspective to analyze the constitutional aspects of the households involved in the project.

  18. Promoting women entrepreneurs in Lebanon: the experience of UNIFEM.

    Husseini, R


    The work of the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) in West Asia began in 1994 with a regional program to strengthen women-owned enterprises in Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon. In Lebanon, a survey of 100 women entrepreneurs, as well as nontraditional credit programs and banks, was conducted prior to program design. A second survey assessed micro-entrepreneurs' demands for financial and other services. Since gender analysis was a new concept in Lebanon, UNIFEM organized a gender awareness workshop for representatives of government, nongovernmental organizations, and the banking sector, followed by a strategic planning workshop. The surveys confirmed that women were concentrated mainly in the less profitable economic sectors, producing handicrafts and food products or running small service or trading companies. Women were less likely than men to get bank loans or to register their businesses. Women's problems accessing credit--the main obstacle limiting their ability to develop their businesses--were compounded by their lack of information, male-oriented collateral requirements, and discriminatory banking regulations. UNIFEM decided to channel counseling of women entrepreneurs on legal matters, marketing, and credit sources through the Ministry of Social Affairs. It is expected that knowledge of gender-related employment issues and the use of gender-specific analysis will become integral to the Ministry's program as a result.

  19. Utilisations des produits forestiers autres que le bois (PFAB au Cameroun. Cas du projet forestier du Mont Koupé

    Tshiamala-Tshibangu, N.


    Full Text Available Utilization of Non Wood Forest Products in Cameroon. The Case of the Forest Project of the Koupe Mont. A survey using some elements of the RAA method described by Gueye and Schoonmaker (4 led to the identification of 26 plant species belonging to 15 botanical families in the Koupe Mountain forest project (Cameroon. This study deals with the utilization of non wood forest products. The small number of species reported by the study can be explained by the fact that the survey took into account only the species really used by the local population and not all those present in the forest. Study established that : harvesting and utilization of these resources generate incomes, create jobs and allow local population satisfying their needs of food, fodder, medicine, resins, dyes, fiber, handicrafts, flavorings, building materials... Unfortunately, due to organizational problems and absence of structures, the commercialization of these products does not contribute to the welfare of the local population and to the development of the production area which remained dominated by agriculture. In order to ensure the perennial characteristic of the highly demanded species, measures permitting their conservation and their sustainable utilization such as : regulation of the type and the rate of harvesting, use of non destructive harvesting techniques, their domestication through agroforestry techniques, their introduction in home-gardens... should be taken. The management of these resources requires the involvement and effective participation of the rural community. This can be achieved through mass sensitization, training and use of the media.

  20. Integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management in the Philippines--what does it need?

    Paul, Johannes G; Arce-Jaque, Joan; Ravena, Neil; Villamor, Salome P


    The integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management is a challenge many developing countries face. In Iloilo City, Philippines around 220 tons of municipal solid waste are collected every day and disposed at a 10 ha large dumpsite. In order to improve the local waste management system the Local Government decided to develop a new Waste Management Center with integrated landfill. However, the proposed area is adjacent to the presently used dumpsite where more than 300 waste pickers dwell and depend on waste picking as their source of livelihood. The Local Government recognized the hidden threat imposed by the waste picker's presence for this development project and proposed various measures to integrate the informal sector into the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) program. As a key intervention a Waste Workers Association, called USWAG Calahunan Livelihood Association Inc. (UCLA) was initiated and registered as a formal business enterprise in May 2009. Up to date, UCLA counts 240 members who commit to follow certain rules and to work within a team that jointly recovers wasted materials. As a cooperative they are empowered to explore new livelihood options such as the recovery of Alternative Fuels for commercial (cement industry) and household use, production of compost and making of handicrafts out of used packages. These activities do not only provide alternative livelihood for them but also lessen the generation of leachate and Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions from waste disposal, whereby the life time of the proposed new sanitary landfill can be extended likewise.

  1. Plaster of Paris: the orthopaedic surgeon heritage.

    Hernigou, Philippe


    Plastering is one of the most ancient of the building handicrafts. Plaster is the common name for calcium sulphate hemi hydrate made by heating the mineral gypsum, the common name for sulphate of lime. In the tenth century the Arabs used liquid plaster in orthopaedic treatment. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, patients with fractures of the lower extremities-and often of the upper extremities as well-were treated in bed with restriction of all activity for many weeks until the fractures united. It was the practice of surgeons to dress wounds and fractures at frequent intervals. The bandages, pads, and splints were removed, the fractures manipulated, and the dressings reapplied. The search for simpler, less cumbersome methods of treatment led to the development of occlusive dressings, stiffened at first with starch and later with plaster of Paris. The ambulatory treatment of fractures was the direct result of these innovations. Two military surgeons, Antonius Mathijsen of the Netherlands, and Nikolai Ivanovitch Pirogov of Russia, were responsible for the introduction of the new plaster bandage technique. At the beginning of the twentieth century the technique was improved by Jean-François Calot, a French surgeon, who invented the hand manufacture of plaster bandage as a roll. During the twentieth century, walking cast and ambulation for fresh fractures were developed with plaster and pin incorporated in plaster; the open fracture care concept was introduced with plaster of Paris by Trueta before the external fixation.

  2. Modern technical solutions of gas-fired heating devices of household and communal use and analysis of their testing

    Bodzon, L.; Radwan, W. [Oil Mining and Gas Engineering Institute, Cracow (Poland)


    A review of technical solutions for gas-fired heating devices for household and communal use in Poland is presented. Based upon the analysis it is stated that the power output of Polish and foreign boilers ranges between 9 and 35 kW. The carbon monoxide content in flue gases reaches (on average) 0.005 vol.%, i.e., it is much lower than the maximum permissible level. Temperature of flue gases (excluding condensation boilers and those with air-tight combustion chamber) ranges between 150 and 200{degrees}C and their heating efficiency reaches 87-93%. The best parameters are given for condensation boilers, however they are still not widespread in Poland for the high cost of the equipment and assembling works. Among the heaters, the most safe are convection devices with closed combustion chamber; their efficiency is also the highest. Thus, it is concluded that a wide spectrum of high efficiency heating devices with good combustion parameters are available. The range of output is sufficient to meet household and communal requirement. They are however - predominantly - units manufactured abroad. It is difficult to formulate the program aimed at the improvement of the technique of heating devices made in Poland, and its implementation is uncertain because the production process is broken up into small handicraft workshops.

  3. Metafore del meccanico nel pensiero di Diderot. Arti e tecniche

    Paolo Quintili


    Full Text Available The natural philosophy of Diderot is built from the experience of the fundamental Description des Arts in the Encyclopedia, or from the «great and beautiful collection of machines» which the work provides a very rich representation. Models and metaphors that Diderot constructs to describe the world of organic beings, from the Pensées sur l'Interpretation de la nature (1753, are inspired by the world of the mechanical arts and crafts. The manouvriers d’expériences, the experimental philosophers, are the great inventors and discoverers of the secrets of nature and living being: to them Diderot inspire itself and his work as a philosopher of nature and arts. From the loom to weave socks, to the fire pump, the description of the machine proceeds through a complex network of metaphors that combine the operation of the instrument to that of organic life. The machine energises itself and the organism, in turn, is mechanized in a maze of functional architectures, according to new models and artistic metaphors of living beings, other than cartesian one. Diderot does not cease to be mechanistic still in his last vitalistic works, from Le Rêve de D’Alembert, to the Éléments de Physiologie. The new world of handicraft and artisans remains the key reference point in the philosophical work of the encyclopaedist-naturalist: weaving loom socks and sensible harpsichord are the two tools / metaphors that describe the man and his rational and specific nature.

  4. Notes about the uses of plants by one of the last healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy

    Montesano Vincenzo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The paper refers to the knowledge and uses of plants and to the linked ritual practices as referred by Matteo (It.‘Zì Matteo’, En. ‘Uncle Matthew’, one of the last elder healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy. Particular attention is also paid to the uses of ‘Vruca’ (Tamarix gallica L. as a medicinal and magical plant used to heal common warts on various parts of the body. Methods After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through an open interview about the uses of the plants and on the associated ritual practices. For each species, data were collected that included the vernacular names, preparation, plant parts utilized and their method of use. Results The uses of 52 taxa are described. Among these, 43 are or were employed medicinally, eight as culinary foodstuffs, and 4 for domestic, handicraft or ethnoveterinary uses. Among the major findings: the ritual and magical use of Tamarix gallica L. to heal warts is described in detail; so far, no records of similar use were found in any Italian ethnobotanical studies conducted in southern Italy. Conclusion Phytotherapy in the Basilicata region is practiced by elderly people who resort to medicinal plants for mild illnesses; we interviewed one of those traditional healers who is very experienced in the field, and possesses rich ethno-pharmacological knowledge.

  5. [Behavior and well-being of people with dementia in a social care group. Observation study with dementia care mapping].

    Hochgraeber, Iris


    Social care groups for people with dementia areone way to relieve family caregivers and to activate individuals with dementia. This study aimed to describe one social care group and investigate the well-being of the groups members. The research question therefore was: What are people with dementia doing and how do they feel in a social care group? In this descriptive observation study we observed three group sessions in one social care group with five members in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) using Dementia Care Mapping (DCM). The results show that there was a special course of action fixed by meals, welcoming and farewell. The behaviour and well-being varied. Leisure like doing handicraft and interaction were depicted as main activities. The well-being was high, if participants had energetic activities and the course of action of the different group members was similar. Interestingly one person was excluded from almost all activities. It is important for staff to know the constellation of the group and to include all visitors.

  6. Development of Rural Communities by Diversification of Rural Economy in the Context of Sustainable Development

    Manuela Dora Orboi


    Full Text Available The sustainable development is a process taking place at the same time with the complex and sustainable agricultural development; agriculture and the rural area being interdependent sides specific to rural communities. When analysing economic activity in the rural area we should pay a particular attention to the identification of such alternative activities that have a real chance for development and create new jobs that compensate the diminution of labour occupancy degree in agriculture. Opportunities of rural economy represent a source of having alternative income for the population from rural communities in order to escape from poverty and in order to accelerate the social progress in the rural area. Alternative activities with economic, social and cultural impact, providers of jobs and incomes are: the development of agro tourism and rural tourism, processing and promoting foodstuff, local traditional drinks, ecological foodstuff, handicraft and silviculture. Improving the conditions for business in the rural area is a main condition for the generation of economic activities generating jobs in the rural area.

  7. Impact of community-based natural resource management on household consumption: a case study of Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    Rylida Vong


    Full Text Available Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM is implemented in Tonle Sap Lake (TSL, Cambodia after abolishment of commercial fishing lots in 2001 and 2012. One objective of CBNRM implementation is to reduce poverty of the local communities in TSL. This study aimed to examine the impact of CBNRM on household consumption of fishermen in TSL through Propensity Score Matching method by comparing 248 non-CBNRM households and 223 CBNRM households This study reveals that CBNRM had a negative impact on adult equivalent consumption in the community including the fishermen who fished only inside the community boundary and those who fished both inside and outside the community boundary. However, this study also shows a positive impact of CBNRM on adult equivalent consumption of the households who fished only inside the community boundary. The local community needs more rights to exclude the migrant fishermen and rights to enforce the laws. This study also highlights that alternate income sources should also be created that could be created by expanding the market of the existing ecotourism-job, i.e. hyacinth-made handicraft making.


    H.Nurgul BEGİC


    Full Text Available Felt is described as a type of very thick warpless cloth, made by compressing wool in various ways without weaving, came up by humans’ covering up and sheltering needs against natural conditions in the first ages. Turkish nomads made ornaments and the objects they use completely from the wools derived from the animals raised by them. Wool allowed them to produce everything required for them. Felt has developed specificly in Middle Asia and oldest samples of felt are also found in there. Turkic tribes, which went towards west from the regions called as “Felt Land” by Chinese, has brought felt art with themselves and provided continuance of this art in an area involving up to thousands of kilometers from Balkans to the east borders Mongolia which also includes Anatolian and Iranian plateaus. Felt making is a handicraft which develops by traditional way, exists in Konya city centre from past to present. Konya Felt making is handed on “from father to son” or by “apprenticeship” from past to present. Felt products found in museum and storages of Konya has been investigated.

  9. Evaluating farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change: A case study of Kaou local government area, Tahoua State, Niger Republic

    A. Moussa Tabbo


    Full Text Available The study discusses local farmers’ strategies of coping with and building resilience against the negative impact of climate change. Information for the discussion was from data collected using a set of structured questionnaires from interviews scheduled with 128 farmers. The questionnaire was based on previous literature and direct reconnaissance interview with farmers, which culminated in 13 strategies used for the study being reported. For each question, respondents were asked to choose their best and worst strategies. Thus, the difference between the best and worst strategies consistent with random utility theory has been used for the modelling. Results show that semi-transhumance, various handicrafts making, rural migration, small-scale vegetable production and small-scale river exploitation were the most important strategies identified, whilst water transport and vending, shifting cultivation, gypsum mining, gathering and trading of wild fruits and edible plants as well as cattle and sheep fattening were the least appreciated strategies identified amongst the farmers facing climate change. These findings are therefore imperative for planning farmers’ capacity-building and resilience against climate change projects to ensure sustainability in the study area.Keywords: Farmers’ adaptation strategies; Climate change resilience; Kaou

  10. The Importance of Family Relations for Cannabis Users: The Case of Serbian Adolescents

    Zorica Terzic Supic


    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is transitional stage of physical and mental human development occuring between childhood and adult life. Social interactions and environmental factors together are important predictors of adolescent cannabis use. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the social determinants and adolescents behavior with cannabis consumption.Methods: A cross sectional study as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs was conducted among 6.150 adolescents aged 16 years in three regions of Serbia, and three types of schools (gymnasium, vocational – professional, and vocational – handicraft during May – June 2008. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to obtain adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals in which the dependent variable was cannabis consumption non-user and user.Results: Among 6.7% of adolescents who had tried cannabis at least one in their lives, boys were more involved in cannabis use than girls, especially boys from gymnasium school. Well off family, lower education of mother, worse relations with parents were significantly associated with cannabis use (P < 0.05. Behaviors like skipping from schools, frequent evening outs, and playing on slot machines were also related to cannabis use (P < 0.05.Conclusions: The study confirmed the importance of family relationship development. Drug use preventive programmes should include building interpersonal trust in a family lifecycle and school culture.

  11. Stakeholder perceptions of ecosystem services of the Wami River and Estuary

    Catherine G. McNally


    Full Text Available Management of riverine and coastal ecosystems warrants enhanced understanding of how different stakeholders perceive and depend upon different kinds of ecosystem services. Employing a mixed methods approach, this study compares and contrasts the use and perceptions of upstream residents, downstream residents, tourism officials, and conservation organizations regarding the value of 30 ecosystem services provided by the Wami River and its estuary in Tanzania, and investigates their perceptions of the main threats to this system. Our findings reveal that all of the stakeholder groups place a high value on the provision of domestic water, habitat for wild plants and animals, tourism, and erosion control, and a relatively low value on the prevention of saltwater intrusion, refuge from predators, spiritual fulfillment, nonrecreational hunting, and the provision of traditional medications and inorganic materials for construction. Differences emerge, however, between the groups in the value assigned to the conservation of riverine and estuarine fauna and the provision of raw materials for building and handicrafts. Declining fish populations and an increasing human population are identified by the residents and conservation employees, respectively, as their prime concerns regarding the future conditions of the Wami River and its estuary. These groups also acknowledge increasing salinity levels and the loss of mangroves as other key concerns. The identification of these mutual interests and shared concerns can help build common ground among stakeholders while the recognition of potential tensions can assist managers in balancing and reconciling the multiple needs and values of these different groups.

  12. Petro-mineralogy and geochemistry as tools of provenance analysis on archaeological pottery: Study of Inka Period ceramics from Paria, Bolivia

    Szilágyi, V.; Gyarmati, J.; Tóth, M.; Taubald, H.; Balla, M.; Kasztovszky, Zs.; Szakmány, Gy.


    This paper summarized the results of comprehensive petro-mineralogical and geochemical (archeometrical) investigation of Inka Period ceramics excavated from Inka (A.D. 1438-1535) and Late Intermediate Period (A.D. 1000/1200-1438) sites of the Paria Basin (Dept. Oruro, Bolivia). Applying geological analytical techniques we observed a complex and important archaeological subject of the region and the era, the cultural-economic influence of the conquering Inkas in the provincial region of Paria appearing in the ceramic material. According to our results, continuity and changes of raw material utilization and pottery manufacturing techniques from the Late Intermediate to the Inka Period are characterized by analytical methods. The geological field survey provided efficient basis for the identification of utilized raw material sources. On the one hand, ceramic supply of both eras proved to be based almost entirely on local and near raw material sources. So, imperial handicraft applied local materials but with sophisticated imperial techniques in Paria. On the other hand, Inka Imperial and local-style vessels also show clear differences in their material which suggests that sources and techniques functioned already in the Late Intermediate Period subsisted even after the Inka conquest of the Paria Basin. Based on our geological investigations, pottery supply system of the Paria region proved to be rather complex during the Inka Period.

  13. Traditional usages of ichthyotoxic plant Barringtonia asiatica (L. Kurz. by the Nicobari tribes

    T. Ravikumar


    Full Text Available The Barringtonia asiatica is a medium size tree commonly found in Car Nicobar Island known for its ichthyotoxic property. It grows on sandy and rocky shore areas and has lantern shaped seeds, locally called Kinyav used during the calm season in shallow and low tide waters for killing fishes, octopus, etc. At every successful operation they harvest about 1–3 kg and on the whole about 10–20 kg of fishes per trip. This method of fish catching was popular among the Car Nicobari tribes until massive tsunami of 26th December, 2004, which caused dislocation of tribes from their erstwhile coastal inhabitations to interior areas, damage of coral reefs, permanent water intrusion in the intertidal area and destruction of Kinyav trees. Hence, now-a-days the popularity of this fishing method among them has diminished. The study not only reveals the usefulness of seeds in harvesting of fishes but also the utilization of other parts of tree such as leaves for therapeutic purpose in fracture, wound, de-worming, pain relieving of human beings; log for construction of canoe, wooden houses, sitting stage, handicraft items, fire wood and whole tree for preventing the coastal erosion.

  14. The Nutritional Facts of Bamboo Shoots and Their Usage as Important Traditional Foods of Northeast India.

    Nongdam, P; Tikendra, Leimapokpam


    Bamboo shoots are considered as one of the useful health foods because of their rich contents of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibres, and minerals and very low fat. Though bamboo shoots provide lots of health benefits, their consumption is confined mostly to Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The acceptability of bamboo shoots as popular vegetable crop is very less due to their high pungent smell and bitter acidic taste. The use of bamboo as food in India is mainly restricted to Northeastern part of the country where they form an indispensable part of several traditional speciality dishes. The different ethnic communities take fresh or fermented bamboo shoot as one of most preferred traditional food items. Some of the important bamboo based traditional foods are ushoi, soibum, rep, mesu, eup, ekhung, hirring, and so forth. Bamboo shoots should be properly processed before they are consumed as freshly harvested shoots have high content of toxic cyanogenic glycosides which may pose serious health problems. The prospect of bamboo shoot industry in Northeast India is bright due to its rich genetic resources of bamboos. However, habitat destruction and extensive use of bamboos for food, handicraft, and construction purposes have resulted in severe depletion of natural bamboo resources. This review stresses upon the high nutritive values and health benefits of bamboo shoots and their usage as important traditional foods in Northeast India. The bamboo market potential of the region and use of in vitro plant micropropagation methods as effective means of bamboo conservation are also emphasized in this paper.

  15. Cultural Heritage Tourism in Malaysia: Issues and Challenges

    Ismail Norhasimah


    Full Text Available Malaysia is experiencing an incredible pace of tourism development and heritage tourism is one of the tourism branches that have long contributed to appeal the tourist destination and acts as important marketing tool to attract tourist especially with special interests in heritage and arts. Cultural heritage tourism has emerged as a potential form of alternative tourism among both international tourists as well as Malaysian domestic travelers. The difference of ethnics present in Malaysia brought different local knowledge discipline ranging from its architecture, handicrafts, traditional attire, music and dance, which reflects a colorful heritage and an amalgamated culture. There are arise of conflict in management of cultural heritage tourism in Malaysia face by tourism managers, stakeholders, governments, cultural heritage managers and local community itself. In order to maintain, conserve and preserve the resources and assets of cultural heritage in Malaysia, a system or management need to be develop that take into consideration on every issues and challenge, so that the decision making process is reliable to optimize the value of cultural heritage tourism industry in Malaysia. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview and discuss the status, issues and challenge of cultural heritage tourism in Malaysia.


    Felix Andreas Sutanto


    Full Text Available Abstrak. IbM ini bertujuan membuat pruduk software framework aplikasi e-commerce untuk toko on-line UMKM khususnya handicraft, kuliner, batik dan pakaian dengan berbasis sistem manajemen isi (Content Management System/CMS dan optimisasi mesin pencari (Search Engine Optimization/SEO. Produk tersebut nantinya dipergunakan oleh mitra yang merupakan calon wirausaha baru di bidang teknologi informasi (TI. Untuk dapat menerapkan produk tersebut pada usahanya, dan mampu membuat sendiri, mengoperasikan, mengembangkan, dan memelihara maka perlu dilakukan pelatihan dan pendampingan tentang framework aplikasi, manajemen usaha, dan kewirausahaan. Metode yang digunakan dalam IbM ini adalah kaji tindak partisipatif. Pelaksanannya yaitu dengan melakukan identifikasi dan analisis situasi tentang permasalahan yang dihadapi mitra, selanjutnya memberikan solusi berupa pelatihan, pendampingan, dan pembuatan teknologi Software framework E-commerce berbasis CMS dan SEO yang melibatkan mitra serta dilakukan monitoring dan evaluasi agar mitra menjadi terarah, terampil dan profesioanal di bidang tersebut. Target IbM ini adalah terbentuknya wirausaha baru bidang TI khususnya E-commerce bagi UMKM yang terlatih, terapil, dan profesional dalam menjalankan usahanya. Sehinga Luaran dari IbM ini adalah berupa Produk Software Framework E-commerce bagi UMKM berbasis CMS dan SEO, jasa pelatihan Desain web E-commerce, jasa pelatihan manajemen usaha, dan jasa pelatihan kewirausahaan.Kata Kunci : Framework, E-commerce, CMS, SEO, wirausaha, UMKM

  17. Potentially hazardous plants of Puerto Rico: preliminary guide

    Ferguson, F.F.; Medina, F.R.


    General information is presented about the kinds of native and imported plants in Puerto Rico (weeds, grasses, vines, cactuses, shrubs, trees and parts thereof) that should be avoided, or not ingested. Small amounts of eaten wild plant materials are usually not likely to be hazardous although large amounts may be dangerous; the striking exception is mushrooms. While a number of Puerto Rican plants are lethal to cattle, only a few are known to cause death to man as, for example, the fruit of the Deadly Manchineel, Hippomane mancinella and the seed of the Rosary Pea, Abrus precatorius. Tourists especially should avoid tasting any green or yellowish apples growing on a medium-sized tree. The Hippomane fruit resembles the Crabapple of temperate zones. It is now unlawful to use the Rosary Pea in the local handicraft industry. An item of special interest is the delicious fruit of Mamey often offered for sale at roadside, the outer coating of which is poisonous. All of the light brown outer covering, including especially all of the inner whitish tunic, must be carefully removed from the golden yellow fruit before eating, or else illness may result. Relatively few of the plants presented here will produce major physical problems if only contacted or chewed, but ingestion of some plant parts produces severe toxic symptoms.

  18. Las cofradías en el reino de Valencia. Análisis y claves interpretativas

    Benítez Bolorinos, Manuel


    Full Text Available

    Between 1329 and 1458 the kingdom of Valencia witnessed a development of an assocaitive movement parallel to other European regions, which gave rise to the appearence of a great number of associations divided in two main groups: religious and trade brotherhoods. Their objectives were to cover a series of spiritual and charity needs, and also to serve as a representation for the traditional handicrafts, looking for a great influence on the urban world by means of a series of symbols, which permited a high grade of social exhibition.

    Entre los años 1329 y 1458, el reino de Valencia asistió al desarrollo de un movimiento asociativo, paralelo a otras regiones europeas, que dio lugar a la aparición de un buen número de corporaciones divididas en dos grandes grupos: cofradías religiosas y cofradías de oficio. Sus objetivos eran cubrir una serie de necesidades espirituales y benéficas, pero también servir de representación a los oficios artesanos, buscando así una mayor influencia en el mundo urbano a través de la ostentación de una serie de símbolos, que permitieron un alto grado de exhibición social.

  19. Neutron activation analysis and provenance study of Tupiguarani Tradition pottery

    Faria, Gleikam Lopes de Oliveira [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/ CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Ciencia e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais], e-mail:; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/ CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Reator e Tecnicas Analiticas. Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail:; Ribeiro, Loredana; Jacome, Camila [Cooperativa dos Empreendedores em Acoes Culturais - COOP. CULTURA, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Arqueologia], e-mail:


    Archaeology can fill the gap between ancient population and modern society elucidating the evidences found in archaeological sites. The fingerprint identified, that is the chemical composition of the ceramics, can help understanding this connection between the past and the present. The Tupiguarani Tradition vestiges found by archaeologists will be a way to know about the last two millennia of the Brazilian prehistory. This archaeological site is located along the coast of the Brazilian State of Espirito Santo, where the main evidence is a pretty ceramic with the occurrence of plastic and painted decoration. When the Portuguese settlers arrived in this region, in sixteenth century, several Missoes Jesuiticas (Jesuitical Missions) were built along the Brazilian coast. In spite of living within the Mission and been catechized, the Indians kept on producing traditional handicraft, as the decorated ceramic, however, they introduced European elements to the decoration. During the research expeditions made to the archaeological site of the Tupiguarani Tradition, many sherds were found. The identification and classification of ceramics through a multielemental chemistry analysis will be used to determine if they have the same origin. This paper shows the first elemental concentration results of the sherds collected from archaeological site determined at CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 nuclear reactor, applying the neutron activation technique, k{sub 0}-method. (author)

  20. On Material Beauty in the Aesthetic Activity of Guqin%古琴审美活动中的“材美”观念



    古琴艺术十分重视取音、指法,它们在古琴琴论(如《溪山琴况》)中并非是单纯的技巧论,而是具有审美本体论地位。对琴"音"本身的珍视是与古琴(乃至其他中国艺术)高度重视琴材本身审美价值特性的观念密切联系,这种观念在《考工记》中被称作"材美",它深刻地贯注在古琴审美活动始终。%The art of Guqin attaches great importance to toning and fingering.In the theory of Guqin,for example,Xi Shan Qin Kuang(the most important book on Chinese Guqin aesthetic history),they not only mean the simple theory of skill,but also have the status of aesthetic ontology.Thus,placing high value on the tone attaches closely to the concept of the specialty of paying great attention to the material of Guqin or even other Chinese arts.This concept is called material beauty in Kao Gong Ji(the earliest book about skills of handicraft industry in ancient China) and it runs through the whole aesthetic activity of Guqin.




    Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical approach of the relation between tourism and local development. The research method used is based on documenting and summarizing aspects related to the importance of tourism on local development. According to data provided by the World Tourism Organization (WTO, 2014, compared to 2010, a 91% increase of the number of international tourist arrivals is forecasted in 2030, from 948 million arrivals (2010 to 1,810 million arrivals (2030. Therefore, it is no surprise that tourism is viewed as a development strategy in many national economies. Tourism literature captures a series of arguments that emphasize the contribution of tourism to local development by: creating new jobs, revitalizing cultural traditions, improving infrastructure, environmental protection, etc. For Romania, as well, it may be noted that tourism strategies included in the 2013-2016 Government Programme are oriented towards local tourism by: decentralizing the authorization and approval activity, developing an integrated tourism by capitalizing all the local resources (cultural, agricultural, handicraft, etc., connecting Romanian tourism to international trends, etc. In order to achieve the aforementioned objectives, the 2013-2016 Government Program provides the clarification on the issue of decentralization, since the current government believes that a balanced development of Romania can only be achieved through transfer of authority to the local, county and regional levels.

  2. Effect of malt milling for wort extract content

    Gábor Géczi


    Full Text Available Beer manufacturing is one of the most ancient procedures of food manufacturing. The four (in many cases much more ingredients, the great numbers of technological steps and variations of technological parameters (temperature, time, pressure etc. have a major influence on both type and quality of the final product. As a result of this, studying beer brewing may offer a great deal of possibilities for numerous researches, scientific examinations, and can provide useful informations for the manufacturing companies as well. At the „Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra" we examined an entire beer brewing process in October 2013, utilising the Ahlborn sensors, which were integrated in the instruments. Simultaneously, in Gödöllő at the Szent István University, we analysed the effect of malt milling on extract yield and the filterability of wort. We used the brewing parameters (temperature, time, volume ratios, which were experienced in the microbrewery and published in professional literature. Our results verify the conclusions drawn in the professional literature, however they point out the importance of grinding. Results performed on the yields with different grain-constitution might directly be utilised for the specialists of recently in Slovakia and Hungary spreading small-scale, handicraft, and homemade beer brewing.

  3. Post-harvest Handling, Storage and Processing of Sisal (Agave sisalana Fibres in the Hhohho District of Swaziland

    V.S. Vilane


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the current practices and problems encountered in product development using sisal fibres with the view to explore the use of enzymes in releasing and softening the fibres. Associations making products of sisal fibres were identified in the Hhohho region of Swaziland and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA tools and questionnaires were utilised in obtaining results for this study. Findings revealed that plant fibre production in the country was mainly done by unemployed rural women who used sisal plant leaves and employed crude decortication methods. The majority of the women (67% were married, 48% were still highly productive as they were in between the ages of 16 and 35 years. About 31% of them were illiterate, with only 34% gone as far as primary education. The majority of the women (55% were living on less than US $40.00/month which was too low considering the poverty datum line. A wide range of products were made and marketed abroad via an intermediate dealer. The study revealed that the women’s efforts of making a living through handicraft were affected by the rough texture of sisal fibres, thus a need for research in modifying the texture of the fibres. The sisal project was found to be ecologically unsustainable because handcrafters relied on wild sisal and they lacked appropriate technology to increase productivity.

  4. STRATEGI PEMASARAN KATALOG PRODUK (Studi Kasus Pengrajin Bambu Sukodono Sragen

    Aflit Nuryulia Praswati


    Full Text Available The promising prospect of bamboo industry is now evolving not only become handicrafts and small enterprises. Stakeholders of bamboo industry need to pay attention on the potency of this industry for its eco-friendliness, expediencies, and advantages. The bamboo industry in Sragen Regency for instance, develops properly but still faces marketing problems as its primary obstacle. Bamboo craftsmen are commonly supplying products based on customer orders. This study identifies the use of catalogue media to promote bamboo product in Sragen Regency. Using study case for descriptive qualitative, this research clarifies that bamboo craftsmen in Sragen Regency need support for development process. The catalogue arrangement process is started from identification of existing products, containing product name, size, usage, and price. Information of producer profile such as name, address, and telephone are equally important attributes for the catalogue. All information in the catalogue must represent profile and accessibility of the related product in order to attract consumers, and practically for its ease of marketing process. These long process, and bamboo handicraftsmen commitment in promotion obstruct this study to determine the efficency of the catalogue in raising bamboo market.

  5. 韶关动植物图腾和吉祥物研究%Shaoguan Totem Animal and Plant Research and Mascot



    Shaoguan Ancient Villages of flora and fauna and mascot means that the associated Teng decorative Shaoguan Hakka traditional architecture, clothing, handicrafts and live on utensils. This paper describes the totem animal and plant and mascot Shaoguan ancient villages, according to the type of decorative themes and totem and mascot of the Central Plains regions were compared, it analyzed ancient villages construction in Shaoguan, apparel plants and animals ' totem pattern features.%韶关动植物图腾和吉祥物是指韶关传统建筑、服饰、手工艺、生活器物上的相关装饰.韶关动植物图腾和吉祥物与中原地区的图腾和吉祥物图案相比,韶关建筑、服饰中的动植物图腾带有明显的功利性与实用性,是中华民族传统图腾和吉祥物的延续和演化.

  6. Culture, innovation and periphery: a theoretical sketch and some evidence from different portuguese contexts

    Eduardo Brito Henriques


    Full Text Available The present paper tries to look at the culture-innovation nexus in periphery. Starting with a theoretical discussion on this issue, in which the role of culture in current capitalism is analysed, we raise the question whether the increasing imporance of culture in the present economic context has been creating new opportunities for peripheral regions to innovate, namely by the valorization of tradition.The paper will highlight the results of four case studies from the handicraft pottery sector. These achievements will then be confronted with an exemple of cultural political promotion in an urban area - Lisbon'94, European Cultural Capital, in order to unravel the political logic of cultural and innovation in the periphery. The final section provides a brief conclusion, placing emphasis on the ambivalences which characterise peripherical modernisation processes and their cultural dimension. We argue that the ability of periphery to sustain development strategies based on the valorization of tradition depends primarily upon a successful management of these ambivalences.

  7. Multimodal Approach to the Image of Impoverished: A Visual Analysis of Covers in a Sample from Intermón Oxfam Magazines



    Full Text Available This article intends to approach the way NGOs represent the population in poor and rich countries and their own representation as NGOs of Development. Our corpus consists of all the issues from the Intermón Oxfam’s magazine called Revista IO published in 2012. We will offer a detailed analysis of the covers because this is the first page seen by the readers and because this is the way in which the NGO introduces itself. Critical discourse analysis, specifically the model proposed by van Leeuwen (2008 and Kress and van Leeuwen’s (2006 visual grammar will be used in order to provide a detailed analysis of the covers and to observe the main visual characteristics used for presenting people from poor countries in a sample from Intermón Oxfam’s magazines. After analysing the said covers we conclude that this NGO creates a dichotomy between producers of raw materials and handicrafts, located in poor countries, and consumers of these products, located in rich countries. Thus, the relations between them appear mediated by money and not by universal values such as the equality or social justice.

  8. 京族民间文艺与自然生态%The Gin Folk Literatures & Arts and Nature & Ecology



    京族民间文艺的生成、发展与自然生态环境之间有着密切关系。京族民间文艺作品体现了人们独特的生态意识,自然环境对京族民间口承文艺、民间舞蹈、服饰艺术以及民间工艺的产生与传承具有深刻的影响,造就了京族民间文艺的独特风格,没有京族地区独特的生态环境,其民间文艺也就失去所赖以产生的土壤。%The Gin folk literatures and arts linked closely with the natural and ecological environment in both its forming and the development.They reveals the unique ecologically awareness of the Gin people,and was deeply ingrained by the environment in the forming and passing down of the oral fork literatures,dances,dresses and handicrafts.Without the unique ecological environment,the Gin folk literatures and arts would lose its foundation.

  9. Art Therapy: The Benefits for Sick Children

    Daniela Caprino


    Full Text Available To draw is one of the favourite games of children, it performs two functions: a function of releasing, in which the child actively reproduces an unpleasant experience, and the anguish can be externalized. The second function is symbolic in which the children immerse themselves in a fantasy world where every desire can be accommodated and realized, creating a symbolic play, through which the child can express emotions. In most cases, drawings and other handicrafts help us to understand and appreciate the improvement in the child’s feelings that comes from the environment, from the psychosocial support closely linked to the achieved results, and from the overall help strategy developed within the Department for the whole family. For this reasons it is an important therapeutic tool. It promotes the therapeutic alliance and allows the child liberation like a “catharsis” of anger, discontent, and fear. It allows the patient to speak freely and it causes the awareness of hidden conflicting reality that is the basis of the specific neurotic or psychotic problem of the child.

  10. The impact of hydroelectric project development on the ethnobotany of the Alaknanda river basin of Western Himalaya, India

    Khilendra Singh Kanwal


    Full Text Available Background: This study focuses on the ethnoflora used by local communities in the Alaknanda river basin of Uttarakhand state in Western Himalaya, India. The objectives of the study are to collect ethnobotanical information, to assess the impact of hydropower projects on ethnoflora and to suggest conservation and management measures for the protection of ethnoflora. Material and Methods: A well-designed questionnaire based survey was conducted in the ten villages of the study area to collect ethnobotanical information. The conservation status of plants was also evaluated following the IUCN Red list, the Red Data Book of Indian Plants and the CITES criteria. Results: A total of 136 plant species belonging to 61 families and 112 genera were used by local communities for various ethnobotanical purposes. The majority of plant species were used for medicinal purposes (96 spp., followed by fodder (46 spp., wild edibles (31 spp., fuel (29 spp., timber (17 spp., fish poison (9 spp., agriculture implements (6 spp., fibre (6 spp., religious use (6 spp. and handicraft (1 sp.. For the preparation of herbal medicine, rural people of the region use different parts of medicinal plants such as the whole plant (20% followed by roots/rhizomes/tubers (20%, leaf (18%, fruit (10%, seed (9%, bark (9%, stem (6%, flowers (6% and resin (2%. Conclusions: Development of hydropower projects will influence the diversity and distribution of ethnoflora in the region. Therefore, for the conservation of the ethnoflora of the area, conservation and management measures have been suggested.

  11. Developing a stand-based growth and yield model for Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast in Tunisia

    Sghaier T


    Full Text Available Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast is a Mediterranean forest species mainly occupying semiarid environments in North African countries, where it provides important ecological and economical services, such as biodiversity conservation, soil protection against erosion, fuelwood, timber for fencing, construction and handicraft, resins, etc. Despite the importance of the species, there is a severe lack of scientific knowledge as regards the management of these forests or modeling tools to support multifunctional forest management decision making. In the present work, we developed a stand-level integrated model for the management of Thuya forests in Tunisia. The model comprises a family of site index curves, built using the Generalized Algebraic Difference Approach (GADA method, which provides predictions for stand growth, aboveground biomass, total and merchantable volumes, along with a non-linear system of stand level equations presented as stand density management diagrams (SDMD. The developed model has been used to define, characterize and compare four different management specific schedules for different site qualities and multifunctional objectives.

  12. Fabric-skin models to assess infection transfer for impetigo contagiosa in a kindergarten scenario.

    Gerhardts, A; Henze, S V; Bockmühl, D; Höfer, D


    Children in community bodies like kindergartens are predisposed to suffer from impetigo. To consider important measures for infection prevention, direct and indirect transmission routes of pathogens must be revealed. Therefore, we studied the role of skin and fabrics in the spread of the impetigo pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and the strain Streptococcus equi (surrogate to Streptococcus pyogenes) in order to assess infection transfer in realistic scenarios. The transmission of test strains was studied with standardized fabric-skin models using a technical artificial skin and fabrics of different fiber types commonly occurring in German kindergartens. In synthetic pus, both test strains persisted on artificial skin and fabrics for at least 4 h. Friction enhanced transfer, depending on the fiber type or fabric construction. In a skin-to-skin setup, the total transfer was higher than via fabrics and no decrease in the transmission rates from donor to recipients could be observed after successive direct skin contacts. Children in kindergartens may be at risk of transmission for impetigo pathogens, especially via direct skin contact, but also by the joint use of fabrics, like towels or handicraft materials. Fabric-skin models used in this study enable further insight into the transmission factors for skin infections on the basis of a practical approach.

  13. Some technological properties and uses of paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa Steud.) wood.

    Akyildiz, M Hakan; Kol, Hamiyet Sahin


    The aim of this study is to determine some physical and mechanical properties of Paulownia tomentosa wood grown in Turkey. The samples trees harvested from Kargi in Corum. Physical properties including air-dry density oven-dry density basic density swelling, shrinkage and oven-dry and air-dry thermal conductivity coefficients; mechanical properties including bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending, compression strength parallel to grain, hardness, bonding strength were analyzed. Paulownia tomentosa wood's air dry and oven dry densities were determined as 0.317 and 0.294 g cm(-3); basic density was determined as 0.272 g cm(-3); volumetric shrinkage and swelling were determined as 7.78 and 8.41%; tangential, radial and longitudinal air-dry thermal conductivity coefficients were determined as 0.089, 0.090 and 0.133 kcal/mh degrees C, respectively. Fiber saturation point (FSP) was found 28.79%; bending strength, Modulus of elasticity in bending, compression strength parallel to grain and Brinell hardness values (parallel and perpendicular to grain) were determined as 43.56 N mm(-2), 4281.32 N mm(-2), 25.55 N mm(-2), 2.01 kgf mm(-2) and 0.88 kgf mm(-2), respectively. Consequently paulownia wood can be widely used for various purposes such as house construction, furniture making, pulp and paper and handicrafts.

  14. Women's involvement in population and development policies.

    Siqueira Wiarda, I


    Too many development and family planning policymakers have regarded women as target consumers rather than as active participants in their own development. Women need more than contraceptives. They need opportunities to learn income-generating skills, to develop leadership, and to be involved in the choice of contraceptives. 2 examples of women's development are cited from Brazil. Romy Medeiros da Fonseca, lawyer and President of the National Council of Women, fights for women's rights to a full range of state-financed family planning services and liberalized abortion laws. Abortion in Brazil is available to those who can afford it. The Servicio de Orientacao da Familia (SOF) was founded in 1963 by professional women in Sao Paulo. In their pleasant clinic, women are seen by nurses, doctors, social workers, and psychologists. A monthly publication details upcoming events which include sewing, handicraft lessons, and literacy courses. In 1979 the 3,000 members used over 25,000 services from the clinic. Much of the professional staff volunteers their time. The "global approach" to women's development is endorsed by numerous women leaders of various ideological persuasions. Clients pay according to their ability. The organization receives little or no money other than from its members. In the 1980's planning, legislating, organizing and implementing programs will be done by women as agents and participants, not as passive consumers.

  15. Mėnulio stereotipai lietuvių poezijoje

    Rūta Kazlauskaitė


    Full Text Available STEREOTYPES IN PERCEPTION OF THE MOON IN LITHUANIAN POETRYSummaryThe aim of the present article is to analyse and to discuss the linguistic expression and the semantic paradigm of the images of the Moon that have formed in Lithuanian poetry. The fragments of 124 poets’ 389 poems have been analysed.The Moon is perceived as an object that shines at night and changes its shape. These two features motivate the absolute majority of its names. The examples show that the main work of the Moon is to reflect the sunlight to the Earth (“to shine”. The expressive lunar phases most often used in poetry are a full moon and waning crescents. Natural surroundings of the Moon are not emphasized: place above the ground, time of manifestation, separation.The Moon and its light are metaphorically related to living beings, blooming plants, raw materials and handicraft ware, liquids, fire. A living being is firstly a human being, but it is not difficult to discern the signs of deity. Less frequent are zoomorphic, ornithomorphic and ichthyomorphic shapes.Stereotypes of the Moon are conditioned by the similarities of the compared object in brightness, light and/or form, less often in the position above and solitude. The surroundings of the Moon are shown as a closed space above the ground well known to humans. The basis of only few stereotypes is not nature but civilization.

  16. Dampak Implementasi Penggunaan Teknologi Manufaktur Tingkat Lanjut -Advanced Manufacturing Technology pada Kinerja UKM di Indonesia

    Jani Rahardjo


    Full Text Available In Indonesia, 99.8% of the businesses are SMEs. However, those SMEs only contribute to the 56.7% of the Indonesia GDP.  This happened, mainly due to the limitations of SMEs which use traditional technologies in the production process. Therefore, in 2014, the Indonesian government through the Ministry of Cooperation and Small Medium Entreprises launced a new strategic plan to empowering the SMEs by applying the Advanced Manufacting Technology (AMT. It is believed that by applying the AMT in the SMEs can increase productivities, expand the market share and raised national economic growth. This study, identified the used of AMT in the Indonesia SMEs, especially in foods, beverages, herbal and handicraft sectors. Additionally, it is also measured the impact of the used of AMT in the SMEs’ performaces. In this study, it is found that 76.6 % of the total sampel (253 SMEs declared that they use the AMT. This indicates that the Indonesia SMEs have a clear operation mission, process production, high quality products and meet the customer’s satisfaction. It is also found that the percentage of the hard technology is higher than the soft technology. This showed that there is a large effort to increase the productivity in the process production. Finally, we found that the impact of the AMT used to the SMEs’ performance in the market share, profitability and organization performance is increased significantly.

  17. Etnobotani Masyarakat Lokal, Struktur Anatomi Jenis Pandan (Pandanaceae Bermanfaat di Jawa Timur

    Jati Batoro


    Full Text Available Along with the development of culture, both traditional and biotechnology, the use of pandan, as can be found either in the community, traditional markets, experiencing a shift which was replaced by other materials, such as by plastic straps, caps from fabric. Ethnobotany study done by collecting a "ethnodirect sampling" technique with direct or semi-structural interviews. The method is carried out at pandan anatomy including: methods for extracting fiber, making transverse and longitudinal leaf preparations, measurements of leaf length and fiber strength and making preparations transversal and longitudinal of supporting root. The long term goal of this study is to obtain a data base of pandan (Pandanaceae that can later be used to perform resource management in pandan (Pandanaceae to its preservation in East Java, thus supporting ecological functions and the resulting types are also cultivating other Pandan also potentially. The short term goal is to get the kind of pandan (Pandanaceae is useful to be developed as a craft that can later be used to improve the economy of East Java community through anatomical structures. The three types of pandan namely P. tectorus, P. labyrinthicus and P. furcatus has the potential to be developed as a base for the manufacture of rope and handicrafts. The potential of plant-based crafts from fiber can still be developed on the craft of Pandanus.

  18. 植麻治丝,纺织成布--江西省分宜县双林镇传统苎麻手工技艺的田野考察%On the Cultivation of Ramie and Production of Ramie Fiber and Grass Cloth-Fieldwork of Traditional Ramie Hand Skills in Shuanglin Village, Fenyi County, Jiangxi Province



    江西省分宜县双林镇素有植麻治丝、纺织夏布的手工艺传统。种麻、剥麻、打麻、晒麻、治丝及夏布织造的器具与方式,均在明代历史造物总结性巨著《天工开物》中有所记录。该地区目前仍延续着自晚明以来的传统苎麻种植技艺、麻纱制作、夏布织造的手工加工与生产模式。%The traditional ramie hand skills ,such as cultivation of ramie,production of ramie fiber and grass cloth, gradually formed in Shuanglin village, Fenyi county, Jiangxi province. The manual tools and working methods of ramie handcrafts were recorded in the scientific literature Tian Gong Kai Wu in the Ming Dynasty. As an ancient traditional handicraft, the ramie hand skills have been continued from the late Ming until now.


    Olivares Ingrid


    Full Text Available The leaves of the wine palm (Attalea butyracea are collected and harvested along theMagdalena River Valley in Colombia. Young leaves are used as a ceremonial symbol onPalm Sunday, and expanded leaves are used for thatching and for making handicrafts.In order to document leaf production and to evaluate the effect of leaf extraction ongrowth and development, we marked 80 individuals under extractive conditions and40 individuals under non-extractive conditions and we followed leaf production duringseven months. We also studied inflorescence production for one year to evaluate thepotential of A. butyracea as a source of sap for sugar manufacture. Leaf productionin juveniles and sub-adults was correlated to the number of expanded leaves. Leafproduction in adults was correlated with the number of expanded leaves and withstem size. Palms flower throughout the year, and several inflorescences developsimultaneously. The flowering peak occurs during the drier season. Inflorescenceproduction was correlated to the stem height and to the number of expanded leaves,and it is probably affected by leaf harvest. We recommend leaf extraction only fromindividuals with stem over 3 m and with more than 25 expanded leaves. Inflorescenceproduction of A. butyracea gives the palm a potential for sap extraction.

  20. Benjarong Sanitary Ware: Design and development for commerce in Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand

    Wanchai Sama


    Full Text Available This investigation has three primary aims: 1 to study the traditional knowledge of Benjarong in Samut Sakhon Province; 2 to study designs and the production process of Benjarong sanitary ware in Samut Sakhon Province; 3 to develop Benjarong sanitary ware for commerce in Samut Sakhon Province. The research area for this investigation was purposively selected as Samut Sakhon Province. Data was gathered by document study, survey, participant and non-participant observation, structured and non-structured interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that Benjarong sanitary products have been inherited from generation to generation in Samut Sakhon Province and continue to provide local jobs. Benjarong sanitary ware production uses a high budget because of the high price of colour inks, gold and electricity, so there are problems securing adequate funding. There are also problems with the management process and a lack of expert craftsmen to write and design modern patterns in harmony with contemporary art and Thai social identity. Moreover, many Thai people do not realize the value of cultural heritage and Benjarong inheritance is at risk. Benjarong sanitary ware can reflect local knowledge and traditional handicrafts. The researchers propose patterns for three types of Benjarong sanitary ware: washbasins, wall tiles and soap ledges. Development of these products will increase functionality and aesthetics, whilst maintaining Thai heritage.

  1. The Kirgiz Women I Know


    With a population of 114,000, most Kirgiz people reside in the Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture in the southern region of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.The Kirgiz survive by stock raising, and making handicrafts. Sideline industries include raising crops and processing livestock products. Most of the Kirgiz live a nomadic life, moving about in search of green pastures.The Kirgiz are known for their hospitality and courtesy. Any visitor, known to them or not, is always warmly received.Kirgiz men commonly wear a corduroy cap with a round top all year round. Young men wear caps of green, purple or blue, while old men sport black caps.Kirgiz women love to dress in red. Some wears short blouse and long skirt, others wear dresses. They also wear loose-fitting blouses with a tight collar. And their hair is always beautifully decorated, with embroidered strips binding the plaits and round, silver coins at the end of each plait.The main dish of the Kirgiz is horse meat, beef, lamb and dairy products.




    Full Text Available India is famous for its art and culture, which can be found in traditional handicrafts, carvings, potteries, as well as in Jewelry. The traditional Jewelry of India is what makes the Indian Jewelry so rich and unique in their manner. India has a rich tradition of gold ornamental designs and there are a number of styles of ornamentmaking in practice, each with its uniqueness, special forms and style. Our work is based on semantics; 3D patterns are created on the bases of parametric representation. This work aims to associate advantages unfolded by Computer Aided Design (CAD technology in developing traditional design patterns for Jewelry design andmanufacturing. The work also presents three dimensional (3D semantics used in Traditional Indian Kundan Jewelry with the help of mathematical modeling; to generate the traditional patterns.The goal will be achieved by devising mathematical models for various 3D semantics, for the modeling of Traditional Indian Kundan jewelry (TIKJ. Jewelry Add-In is developed for inventor using c++. Aim of this Jewelry add-in is to develop pattern of 3D geometrical shapes on 3D surface and for communication between Jewelry Add-In and Inventor.

  3. The Exploration to the Historical Origin of Differences between Urban and Rural Areas in China


    In order to understand the historical origins of encircling the cities from the rural areas implemented by the Communist Party of China and the current dual structures of urban and rural development, urban-rural differences are analyzed from the four aspects of production mode, management mode, culture and social division of labor. Industrial development in modern times has promoted the modernization of urban production in China. But the rural areas still maintain their traditional self-sufficient natural economy. After the Opium War, the process of modernization of city politics is promoted by more economic elements of capitalism and the formation of Chinese bourgeoisie. During the management of urban modernization, rural areas still adopt the traditional self-management mode. In the aspect of culture, city is the center of development, having large population, developed traffic, and prosperous culture. But the village is lack of information and its culture is relatively backward. In modern times, affected by the foreign capitalist, urban area has become the center of modern productivity. After separating from agriculture, handicraft industry has transferred into urban areas and the social division of labor in both urban and rural areas has shown great changes. Thus, a new pattern of "Urban Industry, Rural Agriculture" has formed.

  4. Noodles, traditionally and today

    Na Zhang


    Full Text Available Chinese noodles originated in the Han dynasty, which has more than 4,000 years of history. There are many stories about the origin of noodles. To a certain extent, noodles also reflect the cultural traditions and customs of China, which essentially means “human nature” and “worldly common sense”. There are thousands of varieties of noodles in China, according to the classification of the shape of noodles, seasoning gravy, cooking craft, and so on. Many noodles have local characteristics. Noodles are accepted by people from all over the world. The industrial revolution and the development of the food industry realized the transition from a traditional handicraft industry to mass production using machinery. In addition, the invention of instant noodles and their mass production also greatly changed the noodle industry. In essence, noodles are a kind of cereal food, which is the main body of the traditional Chinese diet. It is the main source of energy for Chinese people and the most economical energy food. Adhering to the principle of “making cereal food the main food”, is to maintain our Chinese good diet tradition, which can avoid the disadvantages of a high energy, high fat, and low carbohydrate diet, and promote health. The importance of the status of noodles in the dietary structure of residents in our country and the health impact should not be ignored.




    Full Text Available This study aimed to present different management variants for family sericicultural farms .These variants assures family reproduction sericicultural integrated management along production – processing – marketing chain, a larger range of marketable products, a better marketing for unreeling cocoons, increased income and profit for silk worm breede, a higher profitability and competitiveness of the agricultural unit. The matrix of experimental variants combinations between Mulberry tree culture and Silk worm rearing show that the most profitable alternative is CD V3 + VM V2, which assures Lei 556,874 profit during the first years of farm activity. The matrix of integrated combinative variants between Mulberry the culture, Silk worm rearing and unreeling cocoons processing in handicrafts (P5 show that the most profitable alternative is CDV3 + VMV1 + P5, that is 0.5 ha mulberry tree plantation + 0.2 ha Seeding field + 0.1. ha Sowing field 1 + 0.2 ha Pricking out field, silk worm rearing for delivering 1,000 egg boxes, 10 kg silk filament, 25 kg fresh pupa and 1,298 Wowen belts, assuring Lei 504,336 profit during the 8 years of farm operating. No matter what variant of integrated management is chosen by silk worm Breeders as long as economical and financial perfomances are superior the ones which are obtained in case of the lack of integration .


    Tugba Ustun Topal


    Full Text Available Cities are characterised by local identities, which have been shaped by natural and cultural values. Constituting elements of local identity are settlement pattern bearing the traces of past, local music, traditional taste, handicrafts and life story. Besides, there has been a fast pace of life owing to globalization, and globally standardized cities, where local identities are ignored, have been emerged in planning-design-implementation process. From this viewpoint, Cittaslow movement has become a major turning point for liveable and sustainable cities that emphasize the local character. In this context, in the study, it is aimed to raise awareness about Cittaslow which is an example of an urban model for sustainability. In line with this purpose, the importance of Cittaslow approach and the criteria that are needed to be met for being a member of the Association of Cittaslow have been revealed. In line with these criteria Cittaslow cities in Turkey were discussed comparatively in terms of their features were considered. Examples from our country have been evaluated together with the international Cittaslow examples. In addition, proposals have been made by developing strategies in planning- designing and implementation process for the Cittaslow approach.

  7. Art of Wrought Copper in Turkey

    Nuran KAYABAŞI


    Full Text Available Among the handicraft, art of being a coppersmith has been occurred intensively in the past. The fast developing socio - economic structure diminished the value and the place of the copper vessels. Heavy and beautiful vessels made by beating left their places to thin, light aluminum, pl astic, glass and steel vessels made by machinery. The demand for copper is diminished. Therefore being a coppersmith has become less and less important every day. However, in the last few years, copper vessels becoming a touristic souvenir became a source of hope for the traditional coppersmith art to live on. Copperworking is applied in our country in some regions and there are people who live off it. Souvenirs, daily used vessels, and requirements of the rural areas are produced in centers such as İstanb ul, Ankara, Tokat, Çorum, Erzincan, Diyarbakır, Kahramanmaraş, Gaziantep, Bursa, Kastamonu, Çankırı, Giresun and Trabzon. The situation of being a coppersmith in Turkey is explained, examples are given from souvenir copper items produced in Ankara, and sug gestions are made to keep this craft alive.

  8. Traditional Uses of Plants in the Tolfa–Cerite–Manziate Area (Central Italy

    Paolo Maria Guarrera


    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge of local plant uses is rapidly fading away, especially in rural Mediterranean areas. We carried out ethnobotanical research in 2010-2011 in order to investigate the local knowledge of wild plants in the Tolfa–Cerite–Manziate area of Italy (Latium, district of Rome. We carried out a total of 45 semi-structured interviews with farmers, herders, and fishers. Here, a simple diachronic comparison is made between the current study and a previous one conducted in some of the villages of the study area to highlight potential losses of traditional knowledge of local plants. We documented a total of 102 plant species, belonging to 48 families, along with their uses (excluding food uses. We also reported some non-plant based remedies that were primarily used in veterinary medicine. Some plant uses, especially for making handicrafts, have not been reported previously (e.g., those of Celtis australis L. Cannabaceae, Betula pendula Roth Betulaceae. Many plant uses are no longer remembered in the area, which indicates a loss of local ethnobotanical knowledge.


    Yury B. Sandanov


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the issues of farm business transformation of Transbaikal farmers in late XIX – early XX century under the influence of capitalism growth. The agrarian history in Transbaikal region is of vital importance due to the overwhelming majority of rural population for the period under review. The author points out the key transformations of Russian and Buryat farmers of Transbaikal region resulted from transition to capitalist production relations. The facts and data of market and goods/money relationships of Buryat farmers are firstly introduced for scientific use. The role of Buryat settlements (uluses in developing market channels for agricultural products and hired agricultural labor forces are analyzed. The author conclusively proves the increase in capacity of agricultural industries and handicrafts among rural inhabitants based on the preceding scientists’ papers, making use of existing historical literature on the subject matter and appealing to a wide variety of published and unpublished papers. Some data about development of forest industries, cropping, hunting and fishing among indigenous population are of great interest as being the only thing for their livelihood. Moreover, it becomes possible to evaluate the degree of capitalist relations among Evenks farmers based on the survey of archival materials, the greater part of which are firstly introduced for scientific use. 

  10. Analisis Kelompok Usaha Peningkatan Pendapatan Keluarga Sejahtera di Dki Jakarta, 2014

    Menara Simanjuntak


    Full Text Available This research aims to explore and find the determinant factors as it is important for the development of group UPPKS management in Jakarta Provincial through a qualitative descriptive approach. The number of respondents was limited for 2 groups that are still active in the Regional Municipality of East Jakarta in Pulogebang Village and West Jakarta in Kemanggisan Village. Research was conducted through in-depth interview with 2 officers and 2 members of the group; focus group discussion was followed by 8 members at each location. The findings of this study indicate that the lack of funds/start-up capital has not gained sufficient leverage; the absence of other sources of funding, in fact, almost all are individual business, so that managed such as savings and credit groups. Growing effort is being supported by additional capital that sought its own members, as well as the selection of profitable business activities. Group leader and members favored form of technical training, certain items are more salable. More individual businesses selling food and beverages are for their money-faster turnaround, rest handicraft products do not sell quickly, and thus this is the advantage of learning process through UPPKS. Recommendation for Jakarta Provincial Government is to make regulation and build relationship with Financial Institution to support the UPPKS.

  11. Analisis Kelompok Usaha Peningkatan Pendapatan Keluarga Sejahtera di DKI Jakarta, 2014

    Menara Simanjuntak


    Full Text Available This research aims to explore and find the determinant factors as it is important for the development of group UPPKS management in Jakarta Provincial through a qualitative descriptive approach. The number of respondents was limited for 2 groups that are still active in the Regional Municipality of East Jakarta in Pulogebang Village and West Jakarta in Kemanggisan Village. Research was conducted through in-depth interview with 2 officers and 2 members of the group; focus group discussion was followed by 8 members at each location. The findings of this study indicate that the lack of funds/start-up capital has not gained sufficient leverage; the absence of other sources of funding, in fact, almost all are individual business, so that managed such as savings and credit groups. Growing effort is being supported by additional capital that sought its own members, as well as the selection of profitable business activities. Group leader and members favored form of technical training, certain items are more salable. More individual businesses selling food and beverages are for their money-faster turnaround, rest handicraft products do not sell quickly, and thus this is the advantage of learning process through UPPKS. Recommendation for Jakarta Provincial Government is to make regulation and build relationship with Financial Institution to support the UPPKS.

  12. Ruth Sprenger: Die hohe Kunst der Herrenkleidermacher. Wien u.a.: Böhlau Verlag 2009

    Gertrud Lehnert


    Full Text Available Ruth Sprenger stellt Geschichte und Praxis eines Meisterhandwerks für interessierte Laiinnen und Laien übersichtlich und mit reicher Bebilderung dar. Nach einem Überblick über die Geschichte der Eleganz des Gentleman werden detailliert die einzelnen Schritte des Maßnehmens, Entwerfens, Fertigens erläutert. Dabei wird klar, dass ein Anzug immer eine komplizierte Umgestaltung des männlichen Körpers zu einem von antiker Kunst inspirierten abstrakten Ideal von Nacktheit darstellt. Zu kurz kommt leider jegliche kritische Auseinandersetzung mit der Theorie der Mode, so dass das Resultat zwar sehr anschaulich, jedoch in systematischer Hinsicht für die Modeforschung wenig erhellend ist.Ruth Sprenger clearly depicts the history and practice of a masterly handicraft for interested laypeople and includes many illustrations. Following a survey of the history of the elegance of the gentleman, she elucidates and details the single steps of measurement, design, and completion. It becomes clear that a suit always represents a complicated reconfiguration of the male body to an abstract ideal of nudity inspired by antique art. Unfortunately any critical debate on the theory of art falls short so that the results are admittedly very demonstrative, however in systematical terms they are not all too insightful for fashion research.

  13. On the Impact of Family Structure Changing on the Rural Economy since the Late Qing Dynasty%晚清以来家庭结构变化对农村经济的影响



    晚清以来社会剧变,在小农生产方式基础上建立起来的中国传统家庭结构随之发生变化.复合家庭减少,核心家庭增多,家庭规模减小.家庭是社会的基本细胞,家庭结构的变化势必给农业生产工具、农村家庭功能、家庭关系、农村人口城镇化以及近代手工业技术带来深远影响.%China's family structure, which set up on the traditional mode of production at small-scale farmers, was altered by social upheaval since the late Qing dynasty. Compound family reduced, the number of nuclear families increased and the family size has become gradually smaller. Family is the basic cell of society, therefore, family structure changing caused far-reaching effects on the facilities of agricultural production, rural family functions, family relations, urbanization, as well as modern handicrafts technologies.

  14. Salinization processes in a coastal aquifer system (Siracusa, Italy)

    Rapti Caputo, D.; Vaccaro, C.


    The Syracuse area (Southeastern Sicily, Italy) is famous since ancient times for its natural springs, like Aretusa and Ciane, as well as for the hydraulic management handicraft know from 480 B.C. Unfortunately, the recent hyper-exploitation of the underground water resources and the concomitant decrease of the precipitations caused a general lowering of the piezometric level of the aquifers therefore enhancing the intrusion of marine salty waters. In the present work, numerous hydrochemical parameters have been investigated, among which the pH, the total dissolved solid, the electric conductivity, the temperature and the concentration of Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl and SO4. The data have been collected from five well fields located at different distances from the coast. Analyses have been performed in order to understand the relationships between the intense exploitation and the geochemical characteristics of the underground water resources. Our results obtained by applying classical geochemical methodologies integrated with techniques of multivariate statistics emphasise, firstly, the predominance of the Ca-HCO3 hydrochemical facies. Secondly, we could determine the evolution of mixing phenomena between salty and fresh waters approaching the coast line (San Nicola field). This behaviour is mainly associated to the pumping increase. Obviously, this intrusive process characterised by chlorides concentrations larger than 2000 mg/l affects all the coastal natural environment and generates severe problems to the entire aqueduct network.

  15. Business Activities in Spring and Autumn and the Warring States Periods%春秋战国时期的商业活动



    春秋战国时期,铁器的广泛使用、牛耕技术的推广和水利事业的发展,促进了农业和手工业的进步,带来了商业交换的扩大;而金属铸币的使用,则促进了商业和城市经济的繁荣,使原来政治、军事据点性质的各国都邑,同时成为商贾辐辏的工商大都会。频繁的商业活动加强了各地区之间的经济和文化联系,使"大一统"的理念率先在经济领域得以实践。%In theSpring and Autumn and the Warring States Periods,the widespread use of iron,cattle farming technology promotion and development of water resources,to promote the progress of agriculture and handicrafts,has brought the expansion of commercial exchange,and the use of metal coins,is to promote the business and urban economic prosperity,the original political,military base nature of the towns,also become merchants influx of business metropolis,frequent business activities to strengthen the regional economic and cultural ties between,so that the monolithic concept to take the lead in the economic field practice.

  16. In Perspective of The Hittite Capital Šapinuwa, Natural, Socio-Cultural Heritage Values of Ortaköy (Çorum and Its Tourism Potential

    Ali Ekber GÜLERSOY


    Full Text Available In a period in which space-human interaction has achieved different dimensions, it is necessary for spaces having natural, socio-cultural heritage values which are unique and would not be able to reproduce to be put urgently under protection. Also Ortaköy (Šapinuwa-Çorum district is within such spaces. Aim of this study is to examine geographically natural, socio-cultural heritage values of Ortaköy district which have not been examined academically enough until today. Such an examination will be able to contribute for socio-cultural-economic development of the district, which is Šapinuwa&İncesu Canyon-oriented, to be conducted within a structure out of nature and culture destruction. Ortaköy hosts to authentic heritage values of natural (such as İncesu Canyon etc.; tangible socio-cultural (such as the Hittite capital Šapinuwa, traditional apparel, food culture, handicrafts etc.; and intangible socio-cultural (such as traditional weddings-yallis, folk minstrels-poets, regional folk songs, riddles-legends, indigenous words, folk medicine, kids games, festivals-carnivals etc.. It is necessary for natural and socio-cultural heritage values of Ortaköy to be taken inventory and planned by an expert team. It is possible for these values to be able to turn into tourism supply and to contribute to the district economy by using lands according to their capability classes, as well as cooperation of official and civil institutions-organizations, and relevant persons.

  17. Comparison of the oral hygiene status and gingival health between left- and right-handed individuals

    Kaan Gunduz


    Full Text Available Objective: The efficient way to remove bacterial plaque from tooth surface depends on patient’s self care and motivation beside professional periodontal therapy. Brushing technique, duration, frequency, applied force and handicraft are known to be important in removing bacterial dental plaque. The effect of right and left hand usage is still a controversy subject. Our aim is to evaluate the oral hygiene status and gingival health between left- and right-handed individuals. Method: 116 patients who referred to University of Ondokuz Mayis, Department of Periodontology participated the study. Groups were divided into patients using their right hands (Group 1 and patients using their left hands (Group 2. Total mean plaque (Silness-Loe and gingival (Loe-Silness indices (PI and GI, respectively, pocket depths (PD as well as mean PI, GI and PD of right and left sides of maxilla and mandible, and gingival diseases were recorded. Chewing side preferences, smoking, brushing habits were also compared. Results: There was a significant difference between the total means of PI and GI values, and patients suffering from gingival diseases were found to be significantly higher in Group 1. There was no significance according to the means of PD, smoking, brushing frequency and the mean indices of left- and right sides of maxilla and mandible. PI and GI values were found to be significiantly higher in right-handed individuals in accordance with the previously published studies. Conclusion: Our results revealed that left-handed subjects proved to have better oral hygiene and PI and GI indices than the right-handed subjects. This better oral hygiene of the left-handed individuals is compatible with optimal gingival health and may be in relation with their undepressed neuromuscular abilities. Dentists may encourage their patients for using both hand usage during application of oral hygiene procedures and prevent the negative effects derived from only right or left

  18. The effect of nanotechnology on education

    Viriyavejakul, Chantana


    products of nanotechnology, such as 1) handicrafts, decorations, and gifts, 2) agricultural products and food, 3) beverages, such as alcoholic and non- alcoholic drinks, and 5) textiles.

  19. The constitution,characteristics and forming mechanism of cultural landscape in Gama Valley of Changdou,Tibet%西藏昌都嘎玛沟文化景观的构成、特征及形成机制

    袁银枝; 徐红罡; 杨彦锋


    To the cultural landscape in Gama Valley of Chang Dou in Tibet,its connotation is abundant and characteristic is distinct.The cultural landscape in Gama Valley is composed of a lot of natural and humanity factor among which the gorge style and feature,the religious culture,the village and residents,the national handicraft are the most representative carriers.The cultural landscape in Gama Valley accumulates as belt-shaped in the space,inherits from generation to generation in the time,which make the multicultural interaction.The value of the cultural landscape in Gama Valley is the comprehensive and synthetic.Especially,it has more unique value in the field of inheritance protection,artistic research and tourism development and so on.Based on the actual materials and the investigation achievements,we tried hard to analysis and study the constitution,characteristic and forming mechanism of the cultural landscape of in Gama Valley.%西藏昌都嘎玛沟文化景观内涵丰富、特点鲜明。嘎玛沟文化景观由众多自然和人文因子构成,其中,沟谷风貌、宗教文化、村落民居、民族工艺是最具代表性的载体。嘎玛沟文化景观在空间上带状聚集,在时间上世代传承,演绎了多元文化的互动交融。文中立意于结合实证材料、调研成果,对嘎玛沟文化景观的构成、特征及形成机制,进行分析研究。

  20. Green technology for keeping soil-water-nutrient fluxes on cultivated steep land and climate change mitigation.

    Effiom Oku


    Full Text Available Use of vetiver as a green technology can address African farmers’ ecological problems through protecting farmlands on steep lands. In addition, it offers the opportunity to integrate smallholders into the green economy as it sequesters carbon, keep water and nutrient fluxes within the system, sustain high crop yield with climate change adaptation potentials. This is particularly important as more slopes are converted to agricultural lands due to increase in population density and poverty. Thus, the study investigated the optimal strip width for increases in soil productivity and farmers’ preferences for space. The study planted maize and cassava in between vetiver field structures (VFS installed on the contour at 5, 15 , 25 m apart and compared it with Farmers’ Practice (FP on a 45 % slope and quantified the amount of soil displaced, water and plant nutrient losses and crop yields. Vetiver installed at 5 m surface interval spacing significantly enhanced carbon sequestration indicating potentials for GHGs mitigation and reduced N, P, Ca, Mg, Na and K losses when compared with FP. Vetiver allowed only 7 % rainfall lost as against 29 % on FP this demonstrates the climate change adaptation potentials of vetiver. Soil displaced under FP was 68 times higher than the soil loss tolerance limit of 12 t ha-1 yr-1 whereas under VFS at 5, 15 and 25 m it was 2½, 13 and 12 times higher. Maize grain yield were 35, 23 and 24 % higher on the VFS field at 5, 15 and 25 m respectively when compared to FP. The corresponding values for cassava fresh tuber were 43, 32 and 29 % higher. Unlike other technologies, vetiver grass contributes to the livelihood of the farmers by providing raw material for house thatching, handicrafts and fodder for livestock during lean seasons.


    O. V. Shatunova


    Full Text Available The research is aimed to show the significance of Technology (Handicraft lessons competitions and olimpiads (academic competitions among general education institutions pupils of the Republic of Tatarstan. The authorsnote the efficiency of these activities as the diagnostics means and improvement of natural gifted children and teenagers. Methods. The applied methods involve criteria approach to the giftedness types assessment; generalization of the advanced pedagogical theory and practice, supervision, teachership surveys and discussions with them. Results. The experience of Technology competitions and olimpiads (academiccompetitions implementation among school pupils of Kazan Federal University, Elabuga Institute is described. The research outcomes show that pupils participation in such activities not only contributes the creative potential realization but also forms sustainable interest to engineering-technical and design activitiesthat subsequently influence a graduates’ choice of high-demand majors (specialities and professions at the contemporary labour market. Additionally, the authors emphasize the objective necessity of specific teachers’ training, and formation of necessary professional skills set for successful work with gifted pupils. Scientific novelty. The research identifies a number of criteria for diagnostics of giftedness types. It is specially noted that the most important point of this phenomenon is propensity to work as the primary factor of ingenuity and talent. Practical significance. Implementation of the research outcomes can be used for further development of Technology competitions and olimpiads implementation among school pupils in high vocational education institutions that are qualified at students’ training on pedagogic majors, as well as in supplementary education establishments for children and teenagers

  2. A Brief Study of Social Structure and Economic Patterns by Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasty Tombs in Jinj iang Region%晋江流域东晋南朝墓葬与社会结构和经济形态



    Eastern Jin and Southern dynasty tombs in Jinjiang region are the important materials to researching the social development and economic history of Qunzhou before the Tang dynasty.The tombs’mastership is a Han national,reflected by the cultural connotation of the structure and funerary objects combination.They migrated to the southern China after the Western Jin dynasty.The tombs’ distribution situation shows Fengzhou town was the central settlement,familial cemetery system populared and social stratification was not obvious.The exploition to Jinjiang region during the Eastern Jin and Southern dynasty period promoted the vigorous development of local agriculture and handicrafts.It created the conditions that Quanzhou became world famous trade port in the Tang and Song dynasties period.%晋江流域东晋南朝墓葬是研究泉州地区唐代以前区域社会发展与经济史的重要资料。墓葬形制与随葬器物组合的文化内涵反映出墓主是西晋末以来南迁的中原汉人,墓葬分布显示出以丰州为中心的聚落结构景观,家族墓地制度流行,社会阶层分化不明显。东晋南朝时期对晋江流域的开发,促进了当地农业和手工业的蓬勃发展,为泉州唐宋时期成为世界著名的通商港口创造了条件。


    O. V. Shatunova


    Full Text Available The research is aimed to show the significance of Technology (Handicraft lessons competitions and olimpiads (academic competitions among general education institutions pupils of the Republic of Tatarstan. The authorsnote the efficiency of these activities as the diagnostics means and improvement of natural gifted children and teenagers. Methods. The applied methods involve criteria approach to the giftedness types assessment; generalization of the advanced pedagogical theory and practice, supervision, teachership surveys and discussions with them. Results. The experience of Technology competitions and olimpiads (academiccompetitions implementation among school pupils of Kazan Federal University, Elabuga Institute is described. The research outcomes show that pupils participation in such activities not only contributes the creative potential realization but also forms sustainable interest to engineering-technical and design activitiesthat subsequently influence a graduates’ choice of high-demand majors (specialities and professions at the contemporary labour market. Additionally, the authors emphasize the objective necessity of specific teachers’ training, and formation of necessary professional skills set for successful work with gifted pupils. Scientific novelty. The research identifies a number of criteria for diagnostics of giftedness types. It is specially noted that the most important point of this phenomenon is propensity to work as the primary factor of ingenuity and talent. Practical significance. Implementation of the research outcomes can be used for further development of Technology competitions and olimpiads implementation among school pupils in high vocational education institutions that are qualified at students’ training on pedagogic majors, as well as in supplementary education establishments for children and teenagers

  4. Influence of Climatic Changes and Human Activities on the Salinization Process of Coastal Aquifer Systems

    Dimitra Rapti-Caputo


    Full Text Available In the present research, two arid coastal zones of the Mediterranean region (mean annual precipitation about 440 mm/a, have been investigated for evaluating the qualitative and quantitative impact of both human activities and climatic changes on the groundwater resources and the hydrological cycle in general. In particular, the hydrographic network of the Akrotiri (Cyprus coastal aquifer system is strongly controlled by engineering handicrafts that have induced a quality worsening of the groundwater resources. Due to over-pumping in the central sector of the area, a lowering of the piezometric level of about 15 m has been observed. As a consequence, a salinization process has occurred in the coastal sector with a mean annual salinization velocity of the salty water front varying between 47 and 97 cm/a (period 1964-1996. Due to the high salinity values, the water is at present unsuitable for irrigation use. The second case study is represented by the alluvial plain of Licata (southern Sicily, Italy, where the evolution of the Salso River (in Italian the name means ’Salty River’ and the coastal dynamics, characterised by repeated marine transgressions and regressions, qualitatively and quantitatively influenced the underground water resources. Also the anthropogenic activities played a crucial role, especially the farming activity as it is largely documented by the occurrence of numerous greenhouses covering most of the plain. The water depth of the unconfined, mainly sandy, aquifer developed in the Quaternary deposits is between 0.3 m and locally 5 m from the surface, while the principal alimentation occurs via infiltration from precipitations and lateral outflow from the Salso River.

  5. Tourism and Urban Development in the Period of Late Qing Dynasty and Republic of China: A Case Study of Suzhou%旅游与清末民国时期城市发展——以苏州为例



    清末民国时期,国际旅游和国内旅游初具规模,旅游专业机构出现,旅游资源开发和建设力度加大,旅游对社会、经济发展的影响逐渐加大。苏州作为自然及人文资源皆丰富的古城,旅游业更显繁荣。旅游影响了苏州的城市功能定位和城市规划,促进了苏州市政建设和服务业的发展,使得苏州传统手工业部分地得以维持,并开阔了苏州居民的视野、促进了苏州"人的现代化"。%In the period of Late Qing Dynasty and Republic of China,the international tourism and domestic tourism took shape,the tourism organizations appeared,the tourism resources developed,and the tourism exerted a greater effect on the development of society and economy.As a city rich in natural and cultural resources,the tourism of Suzhou was quite prosperous.The tourism affected the urban functional orientation and planning of Suzhou,improved the municipal development and the service industry of Suzhou,protected the traditional handicrafts of Suzhou to some extent,broadened the vision of the Suzhou residents and promoted the " modernization of human beings" in Suzhou.

  6. 明式家具发展缘由探析%Analysis of the Reason for the Development of Ming Style Furniture

    孙迟; 杨丽橘; 张蕾


    Is the heyday of the Ming Dynasty style furniture in ancient China furniture design and manufacturing aspects, but in the history of the world furniture has become an independent school, enjoys a high reputation, and become the outstanding cultural heritage of Chinese ancient history, the Ming Dynasty and the social and economic development and the progress of science and technology have close ties. For political stability, economic prosperity; progress and change of social thought; to improve the system of handicraft industry; furniture design relfects the scientiifc, artistic and practical; wood rich and woodworking tools increased; increasing popular demand and the use of furniture, garden architecture; literary thought injection.%明式家具在我国古代家具设计及制造方面堪称鼎盛时期,而且在世界家具史上也独树一帜,享有盛誉,并成为我国古代历史的优秀文化遗产,这与明代社会经济发展以及科学技术的进步有着密不可分的联系。表现为:政治稳定,经济繁荣;社会思想的进步与转变;手工业制度的改善;家具设计体现科学性、艺术性、实用性;木材的丰富和木工工具的提高;榫卯结构的发展;园林建筑的风靡流行与家具使用的需求量的增多;文人思想的注入等。

  7. Pengolahan Material Serat Alami Menggunakan Enzim Mikrobiologi untuk Media Ekspresi Seni Dua Dimensi

    Muksin Muksin


    Full Text Available One of the alternative media, which is potential to be developed is the use of natural fiber materials from the environment (indigenous material. This natural fiber in foreign country such as Thailand, Japan, United States has crossed the threshold of the quality as a work of art that create by an artist. Meanwhile in Indonesia it is still brand new to be develop as a media of art expression. Indeed, art paper has already developed in Indonesia, but it is still a boundary production of pieces of paper that will be directly applied as a handicraft media. Moreover, the preparation process is still using the conventional method using chemical materials such as NaOH, Hypochloride, Boric acid, Chlorin, H2O2, etc., which burden the environment. Therefore an alternative, environmental friendly process is necessary to be developed to exploit natural fiber materials as a media of art expression. For this reason in this project a research on fiber-pulping process using xylanase enzyme has been carried out. The use of xylanase is enable to decrease chlorin consumption and reduce  chloro-organic concentration in pulp and waste, that also means a reduction in  production cost. The pulp was then used to make a paper to be tested for its quality by the Center for Pulp and Paper (Balai Besar Pulp dan Kertas, BBPK. This research resulted in a enzyme formulations for the fiber-pulping and preparation from variety of fiber materials: banana’s stalk, the abacca, hyacinth, straw, pineapple fiber and gold cocoon, b data of paper quality, and c work of arts from fiber/pulp material. In conclusion, enzyme can be applied in fiber-pulping process for lower impact on the environment and the workers.

  8. Bambusa tulda Roxb. in Manipur State, India: Exploring the Local Values and Commercial Implications

    Kumar Potsangbam SINGH


    Full Text Available Tropical moist climate in Manipur supports rich and luxuriant growth of Bambusa tulda Roxb. locally known as Saneibi, which is endemic to northeastern region and West Bengal of India. It represents one of the most costly species of bamboo in Manipur, its price ranging from Rs. 70-150/-per mature bamboo culm. The meitei Manipuris have a rich traditional knowledge for utilization of this particular bamboo species. In fact, it has got multipurpose use covering several aspects from religious to industrial. Because of its strength and durability it is of great demand on the market. Its young shoots (ushoi and the fermented young shoots (soibum represent a significant vegetable for local people. Ushoi costs Rs.10-50/- per piece while soibum cost Rs. 30-50/- per kg. Local medicine man use this for healing properties. It forms a good raw material for various handicraft works, house building, paper industries, fencing, and several other useful equipments for day to day life. This bamboo species could yield more than 15 very commonly used and highly marketable articles with prices ranging from Rs.10/-to Rs 300/-per piece. Therefore, the development of small scale industries with highly skilled handicraftsmen can be profitable. Plantation of this bamboo species on farmland, borders of home garden, foothills, riversides, sides of ponds will prove to be a good business as well as a proper help in the conservation and sustainable management of this endemic species. Traditional mode of propagation is done successfully through off-set planting method. This paper presents a detailed study on this particular bamboo species regarding taxonomy, status of distribution, density, regeneration capacity, traditional uses, methods of processing and its commercial implications highlighting the eco-friendly nature of bamboo plantation and bamboo products.

  9. Ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of Parkia biglobosa in Northern Benin

    Koura Kourouma


    Full Text Available Abstract Background African locust bean tree (Parkia biglobosa is a multipurpose species used widely in arid Africa by local communities. The present study focused on ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of P. biglobosa in Northern Benin, where the species widely grows. The use values according to the various ethnic groups in the study area have been evaluated in detail for P. biglobosa. Methods From 13 ethnic groups, 1587 people were interviewed in the study area using semi-structured questionnaires. Principal Component Analysis was applied to analyze the use value and the use patterns of P. biglobosa for the different ethnic groups. Results All interviewees in the study area knew at least one use of P. biglobosa. The various uses identified were medicinal (47%, handicraft and domestic (3%, medico-magic (1%, veterinary (1%, cultural (1%, food (25% and commercial (22%. The various parts involved in these types of uses were: fruits [shell (2%, pulp (22% and seeds (36%], bark (17%, leaves (9%, roots (3%, flowers (1% and branches (10%. The ethnic group consensus values for P. biglobosa parts showed that the seeds are used the most. The interviewees diversity value (ID and equitability value (IE indicated that knowledge concerning P. biglobosa use was distributed homogeneously among the ethnic groups. Conclusions P. biglobosa is well-known and used in different ways by the local populations in the study area. Local knowledge on the species is diversified and influenced by ethnic group. Ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of the species were evident in this study.

  10. 缥缈变化的“宋”罗%Leno weaving techniques in Song Dynasty



    回顾了罗的变化历史及其组织结构和织造技术的演化,分析了南宋黄昇墓中出土的各种花罗组织结构多样性,重点探讨了二经绞平纹花罗、二经绞浮纬花罗、三经绞平纹花罗、三经绞斜纹花罗、三经绞隐纹花罗等在小花楼束综提花机上的装造形式、织造工艺和操作程序,为再现古代提花织罗技术的奇巧及保护和传承这项独特的丝织技艺提供技术支持.%This study introduced the evolution, weave structure and weaving technique of leno fabric and analyzed the weave diversity of patterned lenos excavated from "Huang Sheng" tomb of Song Dynasty. The loom style, weaving handicraft and operation sequence in the jacquard of the patterned lenos consisting of two warp ends with pattern woven by tabby, two warp ends with pattern woven with float weft, three warp ends with pattern woven by tabby, three warp ends with pattern woven by twill 1/2 and three warp ends with ground woven by leno and pattern woven by leno were emphatically researched. This study will provide the technical support for the reappearance, protection and inheritance of the ancient silk leno weaving techniques.

  11. 论现代服装设计中的“禅意美学”%Concerning the Modern Fashion Design of“Buddhist Meaning Aesthetics”



    With the rich material life constantly, the rapid accumulation of wealth to human desires business rising inflation, every national cultural differences of weakening, traditional handicraft to the designer started withering a reflection. They started from the east plain“Buddhist”culture draw nutrition, use“Buddhist Meaning Aesthetics”design idea of the creation. Taking“B uddhist Meaning Aesthetics”in the clothing design of application as the leadership, system introduced “Buddhist Meaning Aesthetics”context and by the example analysis its use manner for promotion in the area of design simplicity, broad-minded philosophy of life design view provides guidance.%随着物质生活的不断丰盈,迅速积聚的商业财富令人类欲望不断膨胀,各民族文化差异的弱化,传统手工艺凋零令一众设计师开始反思。他们开始从东方质朴的“禅”文化中汲取营养,运用“禅意美学”的设计理念进行创作。文章以“禅意美学”在服装设计中的应用为主导,系统地阐述了“禅意美学”的发展脉络并通过实例分析其运用方式,为在设计领域推广简朴、旷达的生活设计观提供指导。

  12. Christian IV’s tugt- og børnehus. Social institution eller merkantilistisk foretagende?

    Peter Agerbo Jensen


    Full Text Available The Gaol and Orphanage of Christian IV - Social Institution or Mercantilist Enterprise?In 1605, the Danish King Christian IV founded a gaol after English and Northern European models. The purpose of the gaol  was that the inmates, the vagrants, should be taught textile  making. In contrast to contemporary foreign examples the  Danish gaol was founded by the king himself, just as it was the  crown that both owned the institution and was the purchaser of  its textile products. In 1620, the institution was extended with an orphanage as well as various workshops for textile handicrafts. The gaol and orphanage was closed in 1649.The basic question posed in the present article is: Was the foundation in 1605 and the subsequent operation of the gaol and orphanage of Christian IV in the years until its closure in 1649 a manifestation of mercantilism, the predominant economic theory of the age, or should the institution rather be  seen as a social and preventive measure in the fight against  vagrancy?In order to answer this question, an examination is made of various contemporary sources, including legislatory material, in order to determine the character of the gaol undertaking.It is the conclusion of the present article that the gaol and orphanage was a combination of mercantilist policy and a socially preventive measure. From being at the outset in 1605 a predominantly social institution with a certain element of mercantilism, it developed into a predominantly mercantilist enterprise whose previous social function was toned down and receded into the background.


    Budi Dwi Satoto


    Full Text Available The role of youth in development is very important because it is considered to be in the productive age to support various development activities in various sectors. Most youth can be absorbed in the labor market, and partly eliminated from the competition and become a static group. Not a few who engage in the business world ranging from the small to large, one form of business that is highly demanded by the youth is the Small and Medium Enterprises and Silk Screen Printing. However, the form of efforts among youth most still use manual design and printing due to lack of capital and expertise. With this activity, try to solve them with IBM is working with partners Silk Screen Printing Industry centers in villages Talango, Talango islands, Sumenep, Disperindag and local cooperative activities such as application of digital printing techniques, the design theme oflocal wisdom Madura images with coloror multi color mono color and entrepreneurship training and business management. IBM activity was done in the form of training, coaching and mentoring the youth group field of screen printing and printing for souvenirs and handicrafts which aims to: 1 increase the motivation of entrepreneurial partners; 2 improve the understanding of partner business planning and business management; 3 improve human resource capabilities in the production and marketing techniques; 4 develop a network to support youth entrepreneurship development of the creative economy. Youth empowerment group is expected to produce a model that can be used as a model youth entrepreneurial development youth empowerment-based society.Keywords: training, coaching, mentoring, printingandscreen printing, digital printing

  14. Attributes of a real and computational female thorax phantom for dosimetry; Atributos de um fantoma computacional e real de tronco feminino para dosimetria

    Maia, Margareth; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares]. E-mail:


    This work describes the construction of an anatomic model that keeps the anthropometrics and anthropomorphic relations of human thorax. The work was developed in two stages. The first one is the construction of a real phantom. The second stage discusses a computational pattern. Due to the large use of ionizing radiation in medical area, the creation of a simulator, the more approximate as possible to the human pattern, proved to be useful. The purpose of the simulator was to contribute to minimizing miscalculation in human treatment procedures, to improve medical image quality and even to serve an academic purposes as a pedagogic pattern. The phantom's construction process was totally handicraft and developed in several stages, which are described as well as the used equivalent materials. The following elements were constructed: twelve thorax vertebras, twenty four ribs, two shoulder blades, two collarbones and the external bone. Also the equivalent muscular tissue, the skin and the mammary gland were built. To create the mammary gland, a plastic prosthesis filled with equivalent mammary tissue was used. Meantime, an anatomic three dimensional model was made to simulate the human thorax. A bone skeleton covered by a muscular and a skin coat composed it. The breast was coupled in anatomic position on left hemi thorax. Computed tomography (CT) images were taken to verify the similarity of density tissue when it was compared to human model. This work was photographically recorded during all stages. The computational thorax phantom was based on a digitalized tomography - in a colored voxels model, each entity represents one tissue and each tissue shows a specific color. The model valuates the density and chemical composition of the tissue. As to the images treatment, a network Internet computer program specially developed for SISCODES was used to support it. In the future this model will be useful to dosimetric studies, medical image equipment calibration, and new

  15. Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and Its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization

    Aprilina Purbasari


    Full Text Available Bamboo has been widely used in Indonesia for construction, handicrafts, furniture and other uses. However, the use of bamboo as a biomass for renewable energy source has not been extensively explored. This paper describes the thermal and ash characterization of three bamboo species found in Indonesia, i.e. Gigantochloa apus, Gigantochloa levis and Gigantochloa atroviolacea. Characterization of bamboo properties as a solid fuel includes proximate and ultimate analyses, calorific value measurement and thermogravimetric analysis. Ash characterization includes oxide composition analysis and phase analysis by X-Ray diffraction. The selected bamboo species have calorific value comparable with wood with low nitrogen and sulphur contents, indicating that they can be used as renewable energy sources. Bamboo ash contains high silicon so that bamboo ash has potential to be used further as building materials or engineering purposes. Ash composition analysis also indicates high alkali that can cause ash sintering and slag formation in combustion process. This implies that the combustion of bamboo requires the use of additives to reduce the risk of ash sintering and slag formation. Article History: Received May 15, 2016; Received in revised form July 2nd, 2016; Accepted July 14th, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Purbasari, A., Samadhi, T.W. & Bindar, Y. (2016 Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 95-100. 

  16. Ethnobotanical Study of Rattans on Suku Anak Dalam Community in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park

    Dwi Mairida


    Full Text Available Suku Anak Dalam (SAD, a tribal in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park (TNBD has knowledge for utilizing rattans. This research attempts to investigate the species of rattans utilized and to analyze the local wisdom of Suku Anak Dalam(SAD community.The data was collected by doing an interview the informants consisting of temenggung (head of the tribe, jenang (the liaison between the villagers and anak dalam, rattans gatherers, induk (mother and hand maker. Then, the researcher observed active participation (following the SAD activity in utilizing rattans.The interview was conducted based on the appropriate time with qualitative condition and situation. The result showed 12 (twelve species of rattan utilized by the SAD community, Calamus ornatus (Blume, Calamus caesius( Blume, Calamus flabellatus (Becc., Calamus manan(Miq., Calamus csipionum (Lour., Calamus javensis(Blume, Calamus axilliaris(Becc., Calamus sp., Daemonorops geniculata (Griff. Mart., Daemonorops draco(Willd. Blume, Daemonorops verticiliaris(Griff. Mart., and Korthalsiaechinometra(Becc.The eight species were utilized as ambung, penampilan, and tekalo handicraft. One type for rituals, ropes, clotheslines, dye, durian lempok cakes preservatives (Durio spp.,and the species for the food for pregnant mothers (‘ngidam’, and the three species for medicine. The implication of this research gave a documentation for the government to formulate and to make an authority of TNB forest conservation and to protect the culture of SAD community in the form of rattans inventarization and local wisdom of SAD community in utilizing the species of rattans.How to CiteMairida, D., Muhadiono, M., & Hilwan, I. (2016. Etnobotanical Study of Rattans on Suku Anak Dalam Community in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1 64-70.

  17. The predominance, biodiversity and biotechnological properties of Kluyveromyces marxianus in the production of Pecorino di Farindola cheese.

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Fasoli, Giuseppe; Schirone, Maria; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Pepe, Alessia; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna


    Pecorino di Farindola is a handicraft cheese made by farmers on small scale using raw ewes' milk and pig rennet. In this study, yeast consortia were evaluated during Pecorino di Farindola making and ripening. Molecular identification of 156 isolates was achieved by a combination of PCR-RFLP of the 5.8S ITS rRNA region and sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. Kluyveromyces marxianus was the predominant species, while other species (Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glaebosa and Candida zeylanoides) were present only during the early weeks of ripening. Moreover, the isolates were differentiated both by RAPD-PCR and a sequence alignment of D1/D2 26S rRNA gene, revealing different K. marxianus profiles and variants, and suggesting the role of local selective pressure as the origin of distinctive K. marxianus populations. The strains were characterized also on the basis of different dairy properties such as growth temperature, lactose, galactose, lactate and citrate assimilation at different NaCl concentrations, as well as lipolytic and caseinolytic activities. Moreover, 39 selected K. marxianus strains were inoculated in pasteurized whey to evaluate their growth kinetics, besides lactose, lactate and free amino acids metabolism. The growth kinetics distinguished different biotypes and different metabolic behavior were determined. The general picture of K. marxianus population from Pecorino di Farindola shows a high biodiversity at genetic and phenotypic levels that potentially offers many opportunities for new and advanced knowledge at species level, providing in the meantime a good basis to study the relationship between genetic variability and functional diversities.


    Alamsyah Alamsyah


    Full Text Available The research shows that in the period of 1830-1900 the inhabitants of Jepara Residency were quite dynamic even though the economic principle had moved from maritime to agrarian. The inhabitants’ creativity which was based on soft skill raised the economic autonomy. They did not rely on the maritime and plantation economy so much. However, the plantation economy gave an opportunity for the creative economy to be born. Then, the inhabitants’ economic creativity created industry and indigenous handicraft. The introduction of export plants which was supported by capitalism did not raise the inhabitants’ dependence towards the colonial economic system. What happened precisely was the interdependence between government, capitalist and inhabitants. When the colonial economic penetration was more intensive, the people were able to adapt to the economic change without being dependent upon the colonial economic structure. It was shown by the inhabitants’ alternative economy. Key words: economic creativity, local society, Jepara residency  Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada periode 1830-1900 penduduk Keresidenan Jepara cukup dinamis meskipun prinsip ekonomi telah berpindah dari maritim ke agraris. Kreativitas penduduk yang didasarkan pada soft skill mengangkat otonomi ekonomi. Mereka tidak begitu banyak bergantung pada ekonomi maritim dan ekonomi perkebunan. Namun, ekonomi perkebunan memberikan kesempatan bagi ekonomi kreatif untuk berkembang. Kemudian, kreativitas ekonomi penduduk menciptakan industri dan kerajinan asli. Pengenalan tanaman ekspor yang didukung oleh kapitalisme tidak meningkatkan ketergantungan penduduk terhadap sistem ekonomi kolonial. Apa yang terjadi justru adalah saling bergantungnya antara pemerintah, kapitalis dan penduduk. Ketika penetrasi ekonomi kolonial lebih intensif, orang-orang mampu beradaptasi dengan perubahan ekonomi tanpa bergantung kepada struktur ekonomi kolonial. Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan

  19. On the folk customs of successive dynasties of Hechuan,Chonqing: starting from Chinese Zhuzhici%重庆市合川区历代风物民俗述论——从《中华竹枝词》入手



    本文从《中华竹枝词》[1]中"合阳竹枝词"及"合州竹枝词"出发,研究合川竹枝词的基本特点与内涵,重点论述合川的节日(春节、元宵节、清明节、端午节、中秋节、重阳节)、生产民俗(农业、手工业、渔业等)、求仕,世态人情,水路交通及山水、郊游习俗、离别送行习俗、当地气候、宗教风俗、乡村生活及景观等,以期为重庆市合川区文化建设与旅游开发提供参考。%Starting from the Heyang Zhuzhici and Hezhou Zhuzhici in Chinese Zhuzhici,this paper studies the basic points and the intention of Hechuan Zhuzhici and focuses on Hechuan's festivals(Spring Festival,Lantern Festival,Tomb Sweeping Festival,Dragon Boat Festival,Mid-Autumn Festival,Double Ninth Festival),production customs(agriculture,handicraft industry,fishing industry),official career,ways of the world,land and water transportation,outing customs,farewell customs,climate,religion,countryside life and scenery,etc..This may offer reference for the cultural and tourist development of Hechuan,Chongqing.

  20. 城市片区的自组织演化及其影响因素探究--以扬州东关街区为例%Research on Urban Self-organization and its influence factors



    东关街是扬州城中最具代表性的城市片区,它不仅是扬州水陆交通要道,更是商业、手工业和宗教文化中心,有着浓厚的历史、社会文化内涵和学术研究价值。在城市片区形成、演化、发展的历史进程中,自组织作为其“主要推手”贯穿始终。本文基于自组织理论,通过对东关街的空间性解读以及场所感的解析,从城市的使用者“人”的角度,探究城市片区的自组织演化规律及其影响因素。%Dongguan street is the most representative city district in Yangzhou, it is not only the land and water traffic arteries in Yangzhou, but also the center of business, handicraft industry and the religion and culture, which has a rich history, social and cultural connotation as wel as research value. In the urban area formation, evolution, and the historical process of development, self-organization is playing an important role like a "major driving force".In this paper, the author hopes to explore the self-organization evolution and its influence factors of city area by analyzing the street space of interpretation sense of place, from the perspective of users of city people based on the self-organization theory.


    Adianti Adianti


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research are to recognize the brand awareness, brand trust, brand satisfaction, brand loyalty, and brand equity from Izykotewaterbased finishing product so we can arrange promotion strategy for the future. To carry on the purpose of those research, the research has been conducted toward for 160 respondent that taken from Kabupaten Gianyar. This research is using Purposive Sampling method by choosing a better respondent to become research sampling. The data was collected by questioner list. The analysis data did by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, and the data were processed by AMOS verse 6, and SPSS verse 15. The result of this research shows, that the brand awareness factors having positive and significant influence to the brand trust for 0.47, the brand awareness have positive influence to the brandsatisfaction for 0.42, the brand trust have positive influence to the brand loyalty for 0.30, the brand satisfaction have a positive influence to the brand loyalty for 0.40, and the variable having a directly effect on positive and significant to brand equity is customer loyalty that is 0.32. The implication of the research result are to expected the improve and increase of the working performance manager especially marketing department to takes opportunities, necessary target market, carrying handicraft worker loyalty, that can be create to brand equity. Beside that company need to keep in touch with every worker who have basic to believe or trust, having satisfaction, and loyalty to used  Izykotewaterbased finishing, that make Izykotemore stronger brand at Kabupaten Gianyar

  2. 基于.NET的水晶工艺品销售平台的实现%Digital Virtual Reality Technology Industrial Product Design Practice of Application Platform



    网上购物也成为日常购买商品的一种主要形式。水晶工艺品销售的途径也从传统的销售模式上转到网络上来,这样可以给销售途径带来高效、快捷的销售产品,增加客户,保持信息畅通,在很大程度上也能降低销售成本。本平台主要利用ASP.NET技术和C#编程语言来实现用户注册、帐户管理、购物车、搜索、结帐等多种功能。本系统的研发在很大程度上提高了水晶工艺品公司工作效率与管理水平,有很大的使用价值。%Online shopping has become a daily purchase a kind of main form. Crystal crafts sales routes will turn from the tradi⁃tional sales mode to network, so that we can bring sales way efficient, fast selling products, increase customer, keep clear of infor⁃mation, also can reduce the cost of sales to a great extent. This platform mainly use technology and c # programming lan⁃guage to realize the user registration, account management, shopping cart, search, checkout and other functions. The research and development of this system to a great extent, improve work efficiency and management level, the crystal handicraft has great use value.

  3. Patrimonio y globalización: el recurso de la cultura en las Políticas de Desarrollo Europeas

    Encarnación Aguilar Criado


    Full Text Available Cualquier aproximación a nuestra realidad actual pasa por la referencia a la globalización , entendida como el trasfondo que explica los procesos sociales que difícilmente pueden ser analizados sin su concurso. Este fenómeno, en síntesis, describe la penetración del mercado en la vida social y refiere a un proceso de larga duración que acelerándose en las últimas décadas, ha terminado por introducirse en nuevas esferas como es el caso de la cultura. Abordamos las causas y consecuencias que la paulatina mercantilización de la cultura está produciendo en nuestra sociedad, explicando tanto la creciente importancia del patrimonio cultural como factor de desarrollo, como el cambio de énfasis en nuestra forma de abordar el estudio del mismo. En la segunda parte del texto profundizamos en cómo se concerta este fenómeno a nivel local, analizando la nueva función de las artesanías en España en relación con las políticas de desarrollo europeas.Any approximation to today's reality must refer to globalization , understood as a backdrop without which social processes cannot be analyzed. In synthesis, globalization is the market's penetration into social life. It is a long-term process that, accelerating in the last several decades, has expanded into new spheres such as culture. I discuss the causes and consequences that the gradual commercialization of culture is producing in Spanish society, explaining both the growing importance of cultural patrimony as a factor for development and the changing emphasis in our own ways of studying it. In the second part of the text, I examine in depth how this is negotiated at a local level, analyzing the new function of handicrafts in Spain in relation to European development policies.

  4. Analysis of genetic and cultural conservation value of three indigenous Croatian cattle breeds in a local and global context.

    Ramljak, J; Ivanković, A; Veit-Kensch, C E; Förster, M; Medugorac, I


    It is widely accepted that autochthonous cattle breeds can be important genetic resources for unforeseeable environmental conditions in the future. Apart from that, they often represent local culture and tradition and thus assist in the awareness of ethnic identity of a country. In Croatia, there are only three indigenous cattle breeds, Croatian Buša, Slavonian Syrmian Podolian and Istrian Cattle. All of them are threatened but specialized in a particular habitat and production system. We analysed 93 microsatellites in 51 animals of each breed to get thorough information about genetic diversity and population structure. We further set them within an existing frame of additional 16 breeds that have been genotyped for the same marker set and cover a geographical area from the domestication centre near Anatolia, through the Balkan and alpine regions, to the north-west of Europe. The cultural value was evaluated regarding the role in landscape, gastronomy, folklore and handicraft. The overall results recognize Croatian Buša being partly admixed but harbouring an enormous genetic diversity comparable with other traditional unselected Buša breeds in the Anatolian and Balkan areas. The Podolian cattle showed the lowest genetic diversity at the highest genetic distance to all remaining breeds but are playing an important role as part of the cultural landscape and thus contribute to the tourist industry. The genetic diversity of the Istrian cattle was found in the middle range of this study. It is already included in the tourist industry as a local food speciality. Current and future conservation strategies are discussed.

  5. 红帮传统优势行业成因分析%An Analysis of Tailor Industry in Ningbo



    Ningbo traditional garment industry was a solid foundation for the Hong Bang tailors’ successful transformation. The paper explores the regional culture and social&historical reasons behind the industry. The reasons are:The narrowness in land, the density in population and the unfitness of the coastal areas for field make people give up farming and go out for handicraft industry. Secondly, the ban on maritime trade practiced in Ming and Qing dynasties affected Ningbo and some fishermen went to business inlands. Thirdly, the family atmosphere and the developed textile industry of Ningbo, though destroyed after 1840, made a large number of people in Ningbo choose the tailor industry as a way of living.%宁波传统成衣业是红帮裁缝成功转型的坚实行业基础,宁波形成传统成衣业优势的地方文化与社会历史原因主要有:宁波地狭人稠,沿海土质难辟为良田,造成人地矛盾的日益加剧,使大量宁波农民放弃土地耕种,外出从事手工业;明清两朝的海禁政策,影响宁波人擅长的海上贸易,从而推动渔民转向内陆经营;宁波近代自然经济的解体,破坏了本地传统纺织业,但基于宁波发达的传统纺织业基础与浓厚的家庭氛围,致使大量宁波人在众多手工行业中选择裁缝一业做为外出的谋生方式。

  6. The Role of Context in Third Graders’ Learning of Area Measurement

    Denny Haris


    Full Text Available Many researches showed that the most of students find the difficulty in measuring area. The formula of area tends to be taught directly without involving the conceptual basis and the area measurement are separated from children’s daily experiences. For this reason, the teaching and learning of area measurement was designed and link to a set of students’  experience-based activities. The context of this research is Indonesian traditional handicraft namely anyaman. The study is situated in the context of implementing an Indonesian version of Realistic Mathematics Education, labeled as PMRI in Indonesia. Design Research methodology comprising preliminary design, teaching experiment, and retrospective analysis is  applied. This research described  the investigation of the context as preliminary of teaching and learning about area measurement held in  3th grade of primary school  SDN 119 Palembang. The result of the teaching experiment showed that problem embedded in a context could encourage the students to develop the idea of area measurement concept. The strategies through emergent modeling showed how students’ contribution could be used to develop gradually their reasoning of area measurement concept. In the experience-based activities for learning area measurement, emergent modeling played an important role in the shift of students’ reasoning from informal level towards formal mathematical concepts of area measurement.Keywords: Area measurement, Anyaman, design research, PMRI DOI:

  7. Ethnobotanical Study of Rattans on Suku Anak Dalam Community in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park

    Dwi Mairida


    Full Text Available Suku Anak Dalam (SAD, a tribal in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park (TNBD has knowledge for utilizing rattans. This research attempts to investigate the species of rattans utilized and to analyze the local wisdom of Suku Anak Dalam(SAD community.The data was collected by doing an interview the informants consisting of temenggung (head of the tribe, jenang (the liaison between the villagers and anak dalam, rattans gatherers, induk (mother and hand maker. Then, the researcher observed active participation (following the SAD activity in utilizing rattans.The interview was conducted based on the appropriate time with qualitative condition and situation. The result showed 12 (twelve species of rattan utilized by the SAD community, Calamus ornatus (Blume, Calamus caesius( Blume, Calamus flabellatus (Becc., Calamus manan(Miq., Calamus csipionum (Lour., Calamus javensis(Blume, Calamus axilliaris(Becc., Calamus sp., Daemonorops geniculata (Griff. Mart., Daemonorops draco(Willd. Blume, Daemonorops verticiliaris(Griff. Mart., and Korthalsiaechinometra(Becc.The eight species were utilized as ambung, penampilan, and tekalo handicraft. One type for rituals, ropes, clotheslines, dye, durian lempok cakes preservatives (Durio spp.,and the species for the food for pregnant mothers (‘ngidam’, and the three species for medicine. The implication of this research gave a documentation for the government to formulate and to make an authority of TNB forest conservation and to protect the culture of SAD community in the form of rattans inventarization and local wisdom of SAD community in utilizing the species of rattans.How to CiteMairida, D., Muhadiono, M., & Hilwan, I. (2016. Etnobotanical Study of Rattans on Suku Anak Dalam Community in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1 64-70.

  8. Contribution to the knowledge of the veterinary science and of the ethnobotany in Calabria region (Southern Italy

    Guarrera Paolo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A series of preliminary research projects on plants used in Calabria (Southern Italy in veterinary science and in other ethno-botanical fields (minor nourishment, domestic and handicraft sector was carried out in the last twenty years. From the ethno-botanical point of view, Calabria is one of the most interesting region, since in the ancient times it was subject to the dominant cultures of several people (Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Normans etc.. Until some decades ago the road network was poorly developed and villages were isolated, so that the culture of the "subsistence" and some archaic customs were kept. Methods Data were collected by means of "open" interviews to farmers, shepherds and housewives in the last twenty years. More than 100 informants were interviewed, mostly over 50 years old. Plants were identified by local informants through gathering in the area or through examination of the fresh plants collected by the researchers. The collected data were compared with pharmacobotanical papers mainly of southern Italy and with other studies, in order to highlight novelties or concordances of uses. Results The use of 62 taxa distributed into 34 families are described. Among these, 8 are or were employed in veterinary science, 8 as anti-parasitic agents, 19 in minor nourishment, 5 as seasoning, 38 for other uses. Some toxic species for cattle are also mentioned. Conclusion Among the major findings: the use of Helleborus bocconei for bronchitis of bovines and of Scrophularia canina for lameness in veterinary science; Nerium oleander and Urginea maritima as anti-parasitic agents; Epilobium angustifolium, Centaurea napifolia L. and C. sphaerocephala L. in minor nourishment.

  9. Contribution to the knowledge of the veterinary science and of the ethnobotany in Calabria region (Southern Italy)

    Passalacqua, Nicodemo G; De Fine, Giuseppe; Guarrera, Paolo Maria


    Background A series of preliminary research projects on plants used in Calabria (Southern Italy) in veterinary science and in other ethno-botanical fields (minor nourishment, domestic and handicraft sector) was carried out in the last twenty years. From the ethno-botanical point of view, Calabria is one of the most interesting region, since in the ancient times it was subject to the dominant cultures of several people (Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Normans etc.). Until some decades ago the road network was poorly developed and villages were isolated, so that the culture of the "subsistence" and some archaic customs were kept. Methods Data were collected by means of "open" interviews to farmers, shepherds and housewives in the last twenty years. More than 100 informants were interviewed, mostly over 50 years old. Plants were identified by local informants through gathering in the area or through examination of the fresh plants collected by the researchers. The collected data were compared with pharmacobotanical papers mainly of southern Italy and with other studies, in order to highlight novelties or concordances of uses. Results The use of 62 taxa distributed into 34 families are described. Among these, 8 are or were employed in veterinary science, 8 as anti-parasitic agents, 19 in minor nourishment, 5 as seasoning, 38 for other uses. Some toxic species for cattle are also mentioned. Conclusion Among the major findings: the use of Helleborus bocconei for bronchitis of bovines and of Scrophularia canina for lameness in veterinary science; Nerium oleander and Urginea maritima as anti-parasitic agents; Epilobium angustifolium, Centaurea napifolia L. and C. sphaerocephala L. in minor nourishment. PMID:17156472


    Natalia Sas


    those which should be realized and taken into consideration by the leaders of educational institutions in the Carpathians: their being densely populated, the distance between the places of residence and schools, household, unique ethnic and handicraft traditions.

  11. Experimental Study on Lightweight Mural Material with Phosphogypsum%磷石膏制备轻质墙体材料试验研究

    李兵兵; 李建锡; 陈思功; 李云峰


    Retarder and foaming agent were mixed into phosphogypsum burnt under low temperature to make lightweight mural material. The influence of citric acid,w/c and foaming agent on the strength and thinner of phosphogypsum was researched. Mechanics experimental test showed that when the handicraft w/c is 0. 65, the admixture of retarder is 0. 1 % , foaming agent is 0. 02% , the compressive strength of phosphogypsum of 7 d is 4. 6 MPa.the bending strength is 2. 2 MPa, initial setting time is 27 min and density is 0. 82 g/cm3. The analysis of SEM showed that the phosphogypsum in such process exists qualified pore and favourable crystallization quality.%采用在低温煅烧过的磷石膏中加入缓凝剂和发泡剂的方法制备轻质墙体材料,研究了缓凝剂、水灰比和发泡剂对磷石膏试块强度和轻质化的影响.力学实验测试表明:缓凝剂掺量0.1%、水灰比0.65、发泡剂掺量0.02%的工艺下,磷石膏试块7d的抗压强度为4.6MPa,抗折强度为2.2 MPa,初凝时间为27 min,体积密度为0.82g/cm3;扫描电镜分析表明:此工艺下的磷石膏试块中孔隙合格且结晶质量良好.


    Siti Maisaroh


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study to identify and seek answers through the establishment of community empowerment model in order to reduce unemployment and poverty.The research was conducted in District Dlingo Bantul, especially in the Village Muntuk. The method of research is conducted with sample survey methods, namely the households respondent sample of the poor and unemployed citizens voted in the village. Data analysis in this study is more designed in the form of qualitative descriptive analysis and SWOT analysis model. The study identified several strategic fundamental potential and central issues as the capital base in the formation of citizens empowerment model, namely: the still high social capital, productive work ethic, the local potential (bamboo handicraft business, technical factors, human capital, productive and entrepreneurial culture. Besides institutional characteristics and conditions of social, economic, cultural and political communities remain conducive and good interaction with various national and local government programs, so it can be a major contributing factor in the formation of community empowerment model in order to solve the problems of unemployment and poverty independently and sustainable. The existence of common perception of the strength and support of stakeholders from sub village, village and district to empower entrepreneurial culture of the residents. Thus, it is recommended the assistance and review of the action also further research and analysis. Assistance is needed only at the beginning of the establishment of the implementation of citizen empowerment model for more effective, efficient and easily applied of model implementation, so that in the future can be done independently and sustainable.

  13. Is it Possible to Design a Math-Art Instructional Practice? Cases of Pre-service Teachers

    Işıkhan UĞUREL


    Full Text Available To many people, establishing relationships between mathematics and art is difficult or surprising. However, these two disciplines are quite interrelated. Today, the literature of mathematics reveals that there has been an increasing interest in interaction between these two disciplines. As also observed in our country, the studies on relationships between mathematics and art have gained more popularity in mathematics education. There is a course entitled, “Mathematics and Art” offered as one of elective courses and taught for ten years to juniors of the Department of Secondary Mathematics Education, Dokuz Eylül University. The course covers a wide range of activities derived from relationships between mathematics and music to activities derived from those between mathematics and handicraft. In this study, cases of pre-service teachers attending this course were analysed. They were asked to do an instructional design integrating mathematics into art at secondary education level. Their designs were analyzed based on the use of art in which contexts and for what purposes. Furthermore, their designs were analyzed in terms of whether they enhance learning. This qualitative study had a case study design. The participants were 43 pre-service mathematics teachers voluntarily selected from students taking the course. Descriptive analysis was done to analyze the data. As a consequence of the analysis, math-art instructional practices developed by pre-service teachers were clustered under three primary categories (good, average and inadequate. The majority of math-art instructional practices were categorized under the average category. In the study, these categories were described and cases in each category were discussed.

  14. 局部封闭治疗58例肱骨外上髁炎体会



    up outside humerus condyle inflammation is the clinical common disease and frequently -occurring disease ,mainly from outside humerus con-dyle extensor tendon always seize the injury caused by inflammation ,chronic disease is not heavy ,but affect the function of upper limbs ,the current clinical drug treatment effect is poorer ,this disease is seen more tennis player ,fitter ,construction workers ,housewives ,handicraft workers .According to the etiol-ogy of the disease ,mostly around the forearm extensor tendon injury repeatedly ,tearing ,scar tissue formation ,tendinous tissue contracture ,caused by chronic aseptic inflammation produced .The general physical therapy ,Chinese medicine fumigation ,massage ,etc to meet the release the conglutination and anti-inflammatory analgesic effect .This paper focuses on grassroots doctors easier to master the local closed treatment .%肱骨外上髁炎是临床常见病和多发病,主要由肱骨外上髁伸肌总肌腱起点处的慢性损伤性炎症所致,病变虽不重,但影响上肢功能,目前临床药物治疗效果较差,本病多见网球运动员、钳工、建筑工人、家庭妇女、手工业劳动者。根据本病病因,多为前臂伸肌腱反复损伤、撕裂、周围瘢痕组织形成,腱性组织挛缩,产生慢性无菌性炎症所致。一般的理疗、中药薰蒸、推拿等难以达到松解粘连及消炎止痛的效果。本篇着重讨论基层医生容易掌握的局部封闭治疗。

  15. Estudio fisicoquímico, bromatológico, fitoquímico y potencial de transformación artesanal de la ciruela del Pacífico

    Vásquez H. D.


    Full Text Available Se realizaron análisis de dos estados de madurez (de cosecha y fisiológica del fruto. Los contenidos de vitamina C oscilaron entre 4.0 y 5.0 mg; los °Brix, entre 8.7 y 13.5; la acidez, entre 0.63 y 0.96; el pH entre 2.4 y 3.0; el índice de esfericidad, entre 0.86 y 1.06; los azúcares reductores, entre 0.29 y 0.33 mg/mg fruta. Se procesó el fruto artesanalmente y mostró un rendimiento mayor al 30%. Los resultados indican que el fruto tiene buenas posibilidades para su transformación en jugos, néctares, salsas y mermeladas. ABSTRACT Physical- chemical, bromatologychal, phytochemical analysis and handmade potencial transformation of Spondias dulcis. Were carried out analysis in two states of maturity (crop and physiological. The correlation variance and analyses showed significant differences in the two states of coloration taking a level of significancia of 5%. The fruit presents change morfological of ovoid to semi-ovoid for the matter concentration in their diameters means and superior in the fruits of maturity of consumption, reaching weight that ranked from 66.9 to 117g for the first state and 93.6 to 248g in the second state, conformed in its majority by pulp (68.1 and 71.75% respectively. An increase was presented in the content of fatty acids in pulp and decrease of carbohydrates and ash in pulp and shell with the maturity change. In general there were not presence of toxic components that can affect their consumption. Products overcome 34% of efficiency wich is seen a considerable yield and the transformation level it is handmade. Key words: Spondias dulcis, Amberella, Pacific plum, Anacardiaceae, maturity, agroindustrial sector, handicrafts, phytochemistry, agroindustrial handmade transformation, food technology

  16. Characterization and biological treatment of colored textile wastewaters from the typical Tunisian hat Chechia dyeing using newly isolated Aspergillus niger

    Hajer Barouni


    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize and investigate, for the first time, the treatment of real colored wastewaters from the artisanal dyeing of the typical Tunisian hat Chechia, using a newly isolated fungal strain. This textile effluent was a mixture called Mix of colored wastewaters from the three main types of Chechia. The major pollutant of the Mix was the toxic Azo dye Amaranth Acid or Acid Red 27. The fungal strain that made the cleanup was discovered in a Chechia dyeing wastewater’s container and identified by ITS rDNA gene sequencing. This isolated Aspergillus niger showed interesting performances on the demonstration of Chechia wastewater’s biodegradation in batch cultures. In order to understand the effect of agitation, Mix dilution and inoculum size on decolourisation and pollution removal, a full factorial experimental design 23 was set up. At the optimal conditions which were 20% inoculum size, 25% Chechia Mix dilution and an agitation of 100 rpm, Aspergillus niger was able to remove color as high as 70.18±2.84% at an initial dye concentration of 1346.6±0.01 mg/L, and to reduce COD to 74.17±14.52% at an initial COD of 4157±422 mg/L. FT-IR spectra analysis confirmed the decolourisation by biodegradation and transformation of the dyes. The treatment by the isolated Aspergillus niger could be successfully applied as a sustainable method to solve one of handicraft dyeing plants environmental management issues.

  17. Támara: seguimiento y diagnostico de un monumento

    Más-Guindal Lafarga, Antonio José


    Full Text Available San Hipólito in Támara, an important example of Spanish 13th century gothic, came to an overall state of deterioration in its main structural, building and artistic elements which reflect the low degree of following, documentation and maintenance of Spanish historical patrimony. A continuous preservation, using the most advanced technologies, and a deep know ledge of the building's past related to its pathology are needed to improve the techniques and innovations neccesary to keep alive the architecture of our past. The "Támara method" has met a great number of specialists in diverse areas, joining efforts and putting side by side the most advanced building technologies and the oldest handicraft traditions to restore the church of San Hipólito its yesterday grandeur.

    San Hipólito de Támara, importante ejemplo de nuestro gótico trecentista, llegó a un estado de deterioro generalizado en sus principales elementos estructurales, constructivos y artísticos que reflejan el bajo nivel de seguimiento, documentación y mantenimiento en que se encuentra nuestro Patrimonio histórico monumental. La conservación permanente, la aportación de las tecnologías más avanzadas y el profundo conocimiento del pasado del edificio en cuanto a sus patologías, son aspectos indispensables para conseguir avanzar en las técnicas e innovaciones necesarias que nos permitan mantener viva la arquitectura de nuestro pasado. "El Método de Támara" ha reunido a un número amplio y variado de especialistas, aunando esfuerzos y compaginando las más avanzadas tecnologías constructivas con las más viejas tradiciones artesanales, para devolver a la iglesia de San Hipólito su esplendor de antaño.

  18. Non-Medical Uses of X–Rays

    J. Jalal Shokouhi


    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: Deep and eminent pene-trance of x–ray, makes it useful and applicable in ra-diography and CT scanning of paintings, art pieces, ceramics, automummies, and even metal and glass objects especially in the field of archeology. In the world, 2 types of automummies have been described: ice-man and soap-man, whereas in Iran in addition to these, another rare kind of mummy namely salt-man, has also been discovered. Four salt-men have been identified till now. Patients & Methods: In winter of 1993, the first salt man was discovered. The first salt man's age was measured by carbon 14 to be 1700–1800 years which dates back to the powerful Sasanian emperor era ap-proximately 200 to 300 years before Islam. Radiogra-phy, 2D- and 3D-CT, high energy weighted spectros-copy, genetic analysis, microbiology and histology evaluations, carbon 14 studies, and DNA finger print-ing were done for him. Thin layer chromatography of his cloths colors, rare element assessment, archeol-ogy, metallurgy, and sociology investigations where also employed. Whereas the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th salt-men are under investigation by means of x-ray and CT scan the polymer specimen is under study to be syn-thesized by the S.L.A machine. Results: This investigation proposes the precious role of x-ray in radiology of artifacts, handicrafts and ar-cheology. Conclusion: In this way valuable museums are en-riched by cultural and historical remnants of previous powers and authority and this inspires the tourism industry with magnificent and splendid masterpieces of ancient civilizations. Preserving and recognizing them also helps to promote anthropological knowl-edge.

  19. Facing global markets – usage changes in Western Amazonian plants: the example of Euterpe precatoria Mart. and E. oleracea Mart.

    Rainer W. Bussmann


    Full Text Available Palms (Arecaceae are one of the most important families of useful plants, and indigenous societies have developed very distinct ways of utilizing this resource. The clonal Euterpe oleracea Mart. has long been used for the preparation of frothy beverages in the eastern Amazon, in particular by colonists and caboclos, but to a much lesser extent by the indigenous population. Euterpe precatoria Mart., which grows in the western Amazon, is traditionally reported as resource for construction and thatch, but not as important species in alimentation. Our recent work indicates that the use of both species has dramatically shifted in the recent past. Prices for Euterpe products have increased dramatically due to the global commodization first of palm hearts and “Açaí berry juice” as nutritional supplement. This is especially evident in western Amazonia: In Bolivia and Peru, where older indigenous informants mostly reported thatch and houseposts as regular use for E. precatoria and did not know E. oleracea. Younger informants most commonly reported to a large extent on E. precatoria being used for the production of palm hearts, but less for other, while the youngest informants in many cases only knew E. precatoria fruits as source of beverages, as commercial fruit, and as source for handicrafts, and indicated that E. oleracea was being introduced because the species yielded higher harvests. In addition, many mid-age and younger informants reported Euterpe sp. as medicinal species, a less frequently mentioned by older informants. The local mestizo population in contrast had a broader distributed knowledge with regard to “food” uses of Euterpe sp., and mentioned the species as source of construction material less frequently.

  20. The Bending Strength, Internal Bonding and Thickness Swelling of a Five Layer Sandwiched Bamboo Particleboard

    Jamaludin, M. A.; Bahari, S. A.; Nordin, K.; Soh, T. F. T.


    The demand for wood based material is increasing but the supply is decreasing. Therefore the price of these raw materials has increased. Bamboo provides an economically feasible alternative raw material for the wood based industry. Its properties are comparable to wood. It is also compatible with the existing processing technology. Bamboo is in abundance, easy to propagate and of short maturation period. Bamboo provides a cheaper alternative resource for the wood based industry. The development of new structural components from bamboo will widen its area of application from handicrafts to furniture and building components. In this study, five layer sandwiched bamboo particleboard were manufactured. The sandwiched Bamboo PB consists of a bamboo PB core, oil palm middle veneers and thin meranti surface veneers. The physical and mechanical properties of the bamboo sandwiched particleboards were tested in accordance to the BS-EN 317:1993 [1] and BS-EN 310:1993 [2], respectively. All the samples passed the standards. The modulus of elasticity was about 352% higher than the value specified in the BS standard, BS-EN 312-4:1996 [3]. The Internal bonding was about 23% higher than the general requirements specified in the standard. On the other hand, the thickness swelling was about 6% lower than the standard. No glue line failure was observed in the strength tests. Critical failures in the IB tests were observed in the particleboards. Tension failures were observed in the surface veneers in the bending tests. The five layer sandwiched bamboo particleboard can be used for light weight construction such as furniture, and wall and door panels in buildings.

  1. Review: Sumber dan Pemanfaatan Zat Warna Alam untuk Keperluan Industri

    Titiek Pujilestari


    , pharmaceutical, cosmetics, handicrafts and leather tanning. Increased concern for health and the environment to make natural dyes for coloring the main alternative to synthetic dyes, in addition to products with natural dyes have a good market. Keywords: natural dyes, source, chemical compounds, usability

  2. Ethnoecology of the palm Brahea dulcis (Kunth) Mart. in central Mexico.

    Pulido, María T; Coronel-Ortega, Mayte


    There have been few studies on the sustainable use of non-timber forest products in arid and semi-arid zones. The palm Brahea dulcis has been one of the most important resources in semi-arid Mesoamerica, since pre-Hispanic times. Currently, some populations grow within protected natural areas, representing both a challenge and an opportunity for local development. This ethnoecological study of B. dulcis in central Mexico aimed to evaluate their uses, harvesting context, and potential for exploitation, in order to give practical advice on their best use and management. Ethnographic and ecological information was obtained in Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphere Reserve and Valle del Mezquital, Mexico. We studied the population structure and density; additionally, we evaluated the rate of leaf production, leaf renewal rate, percent survival of new leaves, the development of reproductive structures and performed a one-year defoliation experiment (involving a control and four treatments including a mix of semiannual and annual frequency of harvest and removal of two new leaves and/or two mature leaves). Twenty uses of the palm were recorded in the study area. Religious/symbolic and handicraft uses are highlighted. The population density of this species was the highest reported for the genus (1244 ± 231.7 ind/ha). The leaf production rate was the highest reported for arborescent palms of the Americas (11.83 ± 0.036 leaves/individual/year). The sexual reproductive cycle was 2.3 years long. A one-year defoliation experiment did not show statistically significant differences. Recommendations include: 1) implement management focused on increasing the abundance and quality of this useful resource in Metztitlán; 2) employ a strategy of focusing on ethnicity and gender in promoting their exploitation; 3) learn from theoretical frameworks of other non timber forest product studies. We propose that Brahea dulcis is the palm with the highest potential for sustainable use

  3. A survey of floating population in 50 townships in China.

    Zhang, Q


    This article presents the findings from the survey of the floating population in China. The survey was conducted in 1991 among 58 townships in 20 provinces after a pilot survey was carried out in Sanhe County of Hebei Province and Wutai County of Shanxi Province. Townships were selected that were representative of the situations in their province. The final sample included only 50 townships due to poor quality data. The population in the sample townships included 18,926 immigrants, or 22.5% of total population, and 9,678 emigrants, or 11.6% of total population. Among seven suburban townships the immigration rate was 44.9% and the emigration rate was 3.2%. Eight coastal townships had an immigrant population of 24.9% and an emigrant population of 3.9%. Inland townships (35) had an immigration rate of 13.9% and emigration rate of 16.5%. Inland migrants moved to places with better economic conditions. 67.4% of the total floating population was male, and 32.6% was female. 4.88% were aged under 14 years and 1.64% were aged over 60 years. 73.4% were aged 15-29 years. 52.7% of the floating population had a junior high education and 32.1% had an elementary school education. The floating population comprised a high proportion of unmarried persons. Most shifted their occupations from the agricultural to the nonagricultural sector. 84.7% of the floating population lived in suburbs, and many worked as vendors, handicraft workers, and sanitation workers. In coastal areas, most were employed in industries and lived in company dorms or rented houses. The average income was RMB1373. Average household income was RMB347 more than the amount for rural residents. Coastal income was higher. 61% worked in services, construction, and transportation. 16% worked in commerce. 23% were visitors. The author states that the floating population is a product of a large and growing rural labor surplus.


    Yuliana Pinaringsih Kristiutami


    Full Text Available Abstract - Development of tourism in Indonesia is currently more important, not only in order to increase the revenue of the country, is expected also to expanding business opportunities, while providing new job opportunities as well as to reduce unemployment. Potential Village Tamanagung as industrial areas and areas of stone carving art craft. Production area of stone carving art has the potential and attraction of attraction so that built and developed as a worthy tourist destination. In the development of tourism in the area of production of stone sculpture studio and the government in cooperation with surrounding communities. The existence of cooperation between organizations institutions with studio owner. Human Resources Training and empowerment of the overall performance of the Department of Tourism. Involving the private sector role in tourism development and promotion is encouraged with the development of technology and information. Designing a stone sculpture gallery as container sales, promotion, recreation and exhibition of handicrafts is a strategy in the development of stone sculpture production region as one tourism destination. Keywords: Development, Stone Sculpture Area, Potential, Attractions, Tourist Destination   Abstrak - Pengembangan kepariwisataan di Indonesia saat ini semakin penting, tidak saja dalam rangka meningkatkan penerimaan devisa negara, diharapkan juga dapat memperluas kesempatan berusaha, disamping memberikan lapangan pekerjaan baru juga untuk mengurangi pengangguran. Potensi Desa Tamanagung sebagai daerah industri dan kawasan kerajinan seni pahat batu. Kawasan produksi seni pahat batu mempunyai potensi dan daya tarik wisata berupa atraksi sehingga layak dibangun dan dikembangkan sebagai daerah tujuan wisata. Dalam pengembangan pariwisata di kawasan produksi seni pahat batu pemerintah bekerjasama dengan sanggar dan masyarakat sekitar. Adanya kerjasama antara organisasi lembaga dengan pemilik sanggar

  5. Rancang Bangun Portal E-Commerce Semarang-Handycraft Berorientasi Obyek

    Sinta Tridian Galih


    Full Text Available Number of  emerging  Small  and  Medium  Enterprises  (SMEs  in  Indonesia  has  not  been  matched  with  optimal  performance.  Manyproblems  arise  such  as  difficulty  in  marketing  products  and  limited  costs  for  marketing.  This  problem  can  be  overcome  by  utilizingInternet technology to build e-commerce portal. Portal help online marketing with no borders zone, facilitate for searching a consumer,can automate the promotion and business transactions that can help win the competition.In this research, to be built e -commerce portalSemarang-Handycraft. Design of e-commerce portal is using system development methodologies Model Driven Development (MDDand UML modeling language (Unified Modeling Language which is a visual language for modeling object -oriented language and byusing the  Open Source  Content Management  Systems  that  is  called  Joomla  and  using  e-commerce  modules Virtuemart.  Produced  ecommerce portal that can provide information with better quality and can be accessed at, which is a newalternative  for  the  production  of  marketing  handicraft  products  of  SMEs  in  Semarang.  For  security  and  convinience  of   informationretrieval in e-commerce portal is divided into several access rights, ie rights of access to regular visitors, members and administratorsKeywords: E-commerce; Portals; UML; Object-oriented

  6. Vatid, troid, vamsad. Silmkoelised kampsunid Lääne-Eesti saartel

    Riina Tomberg


    Full Text Available The article overviews the tradition of knitted sweaters worn on the islands off the western coast of Estonia during the period from the 1880s to the 1920s-1930s. The article discusses the knitted sweaters as a type of clothing which use was determined by time and circumstances and as a phenomenon, which emerged in a small closed community of islands but soon became popular and widely used, thus taking on a nation-wide symbolic meaning that has persisted until the present day. The study also points to the possible reciprocal influences derived from the contacts of the inhabitants of the islands with the population and folk art of other ethnic groups in the Baltic area, especially in Scandinavia. The first chapter describes the origin of knitting as a handicraft technique and its probable distribution routes to Estonia and the islands. Parallels are drawn with knitted sweaters of other countries of the Baltic area as a possible source for the emerging of the tradition on the Estonian islands. The second chapter provides an overview of knitted sweaters of the Estonian islands preserved in museums, and of the written sources containing information about making and wearing them. On the islands regional characteristics developed, giving the sweaters a unique appearance. The third chapter describes the used method, based on the holistic approach to culture, and applying it to the collected material. According to the holistic approach, information about the tradition (and the object is obtained in the context necessary for its existence, and for understanding the tradition the system has to be considered in its entirety. An object is attributed different functions in the context and through that different meanings are assigned to it. The knitted sweaters from the islands of Estonia, which came in use in the second half of the 19th century as a part of the national costume, served on the one hand as a transitional stage from the traditional home


    Diah Arum Savitri


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objectives of this study were 1 analyzing the competitiveness, 2 analyzing the market size, 3 analyzing marketing strategies’ priorities and alternatives to improve the competitiveness of industry center of dove cage in Dawuhan Mangli Village, Jember Regency. The method used in this study was descriptive analysis. The analysis tools used in this study were Porter’s Diamond Theory, BCG (Boston Consulting Group, SWOT and AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process. Competitiveness analysis using diamond theory of Porter showed that industry center of dove cage handicraft in Dawuhan Mangli Village, Jember Regency is still weak. There are 9 components that have weaknesses while other 7 components have strengths. Market growth rate and relative market share formulated on BCG diagram are in the position of Question Marks, which means that the business has the opportunity to grow and expand but needs sufficient cash flow in order to increase its relative market. Based on SWOT and AHP analysis were obtained 7 marketing strategies with their priorities scales including: strengthening the capital, PSBP group formation, education and training, warehouse and workshop building, institutional formation of marketing and raw materials, increasing promotion, improving the quality and diversification of products. To enhance the industrial competitiveness of dove cage industry, development activities through strengthening the marketing and raw materials institution should be done.Keywords: competitiveness, marketing strategy, dove cage ABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah 1 menganalisis daya saing, 2 menganalisis market size, 3 merumuskan prioritas strategi pemasaran untuk sentra industri usaha kerajinan sangkar burung perkutut di Desa Dawuhan Mangli, Kabupaten Jember. Metode yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif. Analisis yang digunakan adalah Porter’s Diamond Theory, analisis BCG (Boston Consulting Group, SWOT, dan AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process

  8. 连南排瑶刺绣艺术价值观与产品创新问题探讨%Exploration on Values and Innovation of Embroidery Made by Yao Minority in Liannan



    Guangdong Province, liannan paiyao embroidery is intangible cultural heritage, local brand of cultural tourism. In recent years, “economy of intangible cultural heritage,” Yao embroidery from the field of economic development and tourism industrialization resulted in handicraft production problems: cultural disorientation of value and culture fades the products into a structured marketing dilemma. Analysis of neighboring Japan on industrial design and traditional culture of the “dual track” strategy, explore even characteristics of Paiyao traditional embroidery art, remained from the original technology of eco-typical cultural symbols with the hands-pure modern design concepts derived from two aspects of the traditional Liannan Paiyao embroidery art industry innovations, problem and countermeasures of cultural heritage and development.%连南瑶绣是广东省非物质文化遗产,也是当地特色旅游文化品牌。近年来,“非物质文化遗产经济”以及旅游经济发展场域下的瑶绣产业化引发这一自给型传统手工艺向产品型产业化生产的种种弊病:文化价值观错位、民族文化特色消褪、产品陷入结构性营销困局。依托日本工业设计及传统文化的“双轨制”策略及连南排瑶刺绣的传统艺术特征,从原生工艺的生态典型性保持与脱离手工的文化符号衍生的纯现代设计生产两方面阐述传统连南排瑶刺绣艺术产业的创新,文化的传承与发展。

  9. Tzintzars in Uroševac and other Kosovo's rail centers: A contribution to the history of Tzintzars in Serbia

    Luković Miloš


    Full Text Available A relatively large number of Tzintzars used to live in Uroševac for more than 120 years, until they got totally displaced in 1999. The Tzintzars also lived in other Kosovo towns: Lipljan, Obilić, Priština and Kosovska Mitrovica, until hazardous living conditions compelled them to relocate to Vučitrn and Kačanik. Vučitrn and Kačanik were trade centers located near the railroad (that stared to operate in 1873 and, as such, represented attractive locations with numerous possibilities for profit and earnings (that is why J. Cvijić called these settlements, railroad towns". Hence in a few waves, the Tzintzars that inhabited the mountain zone of Bitolj-Kruševo (Gopeš, Magarevo, Nižopolje, Malovište, and even Bitolj Kruševo and nearby Prizren, started to settle in this region. The relationship with the parent country was maintained by marriage and permanent contact. For a long time, the Tzintzar language was in use, and ethnic identity preserved. The Tzintzars left a considerable mark on the Kosovo economy and culture. Their occupations, like trade (especially grain purchase and its delivery, via railroad to Skoplje, Thessalonica, and other places along the way, handicrafts, hostelry and tavern-owning, enabled them to participate in the founding of new towns: Ferizović (Uroševac Lipljan, Globoderice (Obilić; and, at the same time, to reinforce economies in Priština and Kosovska Mitrovica. In the interwar period, already ramified Tzintzar lineages extended their economic activities (in the milling industry, banking, agriculture, the commencement of industry, started to send their children to academies and better schools and supported social institutions in their settings. After World War II, following the nationalization of their property, the Tzintzars were forced to hastily change their traditional occupations - thus they started to relocate, mostly to Skoplje. This was a typical outcome for many of the Tzintzar lineages. To

  10. Occupational noise and myocardial infarction: Considerations on the interrelation of noise with job demands

    Norbert Kersten


    Full Text Available The present analysis aims to differentiate the association of noise on myocardial infarction (MI by job specific demands using International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88 codes as a proxy. Data of a German case-control study were supplemented by job descriptions (indicated by ISCO-88. It was examined whether the demands in the various occupational groups modify the effect of noise. Noise and occupational groups are combined to form new exposure categories. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to identify effects of combined job-noise categories. For the highest noise range (95-124 dB(A we found a significant odds-ratio (OR of 2.18 (confidence interval [CI] 0.95 = 1.17-4.05 independent of the profession. Some interesting results were found indicating ISCO groups with possible risk. In men, noticeable effects for the exposure category between 62 dB(A and 84 dB(A are calculated in the group of legislators and senior officials (ISCO-group 11; OR=1.93; CI 0.95 = 0.50-7.42, the group consisting of life science and health professionals (ISCO-group 22; OR=2.18; CI 0.95 = 0.36-13.1, the group of life science and health associate professionals (ISCO-group 32; OR = 2.03; CI 0.95 = 0.50-8.24, and the group of "precision, handicraft, printing, and related trades workers" (ISCO-group 73; OR = 2.67; CI 0.95 = 0.54-13.0. In the exposure range of 85-94 dB(A, high ORs are calculated for "skilled agricultural, fishery, and forestry workers" (ISCO-group 6; OR = 4.31; CI 0.95 = 0.56-33.3. In women, there are high (nonsignificant ORs in ISCO-group 1 (OR = 2.43; CI 0.95 = 0.12-50.0, ISCO-group 2 (OR = 1.80; CI 0.95 = 0.31-10.5, and ISCO-group 9 (OR = 2.45; CI 0.95 = 0.63-9.51 for a noise exposure between 62 dB(A and 84 dB(A. When investigating noise at the workplace in relation to cardiovascular diseases it is important to take the specific requirements of a job into account. Thus, work tasks with high health risks can be identified

  11. Maldives.


    This discussion of Maldives covers the following: geography; people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Maldives. In 1985, the population was estimated to be 181,453 and the annual growth rate 3.4%. The infant mortality rate is 81.5/1000; life expectancy is 53.5 years. Located in the northern Indian Ocean, Maldives is an island about 2.6 square kilometers, 670 kilometers southwest of Sri Lanka. Only about 200 of the 1200 islands are inhabited. Only 33 islands have more than 1000 inhabitants. The earliest settlers were most likely from southern India, followed by Indo-European speakers from Sri Lanka. Arab sailors came from East African and other countries. Today, Maldivian ethnic consciousness is a blend of these cultures. The early history of Maldives remains obscure. Independent for most of its history, the islands were ruled by Portugal from 1558-73 and were a British protectorate from 1887 until July 26, 1965. On November 11, 1968, the sultanate was abolished, and the country took its present name, Republic of Maldives. In 1968 Maldives became a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Since 1981 the constitution has been in the process of revision. The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and shipping. Poor soil and limited availability of cultivable land limit agriculture to a few subsistence crops. Boatbuilding and handicrafts are the basis of traditional industry; modern industry is restricted to a few consumer products, a fish cannery, and 3 garment factories. Fishing employs about 45% of the labor force. Maldives experienced a balance-of-trade deficit of $37.9 million and a current-accounts deficit of $16.5 million in 1984. Government expenditure was $26.1 million (34% of the gross national product). Maldives, which follows a nonaligned policy, is committed to the principle of maintaining friendly relations with all countries and has friendly

  12. Social Factors to Aggravate Disasters in Yunnan in Late Imperial China%清末民初云南灾荒加剧的社会因素



    云南的自然环境极具灾害性。明清以降至清末民初,由于人口急速膨胀、农田过度开垦和山林矿藏的掠夺式开发,云南生态环境迅速恶化,进而加速加剧了各类自然灾害的发生;农业与家庭手工业相结合的自然经济又从根本上限制了社会抗灾减荒能力的生成与提高。封建剥削、战乱兵祸及列强的经济掠夺、迷信赌毒等造成社会环境的全面恶化,各族民众极度贫困,加重了灾后饥荒疾疫的蔓延与流行。中央与地方政府的荒政长久缺失,导致云南赈灾救荒活动严重乏力。总之,清末民初的云南已完全陷入人为破坏生态环境加剧自然灾害频发、逢灾必荒的结果加速了社会环境的恶化、社会环境恶化又加重了饥荒的蔓延这一恶性循环过程。%Yunnan is prone to natural disasters due to its environment. From the Ming and Qing dynasties to late imperial China, population explosion, over-farming, predatory exploitation of forests and minerals, and ecological damages aggravated all kinds of natural disasters in Yunnan on one hand, and on the other hand, natural economy of agriculture and household handicrafts weakened the power of society to prevent and reduce disasters. Feudal exploitation, government's taxes, wars, bandits, economic plunder of imperialists, superstition, gambling and drugs deteriorated social environment, and extreme poverty of ethnic people speeded.up the wide spread of famine and epidemic after disasters. Neither the central government nor the local governments made policies to deal with natural disasters. As a result, disaster relief in Yunnan was seriously weak. All in all, Yunnan in late imperial China was ecological damages leading to frequent natural disasters which totally stuck into a vicious circle of man-made then would deteriorate social environment, and which in turn would result in prolonged famines.

  13. Pendekatan One Village One Product (OVOP untuk Mengembangkan Potensi Kerajinan Daerah. Studi Kasus: Kerajinan Gerabah di Kecamatan Plered, Kabupaten Purwakarta

    Meirina Triharini


    craft industry in the ten regions in Indonesia, including Purwakartawith its potential on decorative pottery and ceramic crafts. This study aims to evaluate the implementation of OVOP in Indonesia that has been ongoing since 2008 and make a recommendation for the development of potential handicrafts with OVOP approach by taking a case study in Plered, Purwakarta. In addition to the importance of consistency of government and public participation and oversight in implementing the program, the development of craft product design plays a very significant role. It is required for designers to have very strong roles to develop designs that can understand the market needs while maintaining the traditional values of craft and resolve the problems faced by the industry.Keywords: craft; ceramic; OVOP; pottery; Purwakarta.

  14. Climate Change and its Impacts on Tourism and Livelihood in Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal

    K C, A.


    tourism promotional activities in the study area. Also awareness and education related to tourism, gender empowerment of women, advertisement and publicity on tourism promotion, adequate subsidy and training on ecotourism and skill development training on handicraft are recommended.

  15. Property Inheritance of Wives in British and China from 14th Century to 16th Century%14-16世纪英、中妻子财产继承比较



    It was the social transition of Englandduring the period from fourteenth century to sixteenth century,and London has been at the forefront of the time for its prosperity of handicraft industry and commerce.London also enjoyed its own laws and customs because of its autonomous city status.Among these laws and customs,there were many provisions conducive to the property inheritance of wives of London.This was a pledge for wives of London to inherited a large amount of property from their husbands.On the other hand,wives of China of this period of time had never enjoyed independent rights of property inheritance,even though China had also gone through the prosperity of commodity economy.Customs of nongovernmental al-lowed wives to keep property of their husbands,but these customs were not as tolerant as customs of London.From the com-parison between China and London,we can see not only the different attitudes toward wives in different society,but also their different positionson their own survival and developing road.%14-16世纪是英国的社会转型期。在伦敦,工商业的繁荣使其居于时代的前沿,自治城市地位又使之拥有自己的法律与习俗,其中有许多有利于妻子财产继承的规定,为寡妻继承大量亡夫遗产提供了一定的保障。同时期的中国也曾有过商品经济的繁荣,但妻子在法律上始终没有独立的财产继承权,虽然民间习俗允许寡妻继管家产,但也不似伦敦的习俗那般宽容。两相比较,不仅可见中国和伦敦社会对待寡妻的不同态度,亦可体现出她们在生存与发展道路上所处的不同位置。

  16. Envejecimiento demográfico y participación laboral femenina Demographic Aging and Female Labour Participation

    Gabriela Adriana Sala


    , industrial and handicraft production, health and sanity, people care and gastronomic services occupations. On the other hand, among the most educated women prevailed those occupation linked to the education, health, management of small and medium companies directive occupations, administrative management and commercialization occupations.

  17. Perspectives on scientific and technological literacy in Tonga: Moving forward in the 21st century

    Palefau, Tevita Hala

    Tonga has undergone complex changes in the last three decades. Disturbing numbers of young Tongans have inadequate knowledge in traditional science and technology, ill equipped to work in, contribute to and profit from our society. In short, they lack sufficient background knowledge to acquire the training, skills and understanding that are needed in the 21st Century. The purpose of this research is to assist the formulation of national science and technology curriculum. Hence, views of life in Tonga and opinions about Tonga's needs held by three stakeholder groups (traditional, workplaces, public) were paramount in this study. How these stakeholders see Tonga in terms of science and technology needs will contribute substantially to the Ministry of Education's decisions for this century. Based on critical evaluation of international literature and how scientific and technological literacy (STL) is crucial to Tongan society, a model 'TAP-STL' is established as study framework: 'TAP' for ṯraditional, a&barbelow;cademic and p&barbelow;ublic STL, to promote national development. This qualitative case study employs an interview method to collect data from twelve knowledgeable participants selected by reputational sampling from across the kingdom. By exploring their understanding of STL requirements, the study sought to identify any shortfall between the science and technology provided in school and that needed for maintenance of traditional culture, effective participation in Tonga's workplaces and public understanding. The study produced findings under these categories: understanding of traditional knowledge and skills needed to preserve Tongan cultural identity; understanding needed for fishing, handicrafts and everyday maintenance, together with essential health knowledge and skills; and required understanding of public information campaigns related to health, domestic goods, drugs and environment that contribute to responsible citizenship. The study identified

  18. No going back. Mexican women find opportunity and obstacles in a changing economy.

    Cabral, E


    , trash collection, and paved roads and walkways. Border areas such as Juarez attract 200 unemployed daily. Unregulated growth will turn these border cities into densely populated areas. About 40% of the economically active population work in the informal sector. Much of the vendor merchandise is illegal contraband, and intricate handicrafts are sold next to electronic games, cosmetics, and silk-screened T shirts. Informal work is also available for women in cottage industries at home. The Agro-Industrial Women's Unit in Buenavista helps to secure agricultural land holdings for women.

  19. [Palms conservation, patterns of use and diversity (Arecaceae) in rain forests from the Chocó, Colombia].

    Valois-Cuesta, Hamleth; Martínez-Ruiz, Carolina; Rentería Cuesta, Yucith Yudelmis; Sol María, Panesso Hinestroza


    Arecaceae is a family rich in species and provides resources for the subsistence of human groups in the tropical regions. The aim of this work was to assess the richness, diversity, composition, and use patterns of the family Arecaceae in three communities of the Medio Atrato, Chocó, Colombia, in order to obtain useful information to support the sustainable use and conservation of this plant groups in the biogeographical area of the Colombian Chocó. The fieldwork was carried out between 2009 and 2010 in the localities of Beté, Tangui and El Buey in the municipality of Medio Atrato. In each of the communities, a total of ten plots of 80 x 5 m (400 m2; 0.4 ha per zone) were established and all individuals of palm species were counted and recorded. On the other hand, information on use types and useful organs was also recorded in each community through informal interviews. A total of 29 species and 18 genera were recorded. Bactris (24.13%) and Wettinia (10.34%) were the genera with most species richness. El Buey showed more species and genera richness (23 species, 17 genera) than Beté (15, 10) and Tangui (14, 11). The floristic similarity among the three communities was less than 45%. The species with higher use and ecological value were: Euterpe oleracea, Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea allennii, Manicaria saccifera, Bactris gassipaes and Wettinia quinaria. The categories of use with higher number of species and cultural importance were construction, food and handicraft. The most used structures of the palms were the stems and fruits. In conclusion, the results indicate that the Medio Atrato has high richness and diversity of palm species in a regional and national context. However, the relationship between number of use and ecological importance of the species depends on the locality and show that the socio-cultural significance of the palm species may vary among groups of people who share a same culture or biogeographic region. Future studies should be conducted to

  20. Report of Earthquake Drills with Experiences of Ground Motion in Childcare for Young Children, Japan

    Yamada, N.


    After the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, this disaster has become one of the opportunities to raise awareness of earthquake and tsunami disaster prevention, and the improvement of disaster prevention education is to be emphasized. The influences of these bring the extension to the spatial axis in Japan, and also, it is important to make a development of the education with continuous to the expansion of time axes. Although fire or earthquake drills as the disaster prevention education are often found in Japan, the children and teachers only go from school building to outside. Besides, only the shortness of the time to spend for the drill often attracts attention. The complementary practice education by the cooperation with experts such as the firefighting is practiced, but the verification of the effects is not enough, and it is the present conditions that do not advance to the study either. Although it is expected that improvement and development of the disaster prevention educations are accomplished in future, there are a lot of the problems. Our target is construction and utilization of material contributing to the education about "During the strong motion" in case of the earthquake which may experience even if wherever of Japan. One of the our productions is the handicraft shaking table to utilize as teaching tools of the education to protect the body which is not hurt at the time of strong motion. This made much of simplicity than high reproduction of the earthquake ground motions. We aimed to helping the disaster prevention education including not only the education for young children but also for the school staff and their parents. In this report, the focusing on a way of the non-injured during the time of the earthquake ground motion, and adopting activity of the play, we are going to show the example of the framework of earthquake disaster prevention childcare through the virtual experience. This presentation has a discussion as a practice study with

  1. Occupational noise and myocardial infarction: considerations on the interrelation of noise with job demands.

    Kersten, Norbert; Backé, Eva


    The present analysis aims to differentiate the association of noise on myocardial infarction (MI) by job specific demands using International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO)-88 codes as a proxy. Data of a German case-control study were supplemented by job descriptions (indicated by ISCO-88). It was examined whether the demands in the various occupational groups modify the effect of noise. Noise and occupational groups are combined to form new exposure categories. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to identify effects of combined job-noise categories. For the highest noise range (95-124 dB(A)) we found a significant odds-ratio (OR) of 2.18 (confidence interval [CI] 0.95 = 1.17-4.05) independent of the profession. Some interesting results were found indicating ISCO groups with possible risk. In men, noticeable effects for the exposure category between 62 dB(A) and 84 dB(A) are calculated in the group of legislators and senior officials (ISCO-group 11; OR=1.93; CI (0.95) = 0.50-7.42), the group consisting of life science and health professionals (ISCO-group 22; OR=2.18; CI 0.95 = 0.36-13.1), the group of life science and health associate professionals (ISCO-group 32; OR = 2.03; CI 0.95 = 0.50-8.24), and the group of "precision, handicraft, printing, and related trades workers" (ISCO-group 73; OR = 2.67; CI(0.95) = 0.54-13.0). In the exposure range of 85-94 dB(A), high ORs are calculated for "skilled agricultural, fishery, and forestry workers" (ISCO-group 6; OR = 4.31; CI(0.95) = 0.56-33.3). In women, there are high (nonsignificant) ORs in ISCO-group 1 (OR = 2.43; CI(0.95) = 0.12-50.0), ISCO-group 2 (OR = 1.80; CI 0.95 = 0.31-10.5), and ISCO-group 9 (OR = 2.45; CI(0.95) = 0.63-9.51) for a noise exposure between 62 dB(A) and 84 dB(A). When investigating noise at the workplace in relation to cardiovascular diseases it is important to take the specific requirements of a job into account. Thus, work tasks with high health risks can be


    Wiryono Wiryono


    as many as 83 species of plants for eight categories, namely food, followed by medicine, construction, firewood, fence and hedge, handycaraft, coloring agent and poison with 35, 30, 16, 9, fence and hedge 9, handicraft 9, coloring agent 1 and poison 1 species respectively. Fifty five of the plant species were taken from private land and 28 from forest. Economically, 54 species were used for the villagers’ own purpose, while 29 species were not only for their own use but also for sale.

  3. Oman.


    Focus in this discussion of Oman is on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; and relations between Oman and the US. The population is estimated at 1.3 million; the annual growth rate is 3%. The infant mortality rate is estimated to be 50/1000 with a life expectancy of 48 years. Oman is located in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Its land borders with Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates remain undefined, and the border with the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen is in dispute. About 1/3 of the population live in Muscat and the Batinah coastal plain northwest of the capital; more than 1/2 live in small towns, primarily in the interior. Ethnic groups include Arab, Baluchi, Zanzibari, and Indian. At least 200,000 expatriates live in Oman, most of whom (180,000) are guest workers from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, as well as from Egypt, Jordan, and the Philippines. Except for a brief period of Persian rule, the Omanis have remained independent since 1650. The sultanate has no constitution, legislature, or legal political parties. The judicial system is based mainly on the Koranic laws and the oral teachings of the Prophet Muhammad. In November 1981, the sultan formed the Consultative Council for the State in an effort to increase public participation in the government. When Oman declined as an entrepot for arms and slaves in the mid-19th century, much of its former prosperity was lost, and the economy relied almost exclusively on agriculture, camel and goat herding, fishing, and traditional handicrafts. Oil was first discovered in the interior in 1964. With the fall in oil prices in the early 1980s, revenue declined slightly before resuming an upward trend based on additions to production from the new fields. By late 1985, production rose to just over 500,000 barrels/day. The government is undertaking many development projects to modernize the economy and further improve the

  4. Efectos de un emisario submarino de aguas "residuales" urbanas sobre comunidades de octocorales (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea en Cuba

    Darlenys Hernández-Muñoz


    -indicator due to an intensive illegal selective extraction for lucrative handicraft purposes, which led to a remarkable decrease in its density. B. asbestinum and E. clavigera were outlined as poorly resistant to pollution. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 65-75. Epub 2008 March 31.

  5. Test said of silk industry During the Han Dynasty%汉代丝织业试说

    吴方浪; 吴方基


    This is an important period about the development and prosperity of city silk industry during the Hart Dynasty, the scale of silk is large and division of work is fine, and the luxury production of silk features apparent- ly. There are a lot of city silk markets during Han Dynasty; the trade of silk was flourishing in market. The con- sumption of silk to the monarch of the urban poor are very large during Han Dynasty, the significant of consumer groups have showed differencely, the consumption of special silk is a signal of Political identity and a status sym- hol. The production of city luxury silk makes the development of the handicraft industry support or opposes this trend in the direction of the late. Meanwhile during Han Dynasty, the rationality about the production structure of the Han Dynasty silk promote the improvement of the urban markets function greatly, led to the progress of other industries, thus promoting the economic development of the city.%两汉是中国古代丝织业发展的重要时期,其生产规模大、分工细,且表现出明显的奢侈品生产特点。汉代市场丝织品数量多,贸易兴盛,上至君主下至城市平民对丝织品的消费都比较大,在消费群体上表现出明显的等级差异性,这种差异性尤其表现在对特种丝织品的消费上。汉代奢侈丝织品的生产使得当时手工业向背本趋末的方向发展,同时,丝织品生产结构的合理性在很大程度上又促进了城市市场功能的完善,带动了其他行业的进步,进而推动了城市经济的发展。

  6. 小酌中国漆画线条%Research on Lines of Chinese Lacquer Painting



    中国现代漆画渴望继承并发扬中国古代漆画的传统,但理论匮乏,导致目前部分工艺只能靠经验完成,缺少精神升华。作品缺乏生命力。“线”作为中国漆画中的重要造型元素在理论建设方面居然处在几乎无人问津的境地。对漆画线条的律动感进行分析,认为画面中的线条与音乐的旋律一样有着节奏感和韵律感,提出运用反复、排叠、错综等程式进行漆画线条的创作;对漆画线条的审美情感进行论述,通过情感性、民族性、哲学性等方面的深入探讨提升漆画线条的艺术审美情趣。%Modem Chinese lacquer painting is Chinese lacquer painting, but due to lack of related eager to inherit and carry forward the tradition of ancient theory, some handicrafts can only be finished based on past experience and therefore lack spiritual sublimation and vitality. Line is the important shaping element in the lacquer painting, but hardly anyone cares for it in theory construction. This article analyzes the sense of movement of lacquer painting lines and comes to the conclusion that lines in pictures have both the sense of rhythm and the sense of rhyme scheme, and puts forward such patterns as repetition, cascade and criss-crossing in the creation of lacquer painting lines. It also discusses the aesthetic emotion of lacquer painting lines and gives in-depth research from the aspects such as emotional, national, philosophical characters, etc. aiming at improving the artistic aesthetic interest on the lacquer painting lines.

  7. 环境史视野下中世纪日耳曼人的食物构成研究%Studies on the Food Constitution of Germanic People in the Middle Ages from the Perspective of Environmental History

    江山; 胡爱国


    Based on rich historical records and archeological discoveries, it is evident that Germanic people in the Middle Ages had an abundant food composition, but did not reach the same diverse degree as that achieved after the New World was discovered. For the most part, the reason why the food constitution was uniform was that natural conditions varied greatly from area to area and agricultural technology was not highly developed. With the constant boom of the cities, handicraft industries, and commerce in the middle period of the Middle Ages, commercial exchanges between areas became possible, which changed the food composition of Germanic people to a certain degree, but not dramatically. The paper focuses on the studies on the food composition of Germanic people in the Middle Ages from the perspective of environmental history, in a bid to understand their existence in nature and interrelation with surroundings, and be provided with a new insight into the studies on history of German eco-civilization.%从大量的历史文献和考古发现中不难发现,中世纪日耳曼人的食物构成虽较为丰富,但还远没有达到新大陆发现之后的多样化程度。食物构成之所以相对单一,主要是当时各地区自然条件的悬殊差异和农业生产技术的不发达所致。随着中世纪中期城市、手工业和商业的不断兴起,地区间的商品交换成为可能,这在一定程度上改变了日耳曼人的食物构成,但这还谈不上根本性改变,真正的改变是在新时代开启后。从环境史视角对中世纪日耳曼人的食物构成进行研究,不但可以了解到他们的生存状况以及他们和周边环境的相处关系,还可以为德国生态文明史的研究提供一个新的视野。

  8. 略论近代四川沱江流域糖业经营方式%On the Management Style of Sugar Industry in Sichuan Tuo River Region in Modern Times



    Since the modem times, sugar plantation of Sichuan Tuo river region has been expanting, which accelerats the process of commercialization and industrialization of regional economy and induces the regional movement of management style of sugar industry. On the one hand, this paper discusses three patterns of peasant involvement in sugarcane production in the modern Tuo river region:l )peasants engaging solely in growing sugarcane ;2)peasants growing sugarcane and extracting the juice from it themselves; and 3) peasants producing sugar in cooperatives. These economic management patterns coexist,reflecting the dissolution of the union between tilling and weaving in farm management patterns in the Tuo river valley,and the complexity of social economy in rural areas. On the other hand, this paper also interprets the diversity of the production patterns of sugar : the transformation of sugar manufac- ture from the household sideline production to the handicraft workshops ;the coexistence of three kinds of productivity.%匠代以来,四川沱江流域的甘蔗种植呈扩大趋势,既加快了区域经济商品化及工业化的进程,也进一步引起了糖业经营方式的区域性变动。蔗农家庭经营存在着三种形态:单一农业经营、自种自榨自经营、合作社经营。这三种经营形态分别代表了该地区粮食作物与经济作物种植比例的变化、农业与手工业的重新组合及生产的合作化等几个发展方向。生产方式多元化成为糖业发展的主流趋势:一方面传统家庭副业性质的制糖方式向以市场为导向的手工工场性质制糖方式的转变,另一方面土糖房、机制糖厂及小型改良糖厂等多种生产力形式并存;前者是以手工制糖技术的专业化及蔗农的贫困化为基础的,后者是以机器制糖业对手工制糖业的依赖为前提的。

  9. Los espacios del trabajo femenino en la Castilla del siglo XV

    María Isabel del VAL VALDIVIESO


    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El artículo parte del planteamiento de un marco general que atiende a los conceptos espacio público y espacio doméstico, y a algunos indicadores que permiten acceder a cómo eran percibidos esos ámbitos de actividad, y cómo quedaban asignados a ellos los distintos integrantes del conjunto social. A partir de ahí se estudia el trabajo femenino, que en parte se desarrolla en torno a la familia, pero que en muchas ocasiones se desliza hacia el espacio público, tanto en lo que respecta al mercado como al taller artesano. Se constata entonces que las mujeres están presentes en la gran mayoría de sectores y oficios, tanto dentro como fuera del hogar, dedicándose a las tareas de provisión y mantenimiento del hogar, comercio, artesanado, tareas agrícolas y servicios («hostelería », obras públicas, baños, etc.. Con ello se constata con más precisión la contribución de las mujeres a la construcción social y se observa la posibilidad que tienen de establecer redes de relación entre ellas.ABSTRACT: The article first outlines a general framework setting out the concepts of public space and domestic space, and establishes certain indicators which provide an insight into how these areas were viewed and how they were allocated to the various sectors that made up society. A study is then carried out of female work, which in part is centred around the family, but which moves towards the public domain, in both the market and craft workshops. Women are thus seen as being very much in evidence in the vast majority of sectors and trades, both inside the home and out, devoting themselves to the task of providing for and maintaining the home, trade, handicrafts, agricultural work and services («hostelry», public works, baths, etc.. A more accurate picture is thereby given of the contribution of women to the construction of society, and the possibility of their setting up networks of relations amongst themselves.

  10. [The birth of modern surgery].

    Nordlander, Nils Brage


    In ancient India and Persia surgeons were highly respected and their operating skill with nose plastic and catatact couching is documented. In mediaeval Europe surgery was classified as a handicraft profession and belonged to the barbers guild with the soapcup as symbol, much inferior to the academic trained medical doctors. In war surgery leg amputation after shotwounds demanded great rapidity, since no anestetic but alcohol was available. In the 18th century surgeons becamea accepted as medical doctors e.g. John Hunter in London and OlofAcrel in Stockholm. A great step in the development of surgery was Mortons introduction of eter narcosis 1846. Now surgeons could work carefully without hurry. The next step took Joseph Lister. Born in 1827 he studied medicine in London and then qualified as surgeon at the famous James Syme's clinic in Edinburgh- In 1860 he became professor of surgery in Glasgow. His clinic like all others was afflicted with suppuration, septicemia, erysipelas and gangrene. He happened to read a thesis by Louis Pasteur, who proved that fermentation and putrefaction in wine production were caused by bacteria. Lister saw the similarity with wound suppuration. Carbolic acid was used in wood industri to prevent putrefaction and Lister now introduced this as a mean to cure or prevent suppuration and septicemia. He washed the wound and soaked the bandage with carbolic acid, which he also sprayed in the air of the operation theatre to prevent air carried infection. In 1867 he published his experiences in the Lancet: Out of 11 complicated fractures (where the bone-ends penetrated the skin) 9 healed without complications. Earlier such fractures ended with dead or amputation. The wards were now free from infected wounds. Abroad Listers findings were received with entusiasm, Ernst von Bergmann i Berlin modified the antiseptic method into a aseptic one and sterilized the room, the instruments and clothes and could so avoid the carbolic acid spray, which was

  11. Folk toys in Central Thailand: Product development for a creative economy

    Wanna Pichetpruth


    Full Text Available Folk toys in Central Thailand are a part of local Thai local wisdom. Creative folk toys are a part of cultural heritage and Thai creative and sustainable economic development. So, this research aimed to study 1 the indigenous folk toys in central Thailand, 2 the toy production problems and solution guidelines, and 3 the toy product development for the creative economy. The study employed a qualitative research method. The target group consisted of the selected communities in Nonthaburi Province, Ayutthaya Province and Suphanburi Province and folk toy sources. The informants were: 15 folk toy enterprise presidents, government officers and local experts as the key informants, 45 folk toy enterprise members as the causal informants and 45 customers as the general informants. Data were collected by means of interview, observation, focus group discussion and workshop from field study. Qualitative data were analyzed by inductive analysis method with triangular verification and the research results were presented by a descriptive analysis method. The research results revealed that folk toys in Central Thailand were derived from local indigenous knowledge that was created and transmitted through the generations for at least 700 years. Most of the folk toys in Central Thailand were produced by natural, local and easily found materials, using natural colors. The beauty, styles and quality of natural and man-made children’s toys were based on parental competency. Moreover, creation of folk toys is a form of Thai handicraft. Thai people truly believe that toys are symbols of parental love and attention and the tools to build up children’s growth in terms of lifestyle and creative mind. The findings show that folk toys in Central Thailand are made of special soil, wood, bamboo, lan leaf, tan leaf and coconut shell. Folk toys are categorized in four groups: 1 fun toys, such as krataewien, explosive bamboo, king drum, nangkop drum, rhythm coconut shell

  12. Hazard responses in the pre-industrial era: vulnerability and resilience of traditional societies to volcanic disasters and the implications for present-day disaster planning

    Sangster, Heather


    A major research frontier in the study of natural hazard research involves unravelling the ways in which societies have reacted historically to disasters, and how such responses influence current policies of disaster reduction. For societies it is common to classify responses to natural hazards into: pre-industrial (folk); industrial; and post-industrial (comprehensive) responses. Pre-industrial societies are characterised by: a pre-dominantly rural location; an agricultural economic focus; artisan handicrafts rather than industrial production, parochialism, with people rarely travelling outside their local area and being little affected by external events and a feudal or semi-feudal social structure. In the past, hazard assessment focused on the physical processes that produced extreme and potentially damaging occurrences, however from the middle of the twenty-first century research into natural hazards has been cast within a framework defined by the polarities (or opposites) of vulnerability and resilience, subject to a blend of unique environmental, social, economic and cultural forces in hazardous areas, that either increase or decrease the impact of extreme events on a given society. In the past decade research of this type has been facilitated by a 'revolution' of source materials across a range of languages and in a variety of electronic formats (e.g. official archives; major contemporary and near-contemporary publications - often available as reprints; national and international newspapers of record; newsreel-films; and, photographs) and in the introduction of more reliable translation software (e.g. Systrans) that provides far more scope to the researcher in the study of natural hazards than was the case even a few years ago. Knowledge of hazard responses in the pre-industrial era is, not only important in its own right because it reveals indigenous strategies of coping, but also informs present-day disaster planners about how people have reacted to past

  13. Estrategias campesinas de reproducción social. El caso de las Tierras Altas Jujeñas, Argentina

    Cowan Ros, Carlos


    Full Text Available This article analyzes peasantry persistence in a context of deepening of the capitalist relations of production, as given by the diffusion of neoliberal policies in periphery countries. The case study focuses on crisis and recreation of peasant’s social reproduction strategies in the Puna and Quebrada de Humahuaca, Argentina. The article analyzes the new economic strategies of peasantry, focusing on its logics of accumulation and conversion of capitals. Results suggests that the productive conversion was oriented towards strengthening typical peasant activities such as farming and handicraft production —whereas the main followed mechanism against decapitalisation was the accumulation of social capital for its further conversion in other types of capitals. Nevertheless, the implementation of these strategies has been conditioned by structural and social factors that make difficult the consolidation of a commercial agriculture in peasant systems in these regions.

    Este artículo analiza la persistencia del campesinado en un contexto de profundización de las relaciones capitalistas de producción, que se caracteriza por la difusión de las políticas neoliberales en los países periféricos. El caso empírico estudiado es la crisis y la reconversión de las estrategias de reproducción social de los campesinos de la Puna y de la Quebrada de Humahuaca, Argentina. El artículo analiza las nuevas estrategias económicas campesinas, centrándose en las lógicas de acumulación y conversión de capitales. Se propone que la reconversión productiva se ha orientado hacia el fortalecimiento de las actividades típicamente campesinas —agropecuarias y artesanales— y que, frente a la descapitalización, el principal mecanismo seguido fue la acumulación de capital social para su posterior conversión en otros tipos de capitales. Sin embargo, la implementación de estas estrategias ha sido condicionada por factores estructurales y sociales que

  14. Bamboo Fabric: A Study of Using Thick Bamboo Fiber for Producing and Developing Thai Textiles

    Sisika Wannajun


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The way of life of Thai people has involved utensils or things which made of bamboo since the ancient time. Rural Thai people use bamboo for building houses, making handicrafts, basketwork and household utensils. At present, thick bamboo is used and developed to many new products especially the textile products. Three purposes of this research were these: (1 to investigate the background of Thai textile production, (2 to investigate current situations and difficulties of Thai textile production and (3 to investigate the use of thick bamboo fiber for producing and developing Thai textiles. Approach: Research processes divided into 2 phases were these: the first phase was a quantitative experimental research type of bamboo fibers, the second phase was an application of the results of the first phase research to the phase was a qualitative research. The instruments for collecting data for the second phase research were a survey, an interview, a focus group interview and a workshop. Research areas were Ban Lung Pra Du, Amphoe Huay Talang, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Amphoe Chonnaabot, Khon Kaen Province and Ban Tha Khon Yang, Amphoe Kantharawichai, Maha Sarakham Province. A sample of 200 people consisted of 20 key informants, 100 casual informants and 100 general informants. Quantitative data were analyzed by descriptive statistics such as percentage, mean and standard deviation. Qualitative data were analyzed by means of an interpretation within the concepts and theories involved. Research results were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: (1 in terms of the background of Thai textile production, it revealed that there were human beings lived in Thailand about 7,000-8,000 years ago and they could use natural fiber from plants and animals for weaving. The evidence which confirmed this truth was the excavation of historical objects in prehistorically sites in Thailand and there were remnants clung to or filled in


    Benyamin - Parubak


    eksternal (nilai budaya dan faktor internal (persepsi dan sikap konsumen terhadap Kain Donggala. Hasil ini terkait erat dengan jenis produk yang diteliti yang penggunaannya terkait dengan aspek-aspek budaya dan psikologis konsumennya. Kata kunci: faktor-faktor yang dipertimbangkan, keputusan pembelian       ABSTRACT   The Donggala cloth is a traditional handicraft of the Kaili people of Central Sulawesi. The cloth is used for traditional ceremonies and daily activities. This industry has been developed to maintain the area's special characteristics as a national asset. The study was aimed at determining the factors considered by the local consumers in purchasing the Donggala cloth in the Palu, municipality and whether the factors influence the consumers purchasing decision. Purposive sampling and accidental sampling were used as the sampling methods. Purposive Sampling was used in determining the stores and industry centers offering the Donggala cloth, considering the many stores and industry centers offering the product. Accidental sampling was used in determining the samples. There were 153 respondents chose has samples. Factor analysis and multiple regression analysis were used as the analysis instruments. By factor analysis it was found that 7 factors, among the 15 variables selected from the 19 examining variables, were positively considered by consumers in purchasing the Donggala cloth. They were: (1 culture, economy and psychology; (2 life style; (3 quality; (4 promotion; (5 reference; (6 price; and (7 product.From those factors, multiple regression showed that the culture,  economy and psychology factors significantly influence (a = 1% the consumer purchasing decision. The result showed the significant factors which positively influenced the purchasing decision were both the internal and external factors. It seemed that the results were closely related to the examined product, of which the  utilization was closely related to its consumers culture and

  16. Exploração e manejo do cipó-titica (Heteropsis spp. / Exploitation and management of the vine Heteropsis spp.

    Carlos César Durigan


    Full Text Available ResumoAs espécies hemiepífitas do gênero Heteropsis produzem raízes aéreas que são conhecidas na Amazônia brasileira como cipó-titica e titicão ou cipó timbó-açu, sendo fonte produtora de fibra de alto valor comercial, principalmente na fabricação de artesanatos e móveis. Essa matéria-prima é intensamente explorada de forma insustentável, tendo grande redução da disponibilidade desse recurso florestal, devido à diminuição ou extinção regional das plantas de cipó provocadas pelo inadequado manejo exploratório. Assim, alguns governos estaduais regulamentaram a conduta de manejo e exploração de cipós produtores de fibra, visando a sua manutenção e regeneração de suas raízes aéreas. Nesse sentido, o presente trabalho buscou, na literatura geral e científica, as informações sobre o marco legal da exploração e o plano de manejo, a ecologia das espécies, as etapas ligadas ao manejo florestal, inventário, intensidade e ciclo de corte bem como os procedimentos de coleta e beneficiamento dessas plantas, que são conhecimentos atualmente consolidados com normatização em poucos estados da Amazônia. Apesar disso, as áreas que foram intensamente exploradas se fazem necessário o desenvolvimento da produção sustentável com novos estudos, visando recuperação dessas populações por meio de técnicas de multiplicação vegetativa, plantio e nutrição vegetal, agregando-os ao manejo ecológico dos indivíduos remanescentes na floresta.AbstractThe hemiepiphytes species of the genus Heteropsis produces aerial roots that are known in the Brazilian Amazon as “cipó-titica and titicão or timbó-açu, and are a source of fiber of considerable commercial value used primarily to manufacture handicrafts and furniture. This raw material has been heavily exploited and mismanaged. As the consequent depletion and regional extinction of the plant vines has greatly reduced its availability likely a forest resource. This

  17. Sediment Budget Analysis and Hazard Assessment in the Peynin, a Small Alpine Catchment (Upper Guil River, Southern Alps, France)

    Carlier, Benoit; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Fort, Monique; Bouccara, Fanny; Sourdot, Grégoire; Tassel, Adrien; Lissak, Candide; Betard, François; Cossart, Etienne; Madelin, Malika; Viel, Vincent; Charnay, Bérengère; Bletterie, Xavier


    The upper Guil catchment (Southern Alps) is prone to hydro-geomorphic hazards. Major hazards are related to catastrophic floods, with an amplification of their impacts due to strong hillslope-channel connectivity as observed in 1957 and 2000. In both cases, the rainfall intensity, aggravated by the pre-existing saturated soils, explained the instantaneous response of the fluvial system, such as destabilisation of slopes, high sediment discharge, and subsequent damages to exposed structures and settlements present in the floodplain and at confluence sites. The Peynin junction with the Guil River is one of these sites, where significant land-use change during the last decades in relation to the development of handicraft and tourism economy has increased debris flow threat to population. Here, we adopt a sediment budget analysis aimed at better understanding the functioning of this small subcatchment. This latter offers a combination of factors that favour torrential and gravitational activity. It receives abundant and intense rainfall during "Lombarde" events (moist air mass from Mediterranean Sea). Its elongated shape and small surface area (15 km²) together with asymmetric slopes (counter dip slope on the left bank) accelerate runoff on a short response time. In addition highly tectonised shaly schists supply a large volume of debris (mostly platy clasts and fine, micaceous sediment). The objectives of this study, carried out in the frame of SAMCO (ANR) project, are threefold: Identify the different sediment storages; Characterise the processes that put sediment into motion; Quantify volumes of sediment storages. We produced a geomorphic map using topographic surveys and aerial photos in order to locate the different sediment storage types and associated processes. This analysis was made with respect to geomorphic coupling and sediment flux activity. In terms of surface area, the dominant landforms in the valley were found to be mass wasting, talus slopes and

  18. Building positive nature awareness in pupils using the "Rainforest of the Austrians" in Costa Rica.

    Aubrecht, Margit; Hölzl, Irmgard; Huber, Werner; Weissenhofer, Anton


    . RICANCIE's primary objective is the defense of the Kichwa territory against encroaching mining and oil companies. During computer lessons pupils drew brilliant rainforest cards using graphic software, and in handicraft lessons they engraved rainforest animals on wooden plates. These pieces of art were sold at the "open school day". For presenting the project to other pupils at the secondary school Hellmonsödt, a rainforest quiz contest was prepared. The winners' prize was a tropical fruit tasting. Another presentation was done at the Biology Center in Linz with research expert Dr. Huber in the audience. The culmination was reached by handing over the sales profit to Michael Schnitzler in order to purchase rainforest land the size of a football field. Compared to other teaching methods this interdisciplinary approach perfectly involved and motivated pupils. The resulting presentations proved very important, because the pupils wanted to assure other teenagers that individuals have opportunities to influence the fate of our world. The educationally sustainable nature of the project becomes apparent years later, when the pupils involved have left school, but still talk about the progress of the "Rainforest of the Austrians" in Costa Rica.

  19. 宋代两浙路处州府市镇探析%A Research on Towns in Chuzhou of Zhejiang in Song Dynasty

    黄琦; 汪波


    宋代是古代城市发展的转折期,特别是草市的兴起,为之后市镇的形成和发展奠定了基础。北宋,草市在全国全面兴起,处州府也不例外;至南宋,随着宋室南迁,国家政治中心转移,处州府草市数量明显增加,一些草市升格为市镇。并且,在同一时期,处州龙泉窑进入快速发展阶段,使处州府市镇带有明显的陶瓷手工业色彩。虽然南宋时期优越的社会环境和龙泉青瓷的发展使处州府市镇得到较快发展,但是由于经历朝代更迭和青瓷产业衰落的打击,加上自身客观地理环境的制约,延续至今的古市镇只余松阳古市镇、缙云壶镇镇二镇。市镇的兴起和衰落都受到了人为政策因素的影响。%Song Dynasty is a critical period of transition in ancient city development. During that period,the springing up of fairs laid a solid foundation for the later emergence and development of market towns. In the Northern Song Dynasty,fairs sprung up across the country and Chuzhou was by no means an exception. In the Southern Song Dynasty,the number of fairs increased significantly and some fairs developed into market towns with the capital city of the dynasty moving southward and the subsequent transfer of the political center of the state. Meanwhile,the celadon kilns at Longquan entered a period of rapid development,which endowed the market towns in Chuzhou a distinctive feature of ceramic handicraft. Based on previous studies and archaic literatures,this paper investigates the emergence and development of the market towns in Chuzhou from both the perspectives of natural and human factors. The result indicates that as the consequence of the combined impact from the vicissitudes of dynasties,the decline of the celadon industry and the limitation of geographical location,only two towns,namely,Gushi and Huzhen have lasted to date,regardless of the fact that the towns in Chuzhou used to develop very fast

  20. Technical Innovation, Non-technical Factor Collaboration and Enterprise Performance-Based on the Multi-case Study of Tibetan Carpet Enterprises%技术创新、非技术因素协同与企业业绩--基于西藏藏毯企业的多案例研究

    汪丽; 唐亚军; 次旦平措


    在市场经济条件下西藏经济迅速发展,民族手工业等特色产业逐渐壮大,大量研究揭示民族手工业发展与市场之间的密切关系。西藏藏毯企业在外部环境与青海藏毯企业日益趋同的情况下仍存在巨大差异,需要从企业内部微观层面诠释深层次原因。文章以企业创新理论为基础,在综合现有的技术创新影响因素的基础上构建西藏藏毯企业技术创新影响模型,选择4家具有代表性的藏毯企业进行案例研究。发现现有研究揭示的技术创新影响因素并不都适用于藏毯企业,突出表现在内部受技术创新能力和激励机制的影响,外部受市场需求、市场竞争程度以及政府支持力度的影响,进一步研究发现技术创新与企业业绩之间受到技术因素和非技术因素协同程度的调节。%Under market economy, Tibet's economy develops rapidly. And the featured industries in Tibet, such as ethnic handicrafts, grow gradually, too. Numerous studies reveal a close relationship between ethnic handi⁃crafts’development and the market. The external environment of Qinghai’s and Tibetan carpet business be⁃comes more and more convergent, but there are still huge differences between Tibetan carpet business in Qinghai and Tibet, which needs high-level interpretation and micro-level analysis of the enterprises. Basing on the Enter⁃prise Innovation Theory, this article integrates the existing influential factors of technological innovation so as to construct an influential model of the technological innovation for Tibetan carpet. And 4 typical Tibetan carpet en⁃terprises are selected as study cases, the study shows that not all the existing influential factors about technical innovation research is applicable for the Tibetan carpet enterprises. Internally, the Tibetan carpet enterprises could be affected by the technological innovation and the incentive mechanism. Externallly, they could be

  1. 地方性与传承:宜兴紫砂文化的地理品牌与变迁%Circulation and the Localness: Geographical Brand of Yixing Purple Sand Cultural Change

    钱丽芸; 朱竑


    With a growing awareness of space in human geography, the geographical brand of local geography is necessary, espacially in the context of globalization. Standing at the intersection of new Cultural Geography and Brand Geography, the authors study the special cultural production of Purple Sand tea-pot of Yixing, Jiangsu Provice, China. In this article, qualitative analysis is employed, such as field work, depth interview and vivid text content, to represent the Yixing cultural purple-sand production activities. Using new cultural geography perspective to explain the geographical brand phenomenon, dynamic analysis on purple sand cultural features are made to confirm the characteristics of branding process. Main study focuses on how the meaning of place gives to the geographical brand of local handicraft in order to increase its historical and cultural value. Firstly, by examining the Yixing cultural purple-sand production activities, this study finds that characteristics of region have created the unique local brand. Secondly, the entangled geographical meaning of brands reveals the deep action of the brand's role in the making mechanism. The peculiar significance of this article is to explore the geography of "local" meaning of brand, which lies on the judgment that place is a meaningful object. In addition, it proves that the branding procedure is a distinct social and cultural process, with disclosing the geographic change of the cultural soul within the region. In short, the case study in geographical brand of Yixing purple-sand production has explored the local cultural studies of cultural production in China, which expresses the culture brand with a relative new vision.%全球化背景下,随着人文地理学对空间的认识不断加深,本土标志性地方品牌的地理学研究显得十分必要。以中国宜兴为案例研究地,从地理品牌的构建来考察宜兴地区特有的紫砂文化生产活动,揭示地理因素在赋予地

  2. Minas en colecciones de fetuas y casos jurídicos del Occidente islámico (ss. XII-XVI d.C. : el problema de la propiedad de los yacimientos mineros

    Delfina Serrano Ruano


    worked in the mines and under which conditions. It was thus imperative to search for additional information in collections of fatwàs of the Islamic medieval west, which are abundant and the value of which as sources for social and economic history is well known. So far I have managed to collect six fatwas, four of them in a still unpublished source. Such a tiny result is strange, specially if we assume that mining must have been a relevant activity in medieval monetary economies. On the other hand, other important economic activities such as agriculture, trade, handicrafts, and stockbreeding are relatively well represented in the sources under scrutiny. Be that as it may, the six fatwas —which I translate into Spanish in the Appendix— provide very interesting data on the difference between legal doctrine and practice as regards mines’ ownership and mines’ production on two specific local and temporal spaces: al-Andalus in the Almoravid period and Tunis in the Hafsí period.

  3. 从《夷坚志》看宋代农村的雇佣劳动%On Wage Labor in the Countryside of Song Dynasty in Yi Jian Zhi



    Yi Jian Zhi, was written by Hong Mai, the famous scholar of the Southern Song Dynasty, and it is a marvelous clas-sical novel featured ghost stories, consisting of extensive phenomena about social economy and routine life of Song Dynasty. And it is of great historical value. Offering labor for sale to survive is the only choice for peasants being lack of producer goods. Many ways were introduced in Yi Jian Zhi, throughout the fields of production process and routine life. The employed labor force was distributed into non-productive area because of the limitation of the whole developing level of urban handicraft industry and social economy. Wage labor sold the labor force for lack of living material to support their families, which determines the feudal quality of wage labor in the countryside of Song Dynasty. The employment relationship had been formed between employer and wage labor, characterized with employment value:employer paid wage labor every day, or every month with cash. Labor just was paid and he was free and without personal bondage to employer. Wage labor could leave employer anytime. Wage labor was despised in society that indicated its social status very low.%南宋著名学者洪迈编撰的《夷坚志》,是一部搜罗广博、卷帙浩繁、内容宏富、气象万千的志怪小说集,蕴含大量宋代社会经济、生活珍贵资料,史料价值极高。缺少生产资料,出卖劳动力获取些许收入维持生计,是农民的不二选择,《夷坚志》记载了宋代农民基于各种原因出卖劳动力以维持生计的种种形式,遍及生产、生活各个领域。受城市手工业及社会经济发展整体水平局限,宋代农村雇佣劳动多分布于非生产性领域。雇佣劳动者“薄有赀业”,靠出卖动力补充生计,决定了宋代农村雇佣劳动的封建属性。雇主与雇佣劳动者普遍形成以“雇值”为纽带雇佣与被雇佣的关系,雇主按日、或按月以货币

  4. The Evolution of Monopoly System and Transition of Government’s Regulation and Control Function in Ancient China%中国古代专卖制度的演变与政府调控职能的转型--以盐专卖为中心的分析

    邵丹; 杨华星


    The monopoly system represented by salt, iron and tea embodies the economic features of the traditional county. Facing many social challenges such as social merge, leaving farm work behind to engage in trade, wide gap between the rich and the poor, stabilizing the position of agriculture, the traditional society, developed from agriculture, handicraft industry and commercial division of labor, based on the production of family small famers, puts forward regulation policies related with the development of economic and society including monopoly system. The generation and development of monopoly system is the significant measure of a traditional autocratic government to intervene and regulate economic society, the focus reflection of national willpower, the integration of two roles of a county as a big merchant and social economy regulator. In the past two thousand years, the monopoly system was always in regulation, from the direct way to the indirect way, from the benefits occupied by government to shared by government and merchants. The change and rise and fall of monopoly system become the focus of the game between government and market. Even though the monopoly system infected the development of commodity economy so seriously that negative effects show, the government increased state revenue, strengthened national power and guaranteed national security by the control of lucrative industry.%以盐、铁、茶为代表的专卖制度集中体现了传统社会国家经济的特点。从农业、手工业与商业分工发展起来以家庭小农户生产为基础的传统社会在面对社会兼并、弃农经商及贫富分化差距过大和稳固农业基础地位等社会挑战中逐渐提出了包括专卖政策在内的涉及经济社会发展的调控政策。专卖制度的产生及其发展,是传统专制政府干预和调节经济社会的重大措施,是国家意志的集中体现,也是国家对社会经济干预、调节和充当大商人这两


    Rudy Hariyanto


    freedom in doing activities that support the achievement of the vision as long as those provide benefits to himself and others. 2 Creative business is run by the students and alumni of Islamic boarding school of Darul Ulum Banyuanyar Pamekasan including shops, products, services and finance sector. The entrepreneurial activities in the department store include the household segmentation to the local area around the pesantren. Production activities include the production of drinking water in the packaging of Nuri, the production of ice cubes, snack production, and handicraft production. While in the service sector include copying, typing and binding. And the financial activities of the establishment of BMT Nuri which already has 16 branches. 3 Islamic boarding school of Darul Ulum Banyuanyar, Pamekasan educate autonomy in all fields including economic autonomy. The attempts of the students for being autonomous contitute by participating in running a business during becoming students and their own business after diving in the community. 

  6. State and perspectives in the sphere of marine waste: data from Russian Far East

    Korshenko, Ekaterina; Tyurina, Elena; Kravchenko, Alla; Glotova, Elena; Sergeeva, Olesya; Korshenko, Alexander; Nesterova, Olga; Tregubova, Valentina; Semal, Viktoriia; Derbentseva, Alla; Purtova, Lyudmila; Kostenkov, Nikolay


    waste into furniture. Another company, Adidas, has developed a new design of running shoes made of plastic and fishing nets where the key point is waste-free production. Municipalities from different countries also began to take actions: in order to familiarize young people with environmental pollution, they hold workshops for the manufacture of handicrafts from marine litter. In Primorye since 2012 the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection has hold similar workshops. Thus, to create decent living conditions for people, the use of natural resources must be highly efficient, that means their reuse and recycling. Of course, the solutions for the problem of marine waste proposed by companies and government can not solve this problem, but their actions in the sphere of recycling marine litter can become an example for other entrepreneurs.

  7. 羌族民族文化动漫创意产品的开发--创新旅游纪念品开发成功因素%The development of the Qiang race national culture animation creative products---The successful factors of the development of the innovation tourism souvenirs

    陈继光; 梁莉


    近年来,国家加快发展旅游产业,完善旅游市场法制建设,依法治理和规范旅游市场秩序,但是仍然存在产品品种单一、同质化严重等许多问题,尤其是羌族旅游纪念品市场发展举步维艰。通过动漫创新产品的开发,势必对旅游纪念品市场注入更多活力,也将极大推动旅游市场的发展;通过动漫形象进行旅游纪念品开发是旅游纪念品设计与生产销售最主要的手段;以动漫形象开发的旅游纪念品是推进旅游经济发展重要的出路。旅游纪念品的民族文化特征越突出,文化内涵越高,它的价值就越高,越受人们的青睐。因此,在进行羌族动漫人物工艺品、建筑工艺品等设计方面注重挖掘羌族民族文化元素,注重产品的创新设计,是创新旅游纪念品开发成功的重要因素,是打造旅游地区良好形象和树立品牌效益的基础,是推动羌族旅游纪念品市场良性发展的基本要素。%In recent years,countries to accelerate the development of tourism industry,improve the tourism market and legal system,rule of law and standardize the order of the tourism market,but there are varieties of a single product,the homogenization of serious,many problems,especially the development difficult Qiang nationality tourism souvenir market.Through the development of animation and innovative products,is bound to inject more vigor to the tourist souvenir market,will greatly promote the development of tourism market for the development of tourism souvenirs;through animation image is the major means of tourism souvenirs design and production sales;to animation image development of tourist souvenirs is promoting the development of tourist economy important way.Ethnic culture tourism souvenirs of the more prominent,the cultural connotation is higher,its value is higher,more people of all ages.Therefore,in the anime characters handicraft,building and other crafts

  8. Archaeometric study of artefacts from firing places of Longola-Poggiomarino protohystoric settlement site (Naples, Italy)

    Balassone, G.; di Maio, G.; Barca, D.; Mormone, A.


    The Longola-Poggiomarino protohistoric village was discovered at west of Naples (southern Italy) in the year 2000, during the construction of a purification plant. It is located nearby the harbour of the Roman town of Pompeii and its age spans from the late Middle Bronze Age to the 6th century B.C., when the site was definitely abandoned (Cicirelli et al., 2006). This is a noteworthy discovery in southern Italy and in Europe, due to the peculiarity of its riverine location and the way in which it was constructed. In fact the village was built on many artificial small islands surrounded by a navigable canal network; hence it is surnamed "The prehistoric Venice". It is characterized by numerous evidences of human activities, like houses, pirogues, numerous objects and some handicraft working areas, where artefacts for domestic artisan and ornamental use were made (Salari et al., 2006). A great abundance of ceramics and metallic objects (made of diversified materials like lead, bronze, iron and gold) has been found, pointing to several distinct working/smelting sites throughout the village (Balassone et al., 2009). In these working sites, fair evidences of heating have been detected on several materials. In this work we characterized the compositional features of fifteen samples coming from firing places found at Longola, by means of a multi-analytical approach. Likely use of these findings could be coverings of burnt pavements, bricks or heat resistant vessel. The research aim is to contribute to the scenario reconstruction of this archaeological site by the knowledge of some production techniques, firing temperatures and provenance of raw materials. The microstructural features and modal mineralogy of the findings were determined by optical microscopy. X-ray diffraction, SEM-EDS and FTIR spectroscopy were used to determine and characterize overall mineral constituents and their quantitative composition. Representative findings were also analyzed for their whole

  9. Gender roles and relationships: Implications for water management

    Peter, G.

    influence over decisions on high-income generating crops such as sugarcane. A majority of women did demonstrate influence in the areas of key rainfed crops such as sweet potatoes and maize. The only area where women had full control was on grass used for making handicrafts. The implications for water resources management are that gender-blind decisions regarding the importance of irrigated crop production for household security may in fact remove decision-making capacity out of the hands of women so increasing the gendered-nature of food insecurity. At the same time, however, women household heads do show some influence in irrigated crop production and in high-value rainfed crop production. This suggests possibilities for in-building gender-neutral practices where high value crops are concerned.

  10. The discussion on the construction of site of eastern zhou capital%试论东周王城的营建

    徐昭峰; 姜超


    东周王城是东周王朝的国都。对于其地望及始建年代,虽曾经颇多争议,但20世纪50年代在涧河两岸发现的东周城址,从考古发现情况整合文献资料,两者可以相互印证,故学界一般认为其即文献记载的王城。从考古发现来看,东周王城在春秋和战国这两个阶段进行了较大规模的营建,春秋时期建有宫城及其内的宫殿,还有规划有序的春秋王陵区及其他文化遗存。战国时期始建郭城,宫城则一分为二,西为宫城,东为仓城。在郭城南瞿家屯一带发现有战国晚期的成组夯土建筑群基址;在郭城北部发现有大量的手工业作坊遗址和包括西周君陵区在内的大量墓葬。东周王城的营建过程都有其特定的历史背景。%Site of Eastern Zhou Capital is the capital of the Eastern Zhou .For its geographical location and the beginning of the era ,there have been a lot of controversy .In 1950s ,archaeological finds in the cross‐strait Jianhe Zhou City combined with the literature ,the two can confirm each other ,so the academic circles generally believed that it is the site of Eastern Zhou Capital .From the archaeological perspective , the site of Eastern Zhou Capital conducted large‐scale construction in the two stage of the spring and au‐tumn period and Warring states .Built imperial palace and inner palace ,orderly planning and other cultural relics in the tomb area in the Spring and Autumn period .Outer city wall was built during the Warring States period .Imperial palace was divided into imperial palace located on the west side and Cang Cheng lo‐cated on the east side .Rammed earth architectural foundations group found in Qu Jia Tun area located on the south of outer city wall belongs to the late Warring States period .A large number of handicraft work‐shops and number of tombs in the Western Zhou Dynasty mausoleum were found in the northern outer city wall .The construction

  11. Caracterização de genótipos de trigo do bloco de cruzamento da Embrapa Trigo, RS, Brasil Characterization of wheat genotypes from the crossing block of the national wheat research center, RS, Brazil

    Gilberto Peripolli Bevilaqua


    evaluations were take into consideration for presenting the results. For statistical analysis, the experiment was considered complete block design. Based upon results the genotypes BR 18, BR 42 and Sonora 64 were outstanding for their low stature and early cycle. Florida 301 and "Trigo de chapéu" were outstanding for their high stature and long cycle up to heading. The plant height showed a high correlation with peduncle lenght and cycle up to heading, and the latter correlated with peduncle lenght. The genotypes CNT 10 and PF 92130 can be indicated for handicraft finalities due to the long peduncle and spike grain number above average. The study showed a considerable genotipic variability among wheat genotypes as to the traits assessed and provided information on wheat genotypes that may be used for breeding and commercial production.

  12. Teknik Pewarnaan Agel dengan Zat Warna Alam dari Daun Jati

    Eustasia Sri Murwati


    Full Text Available ABSTRAKAgel (Corypha gebanga BL merupakan jenis tanaman yang banyak tumbuh di Indonesia dan telah dimanfaatkan oleh para perajin untuk dibuat menjadi berbagai jenis barang kerajinan bernilai ekonomis. Namun proses pewarnaan yang sering digunakan selama ini adalah pewarnaan menggunakan zat warna sintetis yang kurang ramah lingkungan. Hal ini terjadi karena masih banyak kendala dalam pewarnaan alam, salah satunya adalah warna yang didapatkan menjadi kusam. Untuk itu diperlukan penelitian teknik pewarnaan yang tepat untuk memperoleh hasil yang optimal. Daun jati dipilih menjadi bahan dasar zat warna alam karena jumlah yang melimpah di Indonesia, regenerasi yang cukup cepat dibandingkan bahan pewarna alam dari kayu, dan termasuk jenis zat warna yang memiliki afinitas besar terhadap serat selulose. Penelitian ini bertujuan memperoleh suhu, lama perendaman, dan proses mordan yang tepat untuk pewarnaan agel dengan zat warna alam dari daun jati. Metoda eksperimental dengan tahapan; penelitian bahan baku, uji kekuatan tarik sebelum dan sesudah diwarna, diproses mordan, diwarna dengan variasi suhu (60°C, 80°C, 100°C dan waktu pencelupan 30 menit, pengujian (ketahanan luntur warna terhadap cuci, gosok, dan sinar matahari, dan ketuaan warna. Hasil pengujian ketuaan warna pada suhu 100°C didapatkan warna paling tua (penyerapan optimal dengan %T (Transmitansi terkecil, suhu 80°C %T lebih tinggi dari pada suhu 100°C, dan pada suhu 60° C %T memiliki nilai tertinggi dengan warna kurang tua. Hasil pengujian ketahanan luntur warna terhadap cuci,gosok, dan sinar matahari baik. Sesudah pewarnaan tidak menurunkan kekuatan tarik.Kata kunci: agel, daun jati, ketuaan warna, suhu,warna alamABSTRACTAgel (Corypha gebanga BL grow widely in Indonesia and has been used by craftmen as material for various kinds of valuable handicrafts. However the coloring process of agel still use the staining with synthetic dyes that are less environmentally friendly. It is caused by

  13. [Anatomy and uses of the mature leaves of three species of Sabal (Arecaceae) of the Yucatan, México].

    Pérez, Martha; Rebollar, Silvia


    This paper describes the leaf anatomy of Sabal mauritiiformis (Karst.) Griseb. & H. Wendl., Sabal mexicana Mart. and Sabal yapa Wright ex Becc., three of the four most representative species of the Yucatán Península, in Mexico. These species are locally used: in the roofing of traditional homes, as food (fruits and apical buds), and in the production of hats, brooms and handicrafts. Leaf samples were collected in secondary growth of lower montane rainforest in the state of Quintana Roo and in two home gardens in the state of Yucatán. Herbarium samples were obtained, and samples of blade and petiole were fixed in formaline-acetic acid-alcohol. Cross incisions were made on the blade and petiole, and were dyed with safranin and toluidine blue O. The results show that S. mauritiiformis and S. yapa are morphologically alike: both are tall, slim palm trees; the leaf in S. mauritiiformis is a shorter palm-like structure compared with the other two species. The shape of the main nerve, as seen in cross section, is rectangular in the three species. The hastula in the three species is acuminate and adaxial. The foliar anatomic structure is similar in the three species, although there are some differences. The adaxial an abaxial epidermis of the blade consist of one layer and, superficially, the anticlinal walls are straight; the stomata are intercostal, of the tetracytic type, present on both surfaces in S. mexicana and S. yapa and only on the abaxial surface on S. mauritiiformis. The hypodermis is one layer thick in S. yapa and in S. mexicana and two layers thick in S. mauritiiformis. In the three species the palisade parenchyma consists of several undefined strata as the cells are similar-in shape and size--to the cells in the spongy parenchyma, so there is no marked difference between these strata and the spongy parenchyma seems almost continuous. Both fibrous and vascular bundles are distributed between the hypodermis and the palisade parenchyma; the fiber bundles can

  14. Relação entre acuidade visual e atividades instrumentais de vida diária em idosos em seguimento ambulatorial Relationship between visual acuity and instrumental activities of daily living of the elderly in clinical segment

    Sheila de Melo Borges


    activities of daily living. RESULTS: Significant differences between the elderly with normal vision or close to the normal (group I and those with low vision (group II were found: the group II had greater difficulty than the group I total score of the instrument and the following tasks: telephone use, meal preparation, handicrafts, launder and take the medicine correctly. CONCLUSION: This study, elderly people with low vision of both sexes have more difficulty to carry out AIVDs than elderly people with normal vision or close to normal.

  15. 海南岛降香黄檀区系组成与群落特征分析%Floristic Composition and Community Characteristics of Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen, an Endemic Species to Hainan Island

    杨冬华; 陈福; 宋希强; 罗冠勇; 徐庆


    As an endemic specie to Hainan, Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen belongs to the second national-class important wild conservative plant, which not only used as a superior material timber for high-grade furniture and elegant handicraft, but also as a famous traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated wild population in Hainan island that showed there were 43 families of vascular plants including 68 genera and 71 species in Dalbergia odorifera wild community without obvious dominant family. The proportion of single-species families and the monotypic genera was high. The geographic element of the community flora was multiple, and predominant with tropical element. The wild community was distributed in two different habitats: the Limestone habitat and the Granite habitat. Dalbergia odorifera was adaptable to soil fertility and pH value. Excessive logging and habitat loss became main factors for this species to be seriously damaged. According to 1UCN criterion, it is regarded as to be CE (critically endangered) species. Therefore, scientific conservation strategy is put forward in this paperand acclimatization theory is provided which not only help to guide market demand but also support the sustainable utilization.%降香黄檀为国家二级重点保护野生植物.海南特有种.是制造高档家具和精美工艺品的上好材料及名贵药材。通过对海南降香黄檀自然分布区实地调查.发现降香黄檀群落包括维管束植物43科68属71种;优势科不明显。单种科和单种属所占比例较大;群落植物区系地理成分多样,以热带成分为主;野生群落分布于石灰岩生境和花岗岩生境两种生境类型;对土壤肥力和酸碱度有一定的适应幅度;其野生资源过度采伐,生境遭到严重破坏。按IUCN濒危等级标准评估.处于“极危濒危”状态。针对降香黄檀濒危现状和原因,提出科学的保育策略。研究结果为该物种的引种驯化提供基础依

  16. The Ismailis’ « War » against Qat in Harâz

    Peer Gatter


    generation included animal husbandry, beekeeping and handicraft schemes, complemented by irrigation projects, educational programmes and interest free loans for investments in other economic sectors. Even though the programme was hampered from its start by a severe drought, and in spite of the absence of governmental support, it resulted in a sharp reduction in the cultivation and consumption of qat and a significant diversification of the farmers’ economy. However, the project led also to rural-urban migration and abandoning agricultural lands. But despite its shortcomings, this project, unique in Yemen by its capacity of social mobilization, provides precious lessons on the political and economical constraints which bear on any attempt to develop in Yemen mountains an agriculture which would be free of qat.

  17. Changes in the Conscious Mind in Applying Technology for Growing Rice At the Chee River Basin in Northeastern of Thailand

    Pramuan Sati


    forth both one crop and two-crops a year and the yield was increased. Also it was found that, not only did the farmers grow rice, but they did other activities for a living. However, the main activity of the farmers was growing rice. The importance of growing rice was based upon natural factors, laborers and household economy. Making a living for the farmers was based upon the overlapping condition of dependence on the marketing. The patterns of production were: growing rice, livestock, employment, handicraft and other supplementary needs of occupations. A group of cooperatives for production was established for bargaining prices in the marketplace. The strength of the communities was created through the rice farming culture as a bridge to relationship. This was to protect, develop and return the ecological system to the communities in a sustainable, developmental manner. The most importance thing was to give dignity back to the farmers. Trends in the use of the Local technology for rice Farming of communities along the Chee river basin seems to be decreasing as the farmers increasingly bring appropriate-modern technology for use in growing rice.

  18. “资本逻辑”的逻辑进路:三阶递进生成路径%The Logic Approach of “Capital Logic:The Generated Path of Three Stages Progressive



    There are three stages progressive derived relations in the development process of the capital logic. Marx and Engels lived in the free competition period of capitalism. This is one of the important times in which the capitalism workshop handicraft indus-try began to change into the large industrial machinery. Free competition is a significant feature in this period. Because of the stimula-tion and promotion of capital logic,the transition from free competition to monopoly took place since 1870 s. By the end of the nine-teenth century and early twentieth century,monopoly began to occupy a dominant position in society. There is a complicated situation of coexistence of competition and monopoly. The western developed capitalism began to transform from fordism to post-fordism after 1870 s. This is a new historical form of the capital logic,in which new atmosphere appears . But the series new changes did not get rid of the dominant status of capital logic. The capital logic is still the dominant logic in this period. The new atmosphere is only the“fis-sion fragments of the capital logic in this special period.%资本逻辑在其发展过程中存在着三阶递进的衍化关系。马克思恩格斯生活的资本主义自由竞争时期,是一个由工场手工业向机器大工业转变的重要时代,自由竞争是这一时期的显著特征。在资本逻辑的刺激和推动下,资本主义自19世纪70年代开始由自由竞争向垄断过渡。到19世纪末20世纪初,垄断开始在经济社会中占据着主导地位,这一阶段呈现出竞争与垄断并存的复杂局面。20世纪70年代以后,西方发达资本主义又从福特制开始转向后福特制,这是资本逻辑发展的一个历史新形态,呈现出种种新气象,但这一系列的新变化并没有摆脱资本逻辑的支配,资本逻辑仍然是这一时期的主导逻辑,这些新气息不过是资本逻辑在这一特定时期裂变的“碎片”。

  19. Artisanat et gentrification rurale en France méridionale

    Marc Perrenoud


    Full Text Available Cet article présente une enquête de terrain menée depuis 2006 dans une zone rurale du Sud-Ouest de la France. Dans et autour du village médiéval de N., se sont produites depuis une quinzaine d'années des mutations socio-économiques importantes dont on verra dans quelle mesure on peut les identifier comme relevant d'un processus de gentrification rurale. En menant observations et entretiens semi-directifs auprès de différentes populations de travailleurs indépendants tels que les artisans du bâtiment, les métiers d'art ou les métiers de bouche, on montre les rapports entre l'inflexion du contexte économique, social et culturel et l'évolution des marchés locaux du travail. Dans ce paysage recomposé on montre en particulier le rôle central des enfants de « néo-ruraux », aujourd'hui trentenaires, installés comme charpentiers, potiers ou maraichers mais parfaitement équipés en capital culturel et social et à même de marier dans leur travail les registres de la création et de la production, de l'art et du métier, de la modernité et de l'authenticité.Rural handicrafts and gentrification in South of FranceThis paper presents a field study which started in 2006 in a rural area of South-West of France. In and around a medieval village (N. important socio-economical mutations have occured for about fifteen years and this paper will show how one can think of it as a process of rural gentrification. After many observations and interviews with several free lance workers like building contractors, creative craftsmen or people in the food business, we will discuss the relationship between mutations of the economical, social and cultural context and the local labor markets. In this new landscape, we stress especially the role of "back-tolanders" children, who are now in their thirties, have become carpenters, potters or vegetables growers but whose cultural and social capital perfectly fits into the local new deal, allowing them

  20. 23. Symposium photovoltaic solar energy; 23. Symposium Photovoltaische Sonnenenergie



    of solar lighting systems with LED (N. Pfanner); (19) 40 years of development of photovoltaics in Germany (W. Roth); (20) The long way to a popular power plant (D. Koenemann); (21) Is Switzerland on the way to the champions league of photovoltaics after introduction of a cost efficient reimbursement? (T. Nordmann); (22) Qualification of specialists - Training to photovoltaics engineer and photovoltaics planner (T. Becker); (23) Tasks for an interdisciplinary instruction in mathematics (K. Brinkmann); (24) Energy meteorology - an outline using photovoltaic as an example (D. Heinemann); (25) Diffuse relations at the irradiation? About the input data for prognosis of revenues (C. Reise); (26) Dynamical expandable simulation of photovoltaic systems with DESIRE (V. Quaschning); (27) Modelling of voltage dependences of the degree of efficiency of inverters (H. Schmidt); (28) Building.integrated photovoltaic components (T. Fellenberg); (29) Five steps to a building-integrated photovoltaics (I. Eisenschmidt); (30) With building integrated photovoltaics in a daylight optimized passive house to energy autonomy (R.P. Miloni); (31) 100 % Renewable energy (H. Lehmann); (32) Total quality assurance as an instrument for optimization of profit of photovoltaics projects - An added value for producers, planners and investors (K. Kreissler); (33) A solar plant pass with inspection certificate as a new instrument forquality insurance for handicraft and customer (G. Stryi-Hipp); (34) Reduction of risks and quality assurance: Liability and warranty at photovoltaic plants (S. Flaig); (35) Weathering of photovoltaic modules inside and outside (M. Koehl), (C.Ferrara); (36) Operating costs and maintenance costs of photovoltaic plants (S. Stettler); (37) multifunctional photovoltaic products - strategy for new products with high potential of cost reduction (C. Bendel); (38) Electricity storage systems in networks with a high amount of renewable energy (D.U. Sauer); (39) Active regulation of

  1. Entrepreneurial inclinations of women from rural areas

    Marković-Savić Olivera S.


    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial inclinations of women from rural areas are shaped by the lack of business ideas and economic capital, which, in addition to financial resources, includes cultural capital in the form of knowledge and skills. The paper presents a part of a broader study on the social position of women from the rural areas of northern Kosovo and Metohija, conducted in 2013. The research was predominantly focused on entrepreneurial inclinations of rural women, and the findings suggest that private enterprise in the studied population is undeveloped as a result of two dominant reasons. The first reason is the situation which is unfavorable in terms of politics and security, and therefore, not conducive to investment security, together with the specificity in the form of complex administrative business conditions requiring compliance to parallel and mutually incompatible standards (of the Republic of Serbia and of the UNMIK administration. The second important reason for the lack of entrepreneurial initiatives is the lack of ownership of property and the means of production, since banks do not give loans without guarantees in the form of ownership of the mortgage, while other forms of financial incentives are unavailable. The respondents attended programs for acquiring new knowledge and skills only in a small number of cases, while showing the greatest susceptibility to education in traditional skills, such as training in agriculture and handicrafts, which are not the skills in line with the needs of the labor market. As the most important reasons that -prevent them from having their own business, the respondents -mentioned: the lack of ideas and the lack of financial resources. In this regard, they would find incentives in the form of grants most helpful to start their own business. The absence of funds and gender inequality form the basis for the lack of ownership of property and means of production. In addition to the shortage of financial

  2. On the Standardization of the Vehicle Manufacturing Industry as Documented in Kao Gong Ji(考工记) and Its Impact on the Qin Dynasty%《考工记》中的制车手工业标准化及对秦代的影响

    邓学忠; 姚明万; 邓红潮


    Starting from an exploration of the origin and development of ancient Chinese standardization,this paper attempts an in-depth research on and analysis of the application of standardized handcraftsmanship as documented in Kao Gong Ji(考工记) or the Artificers' Record,which was the earliest document to comprehensively introduce technology and handicraft industry in ancient China.It is believed that vehicles boast quite a remote origin,dating back to as early as the Yellow Emperor's era.The industry of vehicle crafting and its related administrative agencies had emerged as of the Xia Dynasty(2100-1600 BC).As the wheel carried the total weight of a vehicle and load,thus it was the most important part of a vehicle.The wheel configuration was known to be complex,requiring six meticulous working procedures and inspecting standards in aspects involving material selection,manufacturing,and assemblage of all implements such as annuluses,hubs,spokes,serrated edges,etc.In this way,the wheels that were crafted could meet the prescribed needs in various respects in terms of their capability and performance,so that the artisans and inspectors involved in the manufacturing process deserved being crowned with the title of "state-level master hands".From the Xia Dynasty to the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods of China,vehicles mainly served a purpose of catering to warfare needs and were deemed by warlords as the most indispensable agents in warfare,which had spurred the development of the vehicle manufacturing industry and the subsequent emergence of standardized handcraftsmanship,laying a solid foundation for the development of the vehicle manufacturing industry in the Qin Dynasty later on.Finally in 221 BC,Emperor Qin Shihuang further promoted the standardization of the crafting and manufacturing of vehicles by standardizing the Chinese units of measurements such as the length of the axles of carts.%文章从研究、探索中国古代标准化的

  3. Conhecimento tradicional associado ao uso de butiás (Butia spp., arecaceae no sul do Brasil Traditional knowledge associated with the use of butia palm (Butia spp., arecaceae in the southern of Brazil

    Miriam Valli Büttow


    . among the main uses of the butia palm related by the interviewers, the consumption of the fruit in natura, the juice production, liquors, jams, ice creams, cakes, candies and other desserts stand out. there are agro-industries producing natural butia palm juice as a new alternative to supplement the family income. Handicrafts are made with leaves and fruit pulp and sold in local fairs. this plant is also used as an ornamental in gardens and backyards. the interviewers recognize great variability among Butia fruits in terms of size, flavor, skin coloring, dehiscence and acidity. They report the intense interaction of birds and insects with the plant especially in the flowering and fruiting period. along with the maintenance of the traditional uses of the plant by the population, innovative products from butia palm are being developed. there is a considerable potential to expand the uses of the Butia plant, mainly in cooking, sweet production, jam, juice and liquor. the visited communities showed a relationship of affection and respect for the Butia palms.

  4. The Impacts of The Ancient Library on the Propagation of Modern Editing and Publishing Industry%藏书楼对近代编辑出版业的传播影响研究



    ,inscribed published a large amount of high quality cultural achievements,described as a mas-ter of handicraft printing,meanwhile it played an invaluable role on protection and dissemination of books.Not only has the Chinese The Ancient Library laid a solid foundation for the development and dissemination of the modern publishing industry,but also become one of major contribution to the Chinese publication.


    Sundring Pantja Djati


    Full Text Available The research was carried out to find the effect of motivation variables such as physical need, safety and labor need, social need, self-esteem need, and actualization need on the productivity of workers at home industries in Sidoarjo region. This research also intended to find which variables mostly affect that productivity. I used the primary data which was derived form a survey on 40 respondents of home industries located at 4 local districts in Sidoarjo region: Tanggulangin, Candi, Buduran and Waru. The technique of data collecting used in this research wan Non Proportional Satisfied Random Sampling. Validity and reliability analysis was used to test the validity and reliability technique. Double linear regression was used as an analysis model. This model was chosen because this research intended to find to that extend independent variables affect dependent variables. This research indicated that motivation variables such as physical need, safety need, labor safety need, social need, self-esteem need and actualization need together showed a significant effect on the productivity of worker at home-industries in Sidoarjo. Partial and simultaneous analysis both indicated that, among those variables, physical both indicated the strongest influence, especially at Candi region. This was in line with the type of industry in that region that is "tempe" (soybean cake industry. This industry offers lower payment/wages compared with other industries which produce bags, suitcases, shoes and other leather handicraft. The result of calculation for all the district as well as for each district indicated that self-actualization variables did not al all affect the productivity of workers. This was indicated by the regression coefficient value and the low T value which conformed to the theory that self-actualization need is the last-fulfilled need after the other four needs. This condition was supported by the low education level of the workers which approved

  6. Whose forests, whose voices? Mining and community-based nature conservation in southeastern Madagascar

    Antonie Kraemer


    Full Text Available This paper explores local experiences of private-sector led community-based nature conservation near Fort Dauphin, southeastern Madagascar through the analysis of a conservation zone managed in partnership between the Rio Tinto mining corporation, local government and local communities. The article assesses how new forms of social inclusion and exclusion are generated through changes in land and resource access. The main findings are as follows: the community-based conservation programs near the Fort Dauphin mine were effective at mobilising local people but inadvertently favored certain members of society over others, as they involved a legitimization of resource access by established landowners. This granting of resource rights to some local users entailed the exclusion of already marginalised groups of landless migrants. Without land to cultivate, these migrants were more directly dependent on forest resources for their survival. Their livelihoods were based on selling forest products such as timber and handicrafts, in addition to working the land of others. This rendered their social status and ability to participate in development programs limited. Non-resident or recently settled resource users’ voices had thereby not been adequately included in the conservation plans from the outset. Consequently, local landless migrants continued to break conservation rules, as they had no influence over the resource management process or realistic livelihoods alternatives. These circumstances reduced both the livelihood options of the poorest people near the mining site and the prospect of achieving equitable and sustainable natural resource management. RésuméNous proposons ici d’analyser des expériences locales intervenant lors du changement d’accès aux ressources naturelles dans le cadre d’un projet d’extraction minière et de conservation de la nature mené en partenariat entre une compagnie minière, le gouvernement local et les

  7. 2011-2012年福州市工业企业有机溶剂使用情况及预防措施%Organic Solvents Use and Prevention Measures in Industrial Enterprises of Fuzhou, 2011-2012

    刘祥铨; 郑能雄; 张忠; 吴京颖; 洪惠民


    h-TWA) were toluene, xylene, acetone, butyl acetate, methyl ethyl ketone, ethyl acetate, and solvent gasoline. Violations of organic solvent TWAs were found in the enterprises of furniture manufacturing, handicraft, printing and coating, shoes making, automobiles, and electronic products; as well as in the positions that involved spraying and print mixing, printing, sub-packaging, washing, and mucus brushing. The occupational health and safety management system was relatively sound in the large-scale enterprises, but weak in the small and medium-sized ones. The common issues of control were poor ventilation, insufficient personal protection equipments, inappropriate layout of workplaces, and ignoring occupational health surveillance. [ Conclusion ] Various organic solvents are widely used in enterprises of Fuzhou. It is necessary to strengthen the control and prevention of occupational hazards in key enterprises and workplaces. Especially in small and medium-sized enterprises, ventilation and technological support should be taken into account.

  8. 19世纪穆氏家族与俄罗斯商人在恰克图交易大黄情况%The Murat Family and the Russian Merchant trade rhubarb in Kyakhta in the nineteenth century



    氏家族换购大黄。%Since the Age of Discovery ,Europeans believed rhubarb from Gansu ,Shanxi had positive efficacy on organs in the western medicine tradition .Therefore ,they hope to obtain rhubarb from various sources .After signing the Treaty of Kyakhta in 1727 ,the Qing court permitted the Mu family to transport rhubarb from Gansu and Shanxi to Kyakhta for selling ;the Russians also sent merchants to Kyakhta to fur switch rhubarb .In 1738 ,when Russian officials monopolized the rhubarb business ,they appointed the Mu family as the only contracted rhubarb agent .They also dispatched deputies to trade Rhubarb with fur and other substances .The profits of rhubarb trade are very much high ,so that the Mu family must pay a lot of brokerage for the Kyakhta officials .And the grand minister superintendent of Kulun usually mediates that the Mu family members dispute the profits of rhubarb trade . Chinese and Russian contacts are affected by many factors such as economic ,and diplomatic .For in-stance ,the Kyakhta market was closed on several in the 18th Century ;and the merchant only smuggle the rhubarbs for the European market's demand .And the Russian merchant buy Chinese rhubarb quantity , price by the European market impact .Official Monopoly rhubarb trade in Russia during the Smuggle often face competitive pressures ,On several managed to sanctions smuggling .Since 1782 after the liberalization of the Russian free trade rhubarb ,Moscow ,Vologda and Kursk and other merchants monopolize the rhu-barb trade gradually .In the 19th Century ,the Russian handicraft gradually flourished ,and it is excessive hunting animals in Siberia ,led to fur gradually shortages .So that the Russian merchant must replace com-modities such as wool textiles ,cotton textiles ,and leather ,to exchange the Mu family’s rhubarb .

  9. Text mining of the value orientation of regional culture goods selling in online shops : A case study of Yuxian Paper-cuts%网络店铺中地域文化商品价值取向的文本挖掘——蔚县剪纸的实证研究

    李仁杰; 傅学庆; 张军海


    or medium frequency phrases at the Long Tail presents a leading value orientation of Yuxian paper-cuts:gifts of foreign affairs and business with the local folk customs and culture as its connotation.For the Zhangjiakou-based online shops,sellers use more phrases focused on packaging and decorative description,but for the online shops based in Beijing,sellers lay particular stress on handicraft technology and cultural connotation characterization of Chinese local folk customs.4) The large number of phrases at the tail of the curve are not only the concrete expressions of the regional culture connotation of paper-cuts goods,but also the further proof of the leading value orientation and above all,they are the result of adapting to the development of personalized marketing mode for e-commerce on internet.And the text mining of regional culture value orientation based on internet data source will provide a new research perceptive and method for economic geography and cultural geography.

  10. 良渚时期文化发展与海平面变化%Culture Development and Sea-Level Change during Liangzhu Period

    朱丽东; 冯义雄; 叶玮; 王天阳; 李凤全; 李黎霞


    The comparison of archaeological records with that of sea-level changes in the Zhejiang-Shanghai-Ji-angsu region shows that there is a close connection between the Liangzhu culture development and sea-level changes during 5.5-4 ka BP. During 5.5-4.9 ka BP, the sea-level of the Zhejiang-Shanghai-Jiangsu area declined by about 3.9 m, providing more space for humankind. Together with warm climate, the space boosted the initial development of Liangzhu culture. The sparse archaeological sites with stilt houses were mostly found on the higher land and the people at that time were engaged in rice planting. During 4.9-4.3 ka BP, the sea level was low and Liangzhu culture was in a period of peak prosperity. The amount of archaeological sites increased significantly, of which the distribution was centralized and in a much larger area. The climate was dry-cool then, and lots of wells were found. People built their houses on land surface. The agriculture and handicraft industries had been developed, and different classes emerged in the society. These indicate that the low sea-level greatly accelerated the prosperity of Liangzhu culture. In 4.3-4 ka BP, the sea level rose again, which reduced the Liangzhu people' s living space, thus relatively narrowed the distribution extent of the culture. In addition, it resulted in fatal floods during the cold event at about 4 ka B.P. People mainly lived in platforms and slope fields. The number of sites was reduced and the environment was worse because of the rising sea-level. As a result, the sea-level changes during 5.3-4.0 ka BP had a significant influence on the Liangzhu culture development.%浙沪苏地区良诸考古资料和海平面变化研究表明,良渚文化的兴、盛、衰与5.5-4 ka B.P.期间海平面升降密切关联.5.5-4.9 ka B.P,浙沪苏地区海平面处于高海面之后的急剧下降期,降幅约3.9 m,陆地生存空间扩大,加之气候温暖,良渚文化开始兴起,良渚人择高地而居,盛行干栏式


    Bruna Moreno Lins


    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado por professores e alunos da Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS conjuntamente com moradores da comunidade de Pedra Branca, organizado a partir de entrevistas abertas, de oficinas e palestras. A proposta contemplou a realização de ações de Educação Ambiental (EA onde a questão norteadora foi a geração e disposição de resíduos sólidos domiciliares, bem como sua reutilização para produção de peças artesanais. A análise das entrevistas nos permitiu formar uma ideia da visão de lixo da comunidade, que foi trabalhada através de oficinas e palestras, onde foi discutida a problemática do lixo em comunidades rurais, transmitidas informações sobre os processos de reciclagem e reutilização de materiais, e sobre consumo consciente. Novas ações em EA serão realizadas para dar continuidade aos trabalhos educativos, buscando reforçar as ações anteriores, bem como estimular as pessoas a se perceberem como parte integrante do meio ambiente. Palavras-chave: Extensão Universitária, Reutilização de Materiais, Educação para Sustentabilidade.   Environmental Education Actions: Contributions for the Empowerment of Pedra Branca Community, Santa Terezinha, Bahia Abstract: This work was carried out by students and professors of Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS with people from Pedra Branca village, Bahia State. The study was developed through open interviews, workshops and lectures. The project included environmental education actions on which the guiding question was the generation and disposal of solid waste in rural areas as well as their reuse for production of handicrafts. The interviews analysis allowed us to form an idea about the vision of trash in the community, which was covered in the workshops and lectures on which we discussed the problem of waste in rural communities and transmitted information about the recycling process and conscious consumption. News actions

  12. Identification and Analysis of Foreign Tourists Motivations for Travelling to Isfahan

    B. Ranjbarian


    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionTourism is one of the important issues in global economic and an important source of foreign exchange earning for developed and developing countries. Nowadays, tourism industry has attracted considerable amount of planning efforts and investments. Tourism development depends on several factors such as transportation, living standards, tourism industrialization, and identification and satisfaction of tourist’s needs, and wants. The success of a tourist destination not only depends on qualifications of the destination, but also proper planning for attracting tourists and introducing destination and its facilities to target markets is necessary. Understanding tourists’ travel motives is one of the basic assumptions for tourism market segmenting and planning. The goal of tourist market segmentation is to provide proper services for each group of tourists. According to previous studies, studying the relation of tourists’ demographical variables with their travel motives is also very important.2-Theoretical background In discussing tourism issues, the first question that comes to the mind of tourism planners, researchers, experts, and policy makers is that why people travel? What are the destinations selected? And what are the motives and reasons for selecting specific destination? Studying travel motives is an important issue, because it helps tourism planners and policy makers to understand which destination is proper for a specific tourists group and what specification should a specific destination have to attract tourists. Travel motives may include leisure, the level of expenses, shopping opportunity, adventure, handicrafts, visiting ancient and historical places, learning about new culture and trade.3- DiscussionExploratory factor analysis is a technique used for exploring dimensions of a phenomenon and used to decrease the items of its measurement scale. Factor analysis technique has been used to identify

  13. Status of malnutrition and its influencing factors in children under 5 years of age in poor areas of China in 2009%2009年中国贫困地区5岁以下儿童营养不良状况及其影响因素

    于冬梅; 刘爱东; 于文涛; 张兵; 张继国; 贾凤梅; 李婕; 赵丽云


    Objective To study the status of malnutrition and its influencing factors in children less than 5 years of age in poor areas of China in 2009. Methods Multistage stratified random cluster sampling method used in the national survey was performed. The subjects of the study were 7818 children less than S years of age in poor areas. The contents of the investigation included questionnaire survey, anthropometric measurement, biochemical tests and dietary survey. Z-scores were calculated according to WHO growth standards. The prevalence of malnutrition was calculated by WHO Anthro V 3. 2. 2 software. Data processing and multiple factors analysis were finished by non condition logistic regression in software SAS 9. 12. Results The prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting in children under 5 year-old in poor areas of China were IS. 9% , 7. 8% and 3. 7% , respectively. Excluding other influencing factors, the results suggested that the low birth weight(OR = 1. 975,95% CI = 1. 515 - 2. 575 ) , household income less than 2000 Yuan per capita per year( OR = 1. 813 ,95% CI = 1. 364 -2. 409) , not cared by father/mother( OR = 1. 190,95% CI = 1. 022 - 1. 387 ) and no sanitary drinking water ( OR = 1.282,95% CI - 1.120 - 1.466) are the most important factors making the child more likely to become malnutrition. Compared to the child whose mother was professional personnel, cadre or army-woman, the child whose mother was farmer( OR =5. 384,95% CI = 2. 490 - 11. 642) , migrant worker (OR =4.244,95% CI = 1.953-9. 222 ) , rural handicraft worker or individual-owned businesswoman (OR =4. 872,95% CI = 2. 169 - 10. 947 ) and household wife( OR = 5. 331 ,95% CI - 2. 438 - 11. 654 ) was easy to become malnutrition. The nearest medical institution at a distance of not more than 1 km is a protective factor for malnutrition( OR = 1. 246,95% CI = 1. 100 -1.411). The risk of malnutrition would be increased when food supplements were started from the 9th month after birth(Ofl =1

  14. Anatomía y usos de las hojas maduras de tres especies de Sabal (Arecaceae de la Península de Yucatán, México

    Martha Pérez


    superficie abaxial sólo están los haces de fibras y hacia la superficie adaxial hay haces vasculares y haces fibrosos. Las fibras, en las tres especies son alargadas, de extremos aguzados, no ramificadas ni septadas. En los haces vasculares se observan de uno a tres vasos amplios del metaxilema, siendo S. yapa la que los tiene de mayor diámetro. Los haces vasculares están rodeados por gruesas vainas de fibras. El pecíolo tiene una estructura anatómica similar a la de la lámina y se caracteriza por los numerosos haces vasculares y haces de fibras esparcidos en el tejido parenquimatoso. La estructura histológica de lámina y pecíolo reflejan cualidades de resistencia y flexibilidad que las hacen adecuadas para ser utilizadas en el techado de viviendas rurales y otras construcciones.This paper describes the leaf anatomy of Sabal mauritiiformis (Karst. Griseb. & H. Wendl., Sabal mexicana Mart. and Sabal yapa Wright ex Becc., three of the four most representative species of the Yucatán Península, in Mexico. These species are locally used: in the roofing of traditional homes, as food (fruits and apical buds, and in the production of hats, brooms and handicrafts. Leaf samples were collected in secondary growth of lower montane rainforest in the state of Quintana Roo and in two home gardens in the state of Yucatán. Herbarium samples were obtained, and samples of blade and petiole were fixed in formaline-acetic acid-alcohol. Cross incisions were made on the blade and petiole, and were dyed with safranin and toluidine blue O.The results show that S. mauritiiformis and S. yapa are morphologically alike: both are tall, slim palm trees; the leaf in S. mauritiiformis is a shorter palm-like structure compared with the other two species. The shape of the main nerve, as seen in cross section, is rectangular in the three species. The hastula in the three species is acuminate and adaxial. The foliar anatomic structure is similar in the three species, although there are some

  15. Çan Yöresi Geçiş Dönemi Uygulamalarından Olan Evlenme Ritüelleri Üzerine On the Marriage Rituals of Transition Period Traditions in Çan District

    Hamdi GÜLEÇ


    place in folk cultural morals. In the Çan villages, which are the farthest settlements of Çan, even today we can see that Folklore works keep their dynamism and survive. Each of the folklore and their elements that are saved today will build up cultural heritage of the future (Güleç and Türker 2002, 1334.From folk songs to lullabies, public beliefs to death traditions, handicrafts to people’s meteorology, folklore searches all the values that direct the folk’s moral and material life. In the modern digital world, there has been a massive effect of electronics on our moral and material lives. Although there are some last remains, cultural elements should be gathered together, protected, and searched scientifically. Folkloric creations will survive today and tomorrow as they survived in the past and they will never die out. In this study, the marriage rituals belonging to the region among the transition periods of Folklore creations in Çan district have been studied through evaluating them. It has been seen that the traditions and beliefs about marriage in Çan district have scarce sings of old Turkish beliefs, but they have been shaped by the affect of Islamic culture. Çan, Çanakkale’nin en gelişmiş ilçelerinden biridir. İlçenin kuruluş tarihi, kesin olarak tespit edilememiştir. Şehir ve çevresinde antik çağlara ait kalıntılara da rastlanılmıştır. Roma döneminde Çan yöresi Sergis olarak adlandırılıyordu. Çan yöresi XIV. Yüzyılda Osmanlı topraklarına katılmıştır. Önceleri Biga sancağına bağlı bir nahiye merkezi sonraları ise 1945 yılında Biga’dan ayrılarak Çanakkale’ye bağlı bir ilçe merkezi olmuştur. İlçe toprakları genellikle engebeli bir yapı gösterir. İlçe yüzölçümünün %62’si orman, % 32’si tarım arazisi, % 3’ü mera ve yerleşim alanlarıdır. Çan ilçesinin tabanı volkanik ve sedimanter oluşumundadır. İlçe, maden bakımından çok zengindir. İlçede genellikle Akdeniz

  16. Primary School Programs from the Ottoman Empire to the Republic of Turkey (1870-1936 / Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’ndan Türkiye Cumhuriyeti’ne İlkokul Programları (1870-1936

    Lütfi BUDAK


    Full Text Available In the Ottoman Empire, the primary level schools had been called “Sıbyan Mektebi”, local school or stone school. At those schools whose primary aim was to teach the Koran, education of religion and literacy, the most used teaching method had been memorizing. Although those schools established depending on foundations could meet the needs at the first periods of the Ottoman Empire, they couldn't keep pace with the changing situations. Although the reform of the "Sıbyan Mektebi" had been the current issue at the beginnings of the 19th century, the Ottoman primary education system had undergone major changes especially since 1870s. In this process, the “Sıbyan” schools were converted into “İptadie”s; modern teaching methods called “usul-i cedide” (new method and several new course materials such as desk, black board, chalk, map, globe and teacher lectern were begun to be used. With the Maarif-i Umumiye Regulation accepted in 1869, that courses such as usul-i cedide with elifba, Koran, tecvit, ethics, catechism, writing, calculation, history of the Ottoman, geography, knowledge of public works would take place and that the duration of primary education would be four years were proposed. After that regulation, different programs were prepared as three years for city and for town iptidais and as four years for rural schools. At those programs, lessons such as history, geography, calculation, sarf-ı Osmani, orthography, reading and calligraphy were added and subjects of the lessons were included as well as the explanation of the courses. Thus it is possible to qualify those programs as first detailed primary school programs. With the Act of Tedrisat-ı İptidaiye, in 1913, the duration of the primary school was increased and it became six years. The last primary school programs of the Ottoman according to that law belonged to years 1913-1914. Courses such as handicrafts-art, music, physical education, health education were put into

  17. The Crimea and Rum in the 13th–14th centuries: The Anatolian Diaspora and Urban Culture of Solkhat »

    Mark Kramarovsky


    , including those in the Crimea, the so called ‘minor migration’ was the second and, most probably, the main reason that the Seljuk ‘inoculation’ worked in the culture of the Islamic city communities. As to the materialistic component of life, the Seljuk influence can be traced in almost all the kinds of building and handicraft activities. The core of the Islamic Solkhat was formed between the first third of the fourteenth century and the second half of the fifteenth century. Its centre was the architectural ensemble of a madrasa and ‘the Mosque of Uzbek’, which was rebuilt on a new site. The new ‘Mosque of Uzbek’ repeated the portal, the mirhab and the main elements of the arcade of the original one, dating back to 1314. The mosque was obviously rebuilt closer to the Northern wall of the madrasa (built in the first third of the fourteenth century in the late fifteenth century. In 1332–1333 Injebek Khatun, the mother of the Mongol ruler of the city, ordered and sponsored a new madrasa with four iwans and a portal of the Asia Minor style. The three-dimensional decorations of the mosque and the madrasa, including the two-level structure of the capitals, belong to the same tradition. Besides its didactical function, madrasa also served as a muvakkithane, that is, it was responsible for keeping prayer times. The Seljuk ceramics of Solkhat is represented by a series of glazed ceramics with under-glaze sgrafitto drawing. The most interesting finding is a bowl dating back to the first half of the fourteenth century. It shows a scene of a feast, where all the characters are exaggeratedly young, courageous and equal in their positions at the feast. The most natural idea is that they must be members of an association of young men who were called the fityan (sg. fata – ‘young man’, ‘youth’ in the Near East. Since the ninth century the fityan clubs were called futuwwa (‘young-manliness, chivalry. The ideas and the rites of the fityan penetrated Asia Minor