The introduction of long-term care benefits within the CERN Health Insurance Scheme requires the coordination of the benefits foreseen for handicapped children. Measures were adopted by the Management following the recommendation made by the Standing Concertation Committee on 26 March 2003. A document clarifying these measures is available on the Web at the following address: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/soc/Social_affairs/social_affairs.asp Social Affairs Service 74201
The prime objective of this paper is to create awareness on the presence of the handicapped in Nigeria and the need to facilitate creative potentials in handicapped and non-handicapped children. Various factors that could facilitate creativity and other factors that could inhibit creativity were discussed. The implications for ...
Full Text Available In my discussion about the early treatment, I am going to point out three important matters:1. Open public health serviceThe deliveries are made at hospitals and the health service is the first to detect and treat children who are disturbed in their development. It also supervisor pregnancies. Upon the delivery, the screening test is used to analyze the risk delivery. At the beginning, the treatment is individual.2. Group (5-8 children in regular kindergartenThe transition of the child from the clinical treatment to the kindergarten is the result of an agreement between the team of experts both from the health institutes and pedagogical field of activity working in this way also when the child is in the nursery.The group of 5-8 handicapped children is now under the supervision of a nursery teacher having been to obtain special pedagogical education.3. Seminars of parentsThe state unity of associations providing for handicapped, in cooperation with local associations, organizes seminars lasting several days for parents and children.The purpose of the seminars is first of all helping parents in solving their emotional problems and also informing them on numerous issues appearing in connection with their child and themselves.
Werlin Steven L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia and feeding intolerance are common in neurologically handicapped children. The aim is to determine the etiologies of feeding intolerance in neurologically handicapped children who are intolerant of tube feedings. Methods Eighteen neurologically handicapped children, followed in the Tube Feeding Clinic at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin who were intolerant of gastrostomy feedings. The charts of these 18 patients were reviewed. Past medical history, diagnoses, history of fundoplication and results of various tests of gastrointestinal function including barium contrast radiography, endoscopy and antroduodenal manometry were documented. Results Five of 11 children had abnormal barium upper gastrointestinal series. Seven of 14 had abnormal liquid phase gastric emptying tests. Two of 16 had esophagitis on endoscopy. All 18 children had abnormal antroduodenal motility. Conclusions In neurologically handicapped children foregut dysmotility may be more common than is generally recognized and can explain many of the upper gastrointestinal symptoms in neurologically handicapped children.
Shufeit, Lawrence J.; Wurster, Stanley R.
Seventy-six parents of handicapped children were surveyed to compare the frequency of divorce in the sample population to that of the U.S. population. A research review revealed that the first-born child causes extensive to severe crises in the parents' marital relationship; that the presence of a child with a handicapping condition causes a…
Kelley, Michael F.; And Others
Thirty young children with handicaps were assessed on five self-recognition mirror tasks. The set of tasks formed a reproducible scale, indicating that these tasks are an appropriate measure of self-recognition in this population. Data analysis suggested that stage of self-recognition is positively and significantly related to cognitive…
Dresen, M. H.; de Groot, G.; Mesa Menor, J. R.; Bouman, L. N.
The effect is reported of a 10-week physical training program, consisting of three sessions with a total duration of two hours weekly, on the physical work capacity and efficiency of physically handicapped children aged 8 to 14 years. The program for the experimental group (n = 6) was an
Schoen, Sharon; And Others
The paper describes an approach in which games were planned to provide instruction for three severely handicapped children (5-6 years old) with few leisure, social, or academic skills and many aberrant behaviors. The first of two games involved a language program to teach verbal interactions, picture identification, and picture matching. The…
Guralnick, Michael J.
This collection of 11 articles focuses on integrating handicapped and nonhandicapped children in preschool programs. Article 1 presents arguments for preschool integration. Article 2 discusses research on peer interaction and mixed-age socialization. Article 3 advocates a behavior analysis and operant conditioning approach to studying and…
Dyson, Lily L.; Kubo, H. Richard
Forty-six supervisors and teachers were surveyed regarding their attitudes toward integration of handicapped children in a regular preschool program, the helpfulness of supportive services, and the necessary conditions for the integration of their programs. Findings showed that the majority of teachers were in favor of integration and supportive…
of them ( education service center, Lub- bock Medical facilities , Lubbock State School, psychiatric facilities , etc.) 18. Additional comments: Rapidly...Attached DD ) AN 73 1473 EDITION OF I NOV6GS IS OBSOLETE UNCL 23 Oct 81 8 1 10 2oc 0 6 2 !CURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (I7,n Data Entered) AIR WAR...COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY Report No. MS107-81 MILITARY FAMILIES WITH HANDICAPPED CHILDREN: THE REASSIGNMENT PROBLEM (A (WiDE TO SPECIAL EDUCATION AVAILABLE
Stefanovska, E; Nakova, M; Radojkova-Nikolovska, V; Ristoska, S
For realizing our study the supervised tooth-brushing program was carried out among 100 schoolchildren at the age of 9-12 and 13-16 years with low and moderate mental handicap in Skopje. To evaluate the results of six months intervention program, concentrated on encouragement of independent manual skills, OHI levels were detected by Green-Vermillion and CPITN index levels to characterize the gingival and periodontal health. For comparative analyzes of date-base OHI levels and after six months of intervention program, we detected that the mean date-base OHI index level for mentally handicaped children are 2.46, and at the end of the program (after six months) it was 0.73. CPITN index levels at the beginning and after six months of intervention programmed for mentally handicaped children in both age groups, also confirmed r statistical significance for this examined parameter, with evident reduction of CPITN mean levels from 2.11 to 0.95. Correlation among date-base OHI levels and levels at the end of our intervention program means high positive correlation between these index levels at the beginningand final examinations. This program gave promising results and was effective in reducing the plaque and gingivitis scores, so the key to long-term success of the program is to maintain the subjects' motivation to make oral hygiene a part of their daily routine and thus sustain this improvement (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 12). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.
Dennis A. Vinton; Donald E. Hawkins
This review of literature is intended to promote awareness of the needs of the 15 percent of the nation's children and youth who are afflicted with some form of handicap. It is imperative that those who design children's programs that utilize natural environments understand the special problems of handicapped children.
Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.
Marin, Gerardo; And Others
A random sample of 100 Hispanic women waiting to receive birth control services at a low-cost community health center in East Los Angeles was interviewed to learn more about the fertility behavior, attitudes toward family size, and contraceptive use of barrio Hispanic women. The respondents were: young (averaging 27 years old), poorly educated…
/Abstract Music Communication, Projection and Analogy of Handicapped Children in Music Therapy Presented work takes an interest in music contents produced by handicapped children attending music therapy sessions. The contents of music were gained from the children by the method of improvisation, particularly by "concert technique". In the theoretical part we present philosophical background for the music therapy in a field of special education and research. This background thought we have fou...
Baker, Elizabeth; Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Van Hook, Jennifer
This research examines the relationship between maternal employment and child overweight among fifth grade Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten (ECLS-K) cohort fifth grade sample (N = 4,360) were analyzed. OLS regression models were estimated predicting percentile BMI as a function of maternal employment, ethnicity, parental nativity status, income, and the interactions of employment, ethnicity/nativity, and income. Among Hispanic children of immigrants, maternal employment is associated with lower percentile BMI and this association strengthens at higher levels of income. Among Hispanic children of natives and non-Hispanic whites, maternal employment is beneficial (i.e. associated with lower percentile BMI) among low-income children but detrimental among high-income children, but this pattern is significantly greater in strength for Hispanics than non-Hispanic whites. Thus, maternal employment is associated with worse health outcomes only in the case of Hispanic children of natives, and maternal employment is associated with the best outcomes for Hispanic children of mothers from high-income families. We speculate that among children of immigrants, maternal employment may signify and/or accelerate assimilation towards middle- or upper-class American values of healthy weight and body size. Diet, meal regularity and supervision, and childcare did not mediate the relationship between maternal employment and overweight.
The experiences of children during the Second World War have attracted considerable attention, both scholarly and popular. Not all children however, have received equal attention. Handicapped children are conspicuous by their absence from all types of literature, both on evacuation and on children's experiences of the Second World War. This article restores these children to the story of wartime England and assesses their experiences. It examines the plans that were made for their evacuation and how they were carried out, and compares their lives, both individually and institutionally (i.e. in the various types of 'special' school) with those who, for various reasons, were not evacuated. It also compares their experiences, to a lesser degree, with those of their non-handicapped counterparts. The article argues that for many handicapped children it was a positive experience but one which depended on specific aspects, such as the attitudes of the authorities and of the general public, and perhaps more importantly, the attitudes and quality of the teaching and nursing staff, who were responsible for the children on a daily basis.
Brown, Scott W.
The paper discusses issues involved in the identification of gifted handicapped children, reviewing several research studies that attempted to define a specific configuration of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised subtest scores indicative of handicapped children possessing intellectual gifts. The author concludes that profiles and…
Administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) Form B to elementary school students (N=450) identified as gifted, normal, and mild mentally handicapped (MiMH). Results indicated that both the gifted and normal children had significantly higher self-esteem than did the MiMH children, but there were no differences between gifted and normal…
Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Div. of Special Education Services.
An article on identification of preschool and school age aurally handicapped children and program development by John J. O'Neill precedes discussions of the role of the audiologist in evaluation of these children by Jack A. Willeford, and educational aspects of planning by John J. O'Neill. Three articles are presented on the role of the teacher in…
Moore, Gary T.; And Others
This guide addresses the planning and architectural design of play/learning environments for special needs children. The exceptional children discussed include those with most types of mild to severe handicaps and developmental disabilities. Specifically excluded from consideration are health impairments, severe psycho-emotional difficulties such…
Hooshyar, Nahid T.
Mothers' coping mechanisms and adaptations to having a handicapped child were analyzed through extensive structured interviews with mothers of eight preschool-aged Down syndrome children and a language impaired child. Three illustrative case studies are presented, and general conclusions are drawn. Mothers of Down syndrome children go through the…
Guendelman, Sylvia; Nussbaum, Juliet; Soliday, Ann; Lahiff, Maureen
Objectives Fathering is known to foster child development and health, yet evidence on Hispanic immigrant fathers' involvement with their young children is sparse. This study assessed disparities in pregnancy intendedness and father involvement with children ages 0-4 among Hispanic immigrant co-resident fathers versus two reference groups: US-born Hispanic and US-born White fathers. We hypothesized that differentials in involvement were associated with socioeconomic and cultural factors. Methods Using 2011-2013 data from the National Survey of Family Growth (N = 598), we performed bivariate, logistic and linear regression analyses to assess disparities in pregnancy intendedness and five father involvement outcomes (physical care, warmth, outings, reading and discipline). The models controlled for socio-economic, structural, health and cultural covariates. Results Pregnancy intendedness did not differ significantly between Hispanic immigrant fathers and the two reference groups. Compared with US-born Hispanics, unadjusted models showed that immigrant fathers were less likely to engage in physical care, warmth and reading, (p ≤ 0.05) though the differences were attenuated when controlling for covariates. Hispanic immigrant fathers were less likely than US-born White fathers to engage in each of the father involvement outcomes (p ≤ 0.05), with the disparity in reading to their child persisting even after controlling for all covariates. Conclusions for Practice We found marked socio-economic and cultural differences between Hispanic immigrant and US-born Hispanic and White fathers which contribute to disparities in father involvement with their young children. Hispanic immigrant status is an important determinant of involved fathering and should be taken into account when planning public health policies and programs.
Wulz, S V; Hall, M K; Klein, M D
Family involvement is an essential element of language intervention with severely handicapped children for several reasons. First, the parent-child interaction is the focus of normal language development, and can be a powerful impetus in language learning for handicapped children. Second, limited generalization and maintenance of skills often occur when they are acquired in environments that do not also teach the appropriate use of skills. Third, parents can be successful intervention agents and may generalize their skills to other interactions with their child. Training conducted in the home must be compatible with that environment: it should involve only those skills that are of immediate use in the home. The Instructional Communication Strategy described herein represents such a program. It is a synthesis of training strategies used with normal and handicapped children, and is applicable regardless of child's level of functioning, age, or handicapping condition. This training model involves considerable modification in the role of speech-language pathologists dealing with the severely handicapped. The professional's skills are best utilized for assessment, program development, monitoring progress, and training specialized skills. The parents provide most of the direct training; however, professionals are also utilized for the child's maximum benefit.
Hatice Yildirim Sari
Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: The purpose of this research is to determine the knowledge of nurses and midwives who are working at primary health care services. METHODS: The information regarding the research has been given to the nurses and midwives working at primary health centers of Manisa, and 70 nurses and midwives have accepted to attend the research. In collecting the data, two questionnaire forms prepared by the researchers have been used and these forms are composed of two parts. In the first part of the questionnaire, there are questions about the sociodemografhic characteristics of midwives and nurses; in the second one the questions are related to the symptoms and causes of mental-handicap and the attempts regarding the mentally-handicapped child and his family. RESULTS: The nurses and midwives have stated that the most important cause of mental handicap is marriages among relatives (92.9%. and that in a situation of not being able to fullfill mental motor skills in relation to age, they suspect mental handicap (90%. They have also stated that they mostly have or can have difficulty in communucating with the mentally-handicapped child (64%. CONCLUSION: As a result, the nurses and midwives have adequate knowledge about the causes and symptoms of mental handicap. On the other hand, their knowledge regarding the services to be planned in care of mentally-handicapped children is limited. At the primary health care services, educational studies can be planned in order to give better health service for mentally-handicapped individuals. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 127-132
Full Text Available PURPOSE:To analyze the role of mental handicap as a possible source of lack of development of bladder control and to find out the chance of continence to advise future patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The parents and relatives of 100 consecutive mentally handicapped patients were inquired by a personal interview. Questions included the age when they stopped using diapers, enuretic events, frequency, urgency and leakage episodes, urinary infections. Etiology of their mental problem was unknown in 34, perinatal anoxia in 17, Down syndrome in 15, phenylketonuria in 18 and others minors causes. The grade of mental deficiency were profound in 1, severe in 10, moderate in 39, mild in 33 and normal inferior value in 17. The age varied from 7 to 37 years old, with an average of 14 by the time of the interview, comprising 60 males and 40 females. RESULTS: All profound and severe patients presented leakage episodes regardless of the age. The mild and normal inferior value acquired progressive urinary control with aging, and 33% still remain with urinary symptoms above 16 years old. Urinary infection was similar in males and females, around 29%. The most committed group presented less urinary infections. The etiology of the mental handicap was not correlated to the incidence of urinary leakage. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of bladder control was correlated to the grade of mental handicap. In severe and profound groups, the expectancy of control is disappointing. In the less compromised groups, there is a delay in bladder training, with achievement of control in 2/3 after 16 years of age. Those in the normal inferior value have a chance of postponed urinary control, easily misdiagnosed by normal urological interviews.
Macy, Daniel J.; And Others
Project DEBT (Developmental Education Birth through Two), an early identification and intervention program for handicapped and at risk children and their parents, is described. The Koontz Child Developmental Program, the core curriculum for instructional planning and intervention in DEBT, is reviewed, and new data are presented. It is explained…
Bryan, Elizabeth; And Others
The authors discuss concerns and practical suggestions involved in the education of multiply handicapped children in the following problem areas: first aid, emergency care and disaster planning; sanitation; environment; safety in routine and supplemental activities; therapy procedures; and staff protection, training, orientation, and special…
Van Tassel, Jean
Intended for parents and teachers of multiply handicapped preschool children, the booklet provides lesson plans in three major areas--basic concepts, motor activities, and language activities. Each lesson plan is broken down into four parts: purpose (a descriptive statement of what the lesson hopes to accomplish), materials (list of materials…
The paper offers some basic information for making decisions about allocating and accounting for resources provided to young handicapped children. Sections address the following topics: reasons for costing, audiences for cost accounting and accountability information, and a process for cost accounting and accountability (defining cost categories,…
Baker, Elizabeth; Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Van Hook, Jennifer
This research examines the relationship between maternal employment and child overweight among fifth grade Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten (ECLS-K) cohort fifth grade sample (N = 4,360) were analyzed. OLS regression models were estimated predicting percentile BMI as a function of maternal employment, ethnicity, parental nativity status, income, and the interactions of employment, ethnicity/nativity, and income. Among Hisp...
Kaufman, Erin A.; Wiese, Deborah L.
Skin-tone preferences and colourism within Hispanic children have been largely unexamined in the psychological literature. The objectives of the current study were to investigate Hispanic children's skin-tone preferences and the effect of assessor race and ethnicity on those preferences. To carry out the study, Clark and Clark's colouring task was…
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of present research was the comparison of mothers irrational believes with severe or profound mentally handicapped child and mothers with normal child from 6 to14 years old in Tehran city. Materials & Methods: This study was an analytical, cross – sectional and comparative (case – control research. From mothers with severe or profound mentally handicapped child who had refered to Tehran welfare services centers, 80 mothers were selected by regular randomized sampling from two rehabilitation centers and 80 mothers with normal child were selected for peering with the group of testimonial from schools areas of east, west, south, north and center of Tehran, through multi - stage cluster sampling in for variables of: age of mothers, educational levels, the location of living and the number of children. They answered to questionnaire of irrational believes of jons (IBT. Analysis of data was done by descriptive and infringing statistics methods (Independent T test, U Mann Whitney, Chi-square and fisher. Results: The findings showed that: there are significantly differences in total irrational believes and irrational believes of blame proneness, frustration reactive, anxious over concern, problem avoiding and dependency, perfectionism between two groups of mothers (P<0/05. There was no significant difference in irrational believes between mothers who had mental handicap daughter and mothers who had mental handicap son (P=0/314. There was no significantly difference between two groups of mothers in four believes of demand for approval (P=0/737, high-self expectation (P=0/126, emotional irresponsibility (P=0/727, helplessness for change (p=0/283. Conclusion: Irrational believes and many its sub scales. In mothers of severe or profound mental handicap children were more than mothers with normal child. But believes of demand for approval, high self expectation, emotional irresponsibility, helplessness for change in mothers with
Karina Mendonça Vasconcellos
Full Text Available Historically excluded, handicapped people have been socially included through new standards guided by egalitarian principles. The Social Representation Theory, which studies how the common sense builds “theories” about relevant objects, was used to answer how this situation affects children socially and psychologically in inclusive schools. We use a multimethodological approach with free associations, drawings and focus groups to study the social representations of 39 third and fourth grade students about their handicapped colleagues, all the children being from a state school in Recife, Pernambuco. The data were submitted to content analysis and analysis using the EVOC software, and the results indicate that handicapped children are seen as people limited by a temporary or permanent shortage or disability; they learn differently from others and disrupt classes; they require constant care and protection; they are allowed to join the group, but not to be part of it. The group seems to be outlining the contours of otherness, which shows a representation under construction.
Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Craig, Rebecca; Pelham, William E., Jr.; King, Sara
The authors examined self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with and without ADHD and examined whether stimulant medication influenced self-handicapping. Participants were 61 children ages 6 to 13, including 22 children with ADHD tested after taking a placebo, 21 children with ADHD tested after taking stimulant medication,…
Chavez-Payan, Paola; Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W
Acculturation tends to erode Hispanic immigrants' initial health advantage. Using a more nuanced conceptualization of acculturation than previous studies, we explore the associations between acculturation and Hispanic children's asthma. Data came from an observational mail survey of caretakers of Hispanic schoolchildren in El Paso, Texas (N = 1,513). Results from generalized linear models (GzLMs) demonstrate that acculturation was a significant positive predictor of asthma. The addition of interaction terms revealed that prenatal smoking, low birth weight, breastfeeding, and pest exposure significantly modified the effect of acculturation on asthma. Results suggest that although higher levels of acculturation were detrimental overall, the effects were not equally damaging for all Hispanic children. Findings foster an understanding of how the effect of acculturation on Hispanic children's asthma is intensified or attenuated by distinct individual-level risk factors.
Longhurst, Thomas M.
The second of four documents provides a summary of the scientific literature pertaining to spontaneous language acquisition in handicapped preschool children, and reviews and evaluates procedures for assessing language acquisition in these children. Chapter l focuses on language development in nonhandicapped children after they have acquired their…
Krener, P; Cranston, C
One hundred forty six boys (mean age 9 years 1 months, SD = two years, nine months) and forty one girls (mean age 8 years 6 months, SD = three years, three months) received medical, developmental, psychoeducational, and psychiatric evaluations in a multidisciplinary developmental pediatric clinic. Two hundred fifty variables were analyzed by developing ten scales to quantitatively evaluate neuropsychological risk factors, family and parent functioning, and outcome measures of academic achievement, social adjustment and coping or psychiatric symptom pattern. Higher academic achievement, and lower behavioral symptomatology were associated with high IQ scores but not with higher scores on neurobehavioral risk factors. Chief complaints reported by parents did not correlate with their children's final psychiatric diagnoses and also were found to be independent of children's coping styles observed in the office. Problem parenting, as observed in the pediatrician's office, was associated with behavioral problems, and also with decreased competence on language measures and lower academic achievement in relation to IQ. In this sample, assessing parenting yielded a stronger prediction of the child's school and behavioral functioning than did taking a detailed history of neuropsychological risk factors.
Sosa, Alicia Salinas
Traditionally, school personnel have expressed concern about the relatively poor record of involving Hispanic parents in schools. The root of the problem is that many immigrant and migrant Hispanic parents cherish beliefs and expectations different from those held by schools and by the parents whom schools most frequently engage. This chapter…
Storch, Eric A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Barlas, Mitchell E.
We examined the relation of overt and relational victimization to depressive symptoms, fear of negative evaluation (FNE), social avoidance, and loneliness in a sample of Hispanic and African-American children. The Social Experience Questionnaire, Children's Depression Inventory, Social Anxiety Scale for Children--Revised, and Asher Loneliness…
Okada, Junichiro; Takeuchi, Kazuo
Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 47 children and adolescents with mental and/or physical handicaps. Of these series, 22 cases of morphological change were noted. Another 25 cases showed no overt CT abnormality. These 47 cases were divided into three groups in the following manner. Group 1, with no CT abnormality; Group 2, with ventricular dilatation and/or cerebral atrophy, and Group 3, with a major morphological anomaly of the brain. Group 1 (25 cases) showed a marked dissociation between the CT findings and the IQ. EEG showed normal findings in two cases, diffuse abnormality in 5 cases, and focal abnormality in 9 cases. This group alone included 8 cases of athetosis. Group 2 (14 cases). Seven cases of EEG showed diffuse abnormality in 3 cases and focal abnormality in 4 cases. So-called cerebral palsy was noted in 11 cases. Group 3 (8 cases). This group included cases of hemihydranencephaly, porencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and arachnoid cyst. The mean and standard deviations of the IQ's in the groups are 57.1 +- 21.6, 65.2 +- 20.5, and 72.0 +- 8.0. That is, an inverted correlation between the CT abnormality and the IQ was noted. CT is a noninvasive study and a reasonable method of investigation for mentally handicapped children. DeMyer gave three categories of cerebral malformation: cytogenetic malformations, organogenetic disorders, and histogenetic disorders. On the other hand, EEG aimed at evaluating cerebral function and CT undertaken for morphological evaluation reveal no intimate correlation with one another. Rather, these two procedures each have their one value for the evaluation of the function and the structure of the brain. Mentally and/or physically handicapped patients without any overt cerebral anomaly have been found to be as follows: Murobushi, 12.29%; Malamud, 34%; Gross, 15.8%; Benda, 15%, and Hamada, 45.4%. (author)
Iwasaki, Nobuaki; Hamano, Kenzo; Nakamoto, Natsue; Okada, Yusuke [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Takeya, Toshiki
The relation between brain damage and gross motor function in severely handicapped children (spastic type) was studied. The subjects were fifteen cases with laterality in their cerebral hemisphere CT scans (laterality group) and 28 cases with no laterality (control group). All cases were divided into four groups according to the level of gross motor function. The grade of brain damage was estimated based on CT scan analysis using the following parameters and index: maximum frontal extracerebral space (ES), maximum width of Sylvian fissure (SY), Evans` ratio, and cella media index. In the laterality group, the parameters and index were measured for both cerebral hemispheres, respectively. In the more severely disturbed hemisphere of the laterality group, ES and SY were significantly enlarged compared with those of the cases with the same level of motor function in the control group (p<0.01). In the less severely disturbed hemisphere of the laterality group, the ES, SY, Evans` ratio and cell media index were not significantly enlarged compared to cases with the same level of motor function as the control group. These findings may indicate that gross motor function of severely handicapped children is closely related to the less severely disturbed cerebral hemisphere. (author)
Iwasaki, Nobuaki; Hamano, Kenzo; Nakamoto, Natsue; Okada, Yusuke; Takeya, Toshiki.
The relation between brain damage and gross motor function in severely handicapped children (spastic type) was studied. The subjects were fifteen cases with laterality in their cerebral hemisphere CT scans (laterality group) and 28 cases with no laterality (control group). All cases were divided into four groups according to the level of gross motor function. The grade of brain damage was estimated based on CT scan analysis using the following parameters and index: maximum frontal extracerebral space (ES), maximum width of Sylvian fissure (SY), Evans' ratio, and cella media index. In the laterality group, the parameters and index were measured for both cerebral hemispheres, respectively. In the more severely disturbed hemisphere of the laterality group, ES and SY were significantly enlarged compared with those of the cases with the same level of motor function in the control group (p<0.01). In the less severely disturbed hemisphere of the laterality group, the ES, SY, Evans' ratio and cell media index were not significantly enlarged compared to cases with the same level of motor function as the control group. These findings may indicate that gross motor function of severely handicapped children is closely related to the less severely disturbed cerebral hemisphere. (author)
Tucker, Jamie; And Others
Almost everyone who responded to three transportation surveys of rural Handicapped Children's Early Education Program (HCEEP) projects identified transportation as a critical problem in the delivery of services to handicapped children in rural areas. Transportation problems encountered were attributed to environmental/geographic factors,…
Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.
The report by the General Accounting Office examines the status of education for handicapped children in 10 states. P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, is reviewed briefly, and the states' compliance with the following aspects was assessed: eligibility criteria, individualized educational programs, and provision of a free…
Lizmary Feriz Otaño
Full Text Available The research answers to the scholar age children’s necessity of Hermanos Cruz Community in Pinar del Río municipality. To verify the existence of a real problem about the necessity to occupy the free time o handicaps children, an initial diagnosis was carried out using different methods of investigation such as theoretical, empirical, and statistical and community intervention methods. There were consulted some specialists so as to gather the necessary information to validate the proposal, that contributes to insert the children in society as a way of relaxing and also promoting them health. The participative techniques are aimed to transform the group’s way of acting in the community. The proposed physical and recreate activities are integrating and take into account the children’s psychobiological necessities. The proposal was greatly accepted by Hermanos Cruz community and its results were considerably higher than those ones expected in the investigation.
Colvin, Nola R.; And Others
Components of an integrated physical education program, which consists of handicapped and nonhandicapped students, include: (1) activities that promote interaction among all students; (2) strategies that place handicapped and nonhandicapped students together; and (3) reinforcement of cooperative behavior. (CJ)
Waldman, H Barry; Wong, Allen; Rojas, Jorge E; Perlman, Steven P
The results from latest study of children with special health care needs indicate at the national and state levels that (except for Asian children) the proportion of Hispanic children with special needs is less than for other child populations. A review of a series of associated factors raises questions of the validity of these general national and state findings. The significant projected increases in the Hispanic population during the next decades points to the necessity of reconsidering the recent survey findings in light of what could be continued increases in the numbers of youngsters with special health care needs and the evolving family cultural adaptation, education and employment opportunities.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine important micronutrient deficiencies related to child health and growth outcomes for all weight statuses to 1 better understand other potential nutritional problems and inequities that may be masked by focusing solely on BMI percentiles and overweight/obesity, and 2 draw attention to the need for more studies focused on the nutritional well-being of children at all weight statuses, including healthy weight. METHODS: A sample of children (ages 2-19 years old from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2010 was analyzed. Prevalence of stunting, folate, vitamin D, iron, iodine, and anemia, was considered. Comparisons were conducted between non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics, and within Hispanics, based on socio-demographic and economic characteristics. RESULTS: Hispanic children experienced significantly higher prevalence of stunting (6.1% versus 2.6%, and the prevalence of stunted Hispanic children in the healthy weight category was higher than those in the overweight/obese category. Comparable percentages were observed by ethnicity for most analyzed micronutrients, although girls had consistently higher prevalence of nutritional deficiencies than boys, especially girls reaching reproductive age. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this article draw attention to the need for more specific and differentiated analyses of child obesity and nutritional status among and within ethnic, sex, and age groups. Appropriate public health interventions need to consider the entire range of weight statuses and micronutrient deficiencies to eliminate inequities among minority children, especially girls.
Gudino, Omar G.; Lau, Anna S.
This study examined associations between parental cultural orientation, childhood shyness, and anxiety symptoms in a sample of Hispanic American children (N = 127). Parents completed measures of their level of acculturation, collectivism, and socialization goals, while children provided self-reports of anxiety symptoms and both parents and…
Bumgarner, Erin; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Accumulating evidence suggests that children's approaches to learning (ATL) at kindergarten entry predict their academic achievement years later. However, the gains associated with ATL may be diminished for Hispanic immigrant children, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). We tested whether ATL predicted math scores in a sample of…
Strang, Louise; And Others
Predictions from social comparison theory and group reference theory were tested in two experiments assessing the impact of half-day mainstreaming upon the self-concepts of academically handicapped children. The results supported the theoretical viability of social comparison theory and group reference theory in educational settings. (Author/BH)
Wallander, Jan L; And Others
Investigated contribution of child functional independence and maternal psychosocial stress to adaptation of 119 mothers of physically or sensorially handicapped children between the ages of 2 and 18. Child functional independence did not uniquely explain variation in mothers' adaptation. Maternal stress was uniquely associated with maternal…
Muhammad T Salam
Full Text Available Asthma and rhinitis are common childhood health conditions. Being an understudied and rapidly growing population in the US, Hispanic children have a varying risk for these conditions that may result from sociocultural (including acculturative factors, exposure and genetic diversities. Hispanic populations have varying contributions from European, Amerindian and African ancestries. While previous literature separately reported associations between genetic ancestry and acculturation factors with asthma, whether Amerindian ancestry and acculturative factors have independent associations with development of early-life asthma and rhinitis in Hispanic children remains unknown. We hypothesized that genetic ancestry is an important determinant of early-life asthma and rhinitis occurrence in Hispanic children independent of sociodemographic, acculturation and environmental factors.Subjects were Hispanic children (5-7 years who participated in the southern California Children's Health Study. Data from birth certificates and questionnaire provided information on acculturation, sociodemographic and environmental factors. Genetic ancestries (Amerindian, European, African and Asian were estimated based on 233 ancestry informative markers. Asthma was defined by parental report of doctor-diagnosed asthma. Rhinitis was defined by parental report of a history of chronic sneezing or runny or blocked nose without a cold or flu. Sample sizes were 1,719 and 1,788 for investigating the role of genetic ancestry on asthma and rhinitis, respectively.Children had major contributions from Amerindian and European ancestries. After accounting for potential confounders, per 25% increase in Amerindian ancestry was associated with 17.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74-0.99 and 13.6% (95% CI: 0.79-0.98 lower odds of asthma and rhinitis, respectively. Acculturation was not associated with either outcome.Earlier work documented that Hispanic children with significant
The article describes exercises in drama and creative writing to broaden the imaginations of visually handicapped children through stories and poems with a nonvisual imagery. Examples of stories and poems written specifically for the visually handicapped are included. (Author/CL)
Moreno, Jennette P; Vaughan, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Daphne; Cameron, Ryan T; Foreyt, John P; Johnston, Craig A
Previous studies revealed that higher levels of acculturation are related to obesity in Hispanic adults. Conflicting findings exist regarding this relationship in children, and little is known about the impact of acculturation on children's success in pediatric weight management programs. The purposes of the study were to (1) examine the relationship between acculturation and overweight/obese weight status and (2) determine the impact of acculturation on the changes in weight status among overweight/obese children 12 and 24 months after having participated in a weight management intervention. This is a secondary analysis of aggregated data from three randomized control trials that occurred between 2005 and 2009. Height, weight, and level of acculturation using the Child Short Scale for Hispanics (C-SASH) were measured in a sample of Hispanic children (n = 559). Logistic regression models were used to study phase 1 (n = 559) and phase 2 (n = 142), controlling for child and family characteristics. Children reporting high levels of acculturation had a 52 % lower odds of being overweight or obese. Among overweight/obese children who participated in the intervention, high levels of acculturation demonstrated greater reductions in standardized body mass index (zBMI) at 24 months. The results of this study indicate a need to tailor weight management programs for Hispanic children who have lower levels of acculturation.
Virk, Pks; Jain, R L; Pathak, A; Sharma, U; Rajput, J S
India has been the focus of many health surveys among normal, physically, and mentally handicapped children. However, the data, concerning oral health conditions of socially handicapped children living in orphanages, are scanty. To study the effect of parental inadequacy, environmental deprivation, and emotional disturbances on dental caries through intelligence quotient (IQ) and self-concept in orphan children and also to co-relate dental caries with different levels of IQ and self-concept. The study was carried out amongst socially handicapped children living in orphanages. 100 children in the age group of 10-14 years from orphanages were selected. Malin's Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC) was used to assess the intelligence quotient; self-concept questionnaire to assess self-concept of the child and recording of dental caries status of children was done as per WHO Index (1997). To assess the relationship of dental caries with IQ, student's unpaired t-test was used and; to find the relationship between self-concept and dental caries, Karl-Pearson's coefficient of co-relation was applied. the children in orphanages had a lower IQ and high caries experience but had an above average self-concept. There was also no co-relation between dental caries and self-concept. Orphan children, being socially handicapped, are at an increased risk for dental caries due to a lower IQ level, parental deprivation, and institutionalization. Moreover, lack of co-relation between dental caries and self-concept could be explained by the fact that dental caries is a lifelong process whereas different dimensions of self-concept are in a state of constant flux.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward oral health of education and health professionals working in a children care program for handicapped children from 0 to 6 years of age, run by a public municipal institution in Rio de Janeiro. Using a printed questionnaire, 67 professionals (teachers, attendants and health professionals were interviewed. The results were compared to the children's oral hygiene habits, by directly observing their daily nursery routine. Although 97.0% said that oral health could play a part in general health, only 37.3% of the professionals answered correctly on this matter. As for methods for preventing caries, although 92.5% said that they were aware of them, only 17.9% went to the dentist for preventive treatment. Although the majority (81.3% indicated oral hygiene as a way of preventing caries, observation showed that this practice is not always put into effect in the program's day nursery. Regarding when to start toothbrushing in children, 75.0% of the teachers and 94.4% of the health professionals said that they were aware of the need to begin brushing before one year of age, although this reply was given by only 52.5% of the attendants (chi-square, p = 0.006. In view of these results, it was concluded that attitudes toward oral health were not always coherent with the knowledge that these professionals express.
Taverno, Sharon E; Rollins, Brandi Y; Francis, Lori A
The acculturation hypothesis proposes an overall disadvantage in health outcomes for Hispanic immigrants with more time spent living in the U.S., but little is known about how generational status and language may influence Hispanic children's relative weight and activity patterns. To investigate associations among generation and language with relative weight (BMI z-scores), physical activity, screen time, and participation in extracurricular activities (i.e., sports, clubs) in a U.S.-based, nationally representative sample of Hispanic children. Participants included 2012 Hispanic children aged 6-11 years from the cross-sectional 2003 National Survey of Children's Health. Children were grouped according to generational status (first, second, or third), and the primary language spoken in the home (English versus non-English). Primary analyses included adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regression to examine the relationships among variables; all analyses were conducted between 2008 and 2009. Compared to third-generation, English speakers, first- and second-generation, non-English speakers were more than two times more likely to be obese. Moreover, first-generation, non-English speakers were half as likely to engage in regular physical activity and sports. Both first- and second-generation, non-English speakers were less likely to participate in clubs compared to second- and third-generation, English speakers. Overall, non-English-speaking groups reported less screen time compared to third-generation, English speakers. The hypothesis that Hispanics lose their health protection with more time spent in the U.S. was not supported in this sample of Hispanic children. Copyright 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Researches about child’s intellectual development in the psychology has started in the 19th century and the first step has been made by Tiedemann in “ Observation of the development of the mental abilities of the children”. His work caused a great interest in the circles of doctors and psychologists. Their interpretation of intelligence was different, but the most acceptable is the performance of complicated activities for getting knowledge and skills and getting over the obstacles in the development of the person”.The social ability do not correspond with the intelligence. The two aspects are tested and a complete picture of their functioning can be seen. The developmental principle is determined from general to the separate as functionally connected.In the period when a child does not accept the higher level of intelligence and thinking , in relation to which are effectuated by sense-motor activities, than we say that a child is mentally handicapped. The widest approach of the educational system should be treated as a functional, institutional and organizational, that takes part in the realization of the social aims and tasks.Not getting into viewing of the curriculum's and programs for preparatory groups in the preeducational period, we may say that the justification for the existence of these group in the regular schools, is maturation of the perceptive motor coordination and learning. With the maturing the function of the "ego" is increasing.As a child adapts better he can learn better, and the maturity comes sooner. In this way these groups are justified.Mentally handicapped child has not the opportunity to attend an organized prepared education which provides:-forming of the speech, self-control, which can be achieved in the process of learning through a direct contact with other children;· regulation of the lateralization through re-education of the psycho-motor abilities, and in general neuro-motor experienced maturation
Reina, Samantha A; Llabre, Maria M; Vidot, Denise C; Isasi, Carmen R; Perreira, Krista; Carnethon, Mercedes; Parrinello, Christina M; Gallo, Linda C; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Delamater, Alan
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, is being diagnosed in youth. Specific diagnostic criteria used to define MetS influence prevalence estimates and populations considered at risk for cardiovascular disease. The National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) provide three MetS definitions used in medical research. This study examined concordance among these definitions in 1137 children 10-16 years of age, who participated in the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth. Prevalence of MetS and of individual components was estimated using SAS. Mplus was used to test a single-factor model of MetS components (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and fasting glucose). The ATP definition identified most MetS cases in 10-15 (N = 19, 4.7%) and 16-year-old girls (N = 3, 7.3%). The IDF definition identified most cases of MetS in 10-15 (N = 16, 3.1%) and 16-year-old boys (N = 2, 2.8%). Fewest cases of MetS were identified with the WHO definition across age and sex groups. Only one participant was classified as having MetS across all three definitions. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated fasting glucose and systolic blood pressure did not reliably cluster with other risk factors that define MetS in Hispanic/Latino adolescents. We conclude that prevalence estimates of MetS in youth are unstable across current criteria, calling into question the accuracy of defining and diagnosing MetS in youth.
Wohlfarth, H.; Sam, C.
The effects of varied lighting and coloring in the classroom environment were examined on the behavior of seven severely handicapped 8 to 11 year olds with behavior problems. Analysis of changes in systolic blood pressure indicated that Ss were more comfortable and relaxed in the experimental room (in which the fluorescent lights were replaced by…
Our objective was to resequence insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) to identify variants associated with obesity- and diabetes-related traits in Hispanic children. Exonic and intronic segments, 5' and 3' flanking regions of IRS2 (approx. 14.5 kb), were bidirectionally sequenced for single nucleotide...
Park, Sung Shin; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Choi, Seong Hee; Lee, Won Yong; Hong, Young Hye; Jeong, Nyun Gi; Sung, Myung-Whun; Kim, Kwang Hyun
The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Pediatric Voice Handicap Index (pVHI) for cross-cultural adaptation of the Korean version with school age children. The questionnaire was translated into Korean and was completed by 101 Korean parents who have children with or without disordered voice. The Korean version-pVHI scores were obtained with 60 parents of normal children and 41 parents who have children with voice problems. Content validity was verified by five experienced speech-language pathologists with clinical specialization in voice disorders. Internal consistency was calculated through Cronbach's α coefficient and test-retest reliability of the Korean version-pVHI score was determined using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare GRBAS with the Korean version-pVHI scores between normal and dysphonia group. The relationship between the parent-reported the Korean version-pVHI total scores and perceptual ratings of voice quality from experts was investigated using Spearman correlation coefficients. The results showed that the Korean version-pVHI provided a high internal consistency (α=0.92) and test-retest reliability of its subscales: total (T) 0.97, functional (F) 0.90, physical (P) 0.95, emotional (E) 0.92. The Korean version-pVHI mean scores in normal group were 1.28 (T), 0.62 (F), 0.35 (P) and 0.32 (E), respectively whereas those of the Korean version-pVHI in children group with dysphonia were 23.13 (T), 8.90 (F), 9.54 (P) and 4.93 (E). Significant differences in the Korean version-pVHI (T, F, P, E) and perceptual evaluation (grade, rough, breathy) between normal and dysphonia group were revealed (PKorean version-pVHI parameters (T) and perceptual measures (G) was exhibited in children with dysphonia. The subjective Korean version-pVHI can be applicable and useful supplementary tool for evaluating parents' perception of their children's voice dysfunction, identifying
Woo Baidal, Jennifer A; Criss, Shaniece; Goldman, Roberta E; Perkins, Meghan; Cunningham, Courtney; Taveras, Elsie M
Modifiable behaviors during the first 1000 days (conception age 24 months) mediate Hispanic children's obesity disparities. We aimed to examine underlying reasons for early life obesity risk factors and identify potential early life intervention strategies. We conducted 7 focus groups with 49 Hispanic women who were pregnant or had children trump healthy eating and physical activity; early life weight gain is unrelated to later life obesity; fear of infant hunger drives bottle and early solids introduction; beliefs about infant taste promote early solids and sugary beverage introduction; and belief that screen time promotes infant development. Mothers identified physicians, nutritionists, and relatives as important health information sources and expressed interest in mobile technology and group or home visits for interventions. Opportunities exist in the first 1000 days to improve Hispanic mothers' understanding of the role of early life weight gain in childhood obesity and other obesity risk factors. Interventions that link health care and public health systems and include extended family may prevent obesity among Hispanic children.
Current and Past Research on Autistic Children and Their Families. Conducted by Division TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children). TEACCH Research Report.
This report summarizes research conducted by, or in collaboration with, the Division TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped CHildren) of the Department of Psychiatry in the University of North Carolina School of Medicine at Chapel Hill. The summaries contain bibliographic citations for published papers…
Feng, Du; Song, Huaxin; Esperat, M Christina; Black, Ipuna
This study aimed to examine the effect of a multicomponent intervention program on consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and lifestyle factors associated with SSB intake, in Hispanic children from low-income families. A five-wave longitudinal study using a quasi-experimental design was conducted. Five elementary schools in West Texas served as the setting. Participants included 555 predominantly Hispanic children (ages 5-9 years) from low-income families and their parents (n = 525). A multicomponent intervention program was implemented. Children's anthropometric measures were obtained. Their weight status was determined based on body mass index for age and gender. Parents responded to a demographic questionnaire, a shelf inventory, an acculturation scale, and a family survey. Growth curve analyses were used to test differences between intervention and comparison participants' SSB intake and to examine potential covariates. Comparison group children's daily SSB intake significantly increased over time (B = 1.06 ± .40 ounces per month, p food intake, and more types of SSBs available at home were associated with higher SSB intake. Risk factors of childhood obesity were associated with each other. The intervention program produced a modest reduction in SSB consumed by economically disadvantaged and predominantly Hispanic children. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.
Innella, Nancy; McNaughton, Diane; Schoeny, Michael; Tangney, Christy; Breitenstein, Susan; Reed, Monique; Wilbur, Joellen
Although obesogenic behaviors (physical activity and/or sedentary behavior and dietary intake) are known predictors of childhood weight status, little is known about mother and child behaviors contributing to obesogenic behaviors and obesity in Hispanic preschool children, whose obesity rate is higher than in non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks. The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to examine relationships among child temperament, maternal behaviors (feeding practices and parenting style), child obesogenic behaviors, and child weight status in 100 Hispanic preschool children. Results showed that higher scores on the negative affectivity dimension of child temperament were associated with higher scores on the dimension of permissive parenting, and permissive parenting was associated with less time spent in sedentary behaviors ( B = -3.53, confidence interval [-7.52, -0.90]). Findings can guide school nurses in developing interventions that consider child temperament and parenting style to promote nonobesogenic behavior in Hispanic preschoolers.
Papas, Mia A; Trabulsi, Jillian C; Dahl, Alicia; Dominick, Gregory
Obesity is a growing public health concern and is more prevalent among low-income and minority populations. Food insecurity may increase the odds of obesity in children. We investigated the association between food insecurity and obesity among low-income, Hispanic, mother-child dyads (n = 74). The United States Department of Agriculture 18-item Household Food Security Survey was used to determine food security status. The majority of households were food insecure (74 %) and one-third (30 %) of children were obese. Food insecurity increased the odds of childhood obesity (OR 10.2; 95 % CI 1.2, 85.5) with stronger associations found within households where mothers were also overweight/obese compared to normal weight (p-for interaction food insecurity and childhood obesity were high among this low-income Hispanic sample. Future studies should elucidate the mechanisms through which food insecurity impacts childhood obesity.
Butte, Nancy F; Cai, Guowen; Cole, Shelley A; Wilson, Theresa A; Fisher, Jennifer O; Zakeri, Issa F; Ellis, Kenneth J; Comuzzie, Anthony G
Despite the high prevalence of overweight among Hispanic children in the United States, definitive predictors of weight gain have not been identified in this population. The study objective was to test sociodemographic, metabolic, and behavioral predictors of 1-y weight gains in a large cohort of Hispanic children studied longitudinally. Subjects (n = 879) were siblings from 319 Hispanic families enrolled in the Viva la Familia Study. Families were required to have at least one overweight child aged 4-19 y. One-year changes in weight and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured. Data were from parental interviews, birth certificates, multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls, 3-d accelerometry, 24-h respiration calorimetry, measurements of eating in the absence of hunger, and measurement of fasting blood biochemistry indexes by radioimmunoassay. Generalized estimating equations and principal component analysis were applied. Weight gain increased with age (P = 0.001), peaking at approximately 10 y of age in girls and approximately 11 y of age in boys. Mean (+/-SD) weight gain was significantly higher in overweight (7.5 +/- 3.7 kg/y) than in nonoverweight (4.4 +/- 2.4 kg/y) children and in boys than in girls. When adjusted for age, age squared, sex, and Tanner stage, the final model indicated a child's body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) status, maternal BMI, energy expenditure (total energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate, and sleeping metabolic rate), and fasting blood biochemistry indexes (total triiodothyronine, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin) as independent, positive predictors of weight gain (P = 0.01-0.001). Knowledge of the metabolic and behavioral predictors of weight gain in Hispanic children will inform prevention and treatment efforts to address this serious public health problem in the United States.
Vyduna, Jennifer L; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine M; Reicks, Marla; Auld, Garry W; Cluskey, Mary; Edlefsen, Miriam; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Schram, Jessica; Zaghloul, Sahar
Intervention strategies to increase calcium intake of parents and young adolescent children could be improved by identifying psychosocial factors influencing intake. The objective was to develop a tool to assess factors related to calcium intake among parents and Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white young adolescent children (10-13 years) meeting acceptable standards for psychometric properties. A parent questionnaire was constructed from interviews conducted to identify factors. Parents (n = 166) in the United States completed the questionnaire, with seventy-one completing it twice. Two constructs (Attitudes/Preferences and Social/Environmental) were identified and described by eighteen subscales with Cronbach's alpha levels from .50 to .79. Test-retest coefficients ranged from .68 to .85 (p food intake among parents and young adolescent children.
Byron Alexander Foster
Full Text Available Background. Perception of weight by parents of obese children may be associated with willingness to engage in behavior change. The relationship between parents’ perception of their child’s weight and their health beliefs and practices is poorly understood, especially among the Hispanic population which experiences disparities in childhood obesity. This study sought to explore the relationship between perceptions of weight and health beliefs and practices in a Hispanic population. Methods. A cross-sectional, mixed-methods approach was used with semistructured interviews conducted with parent-child (2–5 years old dyads in a primarily Hispanic, low-income population. Parents were queried on their perceptions of their child’s health, health practices, activities, behaviors, and beliefs. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze participants’ discussion of health practices and behaviors. Results. Forty parent-child dyads completed the interview. Most (58% of the parents of overweight and obese children misclassified their child’s weight status. The qualitative analysis showed that accurate perception of weight was associated with internal motivation and more concrete ideas of what healthy meant for their child. Conclusions. The qualitative data suggest there may be populations at different stages of readiness for change among parents of overweight and obese children, incorporating this understanding should be considered for interventions.
Full Text Available Objectives: Providing care to children who have disability is often a stressful experience, yet spiritual beliefs may help mothers to be patient, tolerant and hard in coping with child-rearing difficulties. This study examined the relationship between the spiritual attitudes of mothers of handicapped children to child-rearing and psychological hardiness. Methods: In a descriptive correlational study, 120 mothers of handicapped children who were referred to the rehabilitation clinics of the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (Rofeideh, Akhavan and Sina clinics were selected through purposeful sampling and answered the Sanctification of Parents Scale (SPS, and Personal Views Survey (PVS. Data were analyzed by SPSS-20 software and statistical procedures including Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used. Results: Results showed that spiritual attitudes to child-rearing are significant predictors of hardiness in mothers. Discussion: It seems like having spiritual attitudes in difficult situations such as providing care for disabled children plays a significant role in mother’s patience and hardiness.
Sherman, L W; Burgess, D E
20 behavioral attributes predicting social distance were examined among 101 junior high school students in six classrooms. The sample included 8 developmentally handicapped students, of whom at least one of each was mainstreamed into each classroom. Subjects were predominantly white, middle-class, suburban midwesterners. A sociometric nomination measure was used to obtain behavioral attribute profiles of the students which were then used to predict a psychometric measure of social distance. Handicapped students were not more socially distant than their normal peers. Factor analysis of the 20 behavioral attributes yielded four factors, three of which were significant predictors of classroom social distance, accounting for better than half the variance in social distance. These were described as Incompetent/Unassertive, Positive/Active/Assertive, and Passive/Unassertive. Social rejection in mainstreamed classrooms is more a function of perceived behavioral attributes than the label developmentally handicapped.
McCrory, Megan A; Jaret, Charles L; Kim, Jung Ha; Reitzes, Donald C
Immigrants in the U.S. may encounter challenges of acculturation, including dietary habits, as they adapt to new surroundings. We examined Vietnamese and Hispanic immigrant children's American food consumption patterns in a convenience sample of 63 Vietnamese and Hispanic children in grades four to six who were attending an after school program. Children indicated the number of times they consumed each of 54 different American foods in the past week using a food frequency questionnaire. We ranked each food according to frequency of consumption, compared the intake of foods to the USDA Healthy Eating Pattern, and performed dietary pattern analysis. Since the data were not normally distributed we used two nonparametric tests to evaluate statistical significance: the Kruskal-Wallis tested for significant gender and ethnicity differences and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test evaluated the food consumption of children compared with the USDA recommended amounts. We found that among USDA categories, discretionary food was most commonly consumed, followed by fruit. The sample as a whole ate significantly less than the recommended amount of grains, protein foods, and dairy, but met the recommended amount of fruit. Boys ate significantly more grains, proteins, and fruits than did girls. Dietary pattern analysis showed a very high sweet snack consumption among all children, while boys ate more fast food and fruit than girls. Foods most commonly consumed were cereal, apples, oranges, and yogurt. Ethnicity differences in food selection were not significant. The high intake of discretionary/snack foods and fruit, with low intake of grains, vegetables, protein, and dairy in our sample suggests Vietnamese and Hispanic immigrant children may benefit from programs to improve diet quality.
McFadyen-Ketchum, Lisa Schlueter; Hurwich-Reiss, Eliana; Stiles, Allison A.; Mendoza, Marina M.; Badanes, Lisa S.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Watamura, Sarah Enos
Research Findings: Although there is a well-established relationship between economic stress and children's self-regulation, few studies have examined this relationship in children of Hispanic immigrants (COHIs), a rapidly growing population. In a sample of preschool children (N = 165), we examined whether economic stress predicted teacher…
Schneiderman, Janet U; Smith, Caitlin; Arnold-Clark, Janet S; Fuentes, Jorge; Duan, Lei; Palinkas, Lawrence A
This retrospective medical chart review examined the prevalence of overweight/obesity (≥85th percentile) and obesity (≥95th percentile) in Hispanic foster children aged 2-18 years in Los Angeles, California. Logistic regression was used for boys and girls separately to analyze polyvictimization (i.e., one vs. two or more types of maltreatment), type of maltreatment (abuse vs. neglect), and age-group as risk factors for overweight and obesity. Almost 40% of participants were overweight/obese, with the highest prevalence (47.7%) observed among children aged 12-18. Children aged 6-18 were at an increased risk of overweight/obesity and obesity compared with children aged 2-5. Although polyvictimization has been shown to have adverse health effects, in this study, it was related to slightly lower odds of obesity for boys but was unrelated to high weight for girls. Addressing the obesity epidemic among Hispanic foster children is vital to preventing continued obesity and the development of obesity-related health problems, especially by focusing on important community and family influences.
The presentation addresses the implications of P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, for institutions of higher education that are concerned with special education personnel preparation. After a review of literature, the supply and demand situation as it pertains to teachers of exceptional children is discussed and quality…
FELLENDORF, GEORGE W.
THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL ASSOCIATION FOR THE DEAF URGED THAT THE STATE OF MARYLAND CONTINUE TO INVESTIGATE NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE AREA OF EDUCATION OF THE HANDICAPPED. HE RECOMMENDED THAT CONTINUAL REVIEW AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF NEEDS BE MADE BY REGIONAL SUBCOMMITTEES, PROGRAMS BE COORDINATED BY AN ADMINISTRATOR AT THE…
Adams, Sally H; Hyde, Susan; Gansky, Stuart A
The objective of this study was to determine caregiver treatment acceptability and preferences for five preventive dental treatments for early childhood caries in young Hispanic children. We interviewed 211 parents/caregivers of Hispanic children attending Head Start programs regarding their acceptability of, and preferences for, five standard preventive dental treatments for young children. Treatments assessed were toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste, fluoride varnish, and xylitol in food for children, and xylitol gum and chlorhexidine rinse for mothers. The interview assessment included presentation of illustrated cards with verbal description of treatment, photograph/video clip, and treatment samples. Parents rated the acceptability of each treatment (1-5 scale) and treatment preferences within each of 10 possible pairs. Individual treatment preferences were summed to create overall preference scores (range 0-4). All treatments were rated as highly acceptable, however, there were differences (range 4.6-4.9; Friedman chi-square = 23.4, P treatment preferences revealed greater variability (means ranged 1.4-2.6; Friedman chi-square = 128.2, P treatments were highly acceptable, however, when choosing among treatments overall, fluoride varnish and toothbrushing were favored over other treatments.
Mejia de Grubb, Maria C; Salemi, Jason L; Gonzalez, Sandra J; Sanderson, Maureen; Zoorob, Roger J; Mkanta, William; Levine, Robert S
Parental perceptions of their children's weight status may limit their willingness to participate in or acknowledge the importance of early interventions to prevent childhood obesity. This study aimed to examine potential differences in Hispanic mothers' and fathers' perceptions of childhood obesity, lifestyle behaviors and communication preferences to inform the development of culturally appropriate childhood obesity interventions. A qualitative study using focus groups was conducted. Groups (one for mothers and one for fathers) were composed of Hispanic parents (n = 12) with at least one girl and one boy (≤ 10 years old) who were patients at a pediatric clinic in Tennessee, USA. Thirteen major themes clustered into four categories were observed: (i) perceptions of childhood obesity/children's weight; (ii) parenting strategies related to children's dietary behaviors/physical activity; (iii) perceptions of what parents can do to prevent childhood obesity and (iv) parental suggestions for partnering with child care providers to address childhood obesity. Mothers appeared to be more concerned than fathers about their children's weight. Fathers expressed more concern about the girls' weight than boys'. Mothers were more likely than fathers to congratulate their children more often for healthy eating and physical activity. Parents collectively expressed a desire for child care providers (e.g. caregivers, teachers, medical professionals and food assistance programs coordinators) to have a caring attitude about their children, which might in turn serve as a motivating factor in talking about their children's weight. Parental perceptions of their children's weight and healthy lifestyle choices are of potential public health importance since they could affect parental participation in preventive interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Rights and Responsibilities of Parents and Schools in the Education of Handicapped Children = Derechos y Responsabilidades de los Padres de Familia y los Distritos Escolares en la Educacion de los Ninos Incapacitados.
Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix. Div. of Career and Vocational Education.
The booklet is intended to help Arizona parents understand their role in the education of handicapped children. A question and answer format draws upon contents of P.L. 94-142, The Education for All Handicapped Children Act; Arizona revised statutes; and the State Board of Education rules and regulations. Four main topics are covered: (1)…
Bode, H; Hirner, V
To investigate the view of parents and professionals on sending children with special educational needs to inclusive schools. 54 preschool children in the year before school entry and 155 school children attending a Social Pediatric Center. They displayed motor-, mental-, speech- or sensory handicaps, learning or behavioral disabilities. Questionnaires for parents of preschool- and of school children and questionnaires for the professional caring for the child were evaluated and compared. Parental expectations, experiences concerning school and the severity of disability were determined. 135 pupils attended special schools and 20 integrative schools. The parents were generally very content with both types of schools despite the fact that 33% of parents had not have a free choice of the school. They had a positive attitude to inclusive education. Preference for inclusive schooling decreased with increasing severity of the child's disability. The severity of disability was rated similar by parents and by professionals. Parents of preschool children tended more often and parents of school children less often than professionals towards sending the individual child to an inclusive school. Some parents of children with special educational needs would like to send their child to a special school, others prefer inclusive schools. It is paramount to improve the professional advice and guidance to parents since parental options to choose the school for their child are increasing in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Wolf, James M., Ed.; Anderson, Robert M., Ed.
Articles presented in the area of the medical and educational challenge of the multiply handicapped child are an overview of the problem, the increasing challenge, congenital malformations, children whose mothers had rubella, prematurity and deafness, the epidemiology of reproductive casualty, and new education for old problems. Discussions of…
Sanders, L M; Gershon, T D; Huffman, L C; Mendoza, F S
To assess book-sharing activities within first-generation Hispanic immigrant families, and to assess the effect of pediatricians giving books to their patients. Survey. Convenience sample of 122 predominantly Hispanic immigrant parents of children aged 2 months to 5 years. Of these parents, 56 had received children's books from the pediatrician, and 66 had not. House staff continuity clinic at a university children's hospital. Frequent Book Sharing (FBS) was defined as a parent's reporting more than 3 days per week of sharing books with the child. Main independent variables included the following: (1) exposure to the Reach Out and Read program, defined as having received a children's book from the pediatrician; (2) socioeconomics, as measured by parents' years of education and Medicaid enrollment; (3) acculturation, as defined by 4 questions relating to parents' proficiency with the English language; (4) parent's country of origin; (5) parent literacy, as measured by a parent's reporting more than 3 days per week of reading alone; (6) parent's age; (7) marital status; (8) household size; (9) child's age; (10) child's sex. Ninety percent of the parents were born outside of the United States (71% in Mexico), 85% spoke Spanish in the home, and 63% had completed less than a high-school education. Seventy-five percent of children's medical insurance was provided by Medi-Cal (Medicaid), and 9% of children were uninsured. Sixty-seven percent spoke exclusively Spanish at home, and 84% of parents want their children to learn to read in both English and Spanish. High FBS was reported among parents whose children had received books from the physician when compared with parents whose children had received no books. The odds ratio (OR) was 3.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-9.37; Pimmigrant children through the provision of free books at well-child visits. Our findings also suggest the independent effects of adult literacy and child age. Further research is needed to
Qi, Cathy H.; Marley, Scott C.
The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" (PLS-4) with a sample of English-speaking Hispanic and European American children who attended Head Start programs. Participants were 440 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years (52% male; 86% Hispanic and 14% European American).…
This study aimed to understand the experiences of raising a child with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in a group of Hispanic immigrant mothers. The following 3 aspects were explored: (a) the families' social environments, (b) cultural beliefs on development and autism, and (c) perceptions of bilingualism influencing language choices. In-depth 3-part phenomenological interviews and thematic analyses were conducted with 22 Hispanic immigrant mothers of preschool children with ASD. A total of 3 thematic categories emerged: stigmatization and social isolation, preconceptions about developmental milestones and autism, and mothers' reluctance to speak Spanish with their children. A lack of awareness about autism influenced social isolation, and autism was viewed as temporary and associated with fear or sadness. The mothers believed that exposure to 2 languages would increase their children's language difficulties. Hispanic immigrant mothers raising children with autism were often challenged by immigration status, economic hardship, and advice against using Spanish with their children. Professional training and parent education are needed to facilitate early identification of ASD. Immigrant families should be encouraged to communicate in the home language with their children. Information about ASD should be disseminated through community outreach, home-school connections, and pediatricians, who remain pivotal in informing Hispanic immigrant families.
New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.
The manual, in Spanish, describes programs and resources available for preschool handicapped children and their families in conjunction with the New York State Education Department. Section 1 on assistance in securing services, reviews the service provided by Early Childhood Direction Centers, and outlines the role of local Committees on the…
Hoeft, Linda A.
A project was designed to reduce the turnover of direct care staff in a community-based residential facility that provides a home and educational or adult day training services for 54 severely or profoundly mentally and physically handicapped children and adults. The project sought to reduce total staff turnover by 40%, reduce employee…
Creske, Mary; Modeste, Naomi; Hopp, Joyce; Rajaram, Sujatha; Cort, David
The purpose of this observational study was to examine the association between body mass index and dental caries in Hispanic children. The research evaluated the influences of obesity, diet, parent education level, family acculturation, tooth brushing habits and gender as predictors of childhood caries. One examiner visually screened 177 third grade students from 3 elementary schools located in southern California's Coachella Valley. The children were screened for number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT). Height, weight, age and gender determined their body mass index. Primary caregivers completed a 30-point questionnaire for each participant. Multivariate analyses accessed the association between childhood dental caries and weight status and the influences of the measured variables. Results indicate that those in the obese category had a statistically significant lower rate of DMFT than did children in the healthy weight category. Overweight children showed a higher DMFT than healthy weight children but the results were not statistically significant. Covariates that significantly influenced this association were diet and socioeconomic status. Results from this study provide oral health professionals with baseline data and literature to support development of preventive programs for this population that concurrently address both obesity and oral health issues in scope and design.
Oddon, P A; Boucekine, M; Boyer, L; Triglia, J M; Nicollas, R
voice disorders are common in the pediatric population and can negatively affect children's quality of life. The pediatric voice handicap Index (pVHI) is a valid instrument to assess parental perception of their children voice but it is not translated into French language. The aim of the present study was to adapt a French version of the pVHI and to evaluate its psychometric properties including construct validity, reliability, and some aspects of external validity. we performed a cross sectional study including 32 dysphonic children and 60 children with no history of voice problems between 3 and 12 years of age. The original pVHI was translated into French language according to forward-backward rules and then administered to parents or caregivers. Construct validity and internal consistency were explored using confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha. The questionnaire was filled twice to assess test-retest reliability using the intra-class correlation coefficient. The external validity was explored by comparing the French pVHI total and subscales scores between dysphonic and asymptomatic children. Correlations between the French pVHI and both the perceptual GRBAS scale and the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) survey "Vécu et Santé Perçu de l'Adolescent et de l'Enfant" (VSP-Ap) were also performed. the structure of the French pVHI showed a good fit with excellent reliability (α = 0.929) and high test-retest reliability. Significant differences were found between the group of dysphonic children and the control group (p life in children with voice disorder. We recommend its use in the multidimensional protocols for assessing voice disorder in the pediatric population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Chittoor, Geetha; Haack, Karin; Mehta, Nitesh R; Laston, Sandra; Cole, Shelley A; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Butte, Nancy F; Voruganti, V Saroja
Reduced renal excretion of uric acid plays a significant role in the development of hyperuricemia and gout in adults. Hyperuricemia has been associated with chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in children and adults. There are limited genome-wide association studies associating genetic polymorphisms with renal urate excretion measures. Therefore, we investigated the genetic factors that influence the excretion of uric acid and related indices in 768 Hispanic children of the Viva La Familia Study. We performed a genome-wide association analysis for 24-h urinary excretion measures such as urinary uric acid/urinary creatinine ratio, uric acid clearance, fractional excretion of uric acid, and glomerular load of uric acid in SOLAR, while accounting for non-independence among family members. All renal urate excretion measures were significantly heritable (p uric acid clearance with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in zinc finger protein 446 (ZNF446) (rs2033711 (A/G), MAF: 0.30). The minor allele (G) was associated with increased uric acid clearance. Also, we found suggestive associations of uric acid clearance with SNPs in ZNF324, ZNF584, and ZNF132 (in a 72 kb region of 19q13; p <1 × 10 -6 , MAFs: 0.28-0.31). For the first time, we showed the importance of 19q13 region in the regulation of renal urate excretion in Hispanic children. Our findings indicate differences in inherent genetic architecture and shared environmental risk factors between our cohort and other pediatric and adult populations.
Kim, Young-An; Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E
Prior research suggests that immigrant enclaves provide respiratory health benefits for US Hispanic residents. We test if immigrant enclaves provide differential respiratory health benefits for Hispanic children in El Paso (Texas) based on individual-level factors. Results reveal that higher neighborhood immigrant density is associated with reduced odds of wheezing, but that the protective immigrant enclave effect is modified by poverty, general health status, body mass index (BMI), and caretaker nativity. Higher immigrant density is significantly more protective for poor children and those with foreign-born caretakers; conversely, it is significantly less protective for children in worse health and those with higher BMI. These findings foster a novel understanding of how immigrant enclaves may be differentially protective for Hispanic children based on individual-level factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sexton, Holly R.; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Sameroff, Arnold J.
This study examined whether the longitudinal links between mothers' use of spanking and children's externalizing behaviors are moderated by family race/ethnicity, as would be predicted by cultural normativeness theory, once mean differences in frequency of use are controlled. A nationally representative sample of White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian…
Meaney, Karen S.; Hart, Melanie A.; Griffin, L. Kent
Fun & Fit is a program designed to create positive physical activity experiences and to promote healthy lifestyle choices among overweight children from low-income African American and Hispanic American families. The program is a collaborative project between Texas Tech University and the Lubbock Independent School District funded through a…
Willis, Kelcie; Timmons, Lisa; Pruitt, Megan; Schneider, Hoa Lam; Alessandri, Michael; Ekas, Naomi V.
This study examined gender differences in the relationship between dispositional optimism, coping, and depressive symptoms of Hispanic mothers (n = 46) and fathers (n = 43) of children with autism spectrum disorder. Coping was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between optimism and depressive symptoms. The results revealed that mothers…
Estrada, Lynette; Deris, Aaron R.
Researchers have found that cultural factors may lead to lower rates of diagnosis in Hispanic children with autism and that parents lack the knowledge of therapies and practices used in the treatment of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Five research questions guided this phenomenological study. The focus of the first two questions was how…
Rohrer James E
Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of overweight, hyperglycemia symptoms, Hispanic ethnicity, and language barriers on health-related quality of life (HRQoL among children and adolescents. Methods Parents'/guardians of a population based sample of 5530 children between ages 3 and 18 were administered the parents' version of the KINDL® survey instrument to assess HRQoL in children and adolescents. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess relationships between HRQoL, body mass index, and hyperglycemia symptoms categories. Results The mean age of children was 10.6 (SD = 4.3. The mean KINDL® total score was 79.7 (SD = 11.6 and the mean physical functioning score was 81.9 (SD = 20.3. Male children exhibited better physical health as compared to the female children (p p = 0.008. However, the association was not significant for the four of the six subscales including the physical health domain. Children with hyperglycemia symptoms and a family history of diabetes also had significantly lower overall and physical health HRQoL (p p p = 0.001. Conclusion Results suggest that overweight may reduce overall quality of life among children, though it does not directly influence physical functioning. However, hyperglycemia symptoms may affect both overall health and physical functioning. Findings also suggest the need for developing programs directed at overcoming language barriers that may face Spanish-speaking children or their parents. Furthermore, targeting children who have hyperglycemia symptoms with public information campaigns may be more appropriate than targeting overweight children.
Nakashima, Masao; Nishimura, Masaaki; Kachi, Shozo; Sugimoto, Kimiyuki; Saito, Msahiko; Yamada, Shigeaki; Kameyama, Yoshio; Tanaka, Minoru; Hiraizumi, Yasuhisa.
Sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) and computed tomographic (CT) features were examined in 40 institutionalized severely handicapped persons. Cranial CT appearance fell into five major types: (I) no abnormal findings (n=2), (II) generalized brain atrophy (n=16), (III) diffuse parenchymal disturbance (n=10), (IV) brain malformation (n=4), and (V) localized brain disturbance (n=8). In the I group, one person had normal EEG findings as well, but another person had the presence of focal spikes without spindles on EEG. Five of the II group had no abnormal EEG findings; ten had abnormality in basic waves and/or localized paroxysmal waves; and one had generalized spike-and-slow wave complex. All persons in the III group had flattening or disappearance of spindle waves. In the IV group, two persons with cerebral malformation and one with linear nevus sebaceous syndrome in association with hypoplasia of the cerebral hemisphere had abnormality in basic waves and localized paroxysmal waves. In the remaining one person with deficit of vermis cerebelli, there was no EEG abnormality. Among the last group of persons, there was no EEG abnormality corresponding to CT features. (Namekawa, K)
Amany K Elshorbagy
Full Text Available Plasma total cysteine (tCys independently relates to fat mass in adults. Dietary cyst(eine promotes adiposity and decreases glucose tolerance in some rodent models, but alleviates insulin resistance in others.To investigate whether the association of tCys with body fat extends to children at particular risk of obesity, and whether tCys is associated with insulin resistance and obesity-associated inflammation.We explored the cross-sectional relations of fasting plasma tCys and related metabolites with body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 984 Hispanic children and adolescents aged 4-19 years from the Viva La Familia Study. Linear and logistic regression and dose-response curves were used to evaluate relations of tCys with obesity, insulin resistance and inflammatory markers including interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and C-reactive protein (CRP.tCys, methionine and total homocysteine (tHcy increased with age. Upper tCys quartile was independently associated with a 5-fold increased risk of obesity (95% CI 3.5-8.0, P<0.001, and 2-fold risk of insulin resistance (95% CI: 1.6-5.0, P<0.001; adjusted for body fat%. Within the overweight/obese subgroup, but not in normal-weight children, tCys accounted for 9% of the variability in body fat% (partial r = 0.30, P<0.001; adjusted for age and gender. tCys correlated positively with serum non-esterified fatty acids and leptin, partly independent of body fat, but was not associated with serum IL-6, TNF-α or MCP-1. A positive correlation with CRP disappeared after adjustment for BMI.tCys is independently associated with obesity and insulin resistance in Hispanic children and adolescents, highlighting a previously underappreciated link between the sulfur amino acid metabolic pathway and obesity and cardiometabolic risk.
Fisher, Jennifer O; Arreola, Angeles; Birch, Leann L; Rolls, Barbara J
Portion size influences children's energy intakes at meals, but effects on daily intake are unknown. Effects of large portions on daily energy intake were tested in 5-y-old Hispanic and African American children from low-income families. Maternal food intake data were collected to evaluate familial susceptibility to portion size. A within-subjects experimental design with reference and large portion sizes was used in a study of 59 low-income Hispanic and African American preschool-aged children and their mothers. The portion size of 3 entrées (lunch, dinner, and breakfast) and an afternoon snack served during a 24-h period were of a reference size in one condition and doubled in the other condition. Portion sizes of other foods and beverages did not vary across conditions. Weighed food intake, anthropometric measures, and self-reported data were obtained. Doubling the portion size of several entrées and a snack served during a 24-h period increased energy intake from those foods by 23% (180 kcal) among children (P kcal) among mothers (P daily intakes among Hispanic and African American children.
Ryan D. Burns
Full Text Available The predictive relationship between muscular strength and endurance and cardio-metabolic health, independent from aerobic fitness, is not clear in disadvantaged Hispanic children. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive relationship between muscular strength and endurance and clustered cardio-metabolic risk, controlling for aerobic fitness, in Hispanic children from low-income schools. Participants were 320 Hispanic children (Mean age = 10.1 ± 1.1 years; 164 girls, 156 boys recruited during the 2014–2015 and 2015–2016 academic years from five low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Muscular strength and endurance was assessed using the push-up and curl-up tests and estimated VO2 Peak was calculated from the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run. A clustered metabolic syndrome composite score (MetS was calculated from cardio-metabolic health measurements consisting of HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood glucose, and mean arterial pressure (MAP. Multi-level general linear mixed effects models were used to examine the predictive relationship between muscular strength and endurance and MetS, controlling for the effect of aerobic fitness and the clustering of children within classrooms and schools. Children who were in the middle and upper tertiles for muscular strength and endurance associated with a lower (more favorable MetS score (middle tertile: β = −2.59, 95% C.I. [−4.23, −0.95], p < 0.05; upper tertile: β = −1.57, 95% C.I. [−3.20, −0.16], p < 0.05. The results suggest that higher levels of muscular strength and endurance relate to lower cardio-metabolic risk, independent of aerobic fitness, in Hispanic children from low-income schools.
Brodin, Jane; Millde, Kristina
The report describes three preschool Swedish children with osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bones) and the psychosocial support families require from society. Introductory sections explain the condition, review international research on brittle bones, consider the life situation of children with brittle bones, and examine societal support for…
The study examined aspects of daily living of Swedish children with osteogenesis imperfecta, a mineral deficiency in the skeleton which results in stunted growth and frequent fractures. A questionnaire was administered to 24 families with children under the age of 18 and 3 families were interviewed. The study found the families in great need of…
Intentional communicative acts were assessed in 13 children (ages 2-8) with Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome with a severe mental disability and compared to children with Down and 5p syndromes. The mean number of intentional communicative acts was significantly lower. Analysis of play behaviors revealed the differences were specific for the…
Smith, J. David
The issue of pediatric euthanasia for handicapped newborns is examined and contrasting viewpoints emphasizing the quality and the sanctity of life are considered. The author asserts that advocacy for handicapped children involves decisions regarding the euthanasia question. (CL)
Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo
Obesity is a pandemic disease in Latin America. The purpose of this review was to analyze the studies exploring food advertising in TV conducted in Latin-American countries and in the USA geared to Hispanics. An electronic literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, SCIELO, and CINAHL, databases and open access internet, of food advertising directed to children in TV in Latin American countries and Hispanics living in the USA, published from 1985 to January, 2015 RESULTS: Twenty three studies were found, six were conducted in Chile, five in Mexico, four in Brazil, three among Hispanics in the USA, and one in each of the following countries: Argentina, Peru, Colombia, Honduras and Venezuela. A high exposure of TV food advertised is geared toward children and their family. This exposure has been shown to be associated with the preference and purchase of those foods by adults and children with a high BMI, overweight and obesity. An alarming high exposure of the TV food advertised directed toward children was reported, which warrants effective regulations, supervision and accountability. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
A horseback riding program, sponsored by 4-H members for handicapped children in Michigan's Genesse County, has proven physically and emotionally veneficial for the children. All therapeutic exercises were performed with the approval of the child's physician and therapist. Plans for expanding the program are being considered. (AG)
Denmark, John C.
Reviews 9 examples of "non-communicating children" whose probelms stem from: 1) intellectual impairment; 2) mental illness; 3) congenital verbal agnosia; 4) physical disease; or, 5) early profound deafness. (MB)
Flottmeyer, L; Fries, A
Since the late 60s, reality-oriented books for children and young people have increasingly turned to subject-matters and issues involving social/societal criticism, among them the theme of "being disabled". In the discussion on the degree to which media, and books in particular, do affect children's attitudes and socialization, it has been underlined that media take effect in the development of specific attitudinal patterns and behavioural dispositions in those cases where the recipient has not already formed a "completed" opinion of the topic at hand. This in particular is true in children of primary school age, and above all relates to their view of the disabled person. Six selected children's books were reviewed critically, based on a catalogue of criteria permitting coverage of as wide as spectrum as possible of "physical disability" and allied subjects. Summarizing, it is noted that the books reviewed do give children the opportunity, and partly in an excellent manner, of gaining insights into the situation of disabled persons. The potential for didactical treatment in primary classrooms is pointed out.
Butte, Nancy F; Voruganti, V Saroja; Cole, Shelley A; Haack, Karin; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Muzny, Donna M; Wheeler, David A; Chang, Kyle; Hawes, Alicia; Gibbs, Richard A
Our objective was to resequence insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) to identify variants associated with obesity- and diabetes-related traits in Hispanic children. Exonic and intronic segments, 5' and 3' flanking regions of IRS2 (∼14.5 kb), were bidirectionally sequenced for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery in 934 Hispanic children using 3730XL DNA Sequencers. Additionally, 15 SNPs derived from Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad BeadChips were analyzed. Measured genotype analysis tested associations between SNPs and obesity and diabetes-related traits. Bayesian quantitative trait nucleotide analysis was used to statistically infer the most likely functional polymorphisms. A total of 140 SNPs were identified with minor allele frequencies (MAF) ranging from 0.001 to 0.47. Forty-two of the 70 coding SNPs result in nonsynonymous amino acid substitutions relative to the consensus sequence; 28 SNPs were detected in the promoter, 12 in introns, 28 in the 3'-UTR, and 2 in the 5'-UTR. Two insertion/deletions (indels) were detected. Ten independent rare SNPs (MAF = 0.001-0.009) were associated with obesity-related traits (P = 0.01-0.00002). SNP 10510452_139 in the promoter region was shown to have a high posterior probability (P = 0.77-0.86) of influencing BMI, fat mass, and waist circumference in Hispanic children. SNP 10510452_139 contributed between 2 and 4% of the population variance in body weight and composition. None of the SNPs or indels were associated with diabetes-related traits or accounted for a previously identified quantitative trait locus on chromosome 13 for fasting serum glucose. Rare but not common IRS2 variants may play a role in the regulation of body weight but not an essential role in fasting glucose homeostasis in Hispanic children.
Santiago-Torres, Margarita; Adams, Alexandra K; Carrel, Aaron L; LaRowe, Tara L; Schoeller, Dale A
The home food environment influences children's eating behaviors and potentially affects overall diet quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the home food environment and Hispanic children's diet quality. Hispanic children, 10-14 years of age (n=187), and their parents participated in this cross-sectional study. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used to determine diet quality based on reported dietary intake obtained through a food frequency questionnaire administered to the children. Parents self-reported home food availability, familial eating habits, and their own habitual diet through a home environment survey. The children's HEI total score was 59.4±8.8. Reported diets did not adhere to the dietary recommendations for total vegetables, greens and beans, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, refined grains, sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. None of the participants had "good" scores (HEI, >80), 86% had scores that "need improvement" (HEI, 51-80), and 14% had "poor" scores (HEI, food availability, parental diet, and familial eating habits seem to play an important role in the diet quality of children. Interventions targeting family education on healthful dietary habits at home could have a positive impact on children's diet quality and overall health.
Fernandez, James Reza; Zhang, Aifeng; Vachon, Linda; Tsao, Sinchai
Bone age assessment is most commonly performed with the use of the Greulich and Pyle (G&P) book atlas, which was developed in the 1950s. The population of theUnited States is not as homogenous as the Caucasian population in the Greulich and Pyle in the 1950s, especially in the Los Angeles, California area. A digital hand atlas (DHA) based on 1,390 hand images of children of different racial backgrounds (Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Asian) aged 0-18 years was collected from Children's Hospital Los Angeles. Statistical analysis discovered significant discrepancies exist between Hispanic and the G&P atlas standard. To validate the usage of DHA as a clinical standard, diagnostic radiologists performed reads on Hispanic pediatric hand and wrist computed radiography images using either the G&P pediatric radiographic atlas or the Children's Hospital Los Angeles Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) as reference. The order in which the atlas is used (G&P followed by DHA or vice versa) for each image was prepared before actual reading begins. Statistical analysis of the results was then performed to determine if a discrepancy exists between the two readings.
Hedgecock, Henry H.; And Others
Intended for parents of disabled children, the handbook addresses issues of estate planning and other legal matters concerning the child's future. An initial section on guardianship covers such aspects as how to obtain guardianship, duties, and alternatives to guardianships. Wills and trusts are examined in separate chapters which include…
Sherrill, Claudine; Kelly, Luke
A comparative study was made of mentally retarded and nonhandicapped children in the first through third grades on motor performance as measured by running (50-yard dash), jumping (standing broad jump), and throwing (softball throw for distance). The subjects had received all of their physical education instruction in a mainstream setting since…
This report describes the development of a community-based service for the implementation of augmentative and alternative communication strategies with regard to children with severe disabilities in South Africa. The intervention process was developed by the Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication of the University of Pretoria. The…
Six developmentally normal preschool siblings of disabled children participated in workshops in which modeling, rehearsal, and role play were used to improve siblings' understanding of disabilities while strengthening their self-perceptions and attitudes toward their disabled brother or sister. (Author/CL)
This article discusses issues involved in psychological assessment of children with hearing loss who have additional disabilities or special needs. It provides recommendations for appropriate methods of assessment that accommodate the communication difficulties associated with hearing loss. This article includes assessment procedures for children…
Strum, Irene; Shapiro, Madelaine
The purpose of this study was to validate the Prescriptive Instructional Program for Educational Readiness (PIPER) for utilization as a criterion referenced test (CRT) among learning disabled children. The program consisted of behavioral objectives and diagnostic and/or mastery tasks and activities for each objective in the area of gross motor…
National Committee, Arts for the Handicapped, Washington, DC.
Presented is a collection of case studies by therapists, educators, artists, parents, and recreation leaders, dealing with the arts as learning experiences for handicapped children. Each of the ten articles records the positive effects of arts experiences (dance, art, music, drama) on the growth and development of a particular handicapped child or…
Bowen, John W.
Since 1979 many courts have handed down rulings in favor of handicapped children under the Education of the Handicapped Act. This twentieth chapter in a book on school law summarizes these cases. In "Kruelle v. Biggs," the court ruled that a school district must provide residential placement free of charge if such placement is necessary…
Full Text Available Periodontal disease is a chronic multifactor pathology, characterized by the progressive destruction of the dental structures support tissues. Patients with some type of disability have a higher predisposition to develop periodontal disease, due to bad hygiene, product of their motor and psychological deficiencies, and to their systemic alterations that difficult the defense against periodontopathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the periodontal status of a group of children with special needs, and a control group. 47 patients with mental retardation and Down syndrome from three special education centers, and 31 healthy patients of ages ranging from 6 to 15 years, were dentally evaluated, to determine their plaque index, gingival index, and the presence of calculus. After gathering the data and tabulating the results, a 1.08 plaque index was determined, and a gingival index of 1.03, corresponding to a mild gingivitis in the study group. On the other hand, on the group of regular patients, there was a 1.08 PI and a 0.96 GI. Calculus percentage was similar on both groups. However, a large percentage of children with mild gingival inflammation was observed in the group of special patients (53.19%, compared to the control group (29%.
Voruganti, V Saroja; Laston, Sandra; Haack, Karin; Mehta, Nitesh R; Cole, Shelley A; Butte, Nancy F; Comuzzie, Anthony G
Background: Elevated concentrations of serum uric acid are associated with increased risk of gout and renal and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic studies in adults have consistently identified associations of solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9), polymorphisms with variation in serum uric acid. However, it is not known whether the association of serum uric acid with SLC2A9 polymorphisms manifests in children. Objective: The aim was to investigate whether variation in serum uric acid is under genetic influence and whether the association with SLC2A9 polymorphisms generalizes to Hispanic children of the Viva La Familia Study. Design: We conducted a genomewide association study with 1.1 million genetic markers in 815 children. Results: We found serum uric acid to be significantly heritable [h2 ± SD = 0.45 ± 0.08, P = 5.8 × 10−11] and associated with SLC2A9 variants (P values between 10−16 and 10−7). Several of the significantly associated polymorphisms were previously identified in studies in adults. We also found positive genetic correlations between serum uric acid and BMI z score (ρG = 0.45, P = 0.002), percentage of body fat (ρG = 0.28, P = 0.04), fat mass (ρG = 0.34, P = 0.02), waist circumference (ρG = 0.42, P = 0.003), and waist-to-height ratio (ρG = 0.46, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Our results show that variation in serum uric acid in Hispanic children is under considerable genetic influence and is associated with obesity-related phenotypes. As in adults, genetic variation in SLC2A9 is associated with serum uric acid concentrations, an important biomarker of renal and cardiovascular disease risk, in Hispanic children. PMID:25833971
Voruganti, V Saroja; Laston, Sandra; Haack, Karin; Mehta, Nitesh R; Cole, Shelley A; Butte, Nancy F; Comuzzie, Anthony G
Elevated concentrations of serum uric acid are associated with increased risk of gout and renal and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic studies in adults have consistently identified associations of solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9), polymorphisms with variation in serum uric acid. However, it is not known whether the association of serum uric acid with SLC2A9 polymorphisms manifests in children. The aim was to investigate whether variation in serum uric acid is under genetic influence and whether the association with SLC2A9 polymorphisms generalizes to Hispanic children of the Viva La Familia Study. We conducted a genomewide association study with 1.1 million genetic markers in 815 children. We found serum uric acid to be significantly heritable [h(2) ± SD = 0.45 ± 0.08, P = 5.8 × 10(-11)] and associated with SLC2A9 variants (P values between 10(-16) and 10(-7)). Several of the significantly associated polymorphisms were previously identified in studies in adults. We also found positive genetic correlations between serum uric acid and BMI z score (ρG = 0.45, P = 0.002), percentage of body fat (ρG = 0.28, P = 0.04), fat mass (ρG = 0.34, P = 0.02), waist circumference (ρG = 0.42, P = 0.003), and waist-to-height ratio (ρG = 0.46, P = 0.001). Our results show that variation in serum uric acid in Hispanic children is under considerable genetic influence and is associated with obesity-related phenotypes. As in adults, genetic variation in SLC2A9 is associated with serum uric acid concentrations, an important biomarker of renal and cardiovascular disease risk, in Hispanic children. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Perozzi, J A
Three Spanish-speaking (SS) and 3 English-Speaking (ES) preschool children served as subjects. One SS subject was diagnosed as having mild language delay, 1 as being language disordered, and 1 as having normal language. One ES subject was diagnosed as having mild language delay and 2 as having normal language. A within-subject design wherein Condition A consisted of teaching receptive vocabulary in L1 (native language) followed by L2 (second language) and Condition B consisted of teaching receptive vocabulary in L2 followed by L1 was utilized. The sequence of conditions was ABBA for each subject. Analysis of each subject's trials to criterion for L2 in each condition indicated a strong tendency for recently learned receptive vocabulary in L1 to facilitate the learning of receptive vocabulary in L2. The results are interpreted as support for the practice of initial language intervention in L1 when bilingualism is a goal and for transference/facilitation theories of L2 learning.
Sherrick, Carl E., Ed.; And Others
Reviewed in seven author contributed chapters are findings of experimental psychology relevant to the education of handicapped children in the areas of sensory processes, visual perception, memory, cognition and language development, sustained attention and impulse control, and personality and social development. Noted in an introductory chapter…
McDonald, Michelle L; Huang, Andy; Proudfoot, James A; Le, Joan T; Chiang, George J; Bush, Ruth A
Evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), overweight status (OW), or obesity (OB) and ambulatory status in a predominantly Hispanic population of children with spinal dysraphism (SD). Retrospective data were extracted from records of 272 children and youth aged 0-24 years with a diagnosis of SD. Body mass index (BMI) and OW / OB rates were calculated for children 0-3 years, 4-11 years, and adolescents older than 11. Ethnicity was predominantly Hispanic (65.4%). No difference in mean BMI or OW / OB rate was found between ambulation groups (p = .20; p = .72). Mean BMI and OW / OB rate increased with increasing age in all groups (p < .001; p = .02). Forty-four percent of patients were OW / OB, which was greater among Hispanics (48.2%) compared with non-Hispanics [(35.2%), p = .03]. Female gender was a risk factor for increased BMI among Hispanics (p = .00). Despite no difference in ambulatory status, increasing BMI and OW / OB are associated with Hispanic ethnicity and increasing age.
Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W; Kim, Young-An
We used an expanded conceptualization of ethnic density at the neighborhood level, tailored to Hispanic majority communities in the USA, and a robust measure of children's acculturation at the individual level, to predict Hispanic children's respiratory health. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1904 children in 2012 in El Paso, TX, USA. One thousand one hundred and seven Hispanic children nested within 72 census tracts were analyzed. Multilevel logistic regression models with cross-level interactions were used to predict bronchitis, asthma and wheezing during sleep. A neighborhood-level ethnic density factor was a non-significant risk factor while individual-level acculturation was a significant risk factor for the three outcomes. Pest troubles and not having been breastfed as an infant intensified the positive association between ethnic density and bronchitis. Increases in ethnic density intensified the odds of wheezing in sleep if the child was not low birth weight or was not economically deprived. Results suggest that increasing individual-level acculturation is detrimental for US Hispanic children's respiratory health in this Hispanic majority setting, while high ethnic density neighborhoods are mildly risky and pose more significant threats when other individual-level factors are present. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Ko, Linda K; Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; Bishop, Sonia; Cisneros, Oralia; Holte, Sarah; Thompson, Beti
Hispanic children are disproportionally overweight and obese compared to their non-Hispanic white counterparts in the US. Community-wide, multi-level interventions have been successful to promote healthier nutrition, increased physical activity (PA), and weight loss. Using community-based participatory approach (CBPR) that engages community members in rural Hispanic communities is a promising way to promote behavior change, and ultimately weight loss among Hispanic children. Led by a community-academic partnership, the Together We STRIDE (Strategizing Together Relevant Interventions for Diet and Exercise) aims to test the effectiveness of a community-wide, multi-level intervention to promote healthier diets, increased PA, and weight loss among Hispanic children. The Together We STRIDE is a parallel quasi-experimental trial with a goal of recruiting 900 children aged 8-12 years nested within two communities (one intervention and one comparison). Children will be recruited from their respective elementary schools. Components of the 2-year multi-level intervention include comic books (individual-level), multi-generational nutrition and PA classes (family-level), teacher-led PA breaks and media literacy education (school-level), family nights, a farmer's market and a community PA event (known as ciclovia) at the community-level. Children from the comparison community will receive two newsletters. Height and weight measures will be collected from children in both communities at three time points (baseline, 6-months, and 18-months). The Together We STRIDE study aims to promote healthier diet and increased PA to produce healthy weight among Hispanic children. The use of CBPR approach and the engagement of the community will springboard strategies for intervention' sustainability. Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT02982759 Retrospectively registered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... 1 The following hypotheses have been presented regarding suicidal behavior among Hispanics: • Family needs are placed above individual ... the parents and elders is of major importance • Suicidal behavior among Hispanic femails may be related to the ...
Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Veen, S.; Ens-Dokkum, M.H.; Schreuder, A.M.; Brand, R.; Ruys, J.H.
Objective. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between sex and disabilities or handicaps at 5 years of age in infants born at less than 32 weeks gestation. Design. From the nationwide collaborative survey starting in 1983, including perinatal data obtained during routine
Pascual-Soler, Marcos; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Monterde-i-Bort, Hector; Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Berrios-Riquelme, José
This study examines the factorial invariance of the Scale on Beliefs About Children's Adjustment in Same-Sex Families (SBCASSF) across countries in three samples: Chilean, Spanish, and Hispanic university students. The scale analyzes attitudes toward the consequences of the rearing and education of children by parents with a homosexual sexual…
Stenger, Kristen M; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K; Perry, Christina; Albrecht, Julie A
Children are at a higher risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to explore food safety knowledge, beliefs and practices among Hispanic families with young children (≤10 years of age) living within a Midwestern state. A convergent mixed methods design collected qualitative and quantitative data in parallel. Food safety knowledge surveys were administered (n = 90) prior to exploration of beliefs and practices among six focus groups (n = 52) conducted by bilingual interpreters in community sites in five cities/towns. Descriptive statistics determined knowledge scores and thematic coding unveiled beliefs and practices. Data sets were merged to assess concordance. Participants were female (96%), 35.7 (±7.6) years of age, from Mexico (69%), with the majority having a low education level. Food safety knowledge was low (56% ± 11). Focus group themes were: Ethnic dishes popular, Relating food to illness, Fresh food in home country, Food safety practices, and Face to face learning. Mixed method analysis revealed high self confidence in preparing food safely with low safe food handling knowledge and the presence of some cultural beliefs. On-site Spanish classes and materials were preferred venues for food safety education. Bilingual food safety messaging targeting common ethnic foods and cultural beliefs and practices is indicated to lower the risk of foodborne illness in Hispanic families with young children. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Kim, Jun-Hyun; Lee, Chanam; Olvara, Norma E; Ellis, Christopher D
Childhood obesity and its comorbidities have become major public health challenges in the US. While previous studies have investigated the roles of land uses and transportation infrastructure on obesity, limited research has examined the influence of landscape spatial patterns. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between landscape spatial patterns and obesity in Hispanic children. Participants included 61 fourth- and fifth-grade Hispanic children from inner-city neighborhoods in Houston, TX. BMI z-scores were computed based on objectively-measured height and weight from each child. Parental and child surveys provided sociodemographic and physical activity data. Landscape indices were used to measure the quality of landscape spatial patterns surrounding each child's home by utilizing Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing analyses using aerial photo images. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, in the half-mile airline buffer, more tree patches and well-connected landscape patterns were negatively correlated with their BMI z-scores. Furthermore, larger sizes of urban forests and tree patches were negatively associated with children's BMI z-scores in the half-mile network buffer assessment. This study suggests that urban greenery requires further attention in studies aimed at identifying environmental features that reduce childhood obesity.
Gu, Xiangli; Keller, M Jean; Weiller-Abels, Karen H; Zhang, Tao
Motor competence (MC) has been recognized as the foundation for life-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as well as an influential factor in reducing sedentary behavior during childhood. Guided by Blair et al.'s health model, the purpose of this study was to examine the behavioral mechanism of mental health including physical, psychosocial, and cognitive health among Hispanic children related to MC and MVPA. A prospective research design was used with two-wave assessments across one academic year. A total of 141 Hispanic kindergarteners (Mean age = 5.37, SD = 0.48) were recruited in Texas. Nearly all (94.3%) of the participants were from low-income families based on the Income Eligibility Guidelines. The study was approved by the University Research Review Board, and informed consent was obtained from parents/guardians prior to starting the study. Multiple regressions indicated that manipulative skill was a significant predictor of physical and psychosocial health (β = 0.21, β = 0.26, p health (β = 0.22, p mental health outcomes through MVPA (95% CI [0.031, 0.119]) and sedentary behavior (95% CI [0.054, 0.235]), respectively. The results suggest that skill-based activities/games, with instructions, should be encouraged during school-based physical activity and health promotion programs in childhood education. Better understanding of the early effects of MC may contribute to designing strategies to promote Hispanic children's well-being.
Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Cook, Michael; Strassfeld, Natasha M.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Pun, Wik Hung; Wang, Yangyang; Schussler, Deborah L.
We conducted a best-evidence synthesis of 22 studies to examine whether systemic bias explained minority disproportionate overrepresentation in special education. Of the total regression model estimates, only 7/168 (4.2%), 14/208 (6.7%), 2/37 (5.4%), and 6/91 (6.6%) indicated statistically significant overrepresentation for Hispanic, Asian, Native…
Kim, Jun-Hyun; Lee, Chanam; Sohn, Wonmin
Although a substantial body of literature has provided evidence supporting the positive effects of natural environments on well-being, little has been known about the specific spatial patterns of urban nature in promoting health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among children. This study assessed the association that the urban natural environment measured by landscape spatial patterns may have with obesity and HRQOL among Hispanic children. Ninety-two 4th and 5th grade students were recruited from Houston, Texas, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) was used to capture the children's HRQOL. The quality of urban natural environments was assessed by quantifying the landscape spatial patterns, using landscape indices generated by Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing. From the bivariate analyses, children's body mass index showed a significantly negative association with their HRQOL. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, the results revealed that larger and more tree areas were positively correlated with children's HRQOL. In addition, those children living in areas with tree patches further apart from each other showed higher HRQOL. This research adds to the current multi-disciplinary area of research on environment-health relationships by investigating the roles of urban greeneries and linking their spatial structures with children's HRQOL.
Greenberg-Seth, Jennifer; Hemenway, David; Gallagher, Susan S; Lissy, Karen S; Ross, Julie B
This study examined child seating patterns in two predominantly low-income, Hispanic communities in Massachusetts. The purpose was to determine the factors associated with child rear seating in the community as a whole and for a subset of Hispanic motorists. Five hundred and five vehicles carrying child passengers and no adult other than the driver were observed in parking lots of fast food restaurants and grocery stores. Four hundred and thirty-two vehicle drivers agreed to be interviewed. A child was defined as a passenger younger than age 12 as determined by appearance and height (head below the vehicle headrest when seated). Variables under study included driver gender, age, ethnicity, and educational attainment; driver shoulder belt use; driver perception of passenger-side airbag presence; and the number and ages of children in the car. Overall, 51% of vehicles were observed with all children seated in the rear. In a bivariate analysis, child rear seating was strongly associated with female drivers ( P = 0.01), younger drivers ( P = 0.02) driver shoulder belt use ( P safety behavior (e.g. seat belt use). Messages should be culturally appropriate and should emphasize driver seat belt use in conjunction with rear seating and the importance of rear seating regardless of the presence of a passenger-side airbag.
Wilson, Theresa A; Adolph, Anne L; Butte, Nancy F
The role of diet quality and nutrient adequacy in the etiology of childhood obesity is poorly understood. The specific aims of these analyses were to assess overall diet quality and nutrient adequacy, and test for association between weight status and diet in children from low socioeconomic status (SES) Hispanic families at high risk for obesity. A cross-sectional study design was used to assess dietary intake in low-SES Hispanic children with and without overweight who were enrolled in the Viva la Familia Study. Multiple-pass 24-hour dietary recalls were recorded on two random, weekday occasions. Diet quality was evaluated according to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using z scores based on estimated average requirement or adequate intake. The study included 1,030 Hispanic children and adolescents, aged 4 to 19 years, in Houston, TX, who participated between November 2000 and August 2004. STATA software (version 9.1, 2006, STATA Corp, College Station, TX) was used for generalized estimating equations and random effects regression. Diet quality did not adhere to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans for fat, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, fiber, added sugar, and sodium. Although energy intake was significantly higher in children with overweight, food sources, diet quality, macro- and micronutrient composition were similar between non-overweight and overweight children. Relative to estimated average requirements or adequate intake levels, mean nutrient intakes were adequate (70% to 98% probability) in the children without and with overweight, except for vitamins D and E, pantothenic acid, calcium, and potassium, for which z scores cannot be interpreted given the uncertainty of their adequate intake levels. Whereas the diets of low-SES Hispanic children with and without overweight were adequate in most essential nutrients, other components of a healthful diet, which promote long-term health, were suboptimal. Knowledge of the
Wilson, Theresa A.; Adolph, Anne L.; Butte, Nancy F.
Objective The role of diet quality and nutrient adequacy in the etiology of childhood obesity is poorly understood. The specific aims of these analyses were to 1) assess overall diet quality and nutrient adequacy, and 2) test for association between weight status and diet in children from low socioeconomic status (SES) Hispanic families at high risk for obesity. Design A cross-sectional study design was used to assess dietary intake in low-SES non-overweight and overweight Hispanic children enrolled in the VIVA LA FAMILIA Study. Multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls were recorded on two random, weekday occasions. Diet quality was evaluated according to United States (US) Dietary Guidelines. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using z-scores based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Subjects/Setting The study included 1030 Hispanic children and adolescents, ages 4-19 y, in Houston, Texas who participated between November 2000 and August 2004. Statistical analysis STATA was used for generalized estimating equations and random effects regression. Results Diet quality did not adhere to US dietary guidelines for fat, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, fiber, added sugar and sodium. Although energy intake was significantly higher in overweight children, food sources, diet quality, macro- and micronutrient composition were similar between non-overweight and overweight children. Relative to EAR or AI, mean nutrient intakes were adequate (70-98% probability) in the non-overweight and overweight children, except for vitamins D and E, pantothenic acid, calcium and potassium for which z-scores cannot be interpreted given the uncertainty of their AI's. Conclusion While the diets of low-SES, non-overweight and overweight Hispanic children were adequate in most essential nutrients, other components of a healthy diet, which promote long-term health, were suboptimal. Knowledge of the diet of high risk Hispanic children will inform nutritional interventions and
Weinberg, Michelle; Hopkins, Jackie; Farrington, Leigh; Gresham, Louise; Ginsberg, Michele; Bell, Beth P
Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border historically have had among the highest hepatitis A rates in the United States, but risk factors have not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to examine risk factors associated with acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border in San Diego County, California. In this case-control study, hepatitis A cases among Hispanic children who were younger than 18 years reported from June 1998 through August 2000 were matched by age group and exposure period to Hispanic children who were susceptible to HAV infection. Participants and their families were interviewed about demographic information and potential sources of HAV infection, including attending child care, food and waterborne exposures, cross-border and other international travel, and travel-related activities. Participants included 132 children with hepatitis A and 354 control subjects. The median age of study participants was 7 years (range: 1-17). Sixty-seven percent of case-patients traveled outside the United States during the incubation period, compared with 25% of the children without hepatitis A (odds ratio [OR]: 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.0-9.7); all children, except 1, had traveled to Mexico. In multivariate analysis, hepatitis A was associated with having eaten food from a taco stand or street food vendor (adjusted OR: 17.0; 95% CI: 4.1-71.1) and having eaten salad/lettuce (adjusted OR: 5.2; 95% CI: 1.3-20.1) during travel. Hepatitis A among Hispanic children who live in an urban area of the United States-Mexico border is associated with cross-border travel to Mexico and food-borne exposures during travel. Travelers to areas where hepatitis A is endemic should receive hepatitis A vaccine before travel.
Weinstein, Allison; Lisman, Stephen A; Johnson, Matthew D
Children's expectations about the effects of alcohol consumption are known to predict the amount of alcohol they consume as adults. Previous research has used videotaped interventions to modify children's alcohol expectancies and found that puppet actors had the expected effect of decreasing children's positive alcohol expectancies, whereas adult actors did not. The current study sought to enhance the methods and outcomes of previous research by developing brief prevention videos that focus on pre-selected negative and sedating alcohol expectancies and include youth actors and age-relevant scenarios. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design (actor's age [youth or adult] × scenario relevance [youth or adult]), we examined the alcohol expectancies of 183 Hispanic third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students (50% girls) in a public school setting. Expectancies were assessed before, immediately following the intervention, and 1 month later. The intervention consisted of four 8-minute videos based on beliefs associated with expectancies related to low alcohol consumption and a control group video about school bus safety. Positive alcohol expectancies were significantly lower directly after the intervention than at baseline. At 1-month follow-up, this effect decreased but was still significant. The current study adds to existing findings that expectancies can be modified in children, using interventions that are extremely brief, low-cost, and linked to research in children's cognitive and social development. In addition, it appears that children of different ages and genders respond differently to varying components of prevention media.
Hamilton, Michelle; Liu, Ting
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a motor skill intervention on gross and fine motor skill performance of Hispanic pre-K children from low SES backgrounds. One hundred and forty-nine pre-K children were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 74) and control group (n = 75). All children were assessed on fine and gross…
Lind, Catherine; Mirchandani, Gita G.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Chavez, Noel; Handler, Arden; Hoelscher, Deanna M.
Background: Childhood obesity is a national epidemic that disproportionately affects Hispanic children. Evidence suggests that increased acculturation among this population adversely affects diet and other healthy lifestyle characteristics, leading to higher rates of overweight and obesity. Healthy lifestyle characteristics must be understood in…
McGee, Lola V.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of child-centered play therapy as an intervention when the client and the counselor do not speak the same language. The participants of the study were 34 Spanish-speaking children of Hispanic descent ranging in age from 4 to 8 who were referred to counseling for exhibiting…
O'Connor, Teresia M; Cerin, Ester; Hughes, Sheryl O; Robles, Jessica; Thompson, Deborah; Baranowski, Tom; Lee, Rebecca E; Nicklas, Theresa; Shewchuk, Richard M
Hispanic preschoolers are less active than their non-Hispanic peers. As part of a feasibility study to assess environmental and parenting influences on preschooler physical activity (PA) (Niños Activos), the aim of this study was to identify what parents do to encourage or discourage PA among Hispanic 3-5 year old children to inform the development of a new PA parenting practice instrument and future interventions to increase PA among Hispanic youth. Nominal Group Technique (NGT), a structured multi-step group procedure, was used to elicit and prioritize responses from 10 groups of Hispanic parents regarding what parents do to encourage (5 groups) or discourage (5 groups) preschool aged children to be active. Five groups consisted of parents with low education (less than high school) and 5 with high education (high school or greater) distributed between the two NGT questions. Ten NGT groups (n = 74, range 4-11/group) generated 20-46 and 42-69 responses/group for practices that encourage or discourage PA respectively. Eight to 18 responses/group were elected as the most likely to encourage or discourage PA. Parental engagement in child activities, modeling PA, and feeding the child well were identified as parenting practices that encourage child PA. Allowing TV and videogame use, psychological control, physical or emotional abuse, and lack of parental engagement emerged as parenting practices that discourage children from being active. There were few differences in the pattern of responses by education level. Parents identified ways they encourage and discourage 3-5 year-olds from PA, suggesting both are important targets for interventions. These will inform the development of a new PA parenting practice scale to be further evaluated. Further research should explore the role parents play in discouraging child PA, especially in using psychological control or submitting children to abuse, which were new findings in this study.
Full Text Available Factors which contribute the appearance of handicaps are numerous and complex. By their nature they are inherited or determined by factors of outer environment, mostly as a result of interaction of both. In the broad sense the genetic factors are located in 46 chromosomes in the human cell, before all in the female and male fertilized cell e.i. the genes located in the chromosomes which determine the function of the central nervous system. The chromosome aberrations e.i. the visible aberrations of the chromosome structure presents the cause for the appearance of handicaps mostly together with some syndrome. That’s the case with Dawn’s syndrome( mongolism where we can find trisomy of 21 chromosome.Relatively, the great number of examinees (176 which we discovered in a period of 10 years from all the places of R. Macedonia confirm the need for further investigations. The newborns with this syndrome are children with prenatal development finished in not adequate way. The presence of different physical appearance on the birth and later on, more or less, speaks about indefinite mixture of pathological factors in the growth of the child and the difference. The symptoms that are discovered in these children indicate that they are retarded in their psychological and physical development from the normal children, and the further growth and development are on a lower level. The psychological, pediatrics and psychiatric researches show that the level of intelligence of our examinees is low, where as the social adjustment is far more better.The examination of our examinees was made up of taking an anamnesis from the parents, mostly from the mother. Every examine was under taken an caryological test. Ten of them showed an translocative type of Down’s syndrome where one of the parents is the carrier of the heterological balanced translocation. The heterological balanced translocations can be discovered only through affected newborn child. Our researches
Thomas-Sunesson, Danielle; Hakuta, Kenji; Bialystok, Ellen
Past studies examining the cognitive function of bilingual school-aged children have pointed to enhancements in areas of executive control relative to age-matched monolingual children. The majority of these studies has tested children from a middle-class background and compared performance of bilinguals as a discrete group against monolinguals.…
Thomas, Stanley B., Jr.
In a speech delivered at the National Easter Seal Society's Annual Convention (1974), the author discusses progress toward full citizenship for the handicapped focusing on the roles of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW) and the Office for the Handicapped, Constitutional guarantees of equal rights for all citizens, and national…
DeGangi, Georgia; Larsen, Lawrence A.
A measurement device, Assessment of Sensorimotor Integration in Preschool Children, was developed to assess postural control, reflex integration and bilateral motor integration in developmentally delayed children (3 to 5 years old). The test was administered to 113 normal children and results were compared with data collected on 23 developmentally…
Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Hughes, Sheryl O
Parent feeding has been associated with child overweight/obesity in low-income families. Because acculturation to the United States has been associated with increased adult obesity, our study aim was to determine whether acculturation was associated with feeding in these populations. Low-income Hispanic mothers of preschoolers were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study examining child eating behaviors. At baseline, mothers completed questionnaires on feeding styles, feeding practices, and acculturation. Regression analyses compared feeding styles and food parenting practices of first-generation, immigrant mothers born outside the United States (n = 138) and mothers born in the United States (n = 31). The correlates of acculturation with these same constructs were also examined. Immigrant mothers reported using highly directive food parenting practices more often than mothers born in the United States, including pressuring their child to consume more food, using food as a reward, and controlling child food intake by limiting less-healthy foods. First-generation mothers were more likely to show authoritarian, and less likely to show indulgent, feeding styles. Greater maternal acculturation was associated with less restriction of food for weight reasons. Although first-generation, immigrant mothers reported using highly controlling food parenting practices with their children, those born in the United States were more indulgent with their children in the feeding context. Mechanisms that promote greater indulgence in more-acculturated mothers need to be identified.
Stang, Jamie; Bonilla, Zobeida
To determine preferred policies and programs to prevent obesity and diabetes as identified by parents and caregivers of 3- to 5-year-old Latino children. Constructs from the Social Ecological Model were used to develop 10 focus group and key informant interview questions. Community venues and schools in St Paul, MN. A total of 64 parents and caregivers and 20 key informants provided comments. Community-based participatory research methods were used to gather opinions regarding appropriate and preferred methods to prevent obesity and diabetes among Latino youth. Native Spanish-speaking investigators who were members of the community conducted 7 focus groups (60-90 minutes each) and 20 key informant interviews. Themes and subthemes of preferences based on participant comments. Transcript-based, long-table qualitative analysis. Five themes were identified: (1) cultural beliefs and practices are inconsistent with obesity prevention; (2) cost and convenience; (3) positive parenting practices; (4) we want to learn more about being healthy; and (5) gardens, parks, gyms, and school meals. At least 1 theme fell within each of the social ecological model domains. Our results suggest that parents of young Hispanic children prefer that obesity and diabetes prevention programs address multiple levels of influence. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yell, M L
Public Law 94-142 provides for a free appropriate public education for all handicapped children, but does not address the issue of disciplining handicapped students. The result has been confusion and uncertainty, particularly concerning expulsion and suspension. The courts have been forced into this vacuum, acting as arbiters. The Supreme Court's ruling in Honig v. Doe will help to delineate the proper role of educators in the suspension and expulsion of handicapped students. This article examines that role and offers recommendations for school policies regarding the discipline of handicapped students.
Associations of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance with biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction in Hispanic/Latino youths: Results from the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth (SOL Youth).
Parrinello, Christina M; Hua, Simin; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Gallo, Linda C; Hudson, Barry I; Goldberg, Ronald B; Delamater, Alan M; Kaplan, Robert C; Isasi, Carmen R
We hypothesized that Hispanic/Latino youth at high risk for diabetes would have elevated biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction. Among 1316 children 8-16years old from the Study of Latino Youth (SOL Youth), we used Poisson regression to obtain prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs for the cross-sectional association of quartiles of fasting glucose, HbA1c, and insulin resistance with E-selectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels above the median (≥48.1 and ≥2.02ng/mL, respectively). Levels of E-selectin and PAI-1 were higher in children who were obese or had higher levels of hs-CRP (p<0.05). Insulin resistance was independently associated with higher levels of PAI-1 (adjusted PR and 95% CI for the highest versus lowest quartile (Q4 vs Q1): 2.25 [1.64, 3.09]). We found stronger evidence of associations of insulin resistance with higher levels of PAI-1 among boys as compared with girls (p-interaction = 0.10). Insulin resistance was associated with endothelial dysfunction, as measured by higher levels of PAI-1, in Hispanic/Latino youth. These biomarkers may be useful in risk stratification and prediction of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in high-risk youth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hannah, Mary Elizabeth; Midlarsky, Elizabeth
Siblings of handicapped children may have adjustment problems associated with increased family responsibilities, increased parental expectations, and perceived parental neglect in favor of the disabled sibling. Problems may be related to socioeconomic status; family size; age, sex, and birth order of the sibling; and severity of the handicap. (GDC)
Lee, Juhun; Ku, Brian; Combs, Patrick D.; Da Silveira, Adriana. C.; Markey, Mia K.
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL ± P) is one of the most common congenital facial deformities worldwide. To minimize negative social consequences of CL ± P, reconstructive surgery is conducted to modify the face to a more normal appearance. Each race/ethnic group requires its own facial norm data, yet there are no existing facial norm data for Hispanic/Latino White children. The objective of this paper is to identify measures of facial appearance relevant for planning reconstructive surgery for CL ± P of Hispanic/Latino White children. Quantitative analysis was conducted on 3D facial images of 82 (41 girls, 41 boys) healthy Hispanic/Latino White children whose ages ranged from 7 to 12 years. Twenty-eight facial anthropometric features related to CL ± P (mainly in the nasal and mouth area) were measured from 3D facial images. In addition, facial aesthetic ratings were obtained from 16 non-clinical observers for the same 3D facial images using a 7-point Likert scale. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to find features that were correlated with the panel ratings of observers. Boys with a longer face and nose, or thicker upper and lower lips are considered more attractive than others while girls with a less curved middle face contour are considered more attractive than others. Associated facial landmarks for these features are primary focus areas for reconstructive surgery for CL ± P. This study identified anthropometric measures of facial features of Hispanic/Latino White children that are pertinent to CL ± P and which correlate with the panel attractiveness ratings.
San Miguel Montes, Liza E; Allen, Daniel N; Puente, Antonio E; Neblina, Cris
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is the most commonly used intelligence test for children. Five years ago, a Spanish version of the WISC-IV was published (WISC-IV Spanish; Wechsler, 2005), but a limited amount of published information is available regarding its utility when assessing clinical samples. The current study included 107 children who were Spanish speaking and of Puerto Rican descent that had been administered the WISC-IV Spanish. They were subdivided into a clinical sample of 35 children with diagnoses of various forms of brain dysfunction (primarily learning disability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy) and a comparison group made up of 72 normal children who were part of the WISC-IV Spanish version standardization sample. Comparisons between these groups and the standardization sample were performed for the WISC-IV Spanish index and subtest scores. Results indicated that the clinical sample performed worse than the comparison samples on the Working Memory and Processing Speed Indexes, although findings varied to some extent depending on whether the clinical group was compared with the normal comparison group or the standardization sample. These findings provide support for the criterion validity of the WISC-IV Spanish when it is used to assess a clinically referred sample with brain dysfunction.
Alon, Sigal; Domina, Thurston; Tienda, Marta
We assess the intergenerational educational mobility of recent cohorts of high school graduates to consider whether Hispanics' lagging postsecondary attainment reflects a temporary lull due to immigration of low education parents or a more enduring pattern of unequal transmission of social status relative to whites. Using data from three national longitudinal studies, a recent longitudinal study of Texas high school seniors and a sample of students attending elite institutions, we track post-secondary enrollment and degree attainment patterns at institutions of differing selectivity. We find that group differences in parental education and nativity only partly explain the Hispanic-white gap in college enrollment, and not evenly over time. Both foreign- and native-born college-educated Hispanic parents are handicapped in their ability to transmit their educational advantages to their children compared with white parents. We conclude that both changing population composition and unequal ability to confer status advantages to offspring are responsible for the growing Hispanic-white degree attainment gap.
Kimble, Charles; Kimble, Emily A.; Croy, Nan A.
Determines when U.S. children begin to self-handicap, that is, to reduce preparation effort before evaluations. Finds that the high-self-esteem third graders acted adaptively by practicing more for the evaluation task, while the high-self-esteem sixth graders prepared more only if they had been reminded of their personal resources beforehand. (CMK)
Parrinello, Christina M; Rudolph, Bryan J; Lazo, Mariana; Gallo, Linda C; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Cotler, Scott J; Qi, Qibin; Seeherunvong, Tossaporn; Vidot, Denise C; Strickler, Howard D; Kaplan, Robert C; Isasi, Carmen R
Associations of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia with a panel of liver enzymes have not been well studied in a young, heterogenous Hispanic/Latino population. We aimed to assess the associations of insulin resistance and glycemia with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as measured by liver enzymes and the pediatric NAFLD fibrosis index (PNFI), and whether these associations are modified by body mass index and mediated by inflammation or endothelial dysfunction. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1317 boys and girls aged 8 to 16 years from the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth. We used Poisson regression to assess the associations of fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (>25 U/L in boys, >22 U/L in girls), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (≥37 U/L), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) (≥17 U/L), and PNFI (≥9; a function of age, waist circumference, and triglyceride level). HOMA-IR was associated with elevated ALT, AST, GGT, and PNFI [prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) for each 1-unit increase in the natural log of HOMA-IR: 1.99 (1.40-2.81), 2.15 (1.12-4.12), 1.70 (1.26-2.30), and 1.98 (1.43-2.74), respectively]. Associations were observed in overweight/obese children, but not in normal weight children (P-interaction=0.04 for AST and P-interaction=0.07 for GGT). After further adjustment for adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, e-selectin, and PAI-1, associations of HOMA-IR with liver enzymes and PNFI were attenuated, but remained statistically significant for AST and PNFI. Insulin resistance was associated with NAFLD in overweight/obese Hispanic/Latino youth, and this association may be partially mediated by inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.
Oelsner, Kathryn Tully; Guo, Yan; To, Sophie Bao-Chieu; Non, Amy L; Barkin, Shari L
The study of epigenetic processes and mechanisms present a dynamic approach to assess complex individual variation in obesity susceptibility. However, few studies have examined epigenetic patterns in preschool-age children at-risk for obesity despite the relevance of this developmental stage to trajectories of weight gain. We hypothesized that salivary DNA methylation patterns of key obesogenic genes in Hispanic children would 1) correlate with maternal BMI and 2) allow for identification of pathways associated with children at-risk for obesity. Genome-wide DNA methylation was conducted on 92 saliva samples collected from Hispanic preschool children using the Infinium Illumina HumanMethylation 450 K BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA), which interrogates >484,000 CpG sites associated with ~24,000 genes. The analysis was limited to 936 genes that have been associated with obesity in a prior GWAS Study. Child DNA methylation at 17 CpG sites was found to be significantly associated with maternal BMI, with increased methylation at 12 CpG sites and decreased methylation at 5 CpG sites. Pathway analysis revealed methylation at these sites related to homocysteine and methionine degradation as well as cysteine biosynthesis and circadian rhythm. Furthermore, eight of the 17 CpG sites reside in genes (FSTL1, SORCS2, NRF1, DLC1, PPARGC1B, CHN2, NXPH1) that have prior known associations with obesity, diabetes, and the insulin pathway. Our study confirms that saliva is a practical human tissue to obtain in community settings and in pediatric populations. These salivary findings indicate potential epigenetic differences in Hispanic preschool children at risk for pediatric obesity. Identifying early biomarkers and understanding pathways that are epigenetically regulated during this critical stage of child development may present an opportunity for prevention or early intervention for addressing childhood obesity. The clinical trial protocol is available at Clinical
McGarry, Meghan E; Castellanos, Elizabeth; Thakur, Neeta; Oh, Sam S; Eng, Celeste; Davis, Adam; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael A; Avila, Pedro C; Farber, Harold J; Serebrisky, Denise; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Kumar, Rajesh; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Thyne, Shannon M; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Borrell, Luisa N; Burchard, Esteban G
Obesity is associated with poor asthma control, increased asthma morbidity, and decreased response to inhaled corticosteroids. We hypothesized that obesity would be associated with decreased bronchodilator responsiveness in children and adolescents with asthma. In addition, we hypothesized that subjects who were obese and unresponsive to bronchodilator would have worse asthma control and would require more asthma controller medications. In the Study of African Americans, Asthma, Genes, and Environments (SAGE II) and the Genes-environments and Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) study, two identical, parallel, case-control studies of asthma, we examined the association between obesity and bronchodilator response in 2,963 black and Latino subjects enrolled from 2008 to 2013 using multivariable logistic regression. Using bronchodilator responsiveness, we compared asthma symptoms, controller medication usage, and asthma exacerbations between nonobese (< 95th% BMI) and obese (≥ 95th% BMI) subjects. The odds of being bronchodilator unresponsive were 24% (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.03-1.49) higher among obese children and adolescents compared with their not obese counterparts after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, sex, recruitment site, baseline lung function (FEV1/FVC), and controller medication. Bronchodilator-unresponsive obese subjects were more likely to report wheezing (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.13-1.70), being awakened at night (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.09-1.65), using leukotriene receptor inhibitors (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.05-1.70), and using inhaled corticosteroid with long-acting β2-agonist (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.05-1.78) than were their nonobese counterpart. These associations were not seen in the bronchodilator-responsive group. Obesity is associated with bronchodilator unresponsiveness among black and Latino children and adolescents with asthma. The findings on obesity and bronchodilator unresponsiveness represent a unique opportunity to identify factors affecting asthma
Davis, Sally M; Myers, Orrin B; Cruz, Theresa H; Morshed, Alexandra B; Canaca, Glenda F; Keane, Patricia C; O'Donald, Elena R
We examined the outcomes of the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study, a group randomized controlled trial to design, implement, and test the efficacy of a trans-community intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in Head Start centers in rural American Indian and Hispanic communities in New Mexico. CHILE was a 5-year evidence-based intervention that used a socioecological approach to improving dietary intake and increasing physical activity of 1898 children. The intervention included a classroom curriculum, teacher and food service training, family engagement, grocery store participation, and healthcare provider support. Height and weight measurements were obtained four times (fall of 2008, spring and fall of 2009, and spring of 2010), and body mass index (BMI) z-scores in the intervention and comparison groups were compared. At baseline, demographic characteristics in the comparison and intervention groups were similar, and 33% of all the children assessed were obese or overweight. At the end of the intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups in BMI z-scores. Obesity prevention research among Hispanic and AI preschool children in rural communities is challenging and complex. Although the CHILE intervention was implemented successfully, changes in overweight and obesity may take longer than 2years to achieve. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Do You Know a Child with a Handicap? Children with Handicaps Have a Right to an Education [and] Do You Know Someone with a Handicap? Individuals with Handicaps Have a Right to an Education = Conoce Usted a un Nino que Tiene Alguna Desventaja? Los Ninos con Desventajas Tienen Derecho a Recibir Educacion [and] Conoce Usted Alguna Persona que Tenga Alguna Desventaja? Las Personas que Tienen Desventajas Tienen Derecho a Recibir Educacion.
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Div. of Special Education.
Two advertisements and two brochures for the California Search and Serve program are presented in this excerpt from the California Search and Serve "Search Guidelines and Resource Manual." The materials are designed to promote community involvement in the identification of handicapped persons, from birth through age 21, so that they may…
Darling, Natalie J; Barker, Lawrence E; Shefer, Abigail M; Chu, Susan Y
The Hispanic population is increasing and heterogeneous (Hispanic refers to persons of Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino descent). The objective was to examine immunization rates among Hispanic ancestry for the 4:3:1:3:3 series (> or = 4 doses diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine; > or = 3 doses poliovirus vaccine; > or = 1 doses measles-containing vaccine; > or = 3 doses Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; and > or = 3 doses hepatitis B vaccine). The National Immunization Survey measures immunization coverage among 19- to 35-month-old U.S. children. Coverage was compared from combined 2001-2003 data among Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites using t-tests, and among Hispanic ancestry using a chi-square test. Hispanics were categorized as Mexican, Mexican American, Central American, South American, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Spanish Caribbean (primarily Dominican Republic), other, and multiple ancestry. Children of Hispanic ancestry increased from 21% in 1999 to 25% in 2003. These Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites (77.0%, +/-2.1% [95% confidence interval] compared to 82.5%, +/-1.1% (95% CI) > in 2003). Immunization coverage did not vary significantly among Hispanics of varying ancestries (p=0.26); however, there was substantial geographic variability. In some areas, immunization coverage among Hispanics was significantly higher than non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites; however, coverage varied notably by geographic area. Although a chi-square test found no significant differences in coverage among Hispanic ancestries, the range of coverage, 79.2%, +/-5.1% for Cuban Americans to 72.1%, +/-2.4% for Mexican descent, may suggest a need for improved and more localized monitoring among Hispanic communities.
Cd-rommen er et visuelt projekteringsværktøj for byggeriets parter. Den viser nogle af de problemer mennesker med handicap har ved at færdes i de fysiske omgivelser, men peger også mulige løsninger for at gøre omgivelserne tilgængelige for alle....
... Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women It is a common misconception that osteoporosis only ... seizures. Are There Any Special Issues for Hispanic Women Regarding Bone Health? Several studies indicate a number ...
... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Asthma Asthma and Hispanic Americans In 2015, 2.2 million Hispanics reported that they currently have asthma. Puerto Rican Americans have almost twice the asthma ...
Büyükbayraktar, Çagla Girgin; Er, Rukiye Konuk; Kesici, Sahin
The purpose of this research is to determine what students and families should do in order to prevent sexual abuse in students who need special education, depending on the opinions of teachers of mentally handicapped students. The qualitative research technique was used in this research. The study population of the research consisted of the…
Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Cotter, Susan A; Borchert, Mark; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Lin, Jesse; Wen, Ge; Kim, Jeniffer; Varma, Rohit
To determine the prevalence and causes of decreased visual acuity (VA). Population-based cross-sectional study. Multi-ethnic sample of children 30 to 72 months of age identified in Los Angeles. All eligible children underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation including monocular VA testing, cover testing, cycloplegic autorefraction, fundus evaluation, and VA retesting with refractive correction. Decreased VA was defined as presenting or best-measured VA worse than 20/50 in children 30 to 47 months of age and worse than 20/40 for children 48 months of age and older. The prevalence and causes of decreased VA were determined, for both presenting and best-measured VA, in the better-seeing and the worse-seeing eyes. Prevalence and causes of decreased vision. Presenting VA was assessed in 1840 children and best-measured VA was assessed in 1886 children. Presenting VA was decreased in the worse eye of 4.2% of Asian children and of 3.6% of non-Hispanic white (NHW) children. Close to one-fourth of these cases had no identifiable cause, and 81% of these resolved on retesting. Decreased presenting VA in the worse eye with an identifiable ophthalmic cause was present in 3.4% of Asian children and in 2.6% of NHW children. Decreased presenting VA attributable to simple refractive error (myopia ≥ 0.5 diopters [D]; hyperopia ≥ 3.0 D; astigmatism ≥ 2.0 D or ≥ 1.5 D for children older than 36 months) was present in the worse eye of 2.3% of Asian children and of 1.4% of NHW children and in the better eye of 0.5% of Asian children and of 0.3% of NHW children. Decreased best-measured VA attributable to a cause was present in the worse eye of 1.2% of both Asian children and NHW children and in the better eye of 0.2% of Asian and of 0.3% of NHW children. Amblyopia related to refractive error was the most common cause, and was 10 times as common as ocular disease. Severe visual impairment was rare. Seventy percent of all decreased VA in Asian and NHW preschool children and
Jain, Ram B
Starting with the 2007-2008 cycle, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) also oversampled Hispanics other than Mexicans (OHISP) making it possible to treat OHISP as a separate demographic group along with Mexican Americans (MAs), non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), and non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs). Yet, more often than not, OHISP have been merged with MA to form an all-Hispanic demographic group (HISP) thus limiting comparisons between NHW, NHB, and HISP. Consequently, for the first time, this study was undertaken to evaluate differences in the observed levels of selected environmental contaminants between MA and OHISP from five groups of environmental contaminants, namely, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), iodine uptake inhibitors (IUIs), environmental phenols (EPHs), priority pesticides (PPs), and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Data for 2007-2010 from NHANES were used to conduct this study. OHISP children born in USA had higher levels of selected PAH metabolites than USA-born MA, and Mexican-born MA adolescents had higher levels of selected PAH metabolites than USA-born MA adolescents. USA-born adolescent MA had higher levels of selected parabens than USA-born adolescent OHISP, and OHISP adults born in another Spanish-speaking country had higher levels of selected parabens than USA-born OHISP adults. USA-born MA adults and seniors had higher levels of selected dichlorophenols than Mexico-born MA adults and seniors, respectively. Females had higher levels of selected PAH metabolites, EPHs, and PPs than males among children, adolescents, adults, and seniors, but the reverse was true for the levels of selected IUIs and PFAAs among adolescents and seniors. Smokers had higher levels of almost all PAH metabolites than non-smokers for adolescents, adults, and seniors. The same was true for urinary thiocynate for adolescents, adults, and seniors. OHISP is a multiracial multiethnic demographic group substantially different from MA with possibly
Darabi, Katherine F.; And Others
Discusses fertility of Hispanic adolescents in the United States. Summarizes what is known about sexuality, contraception, pregnancy, and childbearing among male and female Hispanics of various countries of origin. Indicates Hispanic adolescent birthrates fall between those of non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, but there is considerable within-group…
Self-handicapping is a process containing strategies of externalization in which an individual can excuse failure and internalize success. This study investigated the relationship of self-handicapping with measures of burnout. The Self-handicapping Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory were administered to 309 university students. Self-handicapping was positively correlated to emotional exhaustion, lowered personal accomplishment, and depersonalization. A structural equation model fit the data well and accounted for 20% of the variance in emotional exhaustion, 14% in lowered personal accomplishment, and 10% in depersonalization.
Zuckerman, Miron; Tsai, Fen-Fang
Four studies examined the relation of trait self-handicapping with health-related measures. Study 1 showed that, over time, self-handicapping and maladjustment reinforce each other. Study 2 showed that self-handicappers reported a loss in competence satisfaction which, in turn, mediated the relation of self-handicapping with negative mood. Study 3 found that, over time, self-handicappers report an increase in substance use. Study 4 showed that self-handicappers reported a loss in intrinsic motivation for their jobs. It was suggested that people with unstable (or contingent) self-esteem use self-handicapping to bolster a fragile self-concept.
Cunningham, Pat; Gose, Joan
The paper examines the uses of telecommunication for physically handicapped students. Basic equipment, including a modem and keyboard interface, are described. The types and uses of computer bulletin boards are also described. Among benefits of telecommunications for physically handicapped students noted in the paper are social prestige,…
Silver, Rawley A.
Presented at the 1979 National Art Education Association Convention on the arts in special education, the paper focuses on studies of the aesthetic and therapeutic use of special art procedures with handicapped students. The art education needs of handicapped students are briefly discussed, along with the impact and implications of new…
Glass, Dorothea D.; Padrone, Frank J.
Major topics discussed include introduction and background of the growing recognition of sexual feelings and concerns of the handicapped, attitudes and assumptions resulting from lack of information for both the handicapped and the various disciplines that serve them, medical and psychological aspects of sexual response, and services for the…
Ferguson, Janet M.; Dorman, Jeffrey
Asserts that self-handicapping students protect their self-images by deliberately not trying to achieve for fear of trying hard, failing anyway, and appearing "dumb." Surveys of high school students examined three areas of students' perceptions (self-handicapping, academic self-efficacy, and classroom environment). The correlation…
Michael G. Bisciglia
As the overall population of Hispanics within the United States has eclipsed that of African Americans, a mounting concern has developed regarding the rise in Hispanic lethal violence as a result of social and economic inequality. One means to measure this inequality is in the form of segregation. Research indicates that in many Hispanic communities, their levels of segregation from the White non-Hispanic population ar...
... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 percent are overweight ... inhqrdr/data/query At a Glace – Risk Factors: Obesity is a risk ... Americans Heart Disease – See Heart Disease and Hispanic Americans ...
Full Text Available Researchers and practitioners often use standardized vocabulary tests such as the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4 (PPVT-4; Dunn and Dunn, 2007 and its companion, the Expressive Vocabulary Test-2 (EVT-2; Williams, 2007, to assess English vocabulary skills as an indicator of children's school readiness. Despite their psychometric excellence in the norm sample, issues arise when standardized vocabulary tests are used to asses children from culturally, linguistically and ethnically diverse backgrounds (e.g., Spanish-speaking English language learners or delayed in some manner. One of the biggest challenges is establishing the appropriateness of these measures with non-English or non-standard English speaking children as often they score one to two standard deviations below expected levels (e.g., Lonigan et al., 2013. This study re-examines the issues in analyzing the PPVT-4 and EVT-2 scores in a sample of 4-to-5-year-old low SES Hispanic preschool children who were part of a larger randomized clinical trial on the effects of a supplemental English shared-reading vocabulary curriculum (Pollard-Durodola et al., 2016. It was found that data exhibited strong floor effects and the presence of floor effects made it difficult to differentiate the invention group and the control group on their vocabulary growth in the intervention. A simulation study is then presented under the multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM framework and results revealed that in regular multilevel data analysis, ignoring floor effects in the outcome variables led to biased results in parameter estimates, standard error estimates, and significance tests. Our findings suggest caution in analyzing and interpreting scores of ethnically and culturally diverse children on standardized vocabulary tests (e.g., floor effects. It is recommended appropriate analytical methods that take into account floor effects in outcome variables should be considered.
Briegel, Wolfgang; Schneider, Marco; Schwab, K Otfried
To investigate handicap-related problems of children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and their primary caregivers' coping strategies. Primary caregivers of 153 subjects aged 2-16 years were anonymously asked to fill out questionnaires, e.g., the Handicap Related Problems for Parents Inventory. Primary caregivers of 96 subjects (53 males, 43 females; mean age: 7;0 [2;1-16;11] years) sent back questionnaires. Patient's behaviour and discipline were the most important handicap-related problems. Significant correlations could be found between the patient's age and his/her relationship with the primary caregiver (rho=0.228; p=.029) and other family members (rho=0.293; p=.004). Compared to other parents of physically handicapped children or those with multiple handicaps, these parents did not experience increased stress. The more the coping strategies "self-fulfillment" and "intensification of partnership" were used, the lower parental stress was (p=.012, p=.025, respectively). "Focusing on the handicapped child" was positively correlated with high parental stress (p=.000). With regard to parental stress and coping strategies, primary caregivers of children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion do not significantly differ from other parents of physically handicapped children. As handicap-related family problems increase with the patient's age, a growing need for counseling, especially for aspects of parenting and discipline, and for treatment can be presumed.
Barton, Amy J; Gilbert, Lynn; Baramee, Julaluk; Granger, Theresa
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women among all racial and ethnic groups. Identifying risk factors early in life can facilitate use of preventive strategies to reduce risk and improve health status across the life span. The aim of this study was to identify modifiable (tobacco smoke exposure, physical inactivity, dietary fat intake, overweight, and high blood pressure [BP]) and nonmodifiable (family history, gender, and age) cardiovascular risk factors in low-income preschool children. Low-income preschool children (N = 205) 3-5 years old were recruited to participate. Parents completed a multigenerational cardiovascular health history form and a 24-hour dietary recall for themselves and their child. The children's height, weight, and BP were obtained. Of the 205 children, 61% reported ethnicity as Latino or Hispanic, 31.7% non-Hispanic White, 1% non-Hispanic Black, 3.9% Asian, and 2.4% mixed race. The number of males (50.7%) and females (49.3%) was similar. Only 22 (10.7%) children had no identified cardiovascular risk factors. At least one modifiable risk factor was present in 179 (87.3%) children. Fifty-two (25.5%) children had a body mass index (BMI) > or = 85th percentile for gender and age; 44 (22.3%) had a systolic or diastolic BP over the 90th percentile for gender, age, and height; 128 (66.3%) had a dietary fat intake of > 30%; 77 (37.6%) watched TV or played video games more than 2 hr/day; and 48 (23.4%) were exposed to passive tobacco smoke. The identification of cardiovascular risk factors in almost 90% of presumably healthy preschoolers provides evidence to support testing of interventions that can improve health behaviors and reduce risks.
Voruganti, V Saroja; Göring, Harald H H; Diego, Vincent P; Cai, Guowen; Mehta, Nitesh R; Haack, Karin; Cole, Shelley A; Butte, Nancy F; Comuzzie, Anthony G
This study was conducted to investigate genetic influence on serum ghrelin and its relationship with adiposity-related phenotypes in Hispanic children (n=1030) from the Viva La Familia study (VFS). Anthropometric measurements and levels of serum ghrelin were estimated and genetic analyses conducted according to standard procedures. Mean age, body mass index (BMI), and serum ghrelin were 11+/-0.13 y, 25+/-0.24 kg/m2 and 38+/-0.5 ng/mL, respectively. Significant heritabilities (p<0.001) were obtained for BMI, weight, fat mass, percent fat, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and ghrelin. Bivariate analyses of ghrelin with adiposity traits showed significant negative genetic correlations (p<0.0001) with weight, BMI, fat mass, percent fat, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio. A genome-wide scan for ghrelin detected significant linkage on chromosome 1p36.2 between STR markers D1S2697 and D1S199 (LOD=3.2). The same region on chromosome 1 was the site of linkage for insulin (LOD=3.3), insulinlike growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) (LOD=3.4), homeostatic model assessment method (HOMA) (LOD=2.9), and C-peptide (LOD=2.0). Several family-based studies have reported linkages for obesity-related phenotypes in the region of 1p36. These results indicate the importance of this region in relation to adiposity in children from the VFS.
Haskins, James S.; Stifle, J. M.
Issues involved in education of handicapped Navajo children are examined. Background sections contrast the history of treatment for the handicapped in America with the treatment received by handicapped Navajos. Unemployment, substandard housing, lack of accessibility within the reservation, overpopulation, language barriers, and the relationship…
Roten, Shelby Jean
Reviewed are present and potential services and social programs for handicapped children in Mississippi through purchase of service contracts under Title XX of the Social Security Act. Sections cover the following topics: background and purpose of Title XX which gives states greater control over social service programs, planning state supported…
Perla, M E; Rue, Tessa; Cheadle, Allen; Krieger, James; Karr, Catherine J; Karr, C K
Differences in cultural and economic status may place ethnic subgroups of children at higher risk for exposure, leading to heightened health risks, and health inequities. Although Latino-Americans represent 22% of all children in the United States, few studies have explored within-group differences in their exposure to toxicants. Using socio-demographic and biomarker data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2008, we characterized determinants of health and estimated geometric means of environmental contaminant biomarkers (blood concentrations of lead and mercury, serum concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE] and cotinine, and urinary metabolites of organophosphate [OP] pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]) among 4,257 Mexican American (MA), 677 Other Latino-American (OL), and 3,370 Non-Hispanic White (NHW) children. MAs had the lowest levels of health insurance coverage and regular access to health care, and largest household size compared to NHWs and OLs. MAs had higher levels of p,p'-DDE, lead, and cadmium while OLs had higher estimates of mercury relative to other groups. MAs had higher urinary metabolite concentrations of 2-hydroxynaphthalene; otherwise MAs and OLs had lower concentrations of PAHs. NHWs had higher levels of cotinine and dimethylthiophosphate. For other OP metabolites, differences among groups were less clear. Lead and p,p'-DDE exposure differences likely reflect later and less regulatory control of these chemicals in Latin America. Additionally, poor quality housing with lead paint is more common in economically disadvantaged subpopulations. Dietary habits are possible sources of differential cadmium, mercury, and organophosphate exposure. Cotinine exposure differences by income and U.S.- vs. foreign-born may represent increased acculturation. These results, coupled with additional research on exposure sources may contribute to refinement of environmental health
Cross-Sectional Relationships Between Household Food Insecurity and Child BMI, Feeding Behaviors, and Public Assistance Utilization Among Head Start Children From Predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Communities in the CHILE Study
Trappmann, Jessica L.; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Keane, Patricia C.; Cohen, Deborah A.; Davis, Sally M.
Associations between food insecurity and overweight/obesity, feeding behaviors, and public food assistance utilization have been explored to a greater extent among adults and adolescents than among young children. This cross-sectional study examines a subset of pre-intervention implementation data (n = 347) among families participating in the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study conducted in rural New Mexico among predominantly Hispanic and American Indian He...
Barr, R Graham; Avilés-Santa, Larissa; Davis, Sonia M; Aldrich, Tom K; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Henderson, Ashley G; Kaplan, Robert C; LaVange, Lisa; Liu, Kiang; Loredo, Jose S; Mendes, Eliana S; Ni, Ai; Ries, Andrew; Salathe, Matthias; Smith, Lewis J
Asthma has been reported to be more prevalent among Hispanics of Puerto Rican heritage than among other Hispanics and among Hispanics born in the United States or who immigrated as children than among those who came as adults; however, direct comparisons across Hispanic groups are lacking. To test whether asthma is more prevalent among Hispanics of Puerto Rican heritage than among other Hispanic groups, whether asthma is associated with age of immigration, and whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease varies by heritage in a large, population-based cohort of Hispanics in the United States. The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos researchers recruited a population-based probability sample of 16,415 Hispanics/Latinos, 18-74 years of age, in New York City, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. Participants self-reported Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Central American, or South American heritage; birthplace; and, if relevant, age at immigration. A respiratory questionnaire and standardized spirometry were performed with post-bronchodilator measures for those with airflow limitation. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma among Puerto Ricans (36.5%; 95% confidence interval, 33.6-39.5%) was higher than among other Hispanics (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 3.3-4.6). Hispanics who were born in the mainland United States or had immigrated as children had a higher asthma prevalence than those who had immigrated as adults (19.6, 19.4, and 14.1%, respectively; P immigration. Asthma was more prevalent among Puerto Ricans, other Hispanics born in the United States, and those who had immigrated as children than among other Hispanics. In contrast, the higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among Puerto Ricans and Cubans was largely reflective of differential smoking patterns and asthma.
Arenas Berumen, Ever; Gómez Miranda, Luis Mario; Torres Balcázar, Elías; Padilla Alvarado, Victor Hugo; Renteria, Ivan
Overweight and obesity in children in the Mexico-USA border have evolved differently to the rest of their respective countries. New reference values of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose are required to treatment. To determine the reference values of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years in the Mexico-USA border. A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study. A population of Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years of both boys and girls, belonging to three public institutions in the cities of Ensenada and Chihuahua, randomly selected, were studied. The study variables were the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and glucose (G). From 300 subjects studied just 54 children completed the study. Higher average values of TC (168.7 ± 27.2 mg / dl), TG (80.6 ± 48.4 mg / dl) and G (88.3 ± 8.9 mg / dl) were observed. An additional behavior was founded, never reported previously to the limit of the knowledge of the authors; glucose levels of the children studied decreased with increased of cholesterol and triglycerides. To discard a random relationship between the variables, the Pearson correlation coefficient was determined between waist circumference and BMI, verifying an inverse association with G and direct with the TG. The reference values for Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years living on the northern border of Mexico-USA differ with respect to the national average values of the countries studied. Further studies are needed in larger populations to confirm the trend ob served in glucose levels of normal children, overweight and obese. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Brooks, Tony; Hasselblad, Stefan
CARE HERE (Creating Aesthetically Resonant Environments for the Handicapped, Elderly and Rehabilitation) was realised as a full European IST (Information Society Technologies) project, involving adults and children with learning disability, PMLD (Profound and Multiple Learning Disability...
[The necessity and possibility of developing skills in daily living activities in children attending a special kindergarten for the physically handicapped--demonstrated by means of a five-year-old boy suffering from spastic hemiparesis (author's transl)].
Within the framework of an empirical study carried out in a special kindergarten it was attempted to answer the question whether it is necessary and possible in such an institution to develop the children's skills in daily living activities. A six month systematic programme was set up for a five-year-old boy suffering from spastic hemiparesis which was designed to develop his skills in personal hygiene, and general behaviour in the kitchen area. In preparing the programme each of the two fields was first treated separately in detail, then the common factors taken into account. The programm's subdivision into an ultimate goal and two partial goals assisted the implementation of the eighteen training steps. A comparision of the knowledge of, and skills in, the two fields before and after the training showed that they had increased both in quantity and quality. As the boy still showed a headway over his peers - comparable in their disabilities - three years after completion of the programme as far as independence was concerned, it can be said that special training in daily living activities can and must be carried out in a special kindergarten for physically handicapped children provided the training is based on a specialized and fully structured programme.
A successful childhood is to be striven after particularly for a handicapped child. Habilitation and rehabilitation, only carefully adapted to one another referring to medical specialties in colaboration with the family, may rise to the demand of the individuality of every one handicapped child. On prior conditions children with chiefly physical handicaps may be integrated into the polytechnical secondary school providing general education in the home town. The total-body examination of these children remains to be the basis for all paediatric actions.
Cole, Shelley A; Voruganti, V Saroja; Cai, Guowen; Haack, Karin; Kent, Jack W; Blangero, John; Comuzzie, Anthony G; McPherson, John D; Gibbs, Richard A
Background: Melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R) haploinsufficiency is the most common form of monogenic obesity; however, the frequency of MC4R variants and their functional effects in general populations remain uncertain. Objective: The aim was to identify and characterize the effects of MC4R variants in Hispanic children. Design: MC4R was resequenced in 376 parents, and the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 613 parents and 1016 children from the Viva la Familia cohort. Measured genotype analysis (MGA) tested associations between SNPs and phenotypes. Bayesian quantitative trait nucleotide (BQTN) analysis was used to infer the most likely functional polymorphisms influencing obesity-related traits. Results: Seven rare SNPs in coding and 18 SNPs in flanking regions of MC4R were identified. MGA showed suggestive associations between MC4R variants and body size, adiposity, glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, energy expenditure, physical activity, and food intake. BQTN analysis identified SNP 1704 in a predicted micro-RNA target sequence in the downstream flanking region of MC4R as a strong, probable functional variant influencing total, sedentary, and moderate activities with posterior probabilities of 1.0. SNP 2132 was identified as a variant with a high probability (1.0) of exerting a functional effect on total energy expenditure and sleeping metabolic rate. SNP rs34114122 was selected as having likely functional effects on the appetite hormone ghrelin, with a posterior probability of 0.81. Conclusion: This comprehensive investigation provides strong evidence that MC4R genetic variants are likely to play a functional role in the regulation of weight, not only through energy intake but through energy expenditure. PMID:19889825
... Hispanic whites have a bachelor's degree or higher. Economics: According to a 2015 U.S. Census Bureau report, ... non-Hispanic whites, Puerto Ricans have a low birth weight rate that twice that of non-Hispanic whites. Also, ...
Allison, Barbara N.; Bencomo, Angelina
Hispanic children constitute the largest population of racial/ethnic minority students in the nation's public schools. By the year 2023, the Hispanic enrollment is expected to increase to 30% of the total school population (pre-K through 12) in the United States. Because cultural background affects student learning, family and consumer sciences…
Ziegler, Paula; Hanson, Charlotte; Ponza, Michael; Novak, Timothy; Hendricks, Kristy
To describe meal and snack patterns of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers. A cross-sectional telephone survey in which mothers or other primary caregivers reported their infants' and toddlers' food and beverage intake for a 24-hour period. Subjects were a subset of the national random sample of children aged 4-24 months who participated in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study includes a stratified random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers aged 4-24 months. Three hundred seventy-one Hispanic and 2,637 non-Hispanic children who had 24-hour dietary recalls are included in the subset. Means+/-standard errors of daily intakes of energy, nutrients, and nutrient densities were calculated, as were percentages of children consuming foods at each eating occasion. Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers, on average, were fed seven times per day. Overall, the percentages of children who ate snacks increased with age, and more than 80% of toddlers aged 12-24 months consumed afternoon snacks, with more than 90% of Hispanic children consuming an afternoon snack. In each age group, there were significant differences between ethnic groups in nutrient intakes by eating occasion. No significant difference was seen for energy across all meal occasions. At age 6-11 months, Hispanic children had a significantly lower intake of carbohydrate at dinner and lower intake of saturated fat at afternoon snacks compared with non-Hispanic children (Pchildren's and non-Hispanic children's intakes by eating occasion is at age 12-24 months. Hispanics aged 12-24 months had significantly (Pchildren. For dinner, Hispanic toddlers had significantly (Pcomplement meals by including additional fruits, vegetables, and whole grains that are culturally appropriate rather than fruit drinks, cookies, and crackers. This will increase fiber intake and limit fat and sugar intakes. To develop healthful eating patterns, introduce toddlers to foods
Koebnick, C; Kelly, L A; Lane, C J; Roberts, C K; Shaibi, G Q; Toledo-Corral, C M; Davis, J N; Weigensberg, M J; Goran, M I
To investigate the importance of a maternal and paternal family history of Type 2 diabetes and their combined association with plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in overweight Latino children with a family history of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This cross-sectional study investigated the combined association of a maternal and paternal family history of T2DM with leptin and adiponectin in 175 overweight Latino children (age 11.1 +/- 1.7 years). All subjects had a family history of T2DM. Plasma adiponectin and leptin levels, body fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Tanner stage, age and insulin sensitivity were assessed. After adjustment for age, gestational diabetes, insulin sensitivity and body fat, a combined maternal and paternal family history of T2DM was associated with higher leptin concentrations (P = 0.004) compared with a maternal or paternal family history alone. This association was most pronounced at Tanner stage 1 (P for interaction family history x tanner stage = 0.022). The presence of a combined maternal and paternal family history of T2DM accounted for 4% (P = 0.003) of the variation in leptin concentrations. No such combined association was observed for adiponectin levels. Maternal and paternal family history of T2DM may have an additive impact on leptin, but not on adiponectin levels independent of adiposity and insulin sensitivity in overweight Latino children. This may contribute to a further clinically relevant deterioration of metabolic health in this population.
Coca-Cola USA, Atlanta, GA.
This is a corporate policy statement of the Hispanic business agenda of Coca Cola USA, and the results of a community survey conducted to inform that agenda. The statement outlines several areas of company policy as they relate to Hispanic Americans. These areas include regional marketing, promotion, and community relations strategies, a…
Desempenho funcional de crianças com deficiência visual, atendidas no Departamento de Estimulação Visual da Fundação Altino Ventura Functional outcome of visually handicapped children cared for at the Department of Visual Stimulation - "Fundação Altino Ventura"
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traçar o perfil funcional de crianças portadoras de deficiência visual. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 27 crianças. Dezessete com acuidade visual normal (que freqüentavam a Escola Municipal Alto do Maracanã, em Recife, e dez portadoras de deficiência visual (que recebiam estimulação visual no Departamento de Estimulação Visual da Fundação Altino Ventura, Recife. Foi utilizado o teste funcional padrão PEDI. RESULTADOS: As crianças portadoras de deficiência visual apresentaram desempenho significantemente inferior nas áreas de autocuidado e mobilidade que as crianças do grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: A deficiência visual traz conseqüências limitantes para o desempenho de atividades de autocuidado, locomoção, compreensão, comunicação e tarefas domésticas, na faixa etária estudada.PURPOSE: To analyze the functional outcome of visually handicapped children. METHODS: Twenty-seven children were evaluated using the standard functional PEDI test. Seventeen who attended school at "Escola Municipal Alto do Maracanã", Recife - Pernambuco, Brazil, had normal visual acuity and the other ten had visual handicap, and were cared for at Stimulation Visual Department - "Fundação Altino Ventura", in the same city. RESULTS: The children who had visual handicap showed significantly worse performance in self-care and mobility than normal children. CONCLUSION: Visual handicap may have limited the performance regarding self-care, mobility, understanding, communication, home works, in the studied group.
Cardol, M.; Brandsma, J. W.; de Groot, I. J.; van den Bos, G. A.; de Haan, R. J.; de Jong, B. A.
There is an increasing need to get insight into the social and societal impact of chronic conditions on a person's life, i.e. person-perceived handicap. The purpose of this study is to report how current handicap questionnaires assess handicap. A literature search using both Medline and the database
North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. for Exceptional Children.
The document is designed to assist local school systems as they plan, develop, and improve programs for emotionally handicapped students. Sections cover the following areas: definition of emotionally handicapped students; pre-planninq for emotionally handicapped programs; identification, referral, screening, assessment, and placement; service…
Minner, Sam; And Others
Four aspects in planning a therapeutic horsemanship program for handicapped individuals are considered: training instructors, obtaining the needed horses and equipment, identifying the participants, and implementing the program and developing a curriculum. An example of a horsemanship program begun in Kentucky is offered. (CL)
Moreno-Sànchez, Diana; Gutierrez, Norma G.; Lamadrid-Zertuche, Ana C.; Hernandez-Torre, Martin M.
Hispanic children and those from low-socioeconomic status are predisposed to unhealthy eating habits and obesity. Aim. to implement an individualized, face-to-face, parent supported, and school-partnership dietetic intervention to promote healthy eating habits and decrease body mass index. Prospective school year dietetic intervention of 101 obese, Hispanic, low-socioeconomic school-age children representative of Monterrey, Mexico, consisted of anthropometrics, dietetic assessment, energy-restriction tailor-made daily menus, and parental education every three weeks. Student's t-test was used for means comparison. A significant decrease was found in body mass index percentile (96.43 ± 3.32 to 93.42 ± 8.12/P = 0.00) and energy intake/day of −755.7 kcal/day (P = 0.00). Among other energy dense foods with significant decline in servings/day and servings/week were processed meats (3.13 ± 1.43 to 2.19 ± 1.04/P = 0.00 and 5.60 ± 1.75 to 4.37 ± 2.10/P = 0.00, resp.), saturated fat (1.47 ± 1.08 to 0.78 ± 0.79/P = 0.00 and 2.19 ± 2.18 to 1.1 ± 1.36/P = 0.00), sweetened beverages (2.79 ± 1.99 to 1.42 ± 1.21 and 6.21 ± 1.72 to 3.89 ± 2.80/P = 0.00), and desserts and refined-grain bakery (1.99 ± 1.54 to 1.32 ± 1.59 and 2.85 ± 2.54 to 1.57 ± 2.20/P = 0.00). There was a significant increase in servings/day and servings/week of water (2.98 ± 2.02 to 4.91 ± 2.37 and 6.62 ± 2.03 to 6.87 ± 0.91/P = 0.00, resp.) and nutrient dense foods such as fruits (1.31 ± 0.89 to 1.66 ± 0.96 and 3.34 ± 2.24 to 4.28 ± 2.43/P = 0.00) and fish and poultry (3.76 ± 2.15 to 4.54 ± 2.25/P = 0.00). This intervention created healthy eating habits and decreased body mass index in a high risk population. Trial registration number: NCT01925976. PMID:24592170
Full Text Available Hispanic children and those from low-socioeconomic status are predisposed to unhealthy eating habits and obesity. Aim. to implement an individualized, face-to-face, parent supported, and school-partnership dietetic intervention to promote healthy eating habits and decrease body mass index. Prospective school year dietetic intervention of 101 obese, Hispanic, low-socioeconomic school-age children representative of Monterrey, Mexico, consisted of anthropometrics, dietetic assessment, energy-restriction tailor-made daily menus, and parental education every three weeks. Student’s t-test was used for means comparison. A significant decrease was found in body mass index percentile (96.43±3.32 to 93.42±8.12/P=0.00 and energy intake/day of −755.7 kcal/day (P=0.00. Among other energy dense foods with significant decline in servings/day and servings/week were processed meats (3.13 ± 1.43 to 2.19 ± 1.04/P=0.00 and 5.60 ± 1.75 to 4.37 ± 2.10/P=0.00, resp., saturated fat (1.47 ± 1.08 to 0.78 ± 0.79/P=0.00 and 2.19±2.18 to 1.1±1.36/P=0.00, sweetened beverages (2.79±1.99 to 1.42±1.21 and 6.21±1.72 to 3.89±2.80/P=0.00, and desserts and refined-grain bakery (1.99±1.54 to 1.32±1.59 and 2.85 ± 2.54 to 1.57 ± 2.20/P=0.00. There was a significant increase in servings/day and servings/week of water (2.98 ± 2.02 to 4.91 ± 2.37 and 6.62 ± 2.03 to 6.87 ± 0.91/P=0.00, resp. and nutrient dense foods such as fruits (1.31 ± 0.89 to 1.66 ± 0.96 and 3.34 ± 2.24 to 4.28 ± 2.43/P=0.00 and fish and poultry (3.76 ± 2.15 to 4.54 ± 2.25/P=0.00. This intervention created healthy eating habits and decreased body mass index in a high risk population. Trial registration number: NCT01925976.
Court decisions interpreting the effect of the education for All Handicapped children Act on traditional forms of public school discipline have raised many question. This article reviews these decisions and confirms that most forms of minor disciplinary remedies remain available to educators so long as they are also used with nonhandicapped students. However, many legal problems arise with expulsion and long-term, or indefinite, suspensions of handicapped students, especially in the light of the recent Supreme court ruling regarding the expulsion of handicapped students.
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers.
Michael G. Bisciglia
Full Text Available As the overall population of Hispanics within the United States has eclipsed that of African Americans, a mounting concern has developed regarding the rise in Hispanic lethal violence as a result of social and economic inequality. One means to measure this inequality is in the form of segregation. Research indicates that in many Hispanic communities, their levels of segregation from the White non-Hispanic population are similar to that of African Americans. Although a multitude of previous studies have looked at the impact of segregation among African Americans, the literature remains under-represented in terms of multi-city macro-level analyses among Hispanics. This current study extends the analysis of segregation’s effects on lethal violence to this population. To this end, two measures of segregation were used, the index of dissimilarity and exposure. Using data from the census and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC mortality files, negative binominal regression models were created using a sample of 236 U.S. cities. The results indicated that both measures of segregation show a strong positive influence on rates of Hispanic homicides.
Kegler Michelle C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Detrimental effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure on child health are well documented. Because young children's primary exposure to ETS occurs in homes and automobiles, voluntary smoking restrictions can substantially reduce exposure. We assessed the prevalence of home and automobile smoking bans among U.S.- and Mexico-born Hispanics in the southwestern United States, and examined the influence of mother's country of birth and smoking practices on voluntary smoking bans and on child ETS exposure. Methods U.S.- and Mexico-born Hispanic mothers of children aged 2 through 12 years were systematically sampled from health clinics in Albuquerque, New Mexico. In-person interviews were conducted with 269 mothers (75.4% response rate to obtain information on main study outcomes (complete versus no/partial home and automobile smoking bans; child room and automobile ETS exposure and risk factors (mother's country of birth, maternal and household smoking behaviors. Data were analyzed with chi square tests and logistic regression models. Results Three-fourths (74–77% of U.S.-born and 90–95% of Mexico-born mothers reported complete automobile and home smoking bans. In multivariate analyses, mother's U.S nativity, mother's current smoking, and presence of other adult smokers in the home were associated with significantly increased odds of not having a complete home or automobile smoking ban. Mother's smoking was associated with child ETS exposure both indoors (odds ratio [OR] = 3.31 and in automobiles (OR = 2.97. Children of U.S.-born mothers had increased odds of exposure to ETS indoors (OR = 3.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37–7.69, but not in automobiles. Having complete smoking bans was associated with substantially reduced odds of child ETS exposure both indoors (OR = 0.10; 95% CI: 0.04–0.27 and in automobiles (OR = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.05–0.36. Conclusion This study of Hispanic mothers in the southwestern U
The mentally handicapped exhibit a 3 times higher incidence of malocclusions and related functional problems than the general population. In contrast there is little available literature relating to the orthodontic treatment of handicapped patients. Based on published articles on orthodontic
Anselmo Vázquez Vázquez
Full Text Available The present study was developed with the aim of determining the state of educational attention to students with handicaps. The Methods used are: General dialectical, Historic and logical and Systemic, Observation, Interview and Survey. As sample were taken 20 teachers and 100% of the students with handicaps from the faculty. Results: The educational assistance to students with ha ndi caps is being given empirically , regulations and guidelines from the Higher Ministry of Education related to handicaps are not known; There is scarce knowledge about the characteristics of handicaps and needs of guidance for effective learning. It recog nizes the importance of providing necessary resources for inclusion in the Higher Education.
Fischer, Michael J; Hsu, Jesse Y; Lora, Claudia M; Ricardo, Ana C; Anderson, Amanda H; Bazzano, Lydia; Cuevas, Magdalena M; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Kusek, John W; Renteria, Amada; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Raj, Dominic S; Rosas, Sylvia E; Pan, Qiang; Yaffe, Kristine; Go, Alan S; Lash, James P
Although recommended approaches to CKD management are achieved less often in Hispanics than in non-Hispanics, whether long-term outcomes differ between these groups is unclear. In a prospective longitudinal analysis of participants enrolled into the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies, we used Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association between race/ethnicity, CKD progression (50% eGFR loss or incident ESRD), incident ESRD, and all-cause mortality, and linear mixed-effects models to assess differences in eGFR slope. Among 3785 participants, 13% were Hispanic, 43% were non-Hispanic white (NHW), and 44% were non-Hispanic black (NHB). Over a median follow-up of 5.1 years for Hispanics and 6.8 years for non-Hispanics, 27.6% of all participants had CKD progression, 21.3% reached incident ESRD, and 18.3% died. Hispanics had significantly higher rates of CKD progression, incident ESRD, and mean annual decline in eGFR than did NHW (P<0.05) but not NHB. Hispanics had a mortality rate similar to that of NHW but lower than that of NHB (P<0.05). In adjusted analyses, the risk of CKD progression did not differ between Hispanics and NHW or NHB. However, among nondiabetic participants, compared with NHB, Hispanics had a lower risk of CKD progression (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.95) and incident ESRD (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.84). At higher levels of urine protein, Hispanics had a significantly lower risk of mortality than did non-Hispanics (P<0.05). Thus, important differences in CKD progression and mortality exist between Hispanics and non-Hispanics and may be affected by proteinuria and diabetes. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Nancy J. Karlin; Joyce Weil; James Gould
This study focuses on understanding similarities and differences between non-Hispanic White and Hispanic informal caregivers of those with Alzheimer’s disease. Comparisons take place between caregivers reporting high levels of burden as indicated by the Zarit Burden Inventory. Data suggest similarities and differences between Hispanic (n = 17) and non-Hispanic White (n = 17) caregivers in this study in several areas. H...
... Heart Disease in Women Heart Disease in Hispanic Women “I thought it couldn’t be true,” says ... disease is their No. 1 killer. Why Hispanic women? While heart disease doesn’t discriminate, you could ...
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers. Created: 5/5/2015 by Office of Minority Health & Health Equity (OMHHE). Date Released: 5/5/2015.
Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.
The selected bibliography of research on aurally handicapped children contains approximately 95 abstracts with indexing information explained to be drawn from the computer file of abstracts representing the Council for Exceptional Children Information Center's complete holdings as of August, 1972. Abstracts are said to be chosen using the criteria…
Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore
A study examined the employment of Hispanics in the fast-food industry. Data were obtained from a national survey of employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies in which 194 (4.2 percent) of the 4,660 respondents reported being Hispanic. Compared with the total sample, Hispanic fast-food employees were slightly less likely to be…
Tsai, Wan-Hsiu Sunny; Li, Cong
This study examined the moderating effects of acculturation modes (assimilated, integrated, and separated) on Hispanic consumers' responses to three advertising targeting strategies (Caucasian targeted, bicultural, and Hispanic targeted). The hypotheses were empirically tested in a 3 x 3 factorial experiment with 155 self-identified Hispanic adult…
Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…
... Persons § 41.31 Handicapped person. (a) Handicapped person means any person who has a physical or mental...: (1) Physical or mental impairment means: (i) Any physiological disorder or condition, cosmetic... disorder, such as mental retardation, organic brain syndrome, emotional or mental illness, and specific...
... Injury Prevention & Control Gateway to Health Communication & Social Marketing Practice On Other Web Sites MedlinePlus – Hispanic American ... MB] en Español [PDF – 1.61 MB] CDC Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Language: ...
Lopez, Josue; Safrit, R. Dale
Hispanic Americans in Cleveland, Ohio were interviewed about volunteerism. Six themes were identified: (1) influence of family and friends; (2) importance of volunteering to benefit youth; (3) importance of church and religious beliefs; (4) volunteering as a requirement; (5) connections between volunteerism and the community; and (6) personal…
Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos M; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta
Self-handicaps are obstacles created (or claimed) by individuals in anticipation of failure. Despite the vast amount of psychological research on self-handicapping tendency, the neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in self-handicapping tendency in young and healthy subjects are unknown. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and a questionnaire to measure individual self-handicapping tendency, and we investigated the association between regional gray matter volume (rGMV) and self-handicapping tendency across the brain in healthy young adult (mean age, 21.3 years; standard deviation - SD = 1.9) men (n = 94) and women (n = 91). We discovered that higher individual self-handicapping tendency was associated with larger rGMV in the subgenual cingulate gyrus (sgCG). A wide range of previous studies showed (a) the opposite pattern is seen in the association between rGMV in the sgCG and depression and (b) this area is active when negative emotions are suppressed. The present results suggest that the sgCG is also involved in self-handicapping, which is a behavior thought to be engaged in the protection of self-esteem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Power, Eric J; Chin, Megan L; Haq, Mohamed M
Breast cancer is the most common non-skin cancer amongst women worldwide and is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related mortality overall. It is also the foremost reason for cancer-related mortality in Hispanic females in the United States (US). Although the current incidence of breast cancer is significantly lower in Hispanics compared to that of non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and Blacks, (91.9, 128.1, and 124.3 per 100,000, respectively, annually), this may increase if Hispanics develop similar lifestyle behaviors to other American women, in categories such as weight management, age at first birth, number of children, and breastfeeding habits. Stage-for-stage mortality for Hispanics is similar to NHWs, but the mortality rate is not declining as rapidly in this ethnic group. Hispanic women share many of the same risk factors for developing breast cancer as NHWs and Blacks. This suggests that many of the risk reduction strategies used in other racial populations may also benefit this group. Providing education about breast cancer and implementing risk reduction strategies in culturally-aware environments could help keep incidence low and reduce cancer-related mortality. Since Hispanics are the largest minority group in the US, this could have a significant impact on the incidence and mortality nationally.
Bassford, T L
Hispanic elders living in the United States compose a rapidly increasing population. They are underinsured and more likely to be living in poverty. Health care is hindered in this population by lower access to health services and less use of preventive services. Barriers to access are primarily socioeconomic. Acculturation exerts an effect, primarily through its association with language skills, employment, and education. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality for Hispanics, who have a higher prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Although neoplasia is the second most frequent cause of death among Hispanics, as it is in whites who are not Hispanic, Hispanics have an overall lower cancer rate. Cancer rates are increasing, however. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the Hispanic population, affecting nearly a quarter of adult Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. Although higher prevalence of obesity in the Hispanic population accounts for some of this difference, some data suggest the possibility of a genetic component as well. Assessment of psychological health in Hispanic elders is impeded by the lack of instruments designed for this population. Distress is often expressed as somatic symptoms. Values traditional to Hispanic culture, such as respeto, allocentrism, and familialism, are important to US Hispanic elders, many of whom were born in rural Mexico. Our knowledge of determinants of healthy aging in this population is still preliminary, but rapidly expanding, in part, because of increased attention to ethnicity in health reporting.
Nancy J. Karlin
Full Text Available This study focuses on understanding similarities and differences between non-Hispanic White and Hispanic informal caregivers of those with Alzheimer’s disease. Comparisons take place between caregivers reporting high levels of burden as indicated by the Zarit Burden Inventory. Data suggest similarities and differences between Hispanic (n = 17 and non-Hispanic White (n = 17 caregivers in this study in several areas. Hispanic caregivers indicated fewer sources of income, had less investment money for family member’s treatment, reported caregiving as a greater interference with life’s accomplishments, and indicated a lesser percentage of the total care cost provided by the family member. Non-Hispanic White caregivers reported having completed a higher level of formal education and that organized religion’s importance prior to becoming a caregiver was not quite as important as compared with the Hispanic care provider. With current trends, of demographic and cultural changes, it is crucial to fully understand the changing role and needs of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic White caregivers.
Alperstein, Neil M.
Discusses community placement of mentally handicapped people and remedial procedures for encouraging independent decision making and behavior. Intertwines this behavior change with an alternative method of consumer education. (Author/RK)
Coleman, Laurence J.; Cross, Tracy L.
Interviews with 15 gifted/talented adolescents indicated that many of them experienced giftedness as a social handicap. Some students coped with this by managing information about themselves to minimize their visibility as gifted students to others. (Author/JDD)
Harris, R N; Snyder, C R; Higgins, R L; Schrag, J L
Levels of test anxiety, Type A and Type B coronary-prone behavior, fear of failure, and covert self-esteem were studied as predictors of self-handicapping performance attributions for college women who were placed in either a high- (N = 49) or low- (N = 49) evaluative test or task situation. We hypothesized that test anxiety. Type A or Type B level, and their interaction would account for reliable variance in the prediction of self-handicapping. However, we also theorized that underlying high fear of failure and low covert self-esteem would explain the self-handicapping claims of test-anxious and Type A subjects. The results indicated that only high levels of test anxiety and high levels of covert self-esteem were related to women's self-handicapping attributions.
Clifton, Sara M; Braun, Rosemary I; Abrams, Daniel M
Species spanning the animal kingdom have evolved extravagant and costly ornaments to attract mating partners. Zahavi's handicap principle offers an elegant explanation for this: ornaments signal individual quality, and must be costly to ensure honest signalling, making mate selection more efficient. Here, we incorporate the assumptions of the handicap principle into a mathematical model and show that they are sufficient to explain the heretofore puzzling observation of bimodally distributed ornament sizes in a variety of species. © 2016 The Author(s).
Oswald, L. K.; Lignugaris/Kraft, Benjamin; West, R.
Recently, researchers have begun exploring the effects of incidental teaching on the acquisition of socially appropriate behavior by handicapped children and adults. The results of these investigations suggest that incidental teaching may facilitate the generalization of newly trained social skills. This study used incidental teaching procedures to teach a 16-year-old mildly handicapped student to use social amenities in a resource classroom. In addition, generalization was assessed to anothe...
A 5 day course was developed to train teachers at the Instituto Neurologico (Guatemala), a day school for about 50 children (aged 3 to 16) considered to be learning handicapped and educationally or trainably retarded. The course addressed five topics (one each day): special education, class routines and schedules, classroom management, evaluating…
Evans, C. J.; Johnson, C. J.
A blind multiply handicapped preschooler was taught to respond appropriately to two adjacency pair types ("where question-answer" and "comment-acknowledgement"). The two alternative language acquisition strategies available to blind children were encouraged: echolalia to maintain communicative interactions and manual searching…
Smith, Mary Ann Harvey; And Others
Intended for professionals from a variety of disciplines (such as nutrition, dentistry, nursing, occupational and physical therapy, speech pathology, social work, and education), the guide presents information on feeding problems of children with handicaps. Part I, which traces the development of feeding, considers in detail normal development and…
National Committee, Arts for the Handicapped, Washington, DC.
The Spanish translation contains a collection of arts strategies intended to stimulate, motivate, and teach basic skills to handicapped children. The lessons involve one or more of the basic art forms (movement, music, drama, and art) and are further divided into five levels of aesthetic development: awareness, imitation, self-initiation, skill…
Genetic variants responsible for susceptibility to obesity and its comorbidities among Hispanic children have not been identified. The VIVA LA FAMILIA Study was designed to genetically map childhood obesity and associated biological processes in the Hispanic population. A genome-wide association stu...
Figueras-Daniel, Alexandra; Barnett, W. Steven
As the United States works to reclaim economic prosperity, the Hispanic population--with the largest growth in population over the last decade--will likely play a key role in any economic resurgence. Educational success is a crucial part of economic recovery. While statistics on the educational success of Hispanic children are hardly encouraging,…
Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...
Fejes-Mendoza, Kathy E.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.
Interviews with 30 female juvenile offenders were conducted to (1) describe their educational and criminal backgrounds and (2) describe a subgroup of learning handicapped juvenile female offenders. Nearly one third had received special education services prior to their incarceration with additional offenders diagnosed as handicapped upon entry…
Altieri, Lisa; Miller, Kimberly A; Huh, Jimi; Peng, David H; Unger, Jennifer B; Richardson, Jean L; Allen, Martin W; Cockburn, Myles
Although rates of late-stage melanoma are rising in Hispanics, particularly those living in high ultraviolet light environments, little is known about the prevalence of sun protective behaviors in Hispanic children. We analyzed baseline data including frequency of sunburn, sun protective behaviors, level of U.S. acculturation, and skin phototype from a cross-sectional survey of 2003 Hispanic elementary school children in Los Angeles, California, who participated in a skin cancer prevention intervention. Although the Hispanic children reported frequently engaging in some sun protective behaviors, they also had a high rate of sunburn (59%) that exceeded previous national estimates for non-Hispanic white children (43%). Fewer U.S.-acculturated children reported more frequent shade-seeking at home (P = .02), along with less shade-seeking at school (P = .001) and more sunscreen use at school (P = .02). The surprisingly high rate of sunburn in Hispanic children suggests that the way in which they are practicing sun protection is not preventing sunburns. Sun safety interventions should be targeted toward Hispanic youth to provide them with practical methods of effective sun protection, in addition to education on the risks of high sun exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hirt, Edward R; McCrea, Sean M; Boris, Hillary I
Past research has shown that self-handicapping involves the trade-off of ability-related attributional benefits for interpersonal costs. Study 1 examined whether perceiver or target sex moderates impressions of self-handicapping targets. Although target sex was not an important factor, female perceivers were consistently more critical of behavioral self-handicappers. Two additional studies replicated this gender difference with variations of the handicap. Study 3 examined the motives inferred by perceivers and found that women not only view self-handicappers as more unmotivated but also report greater suspicion of self-handicapping motives; furthermore, these differences in perceived motives mediated sex differences in reactions to self-handicappers. Implications for the effectiveness of self-handicapping as an impression management strategy are discussed.
Lumley, Risa; Newman, Eric; Brown, Haakon T.
This study looks at undergraduate Hispanic students' interpretations and current perceptions of the academic library's purpose, usefulness and value. What are the reasons to use the library? What are the barriers to use? This study will examine academic libraries' move toward electronic library materials and what it means for Hispanic students.…
Ness, Maria; Barradas, Danielle T.; Irving, Jennifer; Manning, Susan E.
Risk factors for overweight and obesity may be different for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children compared to children of other racial/ethnic backgrounds, as obesity prevalence among AI/AN children remains much higher. Using data from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health, behavioral (child’s sport team participation, vigorous physical activity, television viewing, and computer use), household (parental physical activity, frequency of family meals, rules limiting televis...
Meaney, K S; Edwards, R
This study investigated the effects of modeling and verbal rehearsal on the motor performance of English-speaking and limited English proficient (LEP) children. Children (N = 64) in 4th-grade classes were randomly assigned to conditions in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 (Gender x Primary Language x Model Type x Rehearsal) factorial design. Boys and girls whose primary language was English or Spanish were assigned to either a verbal model or no-model condition as well as to a verbal rehearsal or no-rehearsal condition of the motor skills required to be performed. Analysis of variance revealed a significant Model Type x Primary Language interaction as well as a significant Rehearsal x Primary Language interaction. Follow-up analyses revealed that English-speaking children provided with a verbal rehearsal strategy recalled significantly more skills than English-speaking children in the no-rehearsal condition; for LEP children, there were no differences due to rehearsal. Moreover, LEP children presented with a verbal model recalled significantly more skills than LEP children in the no-model condition; for English-speaking children, there were no differences attributed to model type. These results indicate that effective modeling conditions that are provided with verbal cues in English are related to children's primary language.
Fleming-Milici, Frances; Harris, Jennifer L; Sarda, Vishnudas; Schwartz, Marlene B
Exposure to large numbers of television advertisements for foods and beverages with little or no nutritional value likely contributes to poor diet among youth. Given higher rates of obesity and overweight for Hispanic youth, it is important to understand the amount and types of food advertising they view. To quantify the amount of food and beverage advertising viewed by Hispanic youth on Spanish- and English-language television and compare it with the amount of food and beverage advertising viewed by non-Hispanic youth. Data on gross rating points that measured advertising viewed on national broadcast and cable television in 2010 using a Nielsen panel of television-viewing households of Hispanic and non-Hispanic preschoolers (2-5 years), children (6-11 years), and adolescents (12-17 years). Food and beverage television advertisements viewed on English- and Spanish-language television by product category and television-viewing times by age and language preference. EXPOSURE Food and beverage advertising on Spanish- and English-language television. RESULTS In 2010, Hispanic preschoolers, children, and adolescents viewed, on average, 11.6 to 12.4 television food ads per day; the majority of these ads (75%-85%) appeared on English-language television. Fast food represented a higher proportion of food ads on Spanish-language television. Consistent with television-viewing patterns, Hispanic preschoolers saw more Spanish-language food advertisements than did Hispanic children and adolescents. Owing to somewhat less food advertising on Spanish-language television, Hispanic children and adolescents viewed 14% and 24% fewer food ads overall, respectively, compared with non-Hispanic youth. Spanish-language television viewing was highly concentrated among youth who primarily speak Spanish. Both Hispanic and non-Hispanic youth view large numbers of television advertisements for nutrient-poor categories of food and beverage. Although Hispanic children and adolescents see somewhat
McElroy, James C; Crant, J Michael
Using a sample of 246 working adults, the authors created a 2 x 2 x 2 experimental design to isolate the influence of performance outcome, source of handicapping, and frequency of handicapping on reactions to handicapping in organizations. Dependent measures were observers' allocations of credit/blame, interpersonal affect, and the perceived credibility of the explanation. Results showed direct effects on observer impressions for all 3 independent variables, along with a significant Source x Frequency interaction. Handicapping information presented by others yielded more favorable observer impressions than did self-handicapping, and frequent handicapping decreased observer impressions. The least credible handicapping strategy was multiple self-handicaps. A significant 3-way interaction showed that source and frequency affected perceived credibility differently, depending upon whether actual performance was a success or a failure.
Uysal, Ahmet; Knee, C Raymond
Past research has shown that self-handicapping stems from uncertainty about one's ability and self-presentational concerns. The present studies suggest that low dispositional self-control is also associated with self-handicapping. In 3 studies (N = 289), the association between self-control and self-handicapping was tested. Self-control was operationalized as trait self-control, whereas self-handicapping was operationalized as trait self-handicapping in Study 1 (N = 160), self-reported self-handicapping in Study 2 (N = 74), and behavioral self-handicapping in Study 3 (N = 55). In all 3 studies, hierarchical regression analyses revealed that low self-control predicts self-handicapping, independent of self-esteem, self-doubt, social desirability, and gender. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Burnham, Joy J.; Lomax, Richard G.
The American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; J. J. Burnham, 1995, 2005) has been used to measure fears of children and adolescents. The FSSC-AM is based on the 2nd revision of a psychometrically sound and well-known fear scale (i.e., FSSC-II; E. Gullone & N. J. King, 1992). In this study, age and gender differences, fear intensity…
Since Jones & Berglas (1978) presented the conception of self-handicapping, a lot of empirical research on self-handicapping was reported. Some reseachers drew a distinction between ""acquired"" (or ""behavioral"") self-handicapping such as drug ingestion, alcohol consumption, effort reduction, and choosing a difficult task, and ""claimed"" (or ""self-reported"") self-handicapping such as verbal claim to be ill, socially anxious, test anxious, or in a bad mood. This paper reviewed these studi...
Veneziano, Louis; And Others
Surveyed 45 workers in correctional agencies to examine number of handicapped inmates and types of programs provided to them. Found that most prison systems had identified some handicapped inmates. Variety of programs were offered to inmates, many systems did not have specialized treatment for handicapped. Found need for evaluation and treatment…
Høgelund, Jan; Larsen, Brian; Kløft Schademan, Helle
Denne rapport giver ny viden om beskæftigelsessituationen for personer med handicap. Den viser, at personer med handicap er lige så tilfredse med deres arbejde, som personer uden handicap, og at de oplever at de har de samme jobkrav og de samme muligheder for indflydelse og udvikling, og de har s...
Warner, Suzanne; Moore, Susan
The purpose of the present study was to examine gender differences in the self-handicapping tendencies of a sample of 337 Australian school attending adolescents, who were aged between 15 and 19 years. Self-handicapping, as measured by the shortened Self-Handicapping Scale, was examined in relation to self-esteem, performance attributions, coping…
Carsrud, Robert Steven
Since the identification of self-handicapping strategies in 1978, considerable attention has been paid to this phenomenon. Self-handicapping is a strategy for discounting ability attributions for probable failure while augmenting ability attributions for possible success. Behavioral self-handicaps are conceptually distinct from self-reported…
Day, Ashley K; Stapleton, Jerod L; Natale-Pereira, Ana M; Goydos, James S; Coups, Elliot J
Skin cancer incidence has been increasing in U.S. Hispanics over several decades and the postdiagnosis outcomes are worse for Hispanics than for non-Hispanic whites. Parents are influential in children's health preventive behaviors, but little is known about parental factors associated with children's skin cancer-related behaviors in the U.S. Hispanic population. The present study examined parental and child correlates of skin cancer-related behaviors (sunburns, sunbathing, sun-protective clothing use, and sunscreen use) of children of Hispanic parents. This survey study included a population-based sample of 360 U.S. Hispanic parents (44.8% male) who had a child 14 years of age or younger. Measures included parental reports of parent and child demographic characteristics, parent skin cancer knowledge and linguistic acculturation, and parent and child skin cancer-related behaviors. Approximately 28% of children and 31.9% of parents experienced at least one sunburn in the past year and approximately 29% of children and 36.7% of parents were reported to sunbathe. Moderate use of sun-protective clothing and sunscreen was reported for parents and their children. Child sun-protective clothing use and sunscreen use, sunburns, and sunbathing were associated with the corresponding behaviors of their parents. Future research should consider the role of acculturation and perceived risk in the sun protection behaviors of U.S. Hispanic children, particularly in those who report a fair skin type. Hispanic parents should be included in interventions targeting their children's skin cancer-related behaviors, and it is suggested that such interventions could also encourage parents to improve their own behaviors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Lupus among Asians and Hispanics Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... compared with white women. Signs and Symptom of Lupus Lupus can affect people of all ages. However, ...
This study was an investigation of the effects of a motor handicap on the development of object permanence in the young child. Motor abilities were evaluated for 12 infants aged 13 to 29 months. Based on this evaluation, the children were described as manipulators or nonmanipulators in reference to their upper extremity skills. Their stage of object permanence was assessed using traditional and nontraditional assessments. Heart rate and visual tracking were recorded during the nontraditional assessment. Heart rate did not significantly relate to visual fixation or search response. There was, however, a significant difference (p less than .02) between stage achievement with traditional testing and age-appropriate levels. There was no significant difference between the nontraditional assessment and the age-appropriate levels. In addition, there was no significant difference in the development of object permanence between infants described as manipulators and those described as nonmanipulators. The last two findings suggest that infants with motor handicaps may develop object permanence at the expected ages, according to a nontraditional assessment.
Cunningham, Pat; Gose, Joan
The paper describes a computer bulletin board program operated by physically handicapped high school students. Through the bulletin board system, resource people have been contacted, students' written communication and interpersonal relationships have been strengthened, and professional contact has been strengthened. Administrative implications…
Spillios, James; Janzen, Henry L.
The need for training counselors specifically for intervention with the physically handicapped is the major focus of this article. Definitions of disabilities, rehabilitation and emotional factors are stressed as important variables in physical and psychotherapeutic treatment. The authors review some of the psychological aspects in counseling the…
Engberg, Eugenie; And Others
An overview of services to help the handicapped is given in light of the characteristics of social conditions and social development in Denmark, and the history of rehabilitative care is examined. Information is given on the following areas: legislative, organization and financing; the national health service; the general education of handicapped…
Yadav, S S
Singapore's elderly population has been growing rapidly and is expected to constitute more than 25 percent of the total population by the year 2030. The ageing process brings with it a host of health problems. Here the question arises--Are the increasing years of life going to create a high proportion of sick and disabled elderly people, or a rich human resource of healthy senior citizens? Since more women are living longer than men, who would face a higher risk of disability and handicap? These questions are yet to be answered in Singapore. This paper seeks answers to these questions. The study is based on a sample survey of 1209 elderly Singaporeans living in Kampong Glam, Kreta Ayer and Bukit Merah parliamentary constituencies which have some of the highest proportions of the aged population. The results revealed that more than half of the aged had a disability and the rate of disability was significantly higher among the women as compared to the men. More than one-third of the elderly had a handicap and the rate of handicap among the women was twice as much as that among the men. Severity of handicap was directly correlated with age.
Ministry of Education, Copenhagen (Denmark).
The educational policy of Denmark and the educational system which has evolved from this policy are described. The policy states that everyone has a right to the same access to education and training, regardless of sex, social origins, geographic origins, and physical or mental handicap; and all public education is free of charge from the age of 5…
Compton, David M.; Vinton, Dennis A.
In response to the need for up-to-date information on employment opportunities for handicapped people in the leisure occupations, a national survey was conducted to determine both existing levels of employment and employer practices. The survey was sent to 500 agencies and businesses representing four leisure occupational subclusters: travel,…
Hess, Albert M.; And Others
Contingency contracting and group counseling were provided to 26 mildly to moderately handicapped middle school students with high rates of truancy. Subjects exhibited attendance gains after treatment; gains were not maintained at followup but attendance rates were still higher than the rates of control students. Measures of academic performance…
Vocal demands of teaching are considerable and these challenges are greater for choral directors who depend on the voice as a musical and instructive instrument. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine choral directors' vocal condition using a modified Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and (2) determine the extent to which the major variables…
Marsac, J; Pujet, J C
The medico-social aspects of respiratory handicap pose some perplexing problems, notably in their recognition, rigorous evaluation and in the granting of social security benefits. The clinical and respiratory function data should be standardised and classified according to type and significance of respiratory disease and also according to the degree of co-operation and understanding of the patient. The respiratory handicap should be evaluated after considering the functional disability engendered by the disorder and their socio-professional repercussions. The abnormality in the lungs should be measured by resting tests; the degree of disability by exercise studies; the socio-professional handicap by ergonometric tests to assess the scale of the demands and requirements of family and social and professional life, indeed the cultural and economic style of the individual concerned. Such combined studies would enable recognition of severe chronic respiratory handicap leading to decisions for exemption certificates, such as cases of severe respiratory failure in patients requiring supplementary treatment for oxygen therapy or assisted ventilation. The benefits and grants offered to those with respiratory handicaps would involve a number of rights relating to: care, work, costs of replacement of workers in the event of prolonged sick leave or the benefits of an invalidity pension. There will be other allowances such as invalidity cards, lodging special studies and other rights particularly relating to lodging and special equipment. The present scale is difficult to use both because of its lack of specificity and its ill-chosen terminology. For better balance between the handicap and the benefits offered, a common and more flexible system, with a printed table should be at hand for the doctor to use for certain decisions: long term illness, period of invalidity or early retirement because of medical incapacity. Within each table a sub-section should exist to allow for
The role of diet quality and nutrient adequacy in the etiology of childhood obesity is poorly understood. The specific aims of these analyses were to assess overall diet quality and nutrient adequacy, and test for association between weight status and diet in children from low socioeconomic status (...
Alesi, Marianna; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria
Recent research has focused on the role of self-esteem and self-handicapping strategies in the school domain. Self-handicapping refers to maladaptive strategies employed by adults and children for protection and maintenance of positive school self esteem. In this study the self-esteem and the self-handicapping strategies of children with dyslexia, reading comprehension disabilities, and mathematical disabilities were compared to a control group with normal learning. There were 56 children whose mean age was 8 (23 girls, 33 boys), attending Grade 3 of primary school. These pupils were selected by scores on a battery of learning tests commonly used in Italy for assessment of learning disabilities. Analyses suggested these children with dyslexia, reading comprehension disabilities, and mathematical disabilities had lower ratings of self-esteem at school and employed more self-handicapping strategies than did children whose learning was normal. More research is required to identify and examine in depth the factors that promote adaptive strategies to cope with children's reading difficulties.
Hetherington-Rauth, Megan; Bea, Jennifer W; Blew, Robert M; Funk, Janet L; Hingle, Melanie D; Lee, Vinson R; Roe, Denise J; Wheeler, Mark D; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B
With the high prevalence of childhood obesity, especially among Hispanic children, understanding how body weight and its components of lean and fat mass affect bone development is important, given that the amount of bone mineral accrued during childhood can determine osteoporosis risk later in life. The aim of this study was to assess the independent contributions of lean and fat mass on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and strength in both weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bones of Hispanic and non-Hispanic girls. Bone vBMD, geometry, and strength were assessed at the 20% distal femur, the 4% and 66% distal tibia, and the 66% distal radius of the non-dominant limb of 326, 9- to 12-year-old girls using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Total body lean and fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Multiple linear regression was used to assess the independent relationships of fat and lean mass with pQCT bone measures while adjusting for relevant confounders. Potential interactions between ethnicity and both fat and lean mass were also tested. Lean mass was a significant positive contributor to all bone outcomes (p Lean mass is the main determinant of bone strength for appendicular skeletal sites. Fat mass contributes to bone strength in the weight-bearing skeleton but does not add to bone strength in non-weight-bearing locations and may potentially be detrimental. Bone vBMD, geometry, and strength did not differ between Hispanic and non-Hispanic girls; fat mass may be a stronger contributor to bone strength in weight-bearing bones of Hispanic girls compared to non-Hispanic. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Calandra, C; Finocchiaro, G; Raciti, L; Alberti, A
Families with handicapped member seem to follow the same five stages (rejection and isolation, anger, dealing with the problem, depression, acceptance) of Kubler-Ross grief elaboration theory while dealing with the narcissistic wound of a handicapped child. Some of these families show a block in one of the stages. The effort of psychotherapy is to remove the block and let them reach the last stage. In this paper families under systemic psychotherapeutic treatment are analyzed, who had in common the birth of a child with low or modest invalidating signs and psychotic or autistic features. The families structure did not show the characteristics of a psychotic family. Nevertheless either one or both parents ignored the evidence of their child disease and they built a "disease-incongrous" wait around the child, trying to push away the painful reality. The authors explain the importance of this approach for the improvement of the autistic traits.
Sutton, Paul D; Mathews, T J
This report presents U.S. and State-level data on births, birth rates, and fertility rates for Hispanic origin subgroups for 1990 and 2000. Data for non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks are provided for comparison. Data are presented in detailed tables, graphs, and maps. Between 1990 and 2000, the total U.S. Hispanic population increased 58 percent, from 22,353,999 to 35,305,818. Over the same period of time, births to Hispanic mothers increased 37 percent, from 595,073 to 815,868. The smaller increases in births compared with the population resulted in a falling birth rate among Hispanic mothers (26.7 in 1990 to 23.1 births per 1,000 total population in 2000). Birth and fertility rates for Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban mothers all fell between 1990 and 2000. Among the Hispanic subgroups, fertility rates in 2000 ranged from 105.1 births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years for Mexican women to 49.3 for Cuban women. Differences in fertility exist not only between Hispanic subgroups but also within groups among States. For example, total fertility rates for Puerto Rican mothers, which estimates the number of children a group of 1,000 women will have in their lifetime, ranged in 2000 from 1,616.5 in New York to 2,403.0 in Pennsylvania.
Calderon Galdeano, Emily; Flores, Antonio R.; Moder, John
The relationship between the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) and the recognition of Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) occurs at the federal level. HACU's origins and the legislative history of the HSI designation in federal law are explored. The demographic growth and corresponding importance of Hispanics in the…
The purpose of this report is to explore the issue of Hispanic propensity in more depth than has previously been available, and to identify possible causes of Hispanic youths' declining interest in military service...
Fisman, S; Wolf, L
Although the nature and severity of a handicapping condition are not the sole determinants of family functioning, the presence of a child with a pervasive developmental disorder has a significant effect on family members. Maternal mental health suffers, and the resulting depression affects her role as mother and marriage partner. Unlike other handicapping conditions with obvious physical stigmata, the invisible handicap of the autistic child and the frequent delay in diagnosis contribute to the mother's self-doubt about her parental competence. While the impact on paternal psychological health is less, the fathers of autistic children are nevertheless highly stressed and appear to be particularly vulnerable to the stress generated by these difficult children. Living within this family climate, the risks for emotional and behavioral problems for siblings must be evaluated, along with their intrinsic strengths, to plan preventive interventions for these children. Effective work with these families requires an understanding of the evolution of family system problems and their dynamic and reciprocal interaction over time.
A practicum was developed to increase self-esteem, to lower anxiety, and to improve social skills in 13 emotionally handicapped (EH) middle school boys. An additional objective was to provide parenting classes which focused on increasing parents' knowledge and skills in improving their children's self esteem. The 8-month multifaceted program…
Carlin, Courtney; Yee, Alison B; Fagnano, Maria; Halterman, Jill S
Research has shown that minority caregivers of children with asthma report poorer communication with health care providers than nonminority caregivers. Less is known about the specific influence of Hispanic ethnicity on parent-provider communication. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of Hispanic ethnicity on parent-provider communication regarding their child's asthma and on caregiver confidence in communicating with their child's provider at a primary care visit. Data were obtained from 166 caregivers of children (2-12 years) with persistent asthma. Caregiver perceptions of provider communication and confidence were evaluated. We found that Hispanic compared to non-Hispanic caregivers reported better communication with providers on several items. Hispanic caregivers also were more likely to indicate full confidence in their ability to communicate with providers. These findings suggest Hispanic caregivers may experience better parent-provider communication than non-Hispanics. Further investigation is needed to assess provider- and clinic-specific factors that may influence communication between minority caregivers and providers.
Development and Implementation of a Model Training Program to Assist Special Educators, Parks and Resource Management Personnel and Parents to Cooperatively Plan and Conduct Outdoor/Environmental Education Programs for Handicapped Children and Youth. Final Report.
Vinton, Dennis A.; Zachmeyer, Richard F.
This final report presents a description of a 3-year project to develop and implement a model training program (for special education personnel, park and resource management personnel, and parents of disabled children) designed to promote outdoor environmental education for disabled children. The project conducted 22 training workshops (2-5 days)…
Knouse, Stephanie M.; Gupton, Timothy; Abreau, Laurel
Even though many post-secondary institutions offer a variety of Hispanic linguistics classes (Hualde 2006; Lipski 2006), research on the pedagogy of Hispanic linguistics is an underdeveloped or non-existent area of the discipline. Courses in Hispanic linguistics can present not only linguistic challenges for non-native speakers of Spanish, but…
Ferrari, Joseph R.
The present study assessed self-reported religiosity, spirituality, faith-related behaviors, leadership styles, and personality dimensions of 156 Hispanic Catholic deacons, based on varied educational degrees assisting in Hispanic (n = 91) or non-Hispanic (n = 65) parishes. Results found no significant differences on any self-reported variables…
A major concern to anyone involved in the alcoholism field is the basic understanding of alcoholism as a disease that Hispanics have not yet completely accepted. Hispanics have usually labeled the use of alcoholic beverages as being embedded into Hispanic culture and have viewed alcoholism as an individual weakness to be endured in silence. (NQ)
Bova, Breda Murphy
Interviews with 20 Hispanic female faculty and administrators revealed mentoring to be important to career development but difficult to obtain. Barriers included limited opportunities for informal contact, compounded stereotypes of women and of Hispanic women, and conflicting values of Hispanic and academic cultures. (SK)
Herrera, Antoinette Navalta
Hispanics continue to be the fastest growing minority population in the Nation. According to U.S. Census Bureau (2011; 2008), the Hispanic or Latino population was 16.3 percent in 2010 and is projected to be over 30 percent in 2050. However, only 3.6% of the RN population is Hispanic indicating an unrealistic representation of today's…
Akin, Ahmet; Akin, Umran
Self-handicapping includes strategies of externalization in which people excuse failure and internalize success, but which also prevents them from behaving in an authentic way. The goal was to investigate the relation of authenticity with self-handicapping. The study was conducted with 366 university students (176 men, 190 women; M age = 20.2 yr.). Participants completed the Turkish version of the Authenticity Scale and the Self-handicapping Scale. Self-handicapping was correlated positively with two factors of authenticity, accepting external influence and self-alienation, and negatively with the authentic living factor. A multiple regression analysis indicated that self-handicapping was predicted positively by self-alienation and accepting external influence and negatively by authentic living, accounting for 21% of the variance collectively. These results demonstrated the negative association of authenticity with self-handicapping.
Carlisle, Brandon Lamare
The purpose of the present dissertation was to examine whether, and how, behavioral academic self-handicapping and claimed academic self-handicapping differentially relate to the academic identity statuses (i.e., achieved, diffused, moratorium, and foreclosed). Self-handicapping has been defined as creating or claiming obstacles to performance in order to enhance the ability to externalize failure and internalize success. Academic identity status involves a student’s decision to attend colleg...
... Injury Prevention & Control Gateway to Health Communication & Social Marketing Practice On Other Web Sites MedlinePlus – Hispanic American ... MB] en Español [PDF – 1.61 MB] CDC Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Language: ...
Elliot, Andrew J; Church, Marcy A
Two studies examined motivational influences on and correlates of defensive pessimism and self-handicapping and investigated the relationship between these two cognitive strategies and performance attainment. The findings indicated that defensive pessimism and self-handicapping have similar motivational profiles, with the primary difference being that self-handicapping represents the absence of approach motivation in the achievement domain, as well as the presence of avoidance motivation. Self-handicapping, but not defensive pessimism, was shown to undermine performance-attainment, and performance-avoidance goals were validated as mediators of this negative relationship. Issues regarding the functional nature of the two cognitive strategies are discussed.
Full Text Available The self-handicapping has been examined as a self-protectivestrategy, used by adults and young, males and females, in different situations assessed as threatening for the positive self-esteem. The purpose of this study is to explore the relations between self-handicapping and some variables relevant in the academic field as learning motivation, academic results, selfesteem. Age and gender are the criteria of our analysis. The results suggestthe males and later adolescents (males and females self-handicap more that the females and the young adolescents. Self-esteem and some components of learning motivation are the variables that influence self-handicapping at significant levels.
Simon, Sue G.
Federal regulation protects handicapped students' education against unwarranted interruption without specifying procedures for disciplining handicapped students. This article reviews court decisions in disciplinary cases and provides procedural guidelines to follow in disciplining handicapped students. (MD)
Bishop, Virginia E.; Godolphin, Vivienne
Based on a longitudinal study of vision screening techniques for handicapped children at the Chester County (Pennsylvania) Child Development Center, the paper reports on the development of a battery of effective vision screening methods for children with low functioning handicapped children. Specific tests are described, including the Sheridan…
This study explores the effects of assimilation on the health of Hispanics in the United States, using ethnic intermarriage as a metric of acculturation. I exploit a unique data set of linked confidential use birth records in California and Florida from 1970-2009. The confidential data allow me to link mothers giving birth in 1989-2009 to their own birth certificate records in 1970-1985 and to identify second-generation siblings. Thus, I can analyze the relationship between the parental exogamy of second-generation Hispanic women and the birth outcomes of their offspring controlling for grandmother fixed effects as well as indicators for second generation's birth weight. Despite their higher socioeconomic status, third-generation children of second-generation intermarried Hispanic women are more likely to have poor health at birth, even after I account for second-generation health at birth and employ only within-family variations in the extent of assimilation. I find that a second-generation Hispanic woman married to a non-Hispanic man is 9 % more likely to have a child with low birth weight relative to a second-generation woman married to another Hispanic. These results largely reflect the higher incidence of risky behaviors (e.g., smoking during pregnancy) among intermarried Hispanic women.
Wight, Byron W.
The document contains the final report of the Special Programs for Individualized Needs (SPIN) program designed to develop a demonstration model for training day care personnel to identify developmentally delayed or emotionally disturbed children and to program for them within the regular day care setting. Major objectives were to develop…
Cooper, N. E.
Two approaches to vocational reintegration of handicapped workers are described: (1) adapting the disabled to the working environment through treatment, therapy, counseling, selective placement, and prostheses, and (2) adapting the working environment to particular handicaps, with the assistive device fitted to the machine or tool rather than to…
Collins, Eleanor M.; And Others
The report summarizes results of a study of attitudes of 222 undergraduate university students (University of Minnesota, Duluth) toward financial decisions involving a family member with a handicap. The Situational Attitude Scale--Handicapped Family Consumer (which assesses attitudes toward parental expenditure of money for siblings or…
The article examines two common rationalizations for euthanasia of persons with severe handicaps and presents arguments to refute them. The article calls for parents, professionals, and friends of persons with severe handicaps to be vocal in refuting euthanasia and its rationales. (Author/CL)
Aug 18, 1990 ... handicapped group the death rate was as high as 58,5/1 000 because it was an older population. In our patients we observed that in spite of the preparation before transfer, and the improved facilities and nursing care afterwards, there was an increase in the death rate of mentally handicapped patients after ...
Schwinger, Malte; Wirthwein, Linda; Lemmer, Gunnar; Steinmayr, Ricarda
Self-handicapping represents a frequently used strategy for regulating the threat to self-esteem elicited by the fear of failing in academic achievement settings. Several studies have documented negative associations between self-handicapping and different educational outcomes, inter alia academic achievement. However, studies on the relation…
Nurmi, Jari-Erik; And Others
Two studies with a total of 153 junior and senior high-school students and vocational students in Finland investigated whether underachievers applied a self-handicapping or learned-helplessness strategy in achievement contexts. Underachievers seemed to apply a self-handicapping strategy rather than a learned-helplessness approach. (SLD)
Midgley, Carol; Urdan, Tim
This study extends previous research on the relations among students' personal achievement goals, perceptions of the classroom goal structure, and reports of the use of self-handicapping strategies. Surveys, specific to the math domain, were given to 484 7th-grade students in nine middle schools. Personal performance-avoid goals positively predicted handicapping, whereas personal performance-approach goals did not. Personal task goals negatively predicted handicapping. Perceptions of a performance goal structure positively predicted handicapping, and perceptions of a task goal structure negatively predicted handicapping, independent of personal goals. Median splits used to examine multiple goal profiles revealed that students high in performance-avoid goals used handicapping more than did those low in performance-avoid goals regardless of the level of task goals. Students low in performance-avoid goals and high in task goals handicapped less than those low in both goals. Level of performance-approach goals had little effect on the relation between task goals and handicapping. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Handelsman, Mitchell M.; And Others
Self-handicapping strategies are behaviors or choices of performance settings which allow people to maintain self-esteem by avoiding negative self-relevant attributions. People will behave in such a way that accurate, nonambiguous attributions about their performance cannot be made. Research on self-handicapping has focused on clinically relevant…
The paper deals with the issues concerning the study of mentally handicapped teenagers' integrative potential within modernisation of contemporary Russian education. The research is concentrated on the study of personal and social determinants influencing the readiness of mentally handicapped students to be integrated into the environment.…
Phelps, William R.
In 1979 the National Research Council established a panel to study testing of handicapped people for selection and placement purposes in educational and employment settings. The study involved the review of relevant literature, solicitation of pertinent information from organizations representing handicapped persons and from professionals involved…
Hazard, Cambria Jones; Callister, Lynn Clark; Birkhead, Ana; Nichols, Lisa
To evaluate the qualitative aspects of the Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative. "Hispanic Labor Friends," bilingual Hispanic community women who were themselves mothers, were recruited by clinic and hospital personnel. Women who agreed were educated, received translation certification, and were oriented to the initiative. Pregnant Hispanic immigrant women seen in the health center who met criteria set by the multidisciplinary health care team were assigned a Hispanic Labor Friend by 32 weeks' gestation. Hispanic Labor Friends assisted women with communication with healthcare providers and provided social support. Qualitative evaluation of the program consisted of interviews with several groups: (1) Hispanic immigrant women who had a Hispanic Labor Friend, (2) Hispanic immigrant women who were not in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, (3) Hispanic Labor Friends, (4) healthcare providers for Hispanic women. Data saturation was reached, and data were analyzed by the research team using descriptive qualitative inquiry. The Hispanic immigrant women described positive outcomes from being involved in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, including feeling supported and comforted. "I felt as though my family were at my side." One woman who had standard care said, "It is hard for me to communicate. When I gave birth, the nurses asked me things, and I didn't understand anything. I stayed quiet." One of the nurses who was interviewed said: "I think they [the HLF patients] get better care. Sometimes we think we can communicate with them with their little bit of English and our little bit of Spanish. But you get an HLF and it's a totally different story. We can more adequately tell what's going on with them...They end up getting better care." One Hispanic Labor Friend said, "The women are very appreciative that I was there to help them through a critical time." Women who participated in the study identified the need to have a continuing association with Hispanic Labor Friends in
Aazh, Hashir; Lammaing, Karen; Moore, Brian C J
The aim was to assess factors related to tinnitus and hyperacusis handicap in older people. Retrospective cross-sectional. Data were gathered for 184 patients with an average age of 69 years. Tinnitus handicap as measured via the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) was significantly predicted by tinnitus annoyance as measured via the visual analogue scale (VAS) (regression coefficient, b = 2.9, p tinnitus on the patient's life as measured via the VAS (b = 3.9, p tinnitus annoyance significantly predicts tinnitus handicap, it is important to explore factors associated with annoyance that may be useful in designing appropriate rehabilitative interventions aimed at reducing tinnitus handicap in older people. Future studies should explore whether hyperacusis and insomnia in older people with tinnitus need to be managed in conjunction with treatment for depression.
Collins, Timothy W.; Kim, Young-an; Grineski, Sara E.; Clark-Reyna, Stephanie
Prior research suggests that economic deprivation has a generally negative influence on residents’ health. We employ hierarchical logistic regression modeling to test if economic deprivation presents respiratory health risks or benefits to Hispanic children living in the City of El Paso (Texas, USA) at neighborhood- and individual-levels, and whether individual-level health effects of economic deprivation vary based on neighborhood-level economic deprivation. Data come from the US Census Bureau and a population-based survey of El Paso schoolchildren. The dependent variable is children’s current wheezing, an established respiratory morbidity measure, which is appropriate for use with economically-deprived children with an increased likelihood of not receiving a doctor’s asthma diagnosis. Results reveal that economic deprivation (measured based on poverty status) at both neighborhood- and individual-levels is associated with reduced odds of wheezing for Hispanic children. A sensitivity analysis revealed similar significant effects of individual- and neighborhood-level poverty on the odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma. Neighborhood-level poverty did not significantly modify the observed association between individual-level poverty and Hispanic children’s wheezing; however, greater neighborhood poverty tends to be more protective for poor (as opposed to non-poor) Hispanic children. These findings support a novel, multilevel understanding of seemingly paradoxical effects of economic deprivation on Hispanic health. PMID:25101769
Timothy W. Collins
Full Text Available Prior research suggests that economic deprivation has a generally negative influence on residents’ health. We employ hierarchical logistic regression modeling to test if economic deprivation presents respiratory health risks or benefits to Hispanic children living in the City of El Paso (Texas, USA at neighborhood- and individual-levels, and whether individual-level health effects of economic deprivation vary based on neighborhood-level economic deprivation. Data come from the US Census Bureau and a population-based survey of El Paso schoolchildren. The dependent variable is children’s current wheezing, an established respiratory morbidity measure, which is appropriate for use with economically-deprived children with an increased likelihood of not receiving a doctor’s asthma diagnosis. Results reveal that economic deprivation (measured based on poverty status at both neighborhood- and individual-levels is associated with reduced odds of wheezing for Hispanic children. A sensitivity analysis revealed similar significant effects of individual- and neighborhood-level poverty on the odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma. Neighborhood-level poverty did not significantly modify the observed association between individual-level poverty and Hispanic children’s wheezing; however, greater neighborhood poverty tends to be more protective for poor (as opposed to non-poor Hispanic children. These findings support a novel, multilevel understanding of seemingly paradoxical effects of economic deprivation on Hispanic health.
Michigan Dance Association, Lansing.
The Michigan Dance Association's Dance Project for the Handicapped is the subject of the two pamphlets that make up this document. The first pamphlet, "The Dance Within," describes the history, nature and goals of the Jackson Pilot Project, the first handicapped dance program in Michigan; it also offers suggestions on how to set up similar…
Perceived control over school performances is often assessed by means of attributions of performance to ''controllable'' or ''non-controllable'' causes. We assume that this assessment method is not reliable, because it is not possible to make a general distinction between controllable and
Hernandez, Jack; Slate, John R.; Joyner, Sheila A.
In this literature review, Hispanic demographic changes in the United States and in Texas are examined. Hispanics have accounted for large changes in population, population change, and proportion of population. Accordingly, the literature was reviewed regarding Hispanic immigrants, both authorized and non-authorized immigrants. The issue of…
Fisher, Patti J.; Hsu, Chungwen
This study uses the 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances to empirically explore differences in saving behavior between Hispanic (N = 533) and non-Hispanic White (N = 2,473) households. The results of the logistic regression model show that self-employed Hispanics were more likely to save, while self-employment was not significant for Whites. Being…
Blackowicz, Michael J; Hryhorczuk, Daniel O; Rankin, Kristin M; Lewis, Dan A; Haider, Danish; Lanphear, Bruce P; Evens, Anne
Environmental lead exposure detrimentally affects children's educational performance, even at very low blood lead levels (BLLs). Among children in Chicago Public Schools (CPS), the severity of the effects of BLL on reading and math vary by racial subgroup (White vs. Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic Black). We investigated the impact of BLL on standardized test performance by Hispanic subgroup (Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Other Hispanic). We examined 12,319 Hispanic children born in Chicago between 1994 and 1998 who were tested for BLL between birth and 2006 and enrolled in the 3rd grade at a CPS school between 2003 and 2006. We linked the Chicago birth registry, the Chicago Blood Lead Registry, and 3rd grade Illinois Standard Achievement Test (ISAT) scores to examine associations between BLL and school performance. Primary analyses were restricted to children with BLL below 10 µg/dL (0.483 µmol/L). BLLs below 10 µg/dL (0.483 µmol/L) were inversely associated with reading and math scores in all Hispanic subgroups. Adjusted Relative Risks (RRadj) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for reading and math failure were 1.34 (95% CI = 1.25, 1.63) and 1.53 (95% CI = 1.32, 1.78), respectively, per each additional 5 µg/dL of lead exposure for Hispanic children; RRadj did not differ across subgroups. We estimate that 7.0% (95% CI = 1.8, 11.9) of reading and 13.6% (95% CI = 7.7, 19.2) of math failure among Hispanic children can be attributed to exposure to BLLs of 5-9 µg/dL (0.242 to 0.435 µmol/L) vs. 0-4 µg/dL (0-0.193 µmol/L). The RRadj of math failure for each 5 µg/dL (0.242 µmol/L) increase in BLL was notably (p = 0.074) stronger among black Puerto Rican children (RRadj = 5.14; 95% CI = 1.65-15.94) compared to white Puerto Rican children (RRadj = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.12-2.02). Early childhood lead exposure is associated with poorer achievement on standardized reading and math tests in the 3rd grade for Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Other Hispanic children enrolled in Chicago
Lawrence, Jean M.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Reynolds, Kristi; Beyer, Jennifer; Pettitt, David J.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Hamman, Richard F.
OBJECTIVE—To report the 2001 prevalence and 2002–2005 incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Hispanic American youth and to describe the demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of these youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, a population-based multicenter observational study of youth aged 0–19 years with physician-diagnosed diabetes, were used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Information obtained by questionnaire, physical examination, and blood and urine collection was analyzed to describe the characteristics of youth who completed a study visit. RESULTS—Among Hispanic American youth, type 1 diabetes was more prevalent than type 2 diabetes, including in youth aged 10–19 years. There were no significant sex differences in type 1 or type 2 diabetes prevalence. The incidence of type 2 diabetes for female subjects aged 10–14 years was twice that of male subjects (P < 0.005), while among youth aged 15–19 years the incidence of type 2 diabetes exceeded that of type 1 diabetes for female subjects (P < 0.05) but not for male subjects. Poor glycemic control, defined as A1C ≥9.5%, as well as high LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were common among youth aged ≥15 years with either type of diabetes. Forty-four percent of youth with type 1 diabetes were overweight or obese. CONCLUSIONS—Factors such as poor glycemic control, elevated lipids, and a high prevalence of overweight and obesity may put Hispanic youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes at risk for future diabetes-related complications. PMID:19246577
. Previously seen as mere objects of charity, disabled people acquired the right to be considered as individuals benefitting from the same rights as ordinary people, thanks to the action of numerous associations. However, despite changes in the perception of the disabled by able-bodied people, people with handicaps are still confronted with a wide range of problems in their daily lives. There has been progress in aid for the physically handicapped such as access to public buildings and public transport. The difficulties visually-impaired and deaf people experience have been taken into account with the introduction for example of warning sounds and the acceptance of dogs for the blind. However access to fundemental rights for the mentally handicapped (intellectually or psychologically impaired remains undeveloped. This study will concentrate on the integration and inclusion policies for people with mental handicaps. Firstly, the legislation enacted with a view to increasing their insertion in British society will be examined. Secondly, the way in which children are integrated into the school sytem is surveyed. Finally, the arguments surrounding the importance of successful integratio for the adult and society at large will be raised.
Urdan, Tim; Midgley, Carol; Anderman, Eric M.
Surveyed 656 fifth graders on their use of self-handicapping strategies and examined predictors of self-handicapping. Boys used handicapping more than girls did, and grade point average and perceived academic competence were negatively related to handicapping. Ability goal structure and teaching practices highlighting relative ability were…
Sheil, Astrid; Rivera, Jose Luis
Thirty-four undergraduate public relations majors participating in a problem-based service-learning project at a Hispanic-Serving Institution executed an event that attracted more than 100 low-income Hispanic families to campus. The purpose was to help parents prepare their children for college. From primary and secondary research, the students…
The high percentage and the steady growth of Hispanic/Latino students in Arizona demand that special attention be placed on improving academic achievement and attainment. The need to support Hispanic/Latino parents in becoming meaningful positive contributors to their children's schooling continues to surface as a critical issue in school…
Lee, June; Barron, Brigid
The Hispanic-Latino population is one of the largest--and most diverse--demographics in the U.S. Aprendiendo en casa reveals findings from a national survey of Hispanic parents about their home media environments and practices, and their perceptions of their children's use of educational media across a range of different platforms. The report…
Thompson, T; Richardson, A
Self-handicapping involves the strategic establishment of an impediment or obstacle to success prior to a performance situation which thereby provides a convenient excuse for poor performance. The study sought to establish that relative to low trait self-handicappers, high trait self-handicappers exposed to failure in an intellectually evaluative situation will (a) pre-emptively claim more handicaps, and (b) behaviourally self-handicap through reduced practice effort, and (c) report greater anxiety and negative affect relative to low trait self-handicappers. Participants were 72 undergraduate students, divided equally between high and low self-handicapping groups. This study utilised a 2 (self-handicapping status: high, low) x 3 (performance feedback: fail, low task importance; fail, high task importance; success) between-subjects factorial design to investigate claimed and behavioural self-handicapping through reduced practice effort. This was done by manipulating performance outcome and perceived task importance. Relative to low trait self-handicappers, high trait high self-handicappers claimed more handicaps and engaged in greater behavioural self-handicapping following failure when working on tasks that were described as potentially diagnostic of low ability. While low self-handicappers internalised their success more than their failure in the high task importance condition, high self-handicappers were undifferentiated in their attributions across performance conditions. Greater anxiety and greater negative affect were also characteristic of high self-handicappers. The study highlights the self-protective benefit of self-handicapping in sparing the individual from conclusions of low ability, and the failure of high self-handicappers to fully internalise their success. These elements and the role of uncertain estimates of ability are discussed in considering implications for intervention.
Explores Afra-Hispanic literature, the writing of black Spanish-speaking women of the Caribbean and Central and South America. The literary texts of Afra-Hispanic women reveal an emerging feminist consciousness. A more detailed analysis is given of the poetry of Virginia Brindis de Salas and Aida Cartagena Portalatin. (SLD)
Serafin, Ana Gil
This paper discusses issues related to the recruitment of Hispanic-American educational leaders, focusing on the El Centro de Recursos Educativos outreach center at Northeastern Illinois University in Chicago, which began operation in Fall 1997. It examines the characteristics of successful programs for Hispanic recruitment and retention and the…
Parrado, Emilio A.; Kandel, William A.
We analyze the relationship between Hispanic population growth and changes in U.S. rural income inequality from 1990 through 2000. Applying comparative approaches used for urban areas we disentangle Hispanic population growth's contribution to inequality by comparing and statistically modeling changes in the family income Gini coefficient across…
McHaney, Roger; Martin, Dawne
This paper provides several suggestions Hispanic student recruitment and retention in MIS or other business curricula. Cultural considerations like allocentrism and familialism are discussed along with the situation at K-State. It is believed that the recruitment and retention of Hispanic students can be influenced positively by considering…
As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17…
Centro De La Comunidad, Inc., New London, CT.
During its second year, the Hispanic Vocational Exploration Project recruited eighth and ninth grade Hispanic youth for a four-week cycle, after-school, career exploratory program at Southeastern Regional Vocational Technical School, Groton, Connecticut. A series of career education workshops was the other major project activity. Supportive…
Hirt, E R; Deppe, R K; Gordon, L J
The present study was an investigation of how Ss would respond when given 2 self-handicapping options, 1 behavioral (withdrawal of practice effort) and 1 self-reported (reporting high levels of stress). Ss anticipating a diagnostic test of intellectual ability were given different instructions regarding the effects of stress and practice on test performance. Ss were told that (a) stress only, (b) practice only, (c) both stress and practice, or (d) neither stress nor practice affected test scores. Ss were then given the opportunity to self-report a handicap on a stress inventory and to behaviorally self-handicap by failing to practice before the test. High self-handicapping men and women showed evidence of self-reported handicapping, but only high self-handicapping men behaviorally self-handicapped. However, when both self-handicaps were viable, both high self-handicapping men and women preferred the self-reported over the behavioral self-handicap.
Berry, Carolyn A; Quinn, Kelly; Wolf, Raoul; Mosnaim, Giselle; Shalowitz, Madeleine
The health and health care needs of non-English-speaking Hispanic families with children are poorly understood, in part because they are often excluded from research owing to language barriers. Instruments that are valid in English and Spanish are necessary to accurately evaluate the magnitude of asthma prevalence and morbidity among Hispanics. To establish the sensitivity and specificity of the English and Spanish versions of the asthma portion of the Brief Pediatric Asthma Screen Plus (BPAS+) in a low-income Hispanic population. The validation sample consisted of 145 children whose parents completed the BPAS+ in Spanish and 78 whose parents completed it in English. Bilingual clinicians conducted the examinations on which the clinical assessments were based. We compared the BPAS+ results with the clinical assessment findings to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the BPAS + among Hispanics in terms of identifying children who warrant further medical evaluation for asthma. The sensitivity and specificity of the asthma portion of the Spanish BPAS+ were 74% and 86%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the asthma portion of the English BPAS+ were 61% and 83%, respectively. The asthma portion of the BPAS+, a valid screen for identifying children who are in need of further evaluation for potentially undiagnosed asthma, is valid for low-income Hispanics in Spanish and English. As the Hispanic population continues to grow, it is imperative that researchers have English and Spanish instruments that are valid for this population.
Rendón, Angélica Delgado; Unger, Jennifer B; Cruz, Tess; Soto, Daniel W; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes
Despite the progressive adoption of smoking bans in public spaces, children living in multi-unit housing remain at risk of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and thirdhand smoke (THS). Hispanic populations in California are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of SHS and THS because a large proportion of Hispanics live in multi-unit housing. Three focus groups were conducted in the fall of 2012 (in Spanish and English, N = 24) to understand Hispanics' knowledge of and experiences with SHS and THS, including barriers to avoiding smoke exposure and strategies for protecting their homes from smoke. Hispanic residents reported unpleasant experiences with SHS and THS and were generally knowledgeable about the adverse health effects, although they were not familiar with the term "thirdhand smoke." Some participants also mentioned marijuana smoke as a potential health hazard. Hispanic cultural values made participants reluctant to confront their neighbors but also motivated them to find ways to protect their families from smoke. Potential solutions included working with the smokers to designate a smoking area and gaining support from the building owners. Broad smoking policies should be implemented to help Hispanic residents overcome cultural and social barriers to smoke free air.
Frith, Greg H.; And Others
The Cherokee County (Alabama) horticulture training program provides 40 mildly mentally retarded adolescents with vocational training in a marketable skills. The broad spectrum of vocational skills makes horticulture ideal for the handicapped. (DB)
In the last 10 years micropropagation has shown a spectacular development. However, at present the widespread use of micropropagation is handicapped by the following facts: Frequently mutations occur, particularly when applying the adventitious bud technique and callus systems. Basic knowledge
Martin, Mary-Lou; Forchuk, Cheryl
The article describes a sex education program for small groups of developmentally handicapped adolescents and young adults which includes information on and discussion of body parts, acceptable social behavior, assertiveness, birth control, and sexually transmitted diseases. (Author/JW)
Brown, Christina M; Kimble, Charles E
This study explored the combined effects of personal factors (participant sex), interpersonal factors (experimenter sex), and situational factors (performance feedback) on two forms of behavioral self-handicapping. Participants received non-contingent success or failure feedback concerning their performance on a novel ability and were given the opportunity to self-handicap before performing again. Behavioral self-handicapping took the form of (a) exerting less practice effort (practice) or (b) choosing a performance-debilitating tape (choice). Men practiced least after failure feedback and chose a debilitating tape if they were interacting with a female experimenter. Generally, across all participants in both choice and practice conditions, high performance concern and the presence of a male experimenter led to the most self-handicapping. Results are interpreted in terms of self-presentational concerns that emphasize a desire to impress or an awareness of the female or male experimenter's acceptance of self-handicappers.
Shawky, S; Milaat, W M; Abalkhail, B A; Soliman, N K
The objectives of this study were to determine the relation between maternal education and various maternal risk factors, identify the impact of maternal education on the risk of childhood handicap and estimate the proportion of childhood handicap that can be prevented by maternal education. Data was collected from all married women attending the two major maternity and child hospitals in Jeddah during April 1999. Women with at least one living child were interviewed for sociodemographic factors and having at least one handicapped child. The risk of having a handicapped child and the population attributable risk percent were calculated. Some potential risk factors are dominant in our society as approximately 30% of women did not attend school and 84% did not work. Consanguineous marriages accounted for about 43%. Pre-marriage counseling was limited as only 10% of women counseled before marriage. The proportion of unemployment and consanguineous marriages decreased significantly by increase in maternal education level. Conversely, the proportion of women reporting pre-marriage counseling increased significantly by increase in maternal education level. Approximately, 7% of women reported having at least one handicapped child. The risk of having a handicapped child showed a significant sharp decline with increase in maternal education level. At least 25% of childhood handicap can be prevented by achieving female primary education and up to half of cases can be prevented if mothers finish their intermediate education. Female education plays a major role in child health. The results of this study suggest investment in female education, which would have substantial positive effects in reducing incidence of childhood handicap in Jeddah.
Yeter Sinem Uzar Ozcetin
Full Text Available Self handicapping is characterized by experiencing anxiety at succeeding a mission although the person has the capacity to fulfill the assignment or duty. It describes one's showing tendency to link own failures to problems in own performance instead of own abilities to protect oneself from the possibility of failure. When individuals care about performance much but doubt about success, they display self-handicapping strategies to protect their self. Self-handicappers try to protect their self by internalizing successes and externalizing failures. This strategies help them feel well in both successes and failures. Self-handicapping becomes a trait of personality in time and the individual begins to use it continuously as a negative coping mechanism to protect his/her self and to avoid failures. These actions eliminates the capability of rational thinking and prevents solution of the problems as a result of irrational interpretations. Self-handicapping causes the decrease of life satisfaction and motivation, and causes the increase of maladaptation, negative mood, somatic symptoms and alcohol-drug abuse. As a conclusion, self-handicapping hinders performance and this negative performance influences adaptation and psychological well-being. The most essential approach to prevent occurrence of self-handicapping behaviours is empowerment of the self. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 145-154
Social relations around the handicapped are generally presented in terms of economic dependence and social inadaptation. This point of view leads to give greater importance, especially in Africa, to studying the way in which group and society help the physically or mentally ill. Actually, this approach does not give a complete account about the real situation of the handicapped in social relations of production and reproduction. From a series of in-depth interviews conducted in handicapped families of the suburbs of Dakar, two aspects are analyzed: the economic role of the handicapped, through the circulation of the product of his begging in his household or through the exploitation of his work as apprentice in a workshop; and his value on the marriage market, where invalid persons are given without dowry if they are women, and must pay a much more important amount if they are men. The social situation of the handicapped thus is not only a matter of assistance or charity, but as well of strategies that the handicapped and above all his circle implement in order to take advantage of the stigma or on the contrary try to erase it.
Ferradás, María del Mar; Freire, Carlos; Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José Carlos
In highly competitive settings like university, the fear of failure leads some students to protect their self-worth using self-handicapping strategies. The present investigation examines to what extent academic goals are related to those tactics in university students. Specifically, MANCOVA was applied to estimate statistical differences linked to behavioral and claimed self-handicapping strategies according to the level (high/medium/low) of four types of academic goal (achievement approach, achievement avoidance, mastery approach, and work avoidance). Degree, year in school, and gender were entered as covariates. 940 students (86.5% women) from University of A Coruña (M = 20.44; SD = 1.73) participated. Results show that: (a) both behavioral and claimed self-handicapping are promoted by ego-oriented goals (achievement avoidance, F(2, 937) = 23.56, p self-handicapping (F(2, 937) = 9.09, p self-handicapping; and (c) mastery approach goals are significantly, negatively related to both types of self-handicapping (F(2, 937) = 20.09, p < .001, η p 2 = .041). Psychological and educational implications of the findings are discussed.
Corcuera Flores, José Ramón; Delgado Muñoz, José María; Ruiz Villandiego, José Cruz; Maura Solivellas, Isabel; Machuca Portillo, Guillermo
Dental treatment on Handicapped Patients is often difficult because many people with a wide range of ages (from children to the elderly) with different pathologies that can affect the oral cavity and differ widely are included in this group. This situation creates some controversy, because according to pathology, each patient will be treated differently depending on collaboration, general health status, age or medication used to treat this pathologies. According to this situation we can opt f...
Mutlu, Basak; Serbetcioglu, Bulent
A review of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI). NUMBER OF STUDIES: Seventy-four studies. Articles published between January 1990 and May 2012 were identified by searches in PubMed electronic database. Of the 227 articles meeting the inclusion criteria 74 were reviewed. These articles are discussed under nine topics; Reliability, validity and internal consistency of the original version of DHI, relationship between vestibular/balance tests and DHI, association between DHI and the other scales related to balance impairments, exploratory factor analysis of the DHI, screening version of DHI, translations of DHI into other languages, the role of DHI to assess the success of the treatment of balance disorder, DHI results in various vestibular disorders, general characteristics of DHI in patients with balance impairment. Self reported measures represent unique pieces of the information important for the management of dizzy patients. DHI is the most widely used self reported measurement of patients with dizziness. It has been translated into fourteen languages, so it is widely accepted.
Ross, Sharon E. Taverno; Francis, Lori A.
Background In order to develop effective physical activity interventions and to address the burden of obesity in Hispanic children, qualitative studies are needed to build descriptive theory and expand the state of the science. The purpose of this study is to describe physical activity perceptions, context, facilitators, and barriers from the perspective of Hispanic immigrant-origin children. Method This in-depth, ethnographic study included 14, 6- to 11-year old, first- and second- generation Hispanic children recruited from an afterschool program in Southeastern Pennsylvania, USA. Methods included child observation, field notes, semi-structured interviews, and a PhotoVoice activity. Transcripts and field notes were coded and analyzed using the constant comparison method to identify overarching themes and patterns in the data. Results Data analysis yielded four overarching themes regarding children's perspectives on physical activity. Children engaged in a variety of physical activities and sedentary behaviors, which differed by physical (e.g., park, outside home, and afterschool programs) and social (e.g., parents, siblings, and friends) contexts. Children discussed specific benefits of physical activity. Children's negative attitudes toward physical activity were related to physical discomfort, low athletic competence, and safety concerns. Children perceived physical activity and play to be one in the same, and “fun” was identified as a primary driver of physical activity preferences. The facilitators and barriers to physical activity were related to specific parent/home, school, and neighborhood factors. Conclusion Findings from this study suggest that an emphasis on fun and active play, while taking into account family and neighborhood context, may be a desirable intervention approach in Hispanic immigrant-origin children. This study lays the groundwork for future studies to further explore some of the themes identified here to better understand children
Sharon E. Taverno Ross
Full Text Available Background: In order to develop effective physical activity interventions and to address the burden of obesity in Hispanic children, qualitative studies are needed to build descriptive theory and expand the state of the science. The purpose of this study is to describe physical activity perceptions, context, facilitators, and barriers from the perspective of Hispanic immigrant-origin children. Method: This in-depth, ethnographic study included 14, 6- to 11-year old, first- and second- generation Hispanic children recruited from an afterschool program in Southeastern Pennsylvania, USA. Methods included child observation, field notes, semi-structured interviews, and a PhotoVoice activity. Transcripts and field notes were coded and analyzed using the constant comparison method to identify overarching themes and patterns in the data. Results: Data analysis yielded four overarching themes regarding children's perspectives on physical activity. Children engaged in a variety of physical activities and sedentary behaviors, which differed by physical (e.g., park, outside home, and afterschool programs and social (e.g., parents, siblings, and friends contexts. Children discussed specific benefits of physical activity. Children's negative attitudes toward physical activity were related to physical discomfort, low athletic competence, and safety concerns. Children perceived physical activity and play to be one in the same, and “fun” was identified as a primary driver of physical activity preferences. The facilitators and barriers to physical activity were related to specific parent/home, school, and neighborhood factors. Conclusion: Findings from this study suggest that an emphasis on fun and active play, while taking into account family and neighborhood context, may be a desirable intervention approach in Hispanic immigrant-origin children. This study lays the groundwork for future studies to further explore some of the themes identified here to better
Richardson, Safiya I.; Freedman, Barry I.; Ellison, David H.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.
The purpose of this review is to summarize the available information regarding salt sensitivity particularly as it relates to non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics and to clarify possible etiologies, especially those that might shed light on potential treatment options. In non-Hispanic blacks, there is evidence that endothelial dysfunction, reduced potassium intake, decreased urinary kallikrein excretion, upregulation of sodium channel activity, dysfunction in atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) production, and APOL1 gene nephropathy risk variants may cause or contribute to salt sensitivity. Supported treatment avenues include diets high in potassium and soybean protein, the components of which stimulate nitric oxide production. Racial heterogeneity complicates the study of salt sensitivity in Hispanic populations. Caribbean Hispanics, who have a higher proportion of African ancestry, may respond to commonly prescribed anti-hypertensive agents in a way that is characteristic of non-Hispanic black hypertensives. The low-renin hypertensive phenotype commonly seen in non-Hispanic blacks has been linked to salt sensitivity and may indicate an increased risk for salt sensitivity in a portion of the Hispanic population. In conclusion, increased morbidity and mortality associated with salt sensitivity mandates further studies evaluating the efficacy of tailored dietary and pharmacologic treatment in non-Hispanic blacks and determining the prevalence of low renin hypertension and salt sensitivity within the various subgroups of Hispanic Americans. PMID:23428408
罗国刚; 韩蓁; 李公正; 赵天寿; 刘灵
BACKGROUND: Visual-motor integration (VMI) test was introduced into China in the 1970s and 1990s and widely used for evaluation and identification of problems in intellectual development and learning ability in children due to its good applicability without limitations by language and cultural background.OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of developmental test of VMI in children with hearing handicap, and evaluate its practical feasibility in largescale screening of intelligence problems in these children by comparing its reliability and validity with the norms of children in Shaanxi Province and the USA.DESIGN: A controlled correlation and multiple stepwise regression analysis with randomized cluster sampling.SETTING: Neurological Department of the First Hospital Affiliated to Medical College of Xi' an Jiaotong University.PARTICIPANTS: From January 1998 to December 2000, 638 children under 18 years of age with hearing handicaps were chosen from 6 schools of deaf-mutes in Xi'an City, Xianyang City, Chang'an County, Huxian County,and Lintong County in Shaanxi Province. Another 43 children with hearing handicap including 23 male and 20 female children aged (11.62±1.98) years were selected randomly for EEG and brain electrical activity mapping (BEAM) examination, who had a mean development quotient of VMI of 86.60±15.68. The children were divided by the development quotient into two groups, namely those with development quotient ＜ 86.6 (n=20) and those with development quotient ≥ 86.6 (n=23). METHODS: ① The VMI test was performed in accordance with the Fourth edition of VMI Manual by Beery K.E. The test was terminated when the testee failed to correctly copy three consecutive geometrical figures without time limit. The scale score varied from 0 to 27. ② The reliability test included split-half reliability test in which the items were split into two parts according to odd-even number, re-test reliability that tested the same group of children again in two months
National Education Association, Washington, DC. Project on Utilization of Inservice Education R & D Outcomes.
As a description of a "survival kit" for teachers confronted with the instruction of severely/profoundly handicapped children, complete information with regard to purposes of the kit, printed and audiovisual contents, scope and sequencing of topics for the six training modules, and activities and resources involved in the use of the kit is…
Cersosimo, Eugenio; Musi, Nicolas
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is higher in Hispanic/Latino individuals living in the United States compared with their non-Hispanic white counterparts. Many factors contribute to the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, including biological characteristics, socioeconomic conditions, and cultural aspects. The contribution of genetics to the risk of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients is becoming increasingly clear, but this inherent risk factor cannot be modified. However, certain socioeconomic and cultural factors, such as reduced access to healthcare, language barriers, cultural beliefs, and lack of cultural competence by the healthcare provider, are modifiable and should be overcome in order to improve the management of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients. At the healthcare system level, policies should be put into place to reduce disparities between Hispanics/Latinos and non-Hispanic whites regarding health insurance coverage and access to healthcare. At the healthcare provider and patient level, cultural beliefs should be taken into consideration when selecting adequate treatment. Overall, type 2 diabetes management should be individualized by identifying the preferred language and level of acculturation for each patient. These considerations are necessary to further improve communication through culturally appropriate educational materials and programs. These strategies may help to overcome the barriers in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Despite the high prevalence rates of food insecurity and obesity among children of Hispanic immigrants, there has been a dearth of research on the direct relationship between food insecurity and obesity among this population. Further, prior research examining the association between food insecurity ...
Lewis, Magdalena C.
The Padres a la escuela (PAE) or Parents in the School program in San Antonio (Texas) encouraged the participation of Hispanic parents in the education of their children. The successes of the PAE program are used in this guidebook to help parents, program staff, and policy makers in similar efforts. This handbook describes the history,…
de Carpio, America Bracho; And Others
Describes AIDS research-education strategy based on story-telling and problem solving being used among Hispanics in Detroit, Michigan. Community worker tells stories whose central characters are children learning AIDS risk behaviors. Listeners encouraged to advise characters. Family discussions follow. Results incorporated into educational…
El Derecho de su Hijo(a) a Una Educacion: Una guia para los Padres de Ninos Impedidos en el Estado de Nueva York (Your Child's Right to an Education: A Guide for Parents of Children with Handicapping Conditions in New York State).
New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.
Intended for parents of handicapped students, the guide (available in English, Spanish, or Chinese) sets forth the New York State policies for speical education. The following topics are among those considered: eligibility for special education, program types, alternative placements (such as residential settings), referral, evaluation,…
ASPIRA Association, Inc., Washington, DC. National Office.
This publication offers an overview of the health of Hispanic Americans in the United States. Topics covered include the following: (1) Hispanic representation in health fields; (2) access to health care; (3) maternal and child health; (4) substance abuse; (5) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Hispanics; (6) Hispanic elderly; (7) migrant…
Full Text Available Nowadays knowledge and communication technologies are developing rapidly and changing people’s lives. With the help of the developing technologies, people can access knowledge independent of time and place and distance education technologies offer handicapped students a range of opportunities in order that they may access a better level of education. By defining perceptions related to the distance education of a physically handicapped student engaged in a program of synchrony distance education at Karadeniz Technical University to throw a fresh light on this topic. Due to the nature research problem, phenomenology, one of qualitative research patterns, was used in this study which has a qualitative character. In this study, because it was intended to present a handicapped person’s thoughts related to distance education, semi-structured interview, one of qualitative data collection techniques was thought to be the most appropriate data collection instrument. The sampling of the research included the handicapped student receiving courses by synchrony distance education in Karadeniz Technical University, two friends of the student following the same course and the assistant in the course environment. The interviews were recorded with a video camera, a transcript of each of the interviews was prepared and the data was analyzed scientifically. In the light of the research findings, it was decided that the synchrony distance education environment helped handicapped person feel more secure and relaxed and for his handicap not to be noticed by others. In addition, without the lecturers’ feeling of compassion, it presented handicapped student with an opportunity to prove himself. Also, because the courses classes? were recorded in this environment, students could review the content of the class in their own time and this process could be repeated, thus the students could learn at their own speed.
Square OPMEO Office of Diversity Management & Equal Opportunity PES Performance Evaluation System PI Performance Index PLC Platoon Leaders Class...to the Hispanic service members. According to U.S. census estimates, Hispanics or Latinos compose 16.9 percent of the total U.S. population and this...census estimates, Hispanics or Latinos compose 16.9 percent of the total U.S. population which accounted for half the U.S. population growth between
NHSDG Non-High School Diploma Graduates OccFld Occupational Field OMB Office of Management and Budget OLS Ordinary Least Squares PC ASVAB Paragraph...and the te1m "Hispanic" be replaced by "Hispanic or Latino " (Federal Register, 1997). Although this changed how data was collected and stored, the...U.S. Census Bureau still uses the 1977 OMB definition of Hispanic or Latino (Humes et al., 2011). B. REPRESENTATION As indicated in Table 1, Panel 1
Arnold, Jodi Gonzalez; Miller, Alexander L; Cañive, José M; Rosenheck, Robert A; Swartz, Marvin S; Mintz, Jim
Medication outcome literature in schizophrenia across racial-ethnic groups is sparse, with inconsistent findings. The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study provided an opportunity for exploratory analyses of racial-ethnic outcomes. The study objective was to examine race-ethnicity outcomes for CATIE's main outcome (study discontinuation) and secondary outcomes. CATIE participants included whites (non-Hispanic) (N=722), African Americans (N=506), and Hispanics (N=170). Survival analyses and mixed-effects regression modeling were conducted, with adjustment for baseline sociodemographic differences and baseline scores of the secondary outcomes. Racial-ethnic groups had unique patterns of outcomes. Hispanics were much more likely to discontinue for lack of efficacy from perphenazine (64% versus 42% non-Hispanic whites and 24% African Americans) and ziprasidone (71% versus 40% non-Hispanic whites and 24% African Americans); Hispanics' quality of life also declined on these medications. Non-Hispanic whites were more likely to discontinue for lack of efficacy in general (averaging olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone discontinuation rates). African Americans were less likely to continue after the first phase (32% continuing versus 40% for non-Hispanic whites and 41% Hispanics). Discontinuations were driven by research burden, personal issues, and unspecified loss to follow-up. Non-Hispanic whites had higher depression scores during the follow-up period. African Americans had fewer side effects. CATIE results did not show disparities favoring non-Hispanic whites. CATIE may have provided state-of-the-art treatment and thus reduced disparate treatments observed in community clinics. African Americans discontinued even after consideration of socioeconomic differences. Why perphenazine and ziprasidone may be less effective with Hispanics should be explored.
Psychosocial Impacts of Mentally Retarded Children on Parents in Sudan. ... the age, number of handicapped children in the family as well as the degree of mental ... Results and discussion: The parents reported different psychological effects ...
Clark, Edith Marie; Farley, Jack W.
The article briefly reviews the research and controversy concerning sex education for handicapped children and offers five guidelines including build self-esteem, answer questions clearly and accurately, avoid threats and jokes, and respect children's privacy. (DB)
Mena, Noereem Z; Gorman, Kathleen; Dickin, Kate; Greene, Geoffrey; Tovar, Alison
Parental feeding practices shape children's dietary preferences and behaviors, which can influence a child's weight status. Limited research exists on the precursors and contextual influences of feeding, particularly among Hispanic parents. Therefore, this study explored two areas potentially important for obesity prevention in young children: (1) precursors and contextual influences on parental feeding and (2) parental perceptions and knowledge of the child care food environment. Four focus groups (n=36) were held with Hispanic parents, predominantly mothers, of preschool children at two child care centers. Parents were asked about influences on what and how they feed their children, awareness of the child care center feeding environment, and current involvement in the child care center. Themes were coded using NVivo10 software (QSR International, Melbourne, Australia). Participants' childhood experiences influenced how they feed their children. Parents stated that both husbands and grandparents often indulged their children with unhealthy foods and thought this interfered with their efforts to maintain a healthy home environment. Participants reported that what their children ate while in child care sometimes influenced the home feeding environment. Cultural and environmental factors influence parental feeding and involvement in the child care setting. Consistent with socioecological system theory, exploring interactions between the environment and culture using a family focus framework, such as the Family Ecological Model, could provide a better understanding of these influences among Hispanic parents. Future obesity prevention interventions with Hispanic families should be culturally relevant and target the different environments where children spend their time.
Rucinski, Dianne; Jones, Risé; Reyes, Brenda; Tidwell, Lawon; Phillips, RoiAnn; Delves, Denise
Despite higher birth rates among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, the availability of umbilical cord blood from these groups is lower due to lower donation rates than that of non-Hispanic whites. Similar racial and ethnic disparities in donation rates have been found for blood and organ donation. This study is among the first to explore beliefs and attitudes toward umbilical cord blood donation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women. Five focus groups composed of Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women were conducted to explore how women conceptualize information needs about umbilical cord blood donation and from whom women want to receive information about donation. Participants were adult women who had given birth within the past year or were pregnant. Lack of basic information regarding umbilical cord blood, its harvesting and use, and the steps and conditions necessary to donate were primary barriers to donation. Women expressed confusion over the differences between "donation" and "banking." The social value of donation was explicitly weighed in terms of the cost of the donation effort. Doctors were viewed as critical sources for information about donation, although women expressed skepticism about doctors' ability to convey sufficient information during short office visits. Efforts to increase donation rates among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women should include information about both the technical aspects and the social value of donation. The specific terms "umbilical" and "donation" should be used consistently to prevent misunderstanding. Information should be provided by physicians with follow-up by other health providers.
This podcast is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers.
Apr 10, 1971 ... sports coaches, the school nurse and social workers, to mention but a few. Beyond ... all offer elementary school courses with various forms of vocational or ..... These units produce literature in the relevant media for use by the ...
Shown, D. G.
The paper addresses considerations in planning a new school for visually impaired students in Nigeria. Site considerations touch upon safety, maximum educational achievement, adequate space for practicing mobility and future expansion, catchment area, and financial involvement. Curriculum considerations include use of a braille production machine,…
Kalyanpur, M; Rao, S S
A qualitative study of four black, low-income, single mothers used in-depth interviews and participant observation to evaluate their interactions with outreach agency professionals. Three perceived aspects (disrespect, focus on deficits, and discounting parenting style differences) were associated with exclusionary (unempowering) relationships. A reciprocal and supportive approach was associated with collaborative (empowering) relationships. Implications of these findings for professionals serving minority families are discussed.
This paper is dedicated to a very difficult and important subject--inclusion. Removing barriers, spreading social awareness and firmly established assistantship-guidance: these are the pillars by which inclusion is no longer an idea, but it becomes a process of creating a modern model of human functioning in the world. This pattern is primarily…
Apr 10, 1971 ... required to gain a basic knowledge of the physiology and hygiene of the eye, the ..... college or conservatorium of music at any South African university. Candidates .... recorded. The service is offered free of charge. Ophthal-.
Mar 6, 1971 ... Emotional problems in 11 European and 16 African schoolchildren are ... Cognitive Inefficiency ... motivation in 3 cases, a strong desire for acceptance by the peer .... to affect the children secondarily include social incom-.
Full Text Available Self-handicapping is one of the strategies people use when facing potential failure. Paper presents new scale for assessing self-handicapping tendency as relatively stable trait, as well as its relations with personality traits, sex and age. Self-handicapping questionnaire and shortened form of Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire were administered to 230 participants of both sexes, age 18 to 59. Confirmatory factor analysis shows that model with four latent dimensions, encompassed by a higher-order latent dimension, fits the data well. Those lower order dimensions correspond to originally created scales: External handicaps in interpersonal area, Internal handicaps in interpersonal area, Internal handicaps in achievement area and External handicaps in achievement area. Results of MANCOVA shows that Neuroticism is predictor of all dimensions of self- handicapping. Impulsive sensation seeking predicts choice of external handicaps in interpersonal area, as well as internal handicaps in achievement area. Latter is predicted also by low Activity. Younger subjects show significantly higher tendency to use internal handicaps, and men in general show more self-handicapping tendency than women, except in choosing internal handicaps in achievement area, where sex shows no significant effect.
Rice, Whitney S; Goldfarb, Samantha S; Brisendine, Anne E; Burrows, Stevie; Wingate, Martha S
U.S.-born Hispanic infants have a well-documented health advantage relative to other minority groups. However, little published research has examined racial heterogeneity within the Hispanic population, in relation to health outcomes. The current study aims to explore possible implications of racial identification for the health of U.S. born Hispanic compared to non-Hispanic infants. Methods Data were drawn from 2007 to 2008 NCHS Cohort Linked Live Birth-Infant Death Files, restricted to deliveries of Hispanic black, Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white mothers (NHW) (n = 7,901,858). Adjusted odds ratios for first week mortality, neonatal, postneonatal, and overall infant mortality were calculated for each group, using NHW as the reference group. A distinct health gradient was observed in which NHB infants (n = 1,250,222) had the highest risk of first week (aOR 2.29, CI 2.21-2.37), neonatal (aOR 2.23, CI 2.17-2.30), postneonatal (aOR 1.74, CI 1.68-1.81), and infant mortality (aOR 2.05, CI 2.00-2.10) compared to NHW infants (n = 4,578,150). Hispanic black infants (n = 84,377) also experienced higher risk of first-week (aOR 1.28 (1.12-1.47), neonatal (aOR .27, CI 1.13-1.44), postneonatal (aOR 1.34, CI 1.15-1.56), and infant mortality (aOR 1.30, CI 1.18-1.43) compared to both NHW and Hispanic white infants (n = 1,989,109). Conclusions for Practice: Risk of infant mortality varies among Hispanic infants by race, with poorer outcomes experienced by Hispanic black infants. Compared to non-Hispanic infants of the same race, Hispanic black infants experience a smaller health disadvantage and Hispanic white infants have better or similar infant health outcomes. Our findings suggest implications of racial heterogeneity on infant health outcomes, and provide insight into the role of race as a social construct.
Full Text Available This report on a male head revealed biologic rhythms, as gleaned from hydrogen isotope ratios in hair, consistent with a South-American origin and Atomic Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dating (AMS compatible with the last pre-Hispanic period (1418-1491 AD, 95.4% probability. Biopsies showed exceptionally well-preserved tissues. The hair contained high levels of toxic elements (lead, arsenic and mercury incompatible with life. There was no evidence for lead deposition in bone consistent with post-mortem accumulation of this toxic element in the hair. We propose that the high content of metals in hair was the result of metabolic activity of bacteria leading to metal complexation in extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS. This is a recognized protective mechanism for bacteria that thrive in toxic environments. This mechanism may account for the tissues preservation and gives a hint at soil composition where the head was presumably buried. Our results have implications for forensic toxicology which has, hitherto, relied on hair analyses as one means to reconstruct pre-mortem metabolism and for detecting toxic elements accumulated during life. Our finding also has implications for other archaeological specimens where similar circumstances may distort the results of toxicological studies.
Bianucci, Raffaella; Jeziorska, Maria; Lallo, Rudy; Mattutino, Grazia; Massimelli, Massimo; Phillips, Genevieve; Appenzeller, Otto
This report on a male head revealed biologic rhythms, as gleaned from hydrogen isotope ratios in hair, consistent with a South-American origin and Atomic Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dating (AMS) compatible with the last pre-Hispanic period (1418-1491 AD, 95.4% probability). Biopsies showed exceptionally well-preserved tissues. The hair contained high levels of toxic elements (lead, arsenic and mercury) incompatible with life. There was no evidence for lead deposition in bone consistent with post-mortem accumulation of this toxic element in the hair. We propose that the high content of metals in hair was the result of metabolic activity of bacteria leading to metal complexation in extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS). This is a recognized protective mechanism for bacteria that thrive in toxic environments. This mechanism may account for the tissues preservation and gives a hint at soil composition where the head was presumably buried. Our results have implications for forensic toxicology which has, hitherto, relied on hair analyses as one means to reconstruct pre-mortem metabolism and for detecting toxic elements accumulated during life. Our finding also has implications for other archaeological specimens where similar circumstances may distort the results of toxicological studies.
The oral handicap of complete edentulism is the terminal outcome of a multifactorial process involving biological factors and patient-related factors. Fully edentulous orally handicapped older adults have been neglected because removable acrylic dentures have been the classic therapy for complete edentulism but are only rehabilitative, not therapeutic. Not replacing missing teeth with stable dentures could prevent adequate food intake. Osseointegrated endosseous implants used as a therapeutic adjunct can reduce the problem of long-term bone resorption to less than 0.1 mm per year. Implant-borne prostheses substantially increase the overall health and quality of life of orally handicapped fully edentulous older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
K. Turgut GÜRSEL
Full Text Available Although the technological developments, the handicappeds do not take part sufficiently in the social and economic life, because buildings, road construction features and means of the transport are not suitable for them. In this study, a lift for handicappeds was designed, that is supposed to be installed to the middle door of city buses. The lift, whose installation should require a few changes at the bus, is driven by a hydraulic system from the street to the level of the bus floor and vice-versa. In the work, at first a construction was developed in accordance with the dimensions of the middle door of a city bus. After determining of dimensions of all elements, a hydraulic mechanism was constructed, that raises the handicapped, its wheelchair and the platform. Furthermore the construction of the elements of the system were determined, and its proofs of strength analysis were indicated
Ollberding, Nicholas J; Gilsanz, Vicente; Lappe, Joan M; Oberfield, Sharon E; Shepherd, John A; Winer, Karen K; Zemel, Babette S; Kalkwarf, Heidi J
A dietary assessment instrument designed for use in a nationally representative pediatric population was required to examine associations between calcium intake and bone mineral accrual in a large, multicenter study. To determine the reproducibility and intermethod reliability of a youth calcium food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a multiracial/ethnic sample of children and adolescents. Reproducibility (n=69) and intermethod reliability (n=393) studies were conducted by administering repeat FFQs and three unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls to stratified random samples of individuals participating in the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study. Children and adolescents ages 5 to 21 years. Calcium intake estimated from the FFQ and 24-hour dietary recalls. Reproducibility was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Intermethod reliability was assessed by deattenuated Pearson correlations between the FFQ and 24-hour recalls. Attenuation factors and calibration corrected effect estimates for bone density were calculated to determine the potential influence of measurement error on associations with health outcomes. The ICC (0.61) for repeat administrations and deattenuated Pearson correlation between the FFQ and 24-hour recalls (r=0.60) for all subjects indicated reproducibility and intermethod reliability (Pearson r=0.50 to 0.74 across sex and age groups). Attenuation factors were ≤0.50 for all sex and age groups and lower for non-Hispanic blacks (λ=0.20) and Hispanics (λ=0.26) than for non-Hispanic whites (λ=0.42). The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study calcium FFQ appears to provide a useful tool for assessing calcium intake in children and adolescents drawn from multiracial/ethnic populations and/or spanning a wide age range. However, similar to other FFQs, attenuation factors were substantially <1, indicating the potential for appreciable measurement error bias. Calibration correction should be performed and racial/ethnic differences
Practical Pointers, 1977
Focusing on the development of fundamental rhythm skills involved in music and movement activities, this teaching guide emphasizes activities that will help children express their feelings and communicate with others, develop perceptual and motor skills, and enhance sensory awareness. Suggestions for involving handicapped children and examples of…
Rosenberg, Shelley K.; Stillman-Powell, Patricia
The author examines issues related to adult assertiveness in controlling and setting limits for handicapped children. Reasons for adults not wishing to be in charge include feelings of guilt, lack of consistency in enforcing rules, and a sense of sympathy for special children. Assertiveness is distinguished from aggressiveness, and suggestions for…
Angel, Jacqueline L; Berlinger, Nancy
Health and social welfare policy proposals put forth by the Trump administration and Republican-controlled Congress could have huge impacts on low-income groups. This paper focuses on older Hispanics, with an emphasis on the Mexican-origin population who form the largest Hispanic subgroup. A demographic portrait is presented that indicates that Mexican-origin individuals have less wealth and lower incomes than do non-Hispanic Whites. Given rising health care costs, lower use of nursing homes, and greater propensity to live with grown children, prevailing economic disadvantage has serious consequences for this population. More restrictive immigration policies aimed at limiting family reunification could have intergenerational caregiving consequences. In addition, because of labor-force disadvantages, low-income Mexican-origin adults are less likely to have private insurance compared to non-Hispanic Whites as they approach retirement. Consequently, Mexican-origin older adults tend to rely on Medicaid when eligible; in contrast, late-life migrants-who do not qualify for federally funded benefits for at least five years-and unauthorized migrants-who are excluded from federally funded benefits-have extremely limited access to safety net provisions. The potential effects of proposed cutbacks in health care financing on older Hispanics are discussed.
Page, Joshua; Constantino, John Nicholas; Zambrana, Katherine; Martin, Eden; Tunc, Ilker; Zhang, Yi; Abbacchi, Anna; Messinger, Daniel
Recent studies have indicated that quantitative autistic traits (QATs) of parents reflect inherited liabilities that may index background genetic risk for clinical autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in their offspring. Moreover, preferential mating for QATs has been observed as a potential factor in concentrating autistic liabilities in some families across generations. Heretofore, intergenerational studies of QATs have focused almost exclusively on Caucasian populations-the present study explored these phenomena in a well-characterized Hispanic population. The present study examined QAT scores in siblings and parents of 83 Hispanic probands meeting research diagnostic criteria for ASD, and 64 non-ASD controls, using the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2). Ancestry of the probands was characterized by genotype, using information from 541,929 single nucleotide polymorphic markers. In families of Hispanic children with an ASD diagnosis, the pattern of quantitative trait correlations observed between ASD-affected children and their first-degree relatives (ICCs on the order of 0.20), between unaffected first-degree relatives in ASD-affected families (sibling/mother ICC = 0.36; sibling/father ICC = 0.53), and between spouses (mother/father ICC = 0.48) were in keeping with the influence of transmitted background genetic risk and strong preferential mating for variation in quantitative autistic trait burden. Results from analysis of ancestry-informative genetic markers among probands in this sample were consistent with that from other Hispanic populations. Quantitative autistic traits represent measurable indices of inherited liability to ASD in Hispanic families. The accumulation of autistic traits occurs within generations, between spouses, and across generations, among Hispanic families affected by ASD. The occurrence of preferential mating for QATs-the magnitude of which may vary across cultures-constitutes a mechanism by which background genetic liability
Schill, T; Morales, J; Beyler, J; Tatter, T; Swigert, L
In this study scores on Strube's self-handicapping scale were correlated with scores on Schill's self-defeating personality scale. Berglas believes there are subtypes of self-defeating personality and that his concept of self-handicapping should be correlated with the three criteria which represent a self-protective component of self-defeating personality. Some support for Berglas' proposition was found, particularly for men. However, correlations with other components of self-defeating personality suggest the criteria thought to be self-protective may need to be reconsidered.
Morgan, Bobbette M.
The purpose of the study is to share reflections from 140 non-Hispanic undergraduate students and 83 Hispanic students who have participated in cooperative written examinations for group grades. Reflections are clustered by themes identified from the students' comments using Van Manen's (1990) hermeneutic phenomonological approach, which is how…
This article explores Hispanics' concepts of cultural and linguistic identity. It is based on the findings of a recent study conducted by the author in Iglesia hispana de Cristo, a Hispanic church community in Western New York. Data come from ethnographic interviews conducted with 48 participants aged 13 to 80 years and with church leaders and…
Aberson, Christopher L.; Porter, Michael K.; Gaffney, Amber M.
This study examined the role of Hispanic students' friendships with White non-Hispanics (n-Hs) and African Americans (AAs) in predicting implicit and explicit prejudices toward these groups. Participants (N = 73) completed implicit and explicit attitude measures and a friendship questionnaire. Friendships were associated with implicit attitudes…
Brown, Christina M; Park, Sun W; Folger, Susan F
Behavioral self-handicapping is a strategy used to protect attributions about ability. People behaviorally self-handicap by creating an obstacle to their success so failure is attributed to the obstacle instead of to their ability. Although past research has observed behavioral self-handicapping exclusively in men, the current research revealed a moderator of behavioral self-handicapping in women: growth motivation, which reflects the desire to develop one's abilities and learn from failure. Participants (N = 100) completed a test purportedly predictive of successful careers and relationships, and some were given failure feedback about their performance. Participants could behaviorally self-handicap by choosing to complete another test in a performance-impairing environment. Although men self-handicapped more overall, women self-handicapped more after failure when they were low in growth motivation. These results highlight a novel moderator of behavioral self-handicapping in women.
... handicapped clients. 113.3-3 Section 113.3-3 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... ADMINISTRATOR General Provisions § 113.3-3 Structural accommodations for handicapped clients. (a) Existing... by handicapped clients. Where structural changes are necessary to make the recipient's goods or...
Background: Self-handicapping refers to the practice on the part of certain individuals to handicap their performance when poor performance is likely to reveal low ability. Noncontingent success (feedback that is inflated relative to performance) is more likely to promote self-handicapping behaviour than noncontingent failure (failure feedback…
Steinhauer, Annie; And Others
Self-handicapping is the phenomenon of setting oneself up to fail a feared evaluation task to protect a sense of self-worth. A study examined whether individuals self-handicap to protect a general or global perception of themselves or to protect perceptions of competence in the specific domain being evaluated. Handicapping behaviors related to…
Household expenditure patterns of families in the general population were compared with those of 91 families caring for an intellectually handicapped child. Results indicated that handicapped child families spent on average $NZ17 per week more on household items and $NZ7 a week on items related to care of the handicapped child. (Author/CL)
The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) in cooperation with the Self Reliance Foundation (SRF) is conducting the Hispanic Environmental and Waste Management Outreach Project (HEWMO) to increase science and environmental literacy, specifically that related to nuclear engineering and waste management in the nuclear industry, among the US Hispanic population. The project will encourage Hispanic youth and young adults to pursue careers through the regular presentation of Spanish-speaking scientists and engineers and other role models, as well as career information on nationally broadcast radio programs reaching youth and parents. This project will encourage making science, mathematics, and technology a conscious part of the everyday life experiences of Hispanic youth and families. The SRF in collaboration with the Hispanic Radio Network (HRN) produces and broadcasts radio programs to address the topics and meet the objectives as outlined in the Environmental Literacy Plan and DOE-EM Communications Plan in this document. The SRF has in place a toll-free ''800'' number Information and Resource Referral (I and RR) service that national radio program listeners can call to obtain information and resource referrals as well as give their reactions to the radio programs that will air. HRN uses this feature to put listeners in touch with local organizations and resources that can provide them with further information and assistance on the related program topics.
Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs can be reduced by 50% to 70% with sufficient periconceptional intake of folic acid. Hispanic women are up to 3 times more likely than non-Hispanics to have a child affected by NTDs. This disparity is complicated by health literacy, as women impacted by this disparity are also at-risk for low health literacy. The purpose of this project was to pilot advertisements to promote multivitamins, increasing folic acid consumption, among Hispanic adolescents. The advertisements for Hispanic adolescents and their mothers focused on broad benefits of a multivitamin, downplaying folic acid’s role in prenatal health. Participants were Hispanic mothers (n = 25 and adolescents (n = 25 at a clinic in the Southwestern United States. Likert-type survey items and an open-ended question were used to assess attitudes toward multivitamins and advertisements. The Newest Vital Sign (NVS was used to assess participants’ health literacy. Participants’ impressions of the ads were positive. Both groups expressed the intent to start taking a daily multivitamin after viewing the ads—adolescents for themselves and mothers to start their daughters on a daily multivitamin. There was no relationship between participants’ health literacy and perceptions of the advertisements or intentions to begin a multivitamin habit. This research illustrates the potential of messages that rely on peripheral health benefits to overcome communication barriers posed by health literacy and address serious health problems such as NTDs.
The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) in cooperation with the Self Reliance Foundation (SRF) is conducting the Hispanic Environmental and Waste Management Outreach Project (HEWMO) to increase science and environmental literacy, specifically that related to nuclear engineering and waste management in the nuclear industry, among the US Hispanic population. The project will encourage Hispanic youth and young adults to pursue careers through the regular presentation of Spanish-speaking scientists and engineers and other role models, as well as career information on nationally broadcast radio programs reaching youth and parents. This project will encourage making science, mathematics, and technology a conscious part of the everyday life experiences of Hispanic youth and families. The SRF in collaboration with the Hispanic Radio Network (HRN) produces and broadcasts radio programs to address the topics and meet the objectives as outlined in the Environmental Literacy Plan and DOE-EM Communications Plan in this document. The SRF has in place a toll-free ''800'' number Information and Resource Referral (I and RR) service that national radio program listeners can call to obtain information and resource referrals as well as give their reactions to the radio programs that will air. HRN uses this feature to put listeners in touch with local organizations and resources that can provide them with further information and assistance on the related program topics
Journal of Dental Education, 1984
The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for dental hygiene curriculum cover the scope and definitions of care for the handicapped, interrelationships between disciplines and courses, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty, and…
Perkins, Dorothy C., Comp.; And Others
An annotated bibliography of workshops for the handicapped covers the literature on work programs for the period July, 1968 through June, 1969. One hundred and fifty four publications were reviewed; the number of articles on administration, management, and planning of facilities and programs has increased since the last edition. (Author/RJ)
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Currently available evidence reveals comparatively few studies of psychological effects of hearing impairments, in spite of the fact that clinicians have for a long time been aware of a connection between the acquired hearing impairment and mental disorders. They are focused on the investigation of dysfunction in general. Thus, three domains of the auditory imbalance may be distinguished: disorder, disability and handicap. 'Handicap', according to the definition of the World Health Organization, is a hindrance in an individual that results from an impairment or disability and represents psychological response of the individual to the impairment. OBJECTIVE Validation of acquired hearing impairment as a risk factor of psychical disorders as well as an analysis of relation of some demographic factors (sex, age, education and audiological factors (degree and duration of the impairment with the frequency of hearing handicap. METHOD MMPI-201 has been applied in 60 subjects affected with otosclerosis, potential candidates for stapedectomy, before and after the surgery. RESULTS Individuals with acquired hearing impairment manifest more frequent disorders of psychical functioning in comparison with general population, while demographic and audiometric parameters did not correlate with acquired hearing handicap. CONCLUSION It may be assumed that the very recognition of demographic and audio-logical factors can not help much in the understanding of the psychological stress associated with hearing impairment.
Rose, Gerald L.; Brief, Arthur P.
Business administration students evaluated a hypothetical job applicant who was either an amputee, an epileptic, or "normal." The hypothetical job openings varied as to levels of supervisory responsibility and public contact. With some noted exceptions, the handicapped applicants were evaluated no differently than the normal applicants.…
Gavassa, Sat; Silva, Ana C.; Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Stoddard, Philip K.
Signal honesty may be compromised when heightened competition provides incentive for signal exaggeration. Some degree of honesty might be maintained by intrinsic handicap costs on signalling or through imposition of extrinsic costs, such as social punishment of low quality cheaters. Thus, theory predicts a delicate balance between signal enhancement and signal reliability that varies with degree of social competition, handicap cost, and social cost. We investigated whether male sexual signals of the electric fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio would become less reliable predictors of body length when competition provides incentives for males to boost electric signal amplitude. As expected, social competition under natural field conditions and in controlled lab experiments drove males to enhance their signals. However, signal enhancement improved the reliability of the information conveyed by the signal, as revealed in the tightening of the relationship between signal amplitude and body length. Signal augmentation in male B. gauderio was independent of body length, and thus appeared not to be curtailed through punishment of low quality (small) individuals. Rather, all individuals boosted their signals under high competition, but those whose signals were farthest from the predicted value under low competition boosted signal amplitude the most. By elimination, intrinsic handicap cost of signal production, rather than extrinsic social cost, appears to be the basis for the unexpected reinforcement of electric signal honesty under social competition. Signal modulation may provide its greatest advantage to the signaller as a mechanism for handicap disposal under low competition rather than as a mechanism for exaggeration of quality under high competition. PMID:22665940
Lignugaris/Kraft, Benjamin; Rule, S.; Salzberg, Charles L.; Stowitschek, J. J.
The pattern and content of social interactions of successful handicapped and nonhandicapped employees were observed in two employment settings. Data suggest that both groups were active social interactants who frequently worked cooperatively, yet interacted relatively infrequently with their supervisors. Implications for future research are discussed.
Stodden, Robert A.; Boone, Rosalie
The article presents a cooperative interagency approach for assessing effectiveness of programs and services to facilitate the transition of handicapped students from school to adult community living. Features of the model include cooperative planning at the policy level, implementation level, and direct service level; and collaboration by state…
Uthe, Elaine F.
This manual presents the master lists of 206 job titles of 167 different Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) code numbers which were held by physically handicapped graduates/completers of vocational programs as determined by a business and industry survey and graduate followup. (The project itself is reported in CE 026 163; survey and followup…
Amritmahal, Ananda; Mehta, J. M.
A project of the Poona (India) District Leprosy Committee offers training in the industrial sector to leprosy patients, orthopedically handicapped individuals, and socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals, under a common roof. The project aims to combat the leprosy stigma and to aid rehabilitation by making the trainees economically…
Linari, Ronald F.; Belmont, Robert M.
Implications of trends in population, families, communications, automation, the environment, and employment changes are noted for the training and employment of handicapped persons. The need for emphasis in vocational education on generalizability, job readiness and vocational adjustment skills, and job analysis is stressed. (CL)
Levey, Cathy A.
Based on a modification of Berglas and Jones' (1978) design, conditions of contingent and noncontingent success and failure were manipulated to determine when and why individuals choose to adopt self-handicapping strategies. Male undergraduates (N=76) were informed that they were participating in a study investigating the effects of music on…
Midgley, Carol; Urdan, Tim
By procrastinating, allowing others to keep them from studying, deliberately not trying, and using other "self-handicapping" strategies, students can convey that those circumstances, rather than lack of ability, are the reasons for subsequent poor performance. Survey data from 256 eighth-grade students indicated that boys use those strategies more…
The use of trampoline activities with multiple handicapped students is discussed. Management considerations in safety are noted, and developmental trampoline skills are listed beginning with bouncing for stimulation. Progression to limited independence and finally independent jumping is described. The position statement of the American Alliance…
... capabilities, are unable without special facilities or special planning or design to utilize mass... planning, facilities, or design. However, deafness is recognized as a handicap in the Department of Transportation's ADA regulation, and applicants for Section 5 assistance are encouraged to include the deaf as...
Tse, John W. L.
A survey of 66 Hong Kong companies and factories identified factors affecting employers' decisions to hire workers with mental handicaps. The five most important factors were emotional problems and personalities of workers, workers' ability to perform the job, availability of low-level jobs, productivity of workers, and possible special…
The author reviews the literature on aquatic activity for the disabled, discussing the physical, physiological, psychological, and sociological benefits of swimming and water safety activities. Unique properties of water and legal requirements regarding physical education of the handicapped, specifically citing the development of skills in…
Thompson, Ted; Hepburn, Jonathan
Causal uncertainty beliefs involve doubts about the causes of events, and arise as a consequence of non-contingent evaluative feedback: feedback that leaves the individual uncertain about the causes of his or her achievement outcomes. Individuals high in causal uncertainty are frequently unable to confidently attribute their achievement outcomes, experience anxiety in achievement situations and as a consequence are likely to engage in self-handicapping behaviour. Accordingly, we sought to establish links between trait causal uncertainty, claimed and behavioural self-handicapping. Participants were N=72 undergraduate students divided equally between high and low causally uncertain groups. We used a 2 (causal uncertainty status: high, low) x 3 (performance feedback condition: success, non-contingent success, non-contingent failure) between-subjects factorial design to examine the effects of causal uncertainty on achievement behaviour. Following performance feedback, participants completed 20 single-solution anagrams and 12 remote associate tasks serving as performance measures, and 16 unicursal tasks to assess practice effort. Participants also completed measures of claimed handicaps, state anxiety and attributions. Relative to low causally uncertain participants, high causally uncertain participants claimed more handicaps prior to performance on the anagrams and remote associates, reported higher anxiety, attributed their failure to internal, stable factors, and reduced practice effort on the unicursal tasks, evident in fewer unicursal tasks solved. These findings confirm links between trait causal uncertainty and claimed and behavioural self-handicapping, highlighting the need for educators to facilitate means by which students can achieve surety in the manner in which they attribute the causes of their achievement outcomes.
Full Text Available This study used the Eccles et al. expectancy-value (E-V theory to test the influence of motivation on mathematics achievement and enrollment using data from a cohort of 926 seventh-grade prealgebra students (49% male, 76% Hispanic, 76% low income, and 55% English learner. E-V beliefs were assessed in seventh grade along with achievement, and enrollment was measured in eighth grade. Differential associations of motivation, achievement, and enrollment were examined across Hispanic and non-Hispanic populations. Expectancy for success and task value uniquely predicted seventh-grade achievement and eighth-grade algebra enrollment after controlling for prior achievement and a full set of demographic controls, including low socioeconomic status and English fluency. The association of interest value and achievement differentiated across Hispanic and non-Hispanic youth, suggesting that the effect of interest value on mathematics achievement was weaker for Hispanic youth than for non-Hispanics after accounting for success expectations and prior achievement.
Pinheiro, Joel; Silverio, Kelly Cristina Alves; Siqueira, Larissa Thaís Donalonso; Ramos, Janine Santos; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini; Zambon, Fabiana; Behlau, Mara
To verify the correlation between vocal tract discomfort symptoms and perceived voice handicaps in gospel singers, analyzing possible differences according to gender. 100 gospel singers volunteered, 50 male and 50 female. All participants answered two questionnaires: Vocal Tract Discomfort (VTD) scale and the Modern Singing Handicap Index (MSHI) that investigates the vocal handicap perceived by singers, linking the results of both instruments (psinging. Female gospel singers present higher frequency and intensity of vocal tract discomfort symptoms, as well as higher voice handicap for singing than male gospel singers. The higher the frequency and intensity of the laryngeal symptoms, the higher the vocal handicap will be.
Rakow, Steven J.; Bermudez, Andrea B.
Reviews some of the factors known to influence the achievement and retention of Hispanic Americans in technologically related fields. Discusses directions in which research should focus to meet the needs of Hispanic-American students. (PR)
This podcast is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers. Created: 5/5/2015 by Office of Minority Health & Health Equity (OMHHE). Date Released: 5/5/2015.
Dietrich, Thomas; Culler, Corinna; Garcia, Raul I; Henshaw, Michelle M
The authors evaluated racial/ethnic differences and their socioeconomic determinants in the oral health status of U.S. children, as reported by parents. The authors used interview data from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, a large representative survey of U.S. children. They calculated weighted, nationally representative prevalence estimates for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, and they used logistic regression to explore the association between parents' reports of fair or poor oral health and various socioeconomic determinants of oral health. The results showed significant racial/ethnic differences in parental reports of fair or poor oral health, with prevalences of 6.5 percent for non-Hispanic whites, 12.0 percent for non-Hispanic blacks and 23.4 percent for Hispanics. Although adjustments for family socioeconomic status (poverty level and education) partially explained these racial/ethnic disparities, Hispanics still were twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to report their children's oral health as fair or poor, independent of socioeconomic status. The authors did find differences in preventive-care attitudes among groups. However, in multivariate models, such differences did not explain the disparities. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in parental reports of their children's oral health, with Hispanics being the most disadvantaged group. Disparities appear to exist independent of preventive-care attitudes and socioeconomic status.
Full Text Available Introduction: Many factors influence women’s decisions to participate in guideline recommended screening mammography. We evaluated the influence of women’s socioeconomic characteristics, healthcare access, and cultural and psychological healthcare preferences on timely mammography screening participation.Materials and methods: A random digit dial survey of United States non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic women ages 40-75, from January-August 2009 determined self- reported time of most recent mammogram. Screening rates were assessed based on receipt of a screening mammogram within the prior 12 months, the interval recommended at the time by the American Cancer Society.Results: Thirty-nine percent of women reported not having a mammogram within the last 12 months. The odds of not having had a screening mammography was higher for non-Hispanic White women than for non-Hispanic Black (OR=2.16, 95% CI=0.26, 0.82, p=0.009 or Hispanic (OR=4.17, 95% CI=0.12, 0.48, p=0.01 women. Lack of health insurance (OR=3.22, 95% CI=1.54, 6.73, p=0.002 and lack of usual source of medical care (OR=3.37, 95% CI=1.43, 7.94, p=0.01 were associated with not being screened as were lower self-efficacy to obtain screening (OR=2.43, 95% CI=1.26, 4.73, p=0.01 and greater levels of religiosity and spirituality (OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.00, 2.00, p=0.05. Neither perceived risk nor present temporal orientation was significant.Discussion: Odds of not having a mammogram increased if women were uninsured, without medical care, non-Hispanic white, older in age, not confident in their ability to obtain screening, or held passive or external religious/spiritual values. Results are encouraging given racial disparities in healthcare participation and suggest that efforts to increase screening among minority women may be working.
Turk, Judy VanSlyke; And Others
Examines how Hispanic Americans and Hispanic issues were covered by daily newspapers in New Mexico and Texas, two states where complaints relating to media coverage were investigated by state human rights commissions. Reports that Hispanics appear to be receiving ample and fair coverage in San Antonio, Texas, and Albuquerque, New Mexico. (MM)
Gurantz, Oded; Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan
Hispanics are the largest minority group in the United States, increasing almost six-fold from 1970 to 2014. Although Hispanics youth in the U.S. have traditionally had lower college attendance rates, some sources suggest a narrowing of the White-Hispanic postsecondary attendance gap over the last fifteen years. A key question is whether altering…
Kinders, Mark A.; Pope, Myron L.
The University of Central Oklahoma's new strategic plan sought to increase its connection to the emerging Hispanic community in Oklahoma City. Simultaneously, the Greater Oklahoma City Hispanic Chamber of Commerce was seeking a higher education partner. This case study describes resulting new programs for Hispanic students and businesses. The…
Examines impact of different definitions of Hispanic ethnicity on sociodemographic characteristics, drinking patterns, and rate of alcohol problems among 1,453 Hispanic-American respondents. Defines Hispanic ethnicity by ethnicity of family of origin, national group, country most ancestors came from, and birthplace. Finds major differences between…
Eckert, Mark A.; Matthews, Lois J.; Dubno, Judy R.
Purpose: Even older adults with relatively mild hearing loss report hearing handicap, suggesting that hearing handicap is not completely explained by reduced speech audibility. Method: We examined the extent to which self-assessed ratings of hearing handicap using the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE; Ventry & Weinstein, 1982)…
Gallistel, Elizabeth R.
Discussed are problems and procedures in setting goals and objectives for learning disabled children in the implementation of Individualized Education Programs required by the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. (Author/ DLS)
Kentucky Univ., Lexington.
The resource guide is designed to assist educators, park resource persons, and parents of disabled children in locating and identifying sources of information for developing, implementing, and evaluating outdoor education programs for all disabled children and youth. The guide has two main parts. The first part contains an annotated bibliography…
Because problems such as rape are often viewed as personal concerns of "la familia" there is great tendency on the part of Hispanics to accept this crime as something that must be resolved without intervention from the police, the hospitals or the courts. Seldom will much needed therapy and auxillary type services be sought due to the extreme…
Traditional personality theories do not consider the impact of culture on personality development. Yet, to provide culturally relevant services to the increasing Hispanic population in the U.S., more culturally relevant theories must be identified. This paper presents Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) as an alternative model to understanding…
Nino, Miguel A.
The Hispanic-American, because he or she is bilingual and bicultural, could play an important role in the future economic development of the United States. Declines in steel, automotive, and electronics industries due to foreign competition and market saturation have caused industrial displacement and unemployment. The Maquiladora or Twin Plant…
Sissons, Peter L.
This monograph explores the Hispanic experience of the criminal justice system by examining statistics provided by Federal, State, and local agencies. A review of the literature provides a theoretical perspective from which to view the data. Examination of the first set of data begins with a description of the experiences of Puerto Ricans in the…
Yazedjian, Ani; Toews, Michelle L.
The purpose of this study is to assess personal and interpersonal predictors of college adjustment among a sample of 190 first-year Hispanic students. Specifically, we examined the extent to which personal factors such as self-esteem, acculturation, and ethnic identity and interpersonal factors such as parental education and parental attachment…
National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2016
The innovative and culturally responsive teaching practices provided in high-quality charter schools are not only providing Hispanic students with an excellent alternative to district public schools, but they are also yielding academic results that show neither race/ethnicity nor income level must determine a child's future. The compilation of…
Edwards, Kelcey; Sawtell, Ellen
Presented at the Advanced Placement Annual Conference (APAC) in Las Vegas, NV in July 2013. This presentation reviews new research examining the AP® experience of Hispanic graduates over the past decade. Topics include an in-depth look at the AP Spanish Language and Culture gateway hypothesis and trends in family characteristics such as parent…
Johnston Polacek, Georgia N. L.; Rojas, Viviana; Levitt, Steven; Mika, Virginia Seguin
Little is known about Hispanic teens' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors and their relationship to media influences. Information about this relationship could contribute to an understanding of the early onset of sexual behavior and early teen pregnancy. This paper reports preliminary findings from a pilot project conducted to determine…
Nayssan Safavian; AnneMarie Conley
This study used the Eccles et al. expectancy-value (E-V) theory to test the influence of motivation on mathematics achievement and enrollment using data from a cohort of 926 seventh-grade prealgebra students (49% male, 76% Hispanic, 76% low income, and 55% English learner). E-V beliefs were assessed in seventh grade along with achievement, and enrollment was measured in eighth grade. Differential associations of motivation, achievement, and enrollment were examined across Hispanic and non-His...
McMahan, Shari; Cathorall, Michelle; Romero, Devan R.
There are clear health conditions that disproportionately affect the Hispanic population. One hundred twenty-four (45%) Hispanic and 153 (55%) White college students completed a questionnaire on cardiovascular disease (CVD) awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of risk. Results indicated that Hispanic students rated themselves as poorer in health,…
Sandi L. Pruitt
Full Text Available To test the Hispanic and Immigrant Paradoxes—i.e., survival advantages despite a worse risk factor profile—and the modifying role of neighborhood context, we examined associations between patient ethnicity, birthplace, neighborhood Hispanic density and neighborhood poverty among 166,254 female breast cancer patients diagnosed 1995–2009 in Texas, U.S. Of all, 79.9% were non-Hispanic White, 15.8% Hispanic U.S.-born, and 4.2% Hispanic foreign-born. We imputed birthplace for the 60.7% of Hispanics missing birthplace data using multiple imputation. Shared frailty Cox proportional hazard models (patients nested within census tracts adjusted for age, diagnosis year, stage, grade, histology, urban/rural residence, and local mammography capacity. Whites (vs. U.S.-born Hispanics had increased all-cause and breast cancer mortality. Foreign-born (vs. U.S.-born Hispanics had increased all-cause and breast cancer mortality. Living in higher Hispanic density neighborhoods was generally associated with increased mortality, although associations differed slightly in magnitude and significance by ethnicity, birthplace, and neighborhood poverty. We found no evidence of an Immigrant Paradox and some evidence of a Hispanic Paradox where protective effects were limited to U.S.-born Hispanics. Contrary to prior studies, foreign birthplace and residence in higher Hispanic density neighborhoods were associated with increased mortality. More research on intersections between ethnicity, birthplace and neighborhood context are needed.
Sabogal, Fabio; And Others
Finds that, among 263 Hispanic and 150 non-Hispanic White smokers, Hispanics smoked fewer cigarettes, had lower levels of perceived addiction to nicotine, and had higher perceived self-efficacy to avoid smoking, but these differences shrank with greater acculturation. Discusses implications for smoking cessation programs. Contains 27 references.…
Swenson, Carolyn J; Marshall, Julie A; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Baxter, Judith; Morgenstern, Nora
Understanding variations in physical activity patterns is important for planning health interventions. This study describes age-related change in physical activity in 903 rural Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) adults age 55-80. The Physical Activity History assessed 13 categories of productive and recreational activity during the past year with up to four assessments per participant from 1987 to 1998. The most common activities were walking and home maintenance/gardening. Productive and recreational physical activity levels were lower in women than men (P productive activity steadily declined with age in NHW and Hispanics. Recreational activity increased slightly until age 63, then decreased after age 70. In women, productive activity initially stayed stable then decreased in NHW after age 63, and in Hispanics it decreased at younger ages before stabilizing after age 70. Recreational activity levels decreased steadily with age in all women, with a steeper rate of decline in NHW than Hispanics. In both ethnic groups, activity levels were lower in diabetics than nondiabetics, except for recreational activity in women where levels did not differ by diabetes status. The most common activities were similar to other studies of older adults, both recreational and productive activities contributed to total activity, and physical activity decreased in all gender-ethnic subgroups with age. Hispanic women reported the lowest activity levels. Interventions to maintain or increase recreational activity may need to target women at an earlier age than men.
Full Text Available Education has an important role in humans’ behaviours. Undergraduate education has headed among factors that influence maturation period before vocational lifes of individuals. The purpose of this study is to determine whether attitudes of university students for handicapped individuals differ according to some variables. This study which was carried out in screening model was done with 1167 people including 646 females 521 males who maintain their education at faculties taking initial teacher training in 2016 spring term at Yuzuncu Yil University. As data collection tool, Attitude Scale for Being Educated of Handicapped Individuals and Personal Information Form, which was developed by Kosterilioglu , was used. As statistical method, Duncan’s multiple range test was used in determining different groups following one-wat analysis of variance. Among these variables, pearson coefficients of correlation were calculated separately in groups in determining relation. In determining relationship between groups and categorical variables , chi square test was used. In calculations, value of p was taken as 0,05 and SPSS statistic program was used for calculations. While point average of attitudes of male students , who maintain their educations at Yuzuncu Yil University, for handicapped people was ascertained as 54.27±23.54, point average of attitudes of female students was determined as 55.86±26.34. A significant difference between male and female students according to gender variable was not seen in attitudes for being educated of handicapped individuals (P>0,05. It was observed that attitudes for being educated of handicapped individuals in starting and end of undergraduate term were higher than intermediate classes (P<0,01. Although a significant difference in kind of high schools from which students graduated was not seen, attitudes of graduates from science and sport high schools were found higher than graduates from other high schools
Brøndsted, Tom; Aaskoven, Erik
The public-funded project "Indtal" ("Speak-it") has succeeded in developing a Danish voice-controlled utility for internet browsing targeting motor-handicapped users having difficulties using a standard keyboard and/or a standard mouse. The system has been designed and implemented in collaboration...... with an advisory board of motor-handicapped (potential) end-users and underlies a number of a priori defined design criteria: learnability and memorability rather than naturalness, minimal need for maintenance after release, support for "all" web standards (not just HTML conforming to certain "recommendations......"), independency of the language on the websites being browsed, etc. These criteria have lead to a primarily message-driven system interacting with an existing browser on the end users' systems...
Risk factors for asthma and cough among Hispanic children in the southwestern United States of America, 2003-2004 Factores de riesgo de asma y tos en niños hispanos en el suroeste de los Estados Unidos de América, 2003-2004
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure and mother's place of birth (Mexico vs. United States of America on the prevalence of asthma and dry nighttime cough among children 2-12 years old residing in the southwestern United States. METHODS: Data were collected from November 2003 through March 2004 as part of a health survey of Hispanic mothers with young children who sought emergency, nutrition, or other clinical services. Information about respiratory health was obtained for one randomly selected child per United States-born (no. = 144 or Mexico-born (no. = 125 mother. Information on maternal and household sociodemographic variables, smoking, parental asthma, and child's exposure to room or automobile ETS during the previous seven days was also collected. Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated with modified Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Most sociodemographic and ETS exposure variables differed significantly by mother's country of birth. Modeled asthma prevalence was 1.95 [95% confidence interval (CI = 1.03-3.68] times greater in children of United States-born mothers than children of Mexico-born mothers. This difference persisted after known asthma risk factors were controlled for, including parental asthma, socioeconomic and demographic variables, and child ETS exposure. Childrens' recent automobile ETS exposure was associated with dry nighttime cough [adjusted prevalence ratio (PR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.19-3.15] and asthma (PR = 2.09; 95% CI = 0.99-4.39. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to ETS in automobiles is an important risk factor for asthma and dry nighttime cough among Hispanic children in the southwest United States, regardless of mother's country of birth. Further research is needed to identify causes of the higher prevalence of asthma in Hispanic children of United States-born mothers.OBJETIVOS: Se investigó el impacto de la exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco (HAT y del país de nacimiento
Marin, B V; Perez-Stable, E J; Marin, G; Sabogal, F; Otero-Sabogal, R
The smoking behavior of Hispanics, especially Mexican Americans, has been reported to differ from that of non-Hispanic whites, in both large gender differences in prevalence as well as a lower self-reported number of cigarettes smoked per day. This study compared the responses of a convenience sample of 263 Hispanic (44% Mexican American and 38% Central American) and 150 non-Hispanic white smokers, in order to identify other ethnic; gender, and acculturation differences in smoking behaviors. Hispanic women smoked fewer cigarettes and initiated smoking at a comparatively later age than Hispanic men; they were also less likely to smoke during pregnancy than non-Hispanic white women. Hispanics smoked more cigarettes on Saturday than other days, but this was not true for non-Hispanic whites. Will power (voluntad propia) and knowing the negative effects of smoking were considered the most helpful techniques for quitting by Hispanics. Considering that light smokers are able to quit with less intensive cessation techniques, these data suggest that a properly developed health education community intervention may have an impact on smoking rates among Hispanics.
Sánchez, John Paul; Sola, Orlando; Ramallo, Jorge; Sánchez, Nelson Felix; Dominguez, Kenneth; Romero-Leggott, Valerie
Hispanics represent the fastest growing ethnic segment of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States and are disproportionately burdened by LGBT-related health issues and limited political support from Hispanic medical organizations. Recently, the Latino Medical Student Association, the National Hispanic Medical Association, and the Hispanic Serving Health Professions Schools, representing over 60,000 Hispanic students and providers and 35 institutions, collaborated to support a resolution opposing discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity and recognizing the obstacles encountered by LGBTQ Hispanics. The resolution provides an important framework for organizational members and leaders to address LGBT health issues and serve to support a more positive sociopolitical climate for the Hispanic LGBT community nationally and internationally.
Cortes-Bergoderi, Mery; Goel, Kashish; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Allison, Thomas; Somers, Virend K; Erwin, Patricia J; Sochor, Ondrej; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco
Hispanics, the largest minority in the U.S., have a higher prevalence of several cardiovascular (CV) risk factors than non-Hispanic whites (NHW). However, some studies have shown a paradoxical lower rate of CV events among Hispanics than NHW. To perform a systematic review and a meta-analysis of cohort studies comparing CV mortality and all-cause mortality between Hispanic and NHW populations in the U.S. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases from 1950 through May 2013, using terms related to Hispanic ethnicity, CV diseases and cohort studies. We pooled risk estimates using the least and most adjusted models of each publication. We found 341 publications of which 17 fulfilled the inclusion criteria; data represent 22,340,554 Hispanics and 88,824,618 NHW, collected from 1950 to 2009. Twelve of the studies stratified the analysis by gender, and one study stratified people by place of birth (e.g. U.S.-born, Mexican-born, and Central/South American-born). There was a statistically significant association between Hispanic ethnicity and lower CV mortality (OR 0.67; 95% CI, 0.57-0.78; pvalue value 0.06. These results confirm the existence of a Hispanic paradox regarding CV mortality. Further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms mediating this protective CV effect in Hispanics. © 2013.
Herrera, A L; Pasch, K E
Although some research has focused on the food environment and food marketing, little has examined outdoor food and beverage (FB) advertising, particularly its relationship to the Hispanic composition in schools. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if the prevalence of outdoor FB advertising was greater around middle and high schools with a majority Hispanic population as compared to schools with a lower Hispanic population. All FB advertisements located within a half-mile of 47 schools in Central Texas were documented. Advertisements were coded as free standing or on establishments. Advertisements were coded for theme including price (emphasizing price) and deals/value meals (promoting discounted price/meal deals). These two themes were combined to create an overall price promotion variable. In order to determine if the prevalence of FB advertising varied by the Hispanic composition of the students in the school, data from the Texas Education Agency was used to create a variable which dichotomized the schools into two groups: schools that reported ≥60% Hispanic students or 'Hispanic schools' (n = 21) and schools that reported advertising was greater around Hispanic schools as compared to non-Hispanic schools. Hispanic schools had more overall outdoor FB advertisements as compared to non-Hispanic schools (p = 0.02). Similarly, we found significantly more outdoor FB establishment (p = 0.02) and price promotion (p = 0.05) around Hispanic schools as compared to non-Hispanic schools. Differences in freestanding advertisements by school type approached significance (p = 0.07) with Hispanic schools having more freestanding FB advertisements on average. Further research is needed that documents the content of these advertisements and determines the extent to which these advertisements affect Hispanic and other racial/ethnic minority youth's attitudes and behaviors toward the consumption of these products.
Fleming, Virginia; And Others
This factbook presents 87 pages of pictures, graphs, diagrams, quotations, statistics, and text aimed at portraying the current status of children in America. The major areas examined include: (1) children in poverty; (2) child health; (3) family changes and day care; and (4) special child care needs for handicapped, abused, or neglected children.…
Presented in the format of an imaginary dialogue between seven educators of Asian and Pacific American (APA) backgrounds, the article addresses some issues and concerns in the training of special education personnel to work with APA handicapped children. (DLS)
Chen, Lung Hung; Chen, Mei-Yen; Lin, Meng-Shyan; Kee, Ying Hwa; Shui, Shang-Hsueh
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fear of failure and self-handicapping within the context of physical education. Participants were 103 college freshmen enrolled in aerobic dance physical education classes in Taiwan. They completed the Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory and Self-Handicapping Scale for Sport 3 mo. after entering the class. Hierarchical regression indicated that scores on fear of failure predicted self-handicapping scores.
Carnethon, Mercedes R; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Bishop, Virginia; Daviglus, Martha L; Delamater, Alan M; Gallo, Linda C; Perreira, Krista; Pulgaron, Elizabeth; Reina, Samantha; Talavera, Gregory A; Van Horn, Linda H; Isasi, Carmen R
Hispanic/Latinos have a high burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors which may begin at young ages. We tested the association of CVD risk factors between Hispanic/Latino parents and their children. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Youth study. Girls (n = 674) and boys (n = 667) aged 8 to 16 years (mean age 12.1 years) and their parents (n = 942) had their CVD risk factors measured. CVD risk factors in parents were significantly positively associated with those same risk factors among youth. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, diet and physical activity, obese parents were significantly more likely to have youth who were overweight (odds ratios [ORs], 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.76) or obese (OR, 6.16; 95% CI, 3.23-11.77) versus normal weight. Dyslipidemia among parents was associated with 1.98 higher odds of dyslipidemia among youth (95% CI, 1.37-2.87). Neither hypertension nor diabetes was associated with higher odds of high blood pressure or hyperglycemia (prediabetes or diabetes) in youth. Findings were consistent by sex and in younger (age parents, which portends high risk for adult CVD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Scott, Sarah M; Wallander, Jan L; Depaoli, Sarah; Elliott, Marc N; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Tortolero, Susan R; Cuccaro, Paula M; Schuster, Mark A
This study examined the association between gender role orientation (GRO) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in youth, and how this relationship may differ between males and females as well as among African-American, White, and Hispanic individuals. GRO has been reported to influence serious health outcomes including cancer, heart disease, mental illness, and mortality rates. However, few studies have examined the link between GRO and health outcomes for children, even though gender identity is formed in childhood. Data were examined from 4824 participants in the Healthy Passages™ project, a population-based survey of fifth-grade children in three US metropolitan areas. Children reported their own HRQOL using the PedsQL and degree of female, male, and androgynous GRO using the Children's Sex Role Inventory. Based on structural equations analysis, male GRO was positively associated with HRQOL for all racial/ethnic groups, regardless of sex, whereas female GRO was associated with better HRQOL for Hispanic and White females and poorer HRQOL for Hispanic males. Androgynous GRO was associated with better HRQOL among Hispanic and White females, but not males nor African-Americans of either sex. Racial/ethnic differences emerged for female and androgynous, but not male, GROs. Hispanic males are the only group for which GRO (female) was associated with poorer HRQOL. Future research should find ways to help youth overcome negative effects on health from gender beliefs and behavior patterns with sensitivity to racial/ethnic membership.
Arriaza, Pablo; Martin, Shadi S; Csikai, Ellen L
Hispanics are the fastest growing minority group in the United States, numbering over 42 million and comprising 15% of the total population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2008 ). Hispanics are a heterogeneous group that experience disparities in accessing health care, including at the end of life. Specific gaps can be identified in the care of bereaved Hispanic individuals and families. This exploratory study examined bereavement services available and perceived needs for Hispanics in Florida. Hospice bereavement coordinators indicated that limited services were available specifically for Spanish-speakers and that language and cultural barriers were challenges when communicating, offering, and delivering bereavement services to Hispanics. Implications for social workers include the need to increase access to and evaluate the effectiveness of bereavement services for Hispanics.
Loiola-Barreiro, Camila Miranda; Silva, Marta Assumpção de Andrada E
To compare the voice handicap index of popular and erudite professional singers according to gender, age, professional experience time, and presence or absence of self-reported vocal complaints. One hundred thirty-two professional singers, 74 popular and 58 erudite, who responded to a questionnaire with regards to identification, age, gender, professional experience time in singing, musical genres (for popular singers), vocal classification (for erudite singers), presence of self-reported vocal complaints, and the specific protocols for popular (Modern Singing Handicap Index - MSHI) and erudite (Classical Singing Handicap Index - CSHI) singing. Higher proportion of women and higher incidence of vocal complaints were observed in the popular singers compared with the erudite singers. Most of the popular singers belonged to the genre of Brazilian Popular Music. Regarding the classification of erudite singers, there was greater participation of sopranos and tenors. No statistical differences were observed with respect to age and professional experience time between the groups. Comparison of the MSHI and CSHI scores showed no statistically significant difference between these scores and genre or age in both groups of singers. Professional experience time was related to the total score and the subscales disability and impairment in the MSHI, only for popular singers with vocal complaints. There was no correlation between these variables and the CSHI for erudite singers. The impact of vocal difficulty/problem interferes differently in these two musical genres when related to vocal complaint and professional experience time. The MSHI and CSHI protocols proved to be important tools not only for the identification of problems, but also for the understanding of how these individuals relate their voices with this occupational activity.
Kohrman, A F
The neonatal intensive care unit is the site of some of the most dramatic technology, complex decision-making and costly activity in the current range of medical institutions. Thus, the decisions made there are particularly visible, and of concern to a society which has increasingly scrutinized and challenged medical practices. Questions of marginal utility and cost-benefit relationships are becoming increasingly prominent. These concerns are heightened by the social and political tensions over issues of the time of initiation of life, quality of life, and assurances of equity for those less well off or handicapped from birth. Robert Weir's book, Selective Nontreatment of Handicapped Newborns, successfully summarizes the current dilemmas and identifies areas of uncertainty and lack of knowledge which cloud the decision-making processes. The book reviews the positions of the major protagonists of the last several years; inevitably, their positions will undergo continuous evolution in response to new data and vigorous political and public policy activity. Weir appropriately identifies the difficulty in arriving at an accurate prognosis as an important and prominent problem in decision-making about defective newborns. The population of surviving, compromised newborns is relatively unfamiliar and their problems remain largely unstudied. Weir's discussion of the desirability of the establishment of Infant Care Review Committees in those institutions which care for defective and handicapped newborns thoughtfully concludes that such committees are, on the balance, desirable. As experience accumulates with Infant Care Review Committees, they should serve the positive purpose of generating open discussion of legitimate disagreements. These committees will provide a forum in which decision-makers can disclose uncertainty, consider alternatives, and receive counsel.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Heal, M; O'Hara, J
Where words fail, music may be a medium through which to explore one's inner world and experiences. Psychodynamic approaches have helped us to understand what it means to be handicapped (e.g. Sinason, 1992). The subtleties of diagnosing anorexia nervosa have recently been recognized in this group (e.g. Cottrell & Crisp, 1984). Music therapy has been used with clients of normal intelligence who have eating disorders (Nolan, 1989; Sloboda, 1993; Smeijsters & van den Hurk 1993). This article illustrates the music therapy of a woman with Down's syndrome (IQ = 50) and anorexia nervosa. It describes her management and progress in music therapy in relation to her external world and anorectic behaviours.
Long, T A
Since 1973 the practice of infanticide for some severely handicapped newborns has been receiving more open discussion and defence in the literature on medical ethics. A recent and important argument for the permissibility of infanticide relies crucially on a particular concept of personhood that excludes the theological. This paper attempts to show that the dispute between the proponents of infanticide and their religious opponents cannot be resolved because one side's perspective on the infant is shaped by a metaphysics that is emphatically rejected by the other. In such a situation philosophical argument is powerless to bring about a resolution because there can be no refutation of one side by the other. PMID:2969052
Marquine, María J.; Segawa, Eisuke; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.; Barnes, Lisa L.
There is limited research on the association between participation in cognitively stimulating activity and cognitive function in older Hispanics. The main purpose of the present study was to explore whether frequency of cognitive activity and its association with cognitive function in Hispanics is comparable to that of non-Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of 1571 non-demented older adults, we assessed past and current cognitive activity, availability of cognitive resources in the home in ch...
Cipriano, Gabriela C; Andrews, Carlota O
Objective: To highlight the added value of bilingual Hispanic pharmacists in the care of Hispanic patients by sharing their patients’ language and culture. Summary: Inability to speak and/or write in the patients’ native language severely impairs our best efforts to deliver good health care. This is a widely recognized cause of non-compliance or less than favorable possible health outcomes in Hispanic patients. What has received less attention, however, is that the ability to speak Spanish al...
... and the Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the Department of Veterans... Personnel Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics in the...
... and the Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the Department of Veterans... Personnel Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics in the...
... and the Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the Department of Veterans... Personnel Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics in the...
... Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the Department of Veterans Affairs. The... Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics in the Federal...
Katz, Jeffrey N; Lyons, Nancy; Wolff, Lisa S; Silverman, Jodie; Emrani, Parastu; Holt, Holly L; Corbett, Kelly L; Escalante, Agustin; Losina, Elena
Musculoskeletal disorders affect all racial and ethnic groups, including Hispanics. Because these disorders are not life-threatening, decision-making is generally preference-based. Little is known about whether Hispanics in the U.S. differ from non-Hispanic Whites with respect to key decision making preferences. We assembled six focus groups of Hispanic and non-Hispanic White patients with chronic back or knee pain at an urban medical center to discuss management of their conditions and the roles they preferred in medical decision-making. Hispanic groups were further stratified by socioeconomic status, using neighborhood characteristics as proxy measures. Discussions were led by a moderator, taped, transcribed and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. The analysis revealed ethnic differences in several areas pertinent to medical decision-making. Specifically, Hispanic participants were more likely to permit their physician to take the predominant role in making health decisions. Also, Hispanics of lower socioeconomic status generally preferred to use non-internet sources of health information to make medical decisions and to rely on advice obtained by word of mouth. Hispanics emphasized the role of faith and religion in coping with musculoskeletal disability. The analysis also revealed broad areas of concordance across ethnic strata including the primary role that pain and achieving pain relief play in patients' experiences and decisions. These findings suggest differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites in preferred information sources and decision-making roles. These findings are hypothesis-generating. If confirmed in further research, they may inform the development of interventions to enhance preference-based decision-making among Hispanics.
Full Text Available The basic purpose of 1ibrarianship code is to form and build librarian personality who can make possible the same opportunity to acquiring knowledge for all users, irrespective of their different demands or special needs.When we discuss the importance of building librarian personality the demanding work with users we confront the problem of ethical treatment very often. Ethics advises only general rules which are rarely simple and they are frequently opposite to each other.The process of reacting between the librarian and the user - as with general information needs as with special functional needs - is also dependent on librarian's professional relation which is formed on important elements such as professional qualification,experiences, creativeness and ethics.We are also interested in question where is the border between ethical and non - ethical action in key situations when the 1ibrarian meets functionally handicapped user. Opportunities for non - ethical reaction of professional workers are much more possible if the library's premises and the furniture don't offer suitable conditions for adaptable communication with the handicapped.But on the other side the 1ibrarian has just because of the bad arhitectural conditions better occasion to introduce himself as one of the best ethically formed personalies compared with other professions. With adaptable communication, creative work and with professional relation in offering help to disabled people, the librarian can contribute to more quality service and even more - he/she becomes an example to other professions - also in ethical sense.
Full Text Available Visually handicapped use their white cane to find obstacles. They follow tactile walking surface indicators to find routes and intersections. They use all sensory organs they can use to acquire the surrounding information. They match the surrounding information with routing information they have, to find their current location and target direction. However, even if tactile walking surface indicators are installed, it is difficult for them to visit unknown places because they have no correct routing information. When they go outside depending on tactile walking surface indicators, they have to follow them. They cannot plan their walking routes for themselves in unknown places. It is impossible for them to walk around various places such as shopping malls and station concourses as sighted persons, which is indispensable to enjoy their daily life. In this work, we propose a method which supports visually handicapped people to visit and walk around in their unknown places. We use RFID technologies to achieve voice navigation with the direction to their destination from their current location and their moving direction. To verify effectiveness of our system, we navigate blindfolded people experimentally. In the experiment, we have confirmed the success rate is 81 %.
Onorato, Suzanne; Musoba, Glenda Droogsma
Institutions of higher education are uniquely positioned to educate tomorrow's leaders and initiate change in the number and ethnic diversity of women in leadership roles. The purpose of our study was to understand the essence of Hispanic college women's leadership identity development with participants and researchers co-constructing meaning. We…
In an effort to provide physical education instruction for handicapped students, Leeward Community College implemented, on a pilot basis, a non-credit course in KI-Aikido, an oriental martial art which combines theory and exercise toward the goal of controlling the body through the power of the mind. The course, offered to both handicapped and…
Chen, Zuosong; Sun, Kaihong; Wang, Kun
This study aims to investigate the relationships among self-esteem, achievement goals, and self-handicapping and the potential mediating role of achievement goals in the relationship between self-esteem and self-handicapping in college physical education. The participants were 320 Chinese college students. Three validated scales were employed to assess participants' self-esteem, achievement goals, and self-handicapping in college physical education. Results showed that self-esteem had a negative effect on self-handicapping. Self-esteem had a positive effect on mastery goals, but had a negative effect on performance-avoidance goals. Mastery goals had a negative effect and performance-avoidance goals had a positive effect on self-handicapping. Moreover, mastery goals and performance-avoidance goals partially mediated the relationship between self-esteem and self-handicapping, and self-esteem had both direct and indirect effects on self-handicapping in college physical education. The findings indicate that improving individual's self-esteem and promoting mastery goals while reducing performance-avoidance goals may be relevant strategies to reduce self-handicapping in college physical education.
Finez, Lucie; Berjot, Sophie; Rosnet, Elisabeth; Cleveland, Christena; Tice, Dianne M
We examined the relationship between physical self-esteem and claimed self-handicapping among athletes by taking motives into consideration. In Study 1, 99 athletes were asked to report their tendency to engage in claimed self-handicapping for self-protective and self-enhancement motives (trait measures). Low self-esteem athletes reported a higher tendency to engage in claimed self-handicapping for these two motives compared with high self-esteem athletes. Neither low nor high self-esteem athletes reported a preference for one motive over the other. In Study 2, 107 athletes participated in a test that was ostensibly designed to assess high physical abilities - and thus to encourage self-handicapping for self-enhancement motives (success-meaningful condition) - or to assess low physical abilities, and thus to encourage self-handicapping for self-protective motives (failure-meaningful condition). Before starting the test, athletes were given the opportunity to claim handicaps that could impair their performance. Low self-esteem athletes claimed more handicaps than high self-esteem athletes in both conditions. Findings suggest that low physical self-esteem athletes engage more in claimed handicapping regardless of motives, relative to high physical self-esteem athletes.
Results: After adjusting for other variables, the multivariable analysis showed that handicap in stroke is significantly associated with the Barthel index (p<0.05) and atrial fibrillation (p<0.05). Conclusion: Barthel index is an important predictor of handicap following stroke. Atrial fibrillation should also be considered in the ...
Full Text Available This work gives an detailed review of the basic issues of development of protection and rehabilitation of handicapped people in Macedonia with data especially for the period pf the last five decades.A plentitude of documentary materials proved to be important starting assumption for further historical studies on protection and rehabilitation of handicapped people in the Republic of Macedonia.
Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herbert W.; Williamson, Alan; Debus, Raymond L.
Interviews with university students selected as high or low in either self-handicapping or defensive pessimism identified personal perspectives on the nature of self-handicapping and defensive pessimism, the perceived reasons why they engage in these strategies and the perceived advantages that follow from them, and the extent to which ego goals…
Thomas, Cathy R.; Gadbois, Shannon A.
Background: Self-handicapping is linked to students' personal motivations, classroom goal structure, academic outcomes, global self-esteem and certainty of self-esteem. Academic self-handicapping has yet to be studied with respect to students' consistency in self-description and their description of themselves as learners. Aims: This study…
Standage, Martyn; Treasure, Darren C.; Hooper, Katherine; Kuczka, Kendy
Background: Self-handicapping is an attribution-related process whereby individuals create performance impediments/excuses to protect self-worth in socially evaluative environments. Thus, the prevailing motivational climate would appear to be an important factor when attempting to understand the situational self-handicapping process within school…
Greenlees, Iain; Jones, Simon; Holder, Tim; Thelwell, Richard
The aim of this study was to examine hypotheses derived from Jones and Berglas's (1978) self-handicapping model. It was hypothesized that individuals using many self-handicaps would use more internal attributions and report greater gains in perceived judo ability following success than individuals using few self-handicaps. In addition, it was hypothesized that individuals using many self-handicaps would use more external attributions and report less reduction in perceived judo ability following failure. Fifty-three judo players completed measures of trait self-handicapping, situational self-handicapping and a measure of perceived judo ability before competition. Following competition, the participants completed the Causal Dimension Scale II and the measure of perceived judo ability for a second time. Analyses of variance revealed that high self-handicappers attributed failure to more external factors than low self-handicappers. It was also found that high self-handicappers reported less of a reduction in perceived judo ability following failure than low self-handicappers. The findings therefore provide support for the potential short-term benefits of self-handicapping in sport, although further research is required to examine the long-term implications of using self-handicaps.
Murray, Carolyn B.; Warden, M. Robert
Presents questionnaire results concerning self-handicapping, course-related expectancies, and study habits. Reports that self-handicappers were more likely than others to make external and unstable attributions. Concludes that the underlying cognitive mechanism of self-handicapping strategies is a defensive attributional pattern that protects an…
Dorman, Jeffrey P.; Adams, Joan E.; Ferguson, Janet M.
Classroom environment research investigating the relationship between classroom environment and self-handicapping was conducted in Australian, Canadian, and British high schools. A sample of 3,602 students from 29 schools responded to a questionnaire that assessed student perceptions of classroom environment, self-handicapping, and academic…
To describe the causes of blindness in pupils and staff in the blind unit of the School for the Handicapped in Kwara State. 2. To identify problems in the blind school and initiate intervention. All the blind or visually challenged people in the blind unit of the school for the handicapped were interviewed and examined using a ...
...). These women have a relatively low incidence of breast cancer compared with non-Hispanic white women, but in comparison with Hispanic women in the rest of the United States, the Hispanic women...
Barahmani, Nadia; Dorak, M Tevfik; Forman, Michele R; Sprehe, Michael R; Scheurer, Michael E; Bondy, Melissa L; Okcu, M Fatih; Lupo, Philip J
High birth weight is an established risk factor for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially in children younger than 5 years of age at diagnosis. The goal of this study was to explore the association between being born large for gestational age and the risk for ALL by race/ethnicity to determine if the role of this risk factor differed by these characteristics. The authors compared birth certificate data of 575 children diagnosed with ALL who were younger than 5 years and included in the Texas Cancer Registry, Texas Department of Health, between the years 1995 and 2003 with 11,379 controls matched by birth year. Stratified odds ratios were calculated for risk of ALL by birth weight for gestational age, categorized in 3 groups, small, appropriate, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA, respectively), for each race/ethnicity group. The risk of developing ALL was higher among Hispanics who were LGA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-2.68) compared with LGA non-Hispanic whites (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.87-1.86) after adjusting for infant gender, year of birth, maternal age, birth order, and presence of Down syndrome. However, the difference was not statistically significant. These results suggest that there may be differences in the association between higher growth in utero and risk of childhood ALL among Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites.
Jennifer A. Woo Baidal
Full Text Available Objectives. Modifiable behaviors during the first 1000 days (conception age 24 months mediate Hispanic children’s obesity disparities. We aimed to examine underlying reasons for early life obesity risk factors and identify potential early life intervention strategies. Methods. We conducted 7 focus groups with 49 Hispanic women who were pregnant or had children < age 24 months. Domains included influences on childhood obesity risk factors and future intervention ideas. We analyzed data with immersion-crystallization methods until no new themes emerged. Results. Themes included coping with pregnancy may trump healthy eating and physical activity; early life weight gain is unrelated to later life obesity; fear of infant hunger drives bottle and early solids introduction; beliefs about infant taste promote early solids and sugary beverage introduction; and belief that screen time promotes infant development. Mothers identified physicians, nutritionists, and relatives as important health information sources and expressed interest in mobile technology and group or home visits for interventions. Conclusion. Opportunities exist in the first 1000 days to improve Hispanic mothers’ understanding of the role of early life weight gain in childhood obesity and other obesity risk factors. Interventions that link health care and public health systems and include extended family may prevent obesity among Hispanic children.
Bridges, Ana J; Karlsson, Marie E; Jackson, Jennifer C; Andrews, Arthur R; Villalobos, Bianca T
This study examined strategies Hispanic and non-Hispanic White victims of domestic violence use to manage violence and leave their relationships. Participants ( N = 76, 41% Hispanic) completed self-report questionnaires and a semistructured interview with a language-congruent research assistant. Hispanics reported child care needs and fears of social embarrassment as barriers to leaving, while non-Hispanic Whites reported fewer social supports as a barrier. Hispanics were more likely to use legal resources for help, while non-Hispanic Whites used more informal resources. Recognizing unique barriers to leaving abusive relationships and accessing help can guide service providers and others to target vulnerable populations more effectively.
Chen, Lung Hung; Chen, Mei-Yen; Lin, Meng-Shyan; Kee, Ying Hwa; Kuo, Chin Fang; Shui, Shang-Hsueh
Self-handicapping is a maladaptive behavior which undermines students' achievements, but the antecedents of self-handicapping are not well studied in physical education. The aim was to examine the relations of implicit theory of abilities and self-handicapping in physical education. 264 college students, whose mean age was 20.3 yr. (SD = 1.7), completed the Conceptions of the Nature of Athletic Ability Questionnaire-2 and Self-handicapping Scale for Sport. Analysis indicated entity beliefs positively predicted reduced effort and making excuses. Also, incremental beliefs negatively predicted reduced effort. Results are discussed in terms of implicit theory of ability and self-handicapping. Directions for research and implications are stated.
Ferrand, Claude; Champely, Stephane; Brunel, Philippe C
The present study evaluated the relative contributions of Self-esteem, Trait anxiety, and Public Self-consciousness to self-handicapping on a sex-typed task, within a specific academic sport context. Prior to the competitive examination used to recruit French Physical Education Teachers, female sport students (N = 74) were asked to list and rate on a 7-point scale handicaps which could be disruptive to their Rhythmic Gymnastics performance. Self-esteem did not account for significant variance in any category of handicaps. Trait Anxiety was negatively related to handicaps related to Rhythmic Gymnastics and to Social and Work Commitments. Public Self-consciousness was significantly related to endorsement of Friends and Family Commitments handicaps. These results were discussed in relation to the literature.
Sood, Akshay; Stidley, Christine A; Picchi, Maria A; Celedón, Juan C; Gilliland, Frank; Crowell, Richard E; Belinsky, Steven A; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes
Smoking-related respiratory diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. However, the relationship between smoking and respiratory disease has not been well-studied among ethnic minorities in general and among women in particular. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the risk of airflow obstruction and to assess lung function among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) female smokers in a New Mexico cohort. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing smoking history and underwent spirometry testing. Outcomes studied included airflow obstruction, selected lung function parameters, and chronic mucus hyper-secretion. Chi square, logistic, and linear regression techniques were utilized. Of the 1,433 eligible women participants, 248 (17.3%) were Hispanic; and 319 had airflow obstruction (22.3%). Hispanic smokers were more likely to be current smokers, and report lower pack-years of smoking, compared to NHW smokers (p smokers were at a reduced risk of airflow obstruction compared to NHW smokers, with an O.R. of 0.51, 95% C.I. 0.34, 0.78 (p = 0.002) after adjustment for age, BMI, pack-years and duration of smoking, and current smoking status. Following adjustment for covariates, Hispanic smokers also had a higher mean absolute and percent predicted post-bronchodilator FEV(1)/FVC ratio, as well as higher mean percent predicted FEV(1) (p smokers in this New Mexico-based cohort had lower risk of airflow obstruction and better lung function than NHW female smokers. Further, smoking history did not completely explain these associations.
..., religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national origin. 113.3-1 Section 113.3-1 Business Credit and... of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national origin. (a) This regulation does not prohibit the consideration of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national...
Dorman, Jeffrey P.; Adams, Joan E.; Ferguson, Janet M.
Presents an investigation of the relationship between classroom environment and self-handicapping in Australian, Canadian, and British secondary schools. Explores student perceptions of classroom environment, self-handicapping, and academic efficacy. Reports that classroom environment scales accounted for variance in self-handicapping beyond what…
Leondari, Angeliki; Gonida, Eleftheria
Background: Academic self-handicapping refers to the use of impediments to successful performance on academic tasks. Previous studies have shown that it is related to personal achievement goals. A performance goal orientation is a positive predictor of self-handicapping, whereas a task goal orientation is unrelated to self-handicapping. Aims: The…
O'Connor, Noga; Hammack, Floyd M.; Scott, Marc A.
Hispanic students are significantly over-represented in community colleges compared to White and Black students. This paper uses a powerful but underutilized statistical technique, the Oaxaca decomposition, to explore the impact of social capital, as manifested through college financial information, on Hispanic student enrollment in 4-year and…
Coca Cola Bottling Co. of Los Angeles, CA.
The Coca-Cola Hispanic Education Fund was created in response to the high school dropout problem in Los Angeles. The Fund enables the Coca-Cola Bottling Company of Los Angeles to build upon the successful relationship it has developed in the Hispanic community and maximizes the effectiveness of existing student support programs by directing needy…
Gonyea, Nathan E.
The present study investigated the impact of acculturation on the learning styles of 151 Hispanic students enrolled in a Hispanic Serving Institution in South Texas, controlling for age, gender, and country of origin. Acculturation did not significantly predict learning style when controlling for these three variables. These results may be because…
Yankelovich, Daniel; And Others
This report summarizes results of a 1984 study of the lifestyles, values, buying behavior, and media habits of the Hispanic American market. First, a number of shifts in U.S. political, social, and economic life (since 1981, when the first study of this type was conducted) which are changing the orientation of Hispanics are discussed. These shifts…
Lopez, Barbara; Huang, Shi; Wang, Wei; Prado, Guillermo; Brown, C. Hendricks; Zeng, Guang; Flavin, Kathryn; Pantin, Hilda
We examined how relationships among intrapersonal (i.e., attitudes and beliefs about smoking) and ecodevelopmental (i.e., family, school, and peer) factors influence risk for lifetime smoking in immigrant Hispanic adolescents. Our sample was comprised of 223 immigrant Hispanic adolescents and their families and was drawn from 3 middle schools in a…
... National Hispanic-Serving Institutions Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... compete and thrive. Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) are key members of our higher education system... prosperous tomorrow for our Nation. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of...
Xie, Bin; Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Johnson, C. Anderson; Wu, Qiaobing; Chou, Chih-Ping
Objectives: To prospectively investigate associations between overweight and depressive symptoms in Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Methods: Data included 780 Hispanic and 375 Asian students. Structural equation model was used to prospectively explore moderation effects of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation on associations of overweight, body…
Serafin, Ana Gil
Describes a graduate program in school leadership at Northeastern Illinois University that is intended to meet the administrative and leadership needs of Hispanic teachers in Chicago. The master's degree program is offered as part of the university's El Centro outreach center for the Hispanic-American community and offers collaborative…
This study explores the relationship between parental SES, ethnicity, and college enrollment. Parental SES is found to translate into a significantly smaller advantage for Hispanics compared to Blacks and Whites. This statistical interaction suggests that high-SES Hispanics are at a unique disadvantage, most likely due to limited access to…
literature on Hispanic Americans (Lisansky, 1981), make this need for empirical clarification especially unequivocal. The economic, educational, and...money/dinero respect/respecto advancement/avance dignity/dignidad education/ educacion ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION LEADERSHIP VALUES duty/obi lgac ion boss...although interestingly, the Anglo Americans gave more attention to Hispanic origin than the Mexican Americans ( especially the Los Angeles Mexicans). There
Wilson-Figueroa, Maria; And Others
The research investigated whether poor Hispanic youth exhibited less migration than nonpoor Hispanic youth. The hypothesis was that migration is a means to escape poverty, although poverty acts as an inhibitor to migration. The data for the study were derived from The Youth Cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS/Y) and the 1988 County and…
Though hidden from view by being considered "non-existent", the meager evidence indicates that Hispanics have an unusually high arrest and incarceration rate. Hispanic background is rarely asked on the six major sources of criminal justice statistics--statistics of arrests, courts, prisoners, juvenile delinquency, crime victimization, and public…
Parent involvement has been shown to be one of the keys to student educational success, their ability to perform at a high level and persevere. The latest government statistics reveal that 53 million Hispanics now reside in the United States and 75 % of this population speaks Spanish at home [Cooper, M. (2014). "Hispanics in America and in…
... Proclamation To win the future and restore our position as the global leader in education, we must ensure all... Hispanic leaders. The hundreds of HSIs across our country are helping Hispanic students gain access to a... necessary to thrive in the 21st century. Graduates of HSIs are leaders in science, technology, engineering...
... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Hispanic Council on Federal Employment AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Scheduling of Council Meeting. SUMMARY: The Hispanic Council on Federal Employment (HCFE) will hold a meeting on Monday, December 13th, at the time and location shown below. The Council is an...
... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Hispanic Council on Federal Employment AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Cancelling and re-scheduling of Council meetings. SUMMARY: The Hispanic Council on Federal Employment (Council) is cancelling the August 29, 2013 Council meeting and will hold its remaining...
... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Hispanic Council on Federal Employment AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Cancelling and Re-Scheduling of Council Meetings. SUMMARY: The Hispanic Council on Federal Employment (Council) is cancelling the October 31, 2013 Council meeting and will hold its...
... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Hispanic Council on Federal Employment AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Scheduling of Council Meetings. SUMMARY: The Hispanic Council on Federal Employment will hold its 2013 Council meetings on the dates and location shown below. The Council is an advisory...
..., 2012 Proclamation 8865--National Farm Safety and Health Week, 2012 Proclamation 8866--National Hispanic... promoting job creation and ensuring Hispanics are represented in the Federal workforce to reshaping our education system to meet the demands of the 21st century, my Administration has built ladders of opportunity...
Corcuera-Flores, José R.; Delgado-Muñoz, José M.; Ruiz-Villandiego, José C.; Maura-Solivellas, Isabel
Dental treatment on Handicapped Patients is often difficult because many people with a wide range of ages (from children to the elderly) with different pathologies that can affect the oral cavity and differ widely are included in this group. This situation creates some controversy, because according to pathology, each patient will be treated differently depending on collaboration, general health status, age or medication used to treat this pathologies. According to this situation we can opt for an outpatient treatment without any kind of previous medication, a treatment under conscious or deep sedation or a under general anesthesia treatment. With this systematic review is intended to help clarify in which cases patients should be treated under general anesthesia, sedation (conscious or deep) or outpatient clinic without any medication, as well as clarify what kind of treatments can be carried in private dental clinics and which should be carried out in a hospital. It will also discuss the most common diseases among this group of patients and the special care to be taken for their dental treatment. Key words:Hospital dentistry, handicapped patient. PMID:24121922
Full Text Available ABSTRACTEvidence is emerging of a significant clinical and neuro-anatomical relationship between balance and anxiety. Research has suggested a potentially priming effect with anxiety symptoms predicting a worsening of balance function in patients with underlying balance dysfunction. We propose to show that a vestibular stimulus is responsible for an increase in state anxiety and there is a relationship between increased state anxiety and worsening balance function. Aims1.To quantify state anxiety following a vestibular stimulus in patients with a chronic vestibular deficit.2.To determine if state anxiety during a vestibular stimulus would correlate with the severity of chronic balance symptoms and handicap. MethodsTwo separate cohorts Vestibular Schwannoma (VS patients underwent vestibular tests (electronystagmography, cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and caloric responses and questionnaire assessment (Vertigo handicap Questionnaire, Vertigo Symptom Scale, State Trait Anxiety InventoryFifteen post resection Vestibular schwannoma patients, with complete unilateral vestibular deafferentation, were assessed at a minimum of 6 months after surgery in Experiment 1 (Aim 1. Forty-five patients with VS in-situ and with preserved vestibular function formed the cohort for Experiment 2 (Aim 2. Experiment 1: VS subjects (N=15 with a complete post-resection unilateral vestibular deafferentation completed a State anxiety questionnaire before caloric assessment and again afterwards with the point of maximal vertigo as the reference (Aim 1. Experiment 2: State anxiety measured at the point of maximal vertigo following a caloric assessment was compared between two groups of presenting with balance symptoms (Group 1 N=26 and without balance symptoms (Group 2 N=11 (Aim 2. The presence of balance symptoms was defined as having a positive score on the VSS-VER.ResultsIn experiment 1, a significant difference (p<0.01 was found when comparing
Brueggmann, Doerthe; Opper, Neisha; Felix, Juan; Groneberg, David A; Mishell, Daniel R; Jaque, Jenny M
Although vaccination against the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) reduces the risk of related morbidities, the vaccine uptake remains low in adolescents. This has been attributed to limited parental knowledge and misconceptions. In this cross sectional study, we assessed the (1) clarity of educational material informing Hispanic mothers about HPV, cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine, (2) determined vaccination acceptability and (3) identified predictors of vaccine acceptance in an underserved health setting. 418 Hispanic mothers received the educational material and completed an anonymous survey. 91 % of participants understood most or all of the information provided. 77 % of participants reported vaccine acceptance for their children; this increased to 84 % when only those with children eligible to receive vaccination were included. Significant positive predictors of maternal acceptance of the HPV vaccine for their children were understanding most or all of the provided information, older age and acceptance of the HPV vaccine for themselves. Concerns about safety and general dislike of vaccines were negatively associated with HPV vaccine acceptance. Prior knowledge, level of education, previous relevant gynecologic history, general willingness to vaccinate and other general beliefs about vaccines were not significantly associated with HPV vaccine acceptance. The majority of participants reported understanding of the provided educational material. Vaccine acceptability was fairly high, but was even higher among those who understood the information. This study documents a cost-effective way to provide Hispanic mothers with easy-to-understand HPV-related information that could increase parental vaccine acceptability and future vaccine uptake among their children.
Justice-Gardiner, Haley; Nutt, Stephanie; Rechis, Ruth; McMillan, Brooke; Warf, Rainy
In the USA, cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and premature death among the Hispanic/Latino population. It is estimated that one in two Hispanic men and one in three Hispanic women will be diagnosed with cancer during their lifetime (American Cancer Society 2010). Despite this significant cancer burden, few innovative strategies for communication and outreach to this population currently exist. In 2009, LIVESTRONG launched a national outreach campaign, which utilized social marketing, specifically targeting Hispanics with the goal of increasing awareness and usage of LIVESTRONG's Spanish-language cancer navigation resources. This campaign, one of the first undertaken by a national cancer-related organization, led to increased awareness and utilization of resources, including a 238% increase in traffic over traditional marketing campaigns which focused on radio alone. The success of this campaign highlights the use of social media as a cost-effective method to raise awareness of cancer resources among Hispanics.