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Sample records for hand trajectory formation

  1. Toddler hand preference trajectories predict 3-year language outcome.

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    Nelson, Eliza L; Gonzalez, Sandy L; Coxe, Stefany; Campbell, Julie M; Marcinowski, Emily C; Michel, George F

    2017-11-01

    A growing body of work suggests that early motor experience affects development in unexpected domains. In the current study, children's hand preference for role-differentiated bimanual manipulation (RDBM) was measured at monthly intervals from 18 to 24 months of age (N = 90). At 3 years of age, children's language ability was assessed using the Preschool Language Scales 5th edition (PLS™-5). Three distinct RDBM hand preference trajectories were identified using latent class growth analysis: (1) children with a left hand preference but a moderate amount of right hand use; (2) children with a right hand preference but a moderate amount of left hand use; and (3) children with a right hand preference and only a mild amount of left hand use. Stability over time within all three trajectories indicated that children did not change hand use patterns from 18 to 24 months. Children with the greatest amount of preferred (i.e., right) hand use demonstrated higher expressive language scores compared to children in both trajectories with moderate levels of non-preferred hand use. Children with the greatest amount of right hand use also had higher scores for receptive language compared to children with a right hand preference but moderate left hand use. Results support that consistency in handedness as measured by the amount of preferred hand use is related to distal language outcomes in development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Entropic Movement Complexity Reflects Subjective Creativity Rankings of Visualized Hand Motion Trajectories

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    Peng, Zhen; Braun, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study we have shown that human motion trajectories can be characterized by translating continuous trajectories into symbol sequences with well-defined complexity measures. Here we test the hypothesis that the motion complexity individuals generate in their movements might be correlated to the degree of creativity assigned by a human observer to the visualized motion trajectories. We asked participants to generate 55 novel hand movement patterns in virtual reality, where each pattern had to be repeated 10 times in a row to ensure reproducibility. This allowed us to estimate a probability distribution over trajectories for each pattern. We assessed motion complexity not only by the previously proposed complexity measures on symbolic sequences, but we also propose two novel complexity measures that can be directly applied to the distributions over trajectories based on the frameworks of Gaussian Processes and Probabilistic Movement Primitives. In contrast to previous studies, these new methods allow computing complexities of individual motion patterns from very few sample trajectories. We compared the different complexity measures to how a group of independent jurors rank ordered the recorded motion trajectories according to their personal creativity judgment. We found three entropic complexity measures that correlate significantly with human creativity judgment and discuss differences between the measures. We also test whether these complexity measures correlate with individual creativity in divergent thinking tasks, but do not find any consistent correlation. Our results suggest that entropic complexity measures of hand motion may reveal domain-specific individual differences in kinesthetic creativity. PMID:26733896

  3. RGBD Video Based Human Hand Trajectory Tracking and Gesture Recognition System

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    Weihua Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of human hand trajectory tracking and gesture trajectory recognition based on synchronized color and depth video is considered. Toward this end, in the facet of hand tracking, a joint observation model with the hand cues of skin saliency, motion and depth is integrated into particle filter in order to move particles to local peak in the likelihood. The proposed hand tracking method, namely, salient skin, motion, and depth based particle filter (SSMD-PF, is capable of improving the tracking accuracy considerably, in the context of the signer performing the gesture toward the camera device and in front of moving, cluttered backgrounds. In the facet of gesture recognition, a shape-order context descriptor on the basis of shape context is introduced, which can describe the gesture in spatiotemporal domain. The efficient shape-order context descriptor can reveal the shape relationship and embed gesture sequence order information into descriptor. Moreover, the shape-order context leads to a robust score for gesture invariant. Our approach is complemented with experimental results on the settings of the challenging hand-signed digits datasets and American sign language dataset, which corroborate the performance of the novel techniques.

  4. 3D hand motion trajectory prediction from EEG mu and beta bandpower.

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    Korik, A; Sosnik, R; Siddique, N; Coyle, D

    2016-01-01

    A motion trajectory prediction (MTP) - based brain-computer interface (BCI) aims to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) trajectory of upper limb movement using electroencephalography (EEG). The most common MTP BCI employs a time series of bandpass-filtered EEG potentials (referred to here as the potential time-series, PTS, model) for reconstructing the trajectory of a 3D limb movement using multiple linear regression. These studies report the best accuracy when a 0.5-2Hz bandpass filter is applied to the EEG. In the present study, we show that spatiotemporal power distribution of theta (4-8Hz), mu (8-12Hz), and beta (12-28Hz) bands are more robust for movement trajectory decoding when the standard PTS approach is replaced with time-varying bandpower values of a specified EEG band, ie, with a bandpower time-series (BTS) model. A comprehensive analysis comprising of three subjects performing pointing movements with the dominant right arm toward six targets is presented. Our results show that the BTS model produces significantly higher MTP accuracy (R~0.45) compared to the standard PTS model (R~0.2). In the case of the BTS model, the highest accuracy was achieved across the three subjects typically in the mu (8-12Hz) and low-beta (12-18Hz) bands. Additionally, we highlight a limitation of the commonly used PTS model and illustrate how this model may be suboptimal for decoding motion trajectory relevant information. Although our results, showing that the mu and beta bands are prominent for MTP, are not in line with other MTP studies, they are consistent with the extensive literature on classical multiclass sensorimotor rhythm-based BCI studies (classification of limbs as opposed to motion trajectory prediction), which report the best accuracy of imagined limb movement classification using power values of mu and beta frequency bands. The methods proposed here provide a positive step toward noninvasive decoding of imagined 3D hand movements for movement-free BCIs.

  5. Trajectories of Identity Formation Modes and Their Personality Context in Adolescence.

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    Topolewska-Siedzik, Ewa; Cieciuch, Jan

    2018-04-01

    Identity formation is a dynamic process during adolescence. Trajectories of identity formation were assessed longitudinally in early and middle adolescents, taking into account the personality underpinnings of this process. Identity formation was conceptualized according to the circumplex of identity formation modes. The model distinguishes basic modes rooted in Marcia's categories of exploration and commitment. Plasticity and stability, the two higher order Big Five meta-traits, were used to assess personality underpinnings. This study includes five measurement waves over 1.5 years and involves 1,839 Polish participants; 914 early adolescents (53.9% girls) and 925 middle adolescents (63.8% girls). The results suggest that (1) the four identity formation modes change dynamically, showing linear and curvilinear growth and that (2) identity formation mode trajectories are more dynamic in middle adolescence than in early adolescence. The results also showed that, in the conditional model, (3) the higher-order personality factors and gender affect the growth factors of identity formation modes. Overall, trajectories of identity formation modes are more linear during early adolescence and more curvilinear during middle adolescence. The initial levels in identity trajectories are influenced by the personality metatraits but only plasticity is related to change among early adolescents.

  6. Hand function with touch screen technology in children with normal hand formation, congenital differences, and neuromuscular disease.

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    Shin, David H; Bohn, Deborah K; Agel, Julie; Lindstrom, Katy A; Cronquist, Sara M; Van Heest, Ann E

    2015-05-01

    To measure and compare hand function for children with normal hand development, congenital hand differences (CHD), and neuromuscular disease (NMD) using a function test with touch screen technology designed as an iPhone application. We measured touch screen hand function in 201 children including 113 with normal hand formation, 43 with CHD, and 45 with NMD. The touch screen test was developed on the iOS platform using an Apple iPhone 4. We measured 4 tasks: touching dots on a 3 × 4 grid, dragging shapes, use of the touch screen camera, and typing a line of text. The test takes 60 to 120 seconds and includes a pretest to familiarize the subject with the format. Each task is timed independently and the overall time is recorded. Children with normal hand development took less time to complete all 4 subtests with increasing age. When comparing children with normal hand development with those with CHD or NMD, in children aged less than 5 years we saw minimal differences; those aged 5 to 6 years with CHD took significantly longer total time; those aged 7 to 8 years with NMD took significantly longer total time; those aged 9 to 11 years with CHD took significantly longer total time; and those aged 12 years and older with NMD took significantly longer total time. Touch screen technology has becoming increasingly relevant to hand function in modern society. This study provides standardized age norms and shows that our test discriminates between normal hand development and that in children with CHD or NMD. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Real-time prediction of hand trajectory by ensembles of cortical neurons in primates

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    Wessberg, Johan; Stambaugh, Christopher R.; Kralik, Jerald D.; Beck, Pamela D.; Laubach, Mark; Chapin, John K.; Kim, Jung; Biggs, S. James; Srinivasan, Mandayam A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2000-11-01

    Signals derived from the rat motor cortex can be used for controlling one-dimensional movements of a robot arm. It remains unknown, however, whether real-time processing of cortical signals can be employed to reproduce, in a robotic device, the kind of complex arm movements used by primates to reach objects in space. Here we recorded the simultaneous activity of large populations of neurons, distributed in the premotor, primary motor and posterior parietal cortical areas, as non-human primates performed two distinct motor tasks. Accurate real-time predictions of one- and three-dimensional arm movement trajectories were obtained by applying both linear and nonlinear algorithms to cortical neuronal ensemble activity recorded from each animal. In addition, cortically derived signals were successfully used for real-time control of robotic devices, both locally and through the Internet. These results suggest that long-term control of complex prosthetic robot arm movements can be achieved by simple real-time transformations of neuronal population signals derived from multiple cortical areas in primates.

  8. Consensus seeking, formation keeping, and trajectory tracking in multiple vehicle cooperative control

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    Ren, Wei

    Cooperative control problems for multiple vehicle systems can be categorized as either formation control problems with applications to mobile robots, unmanned air vehicles, autonomous underwater vehicles, satellites, aircraft, spacecraft, and automated highway systems, or non-formation control problems such as task assignment, cooperative transport, cooperative role assignment, air traffic control, cooperative timing, and cooperative search. The cooperative control of multiple vehicle systems poses significant theoretical and practical challenges. For cooperative control strategies to be successful, numerous issues must be addressed. We consider three important and correlated issues: consensus seeking, formation keeping, and trajectory tracking. For consensus seeking, we investigate algorithms and protocols so that a team of vehicles can reach consensus on the values of the coordination data in the presence of imperfect sensors, communication dropout, sparse communication topologies, and noisy and unreliable communication links. The main contribution of this dissertation in this area is that we show necessary and/or sufficient conditions for consensus seeking with limited, unidirectional, and unreliable information exchange under fixed and switching interaction topologies (through either communication or sensing). For formation keeping, we apply a so-called "virtual structure" approach to spacecraft formation flying and multi-vehicle formation maneuvers. As a result, single vehicle path planning and trajectory generation techniques can be employed for the virtual structure while trajectory tracking strategies can be employed for each vehicle. The main contribution of this dissertation in this area is that we propose a decentralized architecture for multiple spacecraft formation flying in deep space with formation feedback introduced. This architecture ensures the necessary precision in the presence of actuator saturation, internal and external disturbances, and

  9. Trajectory Planning of Satellite Formation Flying using Nonlinear Programming and Collocation

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    Hyung-Chu Lim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, satellite formation flying has been a topic of significant research interest in aerospace society because it provides potential benefits compared to a large spacecraft. Some techniques have been proposed to design optimal formation trajectories minimizing fuel consumption in the process of formation configuration or reconfiguration. In this study, a method is introduced to build fuel-optimal trajectories minimizing a cost function that combines the total fuel consumption of all satellites and assignment of fuel consumption rate for each satellite. This approach is based on collocation and nonlinear programming to solve constraints for collision avoidance and the final configuration. New constraints of nonlinear equality or inequality are derived for final configuration, and nonlinear inequality constraints are established for collision avoidance. The final configuration constraints are that three or more satellites should form a projected circular orbit and make an equilateral polygon in the horizontal plane. Example scenarios, including these constraints and the cost function, are simulated by the method to generate optimal trajectories for the formation configuration and reconfiguration of multiple satellites.

  10. A piecewise probabilistic regression model to decode hand movement trajectories from epidural and subdural ECoG signals

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    Farrokhi, Behraz; Erfanian, Abbas

    2018-06-01

    Objective. The primary concern of this study is to develop a probabilistic regression method that would improve the decoding of the hand movement trajectories from epidural ECoG as well as from subdural ECoG signals. Approach. The model is characterized by the conditional expectation of the hand position given the ECoG signals. The conditional expectation of the hand position is then modeled by a linear combination of the conditional probability density functions defined for each segment of the movement. Moreover, a spatial linear filter is proposed for reducing the dimension of the feature space. The spatial linear filter is applied to each frequency band of the ECoG signals and extract the features with highest decoding performance. Main results. For evaluating the proposed method, a dataset including 28 ECoG recordings from four adult Japanese macaques is used. The results show that the proposed decoding method outperforms the results with respect to the state of the art methods using this dataset. The relative kinematic information of each frequency band is also investigated using mutual information and decoding performance. The decoding performance shows that the best performance was obtained for high gamma bands from 50 to 200 Hz as well as high frequency ECoG band from 200 to 400 Hz for subdural recordings. However, the decoding performance was decreased for these frequency bands using epidural recordings. The mutual information shows that, on average, the high gamma band from 50 to 200 Hz and high frequency ECoG band from 200 to 400 Hz contain significantly more information than the average of the rest of the frequency bands ≤ft( pright) for both subdural and epidural recordings. The results of high resolution time-frequency analysis show that ERD/ERS patterns in all frequency bands could reveal the dynamics of the ECoG responses during the movement. The onset and offset of the movement can be clearly identified by the ERD/ERS patterns. Significance

  11. A biologically inspired neural net for trajectory formation and obstacle avoidance.

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    Glasius, R; Komoda, A; Gielen, S C

    1996-06-01

    In this paper we present a biologically inspired two-layered neural network for trajectory formation and obstacle avoidance. The two topographically ordered neural maps consist of analog neurons having continuous dynamics. The first layer, the sensory map, receives sensory information and builds up an activity pattern which contains the optimal solution (i.e. shortest path without collisions) for any given set of current position, target positions and obstacle positions. Targets and obstacles are allowed to move, in which case the activity pattern in the sensory map will change accordingly. The time evolution of the neural activity in the second layer, the motor map, results in a moving cluster of activity, which can be interpreted as a population vector. Through the feedforward connections between the two layers, input of the sensory map directs the movement of the cluster along the optimal path from the current position of the cluster to the target position. The smooth trajectory is the result of the intrinsic dynamics of the network only. No supervisor is required. The output of the motor map can be used for direct control of an autonomous system in a cluttered environment or for control of the actuators of a biological limb or robot manipulator. The system is able to reach a target even in the presence of an external perturbation. Computer simulations of a point robot and a multi-joint manipulator illustrate the theory.

  12. Melorheostosis of the hand with complicating bony spur formation and bursal inflammation: diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameen, S.; Anderson, S.E.; Nagy, L.; Gerich, U.

    2002-01-01

    A 37-year old woman presented with intolerable pain associated with a slowly growing mass on the dorsum of the right hand. The radiographs were characteristic of melorheostosis involving the third and fourth metacarpals, with a cortical bony projection extending from the base of the third metacarpal eroding slightly into the fourth metacarpal, associated with bursal formation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated an inflamed bursal collection adjacent to the spur. This region corresponded to the patient's severe clinical, focal pain. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in which melorheostosis of the hand has been associated with bony spur formation and complicated by an inflamed bursa. (orig.)

  13. Formation of social and household skills in children with hand defects.

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    Klimon, Nataly; Koryukov, Alexander; Loseva, Nina; Starobina, Elena

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to consider the peculiarities of forming social and household skills, and the criteria for their evaluation, as well as an assessment of functional capacity, in children with hand defects both before and after surgical treatment and rehabilitation courses using a system of games. We elaborated and implemented a program of social rehabilitation of preschool children with congenital and acquired hand defects for the development of their functional capabilities and the formation of social and household skills after surgical treatment and prosthetics using play therapy methods. As part of this work, 140 preschool children aged 3-7 years underwent social rehabilitation. Most of the children had congenital hand defects-122 children (87 %): 96 children (79 %) with ectrodactylia, adactylia, hypoplasia, aplasia, hand splitting, club hand, or partial gigantism; 26 children (21 %) with congenital syndactylism and constricted bonds and 18 children (13 %) with acquired defects (burn deformity, amputation). 110 children (79 %) had reached the stage of surgical correction; 30 children (21 %) reached the stage of prosthetics. Most of the children participating in the experiment (78 children, 56 %) had defects of fingers on one hand. The program aimed at solving specific rehabilitation tasks: formation and improvement of all possible types of grip under the existing defect including those after surgery and prosthetics; development of tactile sensations in fingers; development of fine motor skills; increase in range of motion in all joints of the damaged hand; development of attention and concentration; formation of social and household skills appropriate to age; and development of the ability to achieve the set task. Analysis of the level of social and household skills of children with hand defects undergoing rehabilitation treatment at the hospital depending on the age prior to medical and social rehabilitation showed that preschool children with

  14. Developmental Trajectories of Hand Movements in Typical Infants and Those at Risk of Developmental Disorders: An Observational Study of Kinematics during the First Year of Life

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    Lisa Ouss

    2018-02-01

    are significantly associated with age in cohorts of typical and at-risk infantsdiffer significantly at 5–6 months of age, depending on the context: relating either with an object or a person.Environmental and developmental factors shape the developmental trajectories of hand movements in different cohorts: environment for infants with VIMs; stage of development for premature infants and those with West syndrome; and both factors for infants with orality disorders.The curvature of hand movements specifically reflects atypical development in infants with West syndrome when developmental age is considered.We aimed to discriminate between typical and atypical developmental trajectory patterns of at-risk infants in an interactive setting in this observational and longitudinal study, with the assumption that hand movements (HM reflect preverbal communication and its disorders. We examined the developmental trajectories of HM in five cohorts of at-risk infants and one control cohort, followed from ages 2 to 10 months: 25 West syndrome (WS, 13 preterm birth (PB, 16 orality disorder (OD, 14 with visually impaired mothers (VIM, 7 early hospitalization (EH, and 19 typically developing infants (TD. Video-recorded data were collected in three different structured interactive contexts. Descriptors of the hand motion were used to examine the extent to which HM were associated with age and cohort. We obtained four principal results: (i the kinematics of HM (spatial use, curvature, acceleration, and velocity were significantly associated with age in all cohorts; (ii HM significantly differed at 5–6 months of age in TD infants, depending on the context; (iii environmental and developmental factors shaped the developmental trajectories of HM in different cohorts: environment for VIM, development for PB and WS, and both factors for OD and; (iv the curvatures of HM showed atypical development in WS infants when developmental age was considered. These findings support the importance

  15. Near-infrared image formation and processing for the extraction of hand veins

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    Bouzida, Nabila; Hakim Bendada, Abdel; Maldague, Xavier P.

    2010-10-01

    The main objective of this work is to extract the hand vein network using a non-invasive technique in the near-infrared region (NIR). The visualization of the veins is based on a relevant feature of the blood in relation with certain wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the present paper, we first introduce the image formation in the NIR spectral band. Then, the acquisition system will be presented as well as the method used for the image processing in order to extract the vein signature. Extractions of this pattern on the finger, on the wrist and on the dorsal hand are achieved after exposing the hand to an optical stimulation by reflection or transmission of light. We present meaningful results of the extracted vein pattern demonstrating the utility of the method for a clinical application like the diagnosis of vein disease, of primitive varicose vein and also for applications in vein biometrics.

  16. The formation of movable cultural property conservators-restorer in Brazil: memories and historical trajectory

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    Aloisio Arnaldo Nunes de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a panoramic reflection on the historical trajectory of the educational background of the conservator-restorer of cultural goods in the Brazilian context, covering the chronological interval that goes from 1855 to the 2010s. Using documentary data analysis and bibliographic review, it was also investigated the theoretical landmarks, paradigms, international influences and social policies that served as a foundation for the training and the development of this specialized professional within the Brazilian state.

  17. The European Urology Residents Education Programme Hands-on Training Format: 4 Years of Hands-on Training Improvements from the European School of Urology.

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    Somani, Bhaskar K; Van Cleynenbreugel, Ben; Gozen, Ali; Palou, Jaun; Barmoshe, Sas; Biyani, Shekhar; Gaya, Josep M; Hellawell, Giles; Pini, Gio; Oscar, Faba R; Sanchez Salas, Rafael; Macek, Petr; Skolarikos, Andreas; Wagner, Christian; Eret, Viktor; Haensel, Stephen; Siena, Giampaolo; Schmidt, Marek; Klitsch, Max; Vesely, Stepan; Ploumidis, Achilles; Proietti, Silvia; Kamphuis, Guido; Tokas, Theodore; Geraghty, Rob; Veneziano, Dominico

    2018-03-14

    The European School of Urology (ESU) started the European Urology Residents Education Programme (EUREP) in 2003 for final year urology residents, with hands-on training (HOT) added later in 2007. To assess the geographical reach of EUREP, trainee demographics, and individual quality feedback in relation to annual methodology improvements in HOT. From September 2014 to October 2017 (four EUREP courses) several new features have been applied to the HOT format of the EUREP course: 1:1 training sessions (2015), fixed 60-min time slots (2016), and standardised teaching methodology (2017). The resulting EUREP HOT format was verified by collecting and prospectively analysing the following data: total number of participants attending different HOT courses; participants' age; country of origin; and feedback obtained annually. A total of 796 participants from 54 countries participated in 1450 HOT sessions over the last 4 yr. This included 294 (20%) ureteroscopy (URS) sessions, 237 (16.5%) transurethral resection (TUR) sessions, 840 (58%) basic laparoscopic sessions, and 79 (5.5%) intermediate laparoscopic sessions. While 712 residents (89%) were from Europe, 84 (11%) were from non-European nations. Of the European residents, most came from Italy (16%), Germany (15%), Spain (15%), and Romania (8%). Feedback for the basic laparoscopic session showed a constant improvement in scores over the last 4 yr, with the highest scores achieved last year. This included feedback on improvements in tutor rating (p=0.017), organisation (ptraining curriculum with wet laboratory or cadaveric courses in this format, although these could be performed in other training centres in conjunction with EUREP. The EUREP trainee demographics show that the purpose of the course is being achieved, with excellent feedback reported. While European trainees dominate the demographics, participation from a number of non-European countries suggests continued ESU collaboration with other national societies and

  18. Evaluation of Dentin Defect Formation during Retreatment with Hand and Rotary Instruments: A Micro-CT Study.

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    Yilmaz, Ayca; Helvacioglu-Yigit, Dilek; Gur, Cansu; Ersev, Handan; Kiziltas Sendur, Gullu; Avcu, Egemen; Baydemir, Canan; Abbott, Paul Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence and longitudinal propagation of dentin defects after gutta-percha removal with hand and rotary instruments using microcomputed tomography. Twenty mandibular incisors were prepared using the balanced-force technique and scanned in a 19.9  μ m resolution. Following filling with the lateral compaction technique, gutta-percha was removed with ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTUR) or hand instruments. After rescanning, a total of 24,120 cross-sectional images were analyzed. The numbers, types, and longitudinal length changes of defects were recorded. Defects were observed in 36.90% of the cross sections. A total of 73 defects were comprised of 87.67% craze lines, 2.73% partial cracks, and 9.58% fractures. No significant difference in terms of new defect formation was detected between the retreatment groups. The apical and middle portions of the roots had more dentin defects than the coronal portions. Defects in three roots of the PTUR instrument group increased in length. Under the conditions of this in vitro study, gutta-percha removal seemed to not increase the incidence of dentin defect formation, but the longitudinal defect propagation finding suggests possible cumulative dentinal damage due to additional endodontic procedures. Hand and rotary instrumentation techniques caused similar dentin defect formation during root canal retreatment.

  19. Evaluation of Dentin Defect Formation during Retreatment with Hand and Rotary Instruments: A Micro-CT Study

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    Ayca Yilmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence and longitudinal propagation of dentin defects after gutta-percha removal with hand and rotary instruments using microcomputed tomography. Twenty mandibular incisors were prepared using the balanced-force technique and scanned in a 19.9 μm resolution. Following filling with the lateral compaction technique, gutta-percha was removed with ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTUR or hand instruments. After rescanning, a total of 24,120 cross-sectional images were analyzed. The numbers, types, and longitudinal length changes of defects were recorded. Defects were observed in 36.90% of the cross sections. A total of 73 defects were comprised of 87.67% craze lines, 2.73% partial cracks, and 9.58% fractures. No significant difference in terms of new defect formation was detected between the retreatment groups. The apical and middle portions of the roots had more dentin defects than the coronal portions. Defects in three roots of the PTUR instrument group increased in length. Under the conditions of this in vitro study, gutta-percha removal seemed to not increase the incidence of dentin defect formation, but the longitudinal defect propagation finding suggests possible cumulative dentinal damage due to additional endodontic procedures. Hand and rotary instrumentation techniques caused similar dentin defect formation during root canal retreatment.

  20. Effect of Instrumentation Length and Instrumentation Systems: Hand Versus Rotary Files on Apical Crack Formation - An In vitro Study.

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    Devale, Madhuri R; Mahesh, M C; Bhandary, Shreetha

    2017-01-01

    Stresses generated during root canal instrumentation have been reported to cause apical cracks. The smaller, less pronounced defects like cracks can later propagate into vertical root fracture, when the tooth is subjected to repeated stresses from endodontic or restorative procedures. This study evaluated occurrence of apical cracks with stainless steel hand files, rotary NiTi RaCe and K3 files at two different instrumentation lengths. In the present in vitro study, 60 mandibular premolars were mounted in resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligament. Apical 3 mm of the root surfaces were exposed and stained using India ink. Preoperative images of root apices were obtained at 100x using stereomicroscope. The teeth were divided into six groups of 10 each. First two groups were instrumented with stainless steel files, next two groups with rotary NiTi RaCe files and the last two groups with rotary NiTi K3 files. The instrumentation was carried out till the apical foramen (Working Length-WL) and 1 mm short of the apical foramen (WL-1) with each file system. After root canal instrumentation, postoperative images of root apices were obtained. Preoperative and postoperative images were compared and the occurrence of cracks was recorded. Descriptive statistical analysis and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the results. Apical root cracks were seen in 30%, 35% and 20% of teeth instrumented with K-files, RaCe files and K3 files respectively. There was no statistical significance among three instrumentation systems in the formation of apical cracks (p=0.563). Apical cracks were seen in 40% and 20% of teeth instrumented with K-files; 60% and 10% of teeth with RaCe files and 40% and 0% of teeth with K3 files at WL and WL-1 respectively. For groups instrumented with hand files there was no statistical significance in number of cracks at WL and WL-1 (p=0.628). But for teeth instrumented with RaCe files and K3 files significantly more number of cracks were seen at WL than

  1. Effect of Instrumentation Length and Instrumentation Systems: Hand Versus Rotary Files on Apical Crack Formation – An In vitro Study

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    Mahesh, MC; Bhandary, Shreetha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Stresses generated during root canal instrumentation have been reported to cause apical cracks. The smaller, less pronounced defects like cracks can later propagate into vertical root fracture, when the tooth is subjected to repeated stresses from endodontic or restorative procedures. Aim This study evaluated occurrence of apical cracks with stainless steel hand files, rotary NiTi RaCe and K3 files at two different instrumentation lengths. Materials and Methods In the present in vitro study, 60 mandibular premolars were mounted in resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligament. Apical 3 mm of the root surfaces were exposed and stained using India ink. Preoperative images of root apices were obtained at 100x using stereomicroscope. The teeth were divided into six groups of 10 each. First two groups were instrumented with stainless steel files, next two groups with rotary NiTi RaCe files and the last two groups with rotary NiTi K3 files. The instrumentation was carried out till the apical foramen (Working Length-WL) and 1 mm short of the apical foramen (WL-1) with each file system. After root canal instrumentation, postoperative images of root apices were obtained. Preoperative and postoperative images were compared and the occurrence of cracks was recorded. Descriptive statistical analysis and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the results. Results Apical root cracks were seen in 30%, 35% and 20% of teeth instrumented with K-files, RaCe files and K3 files respectively. There was no statistical significance among three instrumentation systems in the formation of apical cracks (p=0.563). Apical cracks were seen in 40% and 20% of teeth instrumented with K-files; 60% and 10% of teeth with RaCe files and 40% and 0% of teeth with K3 files at WL and WL-1 respectively. For groups instrumented with hand files there was no statistical significance in number of cracks at WL and WL-1 (p=0.628). But for teeth instrumented with RaCe files and K3 files

  2. Personality development from adolescence to emerging adulthood: linking trajectories of ego development to the family context and identity formation.

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    Syed, Moin; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2013-02-01

    This longitudinal study analyzed personality development using an individual approach by examining changes in ego development across the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Specifically, the study mapped the heterogeniety in ego development growth trajectories and linked the different trajectories to the family context in adolescence and identity development in emerging adulthood. Participants were 98 families with a child who were followed from age 14 to age 24. Latent class growth analysis identified 4 distinct trajectories of growth in ego development of the children over the 10-year period. The results indicated that growth was more rapid during adolescence and tended to taper off in emerging adulthood. In addition, promotion of personal growth within the family and parents' ego development were particulary instrumental in children's ego developmental gains in adolescence. Finally, youth who demonstrated continued ego development into emerging adulthood also demonstrated heightened levels of identity exploration. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Exploring the role of classroom-based learning in professional identity formation of family practice residents using the experiences, trajectories, and reifications framework.

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    Chen, Luke Y C; Hubinette, Maria M

    2017-08-01

    Classroom-based learning such as academic half day has undervalued social aspects. We sought to explore its role in the professional identity development of family medicine residents. In this case study, residents and faculty from four training sites in the University of British Columbia Department of Family Practice were interviewed. The "experiences, trajectories, and reifications (ETR) framework" was used as a sensitizing tool for modified inductive (thematic) analysis of the transcripts. Classroom-based learning provided a different context for residents' interpretation of their clinical experiences, characterized as a "home base" for rotating urban residents, and a connection to a larger academic community for residents in rural training sites. Both these aspects were important in creating a positive trajectory of professional identity formation. Teaching directed at the learning needs of family physicians, and participation of family practice faculty as teachers and role models was a precipitation of a curriculum "centered in family medicine." Interactions between family medicine residents and faculty in the classroom facilitated the necessary engagements to reify a shared understanding of the discipline of family practice. Classroom-based learning has substantial impact on professional identity formation at an individual and collective level.

  4. Branch to colony trajectory in a modular organism: pattern formation in the Indo-Pacific coral Stylophora pistillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaish, Lee; Abelson, Avigdor; Rinkevich, Baruch

    2006-08-01

    The architecture of the colony in a branching coral is an iterative process in which new layers of calcium carbonate compile atop existing structures that remain unchanged. Colony growth and development, known as astogeny, is believed to be a continuous process, characterized by replication of lower rank unites, polyps, and branches. This study seeks to explore the genetic blueprint of branch-to-colony developmental trajectory in the branching coral Stylophora pistillata, within an astogeny period of 1 year. One hundred small branches (initially 2-4 cm long) were sampled from 10 colonies. A year later, 63 remaining colonies were analyzed for their architectural rules by using 15 morphometric parameters. Multivariate statistical tests were preformed. Cluster and two-dimensional nonmetric Multi-Dimensional Scaling analyses revealed that the 10 genotypes could be divided into two major morphometric groups and two intermediate groups, whereas SIMPER analyses (a similarity percentage test) on within-genet similarities showed high similarity between the ramets developed from each of the 10 genotypes. Although, at first, it seemed that different colonies exhibited variable and different architectural designs (each characterized by specific morphometric parameters), a comprehensive analysis revealed that all 10 coral genotypes exhibited a single common developmental plan that was characterized by a continuum of architectural design with several distinct stages. Each stage is marked by its own characteristic morphometric parameters. Changing of developmental rules during the trajectory from branch to coral colony may help the colony to cope better with environmental constraints.

  5. Phalanx force magnitude and trajectory deviation increased during power grip with an increased coefficient of friction at the hand-object interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Leah R; Seo, Na Jin

    2011-05-17

    This study examined the effect of friction between the hand and grip surface on a person's grip strategy and force generation capacity. Twelve young healthy adults performed power grip exertions on an instrumented vertical cylinder with the maximum and 50% of maximum efforts (far above the grip force required to hold the cylinder), while normal and shear forces at each phalanx of all five fingers in the direction orthogonal to the gravity were recorded. The cylinder surface was varied for high-friction rubber and low-friction paper coverings. An increase in surface friction by replacing the paper covering with the rubber covering resulted in 4% greater mean phalanx normal force (perpendicular to the cylinder surface) and 22% greater mean phalanx shear force in either the proximal or distal direction of the digits (pfriction with the rubber surface compared to the paper surface was associated with a 20% increase in the angular deviation of the phalanx force from the direction normal to the cylinder surface (p<0.05). This study demonstrates that people significantly changed the magnitude and direction of phalanx forces depending on the surface they gripped. Such change in the grip strategy appears to help increase grip force generation capacity. This finding suggests that a seemingly simple power grip exertion involves sensory feedback-based motor control, and that people's power grip capacity may be reduced in cases of numbness, glove use, or injuries resulting in reduced sensation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of zero-point energy differences on the isotope dependence of the formation of ozone: a classical trajectory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Reinhard; Fleurat-Lessard, Paul

    2005-03-01

    The effect of zero-point energy differences (DeltaZPE) between the possible fragmentation channels of highly excited O(3) complexes on the isotope dependence of the formation of ozone is investigated by means of classical trajectory calculations and a strong-collision model. DeltaZPE is incorporated in the calculations in a phenomenological way by adjusting the potential energy surface in the product channels so that the correct exothermicities and endothermicities are matched. The model contains two parameters, the frequency of stabilizing collisions omega and an energy dependent parameter Delta(damp), which favors the lower energies in the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. The stabilization frequency is used to adjust the pressure dependence of the absolute formation rate while Delta(damp) is utilized to control its isotope dependence. The calculations for several isotope combinations of oxygen atoms show a clear dependence of relative formation rates on DeltaZPE. The results are similar to those of Gao and Marcus [J. Chem. Phys. 116, 137 (2002)] obtained within a statistical model. In particular, like in the statistical approach an ad hoc parameter eta approximately 1.14, which effectively reduces the formation rates of the symmetric ABA ozone molecules, has to be introduced in order to obtain good agreement with the measured relative rates of Janssen et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 3, 4718 (2001)]. The temperature dependence of the recombination rate is also addressed.

  7. Classical and quasi-classical trajectory calculations of isotope exchange and ozone formation proceeding through O+O2 collision complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas A.; Gellene, Gregory I.

    2002-10-01

    The isotope exchange reaction, and the three-body ozone formation rate proceeding through an ozone complex, have been studied by classical and quasi-classical trajectory techniques. The exchange rate studies indicate that the rate of this reaction is dominantly sensitive to the O+O2 entrance channel characteristics of the potential energy surface. A detailed consideration of the dynamics of the intermediate ozone complex reveals three important classes. In one class, the complex adopts an ozonelike geometry, largely undergoing asymmetric stretchinglike motion until it dissociates. In a second class, the oxygen atom and molecule never visit the ozonelike geometry but rather remain separated by relatively large distances trapped near the angular momentum barrier in the entrance channel of a pseudo-effective potential. These complexes, which cannot undergo exchange, are, nevertheless, found to contribute significantly to ozone formation at high density of the third body suggesting that the association of the high-density effective formation rate constant with twice the exchange rate may not be valid. The third class can be considered a hybrid of the first two, spending some time as an ozonelike complex and some time as a large atom-diatomic complex. This third class provides a mechanism for rearranging atom locations in the complex (e.g., end and middle position swapping) and, consequently, would not be well accounted for by statistical treatments of the ozone complex based on a single ozonelike reference geometry. In general, the survival time distributions of the complexes are found to be nonexponential. However, when the detailed survival time distributions are coupled with a Lennard-Jones collision model for the stabilization step, the experimental ozone formation rate can be adequately modeled over a broad range of temperature and density.

  8. Spontaneous Formation of left- and right-handed cholesterically ordered domains in an enantioppure chiral polyfluorene film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savoini, M.; Biagioni, P.; Meskers, S.C.J.; Duò, L.; Hecht, B.; Finazzi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermally annealed chiral polyfluorene films are studied by circular differential optical microscopy. We observe the presence of micrometer-sized domains displaying circular dichroism of opposite sign. Our findings suggest the spontaneous occurrence of left- and right-handed cholesterically ordered

  9. Duration for Apical Barrier Formation in Necrotic Immature Permanent Incisors Treated With Calcium Hydroxide Apexification Using Ultrasonic or Hand Filing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wan Lee

    2010-08-01

    Conclusion: Ultrasonic filing with 0.2% chlorhexidine as an irrigant is effective for disinfection of the root canal and can shorten the duration for apical barrier formation in necrotic permanent incisors treated with calcium hydroxide apexification.

  10. Trajetória docente em educação física: percursos formativos e profissionais Teacher's trajectory in physical education: formative and professional routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Folle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a trajetória docente em Educação Física. Os percursos formativos e profissionais de quatro professores de Educação Física, com mais de 25 anos de intervenção profissional em escolas estaduais da cidade de Florianópolis foram investigados. Para analisar a trajetória docente foram utilizadas três fontes de coletas de informações: a entrevistas semi-estruturadas com os professores de Educação Física; b entrevistas semi-estruturadas com três colegas de trabalho; c análise documental. A técnica da análise de conteúdo foi utilizada na análise das informações. Os resultados revelaram que os professores, ao mesmo tempo em que tiveram experiências positivas diversificadas durante suas formações iniciais, vivenciaram experiências negativas muito similares, destacando-se a distância entre suas experiências formativas e a realidade das escolas públicas. Como estratégia de continuidade do percurso formativo, os docentes realizaram cursos de pós-graduação em nível de especialização e de capacitação profissional. A entrada na carreira possibilitou sentimentos tanto de sobrevivência quanto de descoberta, sobressaindo-se o choque com a realidade. No decorrer de seus percursos profissionais, assumiram cargos comissionados e de confiança nas escolas em que atuavam. O desinvestimento amargo predomina no percurso profissional de apenas um professor, enquanto os demais demonstram aguardar a aposentadoria de forma mais serena. Como expectativas relacionadas à aposentadoria, pretendem desenvolver atividades profissionais diversificadas, não retornando à docência escolar.This study aimed to analyze the professional trajectory of Physical Education (PE teachers. The formative and professional routes of four PE teachers, with more than twenty-five years of professional activity in state schools in the city of Florianopolis were investigated. To analyze the teaching trajectory it

  11. Stiff Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Stiff Hands Email to a friend * required fields ...

  12. Hand Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Infections Email to a friend * required fields ...

  13. Hand Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy ... DESCRIPTION The bones of the hand serve as a framework. This framework supports the muscles that make the wrist and fingers move. When ...

  14. Hand Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome and tennis elbow , as well as from chronic problems such as ... Tools Advice from a Certified Hand Therapist on Tennis Elbow Advice from a Certified Hand Therapist: Living with( ...

  15. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is ...

  16. [Hand osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šenolt, Ladislav

    Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic disorder causing pain and limitation of mobility of affected joints. The prevalence of hand OA increases with age and more often affects females. Clinical signs obviously do not correlate with radiographic findings - symptomatic hand OA affects approximately 26 % of adult subjects, but radiographic changes can be found in up to two thirds of females and half of males older than 55 years.Disease course differ among individual patients. Hand OA is a heterogeneous disease. Nodal hand OA is the most common subtype affecting interphalangeal joints, thumb base OA affects first carpometacarpal joint. Erosive OA represents a specific subtype of hand OA, which is associated with joint inflammation, more pain, functional limitation and erosive findings on radiographs.Treatment of OA is limited. Analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the only agents reducing symptoms. New insights into the pathogenesis of disease should contribute to the development of novel effective treatment of hand OA.

  17. The only girl in the room: how paradigmatic trajectories deter female students from surgical careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elspeth; Vaughan, Suzanne

    2013-06-01

    Over 60% of UK medical students are female, yet only 33% of applicants to surgical training are women. Role modelling, differing educational experiences and disidentification in female medical students have been implicated in this disparity. We are yet to fully understand the mechanisms that link students' experiences with national trends in career choices. We employ a hitherto unused concept from the theory of communities of practice: paradigmatic trajectories. These are visible career paths provided by a community and are cited by Wenger as potentially the most influential factors shaping the learning of newcomers. We pioneer the use of this theoretical tool in answering the research question: How do paradigmatic trajectories shape female medical students' experiences of surgery and subsequent career intentions? This qualitative study comprised a secondary analysis of data sourced from 19 clinical medical students. During individual, in-depth, semi-structured interviews, we explored these students' experiences at medical school. We carried out thematic analysis using sensitising concepts from communities of practice theory, notably that of 'paradigmatic trajectories'. Female students' experiences of surgery were strongly gendered; they were positioned as 'other' in the surgical domain. Four key processes--seeing, hearing, doing and imagining--facilitated the formation of paradigmatic trajectories, on which students could draw when making career decisions. Female students were unable to see or identify with other women in surgery. They heard about challenges to being a female surgeon, lacked experiences of participation, and struggled to imagine a future in which they would be successful surgeons. Thus, based on paradigmatic trajectories constructed from exposure to surgery, they self-selected out of surgical careers. By contrast, male students had experiences of 'hands-in' participation and were not marginalised by paradigmatic trajectories. The concept of the

  18. Management by Trajectory: Trajectory Management Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiden, Kenneth; Atkins, Stephen; Fernandes, Alicia D.; Kaler, Curt; Bell, Alan; Kilbourne, Todd; Evans, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In order to realize the full potential of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), improved management along planned trajectories between air navigation service providers (ANSPs) and system users (e.g., pilots and airline dispatchers) is needed. Future automation improvements and increased data communications between aircraft and ground automation would make the concept of Management by Trajectory (MBT) possible.

  19. Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

  20. Adaptive Trajectory Design

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Adaptive Trajectory Design (ATD) is an original concept for quick and efficient end-to-end trajectory designs using proven piece-wise dynamical methods. With ongoing...

  1. Computing with spatial trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Covers the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art research inspired by the spatial trajectory data Readers are provided with tutorial-style chapters, case studies and references to other relevant research work This is the first book that presents the foundation dealing with spatial trajectories and state-of-the-art research and practices enabled by trajectories

  2. Hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibler, K.S.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Flyvholm, M.-A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Healthcare workers are at increased risk of developing hand eczema. Objectives. To investigate the prevalence and severity of self-reported hand eczema, and to relate the findings to demographic data, occupation, medical speciality, wards, shifts, and working hours. Patients/materials......Background. Healthcare workers are at increased risk of developing hand eczema. Objectives. To investigate the prevalence and severity of self-reported hand eczema, and to relate the findings to demographic data, occupation, medical speciality, wards, shifts, and working hours. Patients...... dermatitis, younger age, male sex (male doctors), and working hours. Eighty nine per cent of subjects reported mild/moderate lesions. Atopic dermatitis was the only factor significantly related to severity. Sick leave was reported by 8% of subjects, and notification to the authorities by 12%. Conclusions...... or severity, but cultural differences between professions with respect to coping with the eczema were significant. Atopic dermatitis was related to increased prevalence and severity, and preventive efforts should be made for healthcare workers with atopic dermatitis....

  3. Hand Osteoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farzan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Osteoblastoma is one of the rarest primary bone tumors. Although, small bones of the hands and feet are the third most common location for this tumor, the hand involvement is very rare and few case observations were published in the English-language literature. Materials and Methods: In this study, we report five cases of benign osteoblastoma of the hand, 3 in metacarpals and two in phalanxes. The clinical feature is not specific. The severe nocturnal, salicylate-responsive pain is not present in patients with osteoblastoma. The pain is dull, persistent and less localized. The clinical course is usually long and there is often symptoms for months before medical attention are sought. Swelling is a more persistent finding in osteoblastoma of the hand that we found in all of our patients. The radiologic findings are indistinctive, so preoperative diagnosis based on X-ray appearance is difficult. In all of our 5 cases, we fail to consider osteoblastoma as primary diagnosis. Pathologically, osteoblastoma consisting of a well-vascularized connective tissue stroma in which there is active production of osteoid and primitive woven bone. Treatment depends on the stage and localization of the tumor. Curettage and bone grafting is sufficient in stage 1 or stage 2, but in stage 3 wide resection is necessary for prevention of recurrence. Osteosarcoma is the most important differential diagnosis that may lead to inappropriate operation.

  4. Tracers vs. trajectories in a coastal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engqvist, A.; Döös, K.

    2008-12-01

    Two different methods of estimating the water exchange through a Baltic coastal region have been used, consisting of particle trajectories and passive tracers. Water is traced from and to a small discharge region near the coast. The discharge material in this region is treated as zero dimensional particles or tracers with neutral buoyancy. The real discharge material could be a leakage of radio-nuclides through the sea floor from an underground repository of nuclear waste. Water exchange rates between the discharge region and the model domain are estimated using both forward and backward trajectories as well as passive tracers. The Lagrangian trajectories can account for the time evolution of the water exchange while the tracers give one average age per model grid box. Water exchange times such as residence time, age and transient times have been calculated with trajectories but only the average age (AvA) for tracers. The trajectory calculations provide a more detailed time evolution than the tracers. On the other hand the tracers are integrated "on-line" simultaneously in the sea circulation model with the same time step while the Lagrangian trajectories are integrated "off-line" from the stored model velocities with its inherent temporal resolution, presently one hour. The sub-grid turbulence is parameterised as a Laplacian diffusion for the passive tracers and with an extra stochastic velocity for trajectories. The importance of the parameterised sub-grid turbulence for the trajectories is estimated to give an extra diffusion of the same order as the Laplacian diffusion by comparing the Lagrangian dispersions with and without parameterisation. The results of the different methods are similar but depend on the chosen diffusivity coefficient with a slightly higher correlation between trajectories and tracers when integrated with a lower diffusivity coefficient.

  5. Trajectories of martian habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S

    2014-02-01

    Beginning from two plausible starting points-an uninhabited or inhabited Mars-this paper discusses the possible trajectories of martian habitability over time. On an uninhabited Mars, the trajectories follow paths determined by the abundance of uninhabitable environments and uninhabited habitats. On an inhabited Mars, the addition of a third environment type, inhabited habitats, results in other trajectories, including ones where the planet remains inhabited today or others where planetary-scale life extinction occurs. By identifying different trajectories of habitability, corresponding hypotheses can be described that allow for the various trajectories to be disentangled and ultimately a determination of which trajectory Mars has taken and the changing relative abundance of its constituent environments.

  6. Lunar and interplanetary trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Biesbroek, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a clear description of the types of lunar and interplanetary trajectories, and how they influence satellite-system design. The description follows an engineering rather than a mathematical approach and includes many examples of lunar trajectories, based on real missions. It helps readers gain an understanding of the driving subsystems of interplanetary and lunar satellites. The tables and graphs showing features of trajectories make the book easy to understand. .

  7. Conceptual Approach to Formation of Competitiveness of the Leading International Airports under Conditions of the World Trajectory of the Airline Market Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydorenko Kateryna V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential of competitiveness of the airport, as any other enterprise of the service sphere, is determined by the corporate power of the producer of these values. The issue of development of the infrastructure development strategy of leading international airports, which sets the goal of solution of the problem of complete, timely, uninterrupted and high quality satisfaction of the fast growing demand of services consumers with minimal costs, becomes extremely urgent under conditions of dynamic development of the world aviation. However, the airport infrastructure is rather wasteful and requires permanent investments into renovation of the infrastructure objects and technological systems. The airport infrastructure is a set of objects, which are divided, by their functional purpose, into objects that directly service the technological process of air conveyance (sphere of aviation activity and objects that create additional services. Increase of competitiveness of the airport in the world economic environment envisages timely modernisation and harmonious development of its objects in accordance with requirements of the airport services market on the basis of rational resource provision and efficient management of the property complex at all stages of functioning and development. The author studies aspects of formation of the competitive strategy of the airport, identifies strategic priorities of development of the airport infrastructure, including through the mechanism of state-private partnership, use of transit potential, strengthening of the logistical component, increase of quality of servicing, and diversification of activity by means of strengthening its non-aviation component with consideration of goals of efficient integration in the national and global environment.

  8. PANTHER. Trajectory Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rintoul, Mark Daniel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, Andrew T. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Valicka, Christopher G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kegelmeyer, W. Philip [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shead, Timothy M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newton, Benjamin D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Czuchlewski, Kristina Rodriguez [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We want to organize a body of trajectories in order to identify, search for, classify and predict behavior among objects such as aircraft and ships. Existing compari- son functions such as the Fr'echet distance are computationally expensive and yield counterintuitive results in some cases. We propose an approach using feature vectors whose components represent succinctly the salient information in trajectories. These features incorporate basic information such as total distance traveled and distance be- tween start/stop points as well as geometric features related to the properties of the convex hull, trajectory curvature and general distance geometry. Additionally, these features can generally be mapped easily to behaviors of interest to humans that are searching large databases. Most of these geometric features are invariant under rigid transformation. We demonstrate the use of different subsets of these features to iden- tify trajectories similar to an exemplar, cluster a database of several hundred thousand trajectories, predict destination and apply unsupervised machine learning algorithms.

  9. The Formation Mechanism of Cu(In0.7Ga0.3Se2 Nanoparticles and the Densification Trajectory of the Se-Rich Quaternary Target by Hot Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Ma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method to obtain the CuInGaSe2 (CIGS absorber layer with an appropriate selenium content is put forward, in which a Se-rich target is used to deposit a CIGS thin-film and this film is annealed in a Se-free inert atmosphere. The key issue of this method is the preparation of a Se-rich target with a homogeneous composition and a high-density. The formation mechanism of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 is investigated and the results point to the intermediate phase Cu2−xSe playing a role of a nucleation core. The sintering densification trajectory of the target with the addition of extra selenium is researched. Additionally, an effective way to avoid the sintering defects is proposed. Finally, a conversion efficiency of 11.2% for the CIGS solar cell is reached by sputtering from the obtained Se-rich target.

  10. Trajectory Browser Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Cyrus; Jaroux, Belgacem A.

    2012-01-01

    The Trajectory Browser is a web-based tool developed at the NASA Ames Research Center to be used for the preliminary assessment of trajectories to small-bodies and planets and for providing relevant launch date, time-of-flight and V requirements. The site hosts a database of transfer trajectories from Earth to asteroids and planets for various types of missions such as rendezvous, sample return or flybys. A search engine allows the user to find trajectories meeting desired constraints on the launch window, mission duration and delta V capability, while a trajectory viewer tool allows the visualization of the heliocentric trajectory and the detailed mission itinerary. The anticipated user base of this tool consists primarily of scientists and engineers designing interplanetary missions in the context of pre-phase A studies, particularly for performing accessibility surveys to large populations of small-bodies. The educational potential of the website is also recognized for academia and the public with regards to trajectory design, a field that has generally been poorly understood by the public. The website is currently hosted on NASA-internal URL http://trajbrowser.arc.nasa.gov/ with plans for a public release as soon as development is complete.

  11. G×E Interaction Influences Trajectories of Hand Grip Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Inge; Pedersen, Nancy L; Rantanen, Taina

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in grip strength predicts later life disability, frailty, lower well-being and cognitive change. While grip strength is heritable, genetic influence on change in grip strength has been relatively ignored, with non-shared environmental influence identified as the primary contri...

  12. Long range trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P. W.; Jessup, E. A.; White, R. E. [Air Resources Field Research Office, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A single air molecule can have a trajectory that can be described with a line, but most meteorologists use single lines to represent the trajectories of air parcels. A single line trajectory has the disadvantage that it is a categorical description of position. Like categorized forecasts it provides no qualification, and no provision for dispersion in case the parcel contains two or more molecules which may take vastly different paths. Diffusion technology has amply demonstrated that an initial aerosol cloud or volume of gas in the atmosphere not only grows larger, but sometimes divides into puffs, each having a different path or swath. Yet, the average meteorologist, faced with the problem of predicting the future motion of a cloud, usually falls back on the line trajectory approach with the explanation that he had no better tool for long range application. In his more rational moments, he may use some arbitrary device to spread his cloud with distance. One such technique has been to separate the trajectory into two or more trajectories, spaced about the endpoint of the original trajectory after a short period of travel, repeating this every so often like a chain reaction. This has the obvious disadvantage of involving a large amount of labor without much assurance of improved accuracy. Another approach is to draw a circle about the trajectory endpoint, to represent either diffusion or error. The problem then is to know what radius to give the circle and also whether to call it diffusion or error. Meteorologists at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are asked frequently to provide advice which involves trajectory technology, such as prediction of an aerosol cloud path, reconstruction of the motion of a volume of air, indication of the dilution, and the possible trajectory prediction error over great distances. Therefore, we set out, nearly three years ago, to provide some statistical knowledge about the status of our trajectory technology. This report contains some of the

  13. Hands in medicine: understanding the impact of competency-based education on the formation of medical students' identities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Catherine; Zaidi, Zareen

    2016-01-01

    There have been critiques that competency training, which defines the roles of a physician by simple, discrete tasks or measurable competencies, can cause students to compartmentalize and focus mainly on being assessed without understanding how the interconnected competencies help shape their role as future physicians. Losing the meaning and interaction of competencies can result in a focus on 'doing the work of a physician' rather than identity formation and 'being a physician.' This study aims to understand how competency-based education impacts the development of a medical student's identity. Three ceramic models representing three core competencies 'medical knowledge,' 'patient care,' and 'professionalism' were used as sensitizing objects, while medical students reflected on the impact of competency-based education on identity formation. Qualitative analysis was used to identify common themes. Students across all four years of medical school related to the 'professionalism' competency domain (50%). They reflected that 'being an empathetic physician' was the most important competency. Overall, students agreed that competency-based education played a significant role in the formation of their identity. Some students reflected on having difficulty in visualizing the interconnectedness between competencies, while others did not. Students reported that the assessment structure deemphasized 'professionalism' as a competency. Students perceive 'professionalism' as a competency that impacts their identity formation in the social role of 'being a doctor,' albeit a competency they are less likely to be assessed on. High-stakes exams, including the United States Medical Licensing Exam clinical skills exam, promote this perception.

  14. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  15. Branching trajectory continual integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.P.; Chebotarev, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Heuristic definition of the Feynman continual integral over branching trajectories is suggested which makes it possible to obtain in the closed form the solution of the Cauchy problem for the model Hartree equation. A number of properties of the solution is derived from an integral representation. In particular, the quasiclassical asymptotics, exact solution in the gaussian case and perturbation theory series are described. The existence theorem for the simpliest continual integral over branching trajectories is proved [ru

  16. Hands in medicine: understanding the impact of competency-based education on the formation of medical students’ identities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There have been critiques that competency training, which defines the roles of a physician by simple, discrete tasks or measurable competencies, can cause students to compartmentalize and focus mainly on being assessed without understanding how the interconnected competencies help shape their role as future physicians. Losing the meaning and interaction of competencies can result in a focus on ‘doing the work of a physician’ rather than identity formation and ‘being a physician.’ This study aims to understand how competency-based education impacts the development of a medical student’s identity. Methods Three ceramic models representing three core competencies ‘medical knowledge,’ ‘patient care,’ and ‘professionalism’ were used as sensitizing objects, while medical students reflected on the impact of competency-based education on identity formation. Qualitative analysis was used to identify common themes. Results Students across all four years of medical school related to the ‘professionalism’ competency domain (50%). They reflected that ‘being an empathetic physician’ was the most important competency. Overall, students agreed that competency-based education played a significant role in the formation of their identity. Some students reflected on having difficulty in visualizing the interconnectedness between competencies, while others did not. Students reported that the assessment structure deemphasized ‘professionalism’ as a competency. Conclusion Students perceive ‘professionalism’ as a competency that impacts their identity formation in the social role of ‘being a doctor,’ albeit a competency they are less likely to be assessed on. High-stakes exams, including the United States Medical Licensing Exam clinical skills exam, promote this perception. PMID:27572244

  17. Hands in medicine: understanding the impact of competency-based education on the formation of medical students’ identities in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Gonsalves

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose There have been critiques that competency training, which defines the roles of a physician by simple, discrete tasks or measurable competencies, can cause students to compartmentalize and focus mainly on being assessed without understanding how the interconnected competencies help shape their role as future physicians. Losing the meaning and interaction of competencies can result in a focus on ‘doing the work of a physician’ rather than identity formation and ‘being a physician.’ This study aims to understand how competency-based education impacts the development of a medical student’s identity. Methods Three ceramic models representing three core competencies ‘medical knowledge,’ ‘patient care,’ and ‘professionalism’ were used as sensitizing objects, while medical students reflected on the impact of competency-based education on identity formation. Qualitative analysis was used to identify common themes. Results Students across all four years of medical school related to the ‘professionalism’ competency domain (50%. They reflected that ‘being an empathetic physician’ was the most important competency. Overall, students agreed that competency-based education played a significant role in the formation of their identity. Some students reflected on having difficulty in visualizing the interconnectedness between competencies, while others did not. Students reported that the assessment structure deemphasized ‘professionalism’ as a competency. Conclusion Students perceive ‘professionalism’ as a competency that impacts their identity formation in the social role of ‘being a doctor,’ albeit a competency they are less likely to be assessed on. High-stakes exams, including the United States Medical Licensing Exam clinical skills exam, promote this perception.

  18. Eye-hand coupling during closed-loop drawing: evidence of shared motor planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, G Anthony; Schwartz, Andrew B

    2003-04-01

    Previous paradigms have used reaching movements to study coupling of eye-hand kinematics. In the present study, we investigated eye-hand kinematics as curved trajectories were drawn at normal speeds. Eye and hand movements were tracked as a monkey traced ellipses and circles with the hand in free space while viewing the hand's position on a computer monitor. The results demonstrate that the movement of the hand was smooth and obeyed the 2/3 power law. Eye position, however, was restricted to 2-3 clusters along the hand's trajectory and fixed approximately 80% of the time in one of these clusters. The eye remained stationary as the hand moved away from the fixation for up to 200 ms and saccaded ahead of the hand position to the next fixation along the trajectory. The movement from one fixation cluster to another consistently occurred just after the tangential hand velocity had reached a local minimum, but before the next segment of the hand's trajectory began. The next fixation point was close to an area of high curvature along the hand's trajectory even though the hand had not reached that point along the path. A visuo-motor illusion of hand movement demonstrated that the eye movement was influenced by hand movement and not simply by visual input. During the task, neural activity of pre-motor cortex (area F4) was recorded using extracellular electrodes and used to construct a population vector of the hand's trajectory. The results suggest that the saccade onset is correlated in time with maximum curvature in the population vector trajectory for the hand movement. We hypothesize that eye and arm movements may have common, or shared, information in forming their motor plans.

  19. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on May ... 34 How The Clean Hands - Safe Hands System Works - Duration: 3:38. Clean Hands-Safe Hands 5, ...

  20. Interpreting Early Career Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnatt, Joan; Gahlsdorf Terrell, Dianna; D'Souza, Lisa Andries; Jong, Cindy; Cochran-Smith, Marilyn; Viesca, Kara Mitchell; Gleeson, Ann Marie; McQuillan, Patrick; Shakman, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Career decisions of four teachers are explored through the concept of figured worlds in this qualitative, longitudinal case study. Participants were purposefully chosen for similarity at entry, with a range of career trajectories over time. Teacher career paths included remaining in one school, repeated changes in schools, attrition after…

  1. Trajectory structures and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, Madalina; Spineanu, Florin

    2004-01-01

    The special problem of transport in two-dimensional divergence-free stochastic velocity fields is studied by developing a statistical approach, the nested subensemble method. The nonlinear process of trapping determined by such fields generates trajectory structures whose statistical characteristics are determined. These structures strongly influence the transport

  2. Mobility, Education and Life Trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog; Valentin, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Travel for educational purposes, once the privilege of the upper class, has become a global mass phenomenon in recent years. This special issue examines, within different cultural and historical contexts, the close relationship between migration, education and social mobility. Adopting...... the perspective that education includes a broad range of formative experiences, the articles explore different educational trajectories and the local, regional and transnational relations in which they are embedded. Three key issues emerge from the analyses: firstly, the central role of temporality in terms...... of both the overall historical conditions and the specific biographical circumstances shaping educational opportunities; secondly, the complex agendas informing individuals’ migration and the adjustment of these agendas in the light of the vagaries of migrant life; and thirdly, the importance of migrants...

  3. Trajectory grouping structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Buchin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The collective motion of a set of moving entities like people, birds, or other animals, is characterized by groups arising, merging, splitting, and ending. Given the trajectories of these entities, we define and model a structure that captures all of such changes using the Reeb graph, a concept from topology. The trajectory grouping structure has three natural parameters that allow more global views of the data in group size, group duration, and entity inter-distance. We prove complexity bounds on the maximum number of maximal groups that can be present, and give algorithms to compute the grouping structure efficiently. We also study how the trajectory grouping structure can be made robust, that is, how brief interruptions of groups can be disregarded in the global structure, adding a notion of persistence to the structure. Furthermore, we showcase the results of experiments using data generated by the NetLogo flocking model and from the Starkey project. The Starkey data describe the movement of elk, deer, and cattle. Although there is no ground truth for the grouping structure in this data, the experiments show that the trajectory grouping structure is plausible and has the desired effects when changing the essential parameters. Our research provides the first complete study of trajectory group evolvement, including combinatorial,algorithmic, and experimental results.

  4. UAV Trajectory Modeling Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min

    2017-01-01

    Large amount of small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (sUAVs) are projected to operate in the near future. Potential sUAV applications include, but not limited to, search and rescue, inspection and surveillance, aerial photography and video, precision agriculture, and parcel delivery. sUAVs are expected to operate in the uncontrolled Class G airspace, which is at or below 500 feet above ground level (AGL), where many static and dynamic constraints exist, such as ground properties and terrains, restricted areas, various winds, manned helicopters, and conflict avoidance among sUAVs. How to enable safe, efficient, and massive sUAV operations at the low altitude airspace remains a great challenge. NASA's Unmanned aircraft system Traffic Management (UTM) research initiative works on establishing infrastructure and developing policies, requirement, and rules to enable safe and efficient sUAVs' operations. To achieve this goal, it is important to gain insights of future UTM traffic operations through simulations, where the accurate trajectory model plays an extremely important role. On the other hand, like what happens in current aviation development, trajectory modeling should also serve as the foundation for any advanced concepts and tools in UTM. Accurate models of sUAV dynamics and control systems are very important considering the requirement of the meter level precision in UTM operations. The vehicle dynamics are relatively easy to derive and model, however, vehicle control systems remain unknown as they are usually kept by manufactures as a part of intellectual properties. That brings challenges to trajectory modeling for sUAVs. How to model the vehicle's trajectories with unknown control system? This work proposes to use a neural network to model a vehicle's trajectory. The neural network is first trained to learn the vehicle's responses at numerous conditions. Once being fully trained, given current vehicle states, winds, and desired future trajectory, the neural

  5. Hand Surgery: Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Email to a friend * required ...

  6. Semantic Enrichment of GPS Trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, V.; van Keulen, Maurice; de By, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Semantic annotation of GPS trajectories helps us to recognize the interests of the creator of the GPS trajectories. Automating this trajectory annotation circumvents the requirement of additional user input. To annotate the GPS traces automatically, two types of automated input are required: 1) a

  7. Electron trajectory program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1979-11-01

    The SLAC Electron Trajectory Program is described and instructions and examples for users are given. The program is specifically written to compute trajectories of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing systems including the effects of space charge and self-magnetic fields. Starting options include Child's Law conditions on cathodes of various shapes. Either rectangular or cylindrically symmetric geometry may be used. Magntic fields may be specified using arbitrary configurations of coils, or the output of a magnet program such as Poisson or by an externally calculated array of the axial fields. The program is available in IBM FORTRAN but can be easily converted for use on other brands of hardware. The program is intended to be used with a plotter whose interface the user must provide

  8. Electron trajectory program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1979-11-01

    The SLAC Electron Trajectory Program is described and instructions and examples for users are given. The program is specifically written to compute trajectories of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing systems including the effects of space charge and self-magnetic fields. Starting options include Child's Law conditions on cathodes of various shapes. Either rectangular or cylindrically symmetric geometry may be used. Magntic fields may be specified using arbitrary configurations of coils, or the output of a magnet program such as Poisson or by an externally calculated array of the axial fields. The program is available in IBM FORTRAN but can be easily converted for use on other brands of hardware. The program is intended to be used with a plotter whose interface the user must provide.

  9. Au pair trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    pair-sending families in the Philippines, this dissertation examines the long-term trajectories of these young Filipinas. It shows how the au pairs’ local and transnational family relations develop over time and greatly influence their life trajectories. A focal point of the study is how au pairs...... that Filipina au pairs see their stay abroad as an avenue of personal development and social recognition, I examine how the au pairs re-position themselves within their families at home through migration, and how they navigate between the often conflicting expectations of participation in the sociality......Since 2000, thousands of young Filipino migrants have come to Denmark as au pairs. Officially, they are there to “broaden their cultural horizons” by living temporarily with a Danish host family, but they also conduct domestic labor in exchange for food and money, which allows them to send...

  10. Improved Trajectory Search Capability for Multi-Rendezvous and Flyby Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work made vital improvements to a primitive trajectory search algorithm known as NASA Exhaustive Lambert Lattice Search (NELLS). NELLS was created to work hand...

  11. Lionfish envenomation of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M R; Wells, S

    1993-05-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans) envenomation of the hand causes excruciating pain and occurs in three grades: (1) erythematous reaction, (2) blister formation, and (3) dermal necrosis. The initial treatment in all cases is to soak the hand in nonscalding water (45 degrees C) until the pain subsides by denaturing the thermolabile venom proteins. The blisters should be immediately excised to prevent dermal necrosis, inasmuch as the blister fluid contains residual active venom. To prevent a hypersensitivity reaction, any further contact with the fish should be avoided.

  12. Osteoarthritis of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Osteoarthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * ...

  13. Hands in Systemic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy ... hands, being composed of many types of tissue, including blood vessels, nerves, skin and skin-related tissues, bones, and muscles/tendons/ligaments, may show changes that reflect a ...

  14. Denmark: HAND in HAND Policy Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Hilmar Dyrborg; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2018-01-01

    Som del af det internationale EU finansierede projekt Hand in Hand, der fokuserer på de såkaldte SEI-kompetencer (Social, Emotional, Intercultural), er dansk policy i relation til elevernes sociale, emotionelle og interkulturelle læring kortlagt i denne rapport. Der refereres bl.a. til "elevernes...

  15. Moyal dynamics and trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunss, G.

    2010-01-01

    We give first an approximation of the operator δh: f → δhf := h*planckf - f*planckh in terms of planck2n, n >= 0, where h\\equiv h(p,q), (p,q)\\in {\\mathbb R}^{2 n} , is a Hamilton function and *planck denotes the star product. The operator, which is the generator of time translations in a *planck-algebra, can be considered as a canonical extension of the Liouville operator Lh: f → Lhf := {h, f}Poisson. Using this operator we investigate the dynamics and trajectories of some examples with a scheme that extends the Hamilton-Jacobi method for classical dynamics to Moyal dynamics. The examples we have chosen are Hamiltonians with a one-dimensional quartic potential and two-dimensional radially symmetric nonrelativistic and relativistic Coulomb potentials, and the Hamiltonian for a Schwarzschild metric. We further state a conjecture concerning an extension of the Bohr-Sommerfeld formula for the calculation of the exact eigenvalues for systems with classically periodic trajectories.

  16. Repetitive Rockfall Trajectory Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Volkwein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of rockfall trajectories are a standard procedure for evaluating rockfall hazards. For these simulations, corresponding software codes must be calibrated and evaluated based on field data. This study addresses methods of repeatable rockfall tests, and investigates whether it is possible to produce traceable and statistically analysable data. A testing series is described extensively covering how to conduct rockfall experiments and how certain elements of rockfall trajectories can be measured. The tests use acceleration and rotation sensors inside test blocks, a system to determine block positions over time, surveying measurements, and video recordings. All systems are evaluated regarding their usability in the field and for analyses. The highly detailed description of testing methods is the basis for sound understanding and reproducibility of the tests. This article serves as a reference for future publications and other rockfall field tests, both as a guide and as a basis for comparisons. First analyses deliver information on runout with a shadow angle ranging between 21 and 45 degrees for a slope consisting of homogeneous soft soil. A digital elevation model of the test site as well as point clouds of the used test blocks are part of this publication.

  17. Canonical transformations of Kepler trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostowski, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, canonical transformations generated by constants of motion in the case of the Kepler problem are discussed. It is shown that canonical transformations generated by angular momentum are rotations of the trajectory. Particular attention is paid to canonical transformations generated by the Runge-Lenz vector. It is shown that these transformations change the eccentricity of the orbit. A method of obtaining elliptic trajectories from the circular ones with the help of canonical trajectories is discussed.

  18. Robotic hand project

    OpenAIRE

    Karaçizmeli, Cengiz; Çakır, Gökçe; Tükel, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the mechatronic based robotic hand is controlled by the position data taken from the glove which has flex sensors mounted to capture finger bending of the human hand. The angular movement of human hand’s fingers are perceived and processed by a microcontroller, and the robotic hand is controlled by actuating servo motors. It has seen that robotic hand can simulate the movement of the human hand that put on the glove, during tests have done. This robotic hand can be used not only...

  19. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point-and-click a......We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point......-and-click analysis, due to a novel and efficient indexing structure. With the web-site daisy.aau.dk/its/spqdemo/we will demonstrate several analyses, using a very large real-world data set consisting of 1.9 billion GPS records (1.5 million trajectories) recorded from more than 13000 vehicles, and touching most...

  20. Urban water trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Adriana; Hofmann, Pascale; Teh, Tse-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Water is an essential element in the future of cities. It shapes cities’ locations, form, ecology, prosperity and health. The changing nature of urbanisation, climate change, water scarcity, environmental values, globalisation and social justice mean that the models of provision of water services and infrastructure that have dominated for the past two centuries are increasingly infeasible. Conventional arrangements for understanding and managing water in cities are being subverted by a range of natural, technological, political, economic and social changes. The prognosis for water in cities remains unclear, and multiple visions and discourses are emerging to fill the space left by the certainty of nineteenth century urban water planning and engineering. This book documents a sample of those different trajectories, in terms of water transformations, option, services and politics. Water is a key element shaping urban form, economies and lifestyles, part of the ongoing transformation of cities. Cities are face...

  1. Infant Hand Preference and the Development of Cognitive Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Frederick Michel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hand preference develops in the first two postnatal years with nearly half of infants exhibiting a consistent early preference for acquiring objects. Others exhibit a more variable developmental trajectory but by the end of their second postnatal year, most exhibit a consistent hand preference for role-differentiated bimanual manipulation. According to some forms of embodiment theory, these differences in hand use patterns should influence the way children interact with their environments, which, in turn, should affect the structure and function of brain development. Such early differences in brain development should result in different trajectories of psychological development. We present evidence that children with consistent early hand preferences exhibit advanced patterns of cognitive development as compared to children who develop a hand preference later. Differences in the developmental trajectory of hand preference are predictive of developmental differences in language, object management skills, and tool-use skills. As predicted by Cassasanto’s body-specificity hypothesis, infants with different hand preferences proceed along different developmental pathways of cognitive functioning.

  2. Optimal Trajectories Generation in Robotic Fiber Placement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiuchun; Pashkevich, Anatol; Caro, Stéphane

    2017-06-01

    The paper proposes a methodology for optimal trajectories generation in robotic fiber placement systems. A strategy to tune the parameters of the optimization algorithm at hand is also introduced. The presented technique transforms the original continuous problem into a discrete one where the time-optimal motions are generated by using dynamic programming. The developed strategy for the optimization algorithm tuning allows essentially reducing the computing time and obtaining trajectories satisfying industrial constraints. Feasibilities and advantages of the proposed methodology are confirmed by an application example.

  3. Multiphase Return Trajectory Optimization Based on Hybrid Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid trajectory optimization method consisting of Gauss pseudospectral method (GPM and natural computation algorithm has been developed and utilized to solve multiphase return trajectory optimization problem, where a phase is defined as a subinterval in which the right-hand side of the differential equation is continuous. GPM converts the optimal control problem to a nonlinear programming problem (NLP, which helps to improve calculation accuracy and speed of natural computation algorithm. Through numerical simulations, it is found that the multiphase optimal control problem could be solved perfectly.

  4. Trajectory Control of Rendezvous with Maneuver Target Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhinqiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear trajectory control algorithm of rendezvous with maneuvering target spacecraft is presented. The disturbance forces on the chaser and target spacecraft and the thrust forces on the chaser spacecraft are considered in the analysis. The control algorithm developed in this paper uses the relative distance and relative velocity between the target and chaser spacecraft as the inputs. A general formula of reference relative trajectory of the chaser spacecraft to the target spacecraft is developed and applied to four different proximity maneuvers, which are in-track circling, cross-track circling, in-track spiral rendezvous and cross-track spiral rendezvous. The closed-loop differential equations of the proximity relative motion with the control algorithm are derived. It is proven in the paper that the tracking errors between the commanded relative trajectory and the actual relative trajectory are bounded within a constant region determined by the control gains. The prediction of the tracking errors is obtained. Design examples are provided to show the implementation of the control algorithm. The simulation results show that the actual relative trajectory tracks the commanded relative trajectory tightly. The predicted tracking errors match those calculated in the simulation results. The control algorithm developed in this paper can also be applied to interception of maneuver target spacecraft and relative trajectory control of spacecraft formation flying.

  5. VISUAL UAV TRAJECTORY PLAN SYSTEM BASED ON NETWORK MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. L. Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The base map of the current software UP-30 using in trajectory plan for Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle is vector diagram. UP-30 draws navigation points manually. But in the field of operation process, the efficiency and the quality of work is influenced because of insufficient information, screen reflection, calculate inconveniently and other factors. If we do this work in indoor, the effect of external factors on the results would be eliminated, the network earth users can browse the free world high definition satellite images through downloading a client software, and can export the high resolution image by standard file format. This brings unprecedented convenient of trajectory plan. But the images must be disposed by coordinate transformation, geometric correction. In addition, according to the requirement of mapping scale ,camera parameters and overlap degree we can calculate exposure hole interval and trajectory distance between the adjacent trajectory automatically . This will improve the degree of automation of data collection. Software will judge the position of next point according to the intersection of the trajectory and the survey area and ensure the position of point according to trajectory distance. We can undertake the points artificially. So the trajectory plan is automatic and flexible. Considering safety, the date can be used in flying after simulating flight. Finally we can export all of the date using a key

  6. Visual Uav Trajectory Plan System Based on Network Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. L.; Lin, Z. J.; Su, G. Z.; Wu, B. Y.

    2012-07-01

    The base map of the current software UP-30 using in trajectory plan for Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle is vector diagram. UP-30 draws navigation points manually. But in the field of operation process, the efficiency and the quality of work is influenced because of insufficient information, screen reflection, calculate inconveniently and other factors. If we do this work in indoor, the effect of external factors on the results would be eliminated, the network earth users can browse the free world high definition satellite images through downloading a client software, and can export the high resolution image by standard file format. This brings unprecedented convenient of trajectory plan. But the images must be disposed by coordinate transformation, geometric correction. In addition, according to the requirement of mapping scale ,camera parameters and overlap degree we can calculate exposure hole interval and trajectory distance between the adjacent trajectory automatically . This will improve the degree of automation of data collection. Software will judge the position of next point according to the intersection of the trajectory and the survey area and ensure the position of point according to trajectory distance. We can undertake the points artificially. So the trajectory plan is automatic and flexible. Considering safety, the date can be used in flying after simulating flight. Finally we can export all of the date using a key

  7. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  8. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intended to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... also aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  9. Clean Hands Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intended to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... also aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  10. Wash Your Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hand sanitizers might not remove harmful chemicals like pesticides and heavy metals from hands. Be cautious when ... Health Promotion Materials Fact Sheets Podcasts Posters Stickers Videos Web Features Training & Education Our Partners Publications, Data & ...

  11. Hand hygiene strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Yazaji, Eskandar Alex

    2011-01-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the major players in preventing healthcare associated infections. However, healthcare workers compliance with hand hygiene continues to be a challenge. This article will address strategies to help improving hand hygiene compliance. Keywords: hand hygiene; healthcare associated infections; multidisciplinary program; system change; accountability; education; feedback(Published: 18 July 2011)Citation: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives 2011, 1: 72...

  12. Segmenting Trajectories by Movement States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, M.; Kruckenberg, H.; Kölzsch, A.; Timpf, S.; Laube, P.

    2013-01-01

    Dividing movement trajectories according to different movement states of animals has become a challenge in movement ecology, as well as in algorithm development. In this study, we revisit and extend a framework for trajectory segmentation based on spatio-temporal criteria for this purpose. We adapt

  13. Geometric Algorithms for Trajectory Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staals, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Technology such as the Global Positing System (GPS) has made tracking moving entities easy and cheap. As a result there is a large amount of trajectory data available, and an increasing demand on tools and techniques to analyze such data. We consider several analysis tasks for trajectory data,

  14. About Hand Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a hand surgeon near you. © 2009 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Definition developed by ASSH Council. Other Links CME Mission Statement and Disclaimer Policies and Technical Requirements Exhibits and Partners ASSH 822 W. Washington Blvd. ... 2018 by American Society for Surgery of the Hand × Search Tips Tip ...

  15. Guideline Implementation: Hand Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Judith L

    2017-02-01

    Performing proper hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis is essential to reducing the rates of health care-associated infections, including surgical site infections. The updated AORN "Guideline for hand hygiene" provides guidance on hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, the wearing of fingernail polish and artificial nails, proper skin care to prevent dermatitis, the wearing of jewelry, hand hygiene product selection, and quality assurance and performance improvement considerations. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel make informed decisions about hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. The key points address the necessity of keeping fingernails and skin healthy, not wearing jewelry on the hands or wrists in the perioperative area, properly performing hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, and involving patients and visitors in hand hygiene initiatives. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Robotic hand and fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Dullea, Kevin J.

    2017-06-06

    Technologies pertaining to a robotic hand are described herein. The robotic hand includes one or more fingers releasably attached to a robotic hand frame. The fingers can abduct and adduct as well as flex and tense. The fingers are releasably attached to the frame by magnets that allow for the fingers to detach from the frame when excess force is applied to the fingers.

  17. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald James; Clark, Pamela E.; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can b e considered which have a wide range of transfer duration, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO) geostationary transfer orbits (GTO) and higher energy direct lunar transfer and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  18. A Model of Organizational Trajectories to Innovation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvair Silveira Torres Jr.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The multiple-case study research in three industrial companies - located in Brazil- about organizational changing, comparing cases of lean production system implementation, revealed a suggested interpretation of the determinants and directions of organizational innovation. The model tries to account for both continuous changes and discontinuities in organizational innovation. Continuous changes are related to secondary innovation, which doesn’t break an organizational paradigm, while discontinuities are associated with a new trajectory, since a primary innovation adopted by the whole organization. Then, the innovative lean process associated with secondary innovation was inadequate to change the organizational trajectory and it explains the cyclical decisions. On the other hand, the lean production system related to primary innovation, assumes the role as a new trajectory, influencing changes in total organization. The greatest difference found in the companies for innovative diffusion process, was the aspect of spread the organizational principles or a simple set of management’s tools.

  19. LOCALIZATION AND RECOGNITION OF DYNAMIC HAND GESTURES BASED ON HIERARCHY OF MANIFOLD CLASSIFIERS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Favorskaya; A. Nosov; A. Popov

    2015-01-01

    Generally, the dynamic hand gestures are captured in continuous video sequences, and a gesture recognition system ought to extract the robust features automatically. This task involves the highly challenging spatio-temporal variations of dynamic hand gestures. The proposed method is based on two-level manifold classifiers including the trajectory classifiers in any time instants and the posture classifiers of sub-gestures in selected time instants. The trajectory classifiers contain skin dete...

  20. Direct dynamics trajectory study of the reaction of formaldehyde cation with D2: vibrational and zero-point energy effects on quasiclassical trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbo; Song, Kihyung; Hase, William L; Anderson, Scott L

    2005-12-22

    Quasiclassical, direct dynamics trajectories have been used to study the reaction of formaldehyde cation with molecular hydrogen, simulating the conditions in an experimental study of H2CO+ vibrational effects on this reaction. Effects of five different H2CO+ modes were probed, and we also examined different approaches to treating zero-point energy in quasiclassical trajectories. The calculated absolute cross-sections are in excellent agreement with experiments, and the results provide insight into the reaction mechanism, product scattering behavior, and energy disposal, and how they vary with impact parameter and reactant state. The reaction is sharply orientation-dependent, even at high collision energies, and both trajectories and experiment find that H2CO+ vibration inhibits reaction. On the other hand, the trajectories do not reproduce the anomalously strong effect of nu2(+) (the CO stretch). The origin of the discrepancy and approaches for minimizing such problems in quasiclassical trajectories are discussed.

  1. Diagnostic imaging of the hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Rainer [Hospital for Cardiovascular Diseases, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Lanz, Ulrich [Perlach Hospital, Munich (Germany). Dept. of Hand Surgery

    2008-07-01

    With its complex anatomy and specialized biomechanics, the human hand has always presented physicians with a unique challenge when it comes to diagnosing and treating the diseases that afflict it. And while recent decades have seen a rapid increase in the number of therapeutic options, many diseases and injuries of the hand are still commonly misinterpreted. In diagnostic imaging of the hand, an interdisciplinary team, comprisingspecialists in radiology, surgery, and rheumatology, presents a comprehensive,reliable guide to this topographically intricate area. Highlights include: - More than 1000 high-quality illustrations - All state-of-the-art imaging modalities-including multidetector CT, with 2D displays and 3D reconstructions, and contrast-enhanced MRI with multi-channel, phased-array coils - An overview of all currently used methods of examination - A detailed presentation of the anatomic and functional foundations necessary for diagnosis - Full coverage of all disorders of the hand - Systematic treatment of each disease's definition, pathogenesis, and clinical symptoms, according to a graduated diagnostic plan - Easy-to-use format, featuring crisp images and line drawings seamlessly integrated with concise text, summary tables, and handy checklists - A heavily cross-referenced appendix of differential diagnosis tables - Emphasis on interdisciplinary consultation throughout designed to help both radiologists and clinicians develop the most efficient and effective strategies for evaluating and treating patients, Diagnostic imaging of the hand will leave specialists of all levels with a fresh appreciation for - and a richer understanding of - the expanding array of cutting-edge alternatives for diagnosing and treating disorders of the hand. (orig.)

  2. Diagnostic imaging of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Rainer; Lanz, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    With its complex anatomy and specialized biomechanics, the human hand has always presented physicians with a unique challenge when it comes to diagnosing and treating the diseases that afflict it. And while recent decades have seen a rapid increase in the number of therapeutic options, many diseases and injuries of the hand are still commonly misinterpreted. In diagnostic imaging of the hand, an interdisciplinary team, comprisingspecialists in radiology, surgery, and rheumatology, presents a comprehensive,reliable guide to this topographically intricate area. Highlights include: - More than 1000 high-quality illustrations - All state-of-the-art imaging modalities-including multidetector CT, with 2D displays and 3D reconstructions, and contrast-enhanced MRI with multi-channel, phased-array coils - An overview of all currently used methods of examination - A detailed presentation of the anatomic and functional foundations necessary for diagnosis - Full coverage of all disorders of the hand - Systematic treatment of each disease's definition, pathogenesis, and clinical symptoms, according to a graduated diagnostic plan - Easy-to-use format, featuring crisp images and line drawings seamlessly integrated with concise text, summary tables, and handy checklists - A heavily cross-referenced appendix of differential diagnosis tables - Emphasis on interdisciplinary consultation throughout designed to help both radiologists and clinicians develop the most efficient and effective strategies for evaluating and treating patients, Diagnostic imaging of the hand will leave specialists of all levels with a fresh appreciation for - and a richer understanding of - the expanding array of cutting-edge alternatives for diagnosing and treating disorders of the hand. (orig.)

  3. Acute burns of the hands – physiotherapy perspective.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of KwaZulu-Natal, Occupational therapy Department. Abstract: ... trajectory of the trauma care continuum. Keywords: Burns ... challenges during their recovery process.1 Hand burn in- ... major teaching institutions situated within a metropolitan area and .... education and motivation and provide basic counselling.

  4. Generic trajectory representation and trajectory following for wheeled robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2014-01-01

    will drive. Safe: Avoid fatal collisions. Based on a survey of existing methods and algorithms the article presents a generic way to represent constraints for different types of robots, a generic way to represent trajectories using Bëzier curves, a method to convert the trajectory so it can be driven...... in a smooth motion, a method to create a safe velocity profile for the robot, and a path following controller....

  5. Low Thrust Trajectory Design for GSFC Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG) is a global trajectory optimization tool. EMTG is intended for use in designing interplanetary missions which...

  6. The Avocado Hand

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rahmani, G

    2017-11-01

    Accidental self-inflicted knife injuries to digits are a common cause of tendon and nerve injury requiring hand surgery. There has been an apparent increase in avocado related hand injuries. Classically, the patients hold the avocado in their non-dominant hand while using a knife to cut\\/peel the fruit with their dominant hand. The mechanism of injury is usually a stabbing injury to the non-dominant hand as the knife slips past the stone, through the soft avocado fruit. Despite their apparent increased incidence, we could not find any cases in the literature which describe the “avocado hand”. We present a case of a 32-year-old woman who sustained a significant hand injury while preparing an avocado. She required exploration and repair of a digital nerve under regional anaesthesia and has since made a full recovery.

  7. Hand eczema classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diepgen, T L; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandao, F M

    2008-01-01

    of the disease is rarely evidence based, and a classification system for different subdiagnoses of hand eczema is not agreed upon. Randomized controlled trials investigating the treatment of hand eczema are called for. For this, as well as for clinical purposes, a generally accepted classification system...... A classification system for hand eczema is proposed. Conclusions It is suggested that this classification be used in clinical work and in clinical trials....

  8. Coordination of hand shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-03-09

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor, and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In the first experiment, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, and pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support, or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus, somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial-coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness.

  9. Galileo's Trajectory with Mild Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groetsch, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of Galileo's classical trajectory that persists in a simple resistance model is noted. The resistive model provides a case study for the classroom analysis of limiting behaviour of an implicitly defined function. (Contains 1 note.)

  10. Flight test trajectory control analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.; Gupta, N.

    1983-01-01

    Recent extensions to optimal control theory applied to meaningful linear models with sufficiently flexible software tools provide powerful techniques for designing flight test trajectory controllers (FTTCs). This report describes the principal steps for systematic development of flight trajectory controllers, which can be summarized as planning, modeling, designing, and validating a trajectory controller. The techniques have been kept as general as possible and should apply to a wide range of problems where quantities must be computed and displayed to a pilot to improve pilot effectiveness and to reduce workload and fatigue. To illustrate the approach, a detailed trajectory guidance law is developed and demonstrated for the F-15 aircraft flying the zoom-and-pushover maneuver.

  11. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  12. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 585 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,097 ... 089,212 views 4:50 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 26,032 views ...

  13. Mind the hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2014-01-01

    Apart from touching the screen, what is the role of the hands for children collaborating around touchscreens? Based on embodied and multimodal interaction analysis of 8- and 9-year old pairs collaborating around touchscreens, we conclude that children use their hands to constrain and control acce...

  14. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 024 views 2:58 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 412,404 ... 2,805 views 3:13 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 25,574 views ...

  15. HAND INJURIES IN VOLLEYBALL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BHAIRO, NH; NIJSTEN, MWN; VANDALEN, KC; TENDUIS, HJ

    We studied the long-term sequelae of hand injuries as a result of playing volleyball. In a retrospective study, 226 patients with injuries of the hand who were seen over a 5-year period at our Trauma Department, were investigated. Females accounted for 66 % of all injuries. The mean age was 26

  16. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 585 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 412,760 ... 536,963 views 1:46 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 25,574 views ...

  17. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 74,478 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 411,292 views 5:46 Hand Washing Technique - ...

  18. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 029 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 412,404 ... 081,511 views 4:50 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 25,194 views ...

  19. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 75,362 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 412,404 views 5:46 Hand Washing Technique - ...

  20. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 585 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,097 ... 086,746 views 4:50 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 25,802 views ...

  1. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 453 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,702 ... 28,656 views 3:40 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 26,480 views ...

  2. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 362 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 412,404 ... 219,427 views 1:27 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 25,194 views ...

  3. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 03. R Mayer 371,490 views 4:03 The psychological trick behind getting people to say yes - Duration: 8:06. PBS NewsHour 606,671 views 8:06 Should You Really Wash Your Hands? - Duration: 4:51. Gross Science 57,828 views 4:51 Healthcare Worker Hand ...

  4. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 585 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,097 ... 28,656 views 3:40 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 26,032 views ...

  5. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 5 Moments of Hand Hygiene - Duration: 1:53. Salem Health 13,972 views 1:53 Hand Hygiene ... Mode: Off History Help Loading... Loading... Loading... About Press Copyright Creators Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & ...

  6. "Puffy hand syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouk, Mickaël; Vidon, Claire; Deveza, Elise; Verhoeven, Frank; Pelletier, Fabien; Prati, Clément; Wendling, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Intravenous drug addiction is responsible for many complications, especially cutaneous and infectious. There is a syndrome, rarely observed in rheumatology, resulting in "puffy hands": the puffy hand syndrome. We report two cases of this condition from our rheumatologic consultation. Our two patients had intravenous drug addiction. They presented with an edema of the hands, bilateral, painless, no pitting, occurring in one of our patient during heroin intoxication, and in the other 2 years after stopping injections. In our two patients, additional investigations (biological, radiological, ultrasound) were unremarkable, which helped us, in the context, to put the diagnosis of puffy hand syndrome. The pathophysiology, still unclear, is based in part on a lymphatic toxicity of drugs and their excipients. There is no etiological treatment but elastic compression by night has improved edema of the hands in one of our patients. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. (In)Visible Hand(s)

    OpenAIRE

    Predrag Zima

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the regulatory role of the state and legal norms, in market economy, especially in so-called transition countries. Legal policy, and other questions of the state and free market economy are here closely connected, because the state must ensure with legal norms that economic processes are not interrupted: only the state can establish the legal basis for a market economy. The free market’s invisible hand is acting in questions such as: what is to be produced,...

  8. Prevention of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Maja H; Ebbehøj, Niels E; Vejlstrup, Søren Grove

    2018-01-01

    Objective Occupational hand eczema has adverse health and socioeconomic impacts for the afflicted individuals and society. Prevention and treatment strategies are needed. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on sickness absence, quality of life and severity...... of hand eczema. Methods PREVEX (PreVention of EXema) is an individually randomized, parallel-group superiority trial investigating the pros and cons of one-time, 2-hour, group-based education in skin-protective behavior versus treatment as usual among patients with newly notified occupational hand eczema...

  9. Self Conservation Trajectory in Nursing Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Simões

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This article intends to present some of the results obtained during the research on the Promotion and Preservation of Dignity in the context of care in nursing homes, carried out in the context of the PhD in Nursing of the University of Lisbon. Methodology: Within the interpretative paradigm, Grounded Theory (GT was adopted as methodology. Data were collected through participant observation and interviews at an Nursing Home (IPSS with about 350 residents distributed through three residential structures in the county of Castelo Branco for 21 months, with residents, nurses and direct acting helpers as participants. The constant comparative analysis of the data occurred simultaneously, using the software NVivo 10® and NVivo 11®. From the data analysis it was possible to construct a middle-range theory - Promotion and Preservation of Dignity in Nursing Homes: Self Conservation. Results: A complex, unforeseen phenomenon, exposed to variability and multiple, constructed, deconstructed and reconstructed in the daily rhythms, in a continuous, systematic and dynamic manner. It follows a two-dimensional route that was called the Self Conservation Trajectory. On the one hand a personal, individual, although accompanied and promoted. On the other hand a profoundly social path. Is the first dimension of this route that will be presented in this article.

  10. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in their care by ... Copyright Creators Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new features Loading... Working... Sign ...

  11. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 65K ...

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    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 66K ...

  13. Tropical Diabetic Hand Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015 Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. 473. Introduction ... diabetes.[2,3] Tropical diabetic hand syndrome is a terminology .... the importance of seeking medical attention immediately.

  14. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... now. Please try again later. Published on May 5, 2017 This video for healthcare providers is intended ... 36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,702 views 5:46 ...

  15. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: https://www.cdc.gov/handhygiene/campa... . Comments on this ... are allowed in accordance with our comment policy: http://www.cdc.gov/SocialMedia/Tools/... This video can ...

  16. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ... It's in your hands - prevent sepsis in health care' A 5 May 2018 advocacy message from WHO - ...

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    Full Text Available ... has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on May ... Wash your Hands - it just makes sense. - Duration: 1:36. Seema Marwaha 404,414 views 1:36 ...

  19. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Washing Video from CDC called "Put Your Hands Together" - Duration: 3:40. Patrick Boshell 27,834 views ... Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new features Loading... Working... Sign in to add this to Watch Later ...

  20. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Published on May 5, 2017 This video for healthcare providers is intended to promote or encourage adherence ... role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: https://www. ...

  1. Fluctuation theorems and atypical trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, M; Lahiri, S; Jayannavar, A M

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we have studied simple models that can be solved analytically to illustrate various fluctuation theorems. These fluctuation theorems provide symmetries individually to the distributions of physical quantities such as the classical work (W c ), thermodynamic work (W), total entropy (Δs tot ) and dissipated heat (Q), when the system is driven arbitrarily out of equilibrium. All these quantities can be defined for individual trajectories. We have studied the number of trajectories which exhibit behaviour unexpected at the macroscopic level. As the time of observation increases, the fraction of such atypical trajectories decreases, as expected at the macroscale. The distributions for the thermodynamic work and entropy production in nonlinear models may exhibit a peak (most probable value) in the atypical regime without violating the expected average behaviour. However, dissipated heat and classical work exhibit a peak in the regime of typical behaviour only.

  2. Hands of early primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  3. Institutional Trajectories of Street Youth in Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Litichever

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores citizenship formation in institutional settings. Based on life stories and participant observation, it studies how street youth in Buenos Aires experience State institutions in charge of children and youth at risk. It analyzes the level of involvement, the demands, the expression of needs and negotiations that take place within various public institutions and explores how these interactions shape the process of citizenship formation. Results suggest three different institutional trajectories amongst street youth that lead to different processes of citizenship formation.

  4. Classical models for Regge trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedenharn, L.C.; Van Dam, H.; Marmo, G.; Morandi, G.; Mukunda, N.; Samuel, J.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1987-01-01

    Two classical models for particles with internal structure and which describe Regge trajectories are developed. The remarkable geometric and other properties of the two internal spaces are highlighted. It is shown that the conditions of positive time-like four-velocity and energy momentum for the classical system imply strong and physically reasonable conditions on the Regge mass-spin relationship

  5. Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.

    1996-01-01

    A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but non-perturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.

  6. Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Visiting Vehicle Group needed a targeting tool for vehicles that rendezvous with the ISS. The Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory targeting tool provides the ability to perform both realtime and planning operations for the Visiting Vehicle Group. This tool provides a highly reconfigurable base, which allows the Visiting Vehicle Group to perform their work. The application is composed of a telemetry processing function, a relative motion function, a targeting function, a vector view, and 2D/3D world map type graphics. The software tool provides the ability to plan a rendezvous trajectory for vehicles that visit the ISS. It models these relative trajectories using planned and realtime data from the vehicle. The tool monitors ongoing rendezvous trajectory relative motion, and ensures visiting vehicles stay within agreed corridors. The software provides the ability to update or re-plan a rendezvous to support contingency operations. Adding new parameters and incorporating them into the system was previously not available on-the-fly. If an unanticipated capability wasn't discovered until the vehicle was flying, there was no way to update things.

  7. Hand eczema: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chembolli Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eczema, the commonest disorders afflicting the hands, is also the commonest occupational skin disease (OSD. In the dermatology outpatient departments, only the severe cases are diagnosed since patients rarely report with early hand dermatitis. Mild forms are picked up only during occupational screening. Hand eczema (HE can evolve into a chronic condition with persistent disease even after avoiding contact with the incriminated allergen / irritant. The important risk factors for hand eczema are atopy (especially the presence of dermatitis, wet work, and contact allergy. The higher prevalence in women as compared to men in most studies is related to environmental factors and is mainly applicable to younger women in their twenties. Preventive measures play a very important role in therapy as they enable the affected individuals to retain their employment and livelihood. This article reviews established preventive and therapeutic options and newer drugs like alitretinoin in hand eczema with a mention on the etiology and morphology. Identifying the etiological factors is of paramount importance as avoiding or minimizing these factors play an important role in treatment.

  8. The ESA's Space Trajectory Analysis software suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Guillermo

    The European Space Agency (ESA) initiated in 2005 an internal activity to develop an open source software suite involving university science departments and research institutions all over the world. This project is called the "Space Trajectory Analysis" or STA. This article describes the birth of STA and its present configuration. One of the STA aims is to promote the exchange of technical ideas, and raise knowledge and competence in the areas of applied mathematics, space engineering, and informatics at University level. Conceived as a research and education tool to support the analysis phase of a space mission, STA is able to visualize a wide range of space trajectories. These include among others ascent, re-entry, descent and landing trajectories, orbits around planets and moons, interplanetary trajectories, rendezvous trajectories, etc. The article explains that STA project is an original idea of the Technical Directorate of ESA. It was born in August 2005 to provide a framework in astrodynamics research at University level. As research and education software applicable to Academia, a number of Universities support this development by joining ESA in leading the development. ESA and Universities partnership are expressed in the STA Steering Board. Together with ESA, each University has a chair in the board whose tasks are develop, control, promote, maintain, and expand the software suite. The article describes that STA provides calculations in the fields of spacecraft tracking, attitude analysis, coverage and visibility analysis, orbit determination, position and velocity of solar system bodies, etc. STA implements the concept of "space scenario" composed of Solar system bodies, spacecraft, ground stations, pads, etc. It is able to propagate the orbit of a spacecraft where orbital propagators are included. STA is able to compute communication links between objects of a scenario (coverage, line of sight), and to represent the trajectory computations and

  9. Hand Hygiene: When and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand Hygiene When and How August 2009 How to handrub? How to handwash? RUB HANDS FOR HAND HYGIENE! WASH HANDS WHEN VISIBLY SOILED Duration of the ... its use. When? YOUR 5 MOMENTS FOR HAND HYGIENE 1 BEFORETOUCHINGA PATIENT 2 B P ECFLOER R ...

  10. Trajectories of delinquency and parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; van Blokland, A.; Dubas, J.S.; Loeber, R; Gerris, J.R.M.; van der Laan, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering

  11. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Blokland, A.A.J.; Dubas, J.S.; Loeber, R.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Laan, P.H. van der

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering

  12. User Oriented Trajectory Search for Trip Recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Ruogu

    2012-01-01

    Trajectory sharing and searching have received significant attention in recent years. In this thesis, we propose and investigate the methods to find and recommend the best trajectory to the traveler, and mainly focus on a novel technique named User

  13. A Trajectory Generation Approach for Payload Directed Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Corey A.; Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu

    2009-01-01

    Presently, flight systems designed to perform payload-centric maneuvers require preconstructed procedures and special hand-tuned guidance modes. To enable intelligent maneuvering via strong coupling between the goals of payload-directed flight and the autopilot functions, there exists a need to rethink traditional autopilot design and function. Research into payload directed flight examines sensor and payload-centric autopilot modes, architectures, and algorithms that provide layers of intelligent guidance, navigation and control for flight vehicles to achieve mission goals related to the payload sensors, taking into account various constraints such as the performance limitations of the aircraft, target tracking and estimation, obstacle avoidance, and constraint satisfaction. Payload directed flight requires a methodology for accurate trajectory planning that lets the system anticipate expected return from a suite of onboard sensors. This paper presents an extension to the existing techniques used in the literature to quickly and accurately plan flight trajectories that predict and optimize the expected return of onboard payload sensors.

  14. Efficient Trajectory Options Allocation for the Collaborative Trajectory Options Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, Olga; Arneson, Heather; Sridhar, Banavar; Evans, Antony

    2017-01-01

    The Collaborative Trajectory Options Program (CTOP) is a Traffic Management Initiative (TMI) intended to control the air traffic flow rates at multiple specified Flow Constrained Areas (FCAs), where demand exceeds capacity. CTOP allows flight operators to submit the desired Trajectory Options Set (TOS) for each affected flight with associated Relative Trajectory Cost (RTC) for each option. CTOP then creates a feasible schedule that complies with capacity constraints by assigning affected flights with routes and departure delays in such a way as to minimize the total cost while maintaining equity across flight operators. The current version of CTOP implements a Ration-by-Schedule (RBS) scheme, which assigns the best available options to flights based on a First-Scheduled-First-Served heuristic. In the present study, an alternative flight scheduling approach is developed based on linear optimization. Results suggest that such an approach can significantly reduce flight delays, in the deterministic case, while maintaining equity as defined using a Max-Min fairness scheme.

  15. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CDC) 97,825 views 5:12 CDC Flu Education Video - Duration: 10:26. Nicole Shelton 213 views ... Infection Control Video - Duration: 20:55. Paramedical Services Education Page 4,735 views 20:55 Hand Washing ...

  16. Hand Eczema: Treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Tamara Theresia; Agner, Tove

    2017-01-01

    Hand eczema is a common disease, it affects young people, is often work-related, and the burden of the disease is significant for the individual as well as for society. Factors to be considered when choosing a treatment strategy are, among others, whether the eczema is acute or chronic, the sever...

  17. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 824 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 409,492 ...

  18. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 786 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,702 ...

  19. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 414 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  20. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 869 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  1. Wash Your Hands

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-08

    This video shows kids how to properly wash their hands, one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others.  Created: 3/8/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/8/2010.

  2. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 75,585 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand ... soap and water - Duration: 1:27. World Health Organization 224,180 views 1:27 The five moments ...

  3. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 460 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  4. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 75,362 views 3:10 Wash ' ... handwash? With soap and water - Duration: 1:27. World Health Organization 219,427 views 1:27 Hand ...

  5. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 74,478 views 3:10 Wash your Hands - ... handwash? With soap and water - Duration: 1:27. World Health Organization 215,487 views 1:27 Infection Control Video - ...

  6. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 741 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  7. Matching hand radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffman, J.A.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Bernelot Moens, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Biometric verification and identification methods of medical images can be used to find possible inconsistencies in patient records. Such methods may also be useful for forensic research. In this work we present a method for identifying patients by their hand radiographs. We use active appearance

  8. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 72,885 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 views 5:46 'It's in your ...

  9. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 029 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 411,974 ...

  10. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 78,256 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand ... message from WHO - Duration: 10:07. World Health Organization 9,045 views 10:07 A very serious ...

  11. Hands-On Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss manipulatives and hands-on investigations for Calculus involving volume, arc length, and surface area to motivate and develop formulae which can then be verified using techniques of integration. Pre-service teachers in calculus courses using these activities experience a classroom in which active learning is encouraged and…

  12. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 78,256 views 3:10 Wash ... handwash? With soap and water - Duration: 1:27. World Health Organization 230,361 views 1:27 Hand ...

  13. Hands-on Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiewicz, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents five hands-on activities that allow students to detect, measure, reduce, and eliminate moisture. Students make a humidity detector and a hygrometer, examine the effects of moisture on different substances, calculate the percent of water in a given food, and examine the absorption potential of different desiccants. (MDH)

  14. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 396 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  15. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 094 views 1:19 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 411,974 ...

  16. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with ... ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close Clean Hands Count ...

  17. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 69,414 views 3:10 Hand Washing ... Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson Health 408,436 views 5:46 83 videos Play ...

  18. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 319 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  19. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 585 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,097 ...

  20. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... 14. Lake Health 14,415 views 3:14 Safety Demo: The Importance of Hand Washing - Duration: 2: ... Copyright Creators Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new features Loading... Working... Sign ...

  1. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 72,319 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand ... handwash? With soap and water - Duration: 1:27. World Health Organization 205,878 views 1:27 Germ Smart - Wash ...

  2. Hands On Earth Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

    This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

  3. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 384 views 1:19 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  4. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 285 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  5. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Gorin 243,451 views 2:57 Hand Hygiene Dance - Duration: 3:15. mohd hafiz 34,146 views ... Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off History Help Loading... Loading... Loading... About Press Copyright Creators ...

  6. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try ... Wash your Hands - it just makes sense. - Duration: 1:36. Seema Marwaha 400,493 views 1:36 ...

  7. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 033 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  8. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson Health 408,436 views 5: ... Prevention (CDC) 97,277 views 5:12 Loading more suggestions... Show more Language: English Location: United States ...

  9. Hands-On Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

    2004-01-01

    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

  10. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 043 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 411,292 ...

  11. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... News 581,131 views 18:49 Just Good Music 24/7 ● Classic Live Radio classics. 1,406 ... 611,013 views 1:46 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 26,798 views ...

  12. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... 52 Hand Sanitizers and Soaps Put to the Test - Duration: 2:26. ABC News 42,006 views ... Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new features Loading... Working... Sign in to add ...

  13. Aircraft 4D trajectories planning under uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Chaimatanan , Supatcha; Delahaye , Daniel; Mongeau , Marcel

    2015-01-01

    International audience; To sustain the rapidly increasing air traffic demand, the future air traffic management system will rely on a concept, called Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO), that will require aircraft to follow an assigned 4D trajectory (time-constrained trajectory) with high precision. TBO involves separating aircraft via strategic (long-term) trajectory deconfliction rather than the currently-practicing tactical (short-term) conflict resolution. In this context, this paper presen...

  14. Towards Efficient Search for Activity Trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Kai; Shang, Shuo; Yuan, Jing

    2013-01-01

    , recent proliferation in location-based web applications (e.g., Foursquare, Facebook) has given rise to large amounts of trajectories associated with activity information, called activity trajectory. In this paper, we study the problem of efficient similarity search on activity trajectory database. Given...

  15. Methods for control over learning individual trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsel, A. A.; Cherniaeva, N. V.

    2015-09-01

    The article discusses models, methods and algorithms of determining student's optimal individual educational trajectory. A new method of controlling the learning trajectory has been developed as a dynamic model of learning trajectory control, which uses score assessment to construct a sequence of studied subjects.

  16. Trajectories of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axén, Iben; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain is not a self-limiting problem, but rather a recurrent and sometimes persistent disorder. To understand the course over time, detailed investigation, preferably using repeated measurements over extended periods of time, is needed. New knowledge concerning short-term trajectories...... indicates that the low back pain 'episode' is short lived, at least in the primary care setting, with most patients improving. Nevertheless, in the long term, low back pain often runs a persistent course with around two-thirds of patients estimated to be in pain after 12 months. Some individuals never have...... low back pain, but most have it on and off or persistently. Thus, the low back pain 'condition' is usually a lifelong experience. However, subgroups of patients with different back pain trajectories have been identified and linked to clinical parameters. Further investigation is warranted...

  17. Ion trajectories quadrupole mass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursu, D.; Lupsa, N.; Muntean, F.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper aims at bringing some contributions to the understanding of ion motion in quadrupole mass filters. The theoretical treatment of quadrupole mass filter is intended to be a concise derivation of the important physical relationships using Mathieu functions. A simple iterative method of numerical computation has been used to simulate ion trajectories in an ideal quadrupole field. Finally, some examples of calculation are presented with the aid of computer graphics. (Author) 14 Figs., 1 Tab., 20 Refs

  18. Interference, reduced action, and trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Floyd, Edward R.

    2006-01-01

    Instead of investigating the interference between two stationary, rectilinear wave functions in a trajectory representation by examining the two rectilinear wave functions individually, we examine a dichromatic wave function that is synthesized from the two interfering wave functions. The physics of interference is contained in the reduced action for the dichromatic wave function. As this reduced action is a generator of the motion for the dichromatic wave function, it determines the dichroma...

  19. Identification of digitized particle trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, H; Lassalle, J C; Zanella, P

    1973-01-01

    High-energy Physics Laboratories make increasing use of particle detectors which directly produce digital measurements of trajectories at very high rates. Data collected in vast amounts during experiments are then analysed by computer programs whose first task is the recognition of tracks and reconstruction of the interesting events. This paper discusses the applicability of various Pattern Recognition approaches. Examples are given of the problems and the practical achievements in this field.

  20. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  1. Arthritis of the hand - Rheumatoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Rheumatoid Arthritis Email to a friend * required fields ...

  2. Complex dynamics in diatomic molecules. Part II: Quantum trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-D.; Weng, H.-J.

    2008-01-01

    The second part of this paper deals with quantum trajectories in diatomic molecules, which has not been considered before in the literature. Morse potential serves as a more accurate function than a simple harmonic oscillator for illustrating a realistic picture about the vibration of diatomic molecules. However, if we determine molecular dynamics by integrating the classical force equations derived from a Morse potential, we will find that the resulting trajectories do not consist with the probabilistic prediction of quantum mechanics. On the other hand, the quantum trajectory determined by Bohmian mechanics [Bohm D. A suggested interpretation of the quantum theory in terms of hidden variable. Phys. Rev. 1952;85:166-179] leads to the conclusion that a diatomic molecule is motionless in all its vibrational eigen-states, which also contradicts probabilistic prediction of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we point out that the quantum trajectory of a diatomic molecule completely consistent with quantum mechanics does exist and can be solved from the quantum Hamilton equations of motion derived in Part I, which is based on a complex-space formulation of fractal spacetime [El Naschie MS. A review of E-Infinity theory and the mass spectrum of high energy particle physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;19:209-36; El Naschie MS. E-Infinity theory - some recent results and new interpretations. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;29:845-853; El Naschie MS. The concepts of E-infinity. An elementary introduction to the cantorian-fractal theory of quantum physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;22:495-511; El Naschie MS. SU(5) grand unification in a transfinite form. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2007;32:370-374; Nottale L. Fractal space-time and microphysics: towards a theory of scale relativity. Singapore: World Scientific; 1993; Ord G. Fractal space time and the statistical mechanics of random works. Chaos, Soiltons and Fractals 1996;7:821-843] approach to quantum

  3. Localization and Recognition of Dynamic Hand Gestures Based on Hierarchy of Manifold Classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorskaya, M.; Nosov, A.; Popov, A.

    2015-05-01

    Generally, the dynamic hand gestures are captured in continuous video sequences, and a gesture recognition system ought to extract the robust features automatically. This task involves the highly challenging spatio-temporal variations of dynamic hand gestures. The proposed method is based on two-level manifold classifiers including the trajectory classifiers in any time instants and the posture classifiers of sub-gestures in selected time instants. The trajectory classifiers contain skin detector, normalized skeleton representation of one or two hands, and motion history representing by motion vectors normalized through predetermined directions (8 and 16 in our case). Each dynamic gesture is separated into a set of sub-gestures in order to predict a trajectory and remove those samples of gestures, which do not satisfy to current trajectory. The posture classifiers involve the normalized skeleton representation of palm and fingers and relative finger positions using fingertips. The min-max criterion is used for trajectory recognition, and the decision tree technique was applied for posture recognition of sub-gestures. For experiments, a dataset "Multi-modal Gesture Recognition Challenge 2013: Dataset and Results" including 393 dynamic hand-gestures was chosen. The proposed method yielded 84-91% recognition accuracy, in average, for restricted set of dynamic gestures.

  4. LOCALIZATION AND RECOGNITION OF DYNAMIC HAND GESTURES BASED ON HIERARCHY OF MANIFOLD CLASSIFIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Favorskaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the dynamic hand gestures are captured in continuous video sequences, and a gesture recognition system ought to extract the robust features automatically. This task involves the highly challenging spatio-temporal variations of dynamic hand gestures. The proposed method is based on two-level manifold classifiers including the trajectory classifiers in any time instants and the posture classifiers of sub-gestures in selected time instants. The trajectory classifiers contain skin detector, normalized skeleton representation of one or two hands, and motion history representing by motion vectors normalized through predetermined directions (8 and 16 in our case. Each dynamic gesture is separated into a set of sub-gestures in order to predict a trajectory and remove those samples of gestures, which do not satisfy to current trajectory. The posture classifiers involve the normalized skeleton representation of palm and fingers and relative finger positions using fingertips. The min-max criterion is used for trajectory recognition, and the decision tree technique was applied for posture recognition of sub-gestures. For experiments, a dataset “Multi-modal Gesture Recognition Challenge 2013: Dataset and Results” including 393 dynamic hand-gestures was chosen. The proposed method yielded 84–91% recognition accuracy, in average, for restricted set of dynamic gestures.

  5. Performance Comparison Between FEDERICA Hand and LARM Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Carbone, Giuseppe; Rossi, Cesare; Savino, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two robotic hands that have been\\ud developed at University Federico II of Naples and at the\\ud University of Cassino. FEDERICA Hand and LARM Hand\\ud are described in terms of design and operational features.\\ud In particular, careful attention is paid to the differences\\ud between the above-mentioned hands in terms of transmission\\ud systems. FEDERICA Hand uses tendons and pulleys\\ud to drive phalanxes, while LARM Hand uses cross four-bar\\ud linkages. Results of experime...

  6. Study of recognizing multiple persons' complicated hand gestures from the video sequence acquired by a moving camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Luo; Ohya, Jun

    2010-02-01

    Recognizing hand gestures from the video sequence acquired by a dynamic camera could be a useful interface between humans and mobile robots. We develop a state based approach to extract and recognize hand gestures from moving camera images. We improved Human-Following Local Coordinate (HFLC) System, a very simple and stable method for extracting hand motion trajectories, which is obtained from the located human face, body part and hand blob changing factor. Condensation algorithm and PCA-based algorithm was performed to recognize extracted hand trajectories. In last research, this Condensation Algorithm based method only applied for one person's hand gestures. In this paper, we propose a principal component analysis (PCA) based approach to improve the recognition accuracy. For further improvement, temporal changes in the observed hand area changing factor are utilized as new image features to be stored in the database after being analyzed by PCA. Every hand gesture trajectory in the database is classified into either one hand gesture categories, two hand gesture categories, or temporal changes in hand blob changes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by conducting experiments on 45 kinds of sign language based Japanese and American Sign Language gestures obtained from 5 people. Our experimental recognition results show better performance is obtained by PCA based approach than the Condensation algorithm based method.

  7. Second-hand signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Studies of signaling theory have traditionally focused on the dyadic link between the sender and receiver of the signal. Within a science‐based perspective this framing has led scholars to investigate how patents and publications of firms function as signals. I explore another important type...... used by various agents in their search for and assessment of products and firms. I conclude by arguing how this second‐hand nature of signals goes beyond a simple dyadic focus on senders and receivers of signals, and thus elucidates the more complex interrelations of the various types of agents...

  8. Hand grip strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    in life is a major problem in terms of prevalence, morbidity, functional limitations, and quality of life. It is therefore of interest to find a phenotype reflecting physical functioning which has a relatively high heritability and which can be measured in large samples. Hand grip strength is known......-55%). A powerful design to detect genes associated with a phenotype is obtained using the extreme discordant and concordant sib pairs, of whom 28 and 77 dizygotic twin pairs, respectively, were found in this study. Hence grip strength is a suitable phenotype for identifying genetic variants of importance to mid...

  9. The hand and wrist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.B.; Berquist, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    Trauma is the most common etiologic factor leading to disability in the hand and wrist. Judicious radiographic evaluation is required for accurate assessment in practically all but the most minor of such injuries. Frequently serial radiographic evaluation is essential for directing the course of treatment and for following the healing process. A meaningful radiographic evaluation requires a comprehensive knowledge of the normal radiographic anatomy, an overview of the spectrum of pathology, and an awareness of the usual mechanisms of injury, appropriate treatment options, and relevant array of complications

  10. Back to basics: hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant issue in the United States and throughout the world, but following proper hand hygiene practices is the most effective and least expensive way to prevent HAIs. Hand hygiene is inexpensive and protects patients and health care personnel alike. The four general types of hand hygiene that should be performed in the perioperative environment are washing hands that are visibly soiled, hand hygiene using alcohol-based products, surgical hand scrubs, and surgical hand scrubs using an alcohol-based surgical hand rub product. Barriers to proper hand hygiene may include not thinking about it, forgetting, skin irritation, a lack of role models, or a lack of a safety culture. One strategy for improving hand hygiene practices is monitoring hand hygiene as part of a quality improvement project, but the most important aspect for perioperative team members is to set an example for other team members by following proper hand hygiene practices and reminding each other to perform hand hygiene. Copyright © 2013 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimal trajectories of aircraft and spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, A.

    1990-01-01

    Work done on algorithms for the numerical solutions of optimal control problems and their application to the computation of optimal flight trajectories of aircraft and spacecraft is summarized. General considerations on calculus of variations, optimal control, numerical algorithms, and applications of these algorithms to real-world problems are presented. The sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (SGRA) is examined for the numerical solution of optimal control problems of the Bolza type. Both the primal formulation and the dual formulation are discussed. Aircraft trajectories, in particular, the application of the dual sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (DSGRA) to the determination of optimal flight trajectories in the presence of windshear are described. Both take-off trajectories and abort landing trajectories are discussed. Take-off trajectories are optimized by minimizing the peak deviation of the absolute path inclination from a reference value. Abort landing trajectories are optimized by minimizing the peak drop of altitude from a reference value. Abort landing trajectories are optimized by minimizing the peak drop of altitude from a reference value. The survival capability of an aircraft in a severe windshear is discussed, and the optimal trajectories are found to be superior to both constant pitch trajectories and maximum angle of attack trajectories. Spacecraft trajectories, in particular, the application of the primal sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (PSGRA) to the determination of optimal flight trajectories for aeroassisted orbital transfer are examined. Both the coplanar case and the noncoplanar case are discussed within the frame of three problems: minimization of the total characteristic velocity; minimization of the time integral of the square of the path inclination; and minimization of the peak heating rate. The solution of the second problem is called nearly-grazing solution, and its merits are pointed out as a useful

  12. Development of a prototype over-actuated biomimetic prosthetic hand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Williams

    Full Text Available The loss of a hand can greatly affect quality of life. A prosthetic device that can mimic normal hand function is very important to physical and mental recuperation after hand amputation, but the currently available prosthetics do not fully meet the needs of the amputee community. Most prosthetic hands are not dexterous enough to grasp a variety of shaped objects, and those that are tend to be heavy, leading to discomfort while wearing the device. In order to attempt to better simulate human hand function, a dexterous hand was developed that uses an over-actuated mechanism to form grasp shape using intrinsic joint mounted motors in addition to a finger tendon to produce large flexion force for a tight grip. This novel actuation method allows the hand to use small actuators for grip shape formation, and the tendon to produce high grip strength. The hand was capable of producing fingertip flexion force suitable for most activities of daily living. In addition, it was able to produce a range of grasp shapes with natural, independent finger motion, and appearance similar to that of a human hand. The hand also had a mass distribution more similar to a natural forearm and hand compared to contemporary prosthetics due to the more proximal location of the heavier components of the system. This paper describes the design of the hand and controller, as well as the test results.

  13. Camera Trajectory fromWide Baseline Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlena, M.; Torii, A.; Pajdla, T.

    2008-09-01

    Camera trajectory estimation, which is closely related to the structure from motion computation, is one of the fundamental tasks in computer vision. Reliable camera trajectory estimation plays an important role in 3D reconstruction, self localization, and object recognition. There are essential issues for a reliable camera trajectory estimation, for instance, choice of the camera and its geometric projection model, camera calibration, image feature detection and description, and robust 3D structure computation. Most of approaches rely on classical perspective cameras because of the simplicity of their projection models and ease of their calibration. However, classical perspective cameras offer only a limited field of view, and thus occlusions and sharp camera turns may cause that consecutive frames look completely different when the baseline becomes longer. This makes the image feature matching very difficult (or impossible) and the camera trajectory estimation fails under such conditions. These problems can be avoided if omnidirectional cameras, e.g. a fish-eye lens convertor, are used. The hardware which we are using in practice is a combination of Nikon FC-E9 mounted via a mechanical adaptor onto a Kyocera Finecam M410R digital camera. Nikon FC-E9 is a megapixel omnidirectional addon convertor with 180° view angle which provides images of photographic quality. Kyocera Finecam M410R delivers 2272×1704 images at 3 frames per second. The resulting combination yields a circular view of diameter 1600 pixels in the image. Since consecutive frames of the omnidirectional camera often share a common region in 3D space, the image feature matching is often feasible. On the other hand, the calibration of these cameras is non-trivial and is crucial for the accuracy of the resulting 3D reconstruction. We calibrate omnidirectional cameras off-line using the state-of-the-art technique and Mičušík's two-parameter model, that links the radius of the image point r to the

  14. Trajectory and Leadership Formation of Mexican Women Scholars: The Morelos Case Trayectancia y formación de liderazgo en académicas mexicanas: el caso Morelos Trajetoria e Formação de Liderança Acadêmica Mexicana: O Caso Morelos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Montes-de-Oca-O'Reilly

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a qualitative analysis of trajectories and leadership formación of twelve scholarly leaders who work at five institutions in the state of Morelos, in Mexico. We analyze three categories of formative experiences: a formative experiences within the family, b scholar and professional formative experiences and c formative experiences aside from the domestic, scholar and professional spheres. Based on our study, we suggest the following factors in the formación of leaders: sociomoral formación, mentoring by support figures and guide figures, search for autonomy, exposure to problematic situations that represent a challenge, setting of long-range goals, generation of dispositions to resist an instrumental logic, exposure to leadership figures, as well as an increase in social and cultural capital. We emphasize the importance of the existential as well as the ethical and political dimensions in leadership formation.

    Este artículo es un análisis cualitativo de las trayectancias y formación de doce líderes académicas adscritas a cinco instituciones del estado de Morelos, en México. Se analizan tres categorías de experiencias formativas: a dentro de la familia, b académicas y profesionales, y c experiencias formativas independientemente de los ámbitos familiar, académico y profesional. Con base en nuestro estudio, recomendamos los siguientes factores en la formación de líderes: la formación sociomoral, el acompañamiento por parte de figuras de apoyo y figuras guía; la búsqueda de la autonomía, la exposición a situaciones problemáticas que impliquen retos, la fijación de horizontes de largo alcance, la generación de disposiciones para la resistencia a la lógica instrumental, la exposición a figuras de liderazgo y el incremento de capital cultural y social. Destacamos la importancia de

  15. Ray trajectories for Alcubierre spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Tom H; Mackay, Tom G; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2011-01-01

    The Alcubierre spacetime was simulated by means of a Tamm medium which is asymptotically identical to vacuum and has constitutive parameters which are continuous functions of the spatial coordinates. Accordingly, the Tamm medium is amenable to physical realization as a micro- or nanostructured metamaterial. A comprehensive characterization of ray trajectories in the Tamm medium was undertaken, within the geometric-optics regime. Propagation directions corresponding to evanescent waves were identified: these occur in the region of the Tamm medium which corresponds to the warp bubble of the Alcubierre spacetime, especially for directions perpendicular to the velocity of the warp bubble at high speeds of that bubble. Ray trajectories are acutely sensitive to the magnitude and direction of the warp bubble's velocity, but rather less sensitive to the thickness of the transition zone between the warp bubble and its background. In particular, for rays which travel in the same direction as the warp bubble, the latter acts as a focusing lens, most notably at high speeds

  16. Stochastic and fractal analysis of fracture trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessendorf, Michael H.

    1987-01-01

    Analyses of fracture trajectories are used to investigate structures that fall between 'micro' and 'macro' scales. It was shown that fracture trajectories belong to the class of nonstationary processes. It was also found that correlation distance, which may be related to a characteristic size of a fracture process, increases with crack length. An assemblage of crack trajectory processes may be considered as a diffusive process. Chudnovsky (1981-1985) introduced a 'crack diffusion coefficient' d which reflects the ability of the material to deviate the crack trajectory from the most energetically efficient path and thus links the material toughness to its structure. For the set of fracture trajectories in AISI 304 steel, d was found to be equal to 1.04 microns. The fractal dimension D for the same set of trajectories was found to be 1.133.

  17. Hand Matters: Left-Hand Gestures Enhance Metaphor Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyriou, Paraskevi; Mohr, Christine; Kita, Sotaro

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that speech-accompanying gestures influence cognitive processes, but it is not clear whether the gestural benefit is specific to the gesturing hand. Two experiments tested the "(right/left) hand-specificity" hypothesis for self-oriented functions of gestures: gestures with a particular hand enhance cognitive processes…

  18. Distinguished trajectories in time dependent vector fields

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid, J. A. Jimenez; Mancho, Ana M.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new definition of distinguished trajectory that generalizes the concepts of fixed point and periodic orbit to aperiodic dynamical systems. This new definition is valid for identifying distinguished trajectories with hyperbolic and nonhyperbolic types of stability. The definition is implemented numerically and the procedure consists of determining a path of limit coordinates. It has been successfully applied to known examples of distinguished trajectories. In the context of high...

  19. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Machteld; Blokland, Arjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Loeber, Rolf; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering ages 10?19, we identified five distinct delinquency trajectories differing in both level and change in seriousness over time: a nondelinquent, minor persisting, moderate desisting, serious persist...

  20. Decentralized flight trajectory planning of multiple aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Nobuhiro; 横山 信宏

    2008-01-01

    Conventional decentralized algorithms for optimal trajectory planning tend to require prohibitive computational time as the number of aircraft increases. To overcome this drawback, this paper proposes a novel decentralized trajectory planning algorithm adopting a constraints decoupling approach for parallel optimization. The constraints decoupling approach is formulated as the path constraints of the real-time trajectory optimization problem based on nonlinear programming. Due to the parallel...

  1. Classification of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Aalto-Korte, K; Andersen, K E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classification of hand eczema (HE) is mandatory in epidemiological and clinical studies, and also important in clinical work. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to test a recently proposed classification system of HE in clinical practice in a prospective multicentre study. METHODS: Patients were...... recruited from nine different tertiary referral centres. All patients underwent examination by specialists in dermatology and were checked using relevant allergy testing. Patients were classified into one of the six diagnostic subgroups of HE: allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, atopic...... system investigated in the present study was useful, being able to give an appropriate main diagnosis for 89% of HE patients, and for another 7% when using two main diagnoses. The fact that more than half of the patients had one or more additional diagnoses illustrates that HE is a multifactorial disease....

  2. Right-handed sneutrinos as curvatons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, John

    2003-01-01

    We consider the possibility that a right-handed sneutrino can serve as the source of energy density perturbations leading to structure formation in cosmology. The cosmological evolution of a coherently oscillating condensate of right-handed sneutrinos is studied for the case where reheating after inflation is due to perturbative inflaton decays. For the case of Dirac neutrinos, it is shown that some suppression of Planck scale-suppressed corrections to the right-handed neutrino superpotential is necessary in order to have sufficiently late decay of the right-handed sneutrinos. cH 2 corrections to the sneutrino mass squared term must also be suppressed during inflation (vertical bar c vertical bar 0) or red (if c 6 GeV is possible). For the case of Majorana neutrinos, a more severe suppression of Planck-suppressed superpotential corrections is required. In addition, the Majorana sneutrino condensate is likely to be thermalized before it can dominate the energy density, which would exclude the Majorana right-handed sneutrino as a curvaton

  3. Wide Awake Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lied, Line; Borchgrevink, Grethe E; Finsen, Vilhjalmur

    2017-09-01

    "Wide awake hand surgery", where surgery is performed in local anaesthesia with adrenaline, without sedation or a tourniquet, has become widespread in some countries. It has a number of potential advantages and we wished to evaluate it among our patients. All 122 patients treated by this method during one year were evaluated by the surgeons and the patients on a numerical scale from 0 (best/least) to 10 (worst/most). Theatre time was compared to that recorded for a year when regional or general anaesthesia had been used. The patients' mean score for the general care they had received was 0.1 (SD 0.6), for pain during lidocaine injection 2.4 (SD 2.2), for pain during surgery 0.9 (SD 1.5), and for other discomfort during surgery 0.5 (SD 1.4). Eight reported that they would want general anaesthesia if they were to be operated again. The surgeons' mean evaluation of bleeding during surgery was 1.6 (SD 1.8), oedema during surgery 0.4 (SD 1.1), general disadvantages with the method 1.0 (SD 1.6) and general advantages 6.5 (SD 4.3). The estimation of advantages was 9.9 (DS 0.5) for tendon suture. 28 patients needed intra-operative additional anaesthesia. The proportion was lower among trained hand surgeons and fell significantly during the study period. Non-surgical theatre time was 46 (SD 15) minutes during the study period and 55 (SD 22) minutes during the regional/general period (p theatre.

  4. Rheumatoid arthritis and hand surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peretz, Anne Sofie Rosenborg; Madsen, Ole Rintek; Brogren, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis results in characteristic deformities of the hand. Medical treatment has undergone a remarkable development. However, not all patients achieve remission or tolerate the treatment. Patients who suffer from deformities and persistent synovitis may be candidates for hand surgery...

  5. Trajectory similarity join in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2017-09-07

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider the case of trajectory similarity join (TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Thus, given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. This join targets applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide a purposeful definition of similarity. To enable efficient TS-Join processing on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and take into account the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer algorithm. For each trajectory, the algorithm first finds similar trajectories. Then it merges the results to achieve a final result. The algorithm exploits an upper bound on the spatiotemporal similarity and a heuristic scheduling strategy for search space pruning. The algorithm\\'s per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the merging has constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithm and demonstrates that is capable of outperforming a well-designed baseline algorithm by an order of magnitude.

  6. Neurons in Primary Motor Cortex Encode Hand Orientation in a Reach-to-Grasp Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chaolin; Ma, Xuan; Fan, Jing; He, Jiping

    2017-08-01

    It is disputed whether those neurons in the primary motor cortex (M1) that encode hand orientation constitute an independent channel for orientation control in reach-to-grasp behaviors. Here, we trained two monkeys to reach forward and grasp objects positioned in the frontal plane at different orientation angles, and simultaneously recorded the activity of M1 neurons. Among the 2235 neurons recorded in M1, we found that 18.7% had a high correlation exclusively with hand orientation, 15.9% with movement direction, and 29.5% with both movement direction and hand orientation. The distributions of neurons encoding hand orientation and those encoding movement direction were not uniform but coexisted in the same region. The trajectory of hand rotation was reproduced by the firing patterns of the orientation-related neurons independent of the hand reaching direction. These results suggest that hand orientation is an independent component for the control of reaching and grasping activity.

  7. From never partnered to serial cohabitors: Union trajectories to childlessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Jalovaara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childlessness has increased in many European countries. Partnerships and parenthood are obviously closely related, but there is relatively little knowledge on how childlessness is linked to contemporary union dynamics that involve high rates of separation and unmarried cohabitation. Objective: To situate (biological childlessness in longitudinal dynamics of union formation and stability, we take a life-course approach to union trajectories that consist of states entered via the formation and dissolution of cohabitations and marriages. Concretely, we identify groups of similar union trajectories of individuals between the ages of 18 and 39 who are childless at age 42. Methods: We analyse register data on Finnish men and women born in 1969 and 1970 (childless N=3,241 with sequence, cluster, and multinomial logistic regression methods. Results: Four clusters of typical union trajectories were identified among the childless and assigned these labels: 1 Never Partnered (45Š, characterized by never having entered a coresidential partnership, or just having entered a cohabitation near age 40; 2 Briefly Cohabited (25Š, characterized by mostly living single after a brief cohabitation spell; 3 Cohabitors, Often Serial (19Š, marked by typically discontinuous cohabitation; and 4 Married (11Š. The Never-Partnered cluster is male-dominated. Men with a rural background and less-educated men and women are overrepresented among the Never-Partnered childless. Conclusions: For the great majority of the childless in our study cohorts, union trajectories are marked by either the (almost complete absence of coresidential unions or fragmentary cohabitation histories. Contribution: The study contributes to the literature by showing that union histories, including never partnering as well as cohabitation instability, are key for understanding contemporary childlessness. Comments: We recommend that you read the paper on screen or print a color version.

  8. Management of Atopic Hand Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, Anne-Sofie; Zachariae, Claus; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an overview of clinical aspects of hand eczema in patients with atopic dermatitis. Hand eczema can be a part of atopic dermatitis itself or a comorbidity, for example, as irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. When managing hand eczema, it is important to first categorize...

  9. Hand Washing: Do's and Dont's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hands frequently can help limit the transfer of bacteria, viruses and other microbes. Always wash your hands before: Preparing food or eating Treating wounds or caring for a sick person Inserting or removing contact lenses Always wash your hands after: Preparing food Using ...

  10. Hand aperture patterns in prehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Raoul M; Zaal, Frank T J M; Jeannerod, Marc

    2012-06-01

    Although variations in the standard prehensile pattern can be found in the literature, these alternative patterns have never been studied systematically. This was the goal of the current paper. Ten participants picked up objects with a pincer grip. Objects (3, 5, or 7cm in diameter) were placed at 30, 60, 90, or 120cm from the hands' starting location. Usually the hand was opened gradually to a maximum immediately followed by hand closing, called the standard hand opening pattern. In the alternative opening patterns the hand opening was bumpy, or the hand aperture stayed at a plateau before closing started. Two participants in particular delayed the start of grasping with respect to start of reaching, with the delay time increasing with object distance. For larger object distances and smaller object sizes, the bumpy and plateau hand opening patterns were used more often. We tentatively concluded that the alternative hand opening patterns extended the hand opening phase, to arrive at the appropriate hand aperture at the appropriate time to close the hand for grasping the object. Variations in hand opening patterns deserve attention because this might lead to new insights into the coordination of reaching and grasping. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Privacy-Preserving Trajectory Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Xuegang, Huang; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide context--aware Location--Based Services, real location data of mobile users must be collected and analyzed by spatio--temporal data mining methods. However, the data mining methods need precise location data, while the mobile users want to protect their location privacy....... To remedy this situation, this paper first formally defines novel location privacy requirements. Then, it briefly presents a system for privacy--preserving trajectory collection that meets these requirements. The system is composed of an untrusted server and clients communicating in a P2P network. Location...... data is anonymized in the system using data cloaking and data swapping techniques. Finally, the paper empirically demonstrates that the proposed system is effective and feasible....

  12. Entanglement evolution for quantum trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelsberger, S; Spehner, D

    2011-01-01

    Entanglement is a key resource in quantum information. It can be destroyed or sometimes created by interactions with a reservoir. In recent years, much attention has been devoted to the phenomena of entanglement sudden death and sudden birth, i.e., the sudden disappearance or revival of entanglement at finite times resulting from a coupling of the quantum system to its environment. We investigate the evolution of the entanglement of noninteracting qubits coupled to reservoirs under monitoring of the reservoirs by means of continuous measurements. Because of these measurements, the qubits remain at all times in a pure state, which evolves randomly. To each measurement result (or 'realization') corresponds a quantum trajectory in the Hilbert space of the qubits. We show that for two qubits coupled to independent baths subjected to local measurements, the average of the qubits' concurrence over all quantum trajectories is either constant or decays exponentially. The corresponding decay rate depends on the measurement scheme only. This result contrasts with the entanglement sudden death phenomenon exhibited by the qubits' density matrix in the absence of measurements. Our analysis applies to arbitrary quantum jump dynamics (photon counting) as well as to quantum state diffusion (homodyne or heterodyne detections) in the Markov limit. We discuss the best measurement schemes to protect the entanglement of the qubits. We also analyze the case of two qubits coupled to a common bath. Then, the average concurrence can vanish at discrete times and may coincide with the concurrence of the density matrix. The results explained in this article have been presented during the 'Fifth International Workshop DICE2010' by the first author and have been the subject of a prior publication.

  13. Unimanual SNARC Effect: Hand Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riello, Marianna; Rusconi, Elena

    2011-01-01

    A structural representation of the hand embedding information about the identity and relative position of fingers is necessary to counting routines. It may also support associations between numbers and allocentric spatial codes that predictably interact with other known numerical spatial representations, such as the mental number line (MNL). In this study, 48 Western participants whose typical counting routine proceeded from thumb-to-little on both hands performed magnitude and parity binary judgments. Response keys were pressed either with the right index and middle fingers or with the left index and middle fingers in separate blocks. 24 participants responded with either hands in prone posture (i.e., palm down) and 24 participants responded with either hands in supine (i.e., palm up) posture. When hands were in prone posture, the counting direction of the left hand conflicted with the direction of the left-right MNL, whereas the counting direction of the right hand was consistent with it. When hands were in supine posture, the opposite was true. If systematic associations existed between relative number magnitude and an allocentric spatial representation of the finger series within each hand, as predicted on the basis of counting habits, interactions would be expected between hand posture and a unimanual version of the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect. Data revealed that with hands in prone posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the right hand, and with hands in supine posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the left hand. We propose that a posture-invariant body structural representation of the finger series provides a relevant frame of reference, a within-hand directional vector, that is associated to simple number processing. Such frame of reference can significantly interact with stimulus-response correspondence effects, like the SNARC, that have been typically attributed to the mapping of numbers on a left

  14. Unimanual SNARC Effect: Hand Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna eRiello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A structural representation of the hand embedding information about the identity and relative position of fingers is necessary to counting routines. It may also support associations between numbers and allocentric spatial codes that predictably interact with other known numerical spatial representations, such as the mental number line. In this study, 48 Western participants whose typical counting routine proceeded from thumb-to-little on both hands performed magnitude and parity binary judgments. Response keys were pressed either with the right index and middle fingers or with the left index and middle fingers in separate blocks. 24 participants responded with either hands in prone posture (i.e. palm down and 24 participants responded with either hands in supine (i.e. palm up posture. When hands were in prone posture, the counting direction of the left hand conflicted with the direction of the left-right mental number line, whereas the counting direction of the right hand was consistent with it. When hands were in supine posture, the opposite was true. If systematic associations existed between relative number magnitude and an allocentric spatial representation of the finger series within each hand, as predicted on the basis of counting habits, interactions would be expected between hand posture and a unimanual version of the Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC effect. Data revealed that with hands in prone posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the right hand, and with hands in supine posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the left hand. We propose that a posture-invariant body structural representation of the finger series provides a relevant frame of reference, a within-hand directional vector, that is associated to simple number processing. Such frame of reference can significantly interact with stimulus-response correspondence effects that have been attributed to the mapping of numbers on a mental

  15. Technical description of the RIVM trajectory model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Waal, E.S.; Van Pul, W.A.J.

    1995-12-01

    The RIVM trajectory model, described in this report, enables calculation of a backward or forward trajectory. These trajectories are used to `follow` previous released air pollution in a backward mode or to `find` the origin of air pollution in a forward mode. The trajectories are used in the smog forecasting and in the TREND model for the distribution of materials in Europe. Presently 6-hourly ECMWF wind fields at 1000 and 850 hPa, with 3 deg x 3 deg latitude-longitude resolution are used. Wind fields with a different resolution in latitude-longitude can also be used after simple adjustments. An iterative method, described elsewhere, is applied to calculate the trajectories. Within limits, the user is free to choose the time step (1, 2 or 6-hour), transport height, length, starting or arrival date and starting or arrival position of the trajectory. The differences between the trajectories calculated with time steps of 1, 2 and 6 h were small. For the 96-hour trajectories at 1000 and 850 hPa the deviations were generally within 1 deg latitude and longitude, i.e. 100-200 km. The trajectory calculated with the 6-hour time step could be used without a great loss in accuracy compared to the calculations with the 1-hour time step. A typical error in the trajectory path at 1000 and 850 hPa was 500 km, which is about 30% of a typical travel distance. However, close to quickly changing weather systems, such as cyclones, the error can be as large as the travel distance and makes the calculations unreliable. The error in the forecasted trajectory was found to be larger than the above error estimation due to larger uncertainties in the forecasted compared to the analyzed wind fields. A manual on how to run the model is also given. 5 figs., 3 tabs., 5 refs., 6 appendices

  16. Parallel trajectory similarity joins in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2018-04-04

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider two cases of trajectory similarity joins (TS-Joins), including a threshold-based join (Tb-TS-Join) and a top-k TS-Join (k-TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the Tb-TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. In contrast, the k-TS-Join does not take a threshold as a parameter, and it returns the top-k most similar trajectory pairs from the two sets. The TS-Joins target diverse applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide purposeful definitions of similarity. To enable efficient processing of the TS-Joins on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and enable use of the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer search framework that lays the foundation for the algorithms for the Tb-TS-Join and the k-TS-Join that rely on different pruning techniques to achieve efficiency. For each trajectory, the algorithms first find similar trajectories. Then they merge the results to obtain the final result. The algorithms for the two joins exploit different upper and lower bounds on the spatiotemporal trajectory similarity and different heuristic scheduling strategies for search space pruning. Their per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the mergings have constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithms and demonstrates that they are capable of outperforming well-designed baseline algorithms by an order of magnitude.

  17. Parallel trajectory similarity joins in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo; Chen, Lisi; Wei, Zhewei; Jensen, Christian S.; Zheng, Kai; Kalnis, Panos

    2018-01-01

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider two cases of trajectory similarity joins (TS-Joins), including a threshold-based join (Tb-TS-Join) and a top-k TS-Join (k-TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the Tb-TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. In contrast, the k-TS-Join does not take a threshold as a parameter, and it returns the top-k most similar trajectory pairs from the two sets. The TS-Joins target diverse applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide purposeful definitions of similarity. To enable efficient processing of the TS-Joins on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and enable use of the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer search framework that lays the foundation for the algorithms for the Tb-TS-Join and the k-TS-Join that rely on different pruning techniques to achieve efficiency. For each trajectory, the algorithms first find similar trajectories. Then they merge the results to obtain the final result. The algorithms for the two joins exploit different upper and lower bounds on the spatiotemporal trajectory similarity and different heuristic scheduling strategies for search space pruning. Their per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the mergings have constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithms and demonstrates that they are capable of outperforming well-designed baseline algorithms by an order of magnitude.

  18. Trajectories of Intimate Partner Violence Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Swartout

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purposes of this study were to assess the extent to which latent trajectories of female intimate partner violence (IPV victimization exist; and, if so, use negative childhood experiences to predict trajectory membership.Methods: We collected data from 1,575 women at 5 time-points regarding experiences during adolescence and their 4 years of college. We used latent class growth analysis to fit a series of personcentered, longitudinal models ranging from 1 to 5 trajectories. Once the best-fitting model was selected, we used negative childhood experience variables—sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing domestic violence—to predict most-likely trajectory membership via multinomial logistic regression.Results: A 5-trajectory model best fit the data both statistically and in terms of interpretability. The trajectories across time were interpreted as low or no IPV, low to moderate IPV, moderate to low IPV, high to moderate IPV, and high and increasing IPV, respectively. Negative childhood experiences differentiated trajectory membership, somewhat, with childhood sexual abuse as a consistent predictor of membership in elevated IPV trajectories.Conclusion: Our analyses show how IPV risk changes over time and in different ways. These differential patterns of IPV suggest the need for prevention strategies tailored for women that consider victimization experiences in childhood and early adulthood. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(3:272–277.

  19. From the trajectory to the density memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakir, Rasit; Krokhin, Arkadii; Grigolini, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the connection between trajectory and density memory. The first form of memory is a property of a stochastic trajectory, whose stationary correlation function shows that the fluctuation at a given time depends on the earlier fluctuations. The density memory is a property of a collection of trajectories, whose density time evolution is described by a time convoluted equation showing that the density time evolution depends on its past history. We show that the trajectory memory does not necessarily yields density memory, and that density memory might be compatible with the existence of abrupt jumps resetting to zero the system's memory. We focus our attention on a time-convoluted diffusion equation, when the memory kernel is an inverse power law with (i) negative and (ii) positive tail. In case (i) there exist both renewal trajectories and trajectories with memory, compatible with this equation. Case (ii), which has eluded so far a convincing interpretation in terms of trajectories, is shown to be compatible only with trajectory memory

  20. User oriented trajectory search for trip recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo; Ding, Ruogu; Yuan, Bo; Xie, Kexin; Zheng, Kai; Kalnis, Panos

    2012-01-01

    trajectory search by locations (spatial domain only), we consider both spatial and textual domains in the new UOTS query. Given a trajectory data set, the query input contains a set of intended places given by the traveler and a set of textual attributes

  1. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  2. Complex trajectories in a classical periodic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Alexander G; Bender, Carl M

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the complex trajectories of a classical particle in the potential V(x) = −cos (x). Almost all the trajectories describe a particle that hops from one well to another in an erratic fashion. However, it is shown analytically that there are two special classes of trajectories x(t) determined only by the energy of the particle and not by the initial position of the particle. The first class consists of periodic trajectories; that is, trajectories that return to their initial position x(0) after some real time T. The second class consists of trajectories for which there exists a real time T such that x(t + T) = x(t) ± 2π. These two classes of classical trajectories are analogous to valence and conduction bands in quantum mechanics, where the quantum particle either remains localized or else tunnels resonantly (conducts) through a crystal lattice. These two special types of trajectories are associated with sets of energies of measure 0. For other energies, it is shown that for long times the average velocity of the particle becomes a fractal-like function of energy. (paper)

  3. Complex trajectories in a classical periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alexander G.; Bender, Carl M.

    2012-11-01

    This paper examines the complex trajectories of a classical particle in the potential V(x) = -cos (x). Almost all the trajectories describe a particle that hops from one well to another in an erratic fashion. However, it is shown analytically that there are two special classes of trajectories x(t) determined only by the energy of the particle and not by the initial position of the particle. The first class consists of periodic trajectories; that is, trajectories that return to their initial position x(0) after some real time T. The second class consists of trajectories for which there exists a real time T such that x(t + T) = x(t) ± 2π. These two classes of classical trajectories are analogous to valence and conduction bands in quantum mechanics, where the quantum particle either remains localized or else tunnels resonantly (conducts) through a crystal lattice. These two special types of trajectories are associated with sets of energies of measure 0. For other energies, it is shown that for long times the average velocity of the particle becomes a fractal-like function of energy.

  4. Robotically enhanced rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Jumpei; Hattori, Masashi; Ichikawa, Shohei; Sakaguchi, Masamichi

    2014-01-01

    The rubber hand illusion is a well-known multisensory illusion. In brief, watching a rubber hand being stroked by a paintbrush while one's own unseen hand is synchronously stroked causes the rubber hand to be attributed to one's own body and to "feel like it's my hand." The rubber hand illusion is thought to be triggered by the synchronized tactile stimulation of both the subject's hand and the fake hand. To extend the conventional rubber hand illusion, we introduce robotic technology in the form of a master-slave telemanipulator. The developed one degree-of-freedom master-slave system consists of an exoskeleton master equipped with an optical encoder that is worn on the subject's index finger and a motor-actuated index finger on the rubber hand, which allows the subject to perform unilateral telemanipulation. The moving rubber hand illusion has been studied by several researchers in the past with mechanically connected rigs between the subject's body and the fake limb. The robotic instruments let us investigate the moving rubber hand illusion with less constraints, thus behaving closer to the classic rubber hand illusion. In addition, the temporal delay between the body and the fake limb can be precisely manipulated. The experimental results revealed that the robotic instruments significantly enhance the rubber hand illusion. The time delay is significantly correlated with the effect of the multisensory illusion, and the effect significantly decreased at time delays over 100 ms. These findings can potentially contribute to the investigations of neural mechanisms in the field of neuroscience and of master-slave systems in the field of robotics.

  5. Hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, Louise; Terwee, Caroline; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is no consensus about what constitutes the most appropriate patient-reported outcome measurement (PROM) instrument for measuring physical function in patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Existing instruments lack psychometric testing and vary in feasibility...... and their psychometric qualities. We aim to develop a PROM instrument to assess hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a systematic search to identify existing PROMs to rheumatic hand conditions, and select items relevant for hand-related physical function...... as well as those items from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) item bank that are relevant to patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Selection will be based on consensus among reviewers. Content validity of selected items will be established...

  6. Hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, Louise; Terwee, Caroline B; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen

    2016-01-01

    as well as those items from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) item bank that are relevant to patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Selection will be based on consensus among reviewers. Content validity of selected items will be established......INTRODUCTION: There is no consensus about what constitutes the most appropriate patient-reported outcome measurement (PROM) instrument for measuring physical function in patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Existing instruments lack psychometric testing and vary in feasibility...... and their psychometric qualities. We aim to develop a PROM instrument to assess hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a systematic search to identify existing PROMs to rheumatic hand conditions, and select items relevant for hand-related physical function...

  7. The power of a single trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnellbächer, Nikolas D.; Schwarz, Ulrich S.

    2018-03-01

    Random walks are often evaluated in terms of their mean squared displacements, either for a large number of trajectories or for one very long trajectory. An alternative evaluation is based on the power spectral density, but here it is less clear which information can be extracted from a single trajectory. For continuous-time Brownian motion, Krapf et al now have mathematically proven that the one property that can be reliably extracted from a single trajectory is the frequency dependence of the ensemble-averaged power spectral density (Krapf et al 2018 New J. Phys. 20 023029). Their mathematical analysis also identifies the appropriate frequency window for this procedure and shows that the diffusion coefficient can be extracted by averaging over a small number of trajectories. The authors have verified their analytical results both by computer simulations and experiments.

  8. Picking Robot Arm Trajectory Planning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The picking robot arm is scheduled to complete picking tasks in the working space, to overcome the shaking vibration to improve the picking stability, its movement should follow specific consistence trajectory points. Usually we should give definite multiple feature picking points, map their inverse kinematics to the joint space, establish motion equation for the corresponding point in the joint space, then follow these equations motion for the interpolation on the joint so that we can meet the movement requirements. Trajectory planning is decisive significance for accuracy and stability of controlling robot arm. The key issue that picking arm complete picking task will be come true by trajectory planning, namely, robot arm track the desired trajectory. which based on kinematics and statics picking analysis in a joint space according to the requirements of picking tasks, and obtain the position and orientation for picking robot arm, study and calculate the theory of trajectory parameters timely.

  9. Trajectories of delinquency and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Blokland, Arjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Loeber, Rolf; Gerris, Jan R M; van der Laan, Peter H

    2008-02-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering ages 10-19, we identified five distinct delinquency trajectories differing in both level and change in seriousness over time: a nondelinquent, minor persisting, moderate desisting, serious persisting, and serious desisting trajectory. More serious delinquents tended to more frequently engage in delinquency, and to report a higher proportion of theft. Proportionally, serious persistent delinquents were the most violent of all trajectory groups. Using cluster analysis we identified three parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian (moderately supportive), and neglectful (punishing). Controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood delinquency, neglectful parenting was more frequent in moderate desisters, serious persisters, and serious desisters, suggesting that parenting styles differentiate non- or minor delinquents from more serious delinquents.

  10. Path-based Queries on Trajectory Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Pelekis, Nikos; Theodoridis, Yannis

    2014-01-01

    In traffic research, management, and planning a number of path-based analyses are heavily used, e.g., for computing turn-times, evaluating green waves, or studying traffic flow. These analyses require retrieving the trajectories that follow the full path being analyzed. Existing path queries cannot...... sufficiently support such path-based analyses because they retrieve all trajectories that touch any edge in the path. In this paper, we define and formalize the strict path query. This is a novel query type tailored to support path-based analysis, where trajectories must follow all edges in the path...... a specific path by only retrieving data from the first and last edge in the path. To correctly answer strict path queries existing network-constrained trajectory indexes must retrieve data from all edges in the path. An extensive performance study of NETTRA using a very large real-world trajectory data set...

  11. Task Decomposition Module For Telerobot Trajectory Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wavering, Albert J.; Lumia, Ron

    1988-10-01

    A major consideration in the design of trajectory generation software for a Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) is that the FTS will be called upon to perform tasks which require a diverse range of manipulator behaviors and capabilities. In a hierarchical control system where tasks are decomposed into simpler and simpler subtasks, the task decomposition module which performs trajectory planning and execution should therefore be able to accommodate a wide range of algorithms. In some cases, it will be desirable to plan a trajectory for an entire motion before manipulator motion commences, as when optimizing over the entire trajectory. Many FTS motions, however, will be highly sensory-interactive, such as moving to attain a desired position relative to a non-stationary object whose position is periodically updated by a vision system. In this case, the time-varying nature of the trajectory may be handled either by frequent replanning using updated sensor information, or by using an algorithm which creates a less specific state-dependent plan that determines the manipulator path as the trajectory is executed (rather than a priori). This paper discusses a number of trajectory generation techniques from these categories and how they may be implemented in a task decompo-sition module of a hierarchical control system. The structure, function, and interfaces of the proposed trajectory gener-ation module are briefly described, followed by several examples of how different algorithms may be performed by the module. The proposed task decomposition module provides a logical structure for trajectory planning and execution, and supports a large number of published trajectory generation techniques.

  12. Personalized trajectory matching in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2013-07-31

    With the increasing availability of moving-object tracking data, trajectory search and matching is increasingly important. We propose and investigate a novel problem called personalized trajectory matching (PTM). In contrast to conventional trajectory similarity search by spatial distance only, PTM takes into account the significance of each sample point in a query trajectory. A PTM query takes a trajectory with user-specified weights for each sample point in the trajectory as its argument. It returns the trajectory in an argument data set with the highest similarity to the query trajectory. We believe that this type of query may bring significant benefits to users in many popular applications such as route planning, carpooling, friend recommendation, traffic analysis, urban computing, and location-based services in general. PTM query processing faces two challenges: how to prune the search space during the query processing and how to schedule multiple so-called expansion centers effectively. To address these challenges, a novel two-phase search algorithm is proposed that carefully selects a set of expansion centers from the query trajectory and exploits upper and lower bounds to prune the search space in the spatial and temporal domains. An efficiency study reveals that the algorithm explores the minimum search space in both domains. Second, a heuristic search strategy based on priority ranking is developed to schedule the multiple expansion centers, which can further prune the search space and enhance the query efficiency. The performance of the PTM query is studied in extensive experiments based on real and synthetic trajectory data sets. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  13. HENRY'S "HAND OF GOD"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author discusses the views and statements of the French football player Thierry Henry he gave after his illegal play during the playoff match between France and the Republic of Ireland to claim one of the final spots in the World Cup 2010 in South Africa. First, by controlling the ball with his hand before passing it on for the goal Henry has shown disregard for the constitutive rules of football. Then, by stating that he is "not a referee" he demonstrated that for some players rules are not inherent to football and that they can be relativized, given that for them winning is the goal of the highest ontological status. Furthermore, he has rejected the rules of sportsmanship, thus expressing his opinion that the opponents are just obstacles which have to be removed in order to achieve your goals. Henry's action has disrupted major moral values, such as justice, honesty, responsibility and beneficence. The rules of fair play have totally been ignored both in Henry's action and in the Football Association of France's unwillingness to comment on whether a replay should take place. They have ignored one of the basic principles stated in the "Declaration of the International Fair Play Committee", according to which, fair play is much more than playing to the rules of the game; it's about the attitude of the sportsperson. It's about respecting your opponent and preserving his or her physical and psychological integrity. Finally, the author believes that the rules, moral values and fair play in football are required for this game to become actually possible to play

  14. HENRY'S "HAND OF GOD"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author discusses the views and statements of the French football player Thierry Henry he gave after his illegal play during the playoff match between France and the Republic of Ireland to claim one of the final spots in the World Cup 2010 in South Africa. First, by controlling the ball with his hand before passing it on for the goal Henry has shown disregard for the constitutive rules of football. Then, by stating that he is "not a referee" he demonstrated that for some players rules are not inherent to football and that they can be relativized, given that for them winning is the goal of the highest ontological status. Furthermore, he has rejected the rules of sportsmanship, thus expressing his opinion that the opponents are just obstacles which have to be removed in order to achieve your goals. Henry's action has disrupted major moral values, such as justice, honesty, responsibility and beneficence. The rules of fair play have totally been ignored both in Henry's action and in the Football Association of France's unwillingness to comment on whether a replay should take place. They have ignored one of the basic principles stated in the "Declaration of the International Fair Play Committee", according to which, fair play is much more than playing to the rules of the game; it's about the attitude of the sportsperson. It's about respecting your opponent and preserving his or her physical and psychological integrity. Finally, the author believes that the rules, moral values and fair play in football are required for this game to become actually possible to play.

  15. Feasibility study of a hand guided robotic drill for cochleostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Peter; Du, Xinli; Zoka-Assadi, Masoud; Coulson, Chris; Reid, Andrew; Proops, David

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a hand guided robotic drill has been inspired by an automated, arm supported robotic drill recently applied in clinical practice to produce cochleostomies without penetrating the endosteum ready for inserting cochlear electrodes. The smart tactile sensing scheme within the drill enables precise control of the state of interaction between tissues and tools in real-time. This paper reports development studies of the hand guided robotic drill where the same consistent outcomes, augmentation of surgeon control and skill, and similar reduction of induced disturbances on the hearing organ are achieved. The device operates with differing presentation of tissues resulting from variation in anatomy and demonstrates the ability to control or avoid penetration of tissue layers as required and to respond to intended rather than involuntary motion of the surgeon operator. The advantage of hand guided over an arm supported system is that it offers flexibility in adjusting the drilling trajectory. This can be important to initiate cutting on a hard convex tissue surface without slipping and then to proceed on the desired trajectory after cutting has commenced. The results for trials on phantoms show that drill unit compliance is an important factor in the design.

  16. Feasibility Study of a Hand Guided Robotic Drill for Cochleostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a hand guided robotic drill has been inspired by an automated, arm supported robotic drill recently applied in clinical practice to produce cochleostomies without penetrating the endosteum ready for inserting cochlear electrodes. The smart tactile sensing scheme within the drill enables precise control of the state of interaction between tissues and tools in real-time. This paper reports development studies of the hand guided robotic drill where the same consistent outcomes, augmentation of surgeon control and skill, and similar reduction of induced disturbances on the hearing organ are achieved. The device operates with differing presentation of tissues resulting from variation in anatomy and demonstrates the ability to control or avoid penetration of tissue layers as required and to respond to intended rather than involuntary motion of the surgeon operator. The advantage of hand guided over an arm supported system is that it offers flexibility in adjusting the drilling trajectory. This can be important to initiate cutting on a hard convex tissue surface without slipping and then to proceed on the desired trajectory after cutting has commenced. The results for trials on phantoms show that drill unit compliance is an important factor in the design.

  17. Multi-fingered robotic hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Carl F. (Inventor); Salisbury, Kenneth, Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A robotic hand is presented having a plurality of fingers, each having a plurality of joints pivotally connected one to the other. Actuators are connected at one end to an actuating and control mechanism mounted remotely from the hand and at the other end to the joints of the fingers for manipulating the fingers and passing externally of the robot manipulating arm in between the hand and the actuating and control mechanism. The fingers include pulleys to route the actuators within the fingers. Cable tension sensing structure mounted on a portion of the hand are disclosed, as is covering of the tip of each finger with a resilient and pliable friction enhancing surface.

  18. Fusion of hard and soft control strategies for the robotic hand

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Cheng-Hung

    2018-01-01

    Long considered the stuff of science fiction, a prosthetic hand capable of fully replicating all of that appendage's various functions is closer to becoming reality than ever before. This book provides a comprehensive report on exciting recent developments in hybrid control techniques—one of the most crucial hurdles to be overcome in creating smart prosthetic hands. Coauthored by two of the world's foremost pioneering experts in the field, Fusion of Hard and Soft Control Strategies for the Robotic Hand treats robotic hands for multiple applications. It begins with an overview of advances in main control techniques that have been made over the past decade before addressing the military context for affordable robotic hand technology with tactile and/or proprioceptive feedback for hand amputees. Kinematics, homogene us transformations, inverse and differential kinematics, trajectory planning, and dynamic models of two-link thumb and three-link index finger are discussed in detail. The remainder of the book is...

  19. The human hand as an inspiration for robot hand development

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    “The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development” presents an edited collection of authoritative contributions in the area of robot hands. The results described in the volume are expected to lead to more robust, dependable, and inexpensive distributed systems such as those endowed with complex and advanced sensing, actuation, computation, and communication capabilities. The twenty-four chapters discuss the field of robotic grasping and manipulation viewed in light of the human hand’s capabilities and push the state-of-the-art in robot hand design and control. Topics discussed include human hand biomechanics, neural control, sensory feedback and perception, and robotic grasp and manipulation. This book will be useful for researchers from diverse areas such as robotics, biomechanics, neuroscience, and anthropologists.

  20. Path integrals and geometry of trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, M.; Keski-Vakkuri, E.; Niemi, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    A geometrical interpretation of path integrals is developed in the space of trajectories. This yields a supersymmetric formulation of a generic path integral, with the supersymmetry resembling the BRST supersymmetry of a first class constrained system. If the classical equation of motion is a Killing vector field in the space of trajectories, the supersymmetry localizes the path integral to classical trajectories and the WKB approximation becomes exact. This can be viewed as a path integral generalization of the Duistermaat-Heckman theorem, which states the conditions for the exactness of the WKB approximation for integrals in a compact phase space. (orig.)

  1. An Examination of "The Martian" Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This analysis was performed to support a request to examine the trajectory of the Hermes vehicle in the novel "The Martian" by Andy Weir. Weir developed his own tool to perform the analysis necessary to provide proper trajectory information for the novel. The Hermes vehicle is the interplanetary spacecraft that shuttles the crew to and from Mars. It is notionally a Nuclear powered vehicle utilizing VASIMR engines for propulsion. The intent of this analysis was the determine whether the trajectory as it was outlined in the novel is consistent with the rules of orbital mechanics.

  2. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  3. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, John Eric [Department of Physics, Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Carre, Matt J, E-mail: goff@lynchburg.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  4. Helicopter trajectory planning using optimal control theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Cheng, V. H. L.; Kim, E.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for optimal trajectory planning, useful in the nap-of-the-earth guidance of helicopters, is presented. This approach uses an adjoint-control transformation along with a one-dimensional search scheme for generating the optimal trajectories. In addition to being useful for helicopter nap-of-the-earth guidance, the trajectory planning solution is of interest in several other contexts, such as robotic vehicle guidance and terrain-following guidance for cruise missiles and aircraft. A distinguishing feature of the present research is that the terrain constraint and the threat envelopes are incorporated in the equations of motion. Second-order necessary conditions are examined.

  5. Active Transportation Demand Management (ATDM) Trajectory Level Validation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ATDM Trajectory Validation project developed a validation framework and a trajectory computational engine to compare and validate simulated and observed vehicle...

  6. Low Thrust Trajectory Design for GSFC Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG) is a global trajectory optimization tool. EMTG is intended for use in designing interplanetary missions which...

  7. Giant lipomas of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Yildiran

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Giant lipomas of the hand are very rare and may cause compressions and other complications. Thus, they require a careful preoperative evaluation in order to make a proper differential diagnosis. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(1.000: 8-11

  8. Canadian hand dermatitis management guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynde, Charles; Guenther, Lyn; Diepgen, Thomas L

    2010-01-01

    Hand dermatitis (HD) is one of the most common skin conditions; however, it is not a homogeneous disease entity. The severity of HD may range from very mild cases to severe chronic forms, which may result in prolonged disability and, occasionally, refractory HD. Chronic hand dermatitis (CHD...

  9. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.

  10. Effect of hand sanitizer location on hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cure, Laila; Van Enk, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Hand hygiene is the most important intervention to prevent infection in hospitals. Health care workers should clean their hands at least before and after contact with patients. Hand sanitizer dispensers are important to support hand hygiene because they can be made available throughout hospital units. The aim of this study was to determine whether the usability of sanitizer dispensers correlates with compliance of staff in using the sanitizer in a hospital. This study took place in a Midwest, 404-bed, private, nonprofit community hospital with 15 inpatient care units in addition to several ambulatory units. The usability and standardization of sanitizers in 12 participating inpatient units were evaluated. The hospital measured compliance of staff with hand hygiene as part of their quality improvement program. Data from 2010-2012 were analyzed to measure the relationship between compliance and usability using mixed-effects logistic regression models. The total usability score (P = .0046), visibility (P = .003), and accessibility of the sanitizer on entrance to the patient room (P = .00055) were statistically associated with higher observed compliance rates. Standardization alone showed no significant impact on observed compliance (P = .37). Hand hygiene compliance can be influenced by visibility and accessibility of dispensers. The sanitizer location should be part of multifaceted interventions to improve hand hygiene. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Degloving injuries of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Krishnamoorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Avulsion of skin from the hand or fingers is an injury that has a dramatic presentation. The entire musculo-skeletal unit of the finger is intact, and the patient can often move the parts of his naked hand quite normally. The challenge for the reconstructive surgeon lies in resurfacing the hand or finger with a good quality pliable sensate skin cover while preserving the movements and function of the hand. Traditionally, skin grafting has been the standard method of reconstruction in such injuries. However, skin grafting does have many disadvantages, too. This article deals with the features of such injuries, management protocols and other reconstructive options available in the armamentarium of the hand surgeon.

  12. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  13. The hand of Homo naledi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Deane, Andrew S.; Tocheri, Matthew W.; Orr, Caley M.; Schmid, Peter; Hawks, John; Berger, Lee R.; Churchill, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    A nearly complete right hand of an adult hominin was recovered from the Rising Star cave system, South Africa. Based on associated hominin material, the bones of this hand are attributed to Homo naledi. This hand reveals a long, robust thumb and derived wrist morphology that is shared with Neandertals and modern humans, and considered adaptive for intensified manual manipulation. However, the finger bones are longer and more curved than in most australopiths, indicating frequent use of the hand during life for strong grasping during locomotor climbing and suspension. These markedly curved digits in combination with an otherwise human-like wrist and palm indicate a significant degree of climbing, despite the derived nature of many aspects of the hand and other regions of the postcranial skeleton in H. naledi. PMID:26441219

  14. Leveraging Chaos in Continuous Thrust Trajectory Design

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A trajectory design tool is sought to leverage chaos and nonlinear dynamics present in multi-body gravitational fields to design ultra-low energy transfer...

  15. Age trajectories of stroke case fatality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2011-01-01

    Mortality rates level off at older ages. Age trajectories of stroke case-fatality rates were studied with the aim of investigating prevalence of this phenomenon, specifically in case-fatality rates at older ages....

  16. Highly Accurate Measurement of Projectile Trajectories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leathem, J

    1997-01-01

    .... The method has been extensively used for free flight testing of weapon models. This report describes the on board instrumentation, the range instrumentation and the experimental procedure used to carry out the trajectory measurements...

  17. Analytical Ballistic Trajectories with Approximately Linear Drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giliam J. P. de Carpentier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a practical analytical approximation of projectile trajectories in 2D and 3D roughly based on a linear drag model and explores a variety of different planning algorithms for these trajectories. Although the trajectories are only approximate, they still capture many of the characteristics of a real projectile in free fall under the influence of an invariant wind, gravitational pull, and terminal velocity, while the required math for these trajectories and planners is still simple enough to efficiently run on almost all modern hardware devices. Together, these properties make the proposed approach particularly useful for real-time applications where accuracy and performance need to be carefully balanced, such as in computer games.

  18. Trajectory Clustering with Applications to Airspace Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a framework aimed at monitoring the behavior of aircraft in a given airspace. Trajectories that constitute typical operations are determined and...

  19. Trajectory behaviour at different phonemic context sizes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a piecewise-linear model for the temporal trajectories of Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients during phone transitions. As with conventional Hidden Markov Models, the parameters of the model can be estimated for different...

  20. Trajectory tracking control for underactuated stratospheric airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zewei; Huo, Wei; Wu, Zhe

    2012-10-01

    Stratospheric airship is a new kind of aerospace system which has attracted worldwide developing interests for its broad application prospects. Based on the trajectory linearization control (TLC) theory, a novel trajectory tracking control method for an underactuated stratospheric airship is presented in this paper. Firstly, the TLC theory is described sketchily, and the dynamic model of the stratospheric airship is introduced with kinematics and dynamics equations. Then, the trajectory tracking control strategy is deduced in detail. The designed control system possesses a cascaded structure which consists of desired attitude calculation, position control loop and attitude control loop. Two sub-loops are designed for the position and attitude control loops, respectively, including the kinematics control loop and dynamics control loop. Stability analysis shows that the controlled closed-loop system is exponentially stable. Finally, simulation results for the stratospheric airship to track typical trajectories are illustrated to verify effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  1. The existence of trajectories joining critical points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shuxiang.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, using the notion of an isolating block and the concept of canonical regions, three existence criteria of trajectories connecting a pair of critical points of planar differential equations are given. (author)

  2. Trajectory phases of a quantum dot model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genway, Sam; Hickey, James M; Garrahan, Juan P; Armour, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    We present a thermodynamic formalism to study the trajectories of charge transport through a quantum dot coupled to two leads in the resonant-level model. We show that a close analogue of equilibrium phase transitions exists for the statistics of transferred charge; by tuning an appropriate ‘counting field’, crossovers to different trajectory phases are possible. Our description reveals a mapping between the statistics of a given device and current measurements over a range of devices with different dot–lead coupling strengths. Furthermore insight into features of the trajectory phases are found by studying the occupation of the dot conditioned on the transported charge between the leads; this is calculated from first principles using a trajectory biased two-point projective measurement scheme. (paper)

  3. Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2010-01-01

    to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305-320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximationMCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic

  4. Quantum dynamics modeled by interacting trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rodríguez, L.; Uranga-Piña, L.; Martínez-Mesa, A.; Meier, C.

    2018-03-01

    We present quantum dynamical simulations based on the propagation of interacting trajectories where the effect of the quantum potential is mimicked by effective pseudo-particle interactions. The method is applied to several quantum systems, both for bound and scattering problems. For the bound systems, the quantum ground state density and zero point energy are shown to be perfectly obtained by the interacting trajectories. In the case of time-dependent quantum scattering, the Eckart barrier and uphill ramp are considered, with transmission coefficients in very good agreement with standard quantum calculations. Finally, we show that via wave function synthesis along the trajectories, correlation functions and energy spectra can be obtained based on the dynamics of interacting trajectories.

  5. Action Recognition Using Discriminative Structured Trajectory Groups

    KAUST Repository

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati

    2015-01-06

    In this paper, we develop a novel framework for action recognition in videos. The framework is based on automatically learning the discriminative trajectory groups that are relevant to an action. Different from previous approaches, our method does not require complex computation for graph matching or complex latent models to localize the parts. We model a video as a structured bag of trajectory groups with latent class variables. We model action recognition problem in a weakly supervised setting and learn discriminative trajectory groups by employing multiple instance learning (MIL) based Support Vector Machine (SVM) using pre-computed kernels. The kernels depend on the spatio-temporal relationship between the extracted trajectory groups and their associated features. We demonstrate both quantitatively and qualitatively that the classification performance of our proposed method is superior to baselines and several state-of-the-art approaches on three challenging standard benchmark datasets.

  6. Study of particle swarm optimization particle trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van den Bergh, F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available . These theoretical studies concentrate mainly on simplified PSO systems. This paper overviews current theoretical studies, and extend these studies to investigate particle trajectories for general swarms to include the influence of the inertia term. The paper also...

  7. DIRECTIONAL WELL TRAJECTORY DESIGN: THE THEORITICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... record presentation of a desired complex directional well trajectory, also from which the overall angle change. (dogleg) is observed not to ... example; 23oNE means 23 degrees East from North, .... Azimuth Angles Selection.

  8. Trajectory similarity join in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo; Chen, Lisi; Wei, Zhewei; Jensen, Christian S.; Zheng, Kai; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    With these applications in mind, we provide a purposeful definition of similarity. To enable efficient TS-Join processing on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and take into account the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer algorithm. For each trajectory, the algorithm first finds similar trajectories. Then it merges the results to achieve a final result. The algorithm exploits an upper bound on the spatiotemporal similarity and a heuristic scheduling strategy for search space pruning. The algorithm's per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the merging has constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithm and demonstrates that is capable of outperforming a well-designed baseline algorithm by an order of magnitude.

  9. Design of relative trajectories for in orbit proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opromolla, Roberto; Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to design relative trajectories suitable for close-proximity operations in orbit, by assigning high-level constraints regarding their stability, shape and orientation. Specifically, this work is relevant to space mission scenarios, e.g. formation flying, on-orbit servicing, and active debris removal, which involve either the presence of two spacecraft carrying out coordinated maneuvers, or a servicing/recovery spacecraft (chaser) performing monitoring, rendezvous and docking with respect to another space object (target). In the above-mentioned scenarios, an important aspect is the capability of reducing collision risks and of providing robust and accurate relative navigation solutions. To this aim, the proposed approach exploits a relative motion model relevant to two-satellite formations, and developed in mean orbit parameters, which takes the perturbation effect due to secular Earth oblateness, as well as the motion of the target along a small-eccentricity orbit, into account. This model is used to design trajectories which ensure safe relative motion, to minimize collision risks and relax control requirements, providing at the same time favorable conditions, in terms of target-chaser relative observation geometry for pose determination and relative navigation with passive or active electro-optical sensors on board the chaser. Specifically, three design strategies are proposed in the context of a space target monitoring scenario, considering as design cases both operational spacecraft and debris, characterized by highly variable shape, size and absolute rotational dynamics. The effectiveness of the proposed design approach in providing favorable observation conditions for target-chaser relative pose estimation is demonstrated within a simulation environment which reproduces the designed target-chaser relative trajectory, the operation of an active LIDAR installed on board the chaser, and pose estimation algorithms.

  10. Satellite formation flying relative dynamics, formation design, fuel optimal maneuvers and formation maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Danwei; Poh, Eng Kee

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically describes the concepts and principles for multi-satellite relative motion, passive and near passive formation designs, trajectory planning and control for fuel optimal formation maneuvers, and formation flying maintenance control design. As such, it provides a sound foundation for researchers and engineers in this field to develop further theories and pursue their implementations. Though satellite formation flying is widely considered to be a major advance in space technology, there are few systematic treatments of the topic in the literature. Addressing that gap, the book offers a valuable resource for academics, researchers, postgraduate students and practitioners in the field of satellite science and engineering.

  11. APPLICATION OF MODERN ICT TO SHAPE INDIVIDUAL EDUCATIONAL REFLECTIVE AND HUMANISTIC TRAJECTORY OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE PUPIL OF SECONDARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mukiy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of ICT in everyday life gives opportunities for acquiring of quality integrated knowledge in different fields, remote data management, self-education that improves and simplifies the life of modern man on the one hand. And on the other it’s caused the appearance of new psychological problems of value-motivational, cognitive, psycho-physical areas of the child’s personality due to the lack of skills of large information flow filtering. The uncontrolled behavior and mind manipulation through reflexive inability to comprehend the meaning of information resources of inhumane nature exposes a child to danger. In some way it leads to a child’s dependence on the computer and the Internet. In solving of above mentioned problems crucial importance is gained by qualities of intellectual, reflective, spiritual and humanistic potential of pupil’s personality in particular – forming of reflexive-humanistic educational development trajectory of the child’s development. Urgent problem that becomes for teacher of Informatics is the humanization of the educational process through the implementation of educational, computer-based learning tools that will develop reflexivity and humanistic pupil’s potential. The article deals with the special aspects of formation of humanistic reflexive-educational trajectory of the pupil’s development during studying Informatics at secondary school, it presents the systematization of specified definitions’ components. Ways of using the modern information and communication technologies for comprehensive harmonious development of a child’s personality in the global informatization are substantiated and generalized

  12. Human-inspired feedback synergies for environmental interaction with a dexterous robotic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Benjamin A; Engeberg, Erik D

    2014-11-07

    Effortless control of the human hand is mediated by the physical and neural couplings inherent in the structure of the hand. This concept was explored for environmental interaction tasks with the human hand, and a novel human-inspired feedback synergy (HFS) controller was developed for a robotic hand which synchronized position and force feedback signals to mimic observed human hand motions. This was achieved by first recording the finger joint motion profiles of human test subjects, where it was observed that the subjects would extend their fingers to maintain a natural hand posture when interacting with different surfaces. The resulting human joint angle data were used as inspiration to develop the HFS controller for the anthropomorphic robotic hand, which incorporated finger abduction and force feedback in the control laws for finger extension. Experimental results showed that by projecting a broader view of the tasks at hand to each specific joint, the HFS controller produced hand motion profiles that closely mimic the observed human responses and allowed the robotic manipulator to interact with the surfaces while maintaining a natural hand posture. Additionally, the HFS controller enabled the robotic hand to autonomously traverse vertical step discontinuities without prior knowledge of the environment, visual feedback, or traditional trajectory planning techniques.

  13. Human-inspired feedback synergies for environmental interaction with a dexterous robotic hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, Benjamin A; Engeberg, Erik D

    2014-01-01

    Effortless control of the human hand is mediated by the physical and neural couplings inherent in the structure of the hand. This concept was explored for environmental interaction tasks with the human hand, and a novel human-inspired feedback synergy (HFS) controller was developed for a robotic hand which synchronized position and force feedback signals to mimic observed human hand motions. This was achieved by first recording the finger joint motion profiles of human test subjects, where it was observed that the subjects would extend their fingers to maintain a natural hand posture when interacting with different surfaces. The resulting human joint angle data were used as inspiration to develop the HFS controller for the anthropomorphic robotic hand, which incorporated finger abduction and force feedback in the control laws for finger extension. Experimental results showed that by projecting a broader view of the tasks at hand to each specific joint, the HFS controller produced hand motion profiles that closely mimic the observed human responses and allowed the robotic manipulator to interact with the surfaces while maintaining a natural hand posture. Additionally, the HFS controller enabled the robotic hand to autonomously traverse vertical step discontinuities without prior knowledge of the environment, visual feedback, or traditional trajectory planning techniques. (paper)

  14. Kinematic evaluation of virtual walking trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirio, Gabriel; Olivier, Anne-Hélène; Marchal, Maud; Pettré, Julien

    2013-04-01

    Virtual walking, a fundamental task in Virtual Reality (VR), is greatly influenced by the locomotion interface being used, by the specificities of input and output devices, and by the way the virtual environment is represented. No matter how virtual walking is controlled, the generation of realistic virtual trajectories is absolutely required for some applications, especially those dedicated to the study of walking behaviors in VR, navigation through virtual places for architecture, rehabilitation and training. Previous studies focused on evaluating the realism of locomotion trajectories have mostly considered the result of the locomotion task (efficiency, accuracy) and its subjective perception (presence, cybersickness). Few focused on the locomotion trajectory itself, but in situation of geometrically constrained task. In this paper, we study the realism of unconstrained trajectories produced during virtual walking by addressing the following question: did the user reach his destination by virtually walking along a trajectory he would have followed in similar real conditions? To this end, we propose a comprehensive evaluation framework consisting on a set of trajectographical criteria and a locomotion model to generate reference trajectories. We consider a simple locomotion task where users walk between two oriented points in space. The travel path is analyzed both geometrically and temporally in comparison to simulated reference trajectories. In addition, we demonstrate the framework over a user study which considered an initial set of common and frequent virtual walking conditions, namely different input devices, output display devices, control laws, and visualization modalities. The study provides insight into the relative contributions of each condition to the overall realism of the resulting virtual trajectories.

  15. User Oriented Trajectory Search for Trip Recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Ruogu

    2012-07-08

    Trajectory sharing and searching have received significant attention in recent years. In this thesis, we propose and investigate the methods to find and recommend the best trajectory to the traveler, and mainly focus on a novel technique named User Oriented Trajectory Search (UOTS) query processing. In contrast to conventional trajectory search by locations (spatial domain only), we consider both spatial and textual domains in the new UOTS query. Given a trajectory data set, the query input contains a set of intended places given by the traveler and a set of textual attributes describing the traveler’s preference. If a trajectory is connecting/close to the specified query locations, and the textual attributes of the trajectory are similar to the traveler’s preference, it will be recommended to the traveler. This type of queries can enable many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation. There are two challenges in UOTS query processing, (i) how to constrain the searching range in two domains and (ii) how to schedule multiple query sources effectively. To overcome the challenges and answer the UOTS query efficiently, a novel collaborative searching approach is developed. Conceptually, the UOTS query processing is conducted in the spatial and textual domains alternately. A pair of upper and lower bounds are devised to constrain the searching range in two domains. In the meantime, a heuristic searching strategy based on priority ranking is adopted for scheduling the multiple query sources, which can further reduce the searching range and enhance the query efficiency notably. Furthermore, the devised collaborative searching approach can be extended to situations where the query locations are ordered. Extensive experiments are conducted on both real and synthetic trajectory data in road networks. Our approach is verified to be effective in reducing both CPU time and disk I/O time.

  16. Mobility Modelling through Trajectory Decomposition and Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Faghihi, Farbod

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquity of mobile devices with positioning sensors make it possible to derive user's location at any time. However, constantly sensing the position in order to track the user's movement is not feasible, either due to the unavailability of sensors, or computational and storage burdens. In this thesis, we present and evaluate a novel approach for efficiently tracking user's movement trajectories using decomposition and prediction of trajectories. We facilitate tracking by taking advantage ...

  17. Trajectory Stability in the Traveling Salesman Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sánchez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two generalizations of the traveling salesman problem in which sites change their position in time are presented. The way the rank of different trajectory lengths changes in time is studied using the rank diversity. We analyze the statistical properties of rank distributions and rank dynamics and give evidence that the shortest and longest trajectories are more predictable and robust to change, that is, more stable.

  18. Differences in context and feedback result in different trajectories and adaptation strategies in reaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzie Arce

    Full Text Available Computational models of motor control have often explained the straightness of horizontal planar reaching movements as a consequence of optimal control. Departure from rectilinearity is thus regarded as sub-optimal. Here we examine if subjects may instead select to make curved trajectories following adaptation to force fields and visuomotor rotations. Separate subjects adapted to force fields with or without visual feedback of their hand trajectory and were retested after 24 hours. Following adaptation, comparable accuracies were achieved in two ways: with visual feedback, adapted trajectories in force fields were straight whereas without it, they remained curved. The results suggest that trajectory shape is not always straight, but is also influenced by the calibration of available feedback signals for the state estimation required by the task. In a follow-up experiment, where additional subjects learned a visuomotor rotation immediately after force field, the trajectories learned in force fields (straight or curved were transferred when directions of the perturbations were similar but not when directions were opposing. This demonstrates a strong bias by prior experience to keep using a recently acquired control policy that continues to produce successful performance inspite of differences in tasks and feedback conditions. On relearning of force fields on the second day, facilitation by intervening visuomotor rotations occurred only when required motor adjustments and calibration of feedback signals were similar in both tasks. These results suggest that both the available feedback signals and prior history of learning influence the choice and maintenance of control policy during adaptations.

  19. Proprioceptive deafferentation slows down the processing of visual hand feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Miall, R Chris; Cole, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    During visually guided movements both vision and proprioception inform the brain about the position of the hand, so interaction between these two modalities is presumed. Current theories suggest that this interaction occurs by sensory information from both sources being fused into a more reliable...... proprioception facilitates the processing of visual information during motor control. Subjects used a computer mouse to move a cursor to a screen target. In 28% of the trials, pseudorandomly, the cursor was rotated or the target jumped. Reaction time for the trajectory correction in response to this perturbation......, multimodal, percept of hand location. In the literature on perception, however, there is evidence that different sensory modalities interact in the allocation of attention, so that a stimulus in one modality facilitates the processing of a stimulus in a different modality. We investigated whether...

  20. Optimizing interplanetary trajectories with deep space maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navagh, John

    1993-09-01

    Analysis of interplanetary trajectories is a crucial area for both manned and unmanned missions of the Space Exploration Initiative. A deep space maneuver (DSM) can improve a trajectory in much the same way as a planetary swingby. However, instead of using a gravitational field to alter the trajectory, the on-board propulsion system of the spacecraft is used when the vehicle is not near a planet. The purpose is to develop an algorithm to determine where and when to use deep space maneuvers to reduce the cost of a trajectory. The approach taken to solve this problem uses primer vector theory in combination with a non-linear optimizing program to minimize Delta(V). A set of necessary conditions on the primer vector is shown to indicate whether a deep space maneuver will be beneficial. Deep space maneuvers are applied to a round trip mission to Mars to determine their effect on the launch opportunities. Other studies which were performed include cycler trajectories and Mars mission abort scenarios. It was found that the software developed was able to locate quickly DSM's which lower the total Delta(V) on these trajectories.

  1. Searching Trajectories by Regions of Interest

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2017-03-22

    With the increasing availability of moving-object tracking data, trajectory search is increasingly important. We propose and investigate a novel query type named trajectory search by regions of interest (TSR query). Given an argument set of trajectories, a TSR query takes a set of regions of interest as a parameter and returns the trajectory in the argument set with the highest spatial-density correlation to the query regions. This type of query is useful in many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation, and location based services in general. TSR query processing faces three challenges: how to model the spatial-density correlation between query regions and data trajectories, how to effectively prune the search space, and how to effectively schedule multiple so-called query sources. To tackle these challenges, a series of new metrics are defined to model spatial-density correlations. An efficient trajectory search algorithm is developed that exploits upper and lower bounds to prune the search space and that adopts a query-source selection strategy, as well as integrates a heuristic search strategy based on priority ranking to schedule multiple query sources. The performance of TSR query processing is studied in extensive experiments based on real and synthetic spatial data.

  2. Searching Trajectories by Regions of Interest

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo; chen, Lisi; Jensen, Christian S.; Wen, Ji-Rong; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing availability of moving-object tracking data, trajectory search is increasingly important. We propose and investigate a novel query type named trajectory search by regions of interest (TSR query). Given an argument set of trajectories, a TSR query takes a set of regions of interest as a parameter and returns the trajectory in the argument set with the highest spatial-density correlation to the query regions. This type of query is useful in many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation, and location based services in general. TSR query processing faces three challenges: how to model the spatial-density correlation between query regions and data trajectories, how to effectively prune the search space, and how to effectively schedule multiple so-called query sources. To tackle these challenges, a series of new metrics are defined to model spatial-density correlations. An efficient trajectory search algorithm is developed that exploits upper and lower bounds to prune the search space and that adopts a query-source selection strategy, as well as integrates a heuristic search strategy based on priority ranking to schedule multiple query sources. The performance of TSR query processing is studied in extensive experiments based on real and synthetic spatial data.

  3. UAV Trajectory Modeling Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min

    2017-01-01

    Massive small unmanned aerial vehicles are envisioned to operate in the near future. While there are lots of research problems need to be addressed before dense operations can happen, trajectory modeling remains as one of the keys to understand and develop policies, regulations, and requirements for safe and efficient unmanned aerial vehicle operations. The fidelity requirement of a small unmanned vehicle trajectory model is high because these vehicles are sensitive to winds due to their small size and low operational altitude. Both vehicle control systems and dynamic models are needed for trajectory modeling, which makes the modeling a great challenge, especially considering the fact that manufactures are not willing to share their control systems. This work proposed to use a neural network approach for modelling small unmanned vehicle's trajectory without knowing its control system and bypassing exhaustive efforts for aerodynamic parameter identification. As a proof of concept, instead of collecting data from flight tests, this work used the trajectory data generated by a mathematical vehicle model for training and testing the neural network. The results showed great promise because the trained neural network can predict 4D trajectories accurately, and prediction errors were less than 2:0 meters in both temporal and spatial dimensions.

  4. The Mirrored Hand Illusion: I Control, So I Possess?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aibao; Zhang, Yanchi; Yin, Yulong; Yang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Certain situations may not only cause people to misjudge external information but also distort people's perception of themselves. The present study is the first to report the mirrored hand illusion which could be generated when the experimenter imitated the fist-clenching movements of the subject synchronously. The subjects formed the illusion that the experimenter's hand was "something I can control" when being imitated synchronously. In addition, a sense of ownership over the alien hand was established by integrating multisensory signals and comparing these signals with preexisting body presentations. This method might represent a new avenue for research on the formation of self-consciousness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Hand in Hand - SEI Programmes for School Staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Réol, Lise Andersen; Laursen, Hilmar Dyrborg

    2017-01-01

    This catalogue of research in the field of SEI programmes for the school staff’s and teachers’ SEI competencies is based on a review performed by the main researchers Birgitte Lund Nielsen, Lise Andersen Réol and Hilmar Dyrborg Laursen, VIA University College, Denmark, but discussed by the entire...... team of Hand in Hand partner countries and researchers. The aim was to identify the central aspects and elements concerning successful implementation, and school staff’s development of professional competencies in the specific field of supporting students’ social, emotional and intercultural (SEI......) competencies. Abstract: Framed by the EU-project Hand in Hand focusing on Social, Emotional and Intercultural (SEI) competencies among students and school staff, the paper discusses implementation and professional competencies based on a research review. The following five topics were identified: 1...

  6. THE DYNAMIC MODEL FOR CONTROL OF STUDENT’S LEARNING INDIVIDUAL TRAJECTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mitsel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the transition of the educational system to a competence-oriented approach, the problem of learning outcomes assessment and creating an individual learning trajectory of a student has become relevant. Its solution requires the application of modern information technologies. The third generation of Federal state educational standards of higher professional education (FSES HPE defines the requirements for the results of Mastering the basic educational programs (BEP. According to FSES HPE up to 50% of subjects have a variable character, i.e. depend on the choice of a student. It significantly influences on the results of developing various competencies. The problem of forming student’s learning trajectory is analyzed in general and the choice of an individual direction was studied in details. Various methods, models and algorithms of the student’s individual learning trajectory formation were described. The analysis of the model of educational process organization in terms of individual approach makes it possible to develop a decision support system (DSS. DSS is a set of interrelated programs and data used for analysis of situation, development of alternative solutions and selection of the most acceptable alternative. DSSs are often used when building individual learning path, because this task can be considered as a discrete multi-criteria problem, creating a significant burden on the decision maker. A new method of controlling the learning trajectory has been developed. The article discusses problem statement and solution of determining student’s optimal individual educational trajectory as a dynamic model of learning trajectory control, which uses score assessment to construct a sequence of studied subjects. A new model of management learning trajectory is based on dynamic models for tracking the reference trajectory. The task can be converted to an equivalent model of linear programming, for which a reliable solution

  7. Economic Motivations for Master’s Students’ Choice of Educational, Scientific and Professional Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil Gennadyevich Sandler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the motivations for Master’s students’ choice of individual trajectories. In the course of their studies, the students’ trajectories have educational, scientific and professional aspects. Educational, scientific and professional students’ trajectories determine a system of interaction between master’s students and other people in the context of educational process (teachers, other students and beyond it (employers, research workers from Russian and foreign universities. The authors emphasize the importance of studying the master’s students’ individual trajectories from both scientific (identifying the peculiarities of students’ trajectories formation and development and practical points of view (investments to master’s students to enhance the professional competence in the regional labour market. The authors have analysed the master’s students’ individual trajectories on the basis of monitoring data obtained from the survey carried out in February and December 2014. The master’s students’ assessments allowed to identify what educational experience they were able to get during the education and whether their experience met their expectations. The master’s students’ economic expectations are examined during the implementation of educational and professional trajectories. The analysis of the results has shown that the biggest gap between the expectations and the experience of the master’s students was found according to the criteria related to the student’s scientific trajectory and opportunities to participate in the internationalisation processes. The results of the research may be used to improve the master’s programmes taking into account the revealed master’s students’ expectations, as well as to ensure highly qualified professionals in the labour market and for the effective investments to the human capital by the government authorities

  8. The Marble-Hand Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, Irene; Maravita, Angelo; Bolognini, Nadia; Parise, Cesare V

    2014-01-01

    Our body is made of flesh and bones. We know it, and in our daily lives all the senses constantly provide converging information about this simple, factual truth. But is this always the case? Here we report a surprising bodily illusion demonstrating that humans rapidly update their assumptions about the material qualities of their body, based on their recent multisensory perceptual experience. To induce a misperception of the material properties of the hand, we repeatedly gently hit participants' hand with a small hammer, while progressively replacing the natural sound of the hammer against the skin with the sound of a hammer hitting a piece of marble. After five minutes, the hand started feeling stiffer, heavier, harder, less sensitive, unnatural, and showed enhanced Galvanic skin response (GSR) to threatening stimuli. Notably, such a change in skin conductivity positively correlated with changes in perceived hand stiffness. Conversely, when hammer hits and impact sounds were temporally uncorrelated, participants did not spontaneously report any changes in the perceived properties of the hand, nor did they show any modulation in GSR. In two further experiments, we ruled out that mere audio-tactile synchrony is the causal factor triggering the illusion, further demonstrating the key role of material information conveyed by impact sounds in modulating the perceived material properties of the hand. This novel bodily illusion, the 'Marble-Hand Illusion', demonstrates that the perceived material of our body, surely the most stable attribute of our bodily self, can be quickly updated through multisensory integration.

  9. Drawing from Memory: Hand-Eye Coordination at Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes move to gather visual information for the purpose of guiding behavior. This guidance takes the form of perceptual-motor interactions on short timescales for behaviors like locomotion and hand-eye coordination. More complex behaviors require perceptual-motor interactions on longer timescales mediated by memory, such as navigation, or designing and building artifacts. In the present study, the task of sketching images of natural scenes from memory was used to examine and compare perceptual-motor interactions on shorter and longer timescales. Eye and pen trajectories were found to be coordinated in time on shorter timescales during drawing, and also on longer timescales spanning study and drawing periods. The latter type of coordination was found by developing a purely spatial analysis that yielded measures of similarity between images, eye trajectories, and pen trajectories. These results challenge the notion that coordination only unfolds on short timescales. Rather, the task of drawing from memory evokes perceptual-motor encodings of visual images that preserve coarse-grained spatial information over relatively long timescales as well. PMID:23554894

  10. Periodic components of hand acceleration/deceleration impulses during telemanipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Handel, S. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Psychology

    1994-01-01

    Responsiveness is the ability of a telemanipulator to recreate user trajectories and impedance in time and space. For trajectory production, a key determinant of responsiveness is the ability of the system to accept user inputs, which are forces on the master handle generated by user hand acceleration/deceleration (a/d) impulses, and translate them into slave arm acceleration/deceleration. This paper presents observations of master controller a/d impulses during completion of a simple target acquisition task. Power spectral density functions (PSDF`s) calculated from hand controller a/d impulses were used to assess impulse waveform. The relative contributions of frequency intervals ranging up to 25 Hz for three spatially different versions of the task were used to determine which frequencies were most important. The highest relative power was observed in frequencies between 1 Hz and 6 Hz. The key frequencies related to task difficulty were in the range from 2 Hz to 8 Hz. the results provide clues to the source of the performance inhibition.

  11. Periodic components of hand acceleration/deceleration impulses during telemanipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.

    1994-01-01

    Responsiveness is the ability of a telemanipulator to recreate user trajectories and impedance in time and space. For trajectory production, a key determinant of responsiveness is the ability of the system to accept user inputs, which are forces on the master handle generated by user hand acceleration/deceleration (a/d) impulses, and translate them into slave arm acceleration/deceleration. This paper presents observations of master controller a/d impulses during completion of a simple target acquisition task. Power spectral density functions (PSDF's) calculated from hand controller a/d impulses were used to assess impulse waveform. The relative contributions of frequency intervals ranging up to 25 Hz for three spatially different versions of the task were used to determine which frequencies were most important. The highest relative power was observed in frequencies between 1 Hz and 6 Hz. The key frequencies related to task difficulty were in the range from 2 Hz to 8 Hz. the results provide clues to the source of the performance inhibition

  12. Hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelman, W. A.; de Wit, L. T.; Busch, O. R.; Gouma, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Laparoscopic splenectomy is performed routinely in patients with small and moderately enlarged spleens at specialized centers. Large spleens are difficult to handle laparoscopically and hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy might facilitate the procedure through enhanced vascular control, easier

  13. Animal Bites of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Animal Bites Email to a friend * required fields From * ... key to prevent problems from a bite. CAUSES Animal Bites Millions of animal bites occur in the ...

  14. Hand and foot contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakati, R.K.; Kaptral, R.S.; Ananthkrishnan, T.S.; Pansare, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to make quick measurements of beta and gamma contaminations on hands and feet of personnel working in radioactive environments, hand and foot contamination monitors are widely used. This paper describes such a monitor system designed with Intel 8085 based microcomputer. The monitoring and warning system is designed to perform measurement of activity spread over surface of hands and soles of shoes or feet. Even though the system has many features to aid testing and maintainance operation, it is easy to use for unskilled persons. In order to check the contamination, the person stands on platform and inserts both his hands into detector assemblies thereby actuating the sensing switches. After a preset interval, annunciation of clean or contaminated status is declared by the system. (author)

  15. Functional Trajectories, Cognition, and Subclinical Cerebrovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamoon, Mandip S; Cheung, Ying-Kuen; Gutierrez, Jose; Moon, Yeseon P; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Wright, Clinton B

    2018-03-01

    Cognition and education influence functional trajectories, but whether associations differ with subclinical brain infarcts (SBI) or white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) is unknown. We hypothesized that SBI and WMHV moderated relationships between cognitive performance and education and functional trajectories. A total of 1290 stroke-free individuals underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and were followed for 7.3 years (mean) with annual functional assessments with the Barthel index (range, 0-100). Magnetic resonance imaging measurements included pathology-informed SBI (PI-SBI) and WMHV (% total cranial volume). Generalized estimating equation models tested associations between magnetic resonance imaging variables and baseline Barthel index and change in Barthel index, adjusting for demographic, vascular, cognitive, and social risk factors, and stroke and myocardial infarction during follow-up. We tested interactions among education level, baseline cognitive performance (Mini-Mental State score), and functional trajectories and ran models stratified by levels of magnetic resonance imaging variables. Mean age was 70.6 (SD, 9.0) years; 19% had PI-SBI, and mean WMHV was 0.68%. Education did not modify associations between cognition and functional trajectories. PI-SBI modified associations between cognition and functional trajectories ( P =0.04) with a significant protective effect of better cognition on functional decline seen only in those without PI-SBI. There was no significant interaction for WMHV ( P =0.8). PI-SBI, and greater WMHV, were associated with 2- to 3-fold steeper functional decline, holding cognition constant. PI-SBI moderated the association between cognition and functional trajectories, with 3-fold greater decline among those with PI-SBI (compared with no PI-SBI) and normal baseline cognition. This highlights the strong and independent association between subclinical markers and patient-centered trajectories over time. © 2018 American Heart

  16. User oriented trajectory search for trip recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2012-01-01

    Trajectory sharing and searching have received significant attentions in recent years. In this paper, we propose and investigate a novel problem called User Oriented Trajectory Search (UOTS) for trip recommendation. In contrast to conventional trajectory search by locations (spatial domain only), we consider both spatial and textual domains in the new UOTS query. Given a trajectory data set, the query input contains a set of intended places given by the traveler and a set of textual attributes describing the traveler\\'s preference. If a trajectory is connecting/close to the specified query locations, and the textual attributes of the trajectory are similar to the traveler\\'e preference, it will be recommended to the traveler for reference. This type of queries can bring significant benefits to travelers in many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation. There are two challenges in the UOTS problem, (i) how to constrain the searching range in two domains and (ii) how to schedule multiple query sources effectively. To overcome the challenges and answer the UOTS query efficiently, a novel collaborative searching approach is developed. Conceptually, the UOTS query processing is conducted in the spatial and textual domains alternately. A pair of upper and lower bounds are devised to constrain the searching range in two domains. In the meantime, a heuristic searching strategy based on priority ranking is adopted for scheduling the multiple query sources, which can further reduce the searching range and enhance the query efficiency notably. Furthermore, the devised collaborative searching approach can be extended to situations where the query locations are ordered. The performance of the proposed UOTS query is verified by extensive experiments based on real and synthetic trajectory data in road networks. © 2012 ACM.

  17. Shadowing of physical trajectories in chaotic dynamics: Containment and refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebogi, C.; Hammel, S.M.; Yorke, J.A.; Sauer, T.

    1990-01-01

    For a chaotic system, a noisy trajectory diverges rapidly from the true trajectory with the same initial condition. To understand in what sense the noisy trajectory reflects the true dynamics of the actual system, we developed a rigorous procedure to show that some true trajectories remain close to the noisy one for long times. The procedure involves a combination of containment, which establishes the existence of an uncountable number of true trajectories close to the noisy one, and refinement, which produces a less noisy trajectory. Our procedure is applied to noisy chaotic trajectories of the standard map and the driven pendulum

  18. The Plastic Surgery Hand Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Levin, L Scott; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Designing an effective hand rotation for plastic surgery residents is difficult. The authors address this limitation by elucidating the critical components of the hand curriculum during plastic surgery residency. Hand questions on the Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Exam for six consecutive years (2008 to 2013) were characterized by presence of imaging, vignette setting, question taxonomy, answer domain, anatomy, and topic. Answer references were quantified by source and year of publication. Two hundred sixty-six questions were related to hand surgery (22.7 percent of all questions; 44.3 per year) and 61 were accompanied by an image (22.9 percent). Vignettes tended to be clinic- (50.0 percent) and emergency room-based (35.3 percent) (p < 0.001). Questions required decision-making (60.5 percent) over interpretation (25.9 percent) and recall skills (13.5 percent) (p < 0.001). Answers focused on interventions (57.5 percent) over anatomy/pathology (25.2 percent) and diagnoses (17.3 percent) (p < 0.001). Nearly half of the questions focused on the digits. The highest yield topics were trauma (35.3 percent), reconstruction (24.4 percent), and aesthetic and functional problems (14.2 percent). The Journal of Hand Surgery (American volume) (20.5 percent) and Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (18.0 percent) were the most-cited journals, and the median publication lag was 7 years. Green's Operative Hand Surgery was the most-referenced textbook (41.8 percent). These results will enable trainees to study hand surgery topics with greater efficiency. Faculty can use these results to ensure that tested topics are covered during residency training. Thus, a benchmark is established to improve didactic, clinical, and operative experiences in hand surgery.

  19. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-08

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  20. Hand Grasping Synergies As Biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vrajeshri; Thukral, Poojita; Burns, Martin K; Florescu, Ionut; Chandramouli, Rajarathnam; Vinjamuri, Ramana

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the need for more secure identity verification systems has driven researchers to explore other sources of biometrics. This includes iris patterns, palm print, hand geometry, facial recognition, and movement patterns (hand motion, gait, and eye movements). Identity verification systems may benefit from the complexity of human movement that integrates multiple levels of control (neural, muscular, and kinematic). Using principal component analysis, we extracted spatiotemporal hand synergies (movement synergies) from an object grasping dataset to explore their use as a potential biometric. These movement synergies are in the form of joint angular velocity profiles of 10 joints. We explored the effect of joint type, digit, number of objects, and grasp type. In its best configuration, movement synergies achieved an equal error rate of 8.19%. While movement synergies can be integrated into an identity verification system with motion capture ability, we also explored a camera-ready version of hand synergies-postural synergies. In this proof of concept system, postural synergies performed well, but only when specific postures were chosen. Based on these results, hand synergies show promise as a potential biometric that can be combined with other hand-based biometrics for improved security.

  1. Hand Grasping Synergies As Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramana Vinjamuri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the need for more secure identity verification systems has driven researchers to explore other sources of biometrics. This includes iris patterns, palm print, hand geometry, facial recognition, and movement patterns (hand motion, gait, and eye movements. Identity verification systems may benefit from the complexity of human movement that integrates multiple levels of control (neural, muscular, and kinematic. Using principal component analysis, we extracted spatiotemporal hand synergies (movement synergies from an object grasping dataset to explore their use as a potential biometric. These movement synergies are in the form of joint angular velocity profiles of 10 joints. We explored the effect of joint type, digit, number of objects, and grasp type. In its best configuration, movement synergies achieved an equal error rate of 8.19%. While movement synergies can be integrated into an identity verification system with motion capture ability, we also explored a camera-ready version of hand synergies—postural synergies. In this proof of concept system, postural synergies performed well, but only when specific postures were chosen. Based on these results, hand synergies show promise as a potential biometric that can be combined with other hand-based biometrics for improved security.

  2. Trajectory planning and trajectory tracking for a small-scale helicopter in autorotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taamallah, Skander; Bombois, Xavier; Van den Hof, Paul M.J.

    2017-01-01

    The design of a high-performance guidance and control system for a small-scale helicopterUnmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), with an engine OFF flight condition (i.e. autorotation), is known to be a challenging task. It is the purpose of this paper to present a Trajectory Planning (TP) and Trajectory

  3. PRESS: A Novel Framework of Trajectory Compression in Road Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Renchu; Sun, Weiwei; Zheng, Baihua; Zheng, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Location data becomes more and more important. In this paper, we focus on the trajectory data, and propose a new framework, namely PRESS (Paralleled Road-Network-Based Trajectory Compression), to effectively compress trajectory data under road network constraints. Different from existing work, PRESS proposes a novel representation for trajectories to separate the spatial representation of a trajectory from the temporal representation, and proposes a Hybrid Spatial Compression (HSC) algorithm ...

  4. Particles trajectories in magnetic filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bret, A.

    2015-01-01

    The motion of a particle in a spatially harmonic magnetic field is a basic problem involved, for example, in the mechanism of formation of a collisionless shock. In such settings, it is generally reasoned that particles entering a Weibel generated turbulence are trapped inside it, provided their Larmor radius in the peak field is smaller than the field coherence length. The goal of this work is to put this heuristic conclusion on firm ground by studying, both analytically and numerically, such motion. A toy model is analyzed, consisting of a relativistic particle entering a region of space occupied by a spatially harmonic field. The particle penetrates the magnetic structure in a direction aligned with the magnetic filaments. Although the conclusions are not trivial, the main result is confirmed

  5. Particles trajectories in magnetic filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret, A.

    2015-07-01

    The motion of a particle in a spatially harmonic magnetic field is a basic problem involved, for example, in the mechanism of formation of a collisionless shock. In such settings, it is generally reasoned that particles entering a Weibel generated turbulence are trapped inside it, provided their Larmor radius in the peak field is smaller than the field coherence length. The goal of this work is to put this heuristic conclusion on firm ground by studying, both analytically and numerically, such motion. A toy model is analyzed, consisting of a relativistic particle entering a region of space occupied by a spatially harmonic field. The particle penetrates the magnetic structure in a direction aligned with the magnetic filaments. Although the conclusions are not trivial, the main result is confirmed.

  6. Particles trajectories in magnetic filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    The motion of a particle in a spatially harmonic magnetic field is a basic problem involved, for example, in the mechanism of formation of a collisionless shock. In such settings, it is generally reasoned that particles entering a Weibel generated turbulence are trapped inside it, provided their Larmor radius in the peak field is smaller than the field coherence length. The goal of this work is to put this heuristic conclusion on firm ground by studying, both analytically and numerically, such motion. A toy model is analyzed, consisting of a relativistic particle entering a region of space occupied by a spatially harmonic field. The particle penetrates the magnetic structure in a direction aligned with the magnetic filaments. Although the conclusions are not trivial, the main result is confirmed.

  7. Signatures of unstable semiclassical trajectories in tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levkov, D G; Panin, A G; Sibiryakov, S M

    2009-01-01

    It was found recently that processes of multidimensional tunneling are generally described at high energies by unstable semiclassical trajectories. We study two observational signatures related to the instability of trajectories. First, we find an additional power-law dependence of the tunneling probability on the semiclassical parameter as compared to the standard case of potential tunneling. The second signature is a substantial widening of the probability distribution over final-state quantum numbers. These effects are studied using a modified semiclassical technique which incorporates stabilization of the tunneling trajectories. The technique is derived from first principles. We obtain expressions for the inclusive and exclusive tunneling probabilities in the case of unstable semiclassical trajectories. We also investigate the 'phase transition' between the cases of stable and unstable trajectories across certain 'critical' values of energy. Finally, we derive the relation between the semiclassical probabilities of tunneling from the low-lying and highly excited initial states. This puts on firm ground a conjecture made previously in the semiclassical description of collision-induced tunneling in field theory

  8. Trajectory attractors of equations of mathematical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishik, Marko I; Chepyzhov, Vladimir V

    2011-01-01

    In this survey the method of trajectory dynamical systems and trajectory attractors is described, and is applied in the study of the limiting asymptotic behaviour of solutions of non-linear evolution equations. This method is especially useful in the study of dissipative equations of mathematical physics for which the corresponding Cauchy initial-value problem has a global (weak) solution with respect to the time but the uniqueness of this solution either has not been established or does not hold. An important example of such an equation is the 3D Navier-Stokes system in a bounded domain. In such a situation one cannot use directly the classical scheme of construction of a dynamical system in the phase space of initial conditions of the Cauchy problem of a given equation and find a global attractor of this dynamical system. Nevertheless, for such equations it is possible to construct a trajectory dynamical system and investigate a trajectory attractor of the corresponding translation semigroup. This universal method is applied for various types of equations arising in mathematical physics: for general dissipative reaction-diffusion systems, for the 3D Navier-Stokes system, for dissipative wave equations, for non-linear elliptic equations in cylindrical domains, and for other equations and systems. Special attention is given to using the method of trajectory attractors in approximation and perturbation problems arising in complicated models of mathematical physics. Bibliography: 96 titles.

  9. The trajectory control in the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, I.C.; Adolphsen, C.E.; Himel, T.M.; Seeman, J.T.

    1991-05-01

    Due to wake field effects, the trajectories of accelerated beams in the Linac should be well maintained to avoid severe beam breakup. In order to maintain a small emittance at the end of the Linac, the tolerance on the trajectory deviations become tighter when the beam intensities increase. The existing two beam trajectory correction method works well when the theoretical model agrees with the real machine lattice. Unknown energy deviations along the linac as well as wake field effects can cause the real lattice to deviate from the model. This makes the trajectory correction difficult. Several automated procedures have been developed to solve these problems. They are: an automated procedure to frequently steer the whole Linac by dividing the Linac into several small regions; an automated procedure to empirically correct the model to fit the real lattice and eight trajectory correcting feedback loops along the linac and steering through the collimator region with restricted corrector strengths and a restricted number of correctors. 6 refs., 2 figs

  10. Spatiotemporal Interpolation Methods for Solar Event Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filali Boubrahimi, Soukaina; Aydin, Berkay; Schuh, Michael A.; Kempton, Dustin; Angryk, Rafal A.; Ma, Ruizhe

    2018-05-01

    This paper introduces four spatiotemporal interpolation methods that enrich complex, evolving region trajectories that are reported from a variety of ground-based and space-based solar observatories every day. Our interpolation module takes an existing solar event trajectory as its input and generates an enriched trajectory with any number of additional time–geometry pairs created by the most appropriate method. To this end, we designed four different interpolation techniques: MBR-Interpolation (Minimum Bounding Rectangle Interpolation), CP-Interpolation (Complex Polygon Interpolation), FI-Interpolation (Filament Polygon Interpolation), and Areal-Interpolation, which are presented here in detail. These techniques leverage k-means clustering, centroid shape signature representation, dynamic time warping, linear interpolation, and shape buffering to generate the additional polygons of an enriched trajectory. Using ground-truth objects, interpolation effectiveness is evaluated through a variety of measures based on several important characteristics that include spatial distance, area overlap, and shape (boundary) similarity. To our knowledge, this is the first research effort of this kind that attempts to address the broad problem of spatiotemporal interpolation of solar event trajectories. We conclude with a brief outline of future research directions and opportunities for related work in this area.

  11. Handling Trajectory Uncertainties for Airborne Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhydt, Richard; Doble, Nathan A.; Karr, David; Palmer, Michael T.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne conflict management is an enabling capability for NASA's Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) concept. DAGTM has the goal of significantly increasing capacity within the National Airspace System, while maintaining or improving safety. Under DAG-TM, autonomous aircraft maintain separation from each other and from managed aircraft unequipped for autonomous flight. NASA Langley Research Center has developed the Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP), an onboard decision support system that provides airborne conflict management (ACM) and strategic flight planning support for autonomous aircraft pilots. The AOP performs conflict detection, prevention, and resolution from nearby traffic aircraft and area hazards. Traffic trajectory information is assumed to be provided by Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). Reliable trajectory prediction is a key capability for providing effective ACM functions. Trajectory uncertainties due to environmental effects, differences in aircraft systems and performance, and unknown intent information lead to prediction errors that can adversely affect AOP performance. To accommodate these uncertainties, the AOP has been enhanced to create cross-track, vertical, and along-track buffers along the predicted trajectories of both ownship and traffic aircraft. These buffers will be structured based on prediction errors noted from previous simulations such as a recent Joint Experiment between NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers and from other outside studies. Currently defined ADS-B parameters related to navigation capability, trajectory type, and path conformance will be used to support the algorithms that generate the buffers.

  12. Nudging to improve hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caris, M G; Labuschagne, H A; Dekker, M; Kramer, M H H; van Agtmael, M A; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E

    2018-04-01

    Hand hygiene is paramount to prevent healthcare-associated infections, but improving compliance is challenging. When healthcare workers seldom encounter healthcare-associated infections, they will consider the odds of causing infections through poor hand hygiene negligible. Cognitive biases such as these may induce non-compliance. Nudging, 'a friendly push to encourage desired behaviour', could provide an easily implemented, inexpensive measure to address cognitive biases and thus support hand hygiene interventions. To investigate whether behavioural nudges, displayed as posters, can increase the use of alcohol-based hand rub. We developed nudges based on a systematic review of previously described cognitive biases, and tested these through a cross-sectional survey among the target audience. We then conducted a controlled before-after trial on two hospital wards, to assess the effect of these nudges on the use of alcohol-based hand rub, measured with electronic dispensers. Poisson regression analyses adjusted for workload showed that nudges displayed next to dispensers increased their overall use on one ward [poster 1: relative risk: 1.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.2-2.2); poster 2: 1.7 (1.2-2.5)] and during doctor's rounds on both wards [poster 1: ward A: 1.7 (1.1-2.6); ward B: 2.2 (1.3-3.8)]. Use of dispensers without adjacent nudges did not increase. Nudges based on cognitive biases that play a role in hand hygiene, and displayed as posters, could provide an easy, inexpensive measure to increase use of alcohol-based hand rub. When applying nudges to change behaviour, it is important to identify the right nudge for the right audience. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effective Online Group Discovery in Trajectory Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaohui; Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    GPS-enabled devices are pervasive nowadays. Finding movement patterns in trajectory data stream is gaining in importance. We propose a group discovery framework that aims to efficiently support the online discovery of moving objects that travel together. The framework adopts a sampling-independen......GPS-enabled devices are pervasive nowadays. Finding movement patterns in trajectory data stream is gaining in importance. We propose a group discovery framework that aims to efficiently support the online discovery of moving objects that travel together. The framework adopts a sampling......-independent approach that makes no assumptions about when positions are sampled, gives no special importance to sampling points, and naturally supports the use of approximate trajectories. The framework's algorithms exploit state-of-the-art, density-based clustering (DBScan) to identify groups. The groups are scored...

  14. Dual unitarization scheme with several trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaichiam, M.; Hayashi, M.

    1977-12-01

    Consequences of bootstrap with several input Regge trajectories are investigated. We find that in a formal treatment of bootstrap the consistency requires the intercept of output Pomeron pole in the one-dimensional case to be larger than one: αsub(B)(0) > 1, a situation reminiscent of the one in the Reggeon field theory. Symmetry breakings of the Pomeron couplings are derived. These couplings coincide with those of the f-dominated Pomeron model of Carlitz-Green-Zee in the approximation, when in the unitarity loops only highest Regge trajectories are included. The case when all possible trajectories are exchanged is also discussed. Predictions of dual unitary model for the slopes of differential cross section for diffractive scattering are made which differ from the ones of the CGZ model. Comparison with the experimentally available data is done. (author)

  15. Classical trajectories and quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitiello, Giuseppe; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Salerno

    2005-01-01

    The density matrix and the Wigner function formalism requires the doubling of the degrees of freedom in quantum mechanics (QM) and quantum field theory (QFT). The doubled degrees of freedom play the role of the thermal bath or environment degrees of freedom and are entangled with the system degrees of freedom. They also account for quantum noise in the fluctuating random forces in the system-environment coupling. The algebraic structure of QFT turns out to be the one of the deformed Hopf algebra. In such a frame, the trajectories in the space of the unitarily inequivalent representations of the canonical commutation relations turn out to be classical trajectories and, under convenient conditions, they may exhibit properties typical of classical chaotic trajectories in nonlinear dynamics. The quantum Brownian motion and the two-slit experiment in QM are discussed in connection with the doubling of the degrees of freedom. (author)

  16. A new trajectory correction technique for linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, T.O.; Ruth, R.D.

    1990-06-01

    In this paper, we describe a new trajectory correction technique for high energy linear accelerators. Current correction techniques force the beam trajectory to follow misalignments of the Beam Position Monitors. Since the particle bunch has a finite energy spread and particles with different energies are deflected differently, this causes ''chromatic'' dilution of the transverse beam emittance. The algorithm, which we describe in this paper, reduces the chromatic error by minimizing the energy dependence of the trajectory. To test the method we compare the effectiveness of our algorithm with a standard correction technique in simulations on a design linac for a Next Linear Collider. The simulations indicate that chromatic dilution would be debilitating in a future linear collider because of the very small beam sizes required to achieve the necessary luminosity. Thus, we feel that this technique will prove essential for future linear colliders. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Robot Trajectories Comparison: A Statistical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ansuategui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of planning a collision-free trajectory from a start to a goal position is fundamental for an autonomous mobile robot. Although path planning has been extensively investigated since the beginning of robotics, there is no agreement on how to measure the performance of a motion algorithm. This paper presents a new approach to perform robot trajectories comparison that could be applied to any kind of trajectories and in both simulated and real environments. Given an initial set of features, it automatically selects the most significant ones and performs a statistical comparison using them. Additionally, a graphical data visualization named polygraph which helps to better understand the obtained results is provided. The proposed method has been applied, as an example, to compare two different motion planners, FM2 and WaveFront, using different environments, robots, and local planners.

  18. Robot Trajectories Comparison: A Statistical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansuategui, A.; Arruti, A.; Susperregi, L.; Yurramendi, Y.; Jauregi, E.; Lazkano, E.; Sierra, B.

    2014-01-01

    The task of planning a collision-free trajectory from a start to a goal position is fundamental for an autonomous mobile robot. Although path planning has been extensively investigated since the beginning of robotics, there is no agreement on how to measure the performance of a motion algorithm. This paper presents a new approach to perform robot trajectories comparison that could be applied to any kind of trajectories and in both simulated and real environments. Given an initial set of features, it automatically selects the most significant ones and performs a statistical comparison using them. Additionally, a graphical data visualization named polygraph which helps to better understand the obtained results is provided. The proposed method has been applied, as an example, to compare two different motion planners, FM2 and WaveFront, using different environments, robots, and local planners. PMID:25525618

  19. Romantic attraction and adolescent smoking trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Michael S; Tucker, Joan S; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Go, Myong-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Research on sexual orientation and substance use has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are more likely to smoke than heterosexuals. This analysis furthers the examination of smoking behaviors across sexual orientation groups by describing how same- and opposite-sex romantic attraction, and changes in romantic attraction, are associated with distinct six-year developmental trajectories of smoking. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health dataset is used to test our hypotheses. Multinomial logistic regressions predicting smoking trajectory membership as a function of romantic attraction were separately estimated for men and women. Romantic attraction effects were found only for women. The change from self-reported heterosexual attraction to lesbian or bisexual attraction was more predictive of higher smoking trajectories than was a consistent lesbian or bisexual attraction, with potentially important differences between the smoking patterns of these two groups. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantum trajectory phase transitions in the micromaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrahan, Juan P; Armour, Andrew D; Lesanovsky, Igor

    2011-08-01

    We study the dynamics of the single-atom maser, or micromaser, by means of the recently introduced method of thermodynamics of quantum jump trajectories. We find that the dynamics of the micromaser displays multiple space-time phase transitions, i.e., phase transitions in ensembles of quantum jump trajectories. This rich dynamical phase structure becomes apparent when trajectories are classified by dynamical observables that quantify dynamical activity, such as the number of atoms that have changed state while traversing the cavity. The space-time transitions can be either first order or continuous, and are controlled not just by standard parameters of the micromaser but also by nonequilibrium "counting" fields. We discuss how the dynamical phase behavior relates to the better known stationary-state properties of the micromaser.

  1. OPTIMAL AIRCRAFT TRAJECTORIES FOR SPECIFIED RANGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.

    1994-01-01

    For an aircraft operating over a fixed range, the operating costs are basically a sum of fuel cost and time cost. While minimum fuel and minimum time trajectories are relatively easy to calculate, the determination of a minimum cost trajectory can be a complex undertaking. This computer program was developed to optimize trajectories with respect to a cost function based on a weighted sum of fuel cost and time cost. As a research tool, the program could be used to study various characteristics of optimum trajectories and their comparison to standard trajectories. It might also be used to generate a model for the development of an airborne trajectory optimization system. The program could be incorporated into an airline flight planning system, with optimum flight plans determined at takeoff time for the prevailing flight conditions. The use of trajectory optimization could significantly reduce the cost for a given aircraft mission. The algorithm incorporated in the program assumes that a trajectory consists of climb, cruise, and descent segments. The optimization of each segment is not done independently, as in classical procedures, but is performed in a manner which accounts for interaction between the segments. This is accomplished by the application of optimal control theory. The climb and descent profiles are generated by integrating a set of kinematic and dynamic equations, where the total energy of the aircraft is the independent variable. At each energy level of the climb and descent profiles, the air speed and power setting necessary for an optimal trajectory are determined. The variational Hamiltonian of the problem consists of the rate of change of cost with respect to total energy and a term dependent on the adjoint variable, which is identical to the optimum cruise cost at a specified altitude. This variable uniquely specifies the optimal cruise energy, cruise altitude, cruise Mach number, and, indirectly, the climb and descent profiles. If the optimum

  2. Developmental trajectories of bullying and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepler, Debra; Jiang, Depeng; Craig, Wendy; Connolly, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Trajectories in bullying through adolescence were studied along with individual, family, and peer relationship factors. At the outset, participants' ages ranged from 10 to 14; 74% identified as European Canadian with the remainder from diverse backgrounds. With 8 waves of data over 7 years, 871 students (466 girls and 405 boys) were studied to reveal 4 trajectories: 9.9% reported consistently high levels of bullying, 13.4% reported early moderate levels desisting to almost no bullying at the end of high school, 35.1% reported consistently moderate levels, and 41.6% almost never reported bullying. Students who bullied had elevated risks in individual, parent, and peer relationship domains. Risk profiles and trajectories provide direction for interventions to curtail the development of power and aggression in relationships.

  3. The life trajectories modality of oral history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to explore the potential of qualitative research. It presents the life trajectory modality of the oral history method, to discuss the possibility of its utilization in scientific research in the Social Work profession. The epistemological foundations of oral history are discussed to establish its scientific character. The life trajectories modality is presented as a historic and social construction that utilizes different interview techniques to give voice to previously invisible subjects, indicating the principal phases of the methodological procedures used in this approach. The conclusions highlight the importance of the construction of this model and its projection as a research proposal that implies a process of understanding and analyzing the social universes that are contextualized and interconnected, considering the realities of the life trajectories of the subjects studied.

  4. Evaluating Trajectory Queries over Imprecise Location Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Scott, Xike; Cheng, Reynold; Yiu, Man Lung

    2012-01-01

    Trajectory queries, which retrieve nearby objects for every point of a given route, can be used to identify alerts of potential threats along a vessel route, or monitor the adjacent rescuers to a travel path. However, the locations of these objects (e.g., threats, succours) may not be precisely...... obtained due to hardware limitations of measuring devices, as well as the constantly-changing nature of the external environment. Ignoring data uncertainty can render low query quality, and cause undesirable consequences such as missing alerts of threats and poor response time in rescue operations. Also......, the query is quite time-consuming, since all the points on the trajectory are considered. In this paper, we study how to efficiently evaluate trajectory queries over imprecise location data, by proposing a new concept called the u-bisector. In general, the u-bisector is an extension of bisector to handle...

  5. Hand infections: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Türker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management.Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed.Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications.Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection.

  6. Myelopathy hand in cervical radiculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Takenaka, Shota; Fuji, Takeshi; Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Makino, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    The so-called 'myelopathy hand', or characteristic finger paralysis, often recognized in cervical compression myelopathy, has been considered a unique manifestation of cervical myelopathy. We used our original grip and release test, a 15-second test in which finger motion is captured with a digital camera, to investigate whether cervical radiculopathy has the same characteristics as myelopathy hand. Thirty patients with pure radiculopathy, id est (i.e.), who had radiating arm pain and evidence of corresponding nerve root impingement on X-ray images or MRI scans, but did not have spinal cord compression, served as the subjects. In contrast to other radiculopathies, C7 radiculopathy was manifested by a significant reduction in the number of finger motion cycles on the affected side in comparison with the unaffected side, the same as in myelopathy hand. Uncoordinated finger motion was significantly more frequent on the affected side in C6 radiculopathy than on the unaffected side. These findings contradict the conventional notion that myelopathy hand is a unique manifestation of cervical myelopathy, but some radiculopathies manifested the same kinds of finger paralysis observed in myelopathy hand. (author)

  7. Bohmian trajectories for an evaporating blackhole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acacio de Barros, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, CEP 36036-330, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil)]. E-mail: acacio@fisica.ufjf.br; Oliveira-Neto, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, CEP 36036-330, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil)]. E-mail: gilneto@fisica.ufjf.br; Vale, T.B. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, CEP 36036-330, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil)]. E-mail: tiberio@fisica.ufjf.br

    2005-03-14

    In this work we apply Bohm's interpretation to the quantized spherically-symmetric blackhole coupled to a massless scalar field. We show that the quantum trajectories for linear combinations of eigenstates of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation form a large set of different curves that cannot be predicted by the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics. Some of them are consistent with the expected value of the time derivative of the mass, whereas other trajectories are not, because they represent blackholes that switch from absorbing to emitting regimes.

  8. Optimization approaches for robot trajectory planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Llopis-Albert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of optimal trajectory planning algorithms for autonomous robots is a key issue in order to efficiently perform the robot tasks. This problem is hampered by the complex environment regarding the kinematics and dynamics of robots with several arms and/or degrees of freedom (dof, the design of collision-free trajectories and the physical limitations of the robots. This paper presents a review about the existing robot motion planning techniques and discusses their pros and cons regarding completeness, optimality, efficiency, accuracy, smoothness, stability, safety and scalability.

  9. On Discovery of Gathering Patterns from Trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Kai; Zheng, Yu; Yuan, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The increasing pervasiveness of location-acquisition technologies has enabled collection of huge amount of trajectories for almost any kind of moving objects. Discovering useful patterns from their movement behaviours can convey valuable knowledge to a variety of critical applications. In this li......The increasing pervasiveness of location-acquisition technologies has enabled collection of huge amount of trajectories for almost any kind of moving objects. Discovering useful patterns from their movement behaviours can convey valuable knowledge to a variety of critical applications...

  10. DESTINY+ Trajectory Design to (3200) Phaethon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, Bruno Victorino; Horikawa, Makoto; Yam, Chit Hong; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Takayuki

    2018-03-01

    This work explores the target selection and trajectory design of the mission candidate for ISAS/JAXA's small science satellite series, DESTINY PLUS or DESTINY+. This mission combines unique aspects of the latest satellite technology and exploration of transition bodies to fill a technical and scientific gap in the Japanese space science program. The spacecraft is targeted to study the comet-asteroid transition body (3200) Phaethon through a combination of low-thrust propulsion and Earth Gravity Assist. The trajectory design concept is presented in details together with the launch window and flyby date analysis. Alternative targets for a possible mission extension scenario are also explored.

  11. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebis, George (Inventor); Amayeh, Gholamreza (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques are described which provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an in put image. Additionally, the analysis utilizes re-use of commonly-seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  12. Development and pilot testing of HEXORR: Hand EXOskeleton Rehabilitation Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Sasha B

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following acute therapeutic interventions, the majority of stroke survivors are left with a poorly functioning hemiparetic hand. Rehabilitation robotics has shown promise in providing patients with intensive therapy leading to functional gains. Because of the hand's crucial role in performing activities of daily living, attention to hand therapy has recently increased. Methods This paper introduces a newly developed Hand Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Robot (HEXORR. This device has been designed to provide full range of motion (ROM for all of the hand's digits. The thumb actuator allows for variable thumb plane of motion to incorporate different degrees of extension/flexion and abduction/adduction. Compensation algorithms have been developed to improve the exoskeleton's backdrivability by counteracting gravity, stiction and kinetic friction. We have also designed a force assistance mode that provides extension assistance based on each individual's needs. A pilot study was conducted on 9 unimpaired and 5 chronic stroke subjects to investigate the device's ability to allow physiologically accurate hand movements throughout the full ROM. The study also tested the efficacy of the force assistance mode with the goal of increasing stroke subjects' active ROM while still requiring active extension torque on the part of the subject. Results For 12 of the hand digits'15 joints in neurologically normal subjects, there were no significant ROM differences (P > 0.05 between active movements performed inside and outside of HEXORR. Interjoint coordination was examined in the 1st and 3rd digits, and no differences were found between inside and outside of the device (P > 0.05. Stroke subjects were capable of performing free hand movements inside of the exoskeleton and the force assistance mode was successful in increasing active ROM by 43 ± 5% (P Conclusions Our pilot study shows that this device is capable of moving the hand's digits through

  13. Development and pilot testing of HEXORR: Hand EXOskeleton Rehabilitation Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    is capable of moving the hand's digits through nearly the entire ROM with physiologically accurate trajectories. Stroke subjects received the device intervention well and device impedance was minimized so that subjects could freely extend and flex their digits inside of HEXORR. Our active force-assisted condition was successful in increasing the subjects' ROM while promoting active participation. PMID:20667083

  14. Natural control capabilities of robotic hands by hand amputated subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzori, Manfredo; Gijsberts, Arjan; Caputo, Barbara; Muller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    People with transradial hand amputations who own a myoelectric prosthesis currently have some control capabilities via sEMG. However, the control systems are still limited and not natural. The Ninapro project is aiming at helping the scientific community to overcome these limits through the creation of publicly available electromyography data sources to develop and test machine learning algorithms. In this paper we describe the movement classification results gained from three subjects with an homogeneous level of amputation, and we compare them with the results of 40 intact subjects. The number of considered subjects can seem small at first sight, but it is not considering the literature of the field (which has to face the difficulty of recruiting trans-radial hand amputated subjects). The classification is performed with four different classifiers and the obtained balanced classification rates are up to 58.6% on 50 movements, which is an excellent result compared to the current literature. Successively, for each subject we find a subset of up to 9 highly independent movements, (defined as movements that can be distinguished with more than 90% accuracy), which is a deeply innovative step in literature. The natural control of a robotic hand in so many movements could lead to an immediate progress in robotic hand prosthetics and it could deeply change the quality of life of amputated subjects.

  15. Urunana Audiences at Home and Away: Together 'Hand in Hand'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. Hintjens (Helen); F. Bayisenge

    2011-01-01

    textabstractUrunana (‘Hand in Hand’) is Rwanda’s first radio soap opera. The production emerged during the late 1990s from a three-way transnational production partnership between: The Great Lakes section of the BBC World Service; the Well Woman Media Project of the London-based NGO, Health

  16. Similarity of trajectories taking into account geographic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Buchin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The movements of animals, people, and vehicles are embedded in a geographic context. This context influences the movement and may cause the formation of certain behavioral responses. Thus, it is essential to include context parameters in the study of movement and the development of movement pattern analytics. Advances in sensor technologies and positioning devices provide valuable data not only of moving agents but also of the circumstances embedding the movement in space and time. Developing knowledge discovery methods to investigate the relation between movement and its surrounding context is a major challenge in movement analysis today. In this paper we show how to integrate geographic context into the similarity analysis of movement data. For this, we discuss models for geographic context of movement data. Based on this we develop simple but efficient context-aware similarity measures for movement trajectories, which combine a spatial and a contextual distance. These are based on well-known similarity measures for trajectories, such as the Hausdorff, Fréchet, or equal time distance. We validate our approach by applying these measures to movement data of hurricanes and albatross.

  17. EthoHand: A dexterous robotic hand with ball-joint thumb enables complex in-hand object manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Konnaris, C; Gavriel, C; Thomik, AAC; Aldo Faisal, A

    2016-01-01

    Our dexterous hand is a fundmanetal human feature that distinguishes us from other animals by enabling us to go beyond grasping to support sophisticated in-hand object manipulation. Our aim was the design of a dexterous anthropomorphic robotic hand that matches the human hand's 24 degrees of freedom, under-actuated by seven motors. With the ability to replicate human hand movements in a naturalistic manner including in-hand object manipulation. Therefore, we focused on the development of a no...

  18. Intrinsic contractures of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksima, Nader; Besh, Basil R

    2012-02-01

    Contractures of the intrinsic muscles of the fingers disrupt the delicate and complex balance of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, which allows the hand to be so versatile and functional. The loss of muscle function primarily affects the interphalangeal joints but also may affect etacarpophalangeal joints. The resulting clinical picture is often termed, intrinsic contracture or intrinsic-plus hand. Disruption of the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic muscles has many causes and may be secondary to changes within the intrinsic musculature or the tendon unit. This article reviews diagnosis, etiology, and treatment algorithms in the management of intrinsic contractures of the fingers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hand-it-on”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Gerhard Peter; Graae Zeltner, Louise; Helsø, Anne-Mette

    2016-01-01

    Non-technical skills (NTS) are an integral part of the abilities healthcare professionals need to optimally care for patients. Integrating NTS into the already complex tasks of healthcare can be a challenge for clinicians. Integrating NTS into simulation-based training increases the demands...... and where they can apply them in their work. It complements existing approaches to teaching NTS by limiting the complexity of the game and by removing medical content, allowing learners to concentrate on NTS. Hand-it-on is relevant for groups and teams working across the range of different healthcare...... and the replication of Hand-it-on by many simulation teams support its value....

  20. Discovering Hands - México

    OpenAIRE

    Salamanca Cárdenas, Daniela; Castelblanco Domínguez, Junio Andrés; Aguilar Ardila, Laura Andrea

    2016-01-01

    El modelo de Discovering Hands ha sido reconocido internacionalmente como un proyecto innovador que se ha expandido por diferentes países del mundo, como Austria, y se ha empezado a estudiar la propuesta en países como República Checa, India y Colombia. (Discovering Hands, 2016). Esto se debe a que no solo mejora el tratamiento de cáncer de mama, sino que también reduce los costos totales de tratamiento de la enfermedad y aumenta la fuerza laborar de los países donde esté presente. Al represe...

  1. Right- and left-handed three-helix proteins. II. Similarity and differences in mechanical unfolding of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyakina, Anna V; Likhachev, Ilya V; Balabaev, Nikolay K; Galzitskaya, Oxana V

    2014-01-01

    Here, we study mechanical properties of eight 3-helix proteins (four right-handed and four left-handed ones), which are similar in size under stretching at a constant speed and at a constant force on the atomic level using molecular dynamics simulations. The analysis of 256 trajectories from molecular dynamics simulations with explicit water showed that the right-handed three-helix domains are more mechanically resistant than the left-handed domains. Such results are observed at different extension velocities studied (192 trajectories obtained at the following conditions: v = 0.1, 0.05, and 0.01 Å ps(-1) , T = 300 K) and under constant stretching force (64 trajectories, F = 800 pN, T = 300 K). We can explain this by the fact, at least in part, that the right-handed domains have a larger number of contacts per residue and the radius of cross section than the left-handed domains. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Criminal Trajectories of White-collar Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Onna, J.; van der Geest, V.R.; Huisman, W.; Denkers, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:This article analyzes the criminal development and sociodemographic and criminal profile of a sample of prosecuted white-collar offenders. It identifies trajectory groups and describes their profiles based on crime, sociodemographic, and selection offence characteristics.Methods:The

  3. Graphical Method for Determining Projectile Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. C.; Baker, J. C.; Franzel, L.; McMahon, D.; Songer, D.

    2010-01-01

    We present a nontrigonometric graphical method for predicting the trajectory of a projectile when the angle and initial velocity are known. Students enrolled in a general education conceptual physics course typically have weak backgrounds in trigonometry, making inaccessible the standard analytical calculation of projectile range. Furthermore,…

  4. Propositional Optimal Trajectory Programming for Improving Stability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Propositional Optimal Trajectory Programming for Improving Stability of Hermite Definite Control System. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) ... Knowledge of systems operation subjected to heat diffusion constraints is required of systems analysts. In an instance that ...

  5. FEL Trajectory Analysis for the VISA Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter

    1998-01-01

    The Visual to Infrared SASE Amplifier (VISA) [1] FEL is designed to achieve saturation at radiation wavelengths between 800 and 600 nm with a 4-m pure permanent magnet undulator. The undulator comprises four 99-cm segments each of which has four FODO focusing cells superposed on the beam by means of permanent magnets in the gap alongside the beam. Each segment will also have two beam position monitors and two sets of x-y dipole correctors. The trajectory walk-off in each segment will be reduced to a value smaller than the rms beam radius by means of magnet sorting, precise fabrication, and post-fabrication shimming and trim magnets. However, this leaves possible inter-segment alignment errors. A trajectory analysis code has been used in combination with the FRED3D [2] FEL code to simulate the effect of the shimming procedure and segment alignment errors on the electron beam trajectory and to determine the sensitivity of the FEL gain process to trajectory errors. The paper describes the technique used to establish tolerances for the segment alignment

  6. Academic Trajectories of Newcomer Immigrant Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Gaytan, Francisco X.; Bang, Hee Jin; Pakes, Juliana; O'Connor, Erin; Rhodes, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Immigration to the United States presents both challenges and opportunities that affect students' academic achievement. Using a 5-year longitudinal, mixed-methods approach, we identified varying academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant students from Central America, China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Mexico. Latent class growth curve…

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Early Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatta, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study focused on developmental trajectories of prelinguistic communication skills and their connections to later parent-reported language difficulties. Method: The participants represent a subset of a community-based sample of 508 children. Data include parent reports of prelinguistic communication skills at 12, 15, 18, and 21 months…

  8. APT: Action localization Proposals from dense Trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, J.C.; Jain, M.; Gati, E.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Xie, X.; Jones, M.W.; Tam, G.K.L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is on action localization in video with the aid of spatio-temporal proposals. To alleviate the computational expensive video segmentation step of existing proposals, we propose bypassing the segmentations completely by generating proposals directly from the dense trajectories used to

  9. Logarithmic spiral trajectories generated by Solar sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetto, Marco; Niccolai, Lorenzo; Quarta, Alessandro A.; Mengali, Giovanni

    2018-02-01

    Analytic solutions to continuous thrust-propelled trajectories are available in a few cases only. An interesting case is offered by the logarithmic spiral, that is, a trajectory characterized by a constant flight path angle and a fixed thrust vector direction in an orbital reference frame. The logarithmic spiral is important from a practical point of view, because it may be passively maintained by a Solar sail-based spacecraft. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic study concerning the possibility of inserting a Solar sail-based spacecraft into a heliocentric logarithmic spiral trajectory without using any impulsive maneuver. The required conditions to be met by the sail in terms of attitude angle, propulsive performance, parking orbit characteristics, and initial position are thoroughly investigated. The closed-form variations of the osculating orbital parameters are analyzed, and the obtained analytical results are used for investigating the phasing maneuver of a Solar sail along an elliptic heliocentric orbit. In this mission scenario, the phasing orbit is composed of two symmetric logarithmic spiral trajectories connected with a coasting arc.

  10. Equilibrium sampling by reweighting nonequilibrium simulation trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Wan, Biao; Xu, Shun; Wang, Yanting; Zhou, Xin

    2016-03-01

    Based on equilibrium molecular simulations, it is usually difficult to efficiently visit the whole conformational space of complex systems, which are separated into some metastable regions by high free energy barriers. Nonequilibrium simulations could enhance transitions among these metastable regions and then be applied to sample equilibrium distributions in complex systems, since the associated nonequilibrium effects can be removed by employing the Jarzynski equality (JE). Here we present such a systematical method, named reweighted nonequilibrium ensemble dynamics (RNED), to efficiently sample equilibrium conformations. The RNED is a combination of the JE and our previous reweighted ensemble dynamics (RED) method. The original JE reproduces equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium trajectories but requires that the initial distribution of these trajectories is equilibrium. The RED reweights many equilibrium trajectories from an arbitrary initial distribution to get the equilibrium distribution, whereas the RNED has both advantages of the two methods, reproducing equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium simulation trajectories with an arbitrary initial conformational distribution. We illustrated the application of the RNED in a toy model and in a Lennard-Jones fluid to detect its liquid-solid phase coexistence. The results indicate that the RNED sufficiently extends the application of both the original JE and the RED in equilibrium sampling of complex systems.

  11. Test particle trajectories near cosmic strings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a detailed analysis of the motion of test particle in the gravitational field of cosmic strings in different situations using the Hamilton–Jacobi (H–J) formalism. We have discussed the trajectories near static cosmic string, cosmic string in Brans–Dicke theory and cosmic string in dilaton gravity.

  12. Classical trajectory methods in molecular collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.N.; Raff, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    The discussion of classical trajectory methods in molecular collisions includes classical dynamics, Hamiltonian mechanics, classical scattering cross sections and rate coefficients, statistical averaging, the selection of initial states, integration of equations of motion, analysis of final states, consecutive collisions, and the prognosis for classical molecular scattering calculations. 61 references

  13. Improved transition models for cepstral trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We improve on a piece-wise linear model of the trajectories of Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients, which are commonly used as features in Automatic Speech Recognition. For this purpose, we have created a very clean single-speaker corpus, which...

  14. Trajectory Optimization for Differential Flat Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kahina Louadj; Benjamas Panomruttanarug; Alexandre Carlos Brandao Ramos; Felix Mora-Camino

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The purpose of this communication is to investigate the applicability of Variational Calculus to the optimization of the operation of differentially flat systems. After introducingcharacteristic properties of differentially flat systems, the applicability of variational calculus to the optimization of flat output trajectories is displayed. Two illustrative examples are also presented.

  15. Landscape and Heritage: trajectories and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, David

    2015-01-01

    supporting and often parallel endeavour of academic, policy and popular inquiry that explores the significance of landscape and heritage as meaningful categories of an emergent and processual nature. Despite such a parallel trajectory, however, the actual practices of landscape and heritage studies still...

  16. A STUDY OF SHUTTLECOCK'S TRAJECTORY IN BADMINTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Jen Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to construct and validate a motion equation for the flight of the badminton and to find the relationship between the air resistance force and a shuttlecock's speed. This research method was based on motion laws of aerodynamics. It applied aerodynamic theories to construct motion equation of a shuttlecock's flying trajectory under the effects of gravitational force and air resistance force. The result showed that the motion equation of a shuttlecock's flight trajectory could be constructed by determining the terminal velocity. The predicted shuttlecock trajectory fitted the measured data fairly well. The results also revealed that the drag force was proportional to the square of a shuttlecock velocity. Furthermore, the angle and strength of a stroke could influence trajectory. Finally, this study suggested that we could use a scientific approach to measure a shuttlecock's velocity objectively when testing the quality of shuttlecocks. And could be used to replace the traditional subjective method of the Badminton World Federation based on players' striking shuttlecocks, as well as applying research findings to improve professional knowledge of badminton player training

  17. The emergence of an electric mobility trajectory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, M.; Orsato, R.J.; Kemp, R.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the emergence of a trajectory of electric mobility. We describe developments in electric vehicles before and after 2005. The central thesis of the paper is that electric mobility has crossed a critical threshold and is benefiting from various developments whose influence

  18. The influence of work-family conflict trajectories on self-rated health trajectories in Switzerland: a life course approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullati, Stéphane

    2014-07-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) trajectories tend to decline over a lifetime. Moreover, the Cumulative Advantage and Disadvantage (CAD) model indicates that SRH trajectories are known to consistently diverge along socioeconomic positions (SEP) over the life course. However, studies of working adults to consider the influence of work and family conflict (WFC) on SRH trajectories are scarce. We test the CAD model and hypothesise that SRH trajectories diverge over time according to socioeconomic positions and WFC trajectories accentuate this divergence. Using longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel (N = 2327 working respondents surveyed from 2004 to 2010), we first examine trajectories of SRH and potential divergence over time across age, gender, SEP and family status using latent growth curve analysis. Second, we assess changes in SRH trajectories in relation to changes in WFC trajectories and divergence in SRH trajectories according to gender, SEP and family status using parallel latent growth curve analysis. Three measures of WFC are used: exhaustion after work, difficulty disconnecting from work, and work interference in private family obligations. The results show that SRH trajectories slowly decline over time and that the rate of change is not influenced by age, gender or SEP, a result which does not support the CAD model. SRH trajectories are significantly correlated with exhaustion after work trajectories but not the other two WFC measures. When exhaustion after work trajectories are taken into account, SRH trajectories of higher educated people decline slower compared to less educated people, supporting the CAD hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimal bounds and extremal trajectories for time averages in dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobasco, Ian; Goluskin, David; Doering, Charles

    2017-11-01

    For systems governed by differential equations it is natural to seek extremal solution trajectories, maximizing or minimizing the long-time average of a given quantity of interest. A priori bounds on optima can be proved by constructing auxiliary functions satisfying certain point-wise inequalities, the verification of which does not require solving the underlying equations. We prove that for any bounded autonomous ODE, the problems of finding extremal trajectories on the one hand and optimal auxiliary functions on the other are strongly dual in the sense of convex duality. As a result, auxiliary functions provide arbitrarily sharp bounds on optimal time averages. Furthermore, nearly optimal auxiliary functions provide volumes in phase space where maximal and nearly maximal trajectories must lie. For polynomial systems, such functions can be constructed by semidefinite programming. We illustrate these ideas using the Lorenz system, producing explicit volumes in phase space where extremal trajectories are guaranteed to reside. Supported by NSF Award DMS-1515161, Van Loo Postdoctoral Fellowships, and the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation.

  20. Characterizing hand-piled fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton S. Wright; Paige C. Eagle; Cameron S. Balog

    2010-01-01

    Land managers throughout the West pile and burn surface fuels to mitigate fire hazard in dry forests. Whereas piling was historically conducted with heavy machinery following commercial harvesting operations, land managers are increasingly prescribing the use of hand piling and burning to treat surface fuels created by thinning and brush cutting. An estimate of the...

  1. Right-handed fossil humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Marina; Estalrrich, Almudena; Bondioli, Luca; Fiore, Ivana; Bermúdez de Castro, José-Maria; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carbonell, Eudald; Rosas, Antonio; Frayer, David W

    2017-11-01

    Fossil hominids often processed material held between their upper and lower teeth. Pulling with one hand and cutting with the other, they occasionally left impact cut marks on the lip (labial) surface of their incisors and canines. From these actions, it possible to determine the dominant hand used. The frequency of these oblique striations in an array of fossil hominins documents the typically modern pattern of 9 right- to 1 left-hander. This ratio among living Homo sapiens differs from that among chimpanzees and bonobos and more distant primate relatives. Together, all studies of living people affirm that dominant right-handedness is a uniquely modern human trait. The same pattern extends deep into our past. Thus far, the majority of inferred right-handed fossils come from Europe, but a single maxilla from a Homo habilis, OH-65, shows a predominance of right oblique scratches, thus extending right-handedness into the early Pleistocene of Africa. Other studies show right-handedness in more recent African, Chinese, and Levantine fossils, but the sample compiled for non-European fossil specimens remains small. Fossil specimens from Sima del los Huesos and a variety of European Neandertal sites are predominately right-handed. We argue the 9:1 handedness ratio in Neandertals and the earlier inhabitants of Europe constitutes evidence for a modern pattern of handedness well before the appearance of modern Homo sapiens. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Exposures related to hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibler, K.S.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Agner, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hand eczema is common in healthcare workers, owing to intensive exposure to wet work and skin irritants. Targeted interventions and vocational guidance based on documented exposures and risk factors are needed. Objectives. The aims of the study were to investigate the relationship bet...

  3. Unusual case of cleft hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahasrabudhe Parag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a six-year-old male child with cleft hand deformity involving the dominant right hand. It was a rare case of atypical cleft hand with no missing tissue but cleft extending to metacarpal level and associated hypoplasia of thumb and index finger. As per Manske′s classification of cleft hand our patient belongs to the Class III variety. There was associated malposition of the index finger with absence of first web space and syndactly of thumb and index finger at the metacarpal level. A modified Snow-Littler procedure was planned. The surgical plan involved closure of cleft, release of thumb and index finger syndactly and reconstruction of the first web space. The functional outcome was good considering hypoplasia of the index finger and thumb. Depending upon the function of the thumb tendon transfers can be planned to augment thumb function at a later date along with correction of rotational deformities of the index and middle finger.

  4. A natural human hand model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nierop, O.A.; Van der Helm, A.; Overbeeke, K.J.; Djajadiningrat, T.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    We present a skeletal linked model of the human hand that has natural motion. We show how this can be achieved by introducing a new biology-based joint axis that simulates natural joint motion and a set of constraints that reduce an estimated 150 possible motions to twelve. The model is based on

  5. Hand-held medical robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake.

  6. Hands-On Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear science is an important topic in terms of its application to power generation, medical diagnostics and treatment, and national defense. Unfortunately, the subatomic domain is far removed from daily experience, and few learning aids are available to teachers. What follows describes a low-tech, hands-on method to teach important concepts in…

  7. Design of an eye-in-hand sensing and servo control framework for harvesting robotics in dense vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, Ruud; Hemming, Jochen; Henten, van E.J.

    2016-01-01

    A modular software framework design that allows flexible implementation of eye-in-hand sensing and motion control for agricultural robotics in dense vegetation is reported. Harvesting robots in cultivars with dense vegetation require multiple viewpoints and on-line trajectory adjustments in order

  8. The Trajectory of Professional Education of the Nursing Assistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina Ulian Manzato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the technical courses offered in Brazil, the field of nursing corresponds to 49.6% of the healthcare sector. From this total, 57% are Nursing Assistant courses. The formation of mid-level human resources has been discussed by nursing teachers and by the institutions that offer nursing-professional training, with special emphasis on the issues related to the quality of technical courses. In this context, a brief historical review of Brazilian legislation on the education and practice of these professionals, including regulations related to this education and to professional nursing practice, is presented chronologically in this paper, examining the laws and the political factors that contributed to guide the trajectory and evolution of professional Nursing Assistant Education. A comparison of the offer of mid-level courses in the field of healthcare and the quantitative of workers reveals the dimensions of Education Institutions' challenge for health sector.

  9. Beam Optics Analysis - An Advanced 3D Trajectory Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; Vogler, William; Neilson, Jeff; Read, Mike; Shephard, Mark; Bauer, Andrew; Datta, Dibyendu; Beal, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. has completed initial development of an advanced, 3D program for modeling electron trajectories in electromagnetic fields. The code is being used to design complex guns and collectors. Beam Optics Analysis (BOA) is a fully relativistic, charged particle code using adaptive, finite element meshing. Geometrical input is imported from CAD programs generating ACIS-formatted files. Parametric data is inputted using an intuitive, graphical user interface (GUI), which also provides control of convergence, accuracy, and post processing. The program includes a magnetic field solver, and magnetic information can be imported from Maxwell 2D/3D and other programs. The program supports thermionic emission and injected beams. Secondary electron emission is also supported, including multiple generations. Work on field emission is in progress as well as implementation of computer optimization of both the geometry and operating parameters. The principle features of the program and its capabilities are presented

  10. Parallel Aircraft Trajectory Optimization with Analytic Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Robert D.; Gray, Justin S.; Naylor, Bret

    2016-01-01

    Trajectory optimization is an integral component for the design of aerospace vehicles, but emerging aircraft technologies have introduced new demands on trajectory analysis that current tools are not well suited to address. Designing aircraft with technologies such as hybrid electric propulsion and morphing wings requires consideration of the operational behavior as well as the physical design characteristics of the aircraft. The addition of operational variables can dramatically increase the number of design variables which motivates the use of gradient based optimization with analytic derivatives to solve the larger optimization problems. In this work we develop an aircraft trajectory analysis tool using a Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto based collocation scheme, providing analytic derivatives via the OpenMDAO multidisciplinary optimization framework. This collocation method uses an implicit time integration scheme that provides a high degree of sparsity and thus several potential options for parallelization. The performance of the new implementation was investigated via a series of single and multi-trajectory optimizations using a combination of parallel computing and constraint aggregation. The computational performance results show that in order to take full advantage of the sparsity in the problem it is vital to parallelize both the non-linear analysis evaluations and the derivative computations themselves. The constraint aggregation results showed a significant numerical challenge due to difficulty in achieving tight convergence tolerances. Overall, the results demonstrate the value of applying analytic derivatives to trajectory optimization problems and lay the foundation for future application of this collocation based method to the design of aircraft with where operational scheduling of technologies is key to achieving good performance.

  11. Hands as markers of fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barnard

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Margaret Atwood is an internationally read, translated, and critiqued writer whose novels have established her as one of the most esteemed authors in English (McCombs & Palmer, 1991:1. Critical studies of her work deal mainly with notions of identity from psychoanalytical perspectives. This study has identified a gap in current critical studies on Atwood’s works, namely the challenging of textual unity which is paralleled in the challenging of the traditional (single narrative voice. The challenging of textual unity and the single narrative voice brings about the fragmentation of both. This article will focus on the role that hands play as markers of fragmentation in “The Blind Assassin” (2000. In the novel, the writing hand destabilises the narrative voice, since it is not connected to the voice of a single author. If the author of the text – the final signified – is eliminated, the text becomes fragmentary and open, inviting the reader to contribute to the creation of meaning. Hands play a signficant role in foregrounding the narrator’s fragmented identity, and consequently, the fragmentation of the text. We will investigate this concept in the light of Roland Barthes’ notion of the scriptor, whose hand is metaphorically severed from his or her “voice”. Instead of the text being a unified entity, it becomes unstable and it displays the absence of hierarchical textual levels. Based mainly on Barthes’ writings, this article concludes that hands foreground the narrator’s fragmented identity, which is paralleled in the fragmented text.

  12. MILP-Based 4D Trajectory Planning for Tactical Trajectory Management, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to develop specialized algorithms and software decision-aiding tools for four-dimensional (4D) vehicle-centric, tactical trajectory...

  13. Trajectory Design to Benefit Trajectory-Based Surface Operations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trajectory-based operations constitute a key mechanism considered by the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) for managing traffic in high-density or...

  14. Trajectory Design to Benefit Trajectory-Based Surface Operations, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trajectory-based operations constitute a key mechanism considered by the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) for managing traffic in high-density or...

  15. Die Sprache der Hande zu den Handen sprechen (Talking the Language of the Hands to the Hands). DB-LINK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Barbara

    This paper examines the importance of hands for the person who is deafblind, reviews hand development, and identifies specific teaching skills that facilitate hand development and expressiveness in persons who are deafblind. It notes that the hands of a deafblind individual serve not only as tools but also as sense organs (to compensate for their…

  16. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Objective: This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential

  17. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential patterns

  18. Compressed sensing along physically plausible sampling trajectories in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauffert, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive and non-ionizing imaging technique that provides images of body tissues, using the contrast sensitivity coming from the magnetic parameters (T_1, T_2 and proton density). Data are acquired in the κ-space, corresponding to spatial Fourier frequencies. Because of physical constraints, the displacement in the κ-space is subject to kinematic constraints. Indeed, magnetic field gradients and their temporal derivative are upper bounded. Hence, the scanning time increases with the image resolution. Decreasing scanning time is crucial to improve patient comfort, decrease exam costs, limit the image distortions (eg, created by the patient movement), or decrease temporal resolution in functional MRI. Reducing scanning time can be addressed by Compressed Sensing (CS) theory. The latter is a technique that guarantees the perfect recovery of an image from under sampled data in κ-space, by assuming that the image is sparse in a wavelet basis. Unfortunately, CS theory cannot be directly cast to the MRI setting. The reasons are: i) acquisition (Fourier) and representation (wavelets) bases are coherent and ii) sampling schemes obtained using CS theorems are composed of isolated measurements and cannot be realistically implemented by magnetic field gradients: the sampling is usually performed along continuous or more regular curves. However, heuristic application of CS in MRI has provided promising results. In this thesis, we aim to develop theoretical tools to apply CS to MRI and other modalities. On the one hand, we propose a variable density sampling theory to answer the first impediment. The more the sample contains information, the more it is likely to be drawn. On the other hand, we propose sampling schemes and design sampling trajectories that fulfill acquisition constraints, while traversing the κ-space with the sampling density advocated by the theory. The second point is complex and is thus addressed step by step

  19. Integration of robotics and neuroscience beyond the hand: What kind of synergies?. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avella, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Santello et al. [1] review an impressive amount of work on the control of biological and artificial hands that demonstrates how the concept of synergies can lead to a successful integration of robotics and neuroscience. Is it possible to generalize the same approach to the control of biological and artificial limbs and bodies beyond the hand? The human hand synergies that appear most relevant for robotic hands are those defined at the kinematic level, i.e. postural synergies [2]. Postural synergies capture the geometric relations among the many joints of the hand and allow for a low dimensional characterization and synthesis of the static hand postures involved in grasping and manipulating a large set of objects. However, many other complex motor skills such as walking, reaching, throwing, and catching require controlling multi-articular time-varying trajectories rather than static postures. Dynamic control of biological and artificial limbs and bodies, especially when geometric and inertial parameters are uncertain and the joints are compliant, poses great challenges. What kind of synergies might simplify the dynamic control of motor skills involving upper and lower limbs as well as the whole body?

  20. Lean and Green Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Demark, Robert E; Smith, Vanessa J S; Fiegen, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    Health care in the United States is both expensive and wasteful. The cost of health care in the United States continues to increase every year. Health care spending for 2016 is estimated at $3.35 trillion. Per capita spending ($10,345 per person) is more than twice the average of other developed countries. The United States also leads the world in solid waste production (624,700 metric tons of waste in 2011). The health care industry is second only to the food industry in annual waste production. Each year, health care facilities in the United States produce 4 billion pounds of waste (660 tons per day), with as much as 70%, or around 2.8 billion pounds, produced directly by operating rooms. Waste disposal also accounts for up to 20% of a hospital's annual environmental services budget. Since 1992, waste production by hospitals has increased annually by a rate of at least 15%, due in part to the increased usage of disposables. Reduction in operating room waste would decrease both health care costs and potential environmental hazards. In 2015, the American Association for Hand Surgery along with the American Society for Surgery of the Hand, American Society for Peripheral Nerve Surgery, and the American Society of Reconstructive Microsurgery began the "Lean and Green" surgery project to reduce the amount of waste generated by hand surgery. We recently began our own "Lean and Green" project in our institution. Using "minor field sterility" surgical principles and Wide Awake Local Anesthesia No Tourniquet (WALANT), both surgical costs and surgical waste were decreased while maintaining patient safety and satisfaction. As the current reimbursement model changes from quantity to quality, "Lean and Green" surgery will play a role in the future health care system. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tools used for hand deburring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1981-03-01

    This guide is designed to help in quick identification of those tools most commonly used to deburr hand size or smaller parts. Photographs and textual descriptions are used to provide rapid yet detailed information. The data presented include the Bendix Kansas City Division coded tool number, tool description, tool crib in which the tool can be found, the maximum and minimum inventory requirements, the cost of each tool, and the number of the illustration that shows the tool.

  2. Hand dominance in orthopaedic surgeons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lui, Darren F

    2012-08-01

    Handedness is perhaps the most studied human asymmetry. Laterality is the preference shown for one side and it has been studied in many aspects of medicine. Studies have shown that some orthopaedic procedures had poorer outcomes and identified laterality as a contributing factor. We developed a questionnaire to assess laterality in orthopaedic surgery and compared this to an established scoring system. Sixty-two orthopaedic surgeons surveyed with the validated Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire (WHQ) were compared with the self developed Orthopaedic Handedness Questionnaire (OHQ). Fifty-eight were found to be right hand dominant (RHD) and 4 left hand dominant (LHD). In RHD surgeons, the average WHQ score was 44.9% and OHQ 15%. For LHD surgeons the WHQ score was 30.2% and OHQ 9.4%. This represents a significant amount of time using the non dominant hand but does not necessarily determine satisfactory or successful dexterity transferable to the operating room. Training may be required for the non dominant side.

  3. Hand osteoarthritis: diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Balabanova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the development of synovitis, early-stage hand osteoarthritis (HOA mimics hand joint injury in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, the topography of synovitis is diverse in these diseases:  distal interphalangeal and thumb joints are involved in the process in HOA. In the latter, tests are negative for immunological markers  (anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, which is typical of RA.  The differences between HOA and RA are prominent, as evidenced  by hand X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging. Investigations  suggest that cytokine profile imbalance is implicated in the  pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, which brings it closer to RA. However, therapy for HOA has not been practically developed; there are only a few works on the use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and  biological agents in these patients. It is necessary to work out Russian guidelines for the treatment of HOA.

  4. The hands of the projectionist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Lisa

    2011-09-01

    This essay considers the work of projection and the hand of the projectionist as important components of the social space of the cinema as it comes into being in the nineteenth century and the early decades of the twentieth. I bring the concept ofMaurice Merleau-Ponty on the place of the body as an entity that applies itself to the world "like a hand to an instrument" into a discussion of the pre-cinematic projector as an instrument that we can interpret as evidence of the experience of the work of the projectionist in the spirit of film theory and media archaeology, moving work on instrumentation in a different direction from the analysis of the work of the black box in laboratory studies. Projection is described as a psychological as well as a mechanical process. It is suggested that we interpret the projector not simply in its activity as it projects films, but in its movement from site to site and in the workings of the hand of its operator behind the scenes. This account suggests a different perspective on the cinematic turn of the nineteenth century, a concept typically approached through the study of the image, the look, the camera, and the screen.

  5. Theory of the paraxial ion trajectory in the spiral inflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toprek, Dragan

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the analytical and numerical theory of the paraxial ion trajectory through the spiral inflector. Analytical expressions for the equations which describe the paraxial ion trajectory are derived. The analytical derivations of the electric field expansion around the central ion trajectory has also been studied

  6. Pneumatic motor speed control by trajectory tracking fuzzy logic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, trajectory tracking fuzzy logic controller (TTFLC) is proposed for the speed control of a pneumatic motor (PM). A third order trajectory is defined to determine the trajectory function that has to be tracked by the PM speed. Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to find the TTFLC boundary values of membership functions ...

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  8. Hand-arm vibration syndrome: A rarely seen diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca A; Janko, Matthew R; Hacker, Robert I

    2017-06-01

    Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is a collection of sensory, vascular, and musculoskeletal symptoms caused by repetitive trauma from vibration. This case report demonstrates how to diagnose HAVS on the basis of history, physical examination, and vascular imaging and its treatment options. A 41-year-old man who regularly used vibrating tools presented with nonhealing wounds on his right thumb and third digit. Arteriography revealed occlusions of multiple arteries in his hand with formation of collaterals. We diagnosed HAVS, and his wounds healed after several weeks with appropriate treatment. HAVS is a debilitating condition with often irreversible vascular damage, requiring early diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Hand-arm vibration syndrome: A rarely seen diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Campbell, BA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS is a collection of sensory, vascular, and musculoskeletal symptoms caused by repetitive trauma from vibration. This case report demonstrates how to diagnose HAVS on the basis of history, physical examination, and vascular imaging and its treatment options. A 41-year-old man who regularly used vibrating tools presented with nonhealing wounds on his right thumb and third digit. Arteriography revealed occlusions of multiple arteries in his hand with formation of collaterals. We diagnosed HAVS, and his wounds healed after several weeks with appropriate treatment. HAVS is a debilitating condition with often irreversible vascular damage, requiring early diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Inflation and leptogenesis from right handed sneutrinos in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peloso, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We describe a supergravity model of inflation where the inflaton is identified with one linerar combination of two right handed sneutrino fields. The potential along the inflationary trajectory is flatter than that of massive chaotic inflation, resulting in a detectable but not ruled out tensor-to-scalar ratio r. In general, the potential for the two sneutrinos has complex phases. As a result, the two neutrinos can develop a nonvanishing lepton charge through a simple modification of the Affleck-Dine mechanism. [This talk summarizes the work of Evans, Ghergetta, and Peloso, Phys. Rev. D 92, no. 2, 021303 (2015) (Ref. 1). Please refer to that work for details and for a more comprehensive list of references.

  11. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, φ) = { f( t, φ, u)} uɛU is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function φ and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  12. Pregnancy Anxiety and Prenatal Cortisol Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heidi S.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Glynn, Laura M.; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 to 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. PMID:24769094

  13. Trajectories for Novel and Detailed Traffic Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    the central metric free-flow speed from trajectories, instead of using point-based measurements such as induction-loops. This free-flow speed is widely used to compute and monitor the congestion level. The paper argues that the actual travel-time is a more accurate metric. The paper suggests a novel approach...... are correctly coordinated, and navigational device manufacturers to advice drivers in real-time on expected behavior of signalized intersections. The main conclusion is that trajectories can provide novel insight into the actual traffic situation that is not possible using existing approaches. Further...... to analyzing individual intersections that enables traffic analysts to compute queue lengths and estimated time to pass an intersection. Finally, the paper uses associative rule mining for evaluating green waves on road stretches. Such information can be used to verify that signalized intersections...

  14. Sequence trajectory generation for garment handling systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Honghai; Lin, Hua

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel generic approach to the planning strategy of garment handling systems. An assumption is proposed to separate the components of such systems into a component for intelligent gripper techniques and a component for handling planning strategies. Researchers can concentrate on one of the two components first, then merge the two problems together. An algorithm is addressed to generate the trajectory position and a clothes handling sequence of clothes partitions, which ar...

  15. Training trajectories by continuous recurrent multilayer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistritz, L; Galicki, M; Witte, H; Kochs, E

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of training trajectories by means of continuous recurrent neural networks whose feedforward parts are multilayer perceptrons. Such networks can approximate a general nonlinear dynamic system with arbitrary accuracy. The learning process is transformed into an optimal control framework where the weights are the controls to be determined. A training algorithm based upon a variational formulation of Pontryagin's maximum principle is proposed for such networks. Computer examples demonstrating the efficiency of the given approach are also presented.

  16. Decomposition of gene expression state space trajectories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C Mar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Representing and analyzing complex networks remains a roadblock to creating dynamic network models of biological processes and pathways. The study of cell fate transitions can reveal much about the transcriptional regulatory programs that underlie these phenotypic changes and give rise to the coordinated patterns in expression changes that we observe. The application of gene expression state space trajectories to capture cell fate transitions at the genome-wide level is one approach currently used in the literature. In this paper, we analyze the gene expression dataset of Huang et al. (2005 which follows the differentiation of promyelocytes into neutrophil-like cells in the presence of inducers dimethyl sulfoxide and all-trans retinoic acid. Huang et al. (2005 build on the work of Kauffman (2004 who raised the attractor hypothesis, stating that cells exist in an expression landscape and their expression trajectories converge towards attractive sites in this landscape. We propose an alternative interpretation that explains this convergent behavior by recognizing that there are two types of processes participating in these cell fate transitions-core processes that include the specific differentiation pathways of promyelocytes to neutrophils, and transient processes that capture those pathways and responses specific to the inducer. Using functional enrichment analyses, specific biological examples and an analysis of the trajectories and their core and transient components we provide a validation of our hypothesis using the Huang et al. (2005 dataset.

  17. Controlling particle trajectories using oscillating microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalikop, Shreyas; Wang, Cheng; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2010-11-01

    In many applications of microfluidics and biotechnology, such as cytometry and drug delivery, it is vital to manipulate the trajectories of microparticles such as vesicles or cells. On this small scale, inertial or gravitational effects are often too weak to exploit. We propose a mechanism to selectively trap and direct particles based on their size in creeping transport flows (Re1). We employ Rayleigh-Nyborg-Westervelt (RNW) streaming generated by an oscillating microbubble, which in turn generates a streaming flow component around the mobile particles. The result is an attractive interaction that draws the particle closer to the bubble. The impenetrability of the bubble interface destroys time-reversal symmetry and forces the particles onto either narrow trajectory bundles or well-defined closed trajectories, where they are trapped. The effect is dependent on particle size and thus allows for the passive focusing and sorting of selected sizes, on scales much smaller than the geometry of the microfluidic device. The device could eliminate the need for complicated microchannel designs with external magnetic or electric fields in applications such as particle focusing and size-based sorting.

  18. Academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Gaytán, Francisco X; Bang, Hee Jin; Pakes, Juliana; O'Connor, Erin; Rhodes, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Immigration to the United States presents both challenges and opportunities that affect students' academic achievement. Using a 5-year longitudinal, mixed-methods approach, we identified varying academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant students from Central America, China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Mexico. Latent class growth curve analysis revealed that although some newcomer students performed at high or improving levels over time, others showed diminishing performance. Multinomial logistic regressions identified significant group differences in academic trajectories, particularly between the high-achieving youth and the other groups. In keeping with ecological-developmental and stage-environment fit theories, School Characteristics (school segregation rate, school poverty rate, and student perceptions of school violence), Family Characteristics (maternal education, parental employment, and household structure), and Individual Characteristics (academic English proficiency, academic engagement, psychological symptoms, gender, and 2 age-related risk factors, number of school transitions and being overaged for grade placement) were associated with different trajectories of academic performance. A series of case studies triangulate many of the quantitative findings as well as illuminate patterns that were not detected in the quantitative data. Thus, the mixed-methods approach sheds light on the cumulative developmental challenges that immigrant students face as they adjust to their new educational settings. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Control system design for UAV trajectory tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Gao, Jinyuan

    2006-11-01

    In recent years, because of the emerging requirements for increasing autonomy, the controller of uninhabited air vehicles must be augmented with a very sophisticated autopilot design which is capable of tracking complex and agile maneuvering trajectory. This paper provides a simplified control system framework to solve UAV maneuvering trajectory tracking problem. The flight control system is divided into three subsystems including command generation, transformation and allocation. According to the kinematics equations of the aircraft, flight path angle commands can be generated by desired 3D position from path planning. These commands are transformed to body angular rates through direct nonlinear mapping, which is simpler than common multi-loop method based on time scale separation assumption. Then, by using weighted pseudo-inverse method, the control surface deflections are allocated to follow body angular rates from the previous step. In order to improve the robustness, a nonlinear disturbance observer-based approach is used to compensate the uncertainty of system. A 6DOF nonlinear UAV model is controlled to demonstrate the performance of the trajectory tracking control system. Simulation results show that the control strategy is easy to be realized and the precision of tracking is satisfying.

  20. Simulations of High Speed Fragment Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Peter; Attaway, Stephen; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; Fisher, Travis

    2017-11-01

    Flying shrapnel from an explosion are capable of traveling at supersonic speeds and distances much farther than expected due to aerodynamic interactions. Predicting the trajectories and stable tumbling modes of arbitrary shaped fragments is a fundamental problem applicable to range safety calculations, damage assessment, and military technology. Traditional approaches rely on characterizing fragment flight using a single drag coefficient, which may be inaccurate for fragments with large aspect ratios. In our work we develop a procedure to simulate trajectories of arbitrary shaped fragments with higher fidelity using high performance computing. We employ a two-step approach in which the force and moment coefficients are first computed as a function of orientation using compressible computational fluid dynamics. The force and moment data are then input into a six-degree-of-freedom rigid body dynamics solver to integrate trajectories in time. Results of these high fidelity simulations allow us to further understand the flight dynamics and tumbling modes of a single fragment. Furthermore, we use these results to determine the validity and uncertainty of inexpensive methods such as the single drag coefficient model.

  1. Unconventional Constraints on Nitrogen Chemistry using DC3 Observations and Trajectory-based Chemical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Q.; Henderson, B. H.

    2017-12-01

    Chemical transport models underestimate nitrogen dioxide observations in the upper troposphere (UT). Previous research in the UT succeeded in combining model predictions with field campaign measurements to demonstrate that the nitric acid formation rate (HO + NO2 → HNO3 (R1)) is overestimated by 22% (Henderson et al., 2012). A subsequent publication (Seltzer et al., 2015) demonstrated that single chemical constraint alters ozone and aerosol formation/composition. This work attempts to replicate previous chemical constraints with newer observations and a different modeling framework. We apply the previously successful constraint framework to Deep Convection Clouds and Chemistry (DC3). DC3 is a more recent field campaign where simulated nitrogen imbalances still exist. Freshly convected air parcels, identified in the DC3 dataset, as initial coordinates to initiate Lagrangian trajectories. Along each trajectory, we simulate the air parcel chemical state. Samples along the trajectories will form ensembles that represent possible realizations of UT air parcels. We then apply Bayesian inference to constrain nitrogen chemistry and compare results to the existing literature. Our anticipated results will confirm overestimation of HNO3 formation rate in previous work and provide further constraints on other nitrogen reaction rate coefficients that affect terminal products from NOx. We will particularly focus on organic nitrate chemistry that laboratory literature has yet to fully address. The results will provide useful insights into nitrogen chemistry that affects climate and human health.

  2. Local pursuit strategy-inspired cooperative trajectory planning algorithm for a class of nonlinear constrained dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunjun; Remeikas, Charles; Pham, Khanh

    2014-03-01

    Cooperative trajectory planning is crucial for networked vehicles to respond rapidly in cluttered environments and has a significant impact on many applications such as air traffic or border security monitoring and assessment. One of the challenges in cooperative planning is to find a computationally efficient algorithm that can accommodate both the complexity of the environment and real hardware and configuration constraints of vehicles in the formation. Inspired by a local pursuit strategy observed in foraging ants, feasible and optimal trajectory planning algorithms are proposed in this paper for a class of nonlinear constrained cooperative vehicles in environments with densely populated obstacles. In an iterative hierarchical approach, the local behaviours, such as the formation stability, obstacle avoidance, and individual vehicle's constraints, are considered in each vehicle's (i.e. follower's) decentralised optimisation. The cooperative-level behaviours, such as the inter-vehicle collision avoidance, are considered in the virtual leader's centralised optimisation. Early termination conditions are derived to reduce the computational cost by not wasting time in the local-level optimisation if the virtual leader trajectory does not satisfy those conditions. The expected advantages of the proposed algorithms are (1) the formation can be globally asymptotically maintained in a decentralised manner; (2) each vehicle decides its local trajectory using only the virtual leader and its own information; (3) the formation convergence speed is controlled by one single parameter, which makes it attractive for many practical applications; (4) nonlinear dynamics and many realistic constraints, such as the speed limitation and obstacle avoidance, can be easily considered; (5) inter-vehicle collision avoidance can be guaranteed in both the formation transient stage and the formation steady stage; and (6) the computational cost in finding both the feasible and optimal

  3. Prolonged disengagement from distractors near the hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Vatterott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Because items near our hands are often more important than items far from our hands, the brain processes visual items near our hands differently than items far from our hands. Multiple experiments have attributed this processing difference to spatial attention, but the exact mechanism behind how spatial attention near our hands changes is still under investigation. The current experiments sought to differentiate between two of the proposed mechanisms: a prioritization of the space near the hands and a prolonged disengagement of spatial attention near the hands. To differentiate between these two accounts, we used the additional singleton paradigm in which observers searched for a shape singleton among homogenously shaped distractors. On half the trials, one of the distractors was a different color. Both the prioritization and disengagement accounts predict differently colored distractors near the hands will slow target responses more than differently colored distractors far from the hands, but the prioritization account also predicts faster responses to targets near the hands than far from the hands. The disengagement account does not make this prediction, because attention does not need to be disengaged when the target appears near the hand. We found support for the disengagement account: Salient distractors near the hands slowed responses more than those far from the hands, yet observers did not respond faster to targets near the hands.

  4. Periodic trajectories for two-dimensional nonintegrable Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.T.R.

    1990-02-01

    I want to report on some calculations of classical periodic trajectories in a two-dimensional nonintegrable potential. After a brief introduction, I will present some details of the theory. The main part of this report will be devoted to showing pictures of the various families of trajectories and to discussing the topology (in E-τ space) and branching behavior of these families. Then I will demonstrate the connection between periodic trajectories and ''nearby'' nonperiodic trajectories, which nicely illustrates the relationship of this work to chaos. Finally, I will discuss very briefly how periodic trajectories can be used to calculate tori. 12 refs., 40 figs

  5. Strategy and your stronger hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Geoffrey A

    2005-12-01

    There are two kinds of businesses in the world, says the author. Knowing what they are--and which one your company is--will guide you to the right strategic moves. One kind includes businesses that compete on a complex-systems model. These companies have large enterprises as their primary customers. They seek to grow a customer base in the thousands, with no more than a handful of transactions per customer per year (indeed, in some years there may be none), and the average price per transaction ranges from six to seven figures. In this model, 1,000 enterprises each paying dollar 1 million per year would generate dollar 1 billion in annual revenue. The other kind of business competes on a volume-operations model. Here, vendors seek to acquire millions of customers, with tens or even hundreds of transactions per customer per year, at an average price of relatively few dollars per transaction. Under this model, it would take 10 million customers each spending dollar 8 per month to generate nearly dollar 1 billion in revenue. An examination of both models shows that they could not be further apart in their approach to every step along the classic value chain. The problem, though, is that companies in one camp often attempt to create new value by venturing into the other. In doing so, they fail to realize how their managerial habits have been shaped by the model they've grown up with. By analogy, they have a "handedness"--the equivalent of a person's right- or left-hand dominance--that makes them as adroit in one mode as they are awkward in the other. Unless you are in an industry whose structure forces you to attempt ambidexterity (in which case, special efforts are required to manage the inevitable dropped balls), you'll be far more successful making moves that favor your stronger hand.

  6. Glass Foreign Body Hand Radiograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ehsani-Nia, DO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 27-year-old female sustained an injury to her left hand after she tripped and fell on a vase. She presented to the emergency department (ED complaining of pain over the laceration. Upon examination, patient presented with multiple small abrasions of the medial aspect of the left 5thdigit that are minimally tender. Additionally, she has one 0.5cm linear laceration of the medial aspect of the 5thmetacarpal with severe tenderness in the area and palpable underlying foreign body. Significant findings: Left hand plain radiography demonstrated a subcutaneous foreign body medial to the 5thmetacarpal that is radiopaque, trapezoidal in shape, and measures approximately 11mm x 3mm. Discussion: Laceration repairs are amongst the most common procedures in the emergency department; however, consideration for foreign body is often underdiagnosed. Imaging is performed in only about 11% of all traumatic wounds in the ED.1 Of those injuries relating to the hand that are subsequently imaged, about 15% are found to have a foreign body.2,3 Additionally, it is estimated that foreign bodies are present in 7% to 8.7% of all wounds caused by glass objects.4,5 Glass is among the most common foreign bodies in lacerations, and fortunately they are radiopaque and relatively well visualized radiographically. It has been demonstrated that 2mm glass foreign bodies have a 99% detection rate with radiography, and 1mm glass foreign bodies an 83% detection rate.6 Patient perception of foreign body has a positive predictive value of 31%, making it a poor source in influencing clinical decision-making to obtain wound radiographs.3 Clinicians should have a high suspicion for foreign body in lacerations, particularly those caused by glass, and utilize close physical examination and imaging for evaluation. Topics: Radiography, glass, foreign body, trauma

  7. [Community trajectories of mentally ill and intellectually disabled young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    In the context of reforms in the field of disability, this study documents the trajectories and mechanisms of support for young people with mental illness or intellectual disability or pervasive developmental disorders, during the teen-adult life transition period; andfactorsfostering or impeding this transition for their maintenance in an everyday environment, particularly in SESSAD (special education and home care service) and the SAMSAH/ SPAC (medico-social support for adults with disabilities/support services in social life). This study was conducted in the French department of Seine-et-Marne. It was supported by a mixed call for tenders, in which 77 respondents (professionals, families and users), and 26 organizations were consulted. The study shows that few young adults in SAMSAH/SPAC programmes are derived from SESSAD, and they encounter major difficulties living in an everyday environment, particularly during the transition period. Clinical or socio-economic factors related to the profiles of users or healthcare service organization facilitate or hinder the inclusion of young people in an everyday environment. Support for users was also often limited to followup over a suboptimal period, and was hampered by insufficient networking within the regional healthcare system. On the other hand, empowerment of users and their optimal inclusion in an everyday environment, as founding principles of the reform, constitute major action priorities for healthcare structures. Strengthening services for young people (16-25 years), including integration strategies, is recommended in order to establish an integrated network of services in the field of disability.

  8. Hand protection from ultraviolet exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazova, M.; O'Hagan, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A number of industrial applications and public services involve exposure to ultraviolet radiation (U.V.R.) from a variety of lamps and lasers, for example, in forensic examination, biological trans-illuminators, dentistry, laser material processing, microelectronics, etc. The proposed European Union Directive on Optical Radiation would place specific requirements on employers to provide adequate safety measures to reduce exposure to U.V.R., including gloves for hand protection. The selection of gloves should be based on a risk assessment and on the performance characteristics of the gloves for the task. However, current International and national standards do not describe evaluation procedures of disposable gloves for hand protection against non-ionising radiation. A methodology for assessment of the UV protection level for disposable gloves and a simple measurement protocol are proposed, based on a common approach with UV protection by clothing and sunscreens. Glove Ultraviolet Protection Factor is defined as a time-scale increase in exposure permitted for the hand protected by a glove with respect to an unprotected hand. However, the wide variety of U.V.R. sources and the real-life conditions of glove use (stretching and wetting the surface by liquids) bring substantial challenges to the assessment method. Our study of ∼ 50 samples of widely used disposable gloves made of different materials (nitrile, vinyl, latex and chloroprene) showed that for all tested gloves a change in U.V.R. attenuation with stretching is characteristic for the type of glove material and can be included as a scaling factor in the definition of U.V.R. protection. Glove material has a bigger effect on U.V.R. protection level than variations in the glove thickness or its colour. The following approaches are suggested to overcome the problem of variable U.V.R. sources: - Worst case scenario minimal protection level, most restrictive case - Application

  9. Hand protection from ultraviolet exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazova, M.; O' Hagan, J.B. [Health Protection Agency, Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Did cot (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: A number of industrial applications and public services involve exposure to ultraviolet radiation (U.V.R.) from a variety of lamps and lasers, for example, in forensic examination, biological trans-illuminators, dentistry, laser material processing, microelectronics, etc. The proposed European Union Directive on Optical Radiation would place specific requirements on employers to provide adequate safety measures to reduce exposure to U.V.R., including gloves for hand protection. The selection of gloves should be based on a risk assessment and on the performance characteristics of the gloves for the task. However, current International and national standards do not describe evaluation procedures of disposable gloves for hand protection against non-ionising radiation. A methodology for assessment of the UV protection level for disposable gloves and a simple measurement protocol are proposed, based on a common approach with UV protection by clothing and sunscreens. Glove Ultraviolet Protection Factor is defined as a time-scale increase in exposure permitted for the hand protected by a glove with respect to an unprotected hand. However, the wide variety of U.V.R. sources and the real-life conditions of glove use (stretching and wetting the surface by liquids) bring substantial challenges to the assessment method. Our study of {approx} 50 samples of widely used disposable gloves made of different materials (nitrile, vinyl, latex and chloroprene) showed that for all tested gloves a change in U.V.R. attenuation with stretching is characteristic for the type of glove material and can be included as a scaling factor in the definition of U.V.R. protection. Glove material has a bigger effect on U.V.R. protection level than variations in the glove thickness or its colour. The following approaches are suggested to overcome the problem of variable U.V.R. sources: - Worst case scenario minimal protection level, most restrictive case - Application

  10. [Case managers experience improved trajectories for cancer patients after implementation of the case manager function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsen, Karina Rahbek; Nafei, Hanne; Jakobsen, Stine Finne; Gandrup, Per; Knudsen, Janne Lehmann

    2015-06-08

    Case managers are increasingly used to optimize trajectories for patients. This study is based on a questionnaire among case managers in cancer care, aiming at the clarification of the func­tion and its impact on especially patient safety, when handing over the responsibility. The results show a major variation in how the function is organized, the level of competence and the task to be handled. The responsibility has in general been nar­rowed to department level. Overall, the case managers believe that the function has optimized pathways for cancer patients and improved safety, but barriers persist.

  11. Bases, Stages and 'Working Your Way Up': Young People's Talk About Non-Coital Practices and 'Normal' Sexual Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Lewis; Cicely Marston; Kaye Wellings

    2013-01-01

    While the symbolic importance of 'losing your virginity' has been described in many settings, meanings of non-coital sexual experiences, such as oral sex and hand-genital contact, are often missing from theorisation of sexual transitions. Drawing on data from a qualitative mixed methods study with young people aged 16-18 in England (the 'sixteen18 project'), we explore normative expectations about non-coital sex and sexual trajectories. Our study demonstrates how gendered talk about a 'normal...

  12. Flash trajectory imaging of target 3D motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinwei; Zhou, Yan; Fan, Songtao; He, Jun; Liu, Yuliang

    2011-03-01

    We present a flash trajectory imaging technique which can directly obtain target trajectory and realize non-contact measurement of motion parameters by range-gated imaging and time delay integration. Range-gated imaging gives the range of targets and realizes silhouette detection which can directly extract targets from complex background and decrease the complexity of moving target image processing. Time delay integration increases information of one single frame of image so that one can directly gain the moving trajectory. In this paper, we have studied the algorithm about flash trajectory imaging and performed initial experiments which successfully obtained the trajectory of a falling badminton. Our research demonstrates that flash trajectory imaging is an effective approach to imaging target trajectory and can give motion parameters of moving targets.

  13. Control model for dampening hand vibrations using information of internal and external coordinates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunta Togo

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigate a control mechanism that dampens hand vibrations. Here, we propose a control method with two components to suppress hand vibrations. The first is a passive suppression method that lowers the joint stiffness to passively dampen the hand vibrations. The second is an active suppression method that adjusts an equilibrium point based on skyhook control to actively dampen the hand vibrations. In a simulation experiment, we applied these two methods to dampen hand vibrations during the shoulder's horizontal oscillation. We also conducted a measurement experiment wherein a subject's shoulder was sinusoidally oscillated by a platform that generated horizontal oscillations. The results of the measurement experiments showed that the jerk of each part of the arm in a task using a cup filled with water was smaller than the shoulder jerk and that in a task with a cup filled with stones was larger than the shoulder jerk. Moreover, the amplitude of the hand trajectory in both horizontal and vertical directions was smaller in a task using a cup filled with water than in a task using a cup filled with stones. The results of the measurement experiments were accurately reproduced by the active suppression method based on skyhook control. These results suggest that humans dampen hand vibrations by controlling the equilibrium point through the information of the external workspace and the internal body state rather than by lowering joint stiffness only by using internal information.

  14. Time as a Measure: Elementary Students Positioning the Hands of an Analog Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell Earnest

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Elementary students have difficulty with the topic of time. The present study investigated students’ actions to position hour and minute hands on an analog clock to indicate particular times of the day. Using one-on-one interviews with students in Grades 2 and 4 (n = 48, we analyzed whether students were more accurate for one hand indicator (hour or minute versus the other as well as their solution approaches as they positioned each hand. We first present a quantitative analysis of student performance to document whether hour and minute hands posed differential challenges for students as they positioned hands to indicate particular times. Results indicate the hour hand is significantly more challenging to position accurately than the minute hand. Students’ solutions reflected varied approaches, including consideration of the quantitative hour-minute multiplicative relationship, attention to part-whole relations, and matching numbers from the provided time to numerals on the clock. We discuss implications for theory and instruction, including the relationship of time to length measure learning trajectories and the current treatment of time in K-12 mathematics standards for the United States.

  15. Kinematic hand parameters in front crawl at different paces of swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Mathias; Monnet, Tony; Bernard, Anthony; Lacouture, Patrick; David, Laurent

    2015-11-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of kinematic hand parameters (sweepback angle, angle of attack, velocity, acceleration and orientation of the hand relative to the absolute coordinate system) throughout an aquatic stroke and to study the possible modifications caused by a variation of the swimming pace. Seventeen competitive swimmers swam at long distance, middle distance and sprint paces. Parameters were calculated from the trajectory of seven markers on the hand measured with an optoelectronic system. Results showed that kinematic hand parameters evolve differently depending on the pace. Angle of attack, sweepback angle, acceleration and orientation of the hand do not vary significantly. The velocity of the hand increases when the pace increases, but only during the less propulsive phases (entry and stretch and downsweep to catch). The more the pace increases and the more the absolute durations of the entry and stretch and downsweep to catch phases decrease. Absolute durations of the insweep and upsweep phases remain constant. During these phases, the propulsive hand forces calculated do not vary significantly when the pace increases. The increase of swimming pace is then explained by the swimmer's capacity to maintain propulsive phases rather than increasing the force generation within each cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SPONGE ROBOTIC HAND DESIGN FOR PROSTHESES

    OpenAIRE

    Mine Seçkin

    2016-01-01

    In this study robotic hands and fingers’ materials are investigated from past to present and a sponge robotic hand is designed for biomedical applications. Emergence and necessity of soft robotic technology are explained and description of soft robot is made. Because of the importance of hand in a person’s body, researchers have dealt with robotic hand prostheses for many centuries and developed many hand types. To mimic the best for the human limbs, softness of the hand is one of the importa...

  17. Multiscale Convolutional Neural Networks for Hand Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyang Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unconstrained hand detection in still images plays an important role in many hand-related vision problems, for example, hand tracking, gesture analysis, human action recognition and human-machine interaction, and sign language recognition. Although hand detection has been extensively studied for decades, it is still a challenging task with many problems to be tackled. The contributing factors for this complexity include heavy occlusion, low resolution, varying illumination conditions, different hand gestures, and the complex interactions between hands and objects or other hands. In this paper, we propose a multiscale deep learning model for unconstrained hand detection in still images. Deep learning models, and deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs in particular, have achieved state-of-the-art performances in many vision benchmarks. Developed from the region-based CNN (R-CNN model, we propose a hand detection scheme based on candidate regions generated by a generic region proposal algorithm, followed by multiscale information fusion from the popular VGG16 model. Two benchmark datasets were applied to validate the proposed method, namely, the Oxford Hand Detection Dataset and the VIVA Hand Detection Challenge. We achieved state-of-the-art results on the Oxford Hand Detection Dataset and had satisfactory performance in the VIVA Hand Detection Challenge.

  18. BMI Trajectories from Birth to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Shannon M; Osganian, Stavroula K; Feldman, Henry A; Milliren, Carly E; Field, Alison E; Richmond, Tracy K

    2018-04-19

    This study aimed to compare BMI trajectories from childhood to early adulthood in those with overweight and/or obesity versus severe obesity. Longitudinal BMI values (2,542 measurements) were calculated from measured heights and weights for 103 children, adolescents, or young adults with overweight, obesity, or severe obesity. Segmented regression with splines was used to model BMI trajectories. Sixty-nine participants were classified as ever having severe obesity versus 34 who never had severe obesity. Trajectories and slopes did not differ by sex or race/ethnicity. Compared with those who never had severe obesity, BMI was higher in the group with severe obesity at all ages, and BMI slope was higher for those with severe obesity at age 14 (P = 0.002), with peak slope occurring later (18 years vs. 16 years) and higher (4.5 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 /y vs. 2.9 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 /y; P BMI fell below zero by the mid-20s (-0.3 ± 0.6 kg/m 2 /y); in those with severe obesity, BMI slope never reached zero (0.9 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 /y). Youth with severe obesity, compared with their peers without, started with higher BMIs, had more rapid rates of BMI increase beginning at age 14, as well as a higher peak and longer period of increase, and never achieved weight stabilization. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  19. Lagrangian Trajectory Modeling of Lunar Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.; Immer, Christopher D.

    2008-01-01

    Apollo landing videos shot from inside the right LEM window, provide a quantitative measure of the characteristics and dynamics of the ejecta spray of lunar regolith particles beneath the Lander during the final 10 [m] or so of descent. Photogrammetry analysis gives an estimate of the thickness of the dust layer and angle of trajectory. In addition, Apollo landing video analysis divulges valuable information on the regolith ejecta interactions with lunar surface topography. For example, dense dust streaks are seen to originate at the outer rims of craters within a critical radius of the Lander during descent. The primary intent of this work was to develop a mathematical model and software implementation for the trajectory simulation of lunar dust particles acted on by gas jets originating from the nozzle of a lunar Lander, where the particle sizes typically range from 10 micron to 500 micron. The high temperature, supersonic jet of gas that is exhausted from a rocket engine can propel dust, soil, gravel, as well as small rocks to high velocities. The lunar vacuum allows ejected particles to travel great distances unimpeded, and in the case of smaller particles, escape velocities may be reached. The particle size distributions and kinetic energies of ejected particles can lead to damage to the landing spacecraft or to other hardware that has previously been deployed in the vicinity. Thus the primary motivation behind this work is to seek a better understanding for the purpose of modeling and predicting the behavior of regolith dust particle trajectories during powered rocket descent and ascent.

  20. Meteor trajectory estimation from radio meteor observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kákona, J.

    2016-01-01

    Radio meteor observation techniques are generally accepted as meteor counting methods useful mainly for meteor flux detection. Due to the technical progress in radio engineering and electronics a construction of a radio meteor detection network with software defined receivers has become possible. These receivers could be precisely time synchronized and could obtain data which provide us with more information than just the meteor count. We present a technique which is able to compute a meteor trajectory from the data recorded by multiple radio stations.

  1. Simulation of molecular transitions using classical trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoso, A.; Martens, C. C. [University of California, California (United States)

    2001-03-01

    In the present work, we describe the implementation of a semiclassical method to study physical-chemical processes in molecular systems where electronic state transitions and quantum coherence play a dominant role. The method is based on classical trajectory propagation on the underlying coupled electronic surfaces and is derived from the semiclassical limit of the quantum Liouville equation. Unlike previous classical trajectory-based methods, quantum electronic coherence are treated naturally within this approach as complex weighted trajectory ensembles propagating on the average electronic surfaces. The method is tested on a model problem consisting of one-dimensional motion on two crossing electronic surfaces. Excellent agreement is obtained when compared to the exact results obtained by wave packet propagation. The method is applied to model quantum wave packet interferometry, where two wave packets, differing only in a relative phase, collide in the region where the two electronic surfaces cross. The dependence of the resulting population transfer on the initial relative phase of the wave packets is perfectly captured by our classical trajectory method. Comparison with an alternative method, surface hopping, shows that our approach is appropriate for modelling quantum interference phenomena. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describe la implementacion de un metodo semiclasico para estudiar procesos fisicos-quimicos en sistemas moleculares donde las transiciones entre estados electronicos y las coherencias cuanticas juegan un papel predominante. El metodo se basa en la propagacion de trayectorias clasicas sobre las correspondientes superficies electronicas acopladas y se deriva a partir del limite semiclasico de la ecuacion cuantica de Liouville. A diferencia de metodos previos basados en trayectoria clasica, dentro de este esquema, las coherencias electronicas cuanticas son tratadas de manera natural como ensamble de trayectorias con pesos complejos, moviendose en

  2. Data Wrangling Within Different Astronomy Career Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, Reynal; Gu, D.; Holbrook, J.; Murillo, L.; Traweek, S.

    2012-01-01

    Five kinds of astronomers work with large data sets: cosmologists, data analysts, instrumentation people, observers, and numerical theorists. Each of these career trajectories can diverge and converge in and out of collaborations with each other and perform different kinds of work. Nonetheless, each group defines and wrangles data differently. This poster characterizes their different meanings of data, analytic skills, techniques, and technologies. It also identifies some sites and patterns of convergence. We plot these collaborative relationships in bi-partite graphs. These emergent characteristics of the astronomy workforce have implications for curricula, pedagogies, and the division of labor in research collaborations.

  3. Design of Quiet Rotorcraft Approach Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Burley, Casey L.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Marcolini, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    A optimization procedure for identifying quiet rotorcraft approach trajectories is proposed and demonstrated. The procedure employs a multi-objective genetic algorithm in order to reduce noise and create approach paths that will be acceptable to pilots and passengers. The concept is demonstrated by application to two different helicopters. The optimized paths are compared with one another and to a standard 6-deg approach path. The two demonstration cases validate the optimization procedure but highlight the need for improved noise prediction techniques and for additional rotorcraft acoustic data sets.

  4. Beam trajectories through the upgraded XTU tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Xialing

    1988-01-01

    The paper deals with a problem applicable to all electrostatic accelerators with inclined field accelerating tubes, how the trajectory of the central beam particle is affected if one of the accelerating gaps must be shorted out due to insulator failure. For the long tube of the Legnaro XTU tandem the effect of each accelerator gap is calculated and a method of compensation either by shorting out an appropriate gap with reversed incline or by appropriately steering the beam into the entrance of the low energy tube is given. (orig.)

  5. Quadrotor trajectory tracking using PID cascade control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idres, M.; Mustapha, O.; Okasha, M.

    2017-12-01

    Quadrotors have been applied to collect information for traffic, weather monitoring, surveillance and aerial photography. In order to accomplish their mission, quadrotors have to follow specific trajectories. This paper presents proportional-integral-derivative (PID) cascade control of a quadrotor for path tracking problem when velocity and acceleration are small. It is based on near hover controller for small attitude angles. The integral of time-weighted absolute error (ITAE) criterion is used to determine the PID gains as a function of quadrotor modeling parameters. The controller is evaluated in three-dimensional environment in Simulink. Overall, the tracking performance is found to be excellent for small velocity condition.

  6. Religion and psychosis: a common evolutionary trajectory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dein, Simon; Littlewood, Roland

    2011-07-01

    In this article we propose that schizophrenia and religious cognition engage cognate mental modules in the over-attribution of agency and the overextension of theory of mind. We argue similarities and differences between assumptions of ultrahuman agents with omniscient minds and certain ''pathological'' forms of thinking in schizophrenia: thought insertion, withdrawal and broadcasting, and delusions of reference. In everyday religious cognition agency detection and theory of mind modules function ''normally,'' whereas in schizophrenia both modules are impaired. It is suggested that religion and schizophrenia have perhaps had a related evolutionary trajectory.

  7. Trajectory Design Considerations for Exploration Mission 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Timothy F.; Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Batcha, Amelia L.; Williams, Jacob; Pedrotty, Samuel M.

    2018-01-01

    Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) will be the first mission to send an uncrewed Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to cislunar space in the fall of 2019. EM-1 was originally conceived as a lunar free-return mission, but was later changed to a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) mission as a precursor to the Asteroid Redirect Mission. To understand the required mission performance (i.e., propellant requirement), a series of trajectory optimization runs was conducted using JSC's Copernicus spacecraft trajectory optimization tool. In order for the runs to be done in a timely manner, it was necessary to employ a parallelization approach on a computing cluster using a new trajectory scan tool written in Python. Details of the scan tool are provided and how it is used to perform the scans and post-process the results. Initially, a scan of daily due east launched EM-1 DRO missions in 2018 was made. Valid mission opportunities are ones that do not exceed the useable propellant available to perform the required burns. The initial scan data showed the propellant and delta-V performance patterns for each launch period. As questions were raised from different subsystems (e.g., power, thermal, communications, flight operations, etc.), the mission parameters or data that were of interest to them were added to the scan output data file. The additional data includes: (1) local launch and landing times in relation to sunrise and sunset, (2) length of eclipse periods during the in-space portion of the mission, (3) Earth line of sight from cislunar space, (4) Deep Space Network field of view looking towards cislunar space, and (5) variation of the downrange distance from Earth entry interface to splashdown. Mission design trades can also be performed based on the information that the additional data shows. For example, if the landing is in darkness, but the recovery operations team desires a landing in daylight, then an analysis is performed to determine how to change the mission design

  8. Discovery of convoys in trajectory databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeung, Hoyoung; Yiu, Man Lung; Zhou, Xiaofang

    2008-01-01

    a group of objects that have traveled together for some time. More specifically, this paper formalizes the concept of a convoy query using density-based notions, in order to capture groups of arbitrary extents and shapes. Convoy discovery is relevant for real-life applications in throughput planning...... convoys are further processed to obtain the actual convoys. Our comprehensive empirical study offers insight into the properties of the paper's proposals and demonstrates that the proposals are effective and efficient on real-world trajectory data....

  9. Growth Trajectories of Health Behaviors from Adolescence through Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiium, Nora; Breivik, Kyrre; Wold, Bente

    2015-10-28

    Based on nine waves of data collected during a period of 17 years (1990-2007), the present study explored different developmental trajectories of the following unhealthy behaviors: regular smoking, lack of regular exercise, lack of daily fruit intake, and drunkenness. A baseline sample of 1195 13-year-old pupils was from 22 randomly selected schools in the Hordaland County in western Norway. Latent class growth analysis revealed three developmental trajectories. The first trajectory was a conventional trajectory, comprising 36.3% of participants, who showed changes in smoking, physical exercise, fruit intake, and drunkenness consistent with the prevailing age specific norms of these behaviors in the Norwegian society at the time. The second trajectory was a passive trajectory, comprising 25.5% of participants, who reported low levels of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors during the 17-year period. The third trajectory was an unhealthy trajectory, comprising 38.2% of participants, who had high levels of unhealthy behaviors over time. Several covariates were examined, but only sex and mother's and father's educational levels were found to be significantly associated with the identified trajectories. While these findings need to be replicated in future studies, the identification of the different trajectories suggests the need to tailor intervention according to specific needs.

  10. Growth Trajectories of Health Behaviors from Adolescence through Young Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Wiium

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on nine waves of data collected during a period of 17 years (1990–2007, the present study explored different developmental trajectories of the following unhealthy behaviors: regular smoking, lack of regular exercise, lack of daily fruit intake, and drunkenness. A baseline sample of 1195 13-year-old pupils was from 22 randomly selected schools in the Hordaland County in western Norway. Latent class growth analysis revealed three developmental trajectories. The first trajectory was a conventional trajectory, comprising 36.3% of participants, who showed changes in smoking, physical exercise, fruit intake, and drunkenness consistent with the prevailing age specific norms of these behaviors in the Norwegian society at the time. The second trajectory was a passive trajectory, comprising 25.5% of participants, who reported low levels of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors during the 17-year period. The third trajectory was an unhealthy trajectory, comprising 38.2% of participants, who had high levels of unhealthy behaviors over time. Several covariates were examined, but only sex and mother’s and father’s educational levels were found to be significantly associated with the identified trajectories. While these findings need to be replicated in future studies, the identification of the different trajectories suggests the need to tailor intervention according to specific needs.

  11. Growth Trajectories of Health Behaviors from Adolescence through Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiium, Nora; Breivik, Kyrre; Wold, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Based on nine waves of data collected during a period of 17 years (1990–2007), the present study explored different developmental trajectories of the following unhealthy behaviors: regular smoking, lack of regular exercise, lack of daily fruit intake, and drunkenness. A baseline sample of 1195 13-year-old pupils was from 22 randomly selected schools in the Hordaland County in western Norway. Latent class growth analysis revealed three developmental trajectories. The first trajectory was a conventional trajectory, comprising 36.3% of participants, who showed changes in smoking, physical exercise, fruit intake, and drunkenness consistent with the prevailing age specific norms of these behaviors in the Norwegian society at the time. The second trajectory was a passive trajectory, comprising 25.5% of participants, who reported low levels of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors during the 17-year period. The third trajectory was an unhealthy trajectory, comprising 38.2% of participants, who had high levels of unhealthy behaviors over time. Several covariates were examined, but only sex and mother’s and father’s educational levels were found to be significantly associated with the identified trajectories. While these findings need to be replicated in future studies, the identification of the different trajectories suggests the need to tailor intervention according to specific needs. PMID:26516889

  12. Prognosis of occupational hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvetkovski, Rikke Skoet; Zachariae, Robert; Jensen, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify prognostic risk factors in patients with occupational hand eczema (OHE). DESIGN: Cohort study with 1-year follow-up. SETTING: Danish National Board of Industrial Injuries Registry. PATIENTS: All patients with newly recognized OHE (758 cases) from October 1, 2001, through...... it. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Persistently severe or aggravated OHE, prolonged sick leave, and loss of job after 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 25% of all patients with OHE had persistently severe or aggravated disease, 41% improved, and 34% had unchanged minimal or mild...... to moderate disease. Patients with atopic dermatitis fared poorly compared with other patients. Patients younger than 25 years fared clearly better than older groups. Furthermore, severe OHE, age 40 years or greater, and severe impairment of quality of life at baseline appeared to be important predictors...

  13. Hand Gesture Recognition Using Ultrasonic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    AlSharif, Mohammed Hussain

    2016-01-01

    estimation of the moving hand and received signal strength (RSS). These two factors are estimated using two simple methods; channel impulse response (CIR) and cross correlation (CC) of the reflected ultrasonic signal from the gesturing hand. A customized

  14. Hand osteoarthritis: Clinical and imaging study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abir Naguib

    2011-09-09

    Sep 9, 2011 ... Methods: This study was carried out on thirty patients with primary hand OA, and fifteen healthy subjects .... history about their hand condition including morning stiffness, ..... They found the US method of direct visualiza-.

  15. Human arm stiffness and equilibrium-point trajectory during multi-joint movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomi, H; Kawato, M

    1997-03-01

    By using a newly designed high-performance manipulandum and a new estimation algorithm, we measured human multi-joint arm stiffness parameters during multi-joint point-to-point movements on a horizontal plane. This manipulandum allows us to apply a sufficient perturbation to subject's arm within a brief period during movement. Arm stiffness parameters were reliably estimated using a new algorithm, in which all unknown structural parameters could be estimated independent of arm posture (i.e., constant values under any arm posture). Arm stiffness during transverse movement was considerably greater than that during corresponding posture, but not during a longitudinal movement. Although the ratios of elbow, shoulder, and double-joint stiffness were varied in time, the orientation of stiffness ellipses during the movement did not change much. Equilibrium-point trajectories that were predicted from measured stiffness parameters and actual trajectories were slightly sinusoidally curved in Cartesian space and their velocity profiles were quite different from the velocity profiles of actual hand trajectories. This result contradicts the hypothesis that the brain does not take the dynamics into account in movement control depending on the neuromuscular servo mechanism; rather, it implies that the brain needs to acquire some internal models of controlled objects.

  16. POLYANA-A tool for the calculation of molecular radial distribution functions based on Molecular Dynamics trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroulis, Christos; Raptis, Theophanes; Raptis, Vasilios

    2015-12-01

    We present an application for the calculation of radial distribution functions for molecular centres of mass, based on trajectories generated by molecular simulation methods (Molecular Dynamics, Monte Carlo). When designing this application, the emphasis was placed on ease of use as well as ease of further development. In its current version, the program can read trajectories generated by the well-known DL_POLY package, but it can be easily extended to handle other formats. It is also very easy to 'hack' the program so it can compute intermolecular radial distribution functions for groups of interaction sites rather than whole molecules.

  17. Hand Shape Affects Access to Memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Dijkstra (Katinka); M.P. Kaschak; R.A. Zwaan (Rolf)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe present study examined the ways that body posture facilitated retrieval of autobiographical memories in more detail by focusing on two aspects of congruence in position of a specific body part: hand shape and hand orientation. Hand shape is important in the tactile perception and

  18. Hand eczema severity and quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, Tove; Andersen, Klaus E; Brandao, Francisco M

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hand eczema is a chronic disease with negative impact on quality of life (QoL). In this study, QoL in hand eczema patients is assessed and related to age, sex, severity, and diagnostic subgroups. Methods: A total of 416 patients with hand eczema from 10 European patch...

  19. A hand-hygiene behaviour monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schie, M.; Wiesman, R.F.F.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a hand-hygiene behaviour monitoring system, comprising: means for detecting the occurrence of an event specified in a hand-hygiene rule, wherein the event involves a person; means for updating behaviour data that is related to acts according to the hand-hygiene rule, wherein

  20. Tropical diabetic hand syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeika, Eugene Vernyuy; Tchoumi Tantchou, Jacques Cabral; Foryoung, Joyce Bei; Tolefac, Paul Nkemtendong; Efie, Derrick Tembi; Choukem, Siméon Pierre

    2017-02-13

    Tropical diabetic hand syndrome describes a complex hand sepsis affecting patients with diabetes across the tropics and often results from a trivial hand trauma. The clinical presentation of this syndrome is variable and ranges from localised swelling and cellulitis, with or without ulceration of the hand to progressive fulminant hand sepsis, and gangrene affecting the entire limb which may be fatal. Tropical diabetic hand syndrome could lead to permanent disability and death as a result of delay in presentation, late diagnosis and late medical and surgical intervention. This indexed case acts as an eye opener for physicians to the existence of this hand sepsis. We report the case of a 57 year-old black African female diabetic who was referred to our centre for the management of a suppurating ulcer and swelling of the left hand of two weeks duration. On examination and work-up, the patient was found to have Lawal Group III left diabetic hand syndrome and was managed with parenteral antibiotics, radical debridement and the hand was eventually amputated. She died 7 days following amputation from overwhelming sepsis. Though tropical diabetic hand syndrome is a relatively rare complication of diabetes, it can be fatal as in this case report. Early diagnosis and proper management would yield better outcome. Initial management should include aggressive intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics with anaerobic coverage. Classification of tropical diabetic hand syndrome will assist physicians and surgeons in decision making, proper management and easy communication.

  1. Trajectories of Marital Conflict across the Life Course: Predictors and Interactions with Marital Happiness Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Taylor, Miles G.

    2012-01-01

    Using typologies outlined by Gottman and Fitzpatrick as well as institutional and companionate models of marriage, the authors conducted a latent class analysis of marital conflict trajectories using 20 years of data from the Marital Instability Over the Life Course study. Respondents were in one of three groups: high, medium (around the mean), or…

  2. Stellar formation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddish, V C

    1978-01-01

    Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure

  3. Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2010-10-01

    The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400-407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305-320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximationMCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE algorithm for missing data problems, is also considered in the paper. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2010.

  4. Experimental nonlocal steering of Bohmian trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ya; Kedem, Yaron; Xu, Jin-Shi; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-06-26

    Interpretations of quantum mechanics (QM), or proposals for underlying theories, that attempt to present a definite realist picture, such as Bohmian mechanics, require strong non-local effects. Naively, these effects would violate causality and contradict special relativity. However if the theory agrees with QM the violation cannot be observed directly. Here, we demonstrate experimentally such an effect: we steer the velocity and trajectory of a Bohmian particle using a remote measurement. We use a pair of photons and entangle the spatial transverse position of one with the polarization of the other. The first photon is sent to a double-slit-like apparatus, where its trajectory is measured using the technique of Weak Measurements. The other photon is projected to a linear polarization state. The choice of polarization state, and the result, steer the first photon in the most intuitive sense of the word. The effect is indeed shown to be dramatic, while being easy to visualize. We discuss its strength and what are the conditions for it to occur.

  5. Cosmic ray particle dosimetry and trajectory tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruty, M.R.; Benton, E.V.; Turnbill, C.E.; Philpott, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    Five pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) were flown on Apollo XVII, each with a solid-state (plastic) nuclear track detector implanted beneath its scalp. The subscalp detectors were sensitive to HZE cosmic ray particles with a LET greater than or approximately equal to 0.15 million electron volts per micrometer (MeV/micron). A critical aspect of the dosimetry of the experiment involved tracing individual particle trajectories through each mouse head from particle tracks registered in the individual subscalp detectors, thereby establishing a one-to-one correspondence between a trajectory location in the tissue and the presence or absence of a lesion. The other major aspect was the identification of each registered particle. An average of 16 particles with Z greater than or equal to 6 and 2.2 particles with Z greater than or equal to 20 were found per detector. The track density, 29 tracks/sq cm, when adjusted for detection volume, was in agreement with the photographic emulsion data from an area dosimeter located next to the flight package

  6. Complexity in Individual Trajectories toward Online Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Cao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Society faces a fundamental global problem of understanding which individuals are currently developing strong support for some extremist entity such as ISIS (Islamic State, even if they never end up doing anything in the real world. The importance of online connectivity in developing intent has been confirmed by recent case studies of already convicted terrorists. Here we use ideas from Complexity to identify dynamical patterns in the online trajectories that individuals take toward developing a high level of extremist support, specifically, for ISIS. Strong memory effects emerge among individuals whose transition is fastest and hence may become “out of the blue” threats in the real world. A generalization of diagrammatic expansion theory helps quantify these characteristics, including the impact of changes in geographical location, and can facilitate prediction of future risks. By quantifying the trajectories that individuals follow on their journey toward expressing high levels of pro-ISIS support—irrespective of whether they then carry out a real-world attack or not—our findings can help move safety debates beyond reliance on static watch-list identifiers such as ethnic background or immigration status and/or postfact interviews with already convicted individuals. Given the broad commonality of social media platforms, our results likely apply quite generally; for example, even on Telegram where (like Twitter there is no built-in group feature as in our study, individuals tend to collectively build and pass through the so-called super-group accounts.

  7. Quantum trajectories: Memory and continuous observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchielli, Alberto; Pellegrini, Clément; Petruccione, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Starting from a generalization of the quantum trajectory theory [based on the stochastic Schrödinger equation (SSE)], non-Markovian models of quantum dynamics are derived. In order to describe non-Markovian effects, the approach used in this article is based on the introduction of random coefficients in the usual linear SSE. A major interest is that this allows a consistent theory of quantum measurement in continuous time to be developed for these non-Markovian quantum trajectory models. In this context, the notions of “instrument,” “a priori,” and “a posteriori” states can be introduced. The key point is that by starting from a stochastic equation on the Hilbert space of the system, we are able to respect the complete positivity of the mean dynamics for the statistical operator and the requirements of the axioms of quantum measurement theory. The flexibility of the theory is next illustrated by a concrete physical model of a noisy oscillator where non-Markovian effects come from the random environment, colored noises, randomness in the stimulating light, and delay effects. The statistics of the emitted photons and the heterodyne and homodyne spectra are studied, and we show how these quantities are sensitive to the non-Markovian features of the system dynamics, so that, in principle, the observation and analysis of the fluorescent light could reveal the presence of non-Markovian effects and allow for a measure of the spectra of the noises affecting the system dynamics.

  8. Maternal age and trajectories of cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genna, Natacha M; Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L

    2015-11-01

    Becoming a mother is a developmental transition that has been linked to desistance from substance use. However, timing of motherhood may be a key determinant of cannabis use in women, based on preliminary evidence from teenage mothers. The goal of this study was to identify trajectories of maternal cannabis use, and to determine if maternal age was associated with different trajectories of use. This prospective study examined 456 pregnant women recruited at a prenatal clinic, ranging in age from 13 to 42 years. The women were interviewed about their cannabis use 1 year prior to pregnancy and during each trimester of pregnancy, and at 6, 10, 14, and 16 years post-partum. A growth mixture model of cannabis use reported at each time point clearly delineated four groups: non/unlikely to use, decreasing likelihood of use, late desistance, and increasing likelihood/chronic use (Lo-Mendell-Rubin adjusted LRT test statistic=35.7, pdepressive symptoms were also associated with more frequent use. These findings have implications for both prevention and treatment of cannabis use in mothers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamic trajectory-based couch motion for improvement of radiation therapy trajectories in cranial SRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, R. Lee [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Thomas, Christopher G., E-mail: Chris.Thomas@cdha.nshealth.ca [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate potential improvement in external beam stereotactic radiation therapy plan quality for cranial cases using an optimized dynamic gantry and patient support couch motion trajectory, which could minimize exposure to sensitive healthy tissue. Methods: Anonymized patient anatomy and treatment plans of cranial cancer patients were used to quantify the geometric overlap between planning target volumes and organs-at-risk (OARs) based on their two-dimensional projection from source to a plane at isocenter as a function of gantry and couch angle. Published dose constraints were then used as weighting factors for the OARs to generate a map of couch-gantry coordinate space, indicating degree of overlap at each point in space. A couch-gantry collision space was generated by direct measurement on a linear accelerator and couch using an anthropomorphic solid-water phantom. A dynamic, fully customizable algorithm was written to generate a navigable ideal trajectory for the patient specific couch-gantry space. The advanced algorithm can be used to balance the implementation of absolute minimum values of overlap with the clinical practicality of large-scale couch motion and delivery time. Optimized cranial cancer treatment trajectories were compared to conventional treatment trajectories. Results: Comparison of optimized treatment trajectories with conventional treatment trajectories indicated an average decrease in mean dose to the OARs of 19% and an average decrease in maximum dose to the OARs of 12%. Degradation was seen for homogeneity index (6.14% ± 0.67%–5.48% ± 0.76%) and conformation number (0.82 ± 0.02–0.79 ± 0.02), but neither was statistically significant. Removal of OAR constraints from volumetric modulated arc therapy optimization reveals that reduction in dose to OARs is almost exclusively due to the optimized trajectory and not the OAR constraints. Conclusions: The authors’ study indicated that simultaneous couch and gantry motion

  10. Dynamic trajectory-based couch motion for improvement of radiation therapy trajectories in cranial SRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, R. Lee; Thomas, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate potential improvement in external beam stereotactic radiation therapy plan quality for cranial cases using an optimized dynamic gantry and patient support couch motion trajectory, which could minimize exposure to sensitive healthy tissue. Methods: Anonymized patient anatomy and treatment plans of cranial cancer patients were used to quantify the geometric overlap between planning target volumes and organs-at-risk (OARs) based on their two-dimensional projection from source to a plane at isocenter as a function of gantry and couch angle. Published dose constraints were then used as weighting factors for the OARs to generate a map of couch-gantry coordinate space, indicating degree of overlap at each point in space. A couch-gantry collision space was generated by direct measurement on a linear accelerator and couch using an anthropomorphic solid-water phantom. A dynamic, fully customizable algorithm was written to generate a navigable ideal trajectory for the patient specific couch-gantry space. The advanced algorithm can be used to balance the implementation of absolute minimum values of overlap with the clinical practicality of large-scale couch motion and delivery time. Optimized cranial cancer treatment trajectories were compared to conventional treatment trajectories. Results: Comparison of optimized treatment trajectories with conventional treatment trajectories indicated an average decrease in mean dose to the OARs of 19% and an average decrease in maximum dose to the OARs of 12%. Degradation was seen for homogeneity index (6.14% ± 0.67%–5.48% ± 0.76%) and conformation number (0.82 ± 0.02–0.79 ± 0.02), but neither was statistically significant. Removal of OAR constraints from volumetric modulated arc therapy optimization reveals that reduction in dose to OARs is almost exclusively due to the optimized trajectory and not the OAR constraints. Conclusions: The authors’ study indicated that simultaneous couch and gantry motion

  11. Eye tracking a self-moved target with complex hand-target dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landelle, Caroline; Montagnini, Anna; Madelain, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the ability to track with the eye a moving target is substantially improved when the target is self-moved by the subject's hand compared with when being externally moved. Here, we explored a situation in which the mapping between hand movement and target motion was perturbed by simulating an elastic relationship between the hand and target. Our objective was to determine whether the predictive mechanisms driving eye-hand coordination could be updated to accommodate this complex hand-target dynamics. To fully appreciate the behavioral effects of this perturbation, we compared eye tracking performance when self-moving a target with a rigid mapping (simple) and a spring mapping as well as when the subject tracked target trajectories that he/she had previously generated when using the rigid or spring mapping. Concerning the rigid mapping, our results confirmed that smooth pursuit was more accurate when the target was self-moved than externally moved. In contrast, with the spring mapping, eye tracking had initially similar low spatial accuracy (though shorter temporal lag) in the self versus externally moved conditions. However, within ∼5 min of practice, smooth pursuit improved in the self-moved spring condition, up to a level similar to the self-moved rigid condition. Subsequently, when the mapping unexpectedly switched from spring to rigid, the eye initially followed the expected target trajectory and not the real one, thereby suggesting that subjects used an internal representation of the new hand-target dynamics. Overall, these results emphasize the stunning adaptability of smooth pursuit when self-maneuvering objects with complex dynamics. PMID:27466129

  12. Measuring the Distance of Moving Objects from Big Trajectory Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaing Phyo Wai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Location-based services have become important in social networking, mobile applications, advertising, traffic monitoring, and many other domains. The growth of location sensing devices has led to the vast generation of dynamic spatial-temporal data in the form of moving object trajectories which can be characterized as big trajectory data. Big trajectory data enables the opportunities such as analyzing the groups of moving objects. To obtain such facilities, the issue of this work is to find a distance measurement method that respects the geographic distance and the semantic similarity for each trajectory. Measurement of similarity between moving objects is a difficult task because not only their position changes but also their semantic features vary. In this research, a method to measure trajectory similarity based on both geographical features and semantic features of motion is proposed. Finally, the proposed methods are practically evaluated by using real trajectory dataset.

  13. A Formally Verified Conflict Detection Algorithm for Polynomial Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkawicz, Anthony; Munoz, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    In air traffic management, conflict detection algorithms are used to determine whether or not aircraft are predicted to lose horizontal and vertical separation minima within a time interval assuming a trajectory model. In the case of linear trajectories, conflict detection algorithms have been proposed that are both sound, i.e., they detect all conflicts, and complete, i.e., they do not present false alarms. In general, for arbitrary nonlinear trajectory models, it is possible to define detection algorithms that are either sound or complete, but not both. This paper considers the case of nonlinear aircraft trajectory models based on polynomial functions. In particular, it proposes a conflict detection algorithm that precisely determines whether, given a lookahead time, two aircraft flying polynomial trajectories are in conflict. That is, it has been formally verified that, assuming that the aircraft trajectories are modeled as polynomial functions, the proposed algorithm is both sound and complete.

  14. IRVE-II Post-Flight Trajectory Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Bose, David M.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) II successfully demonstrated an inflatable aerodynamic decelerator after being launched aboard a sounding rocket from Wallops Flight Facility (WFF). Preliminary day of flight data compared well with pre-flight Monte Carlo analysis, and a more complete trajectory reconstruction performed with an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) approach followed. The reconstructed trajectory and comparisons to an attitude solution provided by NASA Sounding Rocket Operations Contract (NSROC) personnel at WFF are presented. Additional comparisons are made between the reconstructed trajectory and pre and post-flight Monte Carlo trajectory predictions. Alternative observations of the trajectory are summarized which leverage flight accelerometer measurements, the pre-flight aerodynamic database, and on-board flight video. Finally, analysis of the payload separation and aeroshell deployment events are presented. The flight trajectory is reconstructed to fidelity sufficient to assess overall project objectives related to flight dynamics and overall, IRVE-II flight dynamics are in line with expectations

  15. Spatial variability of hailfalls in France: an analysis of air mass retro-trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Lucía; Merino, Andrés; Sánchez, José Luis; Berthet, Claude; Dessens, Jean; López, Laura; Fernández-González, Sergio; Gascón, Estíbaliz; García-Ortega, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Hail is the main meteorological risk in south-west France, with the strongest hailfalls being concentrated in just a few days. Specifically, this phenomenon occurs most often and with the greatest severity in the Midi-Pyrénées area. Previous studies have revealed the high spatial variability of hailfall in this part of France, even leading to different characteristics being recorded on hailpads that were relatively close together. For this reason, an analysis of the air mass trajectories was carried out at ground level and at altitude, which subsequently led to the formation of the hail recorded by these hailpads. It is already known that in the study zone, the trajectories of the storms usually stretch for long distances and are oriented towards the east, leading to hailstones with diameters in excess of 3 cm, and without any change in direction above 3 km. We analysed different days with hail precipitation where there was at least one stone with a diameter of 3 cm or larger. Using the simulations from these days, an analysis of the backward trajectories of the air masses was carried out. We used the HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model) to determine the origin of the air masses, and tracked them toward each of the hailpads that were hit during the day studied. The height of the final points was the height of the impacted hailpads. Similarly, the backward trajectories for different heights were also established. Finally, the results show how storms that affect neighbouring hailpads come from very different air masses; and provide a deeper understanding of the high variability that affects the characteristics of hailfalls. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Regional Government of Castile-León for its financial support through the project LE220A11-2. This study was supported by the following grants: GRANIMETRO (CGL2010-15930); MICROMETEO (IPT-310000-2010-22).

  16. GeoTravel: Harvesting Ambient Geographic Footprints from GPS Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Li Ching; Goh, Ong Sing

    2014-01-01

    This study is about harvesting point of interest from GPS trajectories. Trajectories are the paths that moving objects move by follow through space in a function of time while GPS trajectories generally are point-sequences with geographic coordinates, time stamp, speed and heading. User can get information from GPS enable device. For example, user can acquire present location, search the information around them and design driving routes to a destination and thus design travel itineraries. By ...

  17. Synthetic triphones from trajectory-based feature distributions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available we reconstruct models for unseen transitions. In the current study, we restrict ourselves to triphone modelling, and aim to generate synthetic triphones from seen diphones. If this is possible, the same approach should be applicable to larger contexts... are applied in a similar fashion. Using trajectory models for the same goal, builds on prior work analysing co-articulation trajectories [7], [8], [9] as well as various studies on trajectory modelling for ASR purposes [10], [11], [12], [13]. Particularly...

  18. Trajectory optimization using indirect methods and parametric scramjet cycle analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the solution of time sensitive regional strike trajectories for hypersonic missiles. This minimum time trajectory is suspected to be best performed by scramjet powered hypersonic missiles which creates strong coupled interaction between the flight dynamics and the performance of the engine. Comprehensive engine models are necessary to gain better insight into scramjet propulsion. Separately, robust and comprehensive trajectory analysis provides references for vehicles ...

  19. Unilateral Cleft Hand with Cleft Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Asif Nazir; Bhat, Yasmeen J.; Ahmed, Sheikh Mushtaq; Nazir, Abid

    2009-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the hand form an important class of congenital malformations. They have a huge functional importance because of the part played by the hand in the daily activities of a person. The deformities also have significant cosmetic significance and may also be associated with other anomalies. Amongst the congenital anomalies, central deficiency or cleft hand is relatively rare. The association of cleft foot with cleft hand is an even more rare occurance. We present a case report of a 6 year old child, born of a non-consanginous marriage, having congenital central deficiency of ipsilateral hand and foot. PMID:21475543

  20. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Di Cintio, A.; Dvorkin, I.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  1. Advancing nursing science through health trajectory research: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Jean F; Henly, Susan J

    2011-01-01

    The Minnesota Center for Health Trajectory Research has focused on developing ways to better understand how interventions influence health trajectories during transitional, acute, or chronic health challenges across the life span. The health trajectory perspective advances nursing science by providing a person-centered point of view that emphasizes change in health over time within individuals, families, groups, or communities. Theoretical considerations and statistical modeling approaches used in studying health trajectories, along with exemplars from nursing research studies from this special issue of Nursing Research, are highlighted.

  2. Algorithms for computing efficient, electric-propulsion, spiralling trajectories

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop techniques for rapidly designing many-revolution, electric-propulsion, spiralling trajectories, including the effects of shadowing, gravity harmonics, and...

  3. Tracing developmental trajectories of oppositional defiant behaviors in preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    Full Text Available Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB, which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3-5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments.A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5.The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers. Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%-9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way.Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children.

  4. A Dropsonde Glider with Adaptive Trajectory Planning, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dropsondes are one of the primary atmospheric measurement tools available to researchers. Current dropsondes are deployed with a free fall parachute trajectory,...

  5. Towards a Formal Semantics of Flight Plans and Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, George E.; Butler, Ricky W.

    2014-01-01

    In the National Airspace System, ight plans are often used only as a planning tool by air trac controllers and aircraft operators. These plans are implicitly translated into trajectories by the pilot or by the ight management system, and subsequently own by the aircraft. This translation process inevitably introduces di erences between the plan and the trajectory. However, given the current intended usage, exact correspondence between the plan and the trajectory is not needed. To achieve greater capacity and eciency, future air trac management concepts are being designed around the use of trajectories where predictability is extremely important. In this paper, a mathematical relationship between ight plans and trajectories is explored with the goal of making feasible, highly accurate predictions of future positions and velocities of aircraft. The goal here is to describe, in mathematically precise detail, a formal language of trajectories, whereby all receivers of the trajectory information will be able to arrive at precisely the same trajectory predication and to do this without having aircraft broadcast a large amount of data. Although even a four-dimensional ight plan is simple in structure, this paper will show that it is inherently ambiguous and will explore these issues in detail. In e ect, we propose that a rigorous semantics for ight plans can be developed and this will serve as an important stepping stone towards trajectory-based operations in the National Airspace System.

  6. Robot hands and extravehicular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Beth

    1987-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) is crucial to the success of both current and future space operations. As space operations have evolved in complexity so has the demand placed on the EVA crewman. In addition, some NASA requirements for human capabilities at remote or hazardous sites were identified. One of the keys to performing useful EVA tasks is the ability to manipulate objects accurately, quickly and without early or excessive fatigue. The current suit employs a glove which enables the crewman to perform grasping tasks, use tools, turn switches, and perform other tasks for short periods of time. However, the glove's bulk and resistance to motion ultimately causes fatigue. Due to this limitation it may not be possible to meet the productivity requirements that will be placed on the EVA crewman of the future with the current or developmental Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) hardware. In addition, this hardware will not meet the requirements for remote or hazardous operations. In an effort to develop ways for improving crew productivity, a contract was awarded to develop a prototype anthromorphic robotic hand (ARH) for use with an extravehicular space suit. The first step in this program was to perform a a design study which investigated the basic technology required for the development of an ARH to enhance crew performance and productivity. The design study phase of the contract and some additional development work is summarized.

  7. Neural representation of hand kinematics during prehension in posterior parietal cortex of the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jessie; Reitzen, Shari D; Kohlenstein, Jane B; Gardner, Esther P

    2009-12-01

    Studies of hand manipulation neurons in posterior parietal cortex of monkeys suggest that their spike trains represent objects by the hand postures needed for grasping or by the underlying patterns of muscle activation. To analyze the role of hand kinematics and object properties in a trained prehension task, we correlated the firing rates of neurons in anterior area 5 with hand behaviors as monkeys grasped and lifted knobs of different shapes and locations in the workspace. Trials were divided into four classes depending on the approach trajectory: forward, lateral, and local approaches, and regrasps. The task factors controlled by the animal-how and when he used the hand-appeared to play the principal roles in modulating firing rates of area 5 neurons. In all, 77% of neurons studied (58/75) showed significant effects of approach style on firing rates; 80% of the population responded at higher rates and for longer durations on forward or lateral approaches that included reaching, wrist rotation, and hand preshaping prior to contact, but only 13% distinguished the direction of reach. The higher firing rates in reach trials reflected not only the arm movements needed to direct the hand to the target before contact, but persisted through the contact, grasp, and lift stages. Moreover, the approach style exerted a stronger effect on firing rates than object features, such as shape and location, which were distinguished by half of the population. Forty-three percent of the neurons signaled both the object properties and the hand actions used to acquire them. However, the spread in firing rates evoked by each knob on reach and no-reach trials was greater than distinctions between different objects grasped with the same approach style. Our data provide clear evidence for synergies between reaching and grasping that may facilitate smooth, coordinated actions of the arm and hand.

  8. Modularity in New Market Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron; Hang, Chang Chieh

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we appraise the ways in which use of closed-system proprietary product architectures versus open-system modular product architectures is likely to influence the dynamics and trajectory of new product market formation. We compare the evolutions of new markets in China for gas......-powered two-wheeled vehicles (G2WVs) based (initially) on closed-system proprietary architectures and for electric-powered two-wheeled vehicles (E2WVs) based on open-system modular architectures. We draw on this comparison to suggest ways in which the use of the two different kinds of architectures...... as the basis for new kinds of products may result in very different patterns and speeds of new market formation. We then suggest some key implications of the different dynamics of market formation associated with open-system modular architectures for both the competence-based strategic management (CBSM...

  9. Verbal Prompting, Hand-over-Hand Instruction, and Passive Observation in Teaching Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, G. B.; Fairhall, J. L.; Raven, K. A.; Davey, V. A.

    1998-01-01

    A study involving six children (ages 5-13) with mental retardation found that overall passive modeling was significantly more effective than hand-over-hand modeling in teaching skills, and that passive modeling was significantly more effective than hand-over-hand modeling with response-contingent verbal prompting. (Author/CR)

  10. Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

  11. Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In…

  12. Soft pomeron and lower-trajectory intercepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudell, J.R.; Kang, K.

    1999-01-01

    We present a preliminary report on the determination of the intercepts and couplings of the soft pomeron and of the p/ω and f/a trajectories from the largest data set available for all total cross sections and real parts of the hadronic amplitudes. Factorization is reasonably satisfied by the pomeron couplings, which allows us to make predictions on γγ and γp total cross sections. In addition we show that these data cannot discriminate between fits based on a simple Regge pomeron-pole and on an asymptotic log 2 s-type behaviour, implying that the effect of unitarization is negligible. Also we examine the range of validity in energy of the fit, and the bounds that these data lace on the odderon and on the hard pomeron. (author)

  13. Trajectories and models of individual growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arseniy Karkach

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available It has long been recognized that the patterns of growth play an important role in the evolution of age trajectories of fertility and mortality (Williams, 1957. Life history studies would benefit from a better understanding of strategies and mechanisms of growth, but still no comparative research on individual growth strategies has been conducted. Growth patterns and methods have been shaped by evolution and a great variety of them are observed. Two distinct patterns - determinate and indeterminate growth - are of a special interest for these studies since they present qualitatively different outcomes of evolution. We attempt to draw together studies covering growth in plant and animal species across a wide range of phyla focusing primarily on the noted qualitative features. We also review mathematical descriptions of growth, namely empirical growth curves and growth models, and discuss the directions of future research.

  14. Study of soccer ball flight trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javorova Juliana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the trajectories of a soccer ball for the most important kicks in the football game - a corner kick and a direct free kick are studied. The soccer ball is modelled as an ideal rigid hollow spherical body with six degrees of freedom, which performs a general motion in an immovable air environment with constant parameters. The ball 3D orientation is determined by the three Cardan angles. The aerodynamic forces and moments with which the air environment acts to the ball are taken into account. Two of the most dangerous areas of the football goal are defined. Differential equations which describe the motion of the soccer ball are solved numerically by MatLab-Simulink.

  15. Bell trajectories for revealing quantum control mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, Eric; Rabitz, Herschel

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics induced while controlling quantum systems by optimally shaped laser pulses have often been difficult to understand in detail. A method is presented for quantifying the importance of specific sequences of quantum transitions involved in the control process. The method is based on a ''beable'' formulation of quantum mechanics due to John Bell that rigorously maps the quantum evolution onto an ensemble of stochastic trajectories over a classical state space. Detailed mechanism identification is illustrated with a model seven-level system. A general procedure is presented to extract mechanism information directly from closed-loop control experiments. Application to simulated experimental data for the model system proves robust with up to 25% noise

  16. Classical trajectory in non-relativistic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    With the statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics as a guide, the classical trajectory is incorporated into quantum scattering theory. The Feynman path integral formalism is used as a starting point, and classical transformation theory is applied to the phase of the wave function so derived. This approach is then used to derive an expression for the scattering amplitude for potential scattering. It is found that the amplitude can be expressed in an impact parameter representation similar to the Glauber formalism. Connections are then made to the Glauber approximation and to semiclassical approximations derived from the Feynman path integral formalism. In extending this analysis to projectile-nucleus scattering, an approximation scheme is given with the first term being the same as in Glauber's multiple scattering theory. Higher-order approximations, thus, are found to give corrections to the fixed scatterer form of the impulse approximation inherent in the Glauber theory

  17. Assessing the performance of dynamical trajectory estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröcker, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Estimating trajectories and parameters of dynamical systems from observations is a problem frequently encountered in various branches of science; geophysicists for example refer to this problem as data assimilation. Unlike as in estimation problems with exchangeable observations, in data assimilation the observations cannot easily be divided into separate sets for estimation and validation; this creates serious problems, since simply using the same observations for estimation and validation might result in overly optimistic performance assessments. To circumvent this problem, a result is presented which allows us to estimate this optimism, thus allowing for a more realistic performance assessment in data assimilation. The presented approach becomes particularly simple for data assimilation methods employing a linear error feedback (such as synchronization schemes, nudging, incremental 3DVAR and 4DVar, and various Kalman filter approaches). Numerical examples considering a high gain observer confirm the theory.

  18. Historical trajectory of nursing school at Technical University of Babahoyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecibel Vera Marquez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Bachelors of the province of the Rivers, to study the careers of health had to travel to other sectors of the country, and before this necessity the Technical University of Babahoyo opened academic spaces in formation in areas of the health creating the School of Nursing with the The mission of training nurses that meet the needs of the population is in the hospital or community, and thus contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of the population of Rio de Janeiro, acting under the ethical and moral principles that society demands. This remembrance describes its historical trajectory, and its spaces of institutional growth, as well as the population coverage, being one of the races with greater demand in the university, the statistical data delivered by the Center of Leveling and Admission of the UTB, shows a Historical evolution of the UTB academic offer of the ENES processes of September 2013 and March 2015, the nursing career is among the first five races most offered among the four periods (Equipo de Apoyo y Seguimiento Acad´emico, 2015. In this way the Nursing career of the Faculty of Health Sciences, has become a space of knowledge and lucubraci´on inspired by the desire to overcome and the permanent work of a practice that strengthens the knowledge, skills and skills that Consolidate the competencies of the nurse profile.

  19. Educational expectation trajectories and attainment in the transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Reynolds, John R

    2013-05-01

    How consequential is family socioeconomic status for maintaining plans to get a bachelor's degree during the transition to adulthood? This article examines persistence and change in educational expectations, focusing on the extent to which family socioeconomic status shapes overtime trajectories of bachelor's degree expectations, how the influence involves the timing of family formation and full-time work vs. college attendance, and how persistence in expectations is consequential for getting a 4-year degree. The findings, based on the high school senior classes of 1987-1990, demonstrate that adolescents from higher socioeconomic status families are much more likely to hold onto their expectations to earn 4-year degrees, both in the early years after high school and, for those who do not earn degrees within that period, on through their 20s. These more persistent expectations in young adulthood, more so than adolescent expectations, help explain the greater success of young people from higher socioeconomic status backgrounds in earning a 4-year degree. Persistence of expectations to earn a bachelor's degree in the years after high school is shaped by stratified pathways of school, work, and family roles in the transition to adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Life-style factors and hand eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anveden Berglind, I; Alderling, M; Meding, B

    2011-09-01

    Previous knowledge of the impact of certain life-style factors on hand eczema is scanty. To investigate a possible association between hand eczema and life-style factors such as obesity, physical exercise, stress, smoking and alcohol consumption. In a cross-sectional public health survey in Stockholm, Sweden, 27,994 (58%) randomly chosen individuals aged 18-64 years completed a postal questionnaire regarding physical and mental health, social relations, economic status and work. Of these, 27,793 individuals responded to the question regarding hand eczema and were included in the present study. The association between life-style factors and hand eczema was analysed by prevalence proportion ratios (PPR), using a generalized linear model. Hand eczema was more common among individuals who reported high stress levels, PPR 1·326 (95% CI 1·303-1·350). There was also a positive dose-response relationship between hand eczema and stress. Hand eczema was less common among individuals reporting high physical exercise, and most apparent in women, PPR 0·781 (95% CI 0·770-0·792). Men who reported high alcohol intake reported hand eczema less often, PPR 0·958 (95% CI 0·930-0·987). Obese individuals reported hand eczema more commonly, PPR 1·204 (95% CI 1·174-1·234). There was a slight increase of hand eczema among smokers, PPR 1·025 (95% CI 1·006-1·044). Hand eczema was more common in individuals who reported stress, obesity and smoking. In individuals who reported high physical exercise levels hand eczema was less common. As there appears to be an association between life-style factors and hand eczema it is important to consider life-style factors in clinical practice. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.