WorldWideScience

Sample records for hand parental divorce

  1. Parenting Seminars for Divorcing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Barry B.

    1995-01-01

    Profiles the parenting seminars and counseling services for divorcing parents offered by the Children of Separation and Divorce Center, a community service agency in Maryland. The seminars are designed to help parents adjust to divorce and understand the needs of their children during and after the divorce process. (MDM)

  2. Tips for Divorcing Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents and kids, and watching for signs of stress can help prevent problems developing. Getting Help Figure out how ... Move Helping Your Child Through a Divorce Childhood Stress How Can I Help My Child Cope With Divorce? How Can I ...

  3. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....

  4. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce. © 2009 Association for Psychological Science.

  5. Children's beliefs about parental divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Dovydaitienė, Miglė

    2001-01-01

    This article investigates children's beliefs about parental divorce and attitudes toward environment and people. Children's believes about parental divorce is evaluated in a sample 8 through 10-year children whose parents had been separated for about 3 years. Attitudes toward environment and people between children of separated as well as intact families are compared. We also examined the relation of children's beliefs about parental divorce and attitudes toward environment and people. The me...

  6. PARENTAL DIVORCE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCDERMOTT, JOHN V.

    THE BEHAVIOR OF 16 CHILDREN THREE TO FIVE YEARS OLD AT THE TIME THEIR PARENTS WERE BEING SEPARATED AND DIVORCED WAS OBSERVED IN A PRIVATE, INDEPENDENT NURSERY SCHOOL. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY WERE TO DISCOVER--(1) IF THE DIVORCE PERIOD IS A TIME OF SIGNIFICANT STRESS FOR THE CHILDREN, (2) HOW THE DIVORCE AFFECTS THE BEHAVIOR OF CHILDREN, (3) HOW…

  7. Parental Divorce and Generalized Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Viitanen, Tarja

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of parental divorce during childhood on generalized trust later on in life using Australian HILDA panel data. The dependent variable is composed of answers to the statement: “Generally speaking, most people can be trusted”. The main explanatory variables include the occurrence of parental divorce for the whole sample and the age at which parents divorced for the sub-sample. The analysis is conducted using random effects ordered probit, correlated random effects ...

  8. Children of Divorced Parents: A Perceptual Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangeland, Charlotte S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied the consistency between parent and child responses with respect to the way in which divorced parents reacted since the divorce. Results from self-report questionnaires suggest that a counselor can best assist the child by first assessing the divorce and parental reactions to the divorce. (Author/BH)

  9. Parental divorce and adult longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kandyce; Halfon, Neal

    2013-02-01

    Life course research has established associations between adverse childhood events and later life health. We examine the relationship of experiencing parental divorce before the age of 16 and survival across 34 years of adulthood. Analysis of panel data from a USA-based survey of 6,928 adults residing in Alameda County, California in 1965. Cox regression was used to examine associations between parental divorce and longevity. Controlling for age, race/ethnicity, gender, and childhood socioeconomic position, respondents who recalled a parental divorce during childhood had increased risk of mortality compared to those with no separation. The association was stronger for premature mortality and deaths due to cardiovascular disease. Divorce in childhood was also associated with lowered adult education, fewer social network ties, more depression, and worse health practices. These factors appeared to explain the association with longevity. Parental divorce in childhood is associated with lowered well-being in adulthood and long-term survival. Early prevention and health promotion efforts may be warranted for children who experience parental divorce or discord as a means of supporting enhanced trajectories of health and well-being.

  10. Children's divorce and parent-child contact: A within-family analysis of older European parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have shown that a parental divorce has a negative effect on parent-child relations. This study examines how adult children’s divorce affects the amount of contact children have with older parents, making a distinction between the effects of being single on the one hand and the

  11. The Impact of Parental Divorce on Children's Educational Attainment, Marital Timing, and Likelihood of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Verna M.; Finlay, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Examined combined sample of national data to determine impact of parental divorce on children. Found parental divorce associated with lower educational attainment and earlier age at marriage for sons and daughters. Daughters of divorced parents had higher probability of being divorced. For sons of divorced parents, probability of ever marrying and…

  12. Consequences of Parental Divorce for Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Sik

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I propose a three-stage estimation model to examine the effect of parental divorce on the development of children's cognitive skills and noncognitive traits. Using a framework that includes pre-, in-, and post-divorce time periods, I disentangle the complex factors affecting children of divorce. I use the Early Childhood…

  13. The school counselor's support during parental divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Raišp, Julija

    2016-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with divorce and the role of school counselor to give support to the child. The theoretical part presents the different definitions of family, characteristics of family life in Slovenia and the importance of being raised by both parents. Definition of separation, divorce statistics in Slovenia and the impact of divorce on children is also described. An important issue that is mentioned in the diploma thesis is the time after the divorce. Because of that, an entire cha...

  14. Longevity following the experience of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Leslie R; Friedman, Howard S; Clark, Kathleen M; Tucker, Joan S

    2005-11-01

    An archival prospective design was used to study mediating and moderating variables for the association between parental divorce and increased mortality risk, using a sub-group (n = 1183) of individuals from the US Terman Life Cycle Study covering the period 1921-2000. In childhood, both socioeconomic status (SES) and family psychosocial environment were related to parental divorce but did little to explain its effects. The higher mortality risk associated with experiencing parental divorce was ameliorated among individuals (especially men) who achieved a sense of personal satisfaction by mid-life. Behaviorally, smoking was the strongest mediator of the divorce-mortality link. This study extends previous work on the long-term effects of parental divorce and reveals some reasons why the stress of parental divorce in childhood need not necessarily lead to negative later-life outcomes.

  15. Divorce process variables and the co-parental relationship and parental role fulfillment of divorced parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Nehami

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the association between two sets of divorce process variables, a) initiation of and responsibility for the divorce and b) difficulty and duration of the legal procedure, and divorced spouses' co-parental relationship and parental functioning. In a random sample of 50 former couples, in Israel, findings showed that the longer and more conflictual the legal proceedings, the worse the coparental relationship in the view of both parents. They also showed that mothers' parental functioning was not significantly associated with any of the divorce variables, but fathers' were. The more responsibility the father assumed for the divorce and the more he viewed himself as the initiator, the more he fulfilled his parental functions. The findings are interpreted in the discussion, and their theoretical and practical implications considered.

  16. Parental Divorce and Child Mental Health Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohschein, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    A process-oriented approach to parental divorce locates the experience within the social and developmental context of children's lives, providing greater insight into how parental divorce produces vulnerability in some children and resiliency in others. The current study involves prospectively tracking a nationally representative sample of…

  17. Children's Divorce and Parent-Child Contact: A Within-Family Analysis of Older European Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that a parental divorce has a negative effect on parent-child relations. This study examines how adult children's divorce affects the amount of contact children have with older parents, making a distinction between the effects of being single on the one hand and the effects of divorce on the other hand. Using data on older adults in 11 European countries, I estimate within-family regression models to compare multiple adult children per parent (19,454 children aged 30-49; 10,476 parents aged 50-96). I analyze contact frequency while taking into account coresidence and distance. When comparing single divorced children and married children, no difference in contact is observed, but divorced children are more likely to live with their parents. When comparing among children who are single, divorced children have less frequent contact with parents than never-married children. This negative divorce effect exists for sons and daughters and is found in 9 of the 11 countries. The divorce of a child has a double meaning: it leads to being single, which is associated with stronger intergenerational ties, but it is also a non-normative and stressful life event, which is associated with weaker intergenerational ties. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Lifestyle and cancer: effect of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Kari; Chen, Bowang

    2006-12-01

    According to previous studies, divorced individuals have increased risks of cancers related to alcohol and tobacco consumption and sexual habits, but the increases are balanced with decreased risks of many common cancers. In the present study, cancer risks were analyzed for 0-70-year-old offspring of divorced parents, on the basis the Swedish Family-Cancer Database with cancer data from the years 1958 to 2002. We calculated standardized incidence ratios for cancer among offspring of divorced parents (19,000 cancer patients) and compared them with offspring of stably married parents (121,000 cancer patients). Standardized incidence ratios were adjusted for many factors, including socio-economic status. Offspring of divorced parents were divided into groups depending on whether their mothers, fathers or both had had children with different partners. Offspring of divorced parents had an increased risk of upper aerodigestive tract, esophageal, anal, pancreatic, lung and cervical cancers. Decreased risks were noted for Hodgkin's disease and bone cancer. For Hodgkin's disease, the data suggest protective effects through early exposure to childhood pathogens but for bone cancer mechanisms remain to be established. The overall cancer risk for offspring of divorced parents was at or above unity. The results show that offspring of divorced parents have increased cancer risks at tobacco-related, alcohol-related and sex-related sites, in analogy to their parent, but they lack decreased risks at common sites, experienced by their parents. Divorce is becoming increasingly common in many countries and any deviant cancer patterns among offspring of divorced parents will have an impact on the population risk.

  19. [Psychological repercussions of parental divorce on child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangyseghem, S; Appelboom, J

    2004-10-01

    The parental divorce is an experience with traumatic risk for child. The child's adaptation depends on many factors : his age, his personality and his parent's one, his life context. Those aspects are developed. As the parental separation moves forward, the symptoms that appear in the child are essentially linked to anxiety and feeling of loss. None of these is specific to the parental separation and are, most of the time, temporary. Divorce has to be considered as a factor of vulnerability rather than one precise etiology. The conflicts' persistence between parents seems to be the factor the most important in the worst influence for child's adaptation.

  20. Parental family variables and likelihood of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalkidou, A

    2000-01-01

    It has long been established that divorced men and women have substantially higher standardized general mortality than same gender persons. Because the incidence of divorce is increasing in many countries, determinants of divorce rates assume great importance as indirect risk factors for several diseases and conditions that adversely affect health. We have undertaken a study in Athens, Greece, to evaluate whether sibship size, birth order, and the gender composition of spousal sibships are related to the probability of divorce. 358 high school students, aged between 15 and 17 years, satisfactorily completed anonymous questionnaires, indicating whether their natural parents have been separated or divorced, their parents' educational achievement, birth order and sibship size by gender. The study was analyzed as a twin case-control investigation, treating those divorced or separated as cases and those who were not divorced or separated as controls. A man who grew up as an only child was almost three times as likely to divorce compared to a man with siblings, and this association was highly significant (p approximately 0.004). There was no such evidence with respect to women. After controlling for sibship size, earlier born men--but not women--appeared to be at higher risk for divorce compared to those later born. There was no evidence that the gender structure of the sibship substantially affects the risk for divorce. Even though divorce is not an organic disease, it indirectly affects health as well as the social well-being. The findings of this study need to be replicated, but, if confirmed, they could contribute to our understanding of the roots of some instances of marital dysfunction.

  1. Parental Divorce, Parental Religious Characteristics, and Religious Outcomes in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Uecker, Jeremy E.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one’s custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family—but not a stepparent family—is positively associa...

  2. The Effect of Parents' Attitudes toward Divorce on Offspring's Attitudes: Gender and Parental Divorce as Mediating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapinus, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses three questions: (a) What influence do parents' attitudes toward divorce have on offspring's attitudes? (b) How are offspring's attitudes toward divorce influenced by parental divorce, and do the effects vary depending on the gender of the child? and (c) How do conditions surrounding parental divorce influence young adults'…

  3. Parent-Adolescent Separation: The Role of Parental Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, DeWayne; Hotch, Deborah F.

    1982-01-01

    Among late adolescent males, parental divorce was highly related to Emotional separation as a home-leaving indicator; for females, being a firstborn was associated with Personal Control as a home-leaving indicator. These findings supported previous research indicating that males experience more adjustment problems after parental divorce than…

  4. The Development of the Post-Divorce Parental Conflict Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenblick, Renee; Schwarz, J. Conrad

    One difficulty in studying the long-term impact of divorce on children has been the lack of a reliable and valid measure of parental conflict for divorced parents. Items for a post-divorce conflict scale were written and tested using 32 male and 63 female college students from divorced families for Study 1 and 60 male and 75 female students from…

  5. The temporal effects of parental divorce on youth substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2013-02-01

    This article examines how the parental divorce process affects youth substance use at various stages relative to the divorce. With child-fixed-effect models and a baseline period that is long before the divorce, the estimates rely on within-child changes over time. Youth are more likely to use alcohol 2-4 years before a parental divorce. After the divorce, youth have an increased risk of using alcohol and marijuana, with the effect for marijuana being 12.1 percentage points in the two years right after the divorce (p = .010). The magnitudes of the effects persist as time passes from the divorce.

  6. Parental Divorce, Parental Religious Characteristics, and Religious Outcomes in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Ellison, Christopher G

    2012-12-01

    Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one's custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family-but not a stepparent family-is positively associated with religious disaffiliation and religious switching and negatively associated with regular religious attendance. Accounting for parental religious characteristics, however, explains sizable proportions of these relationships. Accounting for parental religious affiliation and attendance, growing up with a single parent does not significantly affect religious attendance. Parental religiosity also moderates the relationship between growing up with a single parent and religious attendance: being raised in a single-parent home has a negative effect on religious attendance among adults who had two religiously involved parents.

  7. Effects of Parental Divorce on Marital Commitment and Confidence

    OpenAIRE

    Whitton, Sarah W.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2008-01-01

    Research on the intergenerational transmission of divorce has demonstrated that, compared to offspring of non-divorced parents, those of divorced parents generally have more negative attitudes towards marriage as an institution and are less optimistic about the feasibility of a long-lasting, healthy marriage. It is also possible that, when entering marriage themselves, adults whose parents divorced have less personal relationship commitment to their own marriages and less confidence in their ...

  8. Parental divorce, adolescents' feelings toward parents and drunkenness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness and the contribution of adolescents' feelings toward their parents to this association. Cross-sectional data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3, 49.0% males; response rate 93%) were obtained. Respondents completed questionnaires on how often they had been drunk in the previous 4 weeks, whether their parents were divorced and a measure of their feelings toward their parents. Parental divorce was found to have an effect on adolescent drunkenness in the previous month, as were the high rates of negative and low rates of positive feelings toward both parents. The effect of divorce on drunkenness strongly decreased if adjusted for the affect of the adolescent toward the father, but not the mother. Our findings indicate that to keep the father positively involved after divorce might be a protective factor with regard to a higher probability of adolescent drunkenness in divorced families. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Divorce Aftermath: Empowering Parents...Easing the Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Wanda L.

    The increase in divorce rates following the American adoption of no-fault divorce is correlated with radical changes in the lives of many parents and children. However, the dissolution of a marriage does not mean the end of a family. Family ties are forever, and family therapists can assist by easing the pain of divorce and empowering parents to…

  10. The father's parenting experience in divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, H J

    1980-10-01

    The author discusses the father-child relationship as it is influenced by divorce. Psychiatrists are often consulted by individuals considering dovorce who are concerned about its probable impact on their children. Data gathered from the treatment of fathers during divorce indicate that there can be positive changes in their parental bonds as a result of increased opportunities to relate to children in a conflict-free atmosphere. In such a setting, the father's nurturing experience provides him with a new perspective on parenting. Psychotherapeutic help can lead to a strengthening of parental bonds, with subsequent benefits to both father and child. The author encourages professionals to support men in improving their fathering during the postdivorce period.

  11. Pathways linking parental divorce with adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseltine, R H

    1996-06-01

    This article examines the intervening pathways linking parental divorce with adolescent depression, using both cross-sectional and prospective data from a study of high school students in the Boston metropolitan area. Overall, findings reveal that parental divorce is linked with adolescent depression in two ways: (1) it is a source of numerous secondary problems and stresses that are causally related to depression, and (2) it alters youths' reactivity to these stresses, in some cases enhancing, but in other cases mitigating, their depressive effects. Analyses demonstrated the central role of economic hardship in linking family status with depression, with the strength of this indirect pathway partly attributable to the greater vulnerability of youths in single-parent families to financial stresses. In contrast, family conflict did not account for the distress of youths in single-parent families, largely because of their immunity to the effects of such conflict. Finally, prospective data failed to support the hypothesis that differences between youths in single-parent and intact families predate the divorce.

  12. Don't Divorce Us! Kids' Advice to Divorcing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers-Flanagan, Rita; Elander, Chelsea; Sommers-Flanagan, John

    This book examines the divorce experience firsthand-through the eyes and voices of children and adult children of divorce. People from various ages, ethnic groups, and backgrounds share artwork, essays, and their personal stories of divorce. The book contains practical suggestions for coping with the challenges of double-households, long-distance…

  13. Parental Divorce and Interpersonal Trust in Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Valarie

    2002-01-01

    Examines whether parental divorce is associated with offspring trust in parents, intimate partners, and others. Results reveal that although parental divorce is negatively associated with trust, these effects largely disappear once the quality of the past parent-teen relationship is taken into account. (Contains 48 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)

  14. Parental Divorce, Adolescents' Feelings toward Parents and Drunkenness in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness and the contribution of adolescents' feelings toward their parents to this association. Cross-sectional data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3,

  15. Parental divorce and young adult children's romantic relationships: resolution of the divorce experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, S; Scharf, M; Lumer, D; Maurer, O

    2001-10-01

    Fifty-one romantically involved young Israeli adults, whose parents were divorced, were questioned about their romantic relationship, parents' conflict, and current feelings about and reconstruction of the divorce. An integrative perception of the divorce was found to be related to fewer problems and to higher levels of friendship, enjoyment, and intimacy in the relationship. Implications for research and intervention with young adults are discussed.

  16. Delayed Parental Divorce: How Much Do Children Benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furstenberg, Frank F.; Kiernan, Kathleen E.

    2001-01-01

    Compares children who experience divorce in childhood with those who were young adults when their parents divorced using data on British children (N=11,409) who participated in the National Child Development Study. Children's long-term welfare appears to be linked both to conditions preceding and following the divorce event. Results suggest…

  17. Parental Reports of Children's Post-Divorce Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Julie A.

    1979-01-01

    Two years after the final decree, 560 divorced parents were asked to assess the impact of the divorce on their children. Factors associated with fathers' responses differed from those associated with mothers', but the majority of each group felt that their children had been negatively affected by the divorce. (Author/GC)

  18. Parental divorce and adult children's attachment representations and marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Judith A; Treboux, Dominique; Brockmeyer, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore adult attachment as a means of understanding the intergenerational transmission of divorce, that is, the propensity for the children of divorce to end their own marriages. Participants included 157 couples assessed 3 months prior to their weddings and 6 years later. Participants completed the Adult Attachment Interview and questionnaires about their relationships, and were videotaped with their partners in a couple interaction task. Results indicated that, in this sample, adult children of divorce were not more likely to divorce within the first 6 years of marriage. However, parental divorce increased the likelihood of having an insecure adult attachment status. For women, age at the time of their parents' divorce was related to adult attachment status, and the influence on attachment representations may be more enduring. Among adult children of divorce, those who were classified as secure in their attachment representations were less likely to divorce in the early years of marriage than insecure participants.

  19. Parental Divorce during Adolescence and Adjustment in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Stacey; McCabe, Marita P.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of parental divorce during adolescence, interparental conflict, and intimacy with parents on young adult adjustment. High levels of interparental conflict were found to be negatively associated with adjustment and current intimacy of parents. (Author)

  20. Parents' Expectations about Childrearing after Divorce: Does Anticipating Difficulty Deter Divorce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Seltzer, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    Divorce is costly for parents because of the challenges of meeting children's economic and socioemotional needs after separation. Using the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,935), we investigate whether expected economic and parenting costs deter divorce. Mothers expect higher economic costs than fathers, whereas fathers expect…

  1. When Parents Divorce: A Protocol Suggestion in Cases of Adversial Divorces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara, Bernardelli

    2011-01-01

    The experience of divorce influences life of children involved and there could be short- and long- term consequences (Dykeman, 2003). Researches showed that divorce can negatively change quality of attachment between children and parents, especially if maternal depression and high percentage of chronic conflict between parents attend (Fabbro,…

  2. The Temporal Effects of Parental Divorce on Youth Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how the parental divorce process affects youth substance abuse at various stages relative to the divorce. With child-fixed-effect models and a baseline period that is long before the divorce, the estimates rely on within-child changes over time. Youth are more likely to use alcohol 2-4 years before a parental divorce. After the divorce, youth have an increased risk of using alcohol and marijuana, with the effect for marijuana being 12.1 percentage points in ...

  3. Parental Divorce and Sibling Relationships: A Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Voorpostel, Marieke

    2009-01-01

    This study examines long-term effects of parental divorce on sibling relationships in adulthood and the role of predivorce parental conflict. It used large-scale retrospective data from the Netherlands that contain reports from both siblings of the sibling dyad. Results show limited effects of parental divorce on sibling contact and relationship…

  4. How I remember my parents' divorce: a phenomenological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, Suzanne E; Hector, Mark A; Carr, Austin R

    2011-01-01

    In order to examine the experience of parental divorce for adult women, a phenomenological method was used. Ten women were interviewed and the interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematized. The themes that came from the texts of the interviews transcripts and the researchers' reflections on the phenomenological research group analysis were: Before the Divorce, During the Divorce, and After the Divorce. These themes were centered on a contextual ground of Time Frame of the Divorce. The results of this study can provide individuals with a context for understanding their own experiences of parental divorce. These results could also be helpful for mental health clinicians in anticipating the themes that clients will discuss relative to the stages of their parents' divorce.

  5. Children’s Divorce and Parent–Child Contact: A Within-Family Analysis of Older European Parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have shown that a parental divorce has a negative effect on parent–child relations. This study examines how adult children’s divorce affects the amount of contact children have with older parents, making a distinction between the effects of being single on the one hand and the

  6. How does parental divorce affect children's long-term outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Frimmel, Wolfgang; Halla, Martin; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Numerous papers report a negative association between parental divorce and child outcomes. To provide evidence whether this correlation is driven by a causal effect, we exploit idiosyncratic variation in the extent of sexual integration in fathers' workplaces: Fathers who encounter more women in their relevant age-occupation-group on-the-job are more likely to divorce. This results holds also conditioning on the overall share of female co-workers in a firm. We find that parental divorce has p...

  7. Parental Divorce in Childhood and Loneliness in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    Studied effects of childhood parental separation and divorce on adult loneliness among 87 college students who, when they were between the ages of 3 and 16, had experienced the divorce of their parents. Data analysis revealed that there were significant relationships between reported mourning behaviors, as well as respondents, ages at time of…

  8. Parental Divorce, Life-Course Disruption, and Adult Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Catherine E.; Mirowsky, John

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a national sample of adults (N=2,592) surveyed on the association between adult depression and childhood parental divorce. Results suggest that parental divorce may disrupt a person's life course and create lifelong consequences for their well being, by lowering socioeconomic status and increasing problems in interpersonal…

  9. Life-span adjustment of children to their parents' divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, P R

    1994-01-01

    Children who experience parental divorce, compared with children in intact two-parent families, exhibit more conduct problems, more symptoms of psychological maladjustment, lower academic achievement, more social difficulties, and poorer self-concepts. Similarly, adults who experienced parental divorce as children, compared with adults raised in continuously intact two-parent families, score lower on a variety of indicators of psychological, interpersonal, and socioeconomic well-being. However, the overall group differences between offspring from divorced and intact families are small, with considerable diversity existing in children's reactions to divorce. Children's adjustment to divorce depends on several factors, including the amount and quality of contact with noncustodial parents, the custodial parents' psychological adjustment and parenting skills, the level of interparental conflict that precedes and follows divorce, the degree of economic hardship to which children are exposed, and the number of stressful life events that accompany and follow divorce. These factors can be used as guides to assess the probable impact of various legal and therapeutic interventions to improve the well-being of children of divorce.

  10. Parental divorce and subsequent disadvantage: a cross-cohort comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigle-Rushton, Wendy; Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen

    2005-08-01

    Although many studies have examined the link between parental divorce and subsequent well-being, some theories of the effects of divorce suggest that the negative associations should have declined over time. However, few studies have examined the extent to which the associations have remained stable over time. Using data from two British cohorts, we analyzed both shorter- and longer-term outcomes of children who experienced parental divorce and the extent to which the associations have changed over time. Estimating similar models for both cohorts, we found little evidence of any change in the size of the relationship as divorce became more commonplace.

  11. Parental Divorce and Children’s Schooling in Rural Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature has examined the impact of different types of family structures on children’s schooling in sub-Saharan Africa. These studies have investigated how living arrangements, gender of the household head, parental death, and paternal migration are related to schooling. Although many sub-Saharan African countries have high divorce rates, very few studies have explored the impact of parental divorce on children’s schooling. The present study uses three waves of data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) to investigate the effect of parental divorce on children’s schooling and the possible mechanisms driving this relationship. Unlike prior studies, this study uses child-level fixed-effects models to control for selection into divorce. Results show that parental divorce is associated with lower grade attainment and a larger schooling gap, defined as the number of years a child is behind in school (among children currently attending school). Although no association exists between parental divorce and current school attendance, girls affected by divorce are significantly less likely to be attending school. Differences in economic resources, maternal coresidence, or maternal psychological well-being do not explain the relationship between parental divorce and children’s schooling. PMID:27822897

  12. Parental Divorce and Children's Schooling in Rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sophia

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of literature has examined the impact of different types of family structures on children's schooling in sub-Saharan Africa. These studies have investigated how living arrangements, gender of the household head, parental death, and paternal migration are related to schooling. Although many sub-Saharan African countries have high divorce rates, very few studies have explored the impact of parental divorce on children's schooling. The present study uses three waves of data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) to investigate the effect of parental divorce on children's schooling and the possible mechanisms driving this relationship. Unlike prior studies, this study uses child-level fixed-effects models to control for selection into divorce. Results show that parental divorce is associated with lower grade attainment and a larger schooling gap, defined as the number of years a child is behind in school (among children currently attending school). Although no association exists between parental divorce and current school attendance, girls affected by divorce are significantly less likely to be attending school. Differences in economic resources, maternal coresidence, or maternal psychological well-being do not explain the relationship between parental divorce and children's schooling.

  13. Comparison of Social Skills, Mental Health and Academic Performance in Children with Divorced, Divorcing and Intact Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حسین قمری گیوی

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare social skills, mental health and academic performance in children with divorced, divorcing and intact parents. The study sample included 481 children with divorced parents and 419 children with divorcing parents, who were matched to 500 children with normal parents. The participants responded to the Matson's Social Skills Scale and Goldenberg's Mental Health Questionnaire. To assess the academic performance GPA was used. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and Scheffe post hoc test. The Findings showed that children with divorced and divorcing parents had more average scores of the components of physical symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, depression and general mental disorder than those of children with normal parents. Also children with divorcing parents had more scores in components of social dysfunction, depression and general mental disorder than children with divorced parents had. Social skills scores and academic performance in children with normal parents were higher than those of divorced parents’ children and children with divorced parents had higher scores than children with divorcing parents. Hence, due to the harm and the conesquences of divorce on children, strategies for minimalizing these conesquences should be planed.

  14. Parental Divorce and Premarital Couples: Commitment and Other Relationship Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, E.; Surra Catherine A.

    2001-01-01

    Parental divorce is thought to affect romantic relationships of young adults, especially with respect to certainty about relationships and perceptions of problems in relationships. This study examined these connections with a random sample of 464 coupled partners. Young adults who were casually dating showed the strongest effects of divorce,…

  15. Effects of parental divorce on marital commitment and confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Sarah W; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J

    2008-10-01

    Research on the intergenerational transmission of divorce has demonstrated that compared with offspring of nondivorced parents, those of divorced parents generally have more negative attitudes toward marriage as an institution and are less optimistic about the feasibility of a long-lasting, healthy marriage. It is also possible that when entering marriage themselves, adults whose parents divorced have less personal relationship commitment to their own marriages and less confidence in their own ability to maintain a happy marriage with their spouse. However, this prediction has not been tested. In the current study, we assessed relationship commitment and relationship confidence, as well as parental divorce and retrospectively reported interparental conflict, in a sample of 265 engaged couples prior to their first marriage. Results demonstrated that women's, but not men's, parental divorce was associated with lower relationship commitment and lower relationship confidence. These effects persisted when controlling for the influence of recalled interparental conflict and premarital relationship adjustment. The current findings suggest that women whose parents divorced are more likely to enter marriage with relatively lower commitment to, and confidence in, the future of those marriages, potentially raising their risk for divorce. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Parental divorce and initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina M; Rogers, Michelle L; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events. It has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. In the present study, we examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students (488 girls, 443 boys) who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life-events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0-5, ages 6-9, age 10+). Cox proportional hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Effects of Cognitive Versus Cognitive-Behavioral Divorce-Parenting Programs on Parental Conflict, Intimate Violence, Parental Communication, Divorce-Related Parental Behaviors and Children's Behavioral Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitworth, James

    2000-01-01

    .... The two-group pretest- posttest design with a three-month follow-up measured parents knowledge of divorce-related parenting behaviors, reports of intimate violence, destructive conflict tactics...

  18. Effectiveness of Children of Divorce Intervention Program on Children's Adjustment with their Parental Divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمدرضا عبدی

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Divorce is one of the most important phenomenons of human life that not only undermines the psychological balance of the couple but also to change the psychological balance of the children, relatives, and friends. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of Children of Divorce Intervention Program (CODIP. A sample of 26 children of divorce (11 boys and 15 girls between 7 to 9 years old was selected through an available sampling of community. CODIP was conducted on the experimental group over 15 sessions (two sessions per week once the subjects were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups and completed three questionnaires including Children’s Ideas about Divorce scale (CIAD, Parent Evaluation Form (PEF and Group Leader Evaluation Form (GLEF. Study results based on ANOVA show a significant difference between experimental and control groups (P<0/001. These results indicate that CODIP was effective to increase children's positive feelings and attitudes towards their parental divorce, reduced children's negative feelings toward their parental divorce, improved children's relationships with their parents and peers, and increased problem solving skills of children.

  19. Parental Divorce and Children’s Schooling in Rural Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Chae, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature has examined the impact of different types of family structures on children’s schooling in sub-Saharan Africa. These studies have investigated how living arrangements, gender of the household head, parental death, and paternal migration are related to schooling. Although many sub-Saharan African countries have high divorce rates, very few studies have explored the impact of parental divorce on children’s schooling. The present study uses three waves of data from t...

  20. Parental Divorce in Australia, Cohorts Born 1900 - 1975

    OpenAIRE

    M. D. R. Evans; Jonathan Kelley

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the sources of parental divorce in Australia using respondents' retrospective reports of parents' behaviour in the IsssA-Pool database, a pooled series of representative national samples of Australia conducted between 1984 and 2002 (N=19,601 valid cases for this analysis). We analyse the probability of divorce using logistic regression models. The results include a very large effect of time, with people reaching age 14 before the Family Law Act took effect being much less ...

  1. The Effects of Early Parental Divorce on the Sex Role Development of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vess, James D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the long-term effects of early parental divorce on sex role development in 219 college students. No significant differences were found between subjects from intact and divorced parents. However, children's age at the time of divorce, siblings, and post-divorce parental conflict were mediating factors. (JAC)

  2. Prevalence of methylphenidate use among Canadian children following parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohschein, Lisa A

    2007-06-05

    Evidence suggests that children living in single-parent or step-parent households are more likely than children in households with 2 biological parents to be prescribed methylphenidate. I conducted a study of prospective data to investigate parental divorce as a predictor of methylphenidate use. I used data for children who participated in the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth from 1994 to 2000. The sample was restricted to children who remained in the survey in 2000 and who, at initial interview, lived in a household with 2 biological parents (n = 4784). A generalized estimating equation model was used to compare the odds ratios of methylphenidate use among children whose parents obtained a divorce between 1994 and 2000 relative to children whose parents remained married during this period. Between 1994 and 2000, 633 children (13.2%) experienced the divorce of their parents. The proportion of children who received methylphenidate at any time between 1994 and 2000 was 3.3% among those whose parents remained married and 6.1% among those whose parents divorced during this period. After adjustment for age of the mother and sex and age of the child, I found that methylphenidate use was significantly higher among children whose parents subsequently divorced than among those whose parents remained married (odds ratio 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.01-3.33). The increased risk of children receiving a prescription for methylphenidate in the period following parental divorce raises questions about the causal links in this association. Future research is needed to replicate these findings and to investigate possible explanations.

  3. Parental divorce, parental depression, and gender differences in adult offspring suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizardi, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Keyes, Katherine; Hasin, Deborah

    2009-12-01

    Research suggests parental divorce during childhood increases risk of suicide attempt for male but not female offspring. The negative impact on offspring associated with parental divorce may be better explained by parental psychopathology, such as depression. We examined whether adult offspring of parental divorce experience elevated risk of suicide attempt, controlling for parental history of depression, and whether the risk varies by the gender of the offspring. Using the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), the sample consists of respondents who experienced parental divorce (N = 4895). Multivariable regressions controlled for age, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and parental history of depression. Females living with their fathers were significantly more likely to report lifetime suicide attempts than females living with their mothers, even after controlling for parental depression. Findings suggest that childhood/adolescent parental divorce may have a stronger impact on suicide attempt risk in female offspring than previously recognized.

  4. Later Life Parental Divorce and Widowhood: Impact on Young Adults' Assessment of Parent-Child Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1994-01-01

    Explored implications of later life parental divorce and widowhood for relationship between parents and young adult children among 3,281 young adults who grew up in intact families. Family disruption that occurred after children were grown had sizable effects on parent-adult child relations, with later life divorce lowering relationship quality…

  5. Links between parent characteristics and attachment variables for college students of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Laura V; Kilmann, Peter R; Vendemia, Jennifer M C

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated links between offsprings' attachment patterns and parent characteristics in 157 females and 62 males of parental divorce. Secure females and males reported affection, respect, and closeness toward both biological parents. Offsprings' insecure attachment pattern was associated with negative parent characteristics. Participants who perceived their same-sex parent negatively were more likely to report an insecure attachment. Our findings suggest delayed negative consequences of parental divorce for college women and men.

  6. Parental psychopathology moderates the influence of parental divorce on lifetime alcohol use disorders among Israeli adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Meyers, Jacquelyn L.; Stohl, Malki; Aharonovich, Efrat; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental divorce and psychopathology are well-documented risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the United States and other countries where divorce is common and per capita total alcohol consumption is moderate to high. However, little is known about these relationships in countries where divorce and alcohol problems are less common, such as Israel. Methods Israeli adult household residents (N=797) age 21–45 were interviewed in person between 2007 and 2009. Logistic regression models were used to examine main and additive interaction effects of parental divorce and psychopathology on lifetime DSM-IV AUD, adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. Results Parental divorce (OR=2.18, p≤.001) and parental psychopathology (OR=1.61, p≤.01) were independently associated with lifetime AUD and, when considered together, showed significant interaction (p=.026). Specifically, the effect of divorce on AUD was only significant among those who also reported parental psychopathology. Conclusions This is the first study showing the influence of parental divorce and psychopathology on risk for AUD among Israeli adults, where both divorce and AUD are less common than in the United States. Alcohol prevention and treatment professionals should recognize that children who experience parental divorce and/or psychopathology could be more vulnerable to later developing AUD than those whose parents remain together and without psychopathology. PMID:24939440

  7. Parental psychopathology moderates the influence of parental divorce on lifetime alcohol use disorders among Israeli adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Stohl, Malki; Aharonovich, Efrat; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2014-08-01

    Parental divorce and psychopathology are well-documented risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the United States and other countries where divorce is common and per capita total alcohol consumption is moderate to high. However, little is known about these relationships in countries where divorce and alcohol problems are less common, such as Israel. Israeli adult household residents (N=797) age 21-45 were interviewed in person between 2007 and 2009. Logistic regression models were used to examine main and additive interaction effects of parental divorce and psychopathology on lifetime DSM-IV AUD, adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. Parental divorce (OR=2.18, p≤0.001) and parental psychopathology (OR=1.61, p≤0.01) were independently associated with lifetime AUD and, when considered together, showed significant interaction (p=0.026). Specifically, the effect of divorce on AUD was only significant among those who also reported parental psychopathology. This is the first study showing the influence of parental divorce and psychopathology on risk for AUD among Israeli adults, where both divorce and AUD are less common than in the United States. Alcohol prevention and treatment professionals should recognize that children who experience parental divorce and/or psychopathology could be more vulnerable to later developing AUD than those whose parents remain together and without psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Emotional and behavioural problems in young children with divorced parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Meinou H C; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Cloostermans, Anne P G; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-10-01

    This study examines the link between divorce or separation and emotional and behavioural problems (EBP) in children aged 2-4 years. We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 2-4 years within the setting of the national system of routine visits to well-child clinics. A total of 2600 children participated (response rate: 70%). Before the visit, parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist and a questionnaire with questions about divorce or separation. We assessed the associations of children's EBP with a divorce either in the previous year or at any time in the past after adjustment for other child and family factors. Four percent of the children had parents who had divorced before the child reached the age of 2-4 years, and 3.4% of these parents had divorced in the previous year. EBP (and particularly behavioural problems) were more likely in children aged 2-4 years old in cases of lifetime divorce or separation. This association was weaker after adjustment for relevant child and family characteristics: it may be partly due to confounding factors such as paternal education level, ethnicity and family size. A divorce in the previous year was not linked to child EBP. These findings show the importance of identifying care needs and providing care for pre-school children whose parents have divorced since they suggest that there may be negative effects in the longer term. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Parental divorce, sibship size, family resources, and children's academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2009-09-01

    Using data from 19,839 adolescents from the National Education Longitudinal Study, this study investigates whether the effects of parental divorce on adolescents' academic test performance vary by sibship size. Analyses show that the negative effect of divorce on adolescent performance attenuates as sibship size increases. On the other side of the interaction, the inverse relationship between sibship size and test performance is weaker in disrupted than in two-biological-parent families. Trends of such interactions are evident when sibship size is examined either as a continuous or a categorical measure. Finally, the observed interactions on adolescents' academic performance are completely explained by variations in parental financial, human, cultural, and social resources. In sum, this study underlines the importance of treating the effect of parental divorce as a variable and calls for more research to identify child and family features that may change the magnitude of such an effect.

  10. Parental divorce and sibling relationships : a research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, A.R.; Voorpostel, M.B.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines long-term effects of parental divorce on sibling relationships in adulthood and the role of predivorce parental conflict. It used large-scale retrospective data from the Netherlands that contain reports from both siblings of the sibling dyad. Results show limited effects of

  11. Frequency of Divorce Among Parents of Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufeit, Lawrence J.; Wurster, Stanley R.

    Seventy-six parents of handicapped children were surveyed to compare the frequency of divorce in the sample population to that of the U.S. population. A research review revealed that the first-born child causes extensive to severe crises in the parents' marital relationship; that the presence of a child with a handicapping condition causes a…

  12. Influence of parents' divorce on separation anxiety in children

    OpenAIRE

    Arnejčič, Beno

    2016-01-01

    Children experience separation from parents as a form of anxiety from the age of six to eight months to the age of five, and beyond. In a completely new form, it can also appear in adolescents. In this article I demonstrate some neuro-psychological aspects of the anxiety which children experience regarding the divorce of their parents

  13. The Effect of Parental Divorce on the Health of Adult Children1

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Jason R.; Högnäs, Robin S.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have produced evidence that parental divorce is negatively associated with offspring outcomes from early childhood, through adolescence, and into the adult years. This study adds to the literature on the effects of parental divorce by examining how the timing of a parental divorce influences the total effect on adult health. Furthermore, we look at how this long-term effect of parental divorce depends on mediators such as the family’s socioeconomic status, parental involve...

  14. Effects of Cognitive Versus Cognitive-Behavioral Divorce-Parenting Programs on Parental Conflict, Intimate Violence, Parental Communication, Divorce-Related Parental Behaviors and Children's Behavioral Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitworth, James

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the effects of two State of Florida mandated divorce- parenting classes, one cognitive-based and the other cognitive-behavioral based, on several individual and family variables...

  15. Reaching agreement after divorce and separation : Essays on the effectiveness of parenting plans and divorce mediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369284577

    2018-01-01

    Many Western countries recently introduced policies that may mitigate the negative consequences that parents’ relationship dissolution can have on children. The Netherlands overhauled its regulations in March 2009 with The Promotion of Continued Parenting and Proper Divorce Act. With the law reform

  16. Variation in the link between parental divorce and children’s health disadvantage in low and high divorce settings

    OpenAIRE

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Clark, Shelley

    2017-01-01

    Like in other world regions, children with divorced parents in sub-Saharan Africa experience significant heath disadvantages relative to their peers with married parents. Preliminary evidence suggests this disadvantage may not be uniform across the subcontinent’s diverse settings. Research from other world regions shows that the childhood health consequences of divorce vary across different contexts. Specifically, we hypothesize that the childhood disadvantages associated with divorce are mor...

  17. Practical and emotional consequences of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, R E; Laumann-Billings, L

    1998-06-01

    This review explores divorce as a risk factor for psychological problems among children and adolescents and the difficult emotional and practical transitions it creates for them. The authors provide helpful suggestions for primary care pediatricians on how best to assist their adolescent patients and their families in dealing with the transition.

  18. The Complex Relationship between Parental Divorce and the Sense of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joongbaeck; Woo, Hyeyoung

    2011-01-01

    How does parental divorce influence the sense of control in adult offspring? Numerous studies have examined the implications of parental divorce on adult psychological well-being. However, little attention has been paid to the long-term consequences of parental divorce for adult sense of control. Using data from the Survey of Aging, Status, and…

  19. Effect of Timing of Parental Divorce on the Vulnerability of Children to Depression in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosaari, Ulla; Aro, Hillevi

    1994-01-01

    Compared young adults who had experienced parental divorce before school age (n=134), in latency (n=129), and in adolescence (n=71). Found that 24% of boys who had experienced parental divorce in latency were depressive as compared with 9% and 6% in other groups. Among girls, depression was independent of timing of parental divorce. (Author/NB)

  20. Mental Health Outcomes Following Recent Parental Divorce: The Case of Young Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Teresa M.; Kurz, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Addresses association between recent parental divorce and mental health outcomes in young adults aged 18-23. Half of those studied (n=485) had experienced parental divorce within 15 months of the interview; the other half had not. Comparison indicated that, at the bivariate level, parental divorce was associated with poorer mental health outcomes…

  1. Consequences of Parental Divorce and Marital Unhappiness for Adult Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Booth, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Among 1,243 adults nationwide, individuals who experienced parental divorce as children scored lower than those from happily intact families of origin on measures of psychological, social, and marital well-being. Multiple parental divorces and divorces involving deterioration of parent-child relations appeared particularly problematic. Contains 39…

  2. Parental Divorce, Maternal-Paternal Alcohol Problems, and Adult Offspring Lifetime Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Alonzo, Dana; Hasin, Deborah S

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime alcohol dependence using data from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime alcohol dependence. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems doubled the likelihood of alcohol dependence. Divorce and history of alcohol problems for both parents tripled the likelihood. Offspring of parental divorce may be more vulnerable to developing alcohol dependence, particularly when one or both parents have alcohol problems.

  3. The voice of the child in parental divorce: implications for clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Research on parental divorce suggests that the nature of the divorce process, as experienced by the child, is the most important factor in his or her post-divorce adjustment. Research regarding children's experiences of the divorce process has been limited and the adult perspective has dominated the discourse ...

  4. The Relative Risk of Divorce in Parents of Children With Developmental Disabilities: Impacts of Lifelong Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkung, Eun Ha; Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R; Floyd, Frank J

    2015-11-01

    We prospectively examined the risk of divorce in 190 parents of children with developmental disabilities compared to 7,251 parents of children without disabilities based on a random sample drawn from the community and followed longitudinally for over 50 years. A significant interaction between the parental group status and number of children was found: In the comparison group, having a larger number of children was related to an increased risk of divorce, whereas the number of children did not increase divorce risk among parents of children with developmental disabilities.

  5. The Relative Risk of Divorce in Parents of Children with Developmental Disabilities: Impacts of Lifelong Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Floyd, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined prospectively the risk of divorce in 190 parents of children with developmental disabilities compared to 7,251 parents of children without disabilities based on a random sample drawn from the community and followed longitudinally for over 50 years. A significant interaction between the parental group status and number of children was found: In the comparison group, having a larger number of children was related to an increased risk of divorce, whereas the number of children did not increase divorce risk among parents of children with developmental disabilities. PMID:26505872

  6. [Alienation of a child from one parent in divorce situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2010-01-01

    Alienation of a child from one parent refers to the behavior of the parent in a divorce situation in a manner essentially complicating or in some cases completely breaking the interrelationship between the child and the other parent. The process occurs in situations where the separation was preceded by a normal and positively affective relationship between the alienated parent and the child without any indication of the parent being prejudicial to the child. This behavior in usually motivated by hatred and animosity felt by the alienator against the other part.

  7. Parental Divorce and Union Disruption among Young Adults in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahler, Michael; Hong, Ying; Bernhardt, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of parental divorce on the disruption of marital and nonmarital unions among young adults in Sweden, using longitudinal data from repeated mail questionnaire surveys (1999 and 2003) with 1,321 respondents (aged 26, 30, and 34 in 2003). The study takes into account several possible mechanisms governing the…

  8. Grandparents Affected by Parental Divorce: A Population at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jane E.; Perrin, Novella

    1993-01-01

    When parents divorce, grandparents who have bonded with children may be affected, especially when denied visitation. Grandparenting roles and styles, family dynamics affecting grandparenthood, and other factors affecting the grandparent-grandchild bond are examined. Legal and ethical issues are discussed. Implications for counselors and human…

  9. The Effects of Near and Actual Parental Divorce on Student Achievement and Misbehavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mark L. Hoekstra

    2007-01-01

    It is well-documented that children whose parents divorced experience worse outcomes than children from two-parent families. However, data and methodological limitations have made it difficult to know whether declines were evident prior to the divorce or whether the declines were due to the unobserved time-varying factors that caused the parents to file for divorce. This paper addresses these questions by linking public records on divorce to child-level data on reading and mathematics composi...

  10. RESILIENCE: PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE CHILD OF PARENTAL DIVORCE AND THE DEATH OF PARENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Kartika, Yuni

    2017-01-01

    Losing both parents due to divorce or death is a traumatic incident thatproduces a source of stress in life. This will be bad for the person’s lifesince it might create a sense of loneliness, a grave need for affection, andfinancial problems. Individuals need an ability to overcome problems calledresilience. Resilience is a capacity to respond soundly and productively whenfacing misery or traumatic events. Subjects in this study experienced traumafrom parental divorce and death of both parent...

  11. The effects of parental divorce on adult tobacco and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfinger, N H

    1998-09-01

    I use data from the 1977-1994 National Opinion Research Council General Social Survey to examine the impact of parental divorce on the alcohol and tobacco consumption of adult offspring. Divorce greatly increases the likelihood of being a smoker and, for men, a problem drinker. Parental remarriage completely offsets the effects of parental divorce on men's drinking but does not substantially affect cigarette use. Respondent socioeconomic characteristics accounted for a portion of the relationship between parental divorce and smoking but did not affect rates of problem drinking. Social control and psychosocial adjustment--two established explanations for the effects of parental divorce--could not adequately explain my findings.

  12. SELF-IMAGE IN CHILDREN OF DIVORCED PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slagjana Angjelkoska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The family and its important role in the development of the child is the inspiration for many types of research that have the intention to emphasize certain aspects of family life and the consequences of the family relations in the development of the children. The issue of this research is to find out if there is a connection between the conflict in the family, the divorce of the parents and self-concept in the children of early school age. The research is conducted on 30 children of single-parent families. The children of these single-parent families are children who have lived in families with conflicts and they have been direct or indirect participants in the conflict of the divorced parents. In the process of research, we applied projective techniques: Machover which consists of drawing a person’s figure, as well as a drawing a house and a tree-HTP (House-Tree-Person.The results are obtained through qualitative analysis and interpretation of each drawing particularly. During the investigation the relation between the variables, it is confirmed that there is a considerable connection between the conflict in the family, the divorce of the parents and the self-concept in children. It is confirmed, during the process that the children of divorced parents from negative self-concept. In children of single-parent families it is indicated that this group of children in relation to the psychological picture for themselves presented the following characteristics: lowered EGO, mechanisms for defense, feeling of insecurity, low self-confidence, aggressiveness, great virility, and caution.

  13. Parenting of Divorced Fathers and the Association with Children's Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastaits, Kim; Ponnet, Koen; Mortelmans, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that high parental support and control improves children's well-being. However, a large part of these studies have focused on the parenting of married parents. Research on parenting after a divorce, mainly has focused on parenting of divorced mothers, with few exceptions concentrating primarily on non-residential fathers.…

  14. [The impact of parental divorce on the relationships of young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Graaf, A

    1996-08-01

    "The 1993 Netherlands Fertility and Family Survey shows that parental divorce has an impact on (the attitudes towards) relationships of young adults. Children of divorced parents leave home at an earlier age and have a stronger preference for cohabitation. Once a relationship (cohabitation or marriage) has started, it is more likely to end in separation or divorce." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  15. Parental divorce and developmental progression: an inquiry into their relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, J; Resnikoff, D

    1997-02-01

    The authors argue that the patterning of conscious and unconscious needs, wishes, and expectations that parents and children bring to each other is often profoundly altered under the impact of divorce and the parents' subsequent adult relationships. These changes, which are inherent in the divorce experience, have the power to modify significantly or derail the young child's developmental course. Clinical observations from an ongoing longitudinal research project show striking changes in the child's image of his parents, as portrayed here in the vivid play and fantasy of a psychologically sturdy child, concurrent with psychological changes in both parents and in their parenting. A follow-up, twelve years later, is reported. The authors suggest that the stable parenting of this child's first three years represented an internalised template of good relationships, which enabled him, despite the father's subsequent abandonment, the mother's grave acting out and the stepfather's rejection, to turn away from his disappointment in his parents, to wrest what was available from school, friends and others, and to propel himself forward at each point to the next developmental stage, moving increasingly away from his family towards independence and competence. The consistency of the child's inner life and integrity is contrasted with the depression of his parents and the instability of their parenting.

  16. The voice of the child in parental divorce: implications for clinical practice and mental health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Carrie; Howcroft, Greg; Hoelson, Christopher Norman

    2017-09-01

    Research on parental divorce suggests that the nature of the divorce process, as experienced by the child, is the most important factor in his or her post-divorce adjustment. Research regarding children's experiences of the divorce process has been limited and the adult perspective has dominated the discourse on divorce; only recently has research started to consider children's viewpoint. This article describes a narrative inquiry into the experiences and perceptions of parental divorce, of 9- to 10-year-old children. Its aim is to use children's stories of parental divorce to inform the practice of professionals working with such children. The research adopted a narrative paradigm. Unstructured interviews were conducted with five children whose parents were divorced. Data were analysed thematically. Seven themes were identified. The first theme explored children's endeavours to describe and explain parental divorce. An additional six themes were developed around the types of stories children told of the divorce process. The seven themes were: (i) What is a divorcement; (ii) Stories of loss; (iii) Stories of gain; (iv) Stories of change; (v) Stories of stability; (vi) Healing stories; and (vii) Complicating stories. On the basis of the narratives elicited from children on parental divorce, this article proposes several guidelines for professionals such as psychologists, registered counsellors, social workers, and teachers as well as parents in their possible interventions with children. Some guidelines may also be of use to family and maintenance courts, and the government departments of health and education.

  17. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbers, Sylvana; van Oort, Floor; Huizink, Anja; Verhulst, Frank; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina; Boomsma, Dorret; Bartels, Meike

    2012-10-01

    The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than children with married parents, and that externalizing problems in girls precede and predict later parental divorce. The aim of the current study was to investigate as to whether genetic and environmental influences on internalizing and externalizing problems were different for children from divorced versus non-divorced families. Maternal ratings on internalizing and externalizing problems were collected with the Child Behavior Checklist in 4,592 twin pairs at ages 3 and 12 years, of whom 367 pairs had experienced a parental divorce between these ages. Variance in internalizing and externalizing problems at ages 3 and 12 was analyzed with biometric models in which additive genetic and environmental effects were allowed to depend on parental divorce and sex. A difference in the contribution of genetic and environmental influences between divorced and non-divorced groups would constitute evidence for gene-environment interaction. For both pre- and post-divorce internalizing and externalizing problems, the total variances were larger for children from divorced families, which was mainly due to higher environmental variances. As a consequence, heritabilities were lower for children from divorced families, and the relative contributions of environmental influences were higher. Environmental influences become more important in explaining variation in children's problem behaviors in the context of parental divorce.

  18. Adult children's relationships with married parents, divorced parents, and stepparents: biology, marriage or residence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.

    2013-01-01

    The author compared the strength of the relationships that adult children have with different types of parents: biological parents who remained married, stepparents, and biological parents who divorced. He analyzed Dutch life history data containing detailed measures of living arrangements and used

  19. Adolescent adjustment and well-being: effects of parental divorce and distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størksen, Ingunn; Røysamb, Espen; Holmen, Turid L; Tambs, Kristian

    2006-02-01

    This study investigates the long-term effects of parental divorce on adolescent psychological adjustment and well-being, and to what extent the effects are accounted for by parental psychological distress. Data were collected among 8,984 Norwegian adolescents (13-19 years) and their parents. Outcome variables were symptoms of anxiety and depression, subjective well-being, and three areas of school problems. Parental divorce was found to be associated with both higher mean levels and larger variances in adolescent problems. Divorce and parental distress contributed independently to adolescent distress, supporting the notion of "double exposure" effects. The prevalence of adolescents with substantial distress symptoms was 14% among those with non-distressed non-divorced parents and 30% among those with divorced and distressed parents. In general effects remained when controlling for demographic factors. Long-term effects of divorce on symptoms of anxiety and depression were stronger among girls than among boys.

  20. Variation in the link between parental divorce and children's health disadvantage in low and high divorce settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Clark, Shelley

    2017-12-01

    Like in other world regions, children with divorced parents in sub-Saharan Africa experience significant heath disadvantages relative to their peers with married parents. Preliminary evidence suggests this disadvantage may not be uniform across the subcontinent's diverse settings. Research from other world regions shows that the childhood health consequences of divorce vary across different contexts. Specifically, we hypothesize that the childhood disadvantages associated with divorce are more severe in regions of sub-Saharan Africa where divorce is rare, and less so where divorce is a more common family experience. Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 290 subnational regions within 31 sub-Saharan African countries, multilevel models document the previously shown link between having a divorced mother and child morbidity and mortality. The study results further demonstrate that the childhood health disadvantage is accentuated in subnational African regions where fewer women are divorced and muted in areas where more women are divorced. The findings demonstrate that the broader context can powerfully moderate childhood health inequalities traditionally thought of as operating at the family or individual level.

  1. Variation in the link between parental divorce and children’s health disadvantage in low and high divorce settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Smith-Greenaway

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Like in other world regions, children with divorced parents in sub-Saharan Africa experience significant heath disadvantages relative to their peers with married parents. Preliminary evidence suggests this disadvantage may not be uniform across the subcontinent’s diverse settings. Research from other world regions shows that the childhood health consequences of divorce vary across different contexts. Specifically, we hypothesize that the childhood disadvantages associated with divorce are more severe in regions of sub-Saharan Africa where divorce is rare, and less so where divorce is a more common family experience. Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 290 subnational regions within 31 sub-Saharan African countries, multilevel models document the previously shown link between having a divorced mother and child morbidity and mortality. The study results further demonstrate that the childhood health disadvantage is accentuated in subnational African regions where fewer women are divorced and muted in areas where more women are divorced. The findings demonstrate that the broader context can powerfully moderate childhood health inequalities traditionally thought of as operating at the family or individual level.

  2. Do Parent Education Programs Promote Healthy Post-Divorce Parenting? Critical Distinctions and a Review of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, Amanda; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene; Braver, Sanford

    2009-01-01

    Most parent education programs are designed to improve child well-being following divorce by changing some aspect of parenting. However, there has been relatively little discussion of what aspects of parenting are most critical and the effectiveness of programs to change different aspects of parenting. This paper addresses these issues by: 1. Distinguishing three aspects of post-divorce parenting that have been targeted in parent education programs; 2. Reviewing evidence of the relations between each aspect of parenting and the well-being of children and; 3. Critically reviewing evidence that parent education programs have been successful in changing each aspect of post-divorce parenting. PMID:21552360

  3. The Effect of Parental Divorce on the Health of Adult Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jason R; Högnäs, Robin S

    Decades of research have produced evidence that parental divorce is negatively associated with offspring outcomes from early childhood, through adolescence, and into the adult years. This study adds to the literature on the effects of parental divorce by examining how the timing of a parental divorce influences the total effect on adult health. Furthermore, we look at how this long-term effect of parental divorce depends on mediators such as the family's socioeconomic status, parental involvement, cognitive test scores, behavioural problems, smoking, and the offspring's own experience with divorce. The analyses use data from the National Child Development Study, which includes nine waves of data beginning at birth in 1958 and continuing through age 50. Results from a structural equation model suggest that a parental divorce experienced before age 7 does influence adult health by operating primarily through family socioeconomic status and smoking in adulthood.

  4. The Effect of Parental Divorce on the Health of Adult Children1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jason R.; Högnäs, Robin S.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have produced evidence that parental divorce is negatively associated with offspring outcomes from early childhood, through adolescence, and into the adult years. This study adds to the literature on the effects of parental divorce by examining how the timing of a parental divorce influences the total effect on adult health. Furthermore, we look at how this long-term effect of parental divorce depends on mediators such as the family’s socioeconomic status, parental involvement, cognitive test scores, behavioural problems, smoking, and the offspring’s own experience with divorce. The analyses use data from the National Child Development Study, which includes nine waves of data beginning at birth in 1958 and continuing through age 50. Results from a structural equation model suggest that a parental divorce experienced before age 7 does influence adult health by operating primarily through family socioeconomic status and smoking in adulthood. PMID:26594245

  5. Young Adult Children of Divorced Parents: Depression and the Perception of Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Rebecca L.

    1986-01-01

    Examined long-term effects of divorce in young adult children by comparing young adults of divorce (N=104) and those of intact families (N=172). When non-custodial parent was perceived as "lost" the young adult was more depressed. After-divorce perception of non-custodial father changed negatively, while perception of mother remained…

  6. Effects of Divorce on Children: The Relationship between Parent and Child Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.; Siesky, Albert E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Administered questionnaires to divorced, single custodial parents and their 5 to 19-year-old children. Found positive reactions and adjustments related to children defining divorce in terms of psychological separation between the parents, sharing concerns with friends, positive evaluations of both parents, and acquiring strengths and…

  7. Childhood parental divorce and cortisol in young adulthood: evidence for mediation by family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Amy J; Luecken, Linda J

    2009-10-01

    Childhood parental divorce has been linked with negative physical and psychological health in adulthood, potentially due to alterations in adrenocortical activity resulting from chronic stress. The current study evaluated cortisol in 94 young adults (mean age 19.9) from families characterized by parental divorce (n=43) or intact parental marriages (n=51). Salivary cortisol was assessed prior to and at 3 time points after a challenging speech task. Participants from divorced families had significantly lower cortisol across the experimental period than those from intact families, even after controlling for family conflict and current depression and anxiety. Lower family income was also associated with lower cortisol, and partially mediated the relationship between parental divorce and cortisol. Findings suggest that childhood parental divorce is associated with attenuated cortisol in young adulthood, which may be explained by lower income in divorced families.

  8. Halos vs. Stigmas: Long-Term Effects of Parent's Death or Divorce on College Students' Concepts of the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozendal, Frederick G.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effect of parental death or divorce on 351 college students. Results showed children of divorce rated father less favorably and rated divorce more favorably than other students. Results suggested long-term stigmas attached to family among children of divorce but no halo effect for children of deceased parents. (JAC)

  9. The Effect of Parental Divorce on Relationships with Parents and Romantic Partners of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, David; Zusman, Marty; DeCuzzi, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Three-hundred-and-thirty undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed a confidential anonymous 26 item questionnaire designed to assess the effect of parental divorce/remarriage on the relationship with their respective parents and on their own romantic relationships. The data revealed several significant relationships-respondents…

  10. Consequences of Parental Divorce for Adult Children's Support of Their Frail Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen

    2008-01-01

    Using three waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study, I examined the association of parental divorce and remarriage with the odds that biological, adult children give personal care and financial assistance to their frail parents. The analysis included 5,099 adult children in the mother sample and 4,029 children in the father sample.…

  11. Association between the birth of twins and parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Goldman, Dana P; Joyce, Geoffrey

    2011-04-01

    Mothers of multiple births face higher rates of postpartum depression, yet evidence on the marital consequences of multiple births is limited. We examined the association between twin births and parental divorce. We used the 1980 U.S. Census to identify a large sample of mothers with and without twin births. The goal was to estimate multivariate logistic models of the association between birth of twins and divorce adjusting for race, age at marriage and first birth, and college education. We examined whether the association was affected by maternal education, age and sex composition of twins, and family size. Twins at first birth were associated with greater parental divorce compared with singletons (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.16; absolute risk 13.7% with twins compared with 12.7%; P=.02). The association was statistically greater among mothers not attending college (14.9% with twins compared with 13.3%; P=.01) compared with those with some college (10.4% with twins compared with 10.5%; P=.34); those with children older than 8 years (15.6% with twins compared with 13.5%; P<.01) compared with younger children (10.6% with twins compared with 10.8%; P=.42); and those with at least one twin girl (13.8% with twins compared with 12.6%; P=.03) compared with twin boys (12.1% with twins compared with 12.5%, P=.38). Mothers with four or more children had a larger association between birth of twins and divorce (15.4% for mothers with twins at fourth birth compared with 11.3% for all other mothers with four or more children; P<.01) compared with mothers with twins at first birth (13.7% for twins at first birth compared with 12.7%; P=.02). Health consequences of twin births for children and mothers are well known. Twin births may be associated with longer-term parental divorce. Specific groups, namely mothers not completing college and mothers who already have more children, may be at higher risk. II.

  12. Typologies of Post-divorce Coparenting and Parental Well-Being, Parenting Quality and Children's Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamela, Diogo; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Bastos, Alice; Feinberg, Mark

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify post-divorce coparenting profiles and examine whether these profiles differentiate between levels of parents' well-being, parenting practices, and children's psychological problems. Cluster analysis was conducted with Portuguese heterosexual divorced parents (N = 314) to yield distinct post-divorce coparenting patterns. Clusters were based on parents' self-reported coparenting relationship assessed along four dimensions: agreement, exposure to conflict, undermining/support, and division of labor. A three cluster solution was found and replicated. Parents in the high-conflict coparenting group exhibited significantly lower life satisfaction, as well as significantly higher divorce-related negative affect and inconsistent parenting than parents in undermining and cooperative coparenting clusters. The cooperative coparenting group reported higher levels of positive family functioning and lower externalizing and internalizing problems in their children. These results suggested that a positive coparenting alliance may be a protective factor for individual and family outcomes after parental divorce.

  13. Children's Impact on the Parental Decision to Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoy, Korrel; Miller, Brent C.

    1980-01-01

    Although some couples avoid divorce for children's benefit, divorce may actually be a better solution than an unhappy home. Children's potential for creating stress between spouses may sometimes make divorce more likely. Counseling may provide alternatives. (JAC)

  14. Resilience and rejection sensitivity mediate long-term outcomes of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaan, Violetta K; Vögele, Claus

    2016-11-01

    Increasing divorce rates leave more and more children to deal with the separation of their parents. Recent research suggests that children of divorced parents more often experience psychological and physical symptoms than children of non-divorced parents. The processes that mediate the relationship between parental divorce and ill-health, however, are still elusive. This study investigated the mediating role of psychological factors such as resilience and rejection sensitivity on the long-term consequences of parental divorce in young adults. One hundred and ninety-nine participants (mean age 22.3 years) completed an online survey, including measures of mental health, childhood trauma, resilience, and rejection sensitivity. Participants with divorced parents (33 %) reported increased levels of psychological symptoms, childhood trauma, rejection sensitivity, and lower levels of resilience. The association between parental divorce and mental health was fully mediated by resilience, rejection sensitivity, and childhood trauma. The mediation model explained up to 44 % of the total variance in mental health symptoms. Resilience and rejection sensitivity are crucial factors for successful coping with the experience of parental separation. Prevention programs that help to boost children's resilience might help to reduce the long-term effects of parental divorce on their attachment style (e.g., rejection sensitivity), thereby improving their mental health on the long run. Furthermore, the results call for parental awareness and counseling to target and reduce the observed increased level of childhood trauma. Limitations concern the cross-sectional and retrospective design of the study.

  15. The influence of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring risk of lifetime suicide attempt in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Stohl, Mahlki; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    The influences of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt have not been examined in national data. This study analyzed data from the 2001-2002 NESARC to estimate main and interaction effects of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on lifetime suicide attempt. Adjusted for controls, parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increased odds of lifetime suicide attempt. The effect of parental divorce was not significantly moderated by parental alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to examine whether additional parental and offspring psychiatric and substance use covariates attenuate the association between parental divorce and lifetime suicide attempt. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Impact of divorce and loss of parental contact on health complaints among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Simone Frizell; Hjörleifsson, Stefán; Breidablik, Hans-Johan; Meland, Eivind

    2013-06-01

    Mental health consequences related to divorce have been documented, but might be caused by concomitant factors such as conflicts and loss of parental contact (PC). We investigated these relationships and mental health among adolescents. The study was based on data from four cross-sectional surveys carried out between 1997 and 2009 among tertiary school students in Førde, Norway. We established two groups according to divorce experience (DE) with or without loss of PC. Frequencies of DEs were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. The group with no DE was used as reference group in all the analyses. The divorce rate increased by 34% (6.8% absolute increase) between 1997 and 2009, but no sign of attenuated effects on emotional health was observed. Mental complaints were not attenuated as time since divorce increased. A majority of those losing contact with parents had no contact with their fathers. The study revealed only a modest increase of health complaints if PC was preserved, but a marked increase when the adolescents experienced loss of PC following the divorce. Interaction analyses showed no gender differences, and parental support and confidence in parent(s) did not mediate the associations between divorce and distress. Emotional distress after divorce is not attenuated as divorce prevalence increases, but the deleterious effects of divorce on the well-being of adolescents seem to be confined to those experiencing a concomitant loss of PC. Efforts aiming at reducing parental hostility and improving mutual parental responsibility and care therefore seem important.

  17. [Parents separation or divorce. Potential effects on children and recommendations to parents and pediatricians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roizblatt S, Arturo; Leiva F, Valentina M; Maida S, Ana Margarita

    2018-04-01

    When divorce or separation of a couple occurs, children will no longer live with both parents at the same time. There may be multiple causes for divorce, and both literature and our own experien ce as child mental health providers, report some short- and long-term consequences for children, especially where the divorce has been conflictive. In these cases, increased risk of developing be havioral disorders, poor school performance, and substance abuse has been documented as well as consequences in adult life with higher risk of psychiatric pathologies or difficulties in interpersonal relationships, if an intervention that addresses some potentially traumatic situations for children is not done. Pediatricians are in a privileged relationship with children and their families in order to detect signs of parental discord and altered mental health in children. Children behaviors as a result of divorce and parental conflict will depend on the age of the child and stage of development, and it is important to recognize them in order to intervene properly. This article proposes some guidelines for parents. Good management of high conflict situations related to divorce may prevent some of the consequences that these can have on children.

  18. Children's adjustment to their divorced parents' new relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Ar

    2002-08-01

    With new relationships common after divorce, researchers have tried to determine the factors that predict how well children adjust to their stepfamily. The many potential factors are often grouped into the categories of family process, individual risk and vulnerability, and ecological variables. Family process is concentrated on the impact of disrupted family relationships; positive outcomes are associated with low conflict and authoritative parenting. Individual risk and vulnerability includes attributes of the child and the adults; positive outcomes are associated with children who have an easy temperament. Adolescents and girls may have particular difficulty adjusting. Ecological perspectives include the larger social environment such as peers and school.

  19. Psychiatric and somatic health in relation to expereince of parental divorce in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Ängarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Wadsby, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Background: The outcome of studies about experience of parental divorce and effects on mental and physical health differs in result possibly caused by the use of different questionnaires and instruments, varying length of time since the divorce and divergent drop-off of participants. Aims: To study the presence of psychiatric records and number of diagnosed somatic and mental health care visits in a group of young adults with childhood experience of parental divorce in comparison to a group ...

  20. Children’s experiences and meaning construction on parental divorce: A focus group study

    OpenAIRE

    Maes, Sofie DJ; De Mol, Jan; Buysse, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The global aim of this study was to explore children's narratives of parental divorce. A convenience sample, composed of 11- and 14-year-old children, was recruited. A total of 22 children (12 male, 10 female) participated in this focus group study. The findings show that two components seem to be really important for children during the divorce process: the ability to construct meaning about their parents' decision to divorce and their feeling to count in the process of family transition. Ch...

  1. Parental Divorce, Familial Risk for Depression, and Psychopathology in Offspring: A Three-Generation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Vousoura, Eleni; Verdeli, Helen; Warner, Virginia; Wickramaratne, Priya; Baily, Charles David Richard

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests a link between parental divorce and negative child outcomes; however, the presence of parental depression may confound this relationship. Studies exploring the simultaneous effects of depression and parents’ divorce on the adjustment of their children are scarce and rarely have a longitudinal design. This is the first three-generation study of the relative effects of depression and divorce on offspring psychopathology, based on data from a 25-year longitudinal study with fam...

  2. The long-term consequences of parental divorce for children's educational attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Bernardi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this paper we study the long-term consequences of parental divorce in a comparative perspective. Special attention is paid to the heterogeneity of the consequences of divorce for children's educational attainment by parental education. Objective: The study attempts to establish whether the parental breakup penalty for tertiary education attainment varies by socioeconomic background, and whether it depends on the societal context. Methods: Data are drawn from the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey, covering 14 countries. We estimate multi-level random-slope models for the completion of tertiary education. Results: The results show that parental divorce is negatively associated with children's tertiary education attainment. Across the 14 countries considered in this study, children of separated parents have a probability of achieving a university degree that is on average seven percentage points lower than that of children from intact families. The breakup penalty is stronger for children of highly educated parents, and is independent of the degree of diffusion of divorce. In countries with early selection into educational tracks, divorce appears to have more negative consequences for the children of poorly educated mothers. Conclusions: For children in most countries, parental divorce is associated with a lower probability of attaining a university degree. The divorce penalty is larger for children with highly educated parents. This equalizing pattern is accentuated in countries with a comprehensive educational system. Comments: Future research on the heterogeneous consequences of parental divorce should addressthe issue of self-selection into divorce, which might lead to an overestimation of the negative effect of divorce on students with highly educated parents. It should also further investigate the micro mechanisms underlying the divorce penalty.

  3. The Impact of Childrens' Divorce on Parents: And Some Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Ralph; Kaslow, Florence

    1985-01-01

    Considers the impact of an adult child's divorce on his or her parents. Within the context of a cybernetic circular systems model of conceptualization about family relations, it is posited that older parents' reactions impact upon their childrens' post-divorce readjustment. (Author/NRB)

  4. Parental Divorce and Adolescent Delinquency: Ruling out the Impact of Common Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Barnes, Ashlee R.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Although the well-documented association between parental divorce and adolescent delinquency is generally assumed to be environmental (i.e., causal) in origin, genetic mediation is also possible. Namely, the behavior problems often found in children of divorce could derive from similar pathology in the parents, pathology that is both heritable and…

  5. Adolescent Daughters' Romantic Competence: The Role of Divorce, Quality of Parenting, and Maternal Romantic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Shmuel; Zlotnik, Aynat; Shachar-Shapira, Lital; Connolly, Jennifer; Bohr, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the links between parental divorce, quality of maternal parenting, spousal relationships and middle adolescent romantic competence in 80 mother-adolescent daughter pairs (40 divorced). Mothers were asked to describe their attitudes and behaviors with regard to their daughters' romantic behavior. In addition, mothers were…

  6. Parental Divorce, Family Functioning, and College Student Development: An Intergenerational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick; Nelson, Mark D.

    1998-01-01

    Samples college students (N=440) to assess the impact of parental divorce and family functioning on their development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning have unique effects on key developmental tasks associated with a college-age population. Discusses an intergenerational family-systems approach. (Author/MKA)

  7. Older Adolescents and Parental Divorce: Adjustment Problems and Mediators of Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Stephanie S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Explores the problems associated with parental divorce for adolescents of college age. Analyses of the responses of 83 clinical directors of college mental health counseling centers revealed that adolescents of parental divorce seen for counseling displayed greater behavioral and affective difficulties than counterparts from intact families. (JAC)

  8. Interparental Conflict and Parental Divorce: The Individual, Relative, and Interactive Effects on Adolescents across Four Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Rex; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation examining individual, relative, and interactive influences of parental divorce and interparental conflict on adolescent functioning. Results demonstrate that multiple areas of functioning in multiple years were predicted by parental divorce, current interparental conflict, and interaction of both variables. (CRR)

  9. More Careful or Less Marriageable? Parental Divorce, Spouse Selection and Entry into Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erola, Jani; Harkonen, Juho; Dronkers, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Despite the large literature on the long-term effects of parental divorce, few studies have analyzed the effects of parental divorce on spouse selection behavior. However, the characteristics of one's spouse can have important effects on economic well-being and on marital success. We use discrete-time, event-history data from Finnish population…

  10. Effective Group Work for Elementary School-Age Children Whose Parents Are Divorcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia-Waack, Janice; Gerrity, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Parental divorce is the issue of most concern for elementary school children. This article describes interventions for children-of-divorce groups for elementary school children. Suggests guidelines related to goal setting; securing agency and parental consent; leadership planning; recruitment, screening, and selection of members; group member…

  11. Parental Divorce and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.

    2001-01-01

    Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…

  12. The Interactive Effects of Marital Conflict and Divorce on Parent-Adult Children's Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyi; Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines main effect and interactive models of the relations between marital conflict, divorce, and parent-adult child relationships and gender differences in these relations. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of a community sample (N = 585). Parental marital conflict and divorce were measured from age 5 through age 17 years.…

  13. Estimating the Effects of Parental Divorce and Death With Fixed Effects Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R; Anthony, Christopher J

    2014-04-01

    The authors used child fixed effects models to estimate the effects of parental divorce and death on a variety of outcomes using 2 large national data sets: (a) the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort (kindergarten through the 5th grade) and (b) the National Educational Longitudinal Study (8th grade to the senior year of high school). In both data sets, divorce and death were associated with multiple negative outcomes among children. Although evidence for a causal effect of divorce on children was reasonably strong, effect sizes were small in magnitude. A second analysis revealed a substantial degree of variability in children's outcomes following parental divorce, with some children declining, others improving, and most not changing at all. The estimated effects of divorce appeared to be strongest among children with the highest propensity to experience parental divorce.

  14. Estimating the Effects of Parental Divorce and Death With Fixed Effects Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Anthony, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The authors used child fixed effects models to estimate the effects of parental divorce and death on a variety of outcomes using 2 large national data sets: (a) the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort (kindergarten through the 5th grade) and (b) the National Educational Longitudinal Study (8th grade to the senior year of high school). In both data sets, divorce and death were associated with multiple negative outcomes among children. Although evidence for a causal effect of divorce on children was reasonably strong, effect sizes were small in magnitude. A second analysis revealed a substantial degree of variability in children’s outcomes following parental divorce, with some children declining, others improving, and most not changing at all. The estimated effects of divorce appeared to be strongest among children with the highest propensity to experience parental divorce. PMID:24659827

  15. Long-term effects of parental divorce timing on depression: A population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sung-Youn; Jang, Suk-Yong; Choi, Jae-Woo; Shin, Jaeyong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-09-08

    We examined the long-term effects of parental divorce timing on depression using longitudinal data from the Korean Welfare Panel Study. Depression symptoms were measured using the 11 items of Center for Epidemiologic Scale for Depression (CES-D-11), and we categorized parental divorce timing into 'early childhood', 'adolescent' and 'none'. Although participants who experienced parental divorce during adolescence exhibited a significantly higher CES-D-11 score (p = .0468), 'early childhood' participants displayed the most increased CES-D-11 score compared to the control group (p = .0007). Conversely, among participants who were unsatisfied with their marriage, those who experienced parental divorce in early childhood showed lower CES-D-11 scores, while 'adolescent period' participants exhibited significantly higher CES-D-11 scores (p = .0131). We concluded that timing of parental divorce exerts substantial yet varied effects on long-term depression symptoms and future marriage satisfaction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation, parental history of alcohol problems, and offspring lifetime alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Lizardi, Dana; Keyes, Katherine M; Hasin, Deborah S

    2008-12-01

    This study examined whether the experiences of childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation and parental alcohol problems affected the likelihood of offspring DSM-IV lifetime alcohol dependence, controlling for parental history of drug, depression, and antisocial behavior problems. Data were drawn from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationally representative United States survey of 43,093 civilian non-institutionalized participants aged 18 and older, interviewed in person. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the main and interaction effects of childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation and parental history of alcohol problems on offspring lifetime alcohol dependence, after adjusting for parental history of drug, depression, and antisocial behavior problems. Childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation and parental history of alcohol problems were significantly related to offspring lifetime alcohol dependence, after adjusting for parental history of drug, depression, and antisocial behavior problems. Experiencing parental divorce/separation during childhood, even in the absence of parental history of alcohol problems, remained a significant predictor of lifetime alcohol dependence. Experiencing both childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation and parental alcohol problems had a significantly stronger impact on the risk for DSM-IV alcohol dependence than the risk incurred by either parental risk factor alone. Further research is needed to better identify the factors that increase the risk for lifetime alcohol dependence among those who experience childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation.

  17. Attachment and parental divorce: a test of the diffusion and sensitive period hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R Chris; Heffernan, Marie E

    2013-09-01

    One of the assumptions of attachment theory is that disruptions in parental relationships are prospectively related to insecure attachment patterns in adulthood. The majority of research that has evaluated this hypothesis, however, has been based on retrospective reports of the quality of relationships with parents-research that is subject to retrospective biases. In the present research, the authors examined the impact of parental divorce-an event that can be assessed relatively objectively-on attachment patterns in adulthood across two samples. The data indicate that parental divorce has selective rather than diffuse implications for insecure attachment. Namely, parental divorce was more strongly related to insecure relationships with parents in adulthood than insecure relationships with romantic partners or friends. In addition, parental insecurity was most pronounced when parental divorce took place in early childhood. This finding is consistent with hypotheses about sensitive periods in attachment development.

  18. Parental Divorce or Death During Childhood and Adolescence and Its Association With Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebeka, Sarah; Hoertel, Nicolas; Dubertret, Caroline; Le Strat, Yann

    2016-09-01

    Despite the severity of the loss of a parent and the frequency of parental divorce, few studies compared their impact on mental health in the general adult population. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, and psychiatric comorbidity of parental loss and parental divorce during childhood and adolescence. Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of US adults (n = 43,093). Of the 43,093 participants, parental divorce during childhood or adolescence was reported by 5776 participants, whereas 3377 experienced parental death during childhood or adolescence. Participants reporting a history of parental divorce present a significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly alcohol and drug use disorders compared with control subjects. While participants experiencing the death of a parent reported a poorer overall health, the prevalence of psychiatric disorder after 17 years of age was not significantly higher than that of the control subjects.

  19. Parental Divorce and Couples' Adjustment during the Transition to Parenthood: The Role of Parent-Adult Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Genevieve; Doucet, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the associations between parental divorce, quality of relationships with parents, and dyadic adjustment during transition of 114 couples to parenthood. Data were collected during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 9 months postpartum. As predicted, the authors found that women from divorced families…

  20. The Consequences of Parental Divorce on the Life Course Outcomes of Canadian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Martin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Applying the theory of the intergenerational transmission of divorce, this paper examines the consequences of parental divorce on three aspects of the life course of children: union formation, nonmarital fertility, and marital dissolution. The 1995 Canadian General Social Survey (GSS is used to estimate various regression models (Cox proportional hazards. Results show that children of divorced parents have a significantly higher likelihood to have births outside of marriage, enter into cohabiting unions, and to experience higher levels of divorce. Throughout the paper, attention is placed on the markedly different behaviour observed in Quebec compared to elsewhere in Canada.

  1. Parental divorce and disordered eating: an investigation of a gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suisman, Jessica L; Burt, S Alexandra; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G; Klump, Kelly L

    2011-03-01

    We investigated gene-environment interactions (GxE) for associations between parental divorce and disordered eating (DE). Participants were 1,810 female twins from the Michigan State University Twin Registry and the Minnesota Twin Family Study. The Minnesota Eating Behaviors Survey was used to assess DE. We tested for GxE by comparing the heritability of DE in twins from divorced versus intact families. It was hypothesized that divorce would moderate the heritability of DE, in that heritability would be higher in twins from divorced than twins from intact families. As expected, the heritability of body dissatisfaction was significantly higher in twins from divorced than intact families. However, genetic influences were equal in twins from divorced and intact families for all other forms of DE. Although divorce did not moderate heritability of most DE symptoms, future research should replicate GxEs for body dissatisfaction and identify factors underlying this unique relationship. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effects of Post-Divorce Parental Conflict on Children's Educational Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Escapa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the effect of parental separation or divorce on children's educational achievement, and includes parental conflict as a factor of analysis. The study is based on the analysis of the Panel of Families and Children, with a sample of 2,731 adolescents aged between13 to 16 years old in Catalonia, Spain. The main results show that the children of divorced parents who have a conflicted relationship are more likely to obtain poorer educational results than the children of divorced parents without conflict and two-parent households. However, children of divorced parents with no conflicted relationship are less likely on average to receive a failing grade than those who live in two-parent households.

  3. The Effects of Parental Divorce on the Intergenerational Transmission of Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve G.A. van de Weijer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study first examines the effects of parental divorce and paternal crime on offspring offending. Then, it tests whether parental divorce moderates the intergenerational transmission of crime. Diversity within the offending population is taken into account by examining whether effects are different for fathers who commit crimes at different points of the life-course and by distinguishing between violent and non-violent offending. A sample of 2374 individuals from three consecutive generations from 198 Dutch families was used. The results show that parental divorce increases offspring non-violent offending, but does not increase offspring violence after controlling for parental violence. Moreover, the intergenerational transmission of violence is moderated by parental divorce: empirical evidence for intergenerational transmission of violence is only found for children who did not experience parental divorce during their youth. This moderating effect of parental divorce is even stronger if the father committed violent crimes during the child’s youth. The moderating influence of parental divorce on the intergenerational transmission of non-violent crime is less clear, and the effects are overall stronger for violent crime than for non-violent crime. These results suggest that social learning mechanisms play an important role in the intergenerational transmission of violent crime, although genetic influences cannot be ruled out.

  4. Divorce Is a Part of My Life . . . Resilience, Survival, and Vulnerability: Young Adults' Perception of the Implications of Parental Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldar-Avidan, Dorit; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Greenbaum, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative study among 22 young adults (20-25 years old) whose parents divorced during their childhood was conducted in Israel, using semi-structured, in-depth, open-ended interviews. Qualitative data analysis led to identification of three profiles, aiming at a grounded theoretical conceptualization. Three core themes were identified: the…

  5. Parental Divorce, Familial Risk for Depression, and Psychopathology in Offspring: A Three-Generation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vousoura, Eleni; Verdeli, Helen; Warner, Virginia; Wickramaratne, Priya; Baily, Charles David Richard

    2012-10-01

    Research suggests a link between parental divorce and negative child outcomes; however, the presence of parental depression may confound this relationship. Studies exploring the simultaneous effects of depression and parents' divorce on the adjustment of their children are scarce and rarely have a longitudinal design. This is the first three-generation study of the relative effects of depression and divorce on offspring psychopathology, based on data from a 25-year longitudinal study with families at high and low risk for depression. One hundred seventy-eight grandchildren (mean age = 13.9 years) of depressed and nondepressed parents and grandparents were evaluated by raters blind to their parents' and grandparents' clinical status. We found that in both low and high-risk children, divorce had a limited impact on child adjustment over and above familial risk for depression. Divorce had a significant effect on child outcomes only among high-risk grandchildren with a depressed grandparent and non-depressed parents, with this group showing a threefold risk for anxiety disorders. Results support previous findings suggesting that familial risk for depression largely overshadows the effect of parental divorce on child psychopathology. Possible reasons for the lack of association between divorce and child psychopathology among low-risk offspring are discussed.

  6. Parenting Coordination: Applying Clinical Thinking to the Management and Resolution of Post-Divorce Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demby, Steven L

    2016-05-01

    There is a small but significant number of parents who remain stuck in a high level of conflict with each other after the legal conclusion of their divorce. Exposure to chronically high levels of parental conflict is a strong risk factor negatively affecting both children's short- and long-term adjustment. Parenting coordination is a nonadversarial, child-focused dispute-resolution process designed to help divorced parents contain their conflict to protect children from its negative effect. Parenting coordination is a hybrid role combining different skills and conflict-resolution approaches. In high-conflict divorce, each parent's internalization of relationship patterns constructed from past experiences contributes to the intractable nature of the interparent conflict. A case presentation illustrates how this clinical perspective enhances the parenting coordinator's ability to work with parents to manage and contain their parenting conflicts with each other. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Development of a brief parent-report risk index for children following parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N; Braver, Sanford L; Wolchik, Sharlene A

    2013-12-01

    This article reports on the development of a brief 15-item parent-report risk index (Child Risk Index for Divorced or Separated Families; CRI-DS) to predict problem outcomes of children who have experienced parental divorce. A series of analyses using 3 data sets were conducted that identified and cross-validated a parsimonious set of items representing parent report of child behavior problems and family level risk and protective factors, each of which contributed to the predictive accuracy of the index. The index predicted child behavior outcomes and substance abuse problems up to 6 years later. The index has acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity as a screening measure to predict problem outcomes up to 1 year later. The use of the index to identify the need for preventive services is discussed, along with limitations of the study.

  8. Parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness: role of socioeconomic position, psychological well-being and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcikova, Z; Madarasova Geckova, A; Orosova, O; van Dijk, J P; Reijneveld, S A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks and the contribution of socioeconomic position, family structure, social support from family and well-being to this association. We obtained data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3, 49.0% males; response rate 93%). Respondents completed questionnaires on how often they had been drunk in the last 4 weeks, whether their parents were divorced, their socioeconomic position (education of parents, family affluence), the composition of the household (one or two parents/step-parents), social support from the family and their own well-being. Parental divorce was found to have an effect on adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks, as well as high socioeconomic position, low social support from the family and high depression/anxiety. The effect of divorce on drunkenness decreased only slightly after adding social support into the model. Our findings indicate that parental divorce has a persistent influence on risk behavior independent of the influence of socioeconomic position and well-being. Parental divorce may increase the likelihood of drunkenness more than other factors such as low parental support and poor socioeconomic position. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. South Korean Mothers' Parenting Experiences in Divorced Mother-Headed Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Kyung Eun; Song, Seung Hee

    2017-01-01

    These multiple case studies show what in divorced mother-headed families of South Korea, mothers experience with regard to parenting their children aged 6 to 12 years. Data were collected from participant observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants, including mothers and their children in four divorced mother-headed families…

  10. The Initiation of Dating in Adolescence : The Effect of Parental Divorce. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, Katya; Mills, Melinda; Veenstra, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of parental divorce on the time it took adolescents to initiate their first romantic relationships. Individual differences in temperament and pubertal development and the age of the adolescent at the time of divorce were also taken into account. Hypotheses were tested

  11. Risk and Protective Factors in Young Children's Adjustment to Parental Divorce: A Review of the Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on parental divorce and early childhood development, using developmental psychopathology as an organizing framework. Because this review is unique in its focus on divorce-related issues specific to young children, limitations of existing research are noted and directions for future research are suggested. (Contains 63…

  12. Parental Divorce, Marital Conflict and Children's Behavior Problems: A Comparison of Adopted and Biological Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Cheadle, Jacob E.

    2008-01-01

    We used adopted and biological children from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households to study the links between parents' marital conflict, divorce and children's behavior problems. The standard family environment model assumes that marital conflict and divorce increase the risk of children's behavior problems. The passive…

  13. The Initiation of Dating in Adolescence: The Effect of Parental Divorce. The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Katya; Mills, Melinda; Veenstra, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of parental divorce on the time it took adolescents to initiate their first romantic relationships. Individual differences in temperament and pubertal development and the age of the adolescent at the time of divorce were also taken into account. Hypotheses were tested using event history analysis with a sample of…

  14. An Exploratory Study of Young Persons' Attachment Styles and Perceived Reasons for Parental Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tavi R.; Ehrenberg, Marion F.

    1998-01-01

    Explored relationship between undergraduate students' perceptions of the reasons for their parents' divorces and their own feelings of security in romantic relationships. Found that 73% described insecure attachment styles. Perceived reasons for divorce involving expressions of overt anger, involvement of children, and extramarital affairs were…

  15. Sustaining Parent-Young Child Relationships during and after Separation and Divorce. Or Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Kyle; Pruett, Marsha Kline

    2012-01-01

    That separation and divorce frequently burden the young child emotionally and developmentally has moved from scientific to common knowledge over the past two decades. Recent cultural changes also moderate or intensify such stress and strain on the parent-child relationship: a divorce rate hovering at about 40% of all marriages, a third of all…

  16. Fifteen years after parental divorce: mental health and experienced life-events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Wadsby, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12.

  17. Does childhood cancer affect parental divorce rates? A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syse, Astri; Loge, Jon H; Lyngstad, Torkild H

    2010-02-10

    PURPOSE Cancer in children may profoundly affect parents' personal relationships in terms of psychological stress and an increased care burden. This could hypothetically elevate divorce rates. Few studies on divorce occurrence exist, so the effect of childhood cancers on parental divorce rates was explored. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data on the entire Norwegian married population, age 17 to 69 years, with children age 0 to 20 years in 1974 to 2001 (N = 977,928 couples) were retrieved from the Cancer Registry, the Central Population Register, the Directorate of Taxes, and population censuses. Divorce rates for 4,590 couples who were parenting a child with cancer were compared with those of otherwise similar couples by discrete-time hazard regression models. Results Cancer in a child was not associated with an increased risk of parental divorce overall. An increased divorce rate was observed with Wilms tumor (odds ratio [OR], 1.52) but not with any of the other common childhood cancers. The child's age at diagnosis, time elapsed from diagnosis, and death from cancer did not influence divorce rates significantly. Increased divorce rates were observed for couples in whom the mothers had an education greater than high school level (OR, 1.16); the risk was particularly high shortly after diagnosis, for CNS cancers and Wilms tumors, for couples with children 0 to 9 years of age at diagnosis, and after a child's death. CONCLUSION This large, registry-based study shows that cancer in children is not associated with an increased parental divorce rate, except with Wilms tumors. Couples in whom the wife is highly educated appear to face increased divorce rates after a child's cancer, and this may warrant additional study.

  18. Do mother's and father's education condition the impact of parental divorce on child well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandemakers, Jornt J; Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2014-03-01

    We use the British Cohort Study to investigate to what extent parental resources moderate the association between parental divorce in childhood and lowered child well-being as indicated by maternal reports of child psychological well-being and by academic test scores (reading and math tests). We argue that children of mothers with more years of education suffer less when their parents split up because better educated mothers may be better able to provide a safe and stable environment for their children after divorce. In addition, we argue that having a better educated father could either aggravate or reduce the effects of parental divorce. This is one of the first studies to simultaneously investigate the role of maternal, and paternal resources, and pre-divorce shared resources. Our analyses indicate that the effect of parental divorce on psychological well-being is reduced for better educated mothers and for families with more pre-divorce economic resources, but increased for better educated fathers. For academic test scores we find a protective effect of having a better educated father and higher pre-divorce social resources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The combined effects of parental divorce and parental history of depression on cannabis use in young adults in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakyi, Kwame S; Melchior, Maria; Chollet, Aude; Surkan, Pamela J

    2012-11-01

    The joint effects of multiple social risk factors on substance use, such as parental divorce and parental history of depression, have rarely been studied in young adult offspring. We examined the combined effects of parental divorce and parental history of depression on current cannabis use among a community sample of young adults in France. Parental divorce was ascertained as divorce or separation before 2009. Parental history of depression based on parental reports of depression (1989-2009) and offspring reports of parental lifetime history of depression. Current cannabis use was defined as use at least once in the preceding 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models controlling for young adult and parental socio-demographic variables. Approximately one fourth of youth (23%) reported consuming cannabis at least once in the past year. At the same time, 15% had parents who were divorced and 30% parents with a history of depression. The association between parental divorce and cannabis use in young adults was not statistically significant (adjusted OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 0.97-2.31). History of parental depression conferred a marginally statistically significant 42% higher odds of young adult cannabis use (adjusted OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.00-2.01). Young adults who experienced both parental history of divorce and depression were more than two times as likely to be current cannabis users compared to those who experienced neither of these (adjusted OR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.26-4.48). Our findings highlight the critical importance of considering familial context in understanding cannabis use in young adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effectiveness of Children of Divorce Intervention Program on Children's Adjustment with their Parental Divorce

    OpenAIRE

    محمدرضا عبدی; تقي پورابراهيم; علی محمد نظری

    2016-01-01

    Divorce is one of the most important phenomenons of human life that not only undermines the psychological balance of the couple but also to change the psychological balance of the children, relatives, and friends. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of Children of Divorce Intervention Program (CODIP). A sample of 26 children of divorce (11 boys and 15 girls) between 7 to 9 years old was selected through an available sampling of community. CODIP was conducted on the e...

  1. The Legacy of Parental Divorce: Social, economic and demographic experiences in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen E Kiernan

    1997-01-01

    This study addresses three questions. Firstly, to what extent does divorce during childhood have long-term consequences for the educational attainment, economic situation, partnership formation and dissolution, and parenthood behaviour in adulthood? We show that in most of these domains children who experience parental divorce in childhood have more negative experiences than children reared by both their parents. However, in answering our second question, as to whether child and family charac...

  2. Adolescents with a Childhood Experience of Parental Divorce: A Longitudinal Study of Mental Health and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storksen, Ingunn; Roysamb, Espen; Moum, Torbjorn; Tambs, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    This is a prospective Norwegian study of a group of adolescents with an experience of parental divorce or separation (n=413) and a comparison group without this experience (n=1758). Mean age at T1 was 14.4 years and mean age at T2 was 18.4 years. Parental divorce was prospectively associated with a relative change in anxiety and depression,…

  3. The Effects of Parental Divorce on the Intergenerational Transmission of Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Steve G.A. van de Weijer; Terence P. Thornberry; Catrien C.J.H. Bijleveld; Arjan A.J. Blokland

    2015-01-01

    This study first examines the effects of parental divorce and paternal crime on offspring offending. Then, it tests whether parental divorce moderates the intergenerational transmission of crime. Diversity within the offending population is taken into account by examining whether effects are different for fathers who commit crimes at different points of the life-course and by distinguishing between violent and non-violent offending. A sample of 2374 individuals from three consecutive generat...

  4. Parents' Discord and Divorce, Parent-Child Relationships and Subjective Well-Being in Early Adulthood: Is Feeling Close to Two Parents Always Better than Feeling Close to One?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewski, Juliana M.; Amato, Paul R.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the associations between parents' marital discord and divorce, patterns of parent-child relationships, and adult children's subjective well-being. Parental divorce and marital conflict appeared to increase the odds that children were close to neither parent in adulthood. Parental divorce (but not marital conflict) appeared to increase…

  5. Perspectives on the divorce process: parental perceptions of the legal system and its impact on family relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, M K; Jackson, T D

    2001-01-01

    Through semistructured interviews, divorcing parents provide a consumer perspective of the legal process of divorce discussed in law and mental health literature. The parents offer a heightened awareness of families' basic needs within the legal system that may otherwise be overlooked by professionals. This article focuses on narrative accounts provided by 41 divorcing parents to describe both their positive and negative experiences with the legal system and court-related professionals. Although many parents entered the divorce process with hopes for a fair and reasonable experience and outcome, only 12 percent of the parents ended the process with positive expectations. Parents conveyed feelings of a lack of power and control over divorce outcomes. The responses from parents provide valuable insight into how reforms of the legal system can be structured best to increase the quality of the process and ameliorate potentially destructive effects of divorce on the family.

  6. Long-term effects of a parenting preventive intervention on young adults' painful feelings about divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Caroline; Wolchik, Sharlene; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Carr, Colleen; Mahrer, Nicole E; Sandler, Irwin

    2017-10-01

    This study examined whether the New Beginnings Program (NBP), a parenting preventive intervention for divorced mothers that was designed to reduce children's postdivorce mental health problems, reduced painful feelings about divorce in young adults whose families had participated 15 years earlier. This study also explored whether NBP participation reduced the relations between young adults' painful feelings about divorce and their concurrent internalizing, externalizing, and substance use problems. Participants (M = 25.6 years; 50% female; 88% Caucasian) were from 240 families that had been recruited into a randomized experimental trial (NBP vs. literature control). Data from the pretest and 15-year follow-up were used. NBP participants reported less feelings of seeing life through a filter of divorce (e.g., thinking about how the divorce causes continued struggles for them) than those in the control condition. Program effects on maternal blame and acceptance of the divorce were moderated by pretest risk, a composite of divorce-related stressors and externalizing problems. NBP participants with elevated risk at program entry had lower levels of maternal blame. Program participation was associated with higher acceptance for those with elevated risk at program entry but lower acceptance for those with low risk at program entry. Program participation decreased the relations between maternal blame, acceptance of the divorce and filter of divorce and some, but not all, of the adjustment outcomes. These findings suggest that programs designed to help families after divorce have benefits in terms of long-term feelings about parental divorce as well as their relations with adjustment problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Children's Coping Resources Subsequent to Parental Divorce: A Developmental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Linda; And Others

    The impact of divorce upon the children's adaptation has increasingly become a topic of concern in developmental research. This study investigates how specific coping resources (self-efficacy, self-esteem) vary according to age and as a correlate of developmental level in children from divorced and intact homes. Researchers also examined the…

  8. Broken vows and the next generation: Recognizing and helping when parental divorce is a spiritual trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Annette; Warner, Heidi; Krumei, Elizabeth

    Recent national surveys show that older youth who have experienced parental divorce tend to disengage from organized religion but feel as close to God as peers from intact families. In this paper, we offer a conceptual model and concrete guidelines to help adults engage in sensitive, yet direct, dialogues with older youth about the spiritual dimensions of parental divorce. Based on a recent line of empirical research on the role of religion and spirituality for post-divorce adjustment, we argue that parental divorce can be experienced as a spiritual trauma where the event is interpreted as a sacred loss and desecration, and can also trigger painful spiritual struggles. Yet youth can also draw upon adaptive religious/spiritual methods to cope with the transition. We illustrate these psychospiritual processes using quotes from a study of college students who had experienced a parental divorce within the prior five years. We end with a list of questions that parents, pastoral counselors, clergy, and mental health professionals can draw upon to explore the intersection of faith and divorce with adolescents.

  9. Children of divorce-coping with divorce: A randomized control trial of an online prevention program for youth experiencing parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boring, Jesse L; Sandler, Irwin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Horan, John J; Vélez, Clorinda E

    2015-10-01

    Evaluate an online coping skills program to prevent mental health problems in children and adolescents from divorced or separated families. Children ages 11-16 (N = 147) whose families had filed for divorce were recruited using public court records. Participants were blocked by risk-score and randomly assigned to either a control (Internet self-study condition, Best of the Net (BTN) or the experimental intervention, Children of Divorce-Coping With Divorce (CoD-CoD), a 5-module highly interactive online program to promote effective coping skills. Program effects were tested on measures of children's self-reported coping and parent and youth reports of children's mental health problems. Significant main effects indicated that youth in CoD-CoD improved more on self-reported emotional problems relative to BTN youth (d = .37) and had a lower rate of clinically significant self-reported mental health problems (OR = .58, p = .04). A significant Baseline × Treatment interaction indicated that the 55% of youth with highest baseline problems improved more than those in BTN on their self-report of total mental health problems. A significant interaction effect indicated that CoD-CoD improved youth coping efficacy for the 30% of those with the lowest baseline coping efficacy. For the 10% of youth with lowest parent-reported risk at baseline, those who received BTN had lower problems than CoD-CoD participants. CoD-CoD was effective in reducing youth-reported mental health problems and coping efficacy particularly for high risk youth. Parent-report indicated that, relative to BTN, CoD-CoD had a negative effect on mental health problems for a small group with the lowest risk. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Divorce-Related Transitions, Adolescent Development, and the Role of the Parent-Child Relationship: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Alice M.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a literature review of adolescent development, family relationships, and the impact of divorce on adolescents. Results reveal that adolescents experience divorce differently than younger children and that a positive parent-adolescent relationship can ameliorate a divorce's negative effects. Identifies major gaps in the literature,…

  11. Psychiatric and somatic health in relation to experience of parental divorce in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Wadsby, Marie

    2012-01-01

    The outcome of studies about the experience of parental divorce and its effects on mental and physical health differs, a result possibly caused by the use of different questionnaires and instruments, varying length of time since the divorce and divergent drop-out of participants. To study the presence of psychiatric records and number of diagnosed somatic and mental healthcare visits in a group of young adults with childhood experience of parental divorce in comparison to a group without this experience. The presence of records at public psychiatric clinics and 10 years of administrative healthcare data (somatic and mental) were checked for both groups. Significantly more persons from the divorce group appeared in child and adolescent psychiatric care; this was most pronounced in females. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in the number of persons seeking adult psychiatry or in the number of psychiatric consultations. Experience of parental divorce was not found to be an indicator of larger somatic health problems. Experience of parental divorce in childhood is not an indicator of adult psychiatric or somatic need of care.

  12. Child adjustment to separation or divorce of parents

    OpenAIRE

    Raposo, Hélder Silva; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Lamela, Diogo; Costa, Rui Alexandre Nunes; Castro, Maria; Prego, Joana

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O presente artigo procura relacionar e analisar evidências empíricas e teóricas sobre o impacto e os fatores associados ao impacto da separação ou divórcio dos pais no ajustamento da criança. MÉTODO: Realizou-se uma revisão agregativa da literatura, recorrendo às palavras-chave "divorce adjustment", "child divorce" e "divorce impact", nas bases de dados JSTOR, PsycInfo, SciELO e Medline e em livros da especialidade. RESULTADOS: Respostas adaptativas e desadaptativas da criança são d...

  13. The effects of parental divorce on adolescent girls in South Africa : an exploratory study of current status.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. The alarming increase of single parent families in South Africa is distressing. The rising divorce rate and the crisis surrounding divorce was the motivation for the researcher to undertake this study. Many children in South Africa are disadvantaged by the high divorce rate and much documented evidence proves the extensive sociological and psychological effects which this has on these children. Research has shown over and again that divorce is observed from a child's perspective as be...

  14. A Program for Educating Parents about the Effects of Divorce and Conflict on Children: An Initial Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifflet, Kelly; Cummings, E. Mark

    1999-01-01

    Explores the impact and consumer satisfaction associated with participation in a parent education program, Kids in Divorce and Separation (K.I.D.S.), that specifically focuses on divorce and parental conflict. Results indicate that participation in the program has positive effects on parents' self-reported knowledge and behavior with regard to…

  15. Parental Divorce and Attitudes and Feelings toward Marriage and Divorce in Emerging Adulthood: New Insights from a Multiway-Frequency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanie Collardeau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing parental divorce can exert long-term consequences on children’s attitudes toward marriage and divorce. Participants’ opinions on marriage and divorce were qualitatively coded and two themes selected based on Willoughby’s theoretical framework. Multiway frequency analyses (MFA were used to investigate associations between empirically based factors (derived from previous empirical studies and participants’ endorsement of the two themes. Four hundred and forty six participants between 18 and 25 years-old, including 217 participants from divorced households, were interviewed. Young adults’ optimism toward marital relationships was related to more proximal factors and a lesser number of factors than young adults’ positive attitude toward divorce. Religious affiliation and parental conflict stood out as important factors. Recommendations are offered for future research.

  16. Divorce transitions: identifying risk and promoting resilience for children and their parental relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, G G

    1999-10-01

    This paper gives an account of qualitative research linked to clinical work relating to some of the short-term effects of divorce on children within a British perspective. The transitions that accompany divorce and family reordering are shown by many studies in the United States, Australia, and New Zealand as well as in the United Kingdom to have stressful effects for children that can lead to long-term negative outcomes. Other studies have focused on the differential social and family factors that may contribute to the "differences that make a difference" to whether divorce has harmful effects on children. This paper describes clinical intervention into family relationships in divorcing and postdivorce families and suggests some high-risk issues for children. The focus of the work is one promoting long-term connections between parents and children in reordered+ families. Some interactions that may promote resilience in children as well as in their parents are alluded to briefly.

  17. Estimating the Effects of Parental Divorce and Death With Fixed Effects Models

    OpenAIRE

    Amato, Paul R.; Anthony, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The authors used child fixed effects models to estimate the effects of parental divorce and death on a variety of outcomes using 2 large national data sets: (a) the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort (kindergarten through the 5th grade) and (b) the National Educational Longitudinal Study (8th grade to the senior year of high school). In both data sets, divorce and death were associated with multiple negative outcomes among children. Although evidence for a causal effect o...

  18. Parental divorce: long-term effects on mental health, family relations and adult sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsson, F H; Njardvik, U; Olafsdóttir, G; Grétarsson, S J

    2000-06-01

    Specific long term effects of parental divorce were examined in a sample of 179 Icelanders, 20 to 30 years of age. The participants answered the Borromean Family Index, the Affect Balance Scale and a number of questions on sexual behavior and attitudes towards marriage and divorce. Results showed that compared to adults whose parents remained married, those of divorced parents reported more negative emotional experiences at the time of the study and had looser family ties. They also had greater number of short love affairs, had their first love affair at a younger age, had a greater number of sexual partners, and were younger at the time of their first sexual intercourse than adults whose parents remained married.

  19. Social Support for Divorced Fathers' Parenting: Testing a Stress-Buffering Model*

    OpenAIRE

    DeGarmo, David S.; Patras, Joshua; Eap, Sopagna

    2008-01-01

    A stress-buffering hypothesis for parenting was tested in a county-representative sample of 218 divorced fathers. Social support for parenting (emergency and nonemergency child care, practical support, financial support) was hypothesized to moderate effects of stress (role overload, coparental conflict, and daily hassles) on fathers’ quality parenting. No custody fathers relied more on relatives compared with custodial fathers, who relied more on new partners for parenting support. No differe...

  20. Preschool Children's Perceptions of Their Parents: A Comparison of Children From Married and Divorced Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Sandra

    1993-01-01

    Young children's perceptions of their parents have been shown to affect responses to parents, and to be relevant in personality development and self-esteem. Typically, research examining children's perceptions of their parents focused on children from intact families. Yet, with the frequent occurrence of divorce in our society, and the trauma and lifestyle changes often associated with marital dissolution, it is possible that children's perceptions of their parents may also change. This ...

  1. Suicidal ideation among individuals whose parents have divorced: findings from a representative Canadian community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Dalton, Angela D

    2011-05-15

    This study used a large, nationally representative sample to examine the gender-specific association between parental divorce and the cumulative lifetime incidence of suicidal ideation. Known risk factors for suicidal ideation, such as childhood stressors, socioeconomic factors, adult health behaviors and stressors, marital status, and any history of mood and/or anxiety disorders were controlled. Gender-specific analyses revealed that for men, the parental divorce-suicidal ideation relationship remained statistically significant even when the above-listed cluster of risk factors were included in the analyses (odds ratio (OR)=2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.56, 3.58). For women, the association between parental divorce and suicidal ideation was reduced to non-significance when other adverse childhood experiences were included in the analyses (full adjustment OR=1.04, 95% CI=0.72, 1.50). These findings indicate a need for screening of suicidal ideation among individuals, particularly men and those with mood and/or anxiety disorders, who have experienced parental divorce. Future research should focus on the mechanisms linking parental divorce and suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Parent-Child Relations and Adolescent Self-Image Following Divorce: A 10-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Rosemary; Burns, Ailsa; Bermingham, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Explored links between self-image, family structure (divorced or intact), parent-child relations, and gender at 3 intervals over 10 years during adolescence to early adulthood. Results suggest a consistent relationship between high parental care, low overprotective control, and better self-image scores with a stronger effect among subjects from…

  3. When Parents Divorce: Assisting Teens to Adjust through a Group Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Jeannine R.; Allton, Judith A.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses factors that contribute to the adjustment difficulties of children and adolescents when their parents divorce. Gender issues, custody, age, parenting style, visitation patterns, socioeconomic considerations, the support system, family size, and the reconstituted family are all discussed. Describes a model for an effective support group…

  4. I’ll Never Forgive You: High Conflict Divorce, Social Network, and Co-Parenting Conflicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.M.; Finkenauer, Catrin; Schoemaker, Kim S.; Kluwer, Esther S.; van der Rijken, Rachel; van Lawick, Justine; Bom, Hans; de Schipper, J. Clasien; Lamers, F.

    2017-01-01

    The relation between divorce, co-parenting conflicts, and children’s adjustment problems has been well established. An unresolved question for research and clinical interventions, however, is how conflicts between parents are maintained and/or escalate. This cross-sectional research tested the

  5. I'll never forgive you: High conflict divorce, social network, and co-parenting conflicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Finkenauer, C.; Schoemaker, K.; Kluwer, E.S.; Rijken, R.E.A. van der; Lawick, M.J. van; Bom, H.; Schipper, J.C. de; Lamers, F.

    2017-01-01

    The relation between divorce, co-parenting conflicts, and children's adjustment problems has been well established. An unresolved question for research and clinical interventions, however, is how conflicts between parents are maintained and/or escalate. This cross-sectional research tested the

  6. Parental Depression and Divorce and Adult Children's Well-Being: The Role of Family Unpredictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Wynne, Stacie

    2010-01-01

    We examined how parental depression and divorce are associated with anxiety and depression among college students (N = 126; 83% female; 89% Caucasian). Participants provided retrospective recollections of their parents' depression, and they completed The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale and portions of the Trait Anxiety Scale. In…

  7. Do mother's and father's education condition the impact of parental divorce on child well-being?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandemakers, J.J.; Kalmijn, M.

    2014-01-01

    We use the British Cohort Study to investigate to what extent parental resources moderate the association between parental divorce in childhood and lowered child well-being as indicated by maternal reports of child psychological well-being and by academic test scores (reading and math tests). We

  8. Effects of Parental Divorce or a Father's Death on High School Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapharas, Nicole K.; Estell, David B.; Doran, Kelly A.; Waldron, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Associations between parental loss and high school (HS) completion were examined in data drawn from 1,761 male and 1,689 female offspring born in wedlock to mothers participating in a nationally representative study. Multiple logistic regression models were conducted predicting HS completion by age 19 among offspring whose parents divorced or…

  9. Perceived quality of the parental relationship and divorce effects on sexual behaviour in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgilés, Mireia; Carratalá, Elena; Espada, José P

    2015-01-01

    Parental divorce has been linked to some risky sexual behaviour in previous studies. Here we examine whether the sexual behaviour of adolescents is related more to the perceived quality of the interparental relationship or to the parents' divorce in a sample from Spain, the country that has experienced the greatest recent increase in marital break-ups in the European Union. Participants were 801 adolescents aged between 14 and 17, who completed questionnaires anonymously. Adolescents who perceive high conflict in their parents' marriages have more sexual activity and engage in more risk practices in some sexual behaviours compared to adolescents with divorced parents and low interparental conflict. When adolescents perceive low conflict, those with divorced parents are more sexually active than adolescents with married parents, but they do not engage in more risk practices. The perceived quality of the parental relationship has a greater negative impact on adolescents than does the type of family structure. The study highlights the need to address the parents' marital relationship in the implementation of prevention programmes of sexual risk behaviours in Spanish adolescents.

  10. A Children of Twins Study of Parental Divorce and Offspring Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; Maes, Hermine H.; Silberg, Judy; Eaves, Lindon J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although parental divorce is associated with increased substance use and internalizing problems, experiencing the separation of one's parents may not cause these outcomes. The relations may be due to genetic or environmental selection factors, characteristics that lead to both marital separation and offspring functioning. Method: We…

  11. The Consequences of Parental Divorce on the Life Course Outcomes of Canadian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills, Melinda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishApplying the theory of the intergenerational transmission of divorce, thispaperexamines the consequences of parental divorce on three aspects of the life courseof children: union formation, nonmarital fertility, and marital dissolution. The1995 Canadian General Social Survey (GSS is used to estimate various regressionmodels (Cox proportional hazards. Results show that children of divorced parentshave a significantly higher likelihood to have births outside of marriage, enter intocohabiting unions, and to experience higher levels of divorce. Throughout thepaper, attention is placed on the markedly different behaviour observed in Quebeccompared to elsewhere in Canada.FrenchS’inspirant de la théorie de la transmission intergénérationnelle du divorce, cetarticle examine les conséquences d’un divorce parental en regard de trois aspectsde la trajectoire de vie des enfants rendus à l’âge adulte: la formation du couple,l’arrivée d’une naissance hors mariage et le risque de rupture du mariage. Lesdonnées provenant de l’Enquête sociale générale sur la famille, réalisée parStatistique Canada en 1995, sont analysées à partir de différents modèles derégression (analyse des transitions ou modèle de Cox. Les résultats montrent queles enfants venant d’une famille divorcée sont plus à risque que les enfants venantd’une famille intacte d’avoir une naissance hors mariage, de former une unionlibre et de divorcer une fois mariés. Une attention particulière est portée auxdifférences de comportements qui séparent le Québec du reste du Canada.

  12. Transition to Parenthood and Susceptibility to Divorce: qualitative research of divorced young parents in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Rijavec Klobučar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Transition to parenthood is a vulnerable period for spouses and can consequently lead to the disintegration of their relationship. The purpose of this research was to examine the experience of this transition, circumstances and risk factors for divorce from the perspective of divorcees in Slovenia who divorced in the first year of their child’s life. On the basis of semi -structured interviews with 15 divorcees, the findings of studies examining changes after the birth of a child were confirmed. The results pointed to risk factors for marriage, such as uncertain relationship between spouses prior to the childbirth, permeable boundaries in relations with families of origin, lack of practical and emotional support, and unreal expectations. The child’s arrival accentuates unsolved issues from the past and brings additional vulnerability to the relationship. The findings of this research are a contribution to the development of preventive, educative and therapeutic programmes for couples in transition to parenthood.

  13. Parental alignments and rejection: an empirical study of alienation in children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R

    2003-01-01

    This study of family relationships after divorce examined the frequency and extent of child-parent alignments and correlates of children's rejection of a parent, these being basic components of the controversial idea of "parental alienation syndrome." The sample consisted of 215 children from the family courts and general community two to three years after parental separation. The findings indicate that children's attitudes toward their parents range from positive to negative, with relatively few being extremely aligned or rejecting. Rejection of a parent has multiple determinants, with both the aligned and rejected parents contributing to the problem, in addition to vulnerabilities within children themselves.

  14. Parental separation/divorce in childhood and partnership outcomes at age 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; McLeod, Geraldine F H; John Horwood, L

    2014-04-01

    Previous research has found that children exposed to separation/divorce may also experience relationship problems in adulthood. The aim of this investigation was to examine this issue in a birth cohort of over 900 New Zealand children studied to age 30. Data were gathered over the course of the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS). The CHDS is a 30 year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 children born in Christchurch (NZ) in 1977. The data collected included the following: (a) timing and number of parental separations and divorces from birth to 15 years; (b) partnership outcomes (16-30 years) of the number of cohabiting/marriage partnerships; positive partner relations; negative partner relations; partner adjustment/conduct problems; and interpartner violence victimization and perpetration; and (c) potential covariate factors. Study findings showed the presence of significant associations between childhood parental separations/divorces and number of cohabiting/marriage partnerships (16-30 years) (p < .001), negative partner relations (p = .021), extent of partner adjustment/conduct problems (p < .001), and perpetration of interpartner violence (p = .018). Childhood parental separation/divorce explained less than 2.5% of the variance in partnership outcomes. These associations were explained statistically by a series of covariate factors associated with childhood parental separation/divorce including parental history of illicit drug use, childhood sexual abuse, childhood conduct problems (7-9 years), interparental conflict and violence, childhood physical punishment/maltreatment, family socio-economic status at the child's birth, and parental history of criminality. Tests of gender interaction showed that the effect of childhood parental separations/divorces may be the same for males and females. Analysis of the number of childhood parental separations/divorces experienced into three age groups (birth to 5, 5-10 years and 10-15

  15. Are happiness and productivity lower among university students with newly-divorced parents? : an experimental approach \\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Proto, Eugenio; Sgroi, Daniel; Oswald, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    We live in a high-divorce age. Parents worry about the possibility of negative effects upon their children. This paper tests whether recent parental-divorce has deleterious consequences for grown children. Under controlled conditions, it measures students’ happiness with life, and their productivity in a standardized laboratory task. No negative effects from divorce can be detected. If anything, happiness and productivity are greater, particularly among males, if they have experienced parenta...

  16. Rate and predictors of divorce among parents of youths with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian T; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Wilson, Tracey K; Greenhouse, Joel B

    2008-10-01

    Numerous studies have asserted the prevalence of marital conflict among families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but evidence is surprisingly less convincing regarding whether parents of youths with ADHD are more at risk for divorce than are parents of children without ADHD. Using survival analyses, the authors compared the rate of marital dissolution between parents of adolescents and young adults with and without ADHD. Results indicated that parents of youths diagnosed with ADHD in childhood (n = 282) were more likely to divorce and had a shorter latency to divorce compared with parents of children without ADHD (n = 206). Among a subset of those families of youths with ADHD, prospective analyses indicated that maternal and paternal education level; paternal antisocial behavior; and child age, race/ethnicity, and oppositional-defiant/conduct problems each uniquely predicted the timing of divorce between parents of youths with ADHD. These data underscore how parent and child variables likely interact to exacerbate marital discord and, ultimately, dissolution among families of children diagnosed with ADHD. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Rate and predictors of divorce among parents of youth with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Wilson, Tracey K.; Greenhouse, Joel B.

    2008-01-01

    Despite numerous studies asserting the prevalence of marital conflict among families of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), evidence is surprisingly less convincing regarding whether parents of youth with ADHD are more at-risk for divorce than parents of children without ADHD. Using survival analyses, this study compared the rate of marital dissolution between parents of adolescents and young adults with and without ADHD. Results indicated that parents of youth diagnosed with ADHD in childhood (n=282) were more likely to divorce and had a shorter latency to divorce than parents of children without ADHD (n=206). Among a subset of those families of youth with ADHD, prospective analyses indicated that maternal and paternal education level, paternal antisocial behavior, and child age, race/ethnicity, and oppositional-defiant/conduct problems each uniquely predicted the timing of divorce between parents of youth with ADHD. These data underscore how parent and child variables likely interact to exacerbate marital discord and, ultimately, dissolution among families of children diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. PMID:18837591

  18. Parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use: assessing the importance of family conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P; Helgason, Asgeir R

    2009-03-01

    To investigate how family conflict contributes to the relationship between parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Population-based cross-sectional survey. School classrooms in Iceland in which an anonymous questionnaire was administered to respondents by supervising teachers. Participants were 7430 (81.4%) of 9124 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Cigarette smoking and alcohol use during the last 30 days were assessed by self-report. Parental divorce was related to adolescent cigarette smoking during the last 30 days (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.84-2.44) when controlling for gender only, but was insignificant (OR = 1.18 95%, CI 0.99-1.44) when controlling for relationship with parents, disruptive social changes and family conflict. There was a significant relationship between parental divorce and adolescent alcohol use during last 30 days (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.48-1.87), controlling only for gender; however, the relationship disappeared (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.91-1.20) when controlling for other variables. Family conflicts are important contributors to the relationship between parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Conflict between parents and adolescents, but not inter-parental conflict, appears to be the most important factor in the relationship between family conflict and adolescent substance use.

  19. The impact of parental separation/divorce on grandparent-grandchild relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L A; Smith, P K

    1999-01-01

    Eighty-six members of the Grandparents' Federation in Britain returned questionnaires about changes in contact with their grandchildren following parental divorce; ten grandparents were also interviewed to obtain more contextual information and measures of health and coping strategies. Three questionnaire measures of the grandparent-grandchild relationship, proximity, contact frequency, and emotional involvement, were interrelated and a significant decrease was reported after parental divorce. There were no significant differences on these measures between grandparents all of whose grandchildren were affected by parental divorce, and grandparents for whom only some grandchildren were so affected; but the latter group did show a greater decline in emotional involvement and also had less recourse to legal action to sustain contact. With grandchildren affected by parental divorce, proximity to grandparents was not significantly less than for grandchildren not so affected, but contact and emotional involvement were significantly less. Many grandparents reported emotional and physical health problems related to the loss of contact. Results are discussed in terms of the extent to which grandparents are victims of the divorce situation, or agents involved in cross-generational family dysfunction; the victim model appears to get more support from our data. Recommendations are made for further research, as well as counseling to help move grandparents through the grief process and to a better quality of life.

  20. Destructive Divorce in the Family Life Cycle and its Implications: Criticisms of Parental Alienation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimar Antônio de Alcântara Mendes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Some difficulties may arise during the divorce process, taking the family into “destructive divorce”. In such cases, some authors can see the rising of Parental Alienation (PA. This article aims to criticize PA, reflecting about the Family Life Cycle and divorce. Regarding this, a qualitative study was conducted with legal actors (judges, prosecutors, psychologists, social workers, lawyers on the issues of divorce and PA and the results were built using the conceptions of Zones of Sense by Gonzalez Rey. The summary results are: (a PA does not contextualize the conflict; (b it does not consider the history of the relationships; (c it pathologizes, medicates and criminalizes the phenomena of post-divorce and (d PA underestimates the child in the conflict.

  1. Self-Concept and Social Anxiety as Predictor Variables of Academic Performance of Spanish Adolescents with Divorced Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Johnson, Blair T.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Espada, Jose P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: According to previous studies, when parents divorce it may increase the vulnerability of children to develop personal problems, such as lowering academic performance. This research examines the academic performance of Spanish children with divorced parents and its relation to academic self-concept and social anxiety. Method: The…

  2. Participation of divorced single parents and their children in outdoor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Divorce is one of the most stressful events a child or adult might ever experience. Enhancing family functioning is a key intended outcome in designing family leisure programmes aimed at developing life-enhancing attitudes and relationships. Nonetheless, the actual effects on families participating in such programmes, ...

  3. Emotional and behavioural problems in young children with divorced parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Klein Velderman, M.; Cloostermans, A.P.G.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examines the link between divorce or separation and emotional and behavioural problems (EBP) in children aged 2–4 years. Methods: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 2–4 years within the setting of the national system

  4. Emotional and behavioural problems in young children with divorced parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H C; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Cloostermans, Anne P G; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the link between divorce or separation and emotional and behavioural problems (EBP) in children aged 2-4 years. We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 2-4 years within the setting of the national system of routine visits to

  5. Long-term psychosocial effects of parental divorce: a follow-up study from adolescence to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurre, Taina; Junkkari, Hanna; Aro, Hillevi

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this 16-year follow-up study was to investigate whether 32-year-old adults who had experienced parental divorce before 16 years of age (n = 317) differed in psychosocial well-being or life trajectories from those from non-divorced two-parent families (n = 1069). The data were obtained from a follow-up survey of a Finnish urban age cohort from the age of 16 till 32 years (n = 1471). The long-term impact of parental divorce on a variety of outcomes in adulthood, including psychological well-being, life situation, health behaviour, social networks and support, negative life events and interpersonal problems, was assessed. Females from divorced compared to non-divorced families reported more psychological problems (higher scores in the Beck Depression Inventory, General Health Questionnaire and Psychosomatic Symptoms Score) and more problems in their interpersonal relationships. These differences were not found among males. Shorter education,unemployment, divorce, negative life events and more risky health behaviour were more common among subjects of both genders with a background of parental divorce. The study revealed that parental divorce is an indicator of sufficient stress in childhood for its influences to persist well into adulthood, possibly with wider scope among females. It is important to recognise specific needs of children in the divorce process in order to prevent or minimize negative consequences and chain reactions during their subsequent life.

  6. Effects of a Program to Promote High Quality Parenting by Divorced and Separated Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin; Gunn, Heather; Mazza, Gina; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wolchik, Sharlene; Berkel, Cady; Jones, Sarah; Porter, Michele

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports on the effects on parenting and on children's mental health problems and competencies from a randomized trial of a parenting program for divorced and separated fathers. The program, New Beginnings Program-Dads (NBP-Dads), includes ten group sessions (plus two phone sessions) which promote parenting skills to increase positive interactions with children, improve father-child communication, use of effective discipline strategies, and skills to protect children from exposure to interparental conflict. The program was adapted from the New Beginnings Program, which has been tested in two randomized trials with divorced mothers and shown to strengthen mothers' parenting and improve long-term outcomes for children (Wolchik et al. 2007). Fathers were randomly assigned to receive either NBP-Dads or a 2-session active comparison program. The sample consisted of 384 fathers (201 NBP-Dads, 183 comparisons) and their children. Assessments using father, youth, and teacher reports were conducted at pretest, posttest, and 10-month follow-up. Results indicated positive effects of NBP-Dads to strengthen parenting as reported by fathers and youth at posttest and 10-month follow-up. Program effects to reduce child internalizing problems and increase social competence were found at 10 months. Many of the program effects were moderated by baseline level of the variable, child age, gender, and father ethnicity. This is the first randomized trial to find significant effects to strengthen father parenting following divorce. In view of recent changes in family courts to allot fathers increasing amounts of parenting time following divorce, the results have significant implications for improving outcomes for children from divorced families.

  7. The impact of parent's and spouses' education on divorce rates in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available According to both economic and sociological theory, a couple's divorce rate may be influenced by their own educational attainment, that of their parents, and whether they have taken further education after marriage, although predictions are ambiguous. However, these three variables have never been included simultaneously and few studies have included both partners' characteristics. A discrete-time hazard model based on register and census data on 54178 Norwegian first marriages started 1980-1999 reveals a very strong negative educational gradient in divorce risk and no particularly harmful influence of heterogamy. Parent's education exerts a small positive effect, however. Among couples with the same current level of education, those who have taken education after entry into marriage display the highest divorce rate.

  8. Parental Divorce and Family History of Alcohol Disorder: Associations with Young Adults' Alcohol Problems, Marijuana Use, and Interpersonal Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Windle, Rebecca C

    2018-06-01

    This study used prospective data from 706 young adults to evaluate the impact of parental divorce and family history of alcoholism (FH+) on the outcomes of offspring alcohol problems, marijuana use, and interpersonal relationships with parents. Assessments of parental divorce were based on parent reports, and young adult outcomes were collected from an offspring cohort (n = 706; X age = 33.25 years; females = 53%) via computer-based individual interviews (CAPI and ACASI). Family history of alcohol disorders for parents was based on assessments by mothers, fathers, and young adults. Parental divorce significantly predicted marijuana use but not alcohol problems. Maternal, but not paternal, alcoholism also significantly predicted marijuana use. Two-way interactions indicated that sex moderated several of the relationships. For example, among those with divorced parents, daughters reported higher levels of conflict with fathers than sons, and sons reported lower levels of maternal support than daughters. Paternal alcoholism was also associated with higher levels of alcohol problems among sons relative to daughters. There was also a significant 2-way interaction between divorce status and maternal alcoholism indicating that young adults who experienced both maternal alcoholism and parental divorce had the highest levels of marijuana use. These findings highlight the role that parental divorce and FH+ have on alcohol problems, marijuana use, and interpersonal relationships in young adulthood, and how sex may moderate some of these more nuanced relationships. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Long-term impact of parental divorce on intimate relationship quality in adulthood and the mediating role of psychosocial resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Ulla; Huurre, Taina; Kiviruusu, Olli; Haukkala, Ari; Aro, Hillevi

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this 16-year prospective follow-up study was to investigate the association between parental divorce in childhood and intimate relationship quality in adulthood. The mediating role of psychosocial resources (parent-child relationships at 16 years, self-esteem and social support at 32 years) in this association was also studied. All 16 year olds of one Finnish city completed questionnaires at school and were followed up by postal questionnaires at 32 years of age (n = 1,471). Results showed that women and men from divorced families were more often divorced or separated at the age of 32 years than those from nondivorced families. However, parental divorce was associated with poorer intimate relationship quality only among women. Women from divorced families also had poorer relationships with their father and mother in adolescence, and they had lower self-esteem and satisfaction with social support in adulthood than women from intact families. No such associations were found among men. The impact of parental divorce on intimate relationship quality among women was partially mediated by mother-daughter relationship, self-esteem, and satisfaction with social support. The mediating role of mother-daughter relationship was not direct, however, but was mediated via self-esteem and satisfaction with social support. Our findings indicate that parental divorce affects daughters more than sons. In the context of parental divorce, the mother-daughter relationship in adolescence is important for the development of later psychosocial resources and, via them, for intimate relationship quality.

  10. Long-term effects of early parental loss due to divorce on the HPA axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Miki; Peleg, Ido; Koren, Danny; Aner, Hamotal; Klein, Ehud

    2007-04-01

    We investigated the long-term effects of divorce and early separation from one parent on HPA axis reactivity, in young adults without psychopathology. Participants were 44 young subjects, 22 whose parents divorced before they reached age 10, and 22 controls. Psychiatric symptomatology was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), family perceived stress by the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and bonding by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Assessment of HPA axis function included baseline morning cortisol and ACTH and cortisol response to a CRH stimulation test. No baseline or stimulated group differences were observed for ACTH. Cortisol levels were consistently but insignificantly lower in the divorce group throughout the CRH stimulation reaching statistical significance only at 5 min (p<0.03). Group by time effect reached a trend level (p<0.06). A correlation was found between psychiatric symptomatology and PBI scores; however, both parameters did not correlate with HPA axis activity. A significant correlation was found between DAS scores and ACTH. A regression model revealed a contributing effect for both family stress and child-parent bonding to stimulated ACTH levels. These preliminary findings suggest that even in the absence of adult psychopathology, a history of childhood separation from one parent due to divorce may lead to detectable, albeit mild, long-term alterations in HPA axis activity. Furthermore, they suggest that level of stress at home and parental bonding are important determinants of this effect. It is likely that divorce has significant and sustained effects on children's HPA axis only in the context of a traumatic separation.

  11. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene–environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbers, S.C.C.; van Oort, F.V.; Huizink, A.C.; Verhulst, F.C.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Bartels, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than children with

  12. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene-environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C.C. Robbers (Sylvana); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); A.C. Huizink (Anja); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); C.E.M. van Beijsterveldt (Toos); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); M. Bartels (Meike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than

  13. Parent-Child Relationships in Nondivorced, Divorced Single-Mother, and Remarried Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Margaret Stanley; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Over time, mother-child relationships in families with remarried mothers grew increasingly similar to those in families whose parents had never divorced. Relationships in single-mother families remained different from those in the other two types of families. Stepfathers were less likely to be authoritative than were nondivorced fathers. (BC)

  14. Film Selection in a Cinematherapy Intervention with Preadolescents Experiencing Parental Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsick, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Film selection and children's reactions to films are discussed in this article based on a qualitative multiple-case study with three preadolescent-aged children experiencing parental divorce. Six films were selected based on recommended films in cinematherapy. Although many films have been recommended for cinematherapy, multiple participants'…

  15. European views of divorce among parents of young children: understanding cross-national variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, A.J.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examine differences across Europe in attitudes towards divorce involving children under the age of 12. We hypothesize that these attitudes are less favourable in countries where poverty among single parent households is common than in countries where such poverty is rare. We also

  16. European views of divorce among parents of young children: understanding cross-national variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, A.J.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examine differences across Europe in attitudes towards divorce involving children under the age of 12. We hypothesize that these attitudes are less favourable in countries where poverty among single parent households is common than in countries where such poverty is rare. We also expect

  17. Children's Experiences and Meaning Construction on Parental Divorce: A Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Sofie D. J.; De Mol, Jan; Buysse, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The global aim of this study was to explore children's narratives of parental divorce. A convenience sample, composed of 11- and 14-year-old children, was recruited. A total of 22 children (12 male, 10 female) participated in this focus group study. The findings show that two components seem to be really important for children during the divorce…

  18. Are Associations between Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment Genetically Mediated? An Adoption Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Caspi, Avshalom; DeFries, John C.; Plomin, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Data from Colorado Adoption Project were used to examine hypothesis that association between parental divorce and children's adjustment is mediated by genetic factors. Findings for psychopathology were consistent with an environmentally mediated explanation for the association. Findings for achievement and social adjustment were consistent with a…

  19. An Attachment Theory Approach to Narrating the Faith Journey of Children of Parental Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesling, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effects of parental divorce on a child's faith. Drawing from attachment theory, Granqvist and Kirkpatrick proposed two probable developmental pathways to religion. For those with secure attachment, whose cumulative experiences of sensitive, religious caregivers enhance the development of a God image as loving; belief…

  20. Parental Divorce and Offspring Depressive Symptoms: Dutch Developmental Trends during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; De Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated if the association between parental divorce and depressive symptoms changes during early adolescence and if developmental patterns are similar for boys and girls. Data were collected in a prospective population cohort of Dutch adolescents (N = 2,149), aged 10 - 15 years. Outcome variables were self-reported and…

  1. Family Functioning and Parental Divorce as Predictors of Attachment Styles and Sexual Attitudes in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufskie, Kathy L.

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that parental divorce and family functioning are associated with children's socieomotional and psychological adjustment well into their adult years. Research has also demonstrated that sexual attitudes are becoming more liberal (cf., Harding & Jencks, 2003; Leiblum, Wiegel, & Brickle, 2003). The purpose of this research…

  2. Parental Divorce and Adolescent Drunkenness : Role of Socioeconomic Position, Psychological Well-Being and Social Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomcikova, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J. P.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks and the contribution of socioeconomic position, family structure, social support from family and well-being to this association. Methods: We

  3. Development and Implementation of a Psychoeducational Group for Ghanaian Adolescents Experiencing Parental Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkyi, Anthony K.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents development and informal assessment of a 10-week psychoeducational program designed for 8 adolescent group members experiencing parental divorce in a rural community in Ghana. Group design, cultural considerations, program implementation, and impacts are described. The literature review pertaining to group work as an…

  4. Parental divorce and offspring depressive symptoms : Dutch developmental trends during early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Veenstra, R.; De Winter, A.F.; Verhulst, F.C.

    In this study, we investigated if the association between parental divorce and depressive symptoms changes during early adolescence and if developmental patterns are similar for boys and girls. Data were collected in a prospective population cohort of Dutch adolescents (N = 2,149), aged 10 - 15

  5. Parents' partnership decision making after divorce or widowhood: the role of the (step)children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong Gierveld, J.; Merz, E.-M.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Surveys, this study investigated divorced and widowed parents' (N = 350) decision making about living arrangements after repartnering: Twenty-eight percent lived apart together (LAT) and others lived together (remarried or cohabiting). The focus was on

  6. Parents' partnership decision making after divorce or widowhood: the role of the (step)children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Gierveld, J.; Merz, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Surveys, this study investigated divorced and widowed parents' (N=350) decision making about living arrangements after repartnering: Twenty-eight percent lived apart together (LAT) and others lived together (remarried or cohabiting). The focus was on

  7. The Influence of Parental Divorce on Educational Ambitions of 18/19 Year-Old Adolescents from Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeratsion, Henok; Bjertness, Cecilie B; Bjertness, Espen; Dalsklev, Madeleine; Haavet, Ole R; Halvorsen, Jon A; Lien, Lars; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    Former studies have shown that children and adolescents of divorced parents have significantly poorer educational attainment than their peers from continuously married parents. Educational ambition is important because it has relationship with educational attainment. Our aim was to investigate the associations between parental divorce and educational ambitions among adolescents in the Scandinavian region. Data were used from Young-HUBRO surveys that were conducted in Oslo in the years 2000/2001 and 2004. A change in educational ambition was investigated in a prospective study (n = 1,861) by comparing 18/19 year-olds who experienced late parental divorce with adolescents of continuously married parents. 18/19 year-old adolescents who experienced parental divorce during childhood or adolescence were compared in a cross-sectional study (n = 2,391) with their peers from continuously married parents. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted to include, among others, mental health problem as a potential confounder. The prospective study showed that a change from ambition for university/college education to having undecided educational ambition was significantly higher among adolescents with experience of late parental divorce than among adolescents of continuously married parents (OR 1.8; 95 % CI 1.1-3.0). In the cross-sectional study, adolescents who experienced parental divorce during childhood or adolescence were more likely to have undecided educational ambition, compared to their peers from continuously married parents (OR 1.3; 95 % CI 1.1-1.8). In conclusion, experience of parental divorce seems to be associated with undecided educational ambition among 18/19 year-old adolescents. Mechanisms that reduce the adverse influence of parental divorce on educational ambitions need to be in place.

  8. Parents' experience of child contact within entrenched conflict families following separation and divorce: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Target, M.; Hertzmann, L.; Midgley, N.; Casey, P.; Lassri, D.

    2017-01-01

    Child contact arrangements with parents following separation and divorce are strongly endorsed for children in both public policy and law where safe, but can be difficult to sustain. Entrenched high-conflict post-separation relationships between parents can cause substantial emotional risks to children as well as impacting severely on parents’ mental health. This paper describes a qualitative study, aimed at examining parents’ experiences of contact arrangements post-separation, undertaken wi...

  9. Parental divorce in late adolescence does not seem to increase mental health problems: a population study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeratsion, Henok; Dalsklev, Madeleine; Bjertness, Espen; Lien, Lars; Haavet, Ole R; Halvorsen, Jon A; Bjertness, Cecilie B; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    2013-04-30

    Former studies have shown increased mental health problems in adolescents after parental divorce all over the Western world. We wanted to see if that still is the case in Norway today when divorce turns to be more and more common. In a prospective study design, two samples were constituted, adolescents at a baseline survey in 2001/02 (n = 2422) and those at follow-up in 2003/04 (n = 1861), when the adolescents were 15/16 and 18/19 years-old, respectively. They answered self-administered questionnaires in both surveys of Young-HUBRO in Oslo. Early parental divorce was defined as that which occured before age 15/16 years, and late divorce occured between age 15/16 and 18/19. Internalized and externalized mental health problems were measured by the Hopkin's Symptom Check List (HSCL-10) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). After linear regression models were adjusted for gender, ethnicity, family economy, social support, and mental health problem symptoms measured at baseline before parental divorce occured, late parental divorce did not lead to significant increase in mental health problems among adolescents in the city of Oslo. Early parental divorce was associated with internal mental health problems among young adolescents when adjusted only for the first four possible confounders. It seems that parental divorce in late adolescence does not lead to mental health problems in Norway any more, as has been shown before, while such problems may prevail among young adolescents. This does not mean that parental divorce create less problems in late adolescence than before but these youths might have developed adjustment abilities against health effects as divorce have turned to be more common.

  10. The influences of parental divorce and maternal-versus-paternal alcohol abuse on offspring lifetime suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Alonzo, Dana; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-05-01

    Research indicates that parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increase likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. However, when experienced together, only parental alcohol abuse significantly increased odds of suicide attempt. It is unclear to what extent differences in the effect of maternal versus paternal alcohol use exist on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt risk. This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt. The sample consisted of participants from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The simultaneous effect of childhood or adolescent parental divorce and maternal and paternal history of alcohol problems on offspring lifetime suicide attempt was estimated using a logistic regression model with an interaction term for demographics and parental history of other emotional and behavioural problems. Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems nearly doubled the likelihood of suicide attempt. Divorce and history of alcohol problems for both parents tripled the likelihood. Individuals who experienced parental divorce as children or adolescents and who have a parent who abuses alcohol are at elevated risk for lifetime suicide attempt. These problem areas should become a routine part of assessment to better identify those at risk for lifetime suicide attempt and to implement early and targeted intervention to decrease such risk. [Thompson RG Jr,Alonzo D, Hu M-C, Hasin DS. The influences of parental divorce and maternal-versus-paternal alcohol abuse on offspringlifetime suicide attempt. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:408-414]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Parental divorce and adjustment in adulthood: findings from a community sample. The ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, T G; Thorpe, K; Dunn, J; Golding, J

    1999-07-01

    The current study examines the link between the experience of divorce in childhood and several indices of adjustment in adulthood in a large community sample of women. Results replicated previous research on the long-term correlation between parental divorce and depression and divorce in adulthood. Results further suggested that parental divorce was associated with a wide range of early risk factors, life course patterns, and several indices of adult adjustment. Regression analyses indicated that the long-term correlation between parental divorce and depression in adulthood is explained by quality of parent-child and parental marital relations (in childhood), concurrent levels of stressful life events and social support, and cohabitation. The long-term association between parental divorce and experiencing a divorce in adulthood was partly mediated through quality of parent-child relations, teenage pregnancy, leaving home before 18 years, and educational attainment.

  12. The Long-Term Effects of Parental Divorce on the Mental Health of Young Adults: A Developmental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined effects on young adults (23 years) of parental divorce during childhood and adolescence using data from Britain's longitudinal National Child Development study. Found that divorce had a moderate, long-term negative impact on young adults' mental health; the relative risk of serious emotional disorders increased in the aftermath of…

  13. The relationship between child abuse, parental divorce, and lifetime mental disorders and suicidality in a nationally representative adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Boman, Jonathan; Fleisher, William; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-03-01

    To determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes using a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology. Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, n=5,877; age 15-54 years; response rate 82.4%). Logistic regression models were used to determine the odds of experiencing lifetime psychiatric disorders and suicidal ideation and attempts. Parental divorce alone was associated with some psychiatric disorders after adjusting for sociodemographic variables (AOR ranging from 1.30 to 2.37), while child abuse alone was associated with psychiatric disorders (AOR ranging from 1.39 to 6.07) and suicidal ideation (AOR=2.08; 95% CI=1.57-2.77) and attempts (AOR=1.54; 95% CI=1.02-2.31) after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. However, having experienced both parental divorce and child abuse together resulted in significantly increased odds for lifetime PTSD (AOR=9.87; 95% CI=6.69-14.55), conduct disorder (AOR=4.01; 95% CI=2.92-5.51) and suicide attempts (AOR=2.74; 95% CI=1.84-4.08) compared to having experienced either parental divorce or child abuse alone. These results were attenuated when further adjusting for parental psychopathology. When the experience of parental divorce is accompanied with child abuse, the associations with some poor mental health outcomes are significantly greater compared to the impact of either parental divorce or child abuse on its own. Therefore, parental divorce is an additional childhood adversity that significantly contributes to poor mental health outcomes especially when in combination with child abuse. Parental psychopathology attenuated these relationships suggesting that it may be one possible mechanism to explain the relationships between child abuse, parental divorce, and psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts.

  14. Long-term influences of parental divorce on offspring affective disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Amy; Thompson, Ellen J; Gaysina, Darya

    2017-08-15

    The prevalence of divorce in Western countries has increased in recent decades. However, there is no recent systematic review and/or meta-analysis of studies testing for long-term effects of parental divorce on offspring affective disorders. The present study conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published since 1980 testing for the association between parental divorce and offspring depression and anxiety in adulthood. PUBMED, Science Direct, Medline, PsychInfo, and PsychArticles databases were searched for eligible studies. Random-effect meta-analyses were used to synthesize effect sizes and to test whether associations of parental divorce with offspring affective disorders differed among three publication periods (i.e., before 1996, 1996-2005, 2006-2015). In total, 29 studies were eligible for the systematic review, and 18 studies were included in the meta-analyses (depression: n=21,581; anxiety: n=2472). There was significant association between parental divorce and offspring depression (OR=1.56; 95%CI [1.31, 1.86]), but not anxiety (OR=1.16; 95%CI [0.98, 1.38]). The effect of parental divorce on offspring depression was not weaker in the reports published in more recent decades. There is limited research in relation to offspring anxiety in adulthood. Parental divorce is associated with an increased risk of adult offspring depression, with no indication of the effect being weaker in recent publications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Multi-parent families as "normal" families--segregation and parent-child-alienation after separation and divorce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napp-Peters, Anneke

    2005-12-01

    Decisive for the question as to how children cope with their parents' divorce is whether or not the parents continue to perform their parental role together even after separation, or have at least made arrangements for the child to maintain a good relationship with each parent. These are the findings of a longitudinal study of 150 postdivorce families. The case of a multi-parent family after remarriage, which sees itself as a "normal" family and segregates the visiting parent, shows what consequences the breakdown of parent-child relationships has for the psychological health and the development of children. Alienation and long-term disruption of the contact between child and visiting parent is a phenomenon which the psychiatric and psychotherapeutic professions are increasingly confronted with. The American child psychiatrist R. A. Gardner has introduced the term "Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS)" to encompass this childhood disorder that arises almost exclusively in the context of child-custody disputes.

  16. CONSERVATION CHILD’S ATTACHMENT TO BOTH PARENTS IN THE DIVORCE: ON THE PROBLEM RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Sklyarova, Tatyana; Kupriianova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    his paper discusses the development of a child whose parents are divorced. In deciding with whom the child should stay, the court is based on his interests, it is very often decisive is the child's own opinion about who he wants to live. An important problem in this situation is the active influence of one parent (most of whom currently live child) on the decision-making process a child. To achieve the desired result the parent often resorted to negative methods of influence on your child, cr...

  17. Double impact: what sibling data can tell us about the long-term negative effects of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfinger, Nicholas H; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Smith, Ken R

    2003-01-01

    Most prior research on the adverse consequences of parental divorce has analyzed only one child per family. As a result, it is not known whether the same divorce affects siblings differently. We address this issue by analyzing paired sibling data from the 1994 General Social Survey (GSS) and 1994 Survey of American Families (SAF). Both seemingly unrelated regressions and random effects models are used to study the effect of family background on offspring's educational attainment and marital stability. Parental divorce adversely affects the educational attainment and the probability of divorce of both children within a sibship; in other words, siblings tend to experience the same divorce the same way. However, family structure of origin only accounts for a trivial portion of the shared variance in offspring's educational attainment and marital stability, so parental divorce is only one of many factors determining how offspring fare. These findings were unchanged when controlling for a number of differences both between and within sibships. Also, the negative effects of parental divorce largely do not vary according to respondent characteristics.

  18. Protection of children of divorced parents who are victims of emotional abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batić Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little is said and written about the problem of emotional abuse of children, as a result of parental divorce and separation, probably because it is a very sophisticated type of emotional abuse, which unfortunately sometimes experts do not recognize. This phenomenon is rarely explored and researched in general and especially in the Republic of Macedonia. It is not disputed that there is a solid legal framework for a government response to this type of child abuse in Republic of Macedonia. Given the impact on children, this problem requires much more attention, education and cooperation between the competent institutions. This paper tries to explore the concept of emotional abuse of children, as a result of divorce and separation of the parents, as a very specific form of domestic violence from a psychological point of view, as well as to analyze the legal norm of this form of domestic violence in the Republic of Macedonia.

  19. The impact of parent's and spouses' education on divorce rates in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Torkild Lyngstad

    2004-01-01

    According to both economic and sociological theory, a couple's divorce rate may be influenced by their own educational attainment, that of their parents, and whether they have taken further education after marriage, although predictions are ambiguous. However, these three variables have never been included simultaneously and few studies have included both partners' characteristics. A discrete-time hazard model based on register and census data on 54178 Norwegian first marriages started 1980-1...

  20. Contact between adult children and their divorced parents: Italy in a comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Albertini, Marco; Saraceno, Chiara

    2007-01-01

    "This paper, based on a Multipurpose survey on a large national sample of Italian households which has made possible to analyse parent-child and grandparent-child dyads, explores the impact of marital instability on relationships with adult children and with grandchildren. As in other countries, the impact is more negative in the case of divorce than in case of widowhood and, in both cases, more negative for men than for women. It affects the threegenerational relationship and is not compensa...

  1. Effects of parental separation and divorce on very young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke-Stewart, K A; Vandell, D L; McCartney, K; Owen, M T; Booth, C

    2000-06-01

    Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care were analyzed to explore effects of marital separation on children in the first 3 years of life. The sample included 73 never-married mothers and 97 separated mothers; a comparison group of 170 was conditionally randomly selected from the 2-parent families. Children in 2-parent families performed better than children in 1-parent families on assessments of cognitive and social abilities, problem behavior, attachment security, and behavior with mother. However, controlling for mothers' education and family income reduced these differences, and associations with separated-intact marital status were nonsignificant (the effect size was .01). Thus, children's psychological development was not affected by parental separation per se; it was related to mothers' income, education, ethnicity, child-rearing beliefs, depressive symptoms, and behavior.

  2. The long-term effects of parental divorce on the mental health of young adults: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase-Lansdale, P L; Cherlin, A J; Kiernan, K E

    1995-12-01

    The effects of parental divorce during childhood and adolescence on the mental health of young adults (age 23) were examined, using the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a longitudinal, multimethod, nationally representative survey of all children born in Great Britain during 1 week in 1958 (N = 17,414). Children were assessed at birth and subsequently followed up at ages 7, 11, 16, and 23 by means of maternal and child interviews, and by psychological, school, and medical assessments. Parental divorce had a moderate, long-term negative impact on adult mental health, as measured by the Malaise Inventory total score, and controlling for economic status, children's emotional problems, and school performance preceding marital dissolution. The likelihood of scoring above the clinical cutoff of the Malaise Inventory rose from 8% to 11% due to parental divorce. This indicated that the relative risk of serious emotional disorders increased in the aftermath of divorce, but that the large majority of individuals did not exhibit such risks. Path analyses revealed that the negative effects of divorce on adult mental health operated indirectly through higher emotional problems and lower levels of school achievement and family economic status at age 16. Results related to timing of divorce, remarriage, and interactions between age 7 emotional problems and divorce, and between age 7 emotional problems and child gender, are also discussed.

  3. Trajectories of internalizing, externalizing, and grades for children who have and have not experienced their parents' divorce or separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Malone, Patrick S; Castellino, Domini R; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2006-06-01

    This study examined whether the occurrence and timing of parental separation or divorce was related to trajectories of academic grades and mother- and teacher-reported internalizing and externalizing problems. The authors used hierarchical linear models to estimate trajectories for children who did and did not experience their parents' divorce or separation in kindergarten through 10th grade (N = 194). A novel approach to analyzing the timing of divorce/separation was adopted, and trajectories were estimated from 1 year prior to the divorce/separation to 3 years after the event. Results suggest that early parental divorce/separation is more negatively related to trajectories of internalizing and externalizing problems than is later divorce/separation, whereas later divorce/separation is more negatively related to grades. One implication of these findings is that children may benefit most from interventions focused on preventing internalizing and externalizing problems, whereas adolescents may benefit most from interventions focused on promoting academic achievement. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Childhood family disruptions and adult well-being: the differential effects of divorce and parental death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, K Y

    2001-01-01

    This study draws on attachment theory and social learning theory and uses data from the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the differential effects of childhood family disruptions on adult well-being. Comparisons are made between adults who experienced parental divorce, adults who experienced parental death, and adults who were raised in intact families (N = 4,341). The present study differs from previous research by making direct comparisons between different family disruption groups, assessing the effects of family disruptions that occur before age 19, and including multiple measures of adult well-being as dependent variables. Consistent with hypotheses and inferences made from comparisons with adults from intact families, adults who experienced parental divorce report lower levels of parent-child relationship quality, higher levels of self-confidence, and lower levels of depression than adults who experienced parental death during childhood. Therefore, studies that fail to take type of childhood family disruption into account will lead to inaccurate and misleading conclusions about the effects of these experiences on adult outcomes.

  5. Moderation of genetic factors by parental divorce in adolescents' evaluations of family functioning and subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aa, Niels; Boomsma, Dorret I; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Hudziak, James J; Bartels, Meike

    2010-04-01

    Adolescents' evaluations of family functioning may have a significant impact on their subjective well-being and adjustment. The aim of the study was to investigate the degree to which genetic and environmental influences affect variation in evaluations of general family functioning, family conflict, and quality of life and the overlap between them. We assessed whether genetic and environmental influences are moderated by parental divorce by analyzing self-report data from 6,773 adolescent twins and their non-twin siblings. Genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental influences accounted for variation in general family functioning and family conflict, with genetic influences being relatively more important in girls than boys in general family functioning. Genetic and nonshared environmental influences accounted for variation in quality of life, with genetic influences being relatively more important in girls. Evidence was found for interaction between genetic factors and parental divorce: genetic influence on general family functioning was larger in participants from divorced families. The overlap between general family functioning and quality of life, and family conflict and quality of life was accounted for the largest part by genetic effects, with nonshared environmental effects accounting for the remaining part. By examining the data from monozygotic twins, we found evidence for interaction between genotype and nonshared, non-measured, environmental influences on evaluations of general family functioning, family conflict, and quality of life.

  6. Perceived Parental Functioning, Self-Esteem, and Psychological Distress in Adults Whose Parents are Separated/Divorced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrocchio, Maria C; Marchetti, Daniela; Fulcheri, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire), quality of the parent-child relationship (using Parental Bonding Instruments), self-esteem (using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and global psychological distress (using Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). About 80% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; about 65-70% of the sample has perceived non-optimal parenting by mother and by father; individuals who experienced affectionless control (low care and high overprotection) reported significantly higher exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors. Overall rates of reported exposure to low care, and overprotection and parental loyalty conflict behaviors were statistically significantly associated with self-esteem as well as the measure of current psychological distress. RESULTS revealed that exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors and self-esteem were associated with psychological distress over and above the effects of parental bonding and age. The pattern of findings supports the theory that children exposed to dysfunctional parenting, and with low self-esteem are at risk for their long-term psychological functioning. Implications for health policy changes and strengthening social services are discussed.

  7. Perceived parental functioning, self-esteem, and psychological distress in adults whose parents are separated/divorced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina eVerrocchio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Methods. Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire, quality of the parent-child relationship (using Parental Bonding Instruments, self-esteem (using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and global psychological distress (using Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Results. About 80% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; about 65-70% of the sample has perceived non optimal parenting by mother and by father; individuals who experienced affectionless control (low care and high overprotection reported significantly higher exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors. Overall rates of reported exposure to low care, and overprotection and parental loyalty conflict behaviors were statistically significantly associated with self-esteem as well as the measure of current psychological distress. Results revealed that exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors and self-esteem were associated with psychological distress over and above the effects of parental bonding and age. Conclusions. The pattern of findings supports the theory that children exposed to dysfunctional parenting, and with low self-esteem are at risk for their long-term psychological functioning. Implications for health policy changes and strengthening social services are discussed.

  8. Perceived Parental Functioning, Self-Esteem, and Psychological Distress in Adults Whose Parents are Separated/Divorced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrocchio, Maria C.; Marchetti, Daniela; Fulcheri, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Methods: Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire), quality of the parent–child relationship (using Parental Bonding Instruments), self-esteem (using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and global psychological distress (using Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). Results: About 80% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; about 65–70% of the sample has perceived non-optimal parenting by mother and by father; individuals who experienced affectionless control (low care and high overprotection) reported significantly higher exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors. Overall rates of reported exposure to low care, and overprotection and parental loyalty conflict behaviors were statistically significantly associated with self-esteem as well as the measure of current psychological distress. Results revealed that exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors and self-esteem were associated with psychological distress over and above the effects of parental bonding and age. Conclusion: The pattern of findings supports the theory that children exposed to dysfunctional parenting, and with low self-esteem are at risk for their long-term psychological functioning. Implications for health policy changes and strengthening social services are discussed. PMID:26635670

  9. Are happiness and productivity lower among young people with newly-divorced parents? : an experimental and econometric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Proto, Eugenio; Sgroi, Daniel; Oswald, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    High rates of divorce in western society have prompted much research on the repercussions for well-being and the economy. Yet little is known about the important topic of whether parental divorce has deleterious consequences upon adult children. By combining experimental and econometric survey-based evidence, this study attempts to provide an answer. Under controlled conditions, it measures university students’ subjective well-being and productivity (in a standardized laboratory task). It fin...

  10. Parental involvement after separation/divorce / O envolvimento parental após a separação/divórcio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Suárez Grzybowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the ecological-contextual model and on the concept of parental involvement, this article proposes to discuss the parental practices of separated/divorced fathers and mothers towards their children. In order to do so, 234 subjects (117 fathers/117 mothers with children at school were interviewed via the Parental Practices Inventory. Such instrument evaluated the parental involvement in 5 areas: affective involvement, didactic involvement, social involvement, disciplinary involvement and, responsibility. The results showed greater maternal involvement with children after the divorce: direct (care, interaction and indirect (monitoring, preoccupation. The cohabitation with the mother revealed itself as a significant variable associated to her greater involvement with activities in the private/domestic environment while fathers had greater involvement in the public/social space. Contextual characteristics (cohabitation, frequency of visits and characteristics of the parents (occupation, education, affective and conjugal issues showed to be strongly associated with the parental involvement after divorce.

  11. 26 CFR 1.152-4 - Special rule for a child of divorced or separated parents or parents who live apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and L, who are separated under a written separation agreement, are the parents of Child. In August.... (i) In 2009, S and T, the parents of Child, execute a written separation agreement. The agreement... are the divorced parents of Child. In 2003, Y and Z enter into a separation agreement, which is...

  12. Long-term effects of divorce on parent-child relationships: within-family comparisons of fathers and mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.

    2013-01-01

    Using national representative survey data from the Netherlands, this article examines the effects of a parental divorce in childhood on relationships between adult children and their parents. Using a within-family design, we make comparisons between fathers and mothers within the same family. Our

  13. Do mother’s and father’s education condition the impact of parental divorce on child well-being?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandemakers, J.J.; Kalmijn, M.

    2014-01-01

    We use the British Cohort Study to investigate to what extent parental resources moderate the association between parental divorce in childhood and lowered child well-being as indicated by maternal reports of child psychological well-being and by academic test scores (reading and math tests). We

  14. The Relationship between Child Abuse, Parental Divorce, and Lifetime Mental Disorders and Suicidality in a Nationally Representative Adult Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O.; Boman, Jonathan; Fleisher, William; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes using a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, n=5,877; age 15-54 years;…

  15. Adolescents after Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Christy M.; And Others

    The decision to divorce is grueling for most parents, who usually worry heavily about the impact of divorce on their children. The study described in this book was undertaken to discover what circumstances of family life after divorce are associated with good adjustment on the part of children, so that both parents and professionals can enhance…

  16. Children and Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Suzanne E.

    Some basic principles are discussed that can help divorcing parents understand the feelings and behaviors of their children, and guidelines are suggested for parents wanting to help their children adjust to the divorce-induced changes in their lives. The process of divorce is discussed in terms of children's experience, cause and effect, and time.…

  17. A court-mandated workshop for adolescent children of divorcing parents: a program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D M

    1980-01-01

    This article provides a description and an empirical evaluation of a predivorce workshop established by the Family Court of Allen County, Indiana, for adolescent children (N = 48) of divorcing parents. Highlighted are the concerns of the adolescents, the approaches taken by the workshop staff, and the impact of the program on the participants. Viewpoints on the clinical, ethical, and legal issues involved in "required" predivorce counseling for adolescents are presented. The preventive nature of the program, its means of transforming initial resentment toward the workshop experience into positive feelings, and the implications for future practice and research are also discussed.

  18. Divorce: Helping Children Cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Alicia S.; McBride, Jean

    1982-01-01

    Examines children's reactions to the divorce process and explores ways in which adults can promote growth and adjustment in children of divorce. Suggests ways in which parents, teachers, and counselors can help children. (RC)

  19. Does Parental Divorce Increase Risk Behaviors among 15/16 and 18/19 year-old Adolescents? A Study from Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeratsion, Henok; Bjertness, Cecilie B; Lien, Lars; Haavet, Ole R; Dalsklev, Madeleine; Halvorsen, Jon A; Bjertness, Espen; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have reported an increase in risk behaviors among adolescents after experience of parental divorce. The aim of the study was to investigate whether parental divorce is associated with risk behavior among adolescents independent of mental health problems, first when early divorce was experienced, and second after experience of late parental divorce. One prospective (n=1861) and one cross-sectional study (n=2422) were conducted using data from two Young-HUBRO surveys in Oslo, Norway. All 15/16 year-old 10(th) grade students who participated in the first survey in the school year 2000/01 were followed-up in 2004 when they were 18/19 year-olds. The follow-up rate was 68%. The prospective study investigated the influence of late parental divorce that occurred between the age of 15/16 and 18/19. In the cross-sectional study we focused on early parental divorce that occurred before the participants were 15/16 year-old. In the prospective study we could not discern a significant association between experiencing late parental divorce and an increase in risk behaviors among 18/19 year-old adolescents. In the cross-sectional study parental divorce was significantly associated with cigarette smoking and using doping agents. Parental divorce that occurs when the children of divorced parents are 15/16 year-old or younger is associated with an increase in cigarette smoking and use of doping agents. However, no evidence of significant association is found between experience of late parental divorce and risk behaviors in late adolescence.

  20. Does parental divorce moderate the heritability of body dissatisfaction? An extension of previous gene-environment interaction effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Shannon M; Klump, Kelly L; VanHuysse, Jessica L; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William

    2016-02-01

    Previous research suggests that parental divorce moderates genetic influences on body dissatisfaction. Specifically, the heritability of body dissatisfaction is higher in children of divorced versus intact families, suggesting possible gene-environment interaction effects. However, prior research is limited to a single, self-reported measure of body dissatisfaction. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether these findings extend to a different dimension of body dissatisfaction: body image perceptions. Participants were 1,534 female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study, aged 16-20 years. The Body Rating Scale (BRS) was used to assess body image perceptions. Although BRS scores were heritable in twins from divorced and intact families, the heritability estimates in the divorced group were not significantly greater than estimates in the intact group. However, there were differences in nonshared environmental effects, where the magnitude of these environmental influences was larger in the divorced as compared with the intact families. Different dimensions of body dissatisfaction (i.e., negative self-evaluation versus body image perceptions) may interact with environmental risk, such as parental divorce, in discrete ways. Future research should examine this possibility and explore differential gene-environment interactions using diverse measures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The additive and interactive effects of parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems of children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, L J; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N; West, S G

    2000-06-01

    Investigated the interaction between parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems in children of divorce. The study utilized a sample of 231 mothers and children, 9 to 12 years old, who had experienced divorce within the previous 2 years. Both mothers' and children's reports on parenting, temperament, and adjustment variables were obtained and combined to create cross-reporter measures of the variables. Parenting and temperament were directly and independently related to outcomes consistent with an additive model of their effects. Significant interactions indicated that parental rejection was more strongly related to adjustment problems for children low in positive emotionality, and inconsistent discipline was more strongly related to adjustment problems for children high in impulsivity. These findings suggest that children who are high in impulsivity may be at greater risk for developing problems, whereas positive emotionality may operate as a protective factor, decreasing the risk of adjustment problems in response to negative parenting.

  2. Severe congenital malformations, family functioning and parents' separation/divorce: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, M; Côté, S M; Boivin, M; Tremblay, R E

    2016-01-01

    We aim to explore the association of a severe congenital malformation (SCM) with postnatal family functioning and parents' separation/divorce and to examine if this association might be moderated by birth order of the child and parental level of education. SCM refers to malformations that, without medical intervention, cause handicap or death. Using the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, an ongoing population-based birth cohort study initiated in 1998, we compared 1675 families of children with and without a SCM to identify if having a child with a SCM was associated with maternal perception of family functioning. We examined if an SCM was associated with parents' separation and examined parents' education level and birth order of the children to evaluate whether these factors had any moderating effect on the results. There were no significant differences in family functioning between families with and without a SCM child at 5 and 17 months. At 5 months, family functioning was significantly better (P = 0.03) for families with a SCM firstborn child than for families with a SCM child that is not firstborn. For parental separation, no significant differences were observed at 5 and 29 months and 4 years. No significant moderating effects were observed for birth order and parental education on parental separation. Families of children with a SCM do not appear to be at higher risk of family dysfunction within the first 17 months after birth nor of parental separation within the first 4 years after birth. Family functioning tends to be worst in families where the child with SCM is the second or subsequent child born. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Seen But Not Heard? Focusing on the Needs of Children of Divorced Parents in Gaborone and Surrounding Areas, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maundeni, Tapologo

    2002-01-01

    Examined extent to which children's expressed needs for information were met by their mothers in study of parental separation and divorce in Botswana. Found that most children were dissatisfied with informational support received from their mothers. Mothers' ability to meet children's communication needs were influenced by their perceptions of…

  4. The Decision-Making Processes of Early Childhood Teachers When Working with Children Experiencing Parental Separation and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, L.; Lunn, J.; Petriwskyj, A.; Walsh, K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the pedagogical decision-making processes of 21 Australian early childhood teachers working with children experiencing parental separation and divorce were examined. Transcripts from interviews and a focus group with teachers were analysed using grounded theory methodology. The findings showed that as teachers interacted with young…

  5. Has the Association between Parental Divorce and Young Adults' Psychological Problems Changed over Time? Evidence from Sweden, 1968-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahler, Michael; Garriga, Anna

    2013-01-01

    A large number of studies have shown that parental divorce is associated with psychological maladjustment in children. Less is known about whether the magnitude of this association has changed over time. This is mainly because of the lack of repeated data, containing identical measures over time. In the present article, the authors use data from…

  6. Children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H B

    1997-01-01

    Limited attention has been directed in the dental literature to the emotional, economic and associated consequences of divorces on children. A general introduction is provided on 1) the numbers of children involved in divorces in different single-parent population groups, with 2) emphasis on the emotional impact of divorce on children and 3) the potential significance for pediatric dental practices.

  7. Parental divorce during early adolescence in Caucasian families: the role of family process variables in predicting the long-term consequences for early adult psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, P; Forehand, R; Armistead, L; Tannenbaum, L

    1998-04-01

    The relationship between parental divorce occurring during adolescence and young adult psychosocial adjustment was examined, as was the role of family process variables in clarifying this relationship. Participants were young Caucasian adults from divorced (n = 119) and married (n = 123) families. Assessments were conducted during adolescence and 6 years later during early adulthood. Young adults from married families reported more secure romantic attachments than those from divorced families; however, differences were not evident in other domains of psychosocial adjustment after demographic variables were controlled. Three family process variables (parent-adolescent relationship, interparental conflict, and maternal depressive symptoms) were examined as potential mediators and moderators of the association between parental divorce and young adult adjustment. No evidence supporting mediation or moderation was found; however, the parent-adolescent and parent-young adult relationships, particularly when the identified parent was the father, emerged as significant predictors of young adult psychosocial adjustment.

  8. Practical Tips and Tools: Sharing the Caring--Considerations for Co-Parenting Arrangements when There Is a Separation or Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlakian, Rebecca; Lerner, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The most important factor in helping children cope with a divorce in the family is the ability of both parents to manage their own feelings about the divorce in order to focus on the needs and feelings of their children. When parents are able to establish a plan and approach that enables each to be the best parent he or she can be, it maximizes…

  9. Divorce Transitions: Identifying Risk and Promoting Resilience for Children and Their Parental Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Gill Gorrell

    1999-01-01

    Discusses qualitative research linked to clinical work relating to some of the short-term effects of divorce on children within a British perspective. Describes clinical intervention into family relationships in divorcing and post-divorce families and suggests some high-risk issues for children. Some interactions that may promote resilience in…

  10. The impact of parental divorce for adolescents: a consideration of intervention beyond the crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, S; Petersen, V

    2001-10-01

    The effects of divorce on children and adolescents remain a major public health issue. Over the last three decades, there has been ongoing debate among researchers and mental health and legal professionals who counsel divorcing families as to whether the effects are acute but time-limited or more enduring. This chapter looks at the tasks of normal adolescent psychosocial development and how divorce complicates those tasks. It suggests ways that pediatricians and other health professionals can intervene effectively with divorcing families within the context of their role. Divorce-specific resources and services are explained.

  11. Divorce research: Lessons for family therapists

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    2001-01-01

    In this synthesis of the international literature on psychological aspects of divorce, the causes and consequences of divorce for parents and children are summarized. The majority of parents and children show no major long-term adverse psychological consequences to divorce. Personal and contextual factors that mediate the impact of divorce on parents and children and that may account of the negative impact of divorce on a minority of parents and children are also examined. The impact of media...

  12. The Impact of Marital Separation/Divorce on Children: III. Parent-Child Communication and Child Adjustment, and Regression Analysis of Findings from Overall Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Doris S.

    1978-01-01

    This is the third of a series of reports on the findings from a study directed at further understanding the impact of marital separation/divorce on children during the 12-month period following the parental separation. This paper reports on parent-child communication regarding cognitive preparation of children for the parental separation. (Author)

  13. Gender differences in the association between parental divorce during childhood and stroke in adulthood: findings from a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Dalton, Angela D

    2015-08-01

    Although there is a substantial literature examining the mental health consequences of parental divorce, less attention has been paid to possible long-term physical health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the gender-specific association between childhood parental divorce and later incidence of stroke, while controlling for age, race ethnicity, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, diabetes, social support, marital status, mental health, and health care utilization. Secondary analysis of the population-based Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey; logistic regression analyses were conducted. The final sample included 4074 males and 5886 females. Respondents were excluded if they had experienced parental addictions to drugs or alcohol, any form of childhood abuse (physical, sexual, or emotional), or witnessed domestic violence. A threefold risk of stroke was found for males who had experienced parental divorce before the age of 18 in comparison with males whose parents had not divorced [age- and race ethnicity-adjusted model odds ratio (OR) = 2·99, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·79, 4·98; fully adjusted model OR = 3·01, 95% CI = 1·68, 5·39]. Parental divorce was not significantly associated with stroke among women (fully adjusted OR = 1·64, 95% CI = 0·89, 3·02). There is a robust association between parental divorce and stroke among males, even after adjustment for many known risk factors and the exclusion of respondents who had experienced parental addictions or family violence. Further research is needed to investigate plausible pathways linking parental divorce and stroke in males. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  14. Listening to Children and Parents : Seven Dimensions to Untangle High-Conflict Divorce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr Sietske Dijkstra

    2016-01-01

    Divorce is a common and complex phenomenon with high social impact, especially when it involves pervasive conflict. This chapter discusses an analytic content-based framework for gaining an in-depth understanding of divorce. It considers seven inter- related dimensions: time, conflict,

  15. Paper Bag Books: A Creative Intervention with Elementary School Children Experiencing High-Conflict Parental Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somody, Catherine; Hobbs, Marsha

    2007-01-01

    Research has found that school-based interventions for children of divorce help counter the adverse effects. Studies of school-based interventions have identified effective means for helping children of divorce cope with their situation and produce a significant reduction in clinical symptoms. Those components include activities that: (a) help…

  16. Attachment styles and personality disorders: their connections to each other and to parental divorce, parental death, and perceptions of parental caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, K A; Shaver, P R

    1998-10-01

    Attachment theory was explored as a means of understanding the origins of personality disorders. We investigated whether adult attachment styles and personality disorders share a common underlying structure, and how both kinds of variables relate to family background factors, including parental death, parental divorce, and current representations of childhood relationships with parents. A nonclinical group of 1407 individuals, mostly adolescents and young adults, were surveyed about their attachment styles, parental marital status, parental mortality status, perceptions of treatment by parents in childhood, and 13 personality disorders. Results indicated substantial overlap between attachment and personality-disorder measures. Two of the personality-disorder dimensions are related to the two dimensions of the attachment space; that is, there is a two-dimensional space in which both the attachment patterns and most of the personality disorders can be arrayed. The one personality-disorder factor that is unrelated to attachment appears akin to psychopathy. Both personality disorders and attachment styles were associated with family-of-origin variables. Results are discussed in terms of encouraging further research to test the idea that insecure attachment and most of the personality disorders share similar developmental antecedents.

  17. The Establishment and Enforcement of Maintenance Obligations in the Relations between Divorced Parents and their Minor Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vǎleanu Maricica

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The entry into force of the new Civil Code has, among other merits, that of calling into question the main institutions of private law. The maintenance obligations occupy in its end a central place in the economic relations between parents and children, whereas it was primarily established to ensure good material conditions of growth and education of minors. Through the clearer marking within the present Civil code of the execution of maintenance obligation in nature, in practice the way in which the sentences regarding the establishment of the maintenance obligation in the relations between divorced parents and their underage children are requested and arranged will have to adapt.

  18. Breast cancer in relation to childhood parental divorce and early adult psychiatric disorder in a British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokugamage, A U; Hotopf, M; Hardy, R; Mishra, G; Butterworth, S; Wadsworth, M E J; Kuh, D

    2006-09-01

    Jacobs and Bovasso reported (Psychological Medicine 2000, 30, 669-678) that maternal death in childhood and chronic severe depression in adulthood were associated with subsequent breast cancer. We have examined the effects of parental loss in childhood and psychiatric disorder in adult life on breast cancer risk using a national birth cohort study. Eighty-three cases of breast cancer were diagnosed in a study of 2253 women followed from birth to age 59 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test whether breast cancer rates were higher in women who experienced parental death and divorce before age 16, psychiatric disorders between 15 and 32 years, symptoms of anxiety and depression at 36 years, or use of antidepressant medication at 31 or 36 years than in women who did not have these experiences. There was no overall association between parental death, parental divorce or psychiatric disorder and the incidence of breast cancer. There was some evidence that women with more severe psychiatric disorders between the ages of 15 and 32 years were more likely to develop breast cancer early. The interaction between parental divorce and severe psychiatric disorder was non-significant (p=0.1); however, the group who experienced both these events had an increased breast cancer risk compared with those who experienced neither [hazard ratio (HR) 2.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-6.19]. Our study does not provide strong support for the hypothesis that early loss or adult psychiatric disorders are associated with breast cancer. A meta-analysis is needed that uses data from all available cohort studies and investigates possible interactive effects on breast cancer risk.

  19. Relations of Parenting Quality, Interparental Conflict, and Overnights with Mental Health Problems of Children in Divorcing Families with High Legal Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin N.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Braver, Sanford L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the associations between child mental health problems and the quality of maternal and paternal parenting, and how these associations were moderated by three contextual factors, quality of parenting by the other parent, interparental conflict, and the number of overnights parents had with the child. Data for the current study come from a sample of divorcing families who are in high legal conflict over developing or maintaining a parenting plan following divorce. Analyses revealed that the associations between child mental health problems and positive maternal and paternal parenting were moderated by the quality of parenting provided by the other parent and by the number of overnights children spent with parents, but not by the level of interparental conflict. When both parenting by the other parent and number of overnights were considered in the same model, only number of overnights moderated the relations between parenting and child behavior problems. The results support the proposition that the well-being of children in high conflict divorcing families is better when they spend adequate time with at least one parent who provides high quality parenting. PMID:24098960

  20. Children, Divorce and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Janice M.

    1981-01-01

    An increasing number of children live in single-parent homes due to the rise in the divorce rate. Teachers must become aware of teaching and counseling approaches which will offset the negative effects of divorce on children and minimize the period of adjustment. (JN)

  1. Enhanced startle reflexivity during presentation of visual nurture cues in young adults who experienced parental divorce in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengesch, Xenia; Larra, Mauro F; Finke, Johannes B; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2017-10-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) may influence stress and affective processing in adulthood. Animal and human studies show enhanced startle reflexivity in adult participants with ACE. This study examined the impact of one of the most common ACE, parental divorce, on startle reflexivity in adulthood. Affective modulation of acoustically-elicited startle eye blink was assessed in a group of 23 young adults with self-reported history of parental divorce, compared to an age- and sex-matched control group (n=18). Foreground pictures were either aversive (e.g. mutilation and injury), standard appetitive (e.g. erotic, recreational sport), or nurture pictures (e.g. related to early life, parental care), intermixed with neutral pictures (e.g. household objects), and organized in three valence blocks delivered in a balanced, pseudo-randomized sequence. During picture viewing startle eye blinks were elicited by binaural white noise bursts (50ms, 105 dB) via headphones and recorded at the left orbicularis oculi muscle via EMG. A significant interaction of group×picture valence (p=0.01) was observed. Contrast with controls revealed blunted startle responsiveness of the ACE group during presentation of aversive pictures, but enhanced startle during presentation of nurture-related pictures. No group differences were found during presentation of standard appetitive pictures. ACE participants rated nurture pictures as more arousing (p=0.02) than did control participants. Results suggest that divorce in childhood led to altered affective context information processing in early adulthood. When exposed to unpleasant (vs. neutral) pictures participants with ACE showed less startle potentiation than controls. Nurture context, however, potentiated startle in ACE participants, suggesting visual cuing to activate protective behavioral responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Permissiveness toward divorce : The influence of divorce experiences in three social contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we assess whether divorce experiences in three social contexts shape individual’s permissiveness toward divorce. Using European Values Study data from 44 countries, we find that—net of personal divorce experience—parental divorce before the age of 18 (socialization context); parental

  3. Permissiveness toward divorce: The influence of divorce experiences in three social contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we assess whether divorce experiences in three social contexts shape individual’s permissiveness toward divorce. Using European Values Study data from 44 countries, we find that—net of personal divorce experience—parental divorce before the age of 18 (socialization context); parental

  4. Hypothesis-driven research for G × E interactions: the relationship between oxytocin, parental divorce during adolescence, and depression in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Mrug, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Research in molecular genetics has generally focused on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and exploratory candidate gene and candidate gene-environment (G × E) studies. In this article it is proposed that hypothesis-driven and biologically informed research provides a complementary approach to GWAS to advance pressing research questions about G × E relations that are of public health relevance. Prior research studies and developmental and evolutionary theory were used to guide hypothesis testing of G × E relationships in this study. The study investigated whether the oxytocin polymorphism, rs53576, moderated the relationship between parental divorce during adolescence and depression symptoms in young adulthood. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that has been related to the regulation of complex social cognition and behaviors such as empathy, attachment, and nurturance. We hypothesized that the GG polymorphism would be associated with more depressive symptoms following parental divorce, and that this effect would be stronger in females than males. The sample consisted of 340 individuals who participated in a longitudinal study with data used both from adolescence and young adulthood. Findings using prospective follow-up and autoregressive change models supported the hypothesized relationships. Young adult females who had experienced parental divorce during adolescence and had the GG oxytocin genotype reported almost twice as many depressive symptoms relative to young adult females who also experienced parental divorce during adolescence but had the AA or AG genotype. This pattern was not indicated among males. Findings were discussed with regard to how molecular genetic factors in combination with environmental stressors, such parental divorce, framed within a developmental framework may facilitate the future study of G × E relationships in the parental divorce-child adjustment literature and contribute to a prevention science perspective.

  5. Hypothesis-Driven Research for G x E Interactions: The Relationship between Oxytocin, Parental Divorce during Adolescence, and Depression in Young Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eWindle

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research in molecular genetics has generally focused on genome-wide association studies (GWAS and exploratory candidate gene and candidate gene-environment (GE studies. In this article it is proposed that hypothesis-driven and biologically informed research provides a complementary approach to GWAS to advance pressing research questions about GE relations that are of public health relevance. Prior research studies and developmental and evolutionary theory were used to guide hypothesis testing of GE relationships in this study. The study investigated whether the oxytocin polymorphism, rs53576, moderated the relationship between parental divorce during adolescence and depression symptoms in young adulthood. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that has been related to the regulation of complex social cognition and behaviors such as empathy, attachment, and nurturance. We hypothesized that the GG polymorphism would be associated with more depressive symptoms following parental divorce, and that this effect would be stronger in females than males. The sample consisted of 340 individuals who participated in a longitudinal study with data used both from adolescence and young adulthood. Findings using prospective follow-up and autoregressive change models supported the hypothesized relationships. Young adult females who had experienced parental divorce during adolescence and had the GG oxytocin genotype reported almost twice as many depressive symptoms relative to young adult females who also experienced parental divorce during adolescence but had the AA or AG genotype. This pattern was not indicated among males. Findings were discussed with regard to how molecular genetic factors in combination with environmental stressors, such parental divorce, framed within a developmental framework may facilitate the future study of G X E relationships in the parental divorce-child adjustment literature and contribute to a prevention science perspective.

  6. Myths and Realities for Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Joan B.

    1980-01-01

    The author examines seven myths, such as: divorce is preferable to an unhappy home; children anticipate divorce; turmoil ends with separation; and divorce damages children. She concludes that divorce initiates a prolonged and often difficult transition for children, which may benefit or harm them depending on how parents handle it. (SJL)

  7. Children's Reactions to Separation and Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, E. Lakin

    This paper presents three aspects of children's reaction to divorce: a brief theory as to why parents become separated and/or divorced; factual research summaries on the influence of divorce on children; and some proposed remedies. Research is cited that shows the effects of divorce on children's sex role development, self concept, emotional…

  8. O envolvimento parental após a separação/divórcio Parental involvement after separation/divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Suárez Grzybowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apoiados no modelo ecológico-contextual e no conceito de envolvimento parental, este artigo se propõe a discutir as práticas parentais de pais e mães separados/divorciados com seus filhos. Para tanto, foram pesquisados 234 sujeitos (117 pais/117 mães com filhos em idade escolar, que responderam o Inventário de Práticas Parentais. Tal instrumento avaliou o envolvimento parental em 5 áreas: envolvimento afetivo, envolvimento didático, envolvimento social, envolvimento disciplinar e responsabilidade. Os resultados evidenciam maior envolvimento materno do que paterno com os filhos após o divórcio, tanto direto (cuidados, interação quanto indireto (monitoramento, preocupação. A coabitação com a mãe mostrou ser uma variável significativa associada ao maior envolvimento dela em atividades no espaço privado/doméstico, enquanto os pais tiveram maior envolvimento no espaço público/social. Características contextuais (coabitação, freqüência de visitas e características dos pais (ocupação, escolaridade, questões afetivo-conjugais mostraram-se fortemente associadas ao envolvimento parental após o divórcio.Based on the ecological-contextual model and on the concept of parental involvement, this article proposes to discuss the parental practices of separated/divorced fathers and mothers towards their children. In order to do so, 234 subjects (117 fathers/117 mothers with children at school were interviewed via the Parental Practices Inventory. Such instrument evaluated the parental involvement in 5 areas: affective involvement, didactic involvement, social involvement, disciplinary involvement and, responsibility. The results showed greater maternal involvement with children after the divorce: direct (care, interaction and indirect (monitoring, preoccupation. The cohabitation with the mother revealed itself as a significant variable associated to her greater involvement with activities in the private/domestic environment while

  9. Intimate Partner Violence, Parental Divorce, and Child Custody: Directions for Intervention and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Jennifer L.; Chung, Grace H.

    2006-01-01

    Joint custody and cooperative coparenting are often unsafe for women who leave violent partners. Although certain legal protections are available, more work is needed to understand and address abused women's needs in this context. This study provides divorce scholars and practitioners with information on the interface between separation/divorce…

  10. A longitudinal study of the effects of child-reported maternal warmth on cortisol stress response 15 years after parental divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J.; Hagan, Melissa J.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Childhood parental divorce is associated with an increased risk of behavioral and physical health problems. Alterations in adrenocortical activity may be a mechanism in this relation. Parent-child relationships have been linked to cortisol regulation in children exposed to adversity, but prospective research is lacking. We examined maternal warmth in adolescence as a predictor of young adults’ cortisol stress response 15 years after parental divorce. Methods Participants included 240 youth from recently divorced families. Mother and child reports of maternal warmth were assessed at 6 time points across childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Offspring salivary cortisol was measured in young adulthood before and after a social stress task. Structural equation modeling was used to predict cortisol response from maternal warmth across early and late adolescence. Results Higher child-reported maternal warmth in early adolescence predicted higher child-reported maternal warmth in late adolescence (std. regression = .45, SE = .065, p children from divorced families, a warm mother-child relationship post-divorce and across development, as perceived by the child, may promote efficient biological regulation later in life. PMID:26465217

  11. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Child-Reported Maternal Warmth on Cortisol Stress Response 15 Years After Parental Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J; Hagan, Melissa J; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Sandler, Irwin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2016-01-01

    The experience of parental divorce during childhood is associated with an increased risk of behavioral and physical health problems. Alterations in adrenocortical activity may be a mechanism in this relation. Parent-child relationships have been linked to cortisol regulation in children exposed to adversity, but prospective research is lacking. We examined maternal warmth in adolescence as a predictor of young adults' cortisol stress response 15 years after parental divorce. Participants included 240 youth from recently divorced families. Mother and child reports of maternal warmth were assessed at 6 time points across childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Offspring salivary cortisol was measured in young adulthood before and after a social stress task. Structural equation modeling was used to predict cortisol response from maternal warmth across early and late adolescence. Higher child-reported maternal warmth in early adolescence predicted higher child-reported maternal warmth in late adolescence (standardized regression = 0.45, standard error = 0.065, p < .01), which predicted lower cortisol response to a challenging interpersonal task in young adulthood (standardized regression = -0.20, standard error = 0.094, p = .031). Neither mother-reported warmth in early adolescence nor late adolescence was significantly related to offspring cortisol response in young adulthood. Results suggest that for children from divorced families, a warm mother-child relationship after divorce and across development, as perceived by the child, may promote efficient biological regulation later in life. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01407120.

  12. A Multimodal Intervention for Group Counseling with Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie-Burnett, Margaret; Newcomer, Laurel L.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a two-tiered developmental guidance classroom unit on parental divorce which acquaints children with the idea of divorce as a family change. Focuses on the needs of the children coping with parental divorce. Discusses results which appear to have a positive effect on child's depression, attitudes and belief about parental divorce and…

  13. The role of depression in the differential effect of childhood parental divorce on male and female adult offspring suicide attempt risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizardi, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Keyes, Katherine; Hasin, Deborah

    2010-09-01

    In previous studies by our group, we found that female offspring of parental divorce and parental remarriage are more susceptible to suicide attempt than male offspring. In this study, we examine whether these findings remain even after controlling for offspring depression. The sample consists of respondents from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Multivariable regressions controlled for offspring depression, parental depression, age, race/ethnicity, income, and marital status. Our previous findings that female offspring of parental divorce and parental remarriage are more likely to report a lifetime suicide attempt than male offspring remained even after controlling for offspring depression. Findings suggest that focusing on engaging female offspring who demonstrate symptoms of depression is not sufficient to reduce suicide attempt risk in this group as many at risk individuals will remain unrecognized.

  14. Reconsidering the "Good Divorce"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.; James, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    This study attempted to assess the notion that a "good divorce" protects children from the potential negative consequences of marital dissolution. A cluster analysis of data on postdivorce parenting from 944 families resulted in three groups: cooperative coparenting, parallel parenting, and single parenting. Children in the cooperative coparenting…

  15. The psychology of divorce: A synthesis of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    1995-01-01

    In this synthesis of the international literature on psychological aspects of divorce, the causes and consequences of divorce for parents and children are summarized. The majority of parents and children show no major long-term adverse psychological consequences to divorce. Personal and contextual factors that mediate the impact of divorce on parents and children and that may account of the negative impact of divorce on a minority of parents and children are also examined. The impact of media...

  16. [Social-emotional and cognitive markers in children of divorce and in children from 2-parent families--a cross sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardas, J; Langenmayr, A

    1999-04-01

    Related to the research of the effects of separation and divorce on children there is a lack of empirical studies in Germany. The following cross-sectional field-study directly investigate 48 children from divorced and 32 children from two-parent-families regarding socio-emotional and some cognitive characteristics (nonclinical samples). Projective and semi-projective tests were the preferred instruments. One of the main questions was related to frustration behavior, measured by the Rosenzweig-Picture-Frustration Test (childrens form). This test was used for the first time by a population of German children of divorce. Children of divorce showed a special frustration behavior, a so called M-profile showing many impunitive reactions. They avoid direct conflicts or struggle and try to deny the frustration. Also the subtests of the Hamburg-Wechsler-Intelligence test for children (HAWIK) show clearly that children from divorced families obtain much poorer test values in contrast to children from two-parent homes.

  17. Enhancing Youth Outcomes Following Parental Divorce: A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of the New Beginnings Program on Educational and Occupational Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, Amanda B.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the New Beginnings Program for divorced families led to improvements in youth's educational goals and job aspirations 6 years following participation and tested whether several parenting and youth variables mediated the program effects. Participants were 240 youth aged 9 to 12 years at the initial assessment, and data…

  18. Tacit notions of childhood : an analysis of discourse about child participation in decision-making regarding arrangements in case of parental divorce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemrica, J.C.; Heyting, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on a reconstruction of some major pragmatic presuppositions in recent Dutch and English discussions in scientific media about the say children should have in devising settlements after parental divorce. Pragmatic presuppositions - such views as discussants implicitly assume to

  19. Tacit Notions of Childhood: An Analysis of Discourse About Child Participation in Decision-Making Regarding Arrangements in Case of Parental Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemrica, Jantine; Heyting, Frieda

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on a reconstruction of some major pragmatic presuppositions in recent Dutch and English discussions in scientific media about the say children should have in devising settlements after parental divorce. Pragmatic presuppositions - such views as discussants implicitly assume to be taken for granted by their audience - were…

  20. Joint Parental Authority : A comparative legal study on the continuation of joint parental authority after divorce and the breakup of a relationship in Dutch and Danish law and the CEFL principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeppesen, C.G.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a comparative legal study on the continuation of joint parental authority after divorce and the breakup of a relationship in Dutch and Danish law. In addition, the Principles regarding Parental Responsibilities which have been drafted by the Commission on European Family Law are

  1. Risk Factors in Divorce: Perceptions by the Children Involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxnes, Kari

    2003-01-01

    Draws on children's divorce stories to examine how children cope with their parents' divorce. Focuses on how children experienced risk for divorce and the changes and continuities enduring during the divorce process. Argues that even if divorce is stressful and causes loss of capital for most children, what is crucial for children's well-being is…

  2. The Custodial Parent-Child Relationship as a Mediating Factor in the Effects of Divorce on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Janis Carol

    Hess and Camara (1979) have shown that it is post-divorce family functioning, rather than family structure, that is most important in influencing the effects of divorce on children. A child's adjustment to divorce should be viewed as a developmental process rather than as a single event. Consequently, it is important to focus on the ways in which…

  3. Enhancing youth outcomes following parental divorce: A longitudinal study of the effects of the New Beginnings Program on educational and occupational goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, Amanda B.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether the New Beginnings Program for divorced families led to improvements in youth’s educational goals and job aspirations six years following participation and tested whether several parenting and youth variables mediated the program effects. Participants were 240 youth aged 9–12 years at the initial assessment, and data were part of a randomized, experimental trial of a parenting skills preventive intervention targeting children’s post-divorce adjustment. The results revealed positive effects of the program on youth’s educational goals and job aspirations six years after participation for those who were at high risk for developing later problems at program entry. Further, intervention-induced changes in mother-child relationship quality and youth externalizing problems, internalizing problems, self-esteem, and academic competence at the six-year follow-up mediated the effects of the program on the educational expectations of high-risk youth. Intervention-induced changes in youth externalizing problems and academic competence at the six-year follow-up mediated the effects of the program on the job aspirations of high-risk youth. Implications of the present findings for research with youth from divorced families and for the public health burden of divorce are discussed. PMID:22417189

  4. Support across two generations: children's closeness to grandparents following parental divorce and remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Gretchen; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dunn, Judy; Davies, Lisa

    2002-09-01

    There has been relatively little research on the role of grandparents as a source of support for children during and following their parents' marital transitions. In this study, we examined children's contact with and closeness to grandparents in different family types (i.e., two biological parents, single mother, stepparent). Participants included 155 children from the Avon Brothers and Sisters Study. Parent and child interviews and questionnaires regarding the children's relationships with maternal and paternal biological and stepgrandparents were examined. There were family type differences in rates of contact with grandparents as well as children's closeness to grandparents. Furthermore, children's and parents' view about these relationships with grandparents were modestly correlated, suggesting that children often held different views about their closeness to their grandparents than did their parents. Greater closeness to grandparents was associated with fewer adjustment problems.

  5. Teenagers Self Concept From Divorce Family

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy Pujasari Supratman

    2015-01-01

    Being an adolescent as a family member from parental divorce is still lackingtobe appointedon aresearch topic, and mostly focused on the influence or impact of divorce. The researcher wants to explore adolescents’ experiences from divorce families. The study was conducted using qualitativeresearchmethods through observation and in-depth interviewwith descriptive case study on tenadolescentsfromdivorcefamilies. While the respondents weretaken bysnowball samplingandpurposivesampling. The result...

  6. The Effects of Divorce on College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Lisa Gabardi; And Others

    Statistics demonstrate that parental divorce is a compelling social issue affecting a large number of children. While investigations of the effects of divorce on children have grown rapidly in the last decade, there is a paucity of research on the effects of divorce on older adolescents and young adults. Given the developmental importance of…

  7. Adjustment to divorce and co-parental relations: contributions from the theory of attachment / Adaptação ao divórcio e relações coparentais: contributos da teoria da vinculação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lamela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is proposed the contribution of the attachment theory for understanding adults' adjustment processes to their divorce and how detachment to ex-spouse can infer in co-parenting relationships after marital dissolution. This article makes two theoretical assumptions that focus on two dimensions. The first hypothesis states that the divorce, while a relational process, should be read as a moment of loss that germinates similar psychological reactions to those experienced by widows. Bowlby describes it in his model of loss of the attachment figure as dependent on attachment styles of divorced adults. The second hypothesis argues that the post-divorce co-parenting relationships are predicted by the attachment styles and by the quality of parents' attachment reorganization. At the end, a theoretical integration is built, based on a proposal for future research in this area.

  8. The Consequences of Parental Separation and Divorce for the Economic, Social and Emotional Circumstances of Children in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maundeni, Tapologo

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes children's and mothers' accounts of the economic consequences of divorce for children in Botswana. Notes that most mothers and children reported economic hardship following divorce, although a few reported improvement or no change in economic circumstances. Traces the implications for the social and psychological well-being of children.…

  9. Adult Children's Divorce and Intergenerational Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitze, Glenna; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined effects of adult children's divorce on their relationships with parents, using local probability sample of 905 parents. In general, divorced daughters with child custody had more contact than married daughters and received more help from parents. Sons received more babysitting help when they were married than in other situations. Divorce…

  10. The Impact of Union Dissolution and Divorce on Adolescents’ and Adults’ Relationships with their Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Arránz Becker

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Using data of the German Family Panel pairfam, this article examines whether relationship-related transitions among adolescents and adults – separations with or without subsequent new relationships and transitions from being single to a relationship – impact different aspects of their relationship with their parents (contact frequency, intimacy, and conflict. Several competing hypotheses are tested. The resource hypothesis, following a supply-side argumentation, posits that relationships generate resources (i.e. social capital that facilitate exchange with parents; relationship breakup implies resource deprivation and produces strain, which adversely affects the parent-child relationship (spillover hypothesis. According to the demand-based compensation hypothesis, horizontal relationships and vertical intergenerational relations are substitutively associated with each other; hence, exchanges between generations should be strongest when children are not involved in romantic relationships. The analyses yield evidence in line with both the compensation hypothesis (particularly among adolescents and the spillover hypothesis (among adults. The effects are largely gender neutral.

  11. Experience of young adults from divorced families | Spalding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to explore the way in which the effects of parental divorce surface during the developmental period of young adulthood. The aim of the study was to offer some insight into the long-term effects of parental divorce. Of particular interest was how the parent-child relationships in divorced homes ...

  12. Parents' Marital Distress, Divorce, and Remarriage: Links with Daughters' Early Family Formation Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used data from the Add Health study to estimate the effects of parents' marital status and relationship distress on daughters' early family formation transitions. Outcomes included traditional transitions (marriage and marital births) and nontraditional transitions (cohabitation and nonmarital births). Relationship distress among…

  13. Divorce: A Child's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, E. Mavis

    1979-01-01

    Much research has been done on the negative effects of divorce on children. Future research should focus on how positive family functioning and support systems can facilitate the development of social, emotional, and intellectual competence in children in single parent families. (Author/GC)

  14. Divorce and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Mark J.

    The traumatic effect of divorce on young children is discussed, noting the typical changes in behavior evidenced by children in such a situation. Suggestions are made on ways parents can cope with the child's emotional reactions and alleviate the stress that is natural when a marriage dissolves. (JD)

  15. Effects of Divorce on Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Ongider

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is now strong consensus in the research literature that children whose parents have divorced are at increased risk of displaying a variety of problem behaviors compared to children living in continuously intact families. Divorce can be a profound catalyst for psychological, social, and economic change. Also, many studies have documented short-term and long-term negative effects of parental marital conflict and divorce for offspring, including poorer academic, social, and psychological outcomes. Researches indicate that adult offspring of divorce were experiencing more problems lifelong and evaluate divorce their own marriages than do young adults from intact families. It has been suggested that the long-term consequences of parental divorce for adult attachment and quality of life may prove to be more serious than the short-term emotional and social problems noted in childhood. As a result, divorce may lead to further stressful experiences such as disruption in parent-child relationships, loss of emotional support, economic hardship, and as well as numerous other stressful life events.

  16. Change and Stability in the Social Determinants of Divorce : A Comparison of Marriage Cohorts in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Paul M. de; Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses historical developments in the effects of five social determinants of divorce in the Netherlands: parental socioeconomic status, educational attainment, religion, parental divorce, and having children. Employing a national survey with information about 1,356 divorces, from

  17. Divorce, Remarriage, and Adolescent Substance Use: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needle, Richard H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined substance use in adolescents who experienced parental divorce during childhood, during adolescence, or who were from intact families. Adolescence divorce group had greater overall drug involvement. Divorce had negative effect on boys but not on girls. Custodial parents' remarriage led to increased substance use among girls, decreased…

  18. The Teacher's Role in Facilitating a Child's Adjustment to Divorce,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeen, Patsy; McKenry, Patrick C.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information enabling teachers to support children and families during divorce. Research and theory concerning the effects of divorce on children, parenting through divorce, and the role of the school are summarized. Practical suggestions for the teacher are presented, and relevant books for children, teachers, and parents are identified.…

  19. Why Is Hand Washing So Important? (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hand washing a rule for everyone, especially: before eating and cooking after using the bathroom after cleaning around the house after touching animals, including family pets before and after visiting or ...

  20. Divorce and the cognitive achievement of children

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Tartari

    2006-01-01

    Approximately four out of ten American children experience the divorce of their parents. This raises concern because studies in sociology, developmental psychology, and economics show that offspring of divorced parents fare worse than offspring of married parents. The belief that a two-parent family is the ideal environment for raising children is reflected in recent pro-marriage public policies. One difficulty with these policies is that there is substantial evidence that interparental confl...

  1. Separation and Divorce: Annotated Bibliography of Selected Literature for Children and Teens. Also, Recommended Reading for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parents Without Partners, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Recent books portraying children who are experiencing family changes due to divorce and adjusting to stepparents have become more plentiful. Reading about how others have handled similar situations can be helpful for your children, giving them perspective, awareness of some of their feelings, fears, or mistaken ideas, and suggesting ways to solve…

  2. Parents’ Expectations About Childrearing After Divorce : Does Anticipating Difficulty Deter Divorce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Seltzer, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    Divorce is costly for parents because of the challenges of meeting children’s economic and socioemotional needs after separation. Using the National Survey of Families and Households (N ¼ 1,935), we investigate whether expected economic and parenting costs deter divorce. Mothers expect higher

  3. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    and practice for nurses and other health professionals, so they can intervene with these children and adolescents more efficaciously. An integrative systematic review was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The results show four major themes: Complexity in their experiences of double bereavement...

  4. Daycare Children of Divorce and Their Helpers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, Klara; Storksen, Ingunn; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad

    2013-01-01

    Caring for children of divorce may prevent emotional and behavioural problems. This study investigates daycare staff's beliefs about caring for young children who have experienced parental divorce. Q methodology was applied for this purpose, and 33 participants sorted 40 subjective statements. The Q factor analyses resulted in four factors or…

  5. Separating Together: How Divorce Transforms Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Abigail J.; Copeland, Anne P.; Chester, Nia Lane; Malley, Janet E.; Barenbaum, Nicole B.

    Based on a unique, longitudinal study of 100 divorcing families with school-age children, this book argues that popular images of divorce, including those shared by many psychologists, are too individualistic, too negative, and too universalizing about an experience that can be very different for men and women, parents and children, and different…

  6. Children of Divorce: Implications for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Janice M.

    1979-01-01

    School counselors may be the most appropriate people to provide assistance for children whose parents are divorced and to the school staff. Study suggests that school counselors become aware of recent research of the impact of divorce on children. (Author/CMG)

  7. Trends in Divorce and Effects on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, Oliver C.

    In this paper an attempt is made to present a comprehensive picture of the effects of separation and divorce on children. After information on trends in divorce is presented to indicate how many families and children are involved, three comprehensive reviews of one-parent families are discussed. Because some detrimental effects are associated with…

  8. Experiences of Daycare Children of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storksen, Ingunn; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad; Overland, Klara; Brown, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that children of divorce are at risk of adjustment problems and school problems. In previous studies of young children of divorce, most often parents or teachers have supplied data. In this study, we explore the children's own feelings and experiences through Q methodology with visual images. The study includes 17 children of…

  9. Cross-sibling effects on divorce in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vuijst, Elise; Poortman, A.; Das, Marjolijn; van Gaalen, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    Parental divorce has repeatedly been shown to increase the risk of divorce for offspring, but research on the influence of other social ties is scarce. This study examines the association of divorce between siblings and whether such an association varies under specific sibship characteristics.

  10. Narrative Theory: A Career Counseling Approach for Adolescents of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Denis A.; Gibbons, Melinda M.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents whose parents divorce face academic and vocational impediments that challenge their career options. Although divorce does not affect all children uniformly, research confirms that, overall, divorce negatively influences academic performance and behavioral adjustment (Peris & Emery, 2004; Ruschena, Prior, Sanson, & Smart, 2005), access…

  11. The Development of Children's Understanding of Marriage and Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Elizabeth

    The hypothesis was investigated that, in a structured interview, older children and children from divorced families would express more complex, abstract, and integrated reasoning about marriage and divorce than younger children and children in intact families. It was further hypothesized that children with divorced parents would reach a more…

  12. Attitudes of Kuwaiti Young Adults toward Marriage and Divorce:

    OpenAIRE

    Humoud Alqashan; Hayfaa Alkandari

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether parental marital status affects young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce. There exists a vast amount of literature on the impact of divorce on young adults in Western cultures; however, no previous empirical studies have been conducted on the attitudes of young adults from intact and divorced families in the Gulf region or in Arab countries in the Middle East. The sample of the study consisted of 661 young adults from Kuwait University (from divorced...

  13. Divorce and Special Education in Minnesota. PHP-c104

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    When parents divorce, they sometimes have questions about which parent has rights in special education. The federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and Minnesota state special education laws and regulations clearly describe parental rights and the school district's duty to meet them. Most rights are unchanged by divorce. The…

  14. Impact of divorce on children: developmental considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsorge, Christy; Covitz, Lynne M

    2012-04-01

    Although divorce can have significant negative impact on children, a variety of protective factors can increase the likelihood of long-term positive psychological adjustment. • Exposure to high levels of parental conflict is predictive of poor emotional adjustment by the child regardless of the parents' marital status. • Epidemiologic data reveal that custody and parenting arrangements are evolving, with more emphasis on joint custody and access to both parents by the child. • Pediatricians' knowledge of childhood development is essential in providing anticipatory guidance to parents throughout the divorce process and beyond.

  15. Peer deviance, parental divorce, and genetic risk in the prediction of drug abuse in a nationwide Swedish sample: evidence of environment-environment and gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Peer deviance (PD) strongly predicts externalizing psychopathologic conditions but has not been previously assessable in population cohorts. We sought to develop such an index of PD and to clarify its effects on risk of drug abuse (DA). To examine how strongly PD increases the risk of DA and whether this community-level liability indicator interacts with key DA risk factors at the individual and family levels. Studies of future DA registration in 1,401,698 Swedish probands born from January 1, 1970, through December 31, 1985, and their adolescent peers in approximately 9200 small community areas. Peer deviance was defined as the proportion of individuals born within 5 years of the proband living in the same small community when the proband was 15 years old who eventually were registered for DA. Drug abuse recorded in medical, legal, or pharmacy registry records. Peer deviance was associated with future DA in the proband, with rates of DA in older and male peers more strongly predictive than in younger or female peers. The predictive power of PD was only slightly attenuated by adding measures of community deprivation, collective efficacy, or family socioeconomic status. Probands whose parents were divorced were more sensitive to the pathogenic effects of high PD environments. A robust positive interaction was also seen between genetic risk of DA (indexed by rates of DA in first-, second-, and third-degree relatives) and PD exposure. With sufficient data, PD can be measured in populations and strongly predicts DA. In a nationwide sample, risk factors at the level of the individual (genetic vulnerability), family (parental loss), and community (PD) contribute substantially to risk of DA. Individuals at elevated DA risk because of parental divorce or high genetic liability are more sensitive to the pathogenic effects of PD. Although the effect of our PD measure on DA liability cannot be explained by standard measures of community or family risk, we cannot, with

  16. Buffering Negative Impacts of Divorce on Children: Evaluating Impact of Divorce Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jennifer K.; Riffe, Jane; Trevisan, Dominic A.; Adesope, Olusola O.

    2014-01-01

    Following the call for more stringent evaluation methodology and recently documented national Extension presence in the field of divorce education for parents and children, the study reported here describes a local multi-level evaluation to capture program impact of a stakeholder-accepted divorce education program. Using a post-then-pre…

  17. Enhancing youth outcomes following parental divorce: a longitudinal study of the effects of the new beginnings program on educational and occupational goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, Amanda B; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the New Beginnings Program for divorced families led to improvements in youth's educational goals and job aspirations 6 years following participation and tested whether several parenting and youth variables mediated the program effects. Participants were 240 youth aged 9 to 12 years at the initial assessment, and data were part of a randomized, experimental trial of a parenting skills preventive intervention targeting children's postdivorce adjustment. The results revealed positive effects of the program on youth's educational goals and job aspirations 6 years after participation for those who were at high risk for developing later problems at program entry. Further, intervention-induced changes in mother-child relationship quality and youth externalizing problems, internalizing problems, self-esteem, and academic competence at the 6-year follow-up mediated the effects of the program on the educational expectations of high-risk youth. Intervention-induced changes in youth externalizing problems and academic competence at the 6-year follow-up mediated the effects of the program on the job aspirations of high-risk youth.

  18. Children of Divorce: Mending Broken Hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Irene C.

    1991-01-01

    Examines important issues for parents to consider when dealing with children of divorce and discusses several problem points to avoid, including loyalty conflicts, good parent/evil parent, family secrets, and feeling cheated. Several suggestions for helping children cope are offered. (SM)

  19. Pre-divorce problems in 3-year-olds: a prospective study in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbers, Sylvana C C; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, C E M Toos; Verhulst, Frank C; Huizink, Anja C; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2011-04-01

    We examined to what extent internalizing and externalizing problems at age 3 preceded and predicted parental divorce, and if divorce and the time lapse since divorce were related to internalizing and externalizing problems at age 12. Parental ratings of internalizing and externalizing problems were collected with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in a large sample (N = 6,426) of 3-year-old children. All these children were followed through the age of 12 years, at which parents completed the CBCL again, while teachers completed the Teacher's Report Form. Children whose parents divorced between age 3 and age 12 were compared with children whose families remained intact. Girls whose parents divorced between ages 3 and 12 already showed more externalizing problems at age 3 than girls whose parents stayed married. Higher levels of externalizing problems in girls at age 3 predicted later parental divorce. Parental reports indicated that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than children with married parents. Levels of teacher-reported problems were not different between children with married versus divorced parents. However, children whose parents divorced between ages 3 and 12 showed more teacher-rated internalizing problems at age 12 when the divorce was more recent than when the divorce was less recent. Parental ratings of both internalizing and externalizing problems at age 12 were not associated with the time lapse since divorce. Externalizing problems in girls precede and predict later parental divorce. Post-divorce problems in children vary by raters, and may depend on the time lapse since divorce.

  20. Lean on me? The influence of parental separation and divorce on children’s support networks in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.; Dronkers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Using data on 14-year old children in four European countries, this study compares the support networks of children in intact and separated families. It is found that a parental separation has significant effects on the nature of these networks. Children of separated parents are less likely to

  1. Family Law Effects on Divorce, Fertility and Child Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Mullins; Christopher Flinn; Meta Brown

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the child welfare impact of policies governing divorced parenting, such as child support orders, child custody and placement regulations, and marital dissolution standards, one must consider their influence not only on the divorce rate but also on spouses' fertility choices and child investments. We develop a model of marriage, fertility and parenting, with the main goal being the investigation of how policies toward divorce influence outcomes for husbands, wives and childr...

  2. Psychosocial adjustment and physical health in children of divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes-Costa, Rui; Lamela, Diogo; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the effects of parental divorce over the psychological maladjustment and physical health problems in children of divorced parents, thus contributing to the integration of existing scientific knowledge based on the biopsychosocial model of the impact of divorce on children’s physical health as proposed by Troxel and Matthews (2004). Sources: Review of the literature using MEDLINE and PsycInfo (1980-2007) databases, selecting the most representative articl...

  3. Separation, Part II: Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the concept of divorce in history--it has existed since the earliest recorded times. Discusses also the portrayal of divorce in fiction and nonfiction books for young readers--it was not discussed before California's 1969 no-fault divorce law. Outlines characteristics of books about divorce. Gives 10 questions for stimulating student…

  4. Attachment style and adjustment to divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yárnoz-Yaben, Sagrario

    2010-05-01

    Divorce is becoming increasingly widespread in Europe. In this study, I present an analysis of the role played by attachment style (secure, dismissing, preoccupied and fearful, plus the dimensions of anxiety and avoidance) in the adaptation to divorce. Participants comprised divorced parents (N = 40) from a medium-sized city in the Basque Country. The results reveal a lower proportion of people with secure attachment in the sample group of divorcees. Attachment style and dependence (emotional and instrumental) are closely related. I have also found associations between measures that showed a poor adjustment to divorce and the preoccupied and fearful attachment styles. Adjustment is related to a dismissing attachment style and to the avoidance dimension. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that secure attachment and the avoidance dimension predict adjustment to divorce and positive affectivity while preoccupied attachment and the anxiety dimension predicted negative affectivity. Implications for research and interventions with divorcees are discussed.

  5. MEANING OF PROPOSING DIVORCE IN TUBAN REGENCY OF EAST JAVA (Matrilocal Residence in Proposing Divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulin Na`mah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The availability of nafkah (money given by husband to his wife for household expenses in family life often becomes a source of conflict. Moreover, nafkah often becomes a reason for husband and wife for divorce. This is due to the obligation for providing nafkah is relied on husband (man rather than wife (woman. Yet, on the one hand, “nafkah relied on husband” is often used by husband to powerfully control over his wife. On the other hand, in a culture of matrilocal residence (in wife’s home with her parents, “nafkah relied on husband” can be also used by wife to powerfully control her husband  and this becomes a means for woman to subordinate and oppress her husband. Furthemore, for both husband or wife, “nafkah relied on husband” may often becomes a trigger to divorce. Therefore, it is important to redefine such strict division of gender role and contextually give more priority to equality in gender role in households life.Copyright (c 2015 by Al-Ihkam. All right reserved DOI : 10.19105/al-ihkam.v10i2.715

  6. Divorce and Special Education. PHP-c103

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Every year the parents of a million American children are newly divorced. While divorce is difficult for all parties involved, children are often the most affected. If the children have disabilities and are involved with the special education system, the situation can be even more complex. The information in this document may help parents think…

  7. Late-Life Divorce: Its Impact on Family Rituals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Marjorie A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined perceived changes in specific family celebrations, traditions, important life cycle events, and day-to-day family contact that occurred for 115 adult children whose parents had divorced after long-term marriage. Found strong positive correlation between perceived disruptiveness of parental divorce and changes in family rituals,…

  8. The Effects of Divorce on Children's Personality Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Michael E.

    1977-01-01

    Major effects of divorce identified are age and sex of the child, relative willingness and ability of parents to care for the child, and nature of the parent-child relationships. There is little support for assumptions that divorce is necessarily harmful and custody should always be awarded to mothers. (Author)

  9. Effects of Divorce on Children: Differential Impact of Custody and Visitation Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Carol R.; Settle, Shirley A.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the research literature on children's experience of the restructuring of the family following divorce. The effects of divorce are organized according to differences observed as a function of the child's age and gender, parental conflict, post-divorce family stability, and parent-child relationships. Conflict reducing custody arrangements…

  10. Adult Children of Divorce and Intimate Relationships: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Teresa M.; Brooks, Morgan C.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research specific to the effects of parental divorce on adults in terms of relationship issues. Specific purposes of this review are to (a) explore research specific to intimacy and marital attitudes in adult children of divorce, (b) inform couple and family counselors of effects of parental divorce, and (c) relay implications for…

  11. Divorce and Child Behavior Problems: Applying Latent Change Score Models to Life Event Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Castellino, Domini R.; Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of parents' divorce on children's adjustment have been studied extensively. This article applies new advances in trajectory modeling to the problem of disentangling the effects of divorce on children's adjustment from related factors such as the child's age at the time of divorce and the child's gender. Latent change score models were used to examine trajectories of externalizing behavior problems in relation to children's experience of their parents' divorce. Participants included 356 boys and girls whose biological parents were married at kindergarten entry. The children were assessed annually through Grade 9. Mothers reported whether they had divorced or separated in each 12-month period, and teachers reported children's externalizing behavior problems each year. Girls' externalizing behavior problem trajectories were not affected by experiencing their parents' divorce, regardless of the timing of the divorce. In contrast, boys who were in elementary school when their parents divorced showed an increase in externalizing behavior problems in the year of the divorce. This increase persisted in the years following the divorce. Boys who were in middle school when their parents divorced showed an increase in externalizing behavior problems in the year of the divorce followed by a decrease to below baseline levels in the year after the divorce. This decrease persisted in the following years. PMID:20209039

  12. The Boomerang Bunch: A School-Based Multifamily Group Approach for Students and Their Families Recovering from Parental Separation and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziffer, Judith M.; Crawford, Eileen; Penney-Wietor, Joy

    2007-01-01

    Because the community lacked counseling services for whole families experiencing separation and divorce, The Boomerang Bunch was conceived, designed and implemented by six school counselors to identify and therapeutically address changes impacting the participant families as they attempted to "bounce back" from separation and divorce.…

  13. Role of parents in the promotion of hand hygiene in the paediatric setting: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellissimo-Rodrigues, F; Pires, D; Zingg, W; Pittet, D

    2016-06-01

    When a child is hospitalized, parents have to share their role to protect the child with the hospital, and establish a partnership with healthcare workers to deliver safe care to the child, including undertaking good hand hygiene practices. To review the scientific evidence about the participation of parents in the promotion of hand hygiene in paediatric settings. A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and SciELO databases was undertaken using the following terms: ('hand hygiene'[MeSH] OR 'hand hygiene' OR 'hand disinfection'[MeSH] OR hand disinf* OR hand wash* OR handwash* OR hand antisep*) AND (parent OR caregiver OR mother OR father OR family OR families OR relatives). The Integrated Quality Criteria for Review of Multiple Study Designs tool was used for quality assessment. The literature search yielded 1645 articles, and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria for the final analysis. Most studies were observational, and were based on questionnaires or interviews. Most parents had little knowledge about the indications to perform hand hygiene, but recognized hand hygiene as a relevant tool for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections. Their willingness to remind healthcare workers about a failed opportunity to perform hand hygiene was variable and, overall, rather low. Parents felt more comfortable about reminding healthcare workers about hand hygiene if they had previously been invited to do so. Literature on the subject is scarce. The promotion of hand hygiene by parents should be further explored by research as a potential intervention for enhancing patient safety in paediatric settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Protecting Children from the Consequences of Divorce: A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Parenting on Children's Coping Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Clorinda E.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether intervention-induced changes in mother-child relationship quality and discipline led to short-term (6 months) and long-term (6 years) changes in children's coping processes in a sample of 240 youth aged 9-12 years when assessed initially. Data were from a randomized, experimental trial of a parenting-focused preventive…

  15. Attitudes of Kuwaiti Young Adults toward Marriage and Divorce:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humoud Alqashan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether parental marital status affects young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce. There exists a vast amount of literature on the impact of divorce on young adults in Western cultures; however, no previous empirical studies have been conducted on the attitudes of young adults from intact and divorced families in the Gulf region or in Arab countries in the Middle East. The sample of the study consisted of 661 young adults from Kuwait University (from divorced and intact families. The findings reveal that adults whose parents divorced show fewer positive attitudes toward marriage than do those individuals from intact marriages. The study also suggests that adults whose parents were divorced carry more positive attitudes toward divorce compared with individuals from intact marriages. Furthermore, gender was found to be an important factor in shaping attitudes toward marriage and divorce. A longitudinal study is recommended to look at the changes in young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce over time, which will help to identify the influence of other factors of attitudes toward marriage and divorce.

  16. THE ADVERSARIAL SYSTEM AND THE BEST INTERESTS OF THE CHILD IN DIVORCE LITIGATION: SOME THOUGHTS REGARDING COLLABORATIVE LAW AS A MEANS TO RESOLVE PARENTAL DISPUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution it is argued that the adversarial system of litigation does not serve the best interests of children upon divorce. After a brief analysis of the system it is concluded that other less aggressive means of litigation should be considered under upon divorce. Collaborative Law is suggested as a means to bear in mind. The fact that current practice of lawyer negotiations in respect of divorce is not too far removed from Collaborative Law may lead to practitioners readily accepting the concept.

  17. Living with a Single Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kids in the United States live with one parent. Separation and divorce are the most common reasons for ... Who Are Moving Should Do What Is a Divorce? Getting Along With Parents Going to a Therapist View more About Us ...

  18. Psychosocial coping resources in elementary school-age children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, L

    1994-10-01

    The psychosocial coping resources of elementary school-age children living in the sole custody of a divorced single parent were compared with those of their peers living with nondivorced parents. Children of divorced parents were found to have lower levels of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and social support, and less effectual coping styles. Contact with the noncustodial parent was found to have a positive influence on their attitudes toward divorce.

  19. Environmental impacts of divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Eunice; Liu, Jianguo

    2007-01-01

    Divorce is increasingly common around the world. Its causes, dynamics, and socioeconomic impacts have been widely studied, but little research has addressed its environmental impacts. We found that average household size (number of people in a household) in divorced households (households with divorced heads) was 27–41% smaller than married households (households with married heads) in 12 countries across the world around the year 2000 (between 1998 and 2002). If divorced households had combi...

  20. The Price of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynish, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of divorce on student's academic achievement. Whitehead (1997) states, at the beginning of the twentieth century, there were only three divorces for every 1,000 marriages. Through the years, the divorce rate in America has rapidly increased which has affected adults and children. The…

  1. Kid's Guide to Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... live with. Adults have their own reasons for divorce. Whatever the reasons are, one thing is for sure: Kids don't cause divorce. Still, many kids believe they're the reason their mom and dad got divorced. They think ...

  2. Psychosocial adjustment and physical health in children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes-Costa, Rui A; Lamela, Diogo J P V; Figueiredo, Bárbara F C

    2009-01-01

    To review the literature on the effects of parental divorce over the psychological maladjustment and physical health problems in children of divorced parents, thus contributing to the integration of existing scientific knowledge based on the biopsychosocial model of the impact of divorce on children's physical health as proposed by Troxel and Matthews (2004). Review of the literature using MEDLINE and PsycInfo (1980-2007) databases, selecting the most representative articles on the subject. Special attention was paid to contributions by internationally renowned investigators on the subject. Divorce may be responsible for a decline of physical and psychological health in children. The developmental maladjustment of children is not triggered by divorce itself, but rather by other risk factors associated with it, such as interparental conflict, parental psychopathology, decline in socio-economic level, inconsistency in parenting styles, a parallel and conflicting co-parenting relationship between parents and low levels of social support. Such risk factors trigger maladjusted developmental pathways, marked by psychopathological symptoms, poor academic performance, worst levels of physical health, risk behavior, exacerbated psychophysiological responses to stress and weakening of the immune system. Clear links were observed between experiencing parental divorce and facing problems of physical and psychological maladjustment in children. Divorce is a stressor that should be considered by health professionals as potentially responsible for maladjusted neuropsychobiological responses and for decline in children's physical health.

  3. More education, fewer divorces? Shifting education differentials of divorce in Taiwan from 1975 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-hsin Alice Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: While social gradient in divorce has been explored in many Western societies, this issue has received less attention in Asia. Objective: Few existing studies offer evidence for how educational gradient in divorce shift from positive to negative in Asia. This study explores the changing divorce patterns by education for both sexes over the past four decades in Taiwan. Methods: Vital statistics of divorce since 1975 were used. Divorce rates were calculated and a synthetic cohort life table was also constructed to estimate the proportions of unions that remain intact with the duration-specific divorce rates observed in 2010. A separate life table estimating the actual marriage survivorship for the 1998 marriage cohort was also presented. Results: As Taiwan went through industrialization, the period findings show that a reversal in educational differential in divorce from positive to negative is observed for both sexes. Now the least educated men and women have become more vulnerable to union instability. Finally, synthetic cohort life table estimates indicate substantial educational differences in the proportions of recent marriages ending in divorce. Conclusions: The drastic increase in period divorce rates is accompanied by a reversal of educational gradient and expanding social inequality. Social gap in divorce rates expanded much faster among men than women across years. Given that remarriage rates for the disadvantaged are lower than the better educated, these patterns indicate that the disadvantaged is likely to spend an increasingly large proportion of their lives outside a marital union. Contribution: The divorce patterns revealed have critical implications for single-parent families, as well as family policies and social assistance.

  4. "Child Divorce": A Break from Parental Responsibilities and Rights Due to the Traditional Socio-Cultural Practices and Beliefs of the Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bekink

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In a recent ground-breaking case the South African courts were for the first time requested to use their discretion to interfere in the parent-child relationship due to the traditional socio-cultural beliefs of the parents. In what has been described as "every parent's nightmare; the fancy of many teenagers", a 16 year-old schoolgirl from Milerton in the Western Cape asked to be "freed" from her parents to live semi-independently from them because of her unhappiness with the conservative manner in which her parents treated her. After considering the matter the judge assigned to the case granted her request to live semi-independently with a school friend and her family (called by the judge the host family until she reaches the age of 18 (her majority. Her parents were accorded permission to have limited contact with her. This case represents an example of the difficulties involved when balancing the rights of a teenager against those of the parents in matters of socio-cultural practice and belief. In a multi-cultural society such as South Africa the case raises numerous serious questions for other families. For instance, what standards will a court use to determine if parents are too conservative in bringing up their children and what factors will be taken into account? How much freedom and autonomy should children be given? How will courts prevent children from misusing the system just to get what their friends have, and - the ultimate question - are the rights of children superior to the traditional rights of parents in matters of socio-cultural practice, with specific reference to their upbringing? In this context it is the aim of this contribution to focus primarily on the questions asked above. Possible solutions for striking a balance between the rights of children and their parents are explored. The submission is made that the best interests principle is still the most important factor to be taken into account when balancing or weighing

  5. [Divorce and joint physical custody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golse, B

    2014-04-01

    This work first recalls the definition of joint physical custody, as well as the current legal procedure for obtaining it, its practical implementation, the financial implications for parents, and finally some statistics. Some psychological and psychopathological reflections on the impact of divorce on children are then presented before considering the question of joint physically custody with regard to attachment theory and depending on the age of the child (a great caution seems to be required before three years). The article concludes with a brief discussion of parental alienation syndrome. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  6. Divorce, approaches to learning, and children's academic achievement: a longitudinal analysis of mediated and moderated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Christopher J; DiPerna, James Clyde; Amato, Paul R

    2014-06-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) were used to test the hypothesis that approaches to learning (ATL) mediates the link between parental divorce and academic achievement. Fixed effects regression was utilized to test for mediation, and subsequent moderation analyses examining gender and age at time of divorce also were conducted. Results indicated that divorce was associated with less growth in test scores and that ATL mediated 18% and 12% of this association in reading and mathematics respectively. Parental divorce also was associated with larger negative effects for children who experienced divorce at an older age as well as for girls' mathematics test scores. These findings contribute to the understanding of the impact of parental divorce on children's academic achievement and underscore the importance of focusing on the variability of child outcomes following parental divorce. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Family Stress Theory and the Impact of Divorce on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gary W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents a middle-range theory that describes the potential impact of divorce on children, based on concepts from family stress theory. The proposed theoretical model is concerned especially with variations in the definition of the situation assigned to the crisis of divorce by children and custodial parents. (JAC)

  8. Socialization of Young Children in the Divorced Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Martha J.; Cox, Roger D.

    1979-01-01

    Reported is a longitudinal study in which families with preschool children were observed, interviewed, and tested over two years following the parents' divorce and compared with a sample of intact families. Findings on the impact of divorce on individuals, on family interactions, and on children's social and intellectual development are presented.…

  9. Evidence-Based Counseling Interventions with Children of Divorce: Implications for Elementary School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Marianne E.; Green, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Parental divorce has become increasingly common for large numbers of families in schools (Lamden, King, & Goldman, 2002). This article addresses the effects of divorce on children and protective factors supporting their adjustment. Evidence-based interventions for children of divorce in elementary school counseling programs are discussed.…

  10. Divorce and Child Behavior Problems: Applying Latent Change Score Models to Life Event Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Castellino, Domini R.; Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of parents' divorce on children's adjustment have been studied extensively. This article applies new advances in trajectory modeling to the problem of disentangling the effects of divorce on children's adjustment from related factors such as the child's age at the time of divorce and the child's gender. Latent change score models were used…

  11. The Role of Familial Stress in Personality Development of Older Adolescents from Divorced and Non-Divorced Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-Bailey, Patricia; McCluskey-Fawcett, Kathleen

    This study examined the relationship of overall family conflict and stress to adult personality development in young adult college students from intact families, as compared to young adults who had experienced childhood parental divorce. Seventy-five students from divorced families and 78 students from intact families completed a screening…

  12. The Impact of Divorce on the Lives of Children: Alleviating the Trauma of the Divorce Experience Through Adult Intervention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Denise

    This paper reviews current literature pertaining to the effects of divorce on children and makes suggestions regarding general ways in which parents and other adults may assist children in coping with divorce. The population of children towards which this study is directed includes preschool through latency age children. All inferences made in…

  13. Divorce as risky behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Audrey; Ahn, Taehyun

    2010-11-01

    Given that divorce often represents a high-stakes income gamble, we ask how individual levels of risk tolerance affect the decision to divorce. We extend the orthodox divorce model by assuming that individuals are risk averse, that marriage is risky, and that divorce is even riskier. The model predicts that conditional on the expected gains to marriage and divorce, the probability of divorce increases with relative risk tolerance because risk averse individuals require compensation for the additional risk that is inherent in divorce. To implement the model empirically, we use data for first-married women and men from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate a probit model of divorce in which a measure of risk tolerance is among the covariates. The estimates reveal that a 1-point increase in risk tolerance raises the predicted probability of divorce by 4.3% for a representative man and by 11.4% for a representative woman. These findings are consistent with the notion that divorce entails a greater income gamble for women than for men.

  14. Children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryner, C L

    2001-01-01

    The rapidly changing nature and demographics of divorce in United States within the past 30 years has spawned an epidemic that affects more than one half of the families in the United States. I performed a MEDLINE-assisted review of the medical literature searching with the key words "divorce" and "children." In addition, a Web search was conducted using Webferret with the same key words. The past view of divorce as a short-term family crisis must mature into a longitudinal view of the effects of divorce. Divorce affects children according to their coping mechanisms in their own stages of development. Many problems and concerns previously attributed to divorce have their roots in the period of family interaction before the divorce and in the ongoing conflicts in many families after the divorce itself. Because family physicians are objective observers with whom the family comes into regular contact, they must be able to assist families through the transitions of divorce and to intervene on behalf of the children to help them through this stressful life event with the fewest detrimental effects possible. Counseling, group therapy, and divorce mediation have been assessed as effective tools for intervention.

  15. Adaptação ao divórcio e relações coparentais: contributos da teoria da vinculação Adjustment to divorce and co-parental relations: contributions from the theory of attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lamela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo propõe-se uma contribuição da teoria da vinculação na compreensão dos processos de adaptação dos adultos ao seu divórcio e como a desvinculação ao ex-cônjuge interfere na coparentalidade pós-divórcio. Este artigo formula duas hipóteses teóricas. A primeira hipótese afirma que o divórcio, enquanto processo relacional, deve ser lido como um momento de perda que germina reacções psicológicas similares às experienciadas pelos viúvos, tal como descreve Bowlby no modelo de perda da figura de vinculação, estando dependente dos estilos de vinculação dos adultos. A segunda hipótese sustenta que a coparentalidade pós-divórcio é predita pelos estilos de vinculação e pela qualidade da reorganização da vinculação dos pais. Finalmente, uma integração teórica é apresentada, operacionalizada numa proposta de investigação futura neste domínio.In this article, it is proposed the contribution of the attachment theory for understanding adults' adjustment processes to their divorce and how detachment to ex-spouse can infer in co-parenting relationships after marital dissolution. This article makes two theoretical assumptions that focus on two dimensions. The first hypothesis states that the divorce, while a relational process, should be read as a moment of loss that germinates similar psychological reactions to those experienced by widows. Bowlby describes it in his model of loss of the attachment figure as dependent on attachment styles of divorced adults. The second hypothesis argues that the post-divorce co-parenting relationships are predicted by the attachment styles and by the quality of parents' attachment reorganization. At the end, a theoretical integration is built, based on a proposal for future research in this area.

  16. Teenagers Self Concept From Divorce Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Pujasari Supratman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Being an adolescent as a family member from parental divorce is still lackingtobe appointedon aresearch topic, and mostly focused on the influence or impact of divorce. The researcher wants to explore adolescents’ experiences from divorce families. The study was conducted using qualitativeresearchmethods through observation and in-depth interviewwith descriptive case study on tenadolescentsfromdivorcefamilies. While the respondents weretaken bysnowball samplingandpurposivesampling. The results showed thatadolescents have difficult experiencesto be in divorcefamily.  The adolescent experience of being displaced communicated verbally and nonverbally. The verbal communication is the language of motivation adolescents enlightened and openness. While the non verbal, they follow parents advices, full of comfort, and positive appearance. Theybecome adolescents whohavevirtueinreligiousity, independence, futuristic and maturity self-concept.

  17. Booms, Busts, and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstein, Judith K.; Morrill, Melinda Sandler

    2013-01-01

    For almost a century, anecdotes have suggested that divorce rates decline during recessions. However, until very recently there has been surprisingly little formal empirical evidence on whether such a link exists, let alone its magnitude if it does. Moreover, the anticipated direction of the effect is ambiguous theoretically. Although previous studies have concluded that individual job loss destabilizes marriages, macroeconomic conditions may affect divorce probabilities even for those not directly experiencing a job shock. We add to the few existing contemporaneous studies of the effects of macroeconomic shocks on divorce by conducting an empirical analysis of the relationship between state-level unemployment rates and state-level divorce rates using vital statistics data on divorces in the United States from 1976–2009. We find a significant and robust negative relationship between the unemployment and divorce rates, whereby a one percentage point rise in the unemployment rate is associated with a decrease of 0.043 divorces per one thousand people, or about a one percent fall in the divorce rate. The result that divorce is pro-cyclical is robust to a host of alternative empirical specifications, to disaggregating by state characteristics and time period, to expanding the unemployment series back to 1970, and to using alternative measures of local economic conditions. PMID:25221634

  18. Divorce in contemporary Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukurai, H; Alston, J

    1990-10-01

    Data from the 1985-86 Japanese census are analysed to explore the determinants of the divorce rates in Japan's forty-seven prefectures, using two theoretical models: (a) the social integration model, which is shown to have a greater utility in predicting Japanese divorce levels than (b), the human capital model. Female emigration patterns play a significant role in affecting the divorce rate. Population increase and net household income are also important predictors of the Japanese divorce rate and urbanization has a great influence in modern Japan. Demographic and aggregate variables such as migration, urbanization, and socioeconomic factors are useful when organized under a social integration model.

  19. Divorce and its circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    Kšádová, Kristýna

    2015-01-01

    The main topic of my bachelor thesis is divorce and its circumstances. I have devided it in two parts, such as theoretical and practical parts. In the first theoretical part I describe meaning of marriage, divorce, major reasons of divorces and theirs consequences. In the second practical part I am focusing on particular case of divorce in which I will compare foundations documented in the theoretical part with the reality. The main aim of this work is to realise wheter is there any resemblan...

  20. Behavioural development in children of divorce and remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, L; Boulerice, B; Tremblay, R E; Vitaro, F

    1997-10-01

    We employed an autoregressive modelling technique with data from the Québec Longitudinal Study to prospectively examine the developmental impact of family transition on behaviour while controlling for predivorce and preremarriage effects. Teachers rated children's anxious, hyperactive, physically aggressive, oppositional, and prosocial behaviour every 2 years from kindergarten through to the end of elementary school. Once individual and parental characteristics and antecedent family events were controlled, children who experienced parental divorce before age 6 exhibited comparatively more behavioural disturbance than their peers whose parents divorced later. With the exception of a protective effect on hyperactive behaviour, remarriage did not have a significant impact on children's behaviour when the legacy of divorce was controlled. Although the results suggest that children of divorced parents show difficulty in many areas of functioning, the effects of family transition on behavioural development were dependent on the child's age and the specific behavioural dimension assessed. Compared to other points in development, early childhood divorce was associated with long-term increases in anxious, hyperactive, and oppositional behaviour during later childhood. The effects of divorce on children's fighting were short-lived. Unlike previous prospective studies that suggest predivorce effects, we did not observe behavioural disturbance prior to divorce or remarriage.

  1. Gifted Children and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, John; Karnes, Frances A.

    2011-01-01

    Divorce is often a contentious process with multiple issues to decide, especially in cases in which there are children involved. Divorce raises several legal issues when considering the well-being of children, including those who are gifted. In this article, the authors discuss these issues which include school choice, child support, and custody…

  2. Kids, Divorce, and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Judy D.

    This paper investigates the influence of divorce on middle level students (grades 5 through 8) and how it relates to the students' performance (both academically and emotionally) in school. Also important to the discussion is what teachers should know about working with the children of divorce. The paper includes a review of the literature on…

  3. Dealing with Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are also expenses associated with divorce, from lawyers' fees to the cost of moving to a new place to live. ... could be affected. Some are concerned that the costs of divorce (like legal fees and expenses of two households) might mean there ...

  4. High-Conflict Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Factors believed to contribute to high-conflict divorce are explored, and a model of their interrelationships is proposed. Dispute resolution, intervention, and prevention programs are discussed, and implications for social policy are outlined. (SLD)

  5. Mediation and moderation of divorce effects on children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from age 5 to 15 years in relation to whether they had experienced a parental divorce. Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity-score-matched sample of children from intact families, according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment after the parents' separation and at the last available assessment (age 11 years for teacher reports, or 15 years for mother reports). Divorce also predicted both short-term and long-term rank-order increases in behavior problems. Associations between divorce and child behavior problems were moderated by family income (assessed before the divorce) such that children from families with higher incomes prior to the separation had fewer internalizing problems than children from families with lower incomes prior to the separation. Higher levels of predivorce maternal sensitivity and child IQ also functioned as protective factors for children of divorce. Mediation analyses showed that children were more likely to exhibit behavior problems after the divorce if their postdivorce home environment was less supportive and stimulating, their mother was less sensitive and more depressed, and their household income was lower. We discuss avenues for intervention, particularly efforts to improve the quality of home environments in divorced families. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Did Unilateral Divorce Laws Raise Divorce Rates in Western Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneip, Thorsten; Bauer, Gerrit

    2009-01-01

    The increase in European divorce rates over the past decades was accompanied by several changes in divorce laws. Yet for European countries, research on the effects of divorce law on the divorce rate is scarce. Most of the existing studies are based on data from North America and provide numerous, but inconsistent, results. We use fixed-effects…

  7. Relational conflict and outcomes from an online divorce education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Sarah; Becher, Emily H; McCann, Ellie; McGuire, Jenifer; Powell, Sharon

    2017-06-01

    The impact of conflict on co-parenting outcomes of divorce education programs is not widely explored in the literature despite the prevalence of conflict in divorce. This study used outcome data from a sample of participants (N=272) who took the online Parents Forever™ course between 2012 and 2014. Participants were asked questions about positive and negative co-parenting behaviors as well their levels of conflict before and after the divorce or separation. There was on average a slight increase in conflict from post to follow-up (M=-0.397, SD=1.54). Simple linear regression analyses indicated that change in conflict explained a significant proportion of the variance in positive co-parenting scores, R 2 =0.07, F(1, 270)=19.98, pimpacts co-parenting behaviors targeted in the Parents Forever ™ course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Family ties after divorce: long-term implications for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrons, Constance R

    2007-03-01

    Drawing on the data from the longitudinal Binuclear Family Study, 173 grown children were interviewed 20 years after their parents' divorce. This article addresses two basic questions: (1) What impact does the relationship between parents have on their children 20 years after the divorce? and (2) When a parent remarries or cohabits, how does it impact a child's sense of family? The findings show that the parental subsystem continues to impact the binuclear family 20 years after marital disruption by exerting a strong influence on the quality of relationships within the family system. Children who reported that their parents were cooperative also reported better relationships with their parents, grandparents, stepparents, and siblings. Over the course of 20 years, most of the children experienced the remarriage of one or both parents, and one third of this sample remembered the remarriage as more stressful than the divorce. Of those who experienced the remarriage of both of their parents, two thirds reported that their father's remarriage was more stressful than their mother's. When children's relationships with their fathers deteriorated after divorce, their relationships with their paternal grandparents, stepmother, and stepsiblings were distant, negative, or nonexistent. Whether family relationships remain stable, improve, or get worse is dependent on a complex interweaving of many factors. Considering the long-term implications of divorce, the need to emphasize life course and family system perspectives is underscored.

  9. Did Unilateral Divorce Raise Divorce Rates? Evidence from Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Leora Friedberg

    1998-01-01

    This paper revisits the evidence on the impact of unilateral divorce laws on divorce rates in the United States. Most states switched from requiring mutual consent to allowing unilateral or no-fault divorce between 1970 and 1985, while the national divorce rate more than doubled after 1965. According to the Coase theorem, however, the legal shift should have had no effect on divorce rates. Recent papers using cross-sectional micro data have disputed the empirical importance of unilateral divo...

  10. Children's adjustment in conflicted marriage and divorce: a decade review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J B

    2000-08-01

    To review important research of the past decade in divorce, marital conflict, and children's adjustment and to describe newer divorce interventions. Key empirical studies from 1990 to 1999 were surveyed regarding the impact of marital conflict, parental violence, and divorce on the psychological adjustment of children, adolescents, and young adults. Recent studies investigating the impact of divorce on children have found that many of the psychological symptoms seen in children of divorce can be accounted for in the years before divorce. The past decade also has seen a large increase in studies assessing complex variables within the marriage which profoundly affect child and adolescent adjustment, including marital conflict and violence and related parenting behaviors. This newer literature provides provocative and helpful information for forensic and clinical psychiatrists in their work with both married and divorcing families. While children of divorced parents, as a group, have more adjustment problems than do children of never-divorced parents, the view that divorce per se is the major cause of these symptoms must be reconsidered in light of newer research documenting the negative effects of troubled marriages on children.

  11. The Child in the Divorcing Family. Unit for Child Studies. Selected Papers Number 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    A sequence of stages in children's emotional response to parental separation and divorce is described, some effects of continued parent hostility are pointed out, and aspects of children's adjustment to changed family circumstances are briefly discussed. Developmental differences in children's responses to divorce are considered on the basis of…

  12. Outcome Evaluation of the Hands-On Parent Empowerment (HOPE) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Dean, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the HOPE program. Participants included 120 Chinese new immigrant parents with preschool children in Hong Kong from 13 preschools which were randomized into intervention group (HOPE) and comparison group (6-session parent education program). Parent participants completed measures on child behavior,…

  13. Fathers, divorce, and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, M K; Pruett, K D

    1998-04-01

    To minimize many of the negative consequences of divorce, it is beneficial to support a father's ongoing involvement in his child's life. Although the research literature isn't unequivocal on this point, it does strongly suggest that men who are "visitors" do not have as much impact on their children and that visits are a poor substitute for having a parental figure. The answer lies in creating meaningful roles for noncustodial fathers that elevate men's opportunities to contribute to their children's overall development. One of the most important messages parents can impart to children is that some commitments outlive change and that working together in the child's best interests is one of them.

  14. Managing Conflict during Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join AAMFT Approved Supervisors My Account Benefits Managing Conflict During Divorce Ending a marriage or a long- ... themselves in the middle of confusing and overwhelming conflict. When children are involved, finding ways to manage ...

  15. Attention deficits and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Geneviève; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2014-09-01

    Building on previous work on the role of attention deficits associated with the regulation of executive control in psychiatric disorders, we examine whether these attention deficits are related to an interpersonal disturbance, the experience of divorce. Attentional capacities of 95 randomly selected couples from the general population were measured with a well-established task, the Attentional Network Task, which assesses the efficiency of 3 attention networks (that is, alerting, orienting, and executive control). Among the 190 participants, 32 had experienced a divorce in the past. ANCOVAs were used to compare divorced people in marital or cohabiting unions with people in first unions in their performance on this purely cognitive task. Our findings indicate that divorced people who are currently living in a cohabiting relationship show significantly lower executive control than other adults living as couples, after controlling for sex, age, income, and education. This subgroup of divorced people not only exhibit greater difficulty in responding to some stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones but also manifest cognitive deficits in conflict resolution. This study highlights the links between attention and the long-term maintenance of intimate relationships. Our results may have important implications for the identification of people at risk for divorce.

  16. Helping Children and Families Deal With Divorce and Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, George J; Weitzman, Carol C

    2016-12-01

    For the past several years in the United States, there have been more than 800 000 divorces and parent separations annually, with over 1 million children affected. Children and their parents can experience emotional trauma before, during, and after a separation or divorce. Pediatricians can be aware of their patients' behavior and parental attitudes and behaviors that may indicate family dysfunction and that can indicate need for intervention. Age-appropriate explanation and counseling for the child and advice and guidance for the parents, as well as recommendation of reading material, may help reduce the potential negative effects of divorce. Often, referral to professionals with expertise in the social, emotional, and legal aspects of the separation and its aftermath may be helpful for these families. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. All God's children: religion, divorce, and child custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldzband, M G

    2000-01-01

    Many young Americans, married and marriageable, are turning to more traditional or fundamentalist religions. Religiosity and ultra-strict morality often leads to attitudes that alter decision-making in marriage, divorce, and the disposition of the children of divorce. Judgmental pastoral counseling may affect these decisions even more. This paper discusses these issues, emphasizing the need for forensic psychiatrists involved in the custody arena to be aware of the religious, spiritual, irreligious, or even anti-religious feelings of the battling partners. It also presents detailed information about the four major American religions (Roman Catholicism, traditional Judaism, Mormonism, and Islam) that have specific doctrine, protocols, or customs affecting decisions in marriage, divorce, and child custody and visitation. This information is presented from the viewpoint of a child advocate. Mental health experts consulting in child custody must understand the backgrounds of the battling parents, including the religious pressures that well may adversely affect their interspousal disputes, particularly those over child custody. The experts must also recognize the attitudes of the religious communities in which the custodial parent may reside after divorce. Those attitudes may be rejecting of the children as well as of the divorced parent(s). Mental health experts may have a better chance to reach agreement between the battling parents if the experts reverse the historic reluctance of psychiatrists to evaluate and discuss the religious feelings and beliefs of their forensic evaluatees.

  18. Children and Divorce: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Judith S.; Kelly, Joan B.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the emotional impact of divorce on children and adolescents and, after reviewing the literature and findings from a five-year longitudinal study, describes the implications of the spiraling divorce rate for practice, research, and social policy. (Author)

  19. Perception of parents about second hand smoke on the health of their children: an ethnographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Alves de Carvalho Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the perception of parents about secondhand smoking in their children's health. Methods: Ethnographic qualitative and quantitative study. We sought the point of view and understanding of the parents who were active smokers in relation to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS and secondhand smoking. Mothers and fathers who are active smokers and that live with their children from seven different public schools in the city of Anápolis, Midwest Brazil, were interviewed in the first semester of in a reserved room in the schools. A descriptive and qualitative analysis was carried out through the ethnography. Results: 58 parents with an average time of smoking of 15.3 years and an average quantity of cigarettes smoked per day of 2 were interviewed. Among them, 59% did not know what ETS was, and 60% stated knowing what a secondhand smoker was. However, when questioned about their children as secondhand smokers, 52% did not consider them to be. Some parents knew some of the effects of secondhand smoking in the health of their children. However, the majority (52% of them did not believe that their children would suffer any respiratory impairment or did not know about these impairments. Conclusions: Children were exposed to environmental tobacco pollution in their residence if one considers parental duration of smoking and average of cigarettes smoked per day. There was a lack of knowledge of the parents about ETS, secondhand smoking and the evils that cigarettes could cause in the health of their children.

  20. Divorce Rate in the Slovak Republic as a Social and Educational Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gežová Katarína Cimprichová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Divorce is considered an unwanted phenomenon in the society, although the divorce rate increases. There are many problems for both sides - parents and their children - coming along with divorce. The legal adjustment of divorce may violently strike not only the lives of children influenced by divorce but also the lives of other persons, whose existence is seriously endangered or complicated by establishing new life conditions. Family break-up and the loss of one parent leaves lifelong consequences on the child. The decision for divorce should be therefore thoroughly considered, because it is the point, where the source of loss of personal and family safety arises. Our aim is to point out the problems arising from divorce not only for the divorcing couple, but also for their children, above all, because divorce should not mean hostility for sensible people, particularly if they have children. It is necessary to find a way how to talk together before and during divorce and to do best in solving problems in the possibly shortest time.

  1. Why does women's education stabilize marriages? The role of marital attraction and barriers to divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik Boertien

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite widespread attention paid to the negative correlation between female education and divorce, we lack an explanation for it. In this study we use social exchange theory to assess two broad groups of explanations. According to the 'marital attraction' explanation, educated women's marriages have higher marital quality and marital satisfaction. According to the 'barriers to divorce' explanation, educated women's marriages include factors that raise the cost of divorcing. Many previous studies have referred to variants of the former explanation, whereas the latter has been less prominent. Our objective is to investigate the explanatory power of these two explanations. Methods: We use discrete-time event history models to document the educational gradient of divorce from first marriages using the British Household Panel Survey (N = 1,263 for the years 1996-2009. We subsequently perform a mediation analysis to explain the educational gradient in divorce and a path analysis to distinguish which factors shape marital attraction and barriers to divorce. Results: Female education is positively related to marital stability, but this association is only partly explained by educational differences in marital satisfaction and variables that shape attractions. Variables interpreted as affecting barriers to divorce, such as home ownership and having divorced parents, provide an at least equally important explanation of the educational gradient in divorce. Contribution: This paper shows that the negative female educational gradient of divorce is shaped not only by educational differences in marital attraction, but also by differences in barriers to divorce.

  2. Divorce Laws and Divorce Rate in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcassa , Stefania

    2013-01-01

    At the end of the 1960s, the U.S. divorce laws underwent major changes and the divorce rate more than doubled in all of the states. The new laws introduced unilateral divorce in most of the states and changes in divorce settlements in every state, such as property division, alimony transfers, and child custody assignments. The empirical literature so far has focused on the switch from consensual to unilateral divorce and found that this change cannot fully account for the increase in the divo...

  3. The relative risk and timing of divorce in families of children with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L; Barker, Erin T; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Floyd, Frank; Greenberg, Jan; Orsmond, Gael; Bolt, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    We compared the occurrence and timing of divorce in 391 parents of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and a matched representative sample of parents of children without disabilities using a survival analysis. Parents of children with an ASD had a higher rate of divorce than the comparison group (23.5% vs. 13.8%). The rate of divorce remained high throughout the son's or daughter's childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood for parents of children with an ASD, whereas it decreased following the son's or daughter's childhood (after about age 8 years) in the comparison group. Younger maternal age when the child with ASD was born and having the child born later in the birth order were positively predictive of divorce for parents of children with an ASD. Findings have implications for interventions focused on ameliorating ongoing and long-term marital strains for parents of children with an ASD.

  4. About Teen Suicide (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thoughts. Teens going through major life changes (parents' divorce, moving, a parent leaving home due to military service or parental separation, financial changes) and those who are victims of ...

  5. [Perception of parents about second hand smoke on the health of their children: an ethnographic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Ribeiro, Fabiane Alves; de Moraes, Micaele Kedma Ribeiro; de Morais Caixeta, Joyce Cristina; da Silva, Jullieth Nadja; Lima, Amanda Sanches; Parreira, Samara Lamounier Santana; Fernandes, Viviane Lemos Silva

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the perception of parents about secondhand smoking in their children's health. Ethnographic qualitative and quantitative study. We sought the point of view and understanding of the parents that were active smokers in relation to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and secondhand smoking. Mothers and fathers who are active smokers and that live with their children from seven different public schools in the city of Anápolis, Midwest Brazil, were interviewed in the first semester of in a reserved room in the schools. A descriptive and qualitative analysis was carried out through the ethnography. 58 parents with an average time of smoking of 15.3 years and an average quantity of cigarettes smoked per day of 2 were interviewed. Among them, 59% didn't know what ETS was, and 60% stated knowing what a secondhand smoker was. However, when questioned about their children as secondhand smokers, 52% didn't consider them to be. Some parents knew some of the effects of secondhand smoking in the health of their children. However, the majority (52%) of them did not believe that their children would suffer any respiratory impairment or did not know about these impairments. Children were exposed to Environmental Tobacco Pollution in their residence if one considers parental duration of smoking and average of cigarettes smoked per day. There was a lack of knowledge of the parents about ETS, secondhand smoking and the evils that cigarettes could cause in the health of their children. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Developmental cascade models of a parenting-focused program for divorced families on mental health problems and substance use in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolchik, Sharlene A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N; Kim, Han-Joe

    2016-08-01

    A developmental cascade model from functioning in adolescence to emerging adulthood was tested using data from a 15-year longitudinal follow-up of 240 emerging adults whose families participated in a randomized, experimental trial of a preventive program for divorced families. Families participated in the program or literature control condition when the offspring were ages 9-12. Short-term follow-ups were conducted 3 months and 6 months following completion of the program when the offspring were in late childhood/early adolescence. Long-term follow-ups were conducted 6 years and 15 years after program completion when the offspring were in middle to late adolescence and emerging adulthood, respectively. It was hypothesized that the impact of the program on mental health and substance use outcomes in emerging adulthood would be explained by developmental cascade effects of program effects in adolescence. The results provided support for a cascade effects model. Specifically, academic competence in adolescence had cross-domain effects on internalizing problems and externalizing problems in emerging adulthood. In addition, adaptive coping in adolescence was significantly, negatively related to binge drinking. It was unexpected that internalizing symptoms in adolescence were significantly negatively related to marijuana use and alcohol use. Gender differences occurred in the links between mental health problems and substance use in adolescence and mental health problems and substance use in emerging adulthood.

  7. First Hand Lessons in an Information Age: Single Parent Working Women Speak for Themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Peggy; Allen, Katherine

    The female-headed, single parent family is a family structure that presents challenges to family life educators, family counselors, and policy makers. For effective delivery of services, accurate information on the functioning of these families is needed. This study used a phenomenological perspective to examine the various challenges faced by…

  8. Children of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Shirley

    1978-01-01

    Considers four areas requiring attention in any attempt to evaluate the needs of children in families involved in divorce actions: economic problems and child support; custody issues and court involvement; emotional problems and therapeutic intervention; and kinship patterns in "step" relationships and the reconstituted family. (BR)

  9. Should divorce be easier or harder?

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Libertad

    2014-01-01

    Many countries have enacted legislation over the past few decades making divorce easier. Some countries have legalized divorce where it had previously been banned, and many have eased the conditions required for a divorce, such as allowing unilateral divorce (both spouses do not have to agree on the divorce). Divorce laws can regulate the grounds for divorce, division of property, child custody, and child support or maintenance payments. Reforms can have a range of social effects beyond incre...

  10. The Relation between Family Structure and Young Adolescents' Appraisals of Family Climate and Parenting Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.; Fine, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    Young adolescents who lived with both biological parents, single divorced mother, single divorced father, mother and stepfather, father and stepmother, or multiply divorced parent appraised dimensions of family climate and dimensions of parenting. Differences among family structures were found on warmth, conflict, permissive parenting, and…

  11. Effects of Divorce on Children and Ways Schools Can Offer Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Cheryl A.

    From 1990 to 1999, almost 15 million children in the United States experienced the divorce of their parents. Children experience varied effects from the divorce process, and they carry these effects with them into the classroom. By knowing what possible effects may occur, educators can be better equipped to effectively teach the children from…

  12. Reconciling Divergent Perspectives: Judith Wallerstein, Quantitative Family Research, and Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    Although Judith Wallerstein's research on children with divorced parents has been influential, many quantitative family scholars have criticized her methods and conclusions. This article provides examples from the Marital Instability Over the Life Course study to illustrate the magnitude of divorce effects and concludes with a call for a…

  13. The Effects of Divorce on Children and Implications for Court Custody Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoe, Lynn

    In the last decade, the rising number of divorces has resulted in large numbers of children lviing in one-parent homes. A review of the literature on the impact of divorce on children's psychosocial adjustment, cognitive development, school peformance, and sex role development revealed several interesting findings. Age of children at time of…

  14. Voices of minor children heard and unheard in judicial divorce proceedings in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenraad, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Under Dutch divorce law, children in theory have ample opportunity to make their voices heard: the petition for divorce must state how the children have been involved in preparing a parenting plan; all children aged 12 or 16 (depending on the context) or older have the right to be heard by the

  15. School-Based Intervention for Social Skills in Children from Divorced Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angacian, Sevan; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Byer-Alcorace, Gabriel; Theodore, Lea A.; Cross, Karen; DeBiase, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Divorce is an increasingly prevalent occurrence in society that has the potential to result in many adverse short- and long-term consequences for children and their parents. Social skills, such as those with peers, are one of the problems that may emerge for children of divorce. Despite this growing problem, there is a paucity of research…

  16. Effects of Remarriage Following Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    1999-01-01

    Used data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey to study the effects of remarriage following divorce on children's academic achievement. Results indicate that children from reconstituted families score no higher, and often lower than children of divorce from single-parent families. (SLD)

  17. Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Children of Divorced Families and Relations to Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiles, Julia T.; Oliver, Mallory I.; Brosi, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Teachers are well-positioned to play a critical role in fostering resiliency in children of divorce and to assist in reducing the risk for adjustment problems. The purpose of this study was to determine whether preservice early childhood teachers have the awareness of the stress responses and effects of parental divorce on their students. Early…

  18. Torn apart by Divorce: When a Family Is Shattered to Pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Gigi; Kamps, Brian; Lopez, Kate; McAlister, Christine; Wright, Cheri

    This brief handout set begins with a scenario that has a teacher discover that one of the best students in the class is facing the breakup of her parent's marriage. The student thinks it is "all my fault." A fact sheet on divorce and its effects on children follows. Psychological and economic effects of divorce on children are listed. Facts about…

  19. A Child's Use of Transitional Objects in Art Therapy to Cope with Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Courtney

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the use of transitional objects in a case study of a 12-year-old boy, documenting the role of art therapy in helping the boy cope with the trauma of his parents' recent separation and divorce. Transitional objects emerged spontaneously as the boy integrated the transition that the divorce of his parents…

  20. Divorce: Using Psychologists' Skills for Transformation and Conflict Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    The litigious divorce process often leaves children with parents who are at "war" and have little ability to coparent effectively. This article discusses some of the Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) processes designed to lessen conflict both before and after divorce. It also addresses the important work of psychologists serving in the roles of child therapists and reunification clinicians doing the difficult work of helping to heal fractured child-parent relationships. Ethical challenges are addressed and future directions for applied research are suggested. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherley, Richard B; Waller, Lauren J; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G; Parsons, Nola J

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.

  2. Mediation and Moderation of Divorce Effects on Children’s Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer; Schofield, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from age 5 to age 15 in relation to whether they had experienced a parental divorce. Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity score-matched sample of children from intact families according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment after the parents’ separation and at the last available assessment (age 11 for teacher reports, or age 15 for mother reports). Divorce also predicted both short-term and long-term rank-order increases in behavior problems. Associations between divorce and child behavior problems were moderated by family income (assessed before the divorce) such that children from families with higher incomes prior to the separation had fewer internalizing problems than children from families with lower incomes prior to the separation. Higher levels of pre-divorce maternal sensitivity and child IQ also functioned as protective factors for children of divorce. Mediation analyses showed that children were more likely to exhibit behavior problems after the divorce if their post-divorce home environment was less supportive and stimulating, their mother was less sensitive and more depressed, and their household income was lower. We discuss avenues for intervention, particularly efforts to improve the quality of home environments in divorced families. PMID:25419913

  3. The Effects of Personal Divorce Experience on Teacher Perceptions of Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Virginia P.; Schaefer, Lyn

    1984-01-01

    Determined whether teachers with personal divorce experience differed from other teachers in their opinions on divorce, knowledge about divorce, and feelings about schools' role and responsibility to children of divorce. Those with personal divorce experience were more likely to encourage teacher and school involvement with children of divorce.…

  4. Reflections on Parental Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela LUPŞAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The movement in the European Union territory of the family members de jure or de facto - parents married or not, on the one hand, and their children, on the other hand, the birth of litigation related to the content, exercising or limiting the parental authority in the event at least one holder of parental authority is in a Member State other than where the minor child is, and the interest of achieving a good administration of justice within the European Union, led to the development of Community instruments in the area of parental authority, which has provisions on conflicts of jurisdiction, conflict of laws, recognition and enforceability, enforcement, legal aid and cooperation between central authorities, designating the applicable law. In the first part of the study we have analyzed the rules of jurisdiction by establishing the jurisdiction of the court hearing with an application for parental responsibility, whether there are pending divorce proceeding or not. In the second part of the study, we have limited the analysis to the rules applicable to the law causes that have as object parental authority.

  5. Big hearts, small hands: a focus group study exploring parental food portion behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Curtis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of healthy food portion sizes among families is deemed critical to childhood weight management; yet little is known about the interacting factors influencing parents’ portion control behaviours. This study aimed to use two synergistic theoretical models of behaviour: the COM-B model (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation – Behaviour and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF to identify a broad spectrum of theoretically derived influences on parents’ portion control behaviours including examination of affective and habitual influences often excluded from prevailing theories of behaviour change. Methods Six focus groups exploring family weight management comprised of one with caseworkers (n = 4, four with parents of overweight children (n = 14 and one with parents of healthy weight children (n = 8. A thematic analysis was performed across the dataset where the TDF/COM-B were used as coding frameworks. Results To achieve the target behaviour, the behavioural analysis revealed the need for eliciting change in all three COM-B domains and nine associated TDF domains. Findings suggest parents’ internal processes such as their emotional responses, habits and beliefs, along with social influences from partners and grandparents, and environmental influences relating to items such as household objects, interact to influence portion size behaviours within the home environment. Conclusion This is the first study underpinned by COM-B/TDF frameworks applied to childhood weight management and provides new targets for intervention development and the opportunity for future research to explore the mediating and moderating effects of these variables on one another.

  6. [Impact of divorce on quality of life in children aged 8-12 years in the province of Alicante (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgilés, Mireia; Samper, M A Dolores

    2011-01-01

    To examine differences in quality of life according to family structure in Spanish children for the first time, and to determine whether the quality of life of children with divorced parents differs according to perceived interparental conflict. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out in 1,025 children aged between 8 and 12 years old, recruited from seven randomly-selected schools in the province of Alicante. Of the total sample, 861 children had married parents and 164 had divorced parents. The children completed the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition and those with divorced parents also provided information on the current relationship between their parents. Quality of life was higher in children with married parents than in those with divorced parents, with higher scores in all dimensions. Children who reported conflict between their parents after the divorce had worse quality of life. These results confirm significant differences in quality of life according to family structure and revealed the relationship between children's self-perceived health and interparental conflict after divorce. We emphasize the importance of health professionals in providing guidance to divorced parents on preventing their children's health problems and facilitating adaptation to the new family situation. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Children of Divorce--A Forgotten Constituency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Eugene T.

    1981-01-01

    Explores the negative effects of divorce on children and suggests that a restructuring of marriage and divorce laws (which would prohibit divorce in marriages with dependent children) might be justified in addressing this injustice against children. (DB)

  8. "Only God decides": young children's perceptions of divorce and the legal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, K D; Pruett, M K

    1999-12-01

    To describe research on perceptions of children aged 6 and younger from 21 families of their parents' divorce, of its impact on their families, and of legal officials. Semistructured play interviews were conducted during home visits as parents were conjointly interviewed as part of a larger study on divorce in legal context. Children had much mis-information about divorce as an event and process. What they did know was often inappropriate, frightening, and confusing. They resented how the process "ruined their parents' being friends any more" and proposed reforms based on their wishes and observations. Greater awareness is needed of the child's desire to be heard during the process, to feel safe and less lonely, and to stay in touch with both parents and extended families. Age-appropriate explanations of psychological and legal aspects of the divorce process are likely to support children's positive adjustment and mental health.

  9. Divortium 1967 : Sociologische faktoren van invloed op echtscheiding [Sociological factors influencing divorce 1967

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, W.H.; Suy, L.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed background data on own husband, parents and ex-husband / religious attitude / experiences during courtship / premarital sexual relations / what happened after divorce ( house, children ) / relationships with both families / friends / problems in financial matters / different hobbies /

  10. Processes of Communication Family Divorced in Decision-Making the Boy to Build Independence

    OpenAIRE

    Ferani, Ansa; Budi Lestari, SU, Dr. Dra. Sri

    2016-01-01

    Families have many of the functions, one of them is The Child Socialization Role which teaches children to be sociable and adapt to its environment. The achievement of independence to someone especially boys is one of the success indicators of parents who run the family functions as The Child Socialization Role. But this process will experience the difference when the family through divorce. Parental divorce giving effect directly to children through numbers, the phenomenon, and stereotype in...

  11. Divorce: Some Effects on and Teaching Strategies for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvern, Steven B.; Yawkey, Thomas D.

    The emotional and social effects of divorce on a child's personality and development are discussed. The characteristic psychological reactions of the child are described in terms of guilt, rejection failure, resentment, anxiety, self concept, self pity, and hostility. Suggestions are given for the parent and teacher to help children adjust to the…

  12. Future Money-Related Worries among Adolescents after Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Susan Silverberg; Korn, Marcella; Dennison, Renee Peltz; Witthoft, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The present research examined adolescents' views of their future with respect to money and financial well-being via an open-ended question and inductive content analysis. The participants were adolescents (N = 255) whose parents were divorced between 5 and 24 months at the time of data collection. The most common worries pertained to (a) being…

  13. Research on Divorce among Postsecondary Students: Surprisingly Missing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Christina Rosen

    2006-01-01

    The rigors of university life can be demanding, especially with non-traditional students juggling multiple responsibilities such as being a student, parent, and/or spouse, and working full-time. Such responsibilities can affect couple relationships and marriages. This article reviews the research literature on divorce among postsecondary students.…

  14. The Impact of Marital Separation/Divorce on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Doris S.

    1978-01-01

    Reports on a study of the impact of marital separation/divorce on children aged 3-17 during the 12-month period following the parental separation. Results suggests that a child's adjustment is directly related to the amount of interparent hostility to which the child has been exposed. (Author)

  15. Predictors of attachment security in preschool children from intact and divorced families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Hira; Murray, Ann D

    2005-09-01

    The authors selected 58 mother-child dyads from divorced and intact families to participate in a study on the impact of divorce on preschoolers' attachment security. The authors explored pathways that lead to security of attachment. They found that mothers from divorced families were younger, had lower income levels, and had lower levels of education compared with their intact counterparts. Divorced mothers also reported significantly higher levels of stress, depression, need for social support, and conflict with their spouses. Mothers from intact families were more likely to use positive (authoritative) parenting styles compared with divorced mothers. Children in the divorced group had lower security scores on the Attachment Q-Set instrument (E. Waters, 1995). Regression analyses indicated that parenting style made a direct (independent) contribution to attachment security. In addition, temperament was related to attachment security, but temperament did not diminish the association of parenting style with attachment security. Furthermore, regression analyses indicated that the relationship of divorce to attachment security was mediated by parenting style.

  16. The intergenerational transmission of divorce in cross-national perspective: results from the Fertility and Family Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronkers, Jaap; Harkonen, Juho

    2008-11-01

    We used data on women's first marriages from the Fertility and Family Surveys to analyse the intergenerational transmission of divorce across 18 countries and to seek explanations in macro-level characteristics for the cross-national variation. Our results show that women whose parents divorced have a significantly higher risk of divorce in 17 countries. There is some cross-national variation. When compared with the USA, the association is stronger in six countries. This variation is negatively associated with the proportion of women in each cohort who experienced the divorce of their parents and with the national level of women's participation in the labour force during childhood. We conclude that differences in the contexts in which children of divorce learn marital and interpersonal behaviour affect the strength of the intergenerational transmission of divorce.

  17. Peculiarities of perception of parents’ divorce and attitude towards parents’ girls in emerging adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terekhina S.A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of empirical studies of what distinctive features of parents’ divorce perception and attitude towards their parents and themselves girls in emerging adulthood have. Two groups of girls of emerging adulthood were surveyed: those who experienced their parents’ divorce in their childhood and adolescence (n=45 and those from two-parent families (n=30. A specially developed half-structured interview, «Family Sociogram», Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI and Colour Relationship were used in the study. The study showed statistically relevant differences between perception of girls from divorced families of their parents’ attitude towards them during both the period before the divorce and the period after it. The article describes the dynamics of the structural distinctions of parent families and the system of domestic relationships between girls from divorced and two-parent families. Also, the article characterizes what concepts of their own future families girls from divorced and two-parent families have. In these two groups of girls, the peculiarities of the motivational and semantic field are discovered.

  18. Divorce - how Danish Law became liberal, and what to do now?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Annette; Leth Svendsen, Idamarie

    2012-01-01

    The chapter offers a historical overview of the development of Danish divorce legislation, and understands it as being on the one hand of an "accidental" character, but on the other hand characterized by two rather constant features: gender equality and a close connection to the Danish State. Given...... by bringing in a choice-architectoral perspective, i.e. by leaving marriage and divorce out of the social security legislation....

  19. Parents' Involvement in Children's Lives in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-12-17

    Dec 17, 2012 ... urban areas, why are single parent families and divorce on the rise; why are ... Understanding such issues as child-parent relations, parenting styles, ..... psychosocial challenges, including low self esteem, early marriages, ...

  20. ADAP: A Divorce Assessment Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Beverly Webster; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Proposed guidelines for mental health clinicians in assessing clients' divorce-related concerns. Current empirical information on factors affecting individual and family adjustment after divorce is organized into a practical format for clinical application. Details a comprehensive assessment that will help the clinician to understand the client's…

  1. The intergenerational transmission of divorce in cross-national perspective: Results from the Fertility and Family Survey

    OpenAIRE

    DRONKERS, Jaap; HARKONEN, Juho

    2008-01-01

    Published online: 20 Oct 2008 We used data on women's first marriages from the Fertility and Family Surveys to analyse the intergenerational transmission of divorce across 18 countries and to seek explanations in macro-level characteristics for the cross-national variation. Our results show that women whose parents divorced have a significantly higher risk of divorce in 17 countries. There is some cross-national variation. When compared with the USA, the association is stronger in six coun...

  2. Narratives of Adolescent Girls Journeying via Feminist Participatory Action Research through the Aftermath of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Carolina S.; Hay, Johnnie

    2016-01-01

    This article documents the (often counter-normative) narrative journey of four South African adolescent girls whose biological parents had divorced--and one (or both) parent(s) remarried. Through purposive sampling within a qualitative research paradigm of feminist participatory action research, they were supported in group context by the primary…

  3. [Separation anxiety disorder in a sample of children of divorce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgilés Amorós, Mireia; Espada Sánchez, José Pedro; Méndez Carrillo, Xavier

    2008-08-01

    Anxiety in children through separation from parents is one of the most frequent psychological problems in the infantile population. Children of divorce are more vulnerable to suffer this disorder due to the abrupt separation from one of the parents after the break-up, which they may experience as a traumatic event that predisposes them to react anxiously in daily separations. The purpose of this study is to examine the presence of symptoms of separation anxiety and general anxiety in a Spanish sample of 95 students of ages between 8 and 12 years. They were compared to a group of children of similar ages and sex whose parents are not divorced. The results show that children of divorce present higher levels of separation anxiety than the children whose parents remain together. Moreover, they show significant levels of generalized anxiety, but similar to that of the other group of children (undivorced parents). The clinical implications of these findings are discussed, emphasizing the importance of cooperation and frequent contact of the children with both parents to promote their security and autonomy.

  4. Divorce or Continue Marriage for Child? An Important Question about Psychological Adjustment of Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Ongider Gregory

    Full Text Available This study focused on finding answers about an important question that parents are recently asking psychological professionals. This question has become more relevant in the last couple of decades as there are increasing divorce rates in Turkey and the rest of the world. Because of this reason, parents are asking the important question: is it better for our child to divorce or continue our marriage? Researchers come up with very different results to this question. They need to not only focus on the effects of divorce itself but also need to examine the quality of the relationship between the parents. Parents need to remember this very important point that divorce is not the only thing that effects children's psychological adjustment by itself. So, the answer of the question to divorce or stay together is answered by the amount of parental conflict and the quality of the parent's relationship. As a result, the ideal environment for children's psychological development is living with both parents in the same household and having a low-conflict parents. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(3.000: 275-289

  5. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  6. Surveillance study of bacterial contamination of the parent's cell phone in the NICU and the effectiveness of an anti-microbial gel in reducing transmission to the hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckstrom, A C; Cleman, P E; Cassis-Ghavami, F L; Kamitsuka, M D

    2013-12-01

    To determine the bacterial contamination rate of the parent's cell phone and the effectiveness of anti-microbial gel in reducing transmission of bacteria from cell phone to hands. Cross-sectional study of cultures from the cell phone and hands before and after applying anti-microbial gel (n=50). All cell phones demonstrated bacterial contamination. Ninety percent had the same bacteria on the cell phone and their cleaned hands. Twenty two percent had no growth on their hands after applying anti-microbial gel after they had the same bacteria on the cell phone and hands. Ninety-two percent of parents were aware that cell phones carried bacteria, but only 38% cleaned their cell phones at least weekly. Bacterial contamination of cell phones may serve as vectors for nosocomial infection in the neonatal intensive care unit. Bacteria transmitted from cell phone to hands may not be eliminated using anti-microbial gel. Development of hand hygiene and cell phone cleaning guidelines are needed regarding bedside cell phone use.

  7. Evaluation of a school-based intervention programme for South African children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Cornelius J; Wild, Lauren G

    2013-01-01

    Parental divorce affects approximately 30 000 South African children annually. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Children of Divorce Intervention Programme (CODIP) at two South African schools. CODIP is a preventively oriented group programme which was developed to foster resilience by helping children cope more effectively with possible academic, behavioural, and emotional problems brought about by their parents' divorce. Twenty-five 10- to 14-year-old boys from two primary schools were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups and 1 delayed intervention control group. The experimental groups attended 12 one-hour weekly sessions; the control group received no intervention until after the study was completed. Children's understanding of divorce related events and social, emotional and behavioural adjustment was assessed one week before the intervention and three months thereafter using a battery of self-rated, teacher-rated and parent-rated questionnaires. One-way ANOVAs indicated no statistically significant decline in children's self-reported problematic beliefs about divorce or total difficulties. However, teachers' and parents' ratings indicated that compared to the control group, the combined experimental groups showed significant improvement in their general behavioural, emotional and social adjustment after programme participation. The results suggest that South African children who experience parental divorce may benefit from participation in CODIP.

  8. [Development of a structural equation model for children's adaptation in divorced families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung Hee

    2010-02-01

    This study was designed to develop and test a structural model for children's adaptation in divorced families. The hypothetical model was constructed based on the Family Resilience Model by McCubbin and McCubbin. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires from 219 children (3-6th grade) in divorced families. The children attended one of 22 community agencies, 8 after-school programs, 3 elementary schools in three cities in South Korea. The collected data were analyzed using LISREL program to test the hypothetical model. The modified model was constructed by deleting four paths in accordance with the statistical and theoretical criteria. Compared to the hypothetical model, the revised one had a better fit to the data. Self-esteem, and beliefs about parental divorce had direct effects, and family communication and internal control had indirect effects on children's adaptation in divorced families. These variables explained 56% of the variance in children's adaptation. The modified model was supported by empirical data. This model could be applied to family nursing interventions with divorced families or any other suffering family transition. When working with children experiencing parental divorce, it is important for nurses to enhance children's self-esteem, family communication and to decrease children's negative beliefs about parental divorce to help in their adaptation.

  9. "Where Is My Daddy's House?" Preschool-Age Children of Divorce and Transitional Phenomena--A Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirtzinger, Ruth

    1986-01-01

    Presents study comparing preschool-age children of divorce not living in family home (N=4) with children (N=4) remaining in home. Those not in home showed specific discrete longing for it. After divorce the family home may allow the preschool-age child the necessary mental image of access to both his parents despite decreasing family structure.…

  10. Feeling Caught between Parents: Adult Children's Relations with Parents and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Afifi, Tamara D.

    2006-01-01

    Research on divorce has found that adolescents' feelings of being caught between parents are linked to internalizing problems and weak parent-child relationships. The present study estimates the effects of marital discord, as well as divorce, on young adult offspring's feelings of being caught in the middle (N=632). Children with parents in…

  11. Divorce and its effects on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, L D; Price, J H

    1979-12-01

    In any given case, the developmental stage of the child, the parental attitude, the financial situation, the custody battle, the visitation policies, the interactions between parents prior to and after divorce and the openness with which the subject is approached will interact to produce some effect, positive or negative, on the child. The question is, as professionals, what can we do to reduce the negative effects for this population at risk? It is comforting to note that the suffering caused by family disruptions, in general, are temporary. But there is no reason why school personnel, armed with appropriate information and understanding, cannot help to make the transition a little easier for the children. "For the sake of the children" should not be just a phrase associated with keeping unhappy marriages intact.

  12. Divorce in early modern rural Japan: household and individual life course in northeastern villages, 1716-1870.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosu, Satomi

    2011-01-01

    Drawing data from the local population registers in two northeastern agricultural villages, this study examines the patterns and factors associated with divorce in preindustrial Japan. Divorce was easy and common during this period. More than two thirds of first marriages dissolved in divorce before individuals reached age fifty. Discrete-time event history analysis is applied to demonstrate how economic condition and household context influenced the likelihood of divorce for females. Risk of divorce was extremely high in the first three years and among uxorilocal marriages. Propensity of divorce increased upon economic stress in the community and among households of lower social status. Presence of parents, siblings, and children had strong bearings on marriage to continue.

  13. The life stories of motherhood among divorced women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ling

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to delineate life stories of motherhood among divorced women, and to answer the following research questions: (1) How does their motherhood develop? (2) How does divorce impact on motherhood? (3) How do mothers cope with divorce? (4) What does motherhood mean for these mothers? Through in-depth interviews, inter-subjective interaction and story writing, a total of six women's stories were collected. The following titles were found for stories of motherhood among these divorced women: (1) Walking in balanced steps. (2) Becoming a single mom is not a surprise. (3) Seeking reunion for the sake of the kids. (4) Grieving for the loss of an integrated family. (5) I found myself. (6) A diamond becomes a stone. Motherhood was found not to be a set of stable role expectations, but to be transforming and shaping through reflective thoughts on motherhood, which were impacted by interactions between the mothers and their children, and by the social contexts they encountered. The impact of divorce on motherhood was found to be both positive and negative. Some families even enjoyed life more after discontinuing their chaotic marriage. Still, motherhood of divorced women was full of challenges and disadvantages due to a concrete double burden and invisible social persecution. Invisible social persecution of divorce was performed through the mechanism of stigma. Stigma was transmitted through the value myths of motherhood, which are passed from generation to generation through parent-child interactions. Stigmatized divorce made these mothers feel more guilt and powerlessness. Divorced motherhood was therefore found to be intertwined with processes of caring and grieving. In this research, however, community resources were found to be very helpful in supporting these families, and were able to empower them to overcome the myths. Life story research was found to be an effective support, inspiring deeper reflection, and empowering the storyteller. The

  14. Divorced fathers' proximity and children's long-run outcomes: evidence from Norwegian registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, Ariel; Mogstad, Magne; Rege, Mari; Votruba, Mark

    2011-08-01

    This study examines the link between divorced nonresident fathers' proximity and children's long-run outcomes, using high-quality data from Norwegian population registers. We follow (from birth to young adulthood) each of 15,992 children born into married households in Norway in the years 1975-1979 whose parents divorced during his or her childhood. We observe the proximity of the child to his or her father in each year following the divorce and link proximity to educational and economic outcomes for the child in young adulthood, controlling for a wide range of observable characteristics of the parents and the child. Our results show that closer proximity to the father following a divorce has, on average, a modest negative association with offspring's outcomes in young adulthood. The negative associations are stronger among children of highly educated fathers. Complementary Norwegian survey data show that highly educated fathers report more post-divorce conflict with their ex-wives as well as more contact with their children (measured in terms of the number of nights that the child spends at the father's house). Consequently, the father's relocation to a more distant location following the divorce may shelter the child from disruptions in the structure of the child's life as they split time between households and/or from post-divorce interparental conflict.

  15. Divorce in families of children with Down Syndrome or Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Vivian Renne Gerber; Alves, Bianca dos Santos; Negrão, Juliana; Maria, Juliana Negrão; Schwartzman, José Salomão; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá; Brunoni, Decio

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the impact in the stability and management of the marriage of parents of a child with Down or Rett Syndrome. Morbidity of the syndromes and the marital status of the couples before and after the birth of the affected children were considered variables. The divorce rate in families with Down syndrome was 10%, similar to the Brazilian rate population. In Rett Syndrome, the divorce rate was significantly higher, 23.5%. The higher morbidity of Rett Syndrome, and the moment of diagnosis could be relevant factors for the increased divorce rate related to this syndrome.

  16. Mediation and Moderation of Divorce Effects on Children’s Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Jennifer; Schofield, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from age 5 to age 15 in relation to whether they had experienced a parental divorce. Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity score-matched sample of children from intact families according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment...

  17. Post-divorce custody arrangements and binuclear family structures of Flemish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Katrien Sodermans

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Because of the tendency towards equal parental rights in post-divorce custody decisions, the number of children living partially in two households after divorce has increased. Because of this evolution, traditional family typologies have been challenged. OBJECTIVE In this study, we want to describe the post-divorce custody arrangements and family configurations of Flemish adolescents (between 12 and 18 years old. METHODS We use four waves of the Leuven Adolescents and Families Study, a yearly survey in which adolescents are questioned at school about their family life, family relationships and various dimensions of their wellbeing. Our research sample consists of 1525 adolescents who experienced a parental break-up. First, we present information on the proportion of adolescents in different custody arrangements, according to divorce cohort, age and sex. Next, we describe post-divorce family configurations, according to the custody arrangement and different criteria of co-residence between children and step-parents. RESULTS We observe a higher proportion of adolescents spending at least 33Š of time in both parental households (shared residence for more recent divorce cohorts. A large proportion of adolescents is living with a new partner of the mother or father, but there are important differences, according to the criteria used to define stepfamily configurations. CONCLUSIONS The relatively high incidence figures of children in shared residence challenge the current dichotomous post-divorce family concept in terms of single parent families and stepfamilies. Family typologies applying a binuclear perspective are therefore increasingly meaningful and necessary. In addition, shared residence increases the chance of co-residence with at least one step-parent, and increases the proportion of children with a part-time residential stepmother.

  18. Children and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with their own relationships and experience problems with self-esteem. Children will do best if they know that ... can refer the parents to a child and adolescent psychiatrist for evaluation and treatment. In addition, the ...

  19. Parents’ educational level and second-hand tobacco smoke exposure at home in a sample of Portuguese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo D. Vitória

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS exposure is a major and entirely avoidable health risk for children's health, well-being and development. The main objective of the current study was to investigate the association between parents’ educational level and children's SHS home exposure.A self-administered questionnaire was conducted within a sample of 949 students in 4th grade (mean age 9.56 ± 0.75, 53.4% male. The sample was randomly selected from all schools located at Lisbon District, Portugal.The current study confirmed that Portuguese children are exposed to unacceptable high levels of SHS at home, mainly by their parents’ smoke. Prevalence of smokers was higher amongst parents with low educational level. Children of parents with low educational level were more likely to suffer SHS exposure at home. These results confirmed the social inequalities associated with smoking, support the relevance of more research on this subject and stress the need for more interventions to control this problem. Some interventions should be specifically aimed at less educated parents, particularly at less educated mothers. Keywords: Air pollution, Health promotion, Parenting, Pediatrics, Poverty, Preventive medicine, Public health practice, Risk factors, Smoking, Tobacco

  20. Effectiveness and moderators of the preventive intervention kids in divorce situations: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelleboer-Gunnink, Hannah A; Van der Valk, Inge E; Branje, Susan J T; Van Doorn, Muriel D; Deković, Maja

    2015-10-01

    Children of divorced parents have an increased risk of a variety of problems in comparison to children from intact families. Therefore, several intervention programs have been developed directed at children of divorced parents. Yet, empirical data on the effectiveness of these interventions are limited. This study evaluated the school-based, child-directed prevention program Kids In Divorce Situations (KIDS) using a randomized controlled trial. The sample consisted of 156 children randomly assigned at the school level into an experimental (80 children) and control condition (76 children). In addition, 131 mothers and 76 fathers participated in the study. Four assessments took place: a pretest, a posttest, and two follow-up assessments conducted 6 months and 1 year after finishing KIDS. Latent growth analyses demonstrated that the intervention significantly reduced child-reported emotional problems and enhanced child-reported communication with the father and mother-reported communication with the child. The effect sizes ranged from .30-.63. Few moderation effects of gender, time since divorce, or perceived parental conflict on the intervention effects were found. After parental divorce, a limited school-based intervention for children can be efficacious in promoting children's emotional well-being and parent-child communication. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Psychosocial Well-Being and the Relationship between Divorce and Children's Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    As an unprecedented number of children live in families experiencing divorce, researchers have developed increasingly complex explanations for the consequences associated with marital dissolution. Current accounts focus on changes to family finances, destabilized parenting practices, elevated parental conflict, and deterioration of the…

  2. Collaborative Divorce: An Effort to Reduce the Damage of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Fisch, Maria

    2016-05-01

    Divorce has been trapped in the adversarial system of the courts, a system ill suited to the needs of a family attempting to reorganize itself and still safeguard the well-being of its members. Collaborative divorce (CD) is a relatively new approach comprising an interdisciplinary professional team trained to help the divorcing family arrive at a financial, legal, and emotional settlement. The CD approach is designed to assist both members of the couple and their children transition into a more constructive future wherein they can still be a family. The structure and adversarial approach of the courts have been replaced by collaborative structures and principles developed to encourage honesty and cooperation. The case presented illustrates how this actually works. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. His or Her Divorce? The Gendered Nature of Divorce and its Determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs; Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    2006-01-01

    Contrary to previous studies treating divorce as a couple’s decision, we make a distinction between ‘his’, ‘her’, and ‘their’ divorce by using information about who initiated divorce. Using competing risk analysis, we re-examine four well-known determinants of divorce: (i) the wife’s employment,

  4. His of her divorce? The gendered nature of divorce and its determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.; Poortman, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    Contrary to previous studies treating divorce as a couple's decision, we make a distinction between 'his', 'her', and 'their' divorce by using information about who initiated divorce. Using competing risk analysis, we re-examine four well-known determinants of divorce: (i) the wife's employment,

  5. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records, for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006, the authors calculated cumulative probabilities of divorce, by marriage cohort (N = 5,734,577) and educational attainment. The results indicated that the relationship between education and divorce was negative even in the earliest cohort and that this negative gradient has become more pronounced in more recent cohorts. Contrary to expectations, however, little evidence was found that the concentration of divorce at lower levels of education was exacerbated by the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s. The authors discuss these findings in light of conventional emphases on the costs of divorce and highlight the importance of better understanding this distinctive east Asia pattern of divorce. PMID:23440624

  6. Divorce and Corruption: New Study, New Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kodila-Tedika, Oasis; Azia-Dimbu, Florentin; Kalemasi-Mosengo, Cedrick

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at identifying the effects of divorce alongside on corruption controlling. We find no significant effect of divorce on corruption. The same conclusion is found in cross-section and panel data.

  7. Who Is Watching and Who Is Playing: Parental Engagement with Children at a Hands-On Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelson, Louis S.

    2013-01-01

    Family interactions are common phenomenon at visits to science centers and natural history museums. Through interactions the family can support each other as the members individually and collectively learn from their visits. Interaction is particularly important between child(ren) and parent, which may be facilitated by media provided to parents.…

  8. Social foundations of divorce in old age

    OpenAIRE

    Isaeva, Svetlana Andreevna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - to find out the main reasons for divorce in old age, to assess social perception of certain situations that lead to divorce, to trace the development later in life after the divorce of former spouse. Methodology: qualitative research on how to "double reflection" in formal means of semi-structured interviews; discourse analysis of online documents on the Internet forums for the elderly. Results - allocated substantial characteristics of divorce in the third age. 1. The causes of div...

  9. Attachment, conflict and self-esteem in adolescents from intact and divorced families / Apego, conflito e auto-estima em adolescentes de famílias intactas e divorciadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Pinheiro Mota

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the differential contribution to adolescent's self-esteem concerning family structure (intact and divorced families, interparental conflict, and attachment to parents and peers. The sample consisted of 403 adolescents, aged from 14 to 19. Univariate ANOVA showed that family structure does not predict self-esteem, but adolescents from intact families with higher levels of interparental conflict presented lower self-esteem. Parental attachment patterns derived from cluster analysis and based on Bartholomew bi-dimensional model were associated with self-esteem, namely, with higher levels for adolescents with a secure style. An ANOVA showed no moderation role in predicting adolescents' self-esteem, when attachment to parents and peers were considered as independent factors. On the other hand, multiple regression results indicated that high quality bonds to parents and peers are predictors of self-esteem.

  10. 38 CFR 3.206 - Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Divorce. 3.206 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.206 Divorce. The validity of a divorce decree regular on its face, will be questioned by the Department of Veterans Affairs only...

  11. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006,…

  12. Divorce After 50--Challenges and Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is designed to help mid-life and older women examine the issues particularly related to late-life divorce; undertake the necessary financial and legal tasks associated with divorce; and accept and work through the range of powerful emotions that typically occur as a result of divorce. It is not intended to provide advice or counseling…

  13. Sociodemographic Perspectives on Reasons for Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurnher, Majda; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examines reasons for divorce reported by 333 men and women. Reasons for divorce, which ranged from lack of personal self-fulfillment to nonfulfillment of marital role obligations, were influenced by sex, age, education, income, and number of children. Children had the most pervasive effect on motivations for divorce. (JAC)

  14. Challenges and Negative Effects of Divorce among Muslim Women in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafatu Abdul Hamid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The alarming explosion of divorce in our present times is a cause of great concern. In fact the divorce rate in Northern Nigeria is high and this is scandalous. The mention of the word (Talaq divorce has now become so cheap that in some marriages, every argument futures this word, either the husband threatens with it or the wife demands it. Hence women are married and divorce at will for minor reasons. This paper is therefore an attempt to highlight some of the causes of rampant divorce and its negative impact on Muslim women in the northern part of Nigeria. Some Shari’ah court cases were also examined in other to find out whether the Judiciary is invulnerable to the problem of divorce among Muslim women in Northern Nigeria. The study reveals that the challenges and negative effects of divorce are usually much stronger on the woman and her off springs than the man. These ranges from psychological trauma, immoral behaviour, Economic hardship, denial of custody, etc.  Using descriptive and analytical methods, this paper interprets Islamic teachings as enshrined in the Qur’an and Sunnah with a view to proffering Islamic solutions on them. The paper recommends among other things, that parents and intending spouses should endeavour to find out the level of Islamic knowledge, habit, character of suitors/wives to be, prior to the marriage in order to prepare adequately for a successful association.

  15. Papel dos avós: apoio oferecido aos netos antes e após situações de separação/divórcio dos pais The grandparents role: support offered to the grandchildren before and after situations of parent's separation/divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayeve Rochane Gerônimo Leite Araújo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo averiguar os tipos de apoio oferecidos pelos avós aos netos antes e após situações de separação/divórcio dos pais, bem como a existência ou não de alterações nas formas de apoio. Foram considerados dois tipos de apoio: o emocional e o instrumental, sob a influência das seguintes variáveis: distância geográfica, custódia parental, vinculação materna ou paterna, idade, situação empregatícia e estado civil dos avós. Participaram da mesma 30 avós que não moravam com os netos, antes nem após a separação/divórcio dos pais. O instrumento utilizado foi um questionário contendo itens que atendiam aos objetivos da pesquisa, bem como os dados sócio-demográficos. Os resultados indicaram uma preferência, por parte dos avós, pelas atividades do tipo emocional, notando-se um aumento, em geral, após a separação/divórcio, nas seguintes atividades: dar conselhos, transmitir informações sobre a família, telefonar e uma diminuição na atividade visitar.The present research aimed to discover the types of support offered by the grandparents to grandchildren, before and after the parents' separation/divorce, as well as the possible changes in the forms of support. Two types of support were analyzed: the emotional and the instrumental, considering the influence of the following variables: geographical distance, custody, maternal or paternal link, age, marital status and grandparents' job situation. The subjects were 30 grandparents who didn't live with their grandchildren, before or after the parent's separation/divorce, were selected. The instrument used was a questionnaire with items which met the objectives of the research. The social demographic factors were also considered. Results indicated a preference for activities of the emotional type, with a general increase, after the separation/divorce, in activities such as: giving advice, transmitting information concerning the family, and

  16. [The CAD-S, an instrument for the assessment of adaptation to divorce - separation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yárnoz Yaben, Sagrario; Comino González, Priscila

    2010-02-01

    The CAD-S, an Instrument for the Assessment of Adaptation to Divorce - Separation. This paper presents an instrument for the evaluation of the adaptation to divorce-separation. The CAD-S is a questionnaire created in Spanish, made up of 20 items whose aim is the evaluation of the family's adaptation to divorce-separation, using one of the parents as informant. Data were collected in four different samples of divorced persons and their children from different autonomous comunities from the Spanish state. 223 parents and 160 children from divorced families took part in this study. Four factors emerged, accounting for 52.39 percent of the total variance: psychological and emotional difficulties, conflict with the ex-partner, disposition to co-parentality, and negative outcomes of separation for children. The results suggest that CAD-S appears to be a reliable and valid instrument, with high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and adequate construct validity supported by its relations with measures of satisfaction with life (SWLS), in the case of parents, and conduct problems (CBCL) for children.

  17. Viewpoint. America's "Other" Divorce Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Divorce is viewed as a national tragedy, particularly for its impact on young children, who lacked any control over the situation yet were most susceptible to its emotional pain and uncertainty. Children lost the security of a home, predictable routines, and loving family members. Innocent lives were transformed forever, often for the worse.…

  18. [Marriage and divorce in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderka, J

    1986-01-01

    Marriage patterns in Japan are analyzed using data from secondary sources. The author notes that although legislation affecting marriage and the family is derived from European models, traditional Japanese attitudes concerning the subservient role of women have a significant impact. The problems faced by women experiencing divorce are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  19. Marriage, divorce, and remarriage in the 1990's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, A J; Miller, L F

    1992-10-01

    Recent trends in marriage, divorce and redivorce, and remarriage were gleaned from cohort data from the US Supplement to the Current Population Survey, 1990, on the frequency of women entering and exiting a verity of marital statuses. Marriage patterns are described also in terms of their interrelationship with educational attainment, fertility history, age, race and Hispanic origin, age at marital event, and duration in marital status. the effects of marriage patterns on children are also considered. Future trends are anticipated along with their impact on families. The trend has been toward a significant number of adults and children living in one-parent families. This situation is also usually one of poverty and social deprivation. The time spent by children in one-parent families is estimated at almost 50%. There are 14 detailed tables to supplement the text. The appended tables and discussion provide background information on the accuracy of estimates. The increasing trend of divorce has meant that between the 1960s and 1980 the divorce rate doubled and reached the point where 1 out of 2 marriages was expected to end in divorce. During the 1980s, the rate remained the same, and first marriage and remarriage declined. Declines may be due to delay in marriage or to more people never marrying. Between 1975 and 1990, the percent of women ever married declined for all age groups; for women 20-24 years old the decline was from 63 to 38%. Marriage patterns were different for Blacks and Whites, but both experienced declines in first marriage. Black women will marry later than White women and will include a greater proportion who will never marry. Hispanic patterns were similar those of Whites. The slight drop in the percent divorcing after a first marriage between 1985 and 1990 showed less divorce for the younger age groups and more for the older age groups. 4 of 10 marriages involve a second or higher order marriage for 1 or both partners. The percent remarrying

  20. 20 CFR 226.34 - Divorced spouse regular annuity rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Divorced spouse regular annuity rate. 226.34... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing a Spouse or Divorced Spouse Annuity § 226.34 Divorced spouse regular annuity rate. The regular annuity rate of a divorced spouse is equal to...

  1. The importance of the absence of the father in the narrations of Adult Children of Divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJA PIOTROWSKA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the years our thinking about parenthood was dominated for the scheme of relation mother – child. Contemporary the role the father plays in the family and during bring up the child is more preciours. The role of father in the family is of Vital importance, but many fathers cannot play it. Beside good ones, there are also the absent, weak and “poisonous” fathers. “Poisonous” fathers are the worst ones - destroying the childs' personality by using physical or psychological violence.A good father is a real gift in the childs' life. This article presents the narrations of theAdult Children of Parents' Divorce regarding their fathers from their childhood. The article shows huge fathers' influence on the life and social development their children. That is proved, that divorce breakes off the emontional and spiritual bonds between parents (expecialy fathers and their children after divorce.

  2. A feminist perspective on divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, J R

    1994-01-01

    Feminist perspectives on divorce proceed from the ways in which women's positions at divorce systematically differ from men's positions. Although there has been a large-scale increase in mothers' labor force participation, there has been no corresponding increase in fathers' domestic contributions, and women continue to bear the overwhelming responsibility for child rearing. In substantial part because of this division of labor within the family, divorcing women, on average, face bleaker financial prospects and enjoy closer emotional ties to their children than do their former husbands. Existing divorce law, with its emphasis on each party's self-sufficiency, limited provision for child support, and gender-neutral custody principles, does not fully recognize or address these differences. Feminists differ in the responses they propose to these issues. "Liberal feminists" believe that women's domestic responsibilities will inevitably place them at a disadvantage and favor policies that encourage men to assume a proportionate share of family responsibilities. "Cultural feminists," or "feminists of difference," believe that it is not the fact that women care for children but that child rearing is so undervalued which is the source of the problem. "Radical feminists" believe that it is impossible to know whether women's involvement in child rearing would differ from men's in a different society and focus on the ways in which marriage and work force policies perpetuate male dominance. All agree, however, that existing law contributes to the relative impoverishment of many women and children and that, even when the rules purport to be gender-neutral, they are administered in systematically biased ways.

  3. The retirement prospects of divorced women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrica, Barbara A; Smith, Karen E

    2012-01-01

    For decades, policymakers have discussed how to remedy the high poverty rates of older widows. Yet older divorced women are more likely to be poor than older widows, and historical divorce and remarriage trends suggest that in the future a larger share of retired women will be divorced. This article uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term (version 6) to project the retirement resources and wellbeing of divorced women. We find that Social Security benefits and retirement incomes are projected to increase for divorced women and that their poverty rates are projected to decline, due in large part to women's increasing lifetime earnings. However, not all divorced women will be equally well off economic well-being in retirement varies by Social Security benefit type.

  4. Transfers among divorced couples: evidence and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Y; Willis, R J

    1993-10-01

    An analysis of the economic impact of divorce settlements in the United States is presented using data for a white cohort taken from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. "The effects of spouses' incomes on the divorce transfer are estimated and used to simulate the welfare effects of divorce on husbands, wives, and children under alternative assumptions about marriage contracts and the ability of a couple to continue coordinating resources in the aftermath of divorce. We find a positive (negative) relationship between divorce transfers and the growth of husband's (wife's) earnings during marriage. The estimated expenditure on children in the divorce state is only half the accustomed level during marriage." excerpt

  5. Personality and divorce: a genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocklin, V; McGue, M; Lykken, D T

    1996-08-01

    M. McGue and D.T. Lykken (1992) found that divorce risk was, to a substantial degree, genetically mediated; prior research has identified numerous social and psychological factors that affect divorce risk (G.C. Kitson, K.B. Barbi, & M.J. Roach, 1985). The present study attempted to link these domains by examining the extent to which genetic influences on one such psychological factor, personality, explain divorce risk heritability. A sample of adult twins from the Minnesota Twin Registry completed a marital history questionnaire and the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (A. Tellegen, 1982). Positive Emotionality and Negative Emotionality factors were positively related to divorce risk, whereas Constraint was negatively related. In women and men, respectively, 30% and 42% of the heritability of divorce risk consisted of genetic factors affecting personality and divorce risk correlated largely as a result of these common genetic influences.

  6. Effects of Children on Divorce Probabilities and of Divorce on Fertility: The Case of Finland 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, W.

    1991-01-01

    As a follow-up to a recent paper (The Demographic Dimensions of Divorce: The Case of Finland, by W. Lutz, A.B. Wils, and M. Nieminen, in "Population Studies" 1991), this study looks explicitly at the interactions between childbearing and divorce. Specifically, the study looks at the effects of parity and age of the youngest child on divorce probabilities controlling duration of marriage, and the effect of marital status and the duration since divorce on parity-specific birth probabilities. Ge...

  7. Is Making Divorce Easier Bad for Children? The Long-Run Implications of Unilateral Divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    2004-01-01

    Most states in the U.S. allow for unilateral divorce, which increases the ease of divorce by not requiring the explicit consent of both partners. Such regulations have come under fire for their perceived negative consequences for marital stability and resulting child outcomes, but there is no evidence to date to support the contention that easier divorce regulations are actually bad for children. I assess the long run implications for children of growing up in a unilateral divorce environment...

  8. An Assignment Model with Divorce and Remarriage

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-André Chiappori; Murat Iyigun; Yoram Weiss

    2008-01-01

    We develop a two-sided matching model with positive sorting, divorce and remarriage. Match quality for each couple is revealed ex post and those with poor draws divorce. Competition determines lifetime expected utilities but per-period utilities depend on the laws that govern the distribution of assets upon divorce. We discuss separately cases in which remarriage is or is not feasible and cases in which commitments are or are not made. In all cases, lifetime utilities are exactly pinned down ...

  9. THE IMMATERIAL DAMAGES THAT CAN BE DEMANDED BECAUSE OF THE DIVORCEMENT IN TURKISH CIVIL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Arat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A certain number of consequences show up in terms of spouses and children along with the divorcement. The consequences that are related to spouses can be classified as personal and financial. Spouses, along with the divorcement, gain a new statue due to the marital breakdown. However, divorcement has financial results, too. Financial results, on one hand, aim to end financial relationship which arise during the marriage; at the same time regulate the demands of alimony and damages which show up with the divorcement and its compensation. Divorcement can cause pecuniary or non-pecuniary loss to the spouse who is disadvantaged. The Turkish Civil Code allows the spouses to claim damages if the disadvantaged spouse is flawed or defective (TMK. M. 174/II. Our study has focused on non -pecuniary damages and how to decide its circumstances; its amount and its manner have been evaluated. In addition, in the event of divorce due to adultery emerging from court decision, the possibility of seeking non –pecuniary compensation from the third person with whom the unfaithful spouse is in relation has been examined.

  10. The gray divorce revolution: rising divorce among middle-aged and older adults, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan L; Lin, I-Fen

    2012-11-01

    Our study documents how the divorce rate among persons aged 50 and older has changed between 1990 and 2010 and identifies the sociodemographic correlates of divorce among today's middle-aged and older adults. We used data from the 1990 U.S. Vital Statistics Report and the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS) to examine the change in the divorce rate over time. ACS data were analyzed to determine the sociodemographic correlates of divorce. The divorce rate among adults aged 50 and older doubled between 1990 and 2010. Roughly 1 in 4 divorces in 2010 occurred to persons aged 50 and older. Demographic characteristics, economic resources, and the marital biography were associated with the risk of divorce in 2010. The rate of divorce was 2.5 times higher for those in remarriages versus first marriages, whereas the divorce rate declined as marital duration rose. The traditional focus of gerontological research on widowhood must be expanded to include divorce as another form of marital dissolution. Over 600,000 people aged 50 and older got divorced in 2010 but little is known about the predictors and consequences of divorces that occur during middle and later life.

  11. The Gray Divorce Revolution: Rising Divorce Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults, 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Our study documents how the divorce rate among persons aged 50 and older has changed between 1990 and 2010 and identifies the sociodemographic correlates of divorce among today’s middle-aged and older adults. Design and Method. We used data from the 1990 U.S. Vital Statistics Report and the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS) to examine the change in the divorce rate over time. ACS data were analyzed to determine the sociodemographic correlates of divorce. Results. The divorce rate among adults aged 50 and older doubled between 1990 and 2010. Roughly 1 in 4 divorces in 2010 occurred to persons aged 50 and older. Demographic characteristics, economic resources, and the marital biography were associated with the risk of divorce in 2010. The rate of divorce was 2.5 times higher for those in remarriages versus first marriages, whereas the divorce rate declined as marital duration rose. Implications. The traditional focus of gerontological research on widowhood must be expanded to include divorce as another form of marital dissolution. Over 600,000 people aged 50 and older got divorced in 2010 but little is known about the predictors and consequences of divorces that occur during middle and later life. PMID:23052366

  12. Divorce and the Divine: The Role of Spirituality in Adjustment to Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J.; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of three spiritual responses to divorce for psychological adjustment: appraising the event as a sacred loss/desecration, engaging in adaptive spiritual coping, and experiencing spiritual struggles. A sample of 100 adults (55% female) was recruited through public divorce records. Most appraised their divorce as a sacred…

  13. Psychological well-being of individuals after divorce: the role of social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kołodziej-Zaleska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Divorce is a transition period in which divorcing individuals face restructuring of the family system and adjustment to changes. The psychological well-being of divorcees can serve as an important indicator of the adjustment process. The achievement of well-being does not come easily for many reasons, one of which is the experience related to a sense of loss associated with the marriage break-up. Social support is a major relational resource for overcoming the crisis and successfully adjusting to post-divorce life. Participants and procedure The sample consisted of 157 individuals after divorce: 120 women and 37 men (mean age = 41.29. Instruments employed in the study included the Sense of Loss Scale (DS, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ-23, and sociodemographic data. Results Our results show that perceived social support is a partial mediator of the relationship between the sense of loss associated with divorce and the psychological well-being of individuals after divorce. For the vast majority of the respondents their parents, friends and acquaintances were the major source of support. About one third of the participants were given support by their siblings and their own children. Conclusions The study confirms the mediating role of support in building well-being after experiencing loss related to dissolution of marriage. This means that for divorced women and men perceived social support is one of the key resources that have a significant impact on achieving psychological well-being after divorce, since it is related to mitigating the negative impact of the sense of loss associated with marriage break-up.

  14. Semantic Representation of Mutual-Consent Divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مهری سادات موسوی

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discussed mutual-consent divorce in the context of thoughts and attitude of female applicants of this type of divorce with an inductive qualitative and ethnographic method. Based on the qualitative purposive sampling, 30 women of those who had referred for divorce to family court of Karaj, were selected and deeply interviewed. The results obtained in six major categories as follows: Rethinking the role of men as families’ breadwinners, inappropriate sexual relationships, emotional conflicts, cultural- social dissensions, normative pressures of family and relatives, and personality and behavioral disorders. The core-oriented category of this study is "Women's attitude towards mutual-consent divorce" that includes other major categories and can semantically alter and redirect women’s opinion about mutual-consent divorce. According to the results, the term of mutual-consent is thought-provoking in this type of divorce; because considering the situations which were leaded to mutual-consent divorce and quantifying them revealed that nearly 32% of mutual-consent divorces were not mutual in fact; since, these women accepted divorce with desperation, coercion and threat.

  15. Divorce and Childhood Chronic Illness: A Grounded Theory of Trust, Gender, and Third-Party Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Luke T; Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H; Gayer, Debra

    2016-05-01

    Divorced parents face distinct challenges in providing care for chronically ill children. Children's residence in two households necessitates the development of family-specific strategies to ensure coparents' supervision of regimen adherence and the management of children's health care. Utilizing a risk and resilience perspective, a grounded theory study was conducted with 14 divorced parents of children with chronic illnesses. The importance of trust, gender, and relationships with third-party care providers emerged as key themes related to the development of effective coparenting relationships for maintaining children's health. Divorced parents were best able to support the management of their children's chronic conditions when care providers operated as neutral third parties and intermediaries. Collaborative family care may require health care practitioners to avoid being drawn into contentious inter-parental conflicts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  17. Adult Children of Divorce and Relationship Education: Implications for Counselors and Counselor Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Veronica I.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the impact of relationship education on young adults' optimism about relationships and attitudes toward marriage whose parents were divorced and offers implications and suggestions for counselors and counselor educators. Previous research in the area of intimate and family relationships has demonstrated that adults who have…

  18. How childhood circumstances moderate the long-term impact of divorce on father-child relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.

    2015-01-01

    Using retrospective survey data collected in the Netherlands in 2012, the author examined how childhood circumstances moderate the effect of an early parental divorce on relationships between fathers and adult children. Using adult children's reports about the frequency of contact and the quality of

  19. Helping Children Succeed after Divorce: Building a Community-based Program in a Rural County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Diane E.

    2000-01-01

    A court-mandated parent education course aimed at reducing effects of divorce on children was evaluated by 1,400 participants over 5 years. Most respondents highly recommended the course and said it helped them become aware of their children's point of view and how to prevent long-term emotional problems. (SK)

  20. Families: Influences in Children's Development and Behaviour, from Parents and Teachers' Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, Claudia Rodrigues Sequeira; Dias, Filomena Valadao

    2012-01-01

    Family plays a very important role in infant's development and behaviour, being that the parents' divorce can be a very stressful experience. This is an exploratory and comparative study that aims at identifying the differences in children's behaviour with divorced parents (or separated) and married parents (or living together), based on the…